Lied des Monats - Song of the Month

Lied des Monats Februar 2021 'Nach grüner Farb mein Herz verlangt', Michael Praetorius 1610
Melody and text in February 2021

Lied des Monats März 2021 Kanon zu 8 Stimmen 'Shalom Chaverim' aus Israel
Manning Oaks Elementary School 4th and 5th Grade Chorus performing 'Shalom Chaverim' in Alpharetta city, in March 2021

Primary and secondary schools in Alpharetta city, as world languages at Manning Oaks that are spoken at home include Arabic, Azerbaijani, Albanian, Amharic, Chinese, English, Farsi, French, German, Gujarati, Hindi, Iranian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Luo, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Tamil, Telugu, Turkish, Urdu, Uzbek and Vietnamese

Song in April 2021 'Michael, Row the Boat Ashore' African-American song noted in the 1860s Civil War at St. Helena Island of South Carolina and sung by former slaves whose owners had cowardly left before the Union navy arrived

1942/1943 'Lullaby for my little boy in the crematorium' - originally in Yiddish 'A viglid far mayn yingele in krematoryum' - by the Jewish prisoner Aron Liebeskind in Treblinka, written after Liebeskind was forced to witness the murder of his wife and three-year-old son, and one of the few surviving newly-composed Yiddish songs from Treblinka
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 19 April – 16 May 1943 main revolt, casualties and aftermath

1716/1717 Antonio Vivaldi's 'La primavera' (Spring from Old English Springan, part of Sekwun March/April 'Break-up' and Mithoskumin May/June 'Spring' in Algonquian Cree language) in his series of concertos 'Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione' (The Contest Between Harmony and Invention), and in the 21st century globally performed

Song in May 2021 'Le Chant du rossignol' poème symphonique composé par Igor Stravinsky en 1917, 'The Song of the Nightingale', a symphonic poem written by Igor Stravinsky in 1917, containing the song of a fisherman in A minor (score section 68) and repeating this song in F minor (score section 96), both times ending on the third tone level with a 'vagierender Akkord' (Isointervallakkord) (name since 1922 used by Arnold Schoenberg), in December 2015 performed by the 'Seattle Symphony Orchestra'

1554-1609 Italian composer Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi, known for his 1591 publication of balletti for five voices, always more globally performed in different languages, in 2012 by the Northern English Singers and the Madrigalchor Gelsenkirchen-Buer in St. James's URC in Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Music/Song in June 2021 Since 1917/1918 Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953) Symphony no.1 in D major, op.25 'Classical Symphony', composed in 1916/1917 and premiered on 18 April 1918 in Petrograd, conducted by Prokofiev, since then performed globally and also in spring 1968 across Yugoslavia by 'Jeunesses Musicales'
Since 1936 Peter and the Wolf, Op. 67, that includes narrating as each character in the story has a particular instrument and musical theme, composed by Sergei Prokofiev, after he was commissioned by the director of the Central Children's Theatre in Moscow, to write a musical symphony for children, debuted at a children's concert in the conservatory in May, as the American premiere took place in March 1938, with Prokofiev himself conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra

Depuis 1941 le Chant des partisans, ou Chant de la libération, l’hymne de la Résistance française durant l’occupation par l’Allemagne nazie, pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

Since 1947/48 A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46, by by the Los Angeles-based Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg, written in tribute to Holocaust victims

Music/Song in July 2021 Das sowjetische Lied 'Der Heilige Krieg' erschien am dritten Tag nach Beginn der deutschen Invasion am 22. Juni 1941, also vor 80 Jahren. Für die sowjetischen Bürger - durch das von der NSDAP beherrschte Deutsche Reich dazu gezwungen ihr Vaterland zu verteidigen - wurde es daher als das wichtigste Lied der ersten, der schwierigsten Zeit des Krieges angesehen und wurde in mehrere Sprachen übersetzt, darunter Polnisch

Antonio Vivaldi – 'Summer' Violin Concerto, Ospedale della Pietà, in the 'Teatr Wielki Opera Narodowa' performded by the 'Szkola Muzyczna Bielsko-Biala' in November 2016 in Warszawa, 'Szkola Muzyczna Bielsko-Biala' in southern Poland

Das sowjetische Lied 'Straßen' wurde einige Wochen nach dem Ende des deutschen Angriffskrieges geschrieben, von der Sowjetunion und den Westallierten siegreich abgeschlossen, mit der Befreiung Europas inkl. Polens, aber mit allein für die Sowjetunion deutlich mehr als 20 Millionen Kriegstoten, hingemordet für die Kriegsziele eines Deutschen Reiches unter Hitler, Göring, Goebbels, Himmler, Fritz Halder, H. Guderian, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, W. Model, E. Rommel, Eduard Wagner, v. Witzleben, etc., 6. Juni 1941 'Kommissarbefehl', der bekannteste, verbrecherische Befehl der deutschen Wehrmacht im Krieg gegen die Sowjetunion

Music/Song in August 2021 Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D performed by the Nippon New Philharmonic Orchestra in 2014, performed on original instruments from the time of Pachelbel by the Early Music ensemble 'Voices of Music', and a little bit changed

Music/Song in September 2021 Johann Sebastian Bach Sinfonia in D 'Und es waren Hirten in derselben Gegend' BWV 248 performed by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra in the 2010s

1942/1943 'Lullaby for my little boy in the crematorium' - originally in Yiddish 'A viglid far mayn yingele in krematoryum' - by the Jewish prisoner Aron Liebeskind in Treblinka, written after Liebeskind was forced to witness the murder of his wife and three-year-old son, and one of the few surviving newly-composed Yiddish songs from NSDAP ruled German empire's Treblinka extermination camp during WWII in a forest north-east of Warsaw - Aron Liebeskind's son today would be at the age of the 46th President of the United States Joe Biden (Joseph Robinette Biden Jr.)

Song/Music in October 2021 28.03.2016 'Lied über die Wolgaschlepper' vorgetragen im Katharinenpalast in Puschkin (Zarendorf/Zarskoje Selo) - 'Song of the Volga Boatmen' (known in Russian as 'Ey, ukhnem' after the refrain), a well-known traditional Russian song collected published in a book of folk songs in 1866, that was sung by burlaks (barge-haulers) on the Volga River

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Symphony No 6, 4th movement performed by London Symphony Orchestra in November 2005

Song/Music in November 2021 In 1824 Ludwig van Beethoven shared his 9th Symphony and the 'Ode to Joy' in the final, fourth movement with the world even though he could never hear it, in 2015 performed by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chorus

Song/Music in December 2021 Afghanistan's first all-female orchestra 'Zohra' performing Afghan song 'Shad Kon Jan-e-Man' at the Sixth Annual Winter Music Academy Gala, after music returned to Afghanistan in the 2010s with all-women orchestra, but then USA and NATO decided to withdraw by 11 September 2021 from Afghanistan ...

Song/Music in January 2022 Antonín Dvorák Symphony No. 9 'From the New World', performed in Ljubljana's 'Cankarjev dom' by 'Veliki simfonicni Gimnazije Kranj' - Antonin Dvorák was interested in Native American music and the African-American spirituals. In 1893 Dvorák explained how Native American music influenced his 'New World Symphony'

Song/Music in March 2022 Vasyl Barvinsky Sing, Earth and Heaven, performed in Lviv by the 'Academia Lviv Chamber Orchestra' (3 January 2018)

April 2022 musical composition: Peter and the Wolf - symphonic fairy tale for children, written in 1936 by Sergei Prokofiev born in Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast

May 2022 musical composition: 1935 Ukrainian Sergei Prokofiev: Music for children Op.65 - Promenade

June 2022 musical composition: 1930 German violist, conductor, composer and teacher Paul Hindemith's Dismanuv detský soubor, provided by Supraphon following World War II - Hindemith, conscripted into the Imperial German Army in 1917, in 1918 deployed in Alsace and to the front in Flanders 'surviving grenade attacks only by good luck'. In 1930 he composed an opera for 8-year-olds 'We’re Building a City'. In 1934 German empire's NSDAP-minister Joseph Goebbels publicly denounced Hindemith as an 'atonal noisemaker', Hindemith then led the reorganization of Turkish music education and the early efforts to establish the Turkish State Opera and Ballet, and in 1938 he emigrated to Switzerland because his wife was of part-Jewish ancestry. Arriving in the USA in 1940, he taught primarily at Yale University, where he founded the Yale Collegium Musicum

July 2022 song and arrangement for orchestra: Ukrainian Folk Song for Orchestra

August 2022 musical composition and song: Béla Bartók Music For Strings, Percussion and Celesta 4th movement, performed by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra

September 2022 song/music: J.S.Bach double violin concerto in d BWV 1043 Largo, performed in 1958 by Yehudi Menuhin, David Oistrakh and RTF Orchestra

Song/Music in October 2022: Holocaust - A Music Memorial Film from Auschwitz, performed by the 'Sinfonietta Cracovia'
Antonín Dvorák Serenade for Strings in E Major Op.22 - Czech composer Antonín Dvorák (1841-1904), who employed many aspects of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia

Song/Music in November 2022: 'La Valse no 2' pour orchestre symphonique de Dmitri Chostakovitch (1906-1975), le compositeur d'une septième Symphonie, dédiée à la ville de Léningrad
'Pacific 231' by Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), played by the Utah Symphony orchestra under Maurice Abravanel
'Pacific 231', Arthur Honegger's tribute to a strong steam locomotive and its engine drivers connecting Atlantic and Pacific oceans, written in 1923

Song/Music in December 2022: Since the antiquity 'Epitaph of Seikilos', a Hellenistic Ionic song in either the Phrygian octave species or Iastian tonos
Vivaldi Four Seasons: Winter (L'Inverno), original version, performed by the The San Francisco Early Music Ensemble Voices of Music
Aram Khachaturian - Masquerade Suite - Waltz 'Masquerade' was written in 1941 by Aram Khachaturian and premiered on 21 June 1941 in the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow, one day before the German invasion of the Soviet Union - Compositions 1925-1973 by Soviet and Armenian composer and conductor Aram Khachaturian

Song/Music in January 2023: Viktor Stepanovych Kosenko - Etudes in the Form of Old Dances op. 19, performed by Maria Krushelnitskaja
written between 1928 and 1930 by the Ukrainian pianist and composer Kosenko, incl. Sarabande in A minor and Bourree in A major, after Kosenko joined his family in Zhytomyr after WWI
Viktor Stepanovych Kosenko - Consolation in B Major op. 9 including also Mazurka in E-flat Minor, Nocturne in F-sharp Minor

23 février 2023 dans un sous-bois non loin de la ville occupée de Donetsk, des tranchées boueuses. L’unité, qui a pris position ici, appelle cet endroit le marécage.
Un dédale qui débouche sur un abri où se terrent les soldats lorsque l’ennemi riposte. Hier, les défenseurs de la liberté et héros ont échappé de peu à la mort.

Song in February 2023: 1943 'Das deutsche Miserere', aus: 'Schweyk im zweiten Weltkrieg', von Bertolt Brecht mit Musik von Hanns Eisler

Since 20th century Manning Oaks Elementary School 4th and 5th Grade Chorus performing 'Shalom Chaverim' in Alpharetta city on 12 May 2009
Primary and secondary schools in Alpharetta city, as world languages at Manning Oaks that are spoken at home include Arabic, Azerbaijani, Albanian, Amharic, Chinese, English, Farsi, French, German, Gujarati, Hindi, Iranian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Luo, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Tamil, Telugu, Turkish, Urdu, Uzbek and Vietnamese

Song in March 2023: STOP the WAR - we stand with Ukraine, Ukrainian refugee sings with Lithuanians in support for Ukraine
Johann Sebastian Bach, Partita in D minor for solo violin (BWV 1004) V. Ciaccona, performed by Marina Bondas Kiew/Berlin

Song in April 2023: 1942/1943 'A viglid far mayn yingele in krematoryum', written after Jewish prisoner Aron Liebeskind in Treblinka was forced to witness the murder of his wife and three-year-old son, sung by Aleksander Kulisiewicz
Songs of Jewish Resistance in World War II, as the songs presented here were sung by the partisans of the 1941-1943 Vilna ghetto in the predominantly Polish and Jewish city of Vilna
Arnold Schoenberg 'A Survivor from Warsaw', op. 46, composed in tribute to Holocaust victims and Jewish Resistance, also in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising April/May 1943

Song in May 2023: 'Zog Nit Keynmol' - Song of the Warsaw Ghetto, performed by the Kiev Jewish Theater 'Nigunim' in Ukraine on 19 February 1989
'Zog nit keyn mol', one of the chief anthems of Holocaust survivors, as the lyrics of the Yiddish song were written in 1943 by Hirsh Glick, a young Jewish inmate of the Vilna Ghetto for the Jewish United Partisan Organization

Music in June 2023: 'Souls' - the hearts of the living will always hurt for the souls of thousands innocently killed - On International Children's Day documentary 'Forged by Fear - War through the Eyes of Ukrainian Children' in Brussels

Felix Mendelssohn String Symphony No. 10 performed by 'Det Norske Kammerorkester'

July 2023 Ukrainian folk song: Ukrainian folk song 'Plyve kacha' arranged for string orchestra, performed in March 2022 by Kyiv Soloists in the Stockholm Concert Hall
Antonio Vivaldi Concerto No 10 B minore for 4 violins, op. 3 Ospedale della Pietà, Jagoda Ciechanska, Nadia Klos, Aleksandra Lenkiewicz, Dominika Szyler, Warsaw 2017

2022-present Poland–Ukraine relations, as in response to the Russian military buildup near Ukraine, on 31 January 2022, Poland announced the decision to supply Ukraine with weapons, ammunition, as well as humanitarian aid, given the threat of a Russian invasion of Ukraine. On 17 February 2022 the British–Polish–Ukrainian trilateral pact was announced. On 23 February 2022, in response to Russia's escalation of tensions and recognition of the separatist DPR and LPR in Russian-occupied eastern Ukraine, Polish president Andrzej Duda visited Kyiv along with the president of Lithuania, and they jointly declared solidarity and support for Ukraine, and called for international sanctions against Russia. On 24 February 2022 - the day of the Russian invasion of Ukraine - Poland's Sejm adopted a resolution condemning the Russian invasion. Poland immediately set up nine reception points to receive civilian refugees from Ukraine. During the war in 2022 Poland became the second largest weapons supplier to Ukraine. Provided weapons include missiles, grenade launchers, rifles, drones, tanks, RPGs and ammunition. Continued Polish support for Ukraine in the early 2022 has led to significant improvement in Polish-Ukraine relations. - On 5 April 2023 AP's Vanessa Gera exlains how 'Poland has emerged as one of Ukraine’s most ardent supporters during Russia’s invasion despite historical grievances between the neighboring nations that stir up bad feelings to this day', citing Poland’s PM Mateusz Morawiecki saying 'We had a very difficult history and today there is a chance to rewrite this history and base it on the truth', also saying 'This is the beginning of a completely new Europe'

Song/music in August 2023: Ukrainian composer Myroslav Skoryk's 'Melody' performed Kyiv Soloists and the Norwegian Chamber Orchestra in April 2022 - Myroslav Skoryk (1938-2020) and his 'Melody'
Francis Poulenc's Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra in d minor, written in 1932 and performed by Francis Poulenc and Jacques Février in 1957

Song/music in September 2023: Antonio Vivaldi 'Concerto for two violins in a minor' op. 3 No. 8, performed by the Israeli Barrocada Ensemble and the yiolin solists Shlomit Sivan and Rachel Ringelstein
Robert Schumann 'Album für die Jugend Nr. 1 Melodie', performed by Junko Kurokawa, Robert Schumann 'Escenes d'infants, op. 15', performed by Martha Argerich

Song/music in October 2023: Antonio Vivaldi 'Autunno' original version, RV 293, performed by Carla Moore solo violon and Voices of Music

Song/music in November 2023: Frédéric Chopin Piano Sonata No. 2 Marche funèbre, performed on 4 November 2020 by Anastasia Huppmann in memorial to the victims of the Islamic terror attack on 2 November 2020 in Vienna

Music in December 2023: Antonio Vivaldi Largo e spiccato RV 565, performed by Simon Standage, Elizabeth Wilcock, Jaap Ter Linden, and the English Concert

Music in January 2024: Zoltán Kodály Nights in the Mountains No. 5 1962, performed 1988 by Gyor Girl's Choir - Igor Stravinsky 'Suite from The Firebird' 1919, performed 1988 by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra

Music in February 2024: Béla Bartók 'Concerto for Orchestra' including Introduzione, Presentando le coppie, Elegia, Intermezzo interrotto, and Finale, on 1 April 2022 performed by the 'Frankfurt Radio Symphony' conducted by Karina Canellakis

Music in March 2024: Vaughan Williams 'Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis', performed in August 2014 by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra

Music in April 2024: Felix Mendelssohn 'Las Hébridas Obertura' op. 26, interpretado por la orquesta Sinfónica de La Bella Música el 5de noviembre de 2013 bajo la dirección de Mtra. Patricia Pouchulu

Music in May 2024: 'Hava Nagila', Jewish nigun written by Abraham Zwi Idelsohnn 1882-1938 - The Jewish folk song 'Hava Nagila' written in 1918

George Gershwin 'Rhapsody in Blue', written in 1924

Hebrew calendar, a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances, as it determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates to commemorate the death of a relative), and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses, as in Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been steadily declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar

19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus, a mathematician and astronomer, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at the center of the universe, as in all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier

15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642 Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer from Pisa, called the 'father of observational astronomy', and the 'father of modern physics'

27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630 Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer and mathematician, a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae

Data, units of information collected through observation, including data as a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables - Lilian date, the number of days since the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar on 15 October 1582 (regarded as Lilian date 1 and named for Italian doctor, astronomer and chronologist Aloysius Lilius, who devised the Gregorian Calendar - Since October 1582 Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world - Since 1780 meteorological seasons, as in the northern hemisphere, spring begins on 1 March, summer on 1 June, autumn on 1 September, winter on 1 December, and as for the southern hemisphere temperate zone, spring begins on 1 September, summer on 1 December, autumn on 1 March, and winter on 1 June - Since ancient times indigenous people in polar, temperate and tropical climates of northern Eurasia, the Americas, Africa, Oceania, and Australia have traditionally defined the seasons ecologically by observing the activity of the plants, animals and weather around them. as for instance in North America Cree and possibly other Algonquian speaking peoples used or still use a 6-season system, including Pipon January/February 'Winter', Sekwun March/April 'Break-up', Mithoskumin May/June 'Spring', Nepin July/August 'Summer', Tukwakin September/October 'Autumn', Mikiskaw November/December 'Freeze-up'

Language development, the process by which human individuals 'acquire' (sich aneignen) the capacity to understand language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate - Phasen des Erstspracherwerbs - 'Prosodie' aus griechisch 'prosodía' - Learning to read (including spoors and tracks since early days) and to write

Timeline of historic inventions, referring to the earliest evidence of an invention found and dated by archaeologists (or in a few cases, suggested by indirect evidence - History of housing und Geschichte der Architektur - A nest is a structure built for certain animals to hold eggs, offspring, and, oftentimes, the animal itself, and as - although nests are most closely associated with birds - members of all classes of vertebrates and some invertebrates construct nests - Control of fire by early humans

Skills and degree of skill: Skills and degree of skill (including knowledge) and development in the human reproduction

Written language: Die geschriebene Sprache, auch Schriftsprache genannt, bezeichnet ein Zeichensystem, das speziellen Normen gehorcht und sich in Texten manifestiert - Written language, the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system
History of writing - List of languages by first written accounts - History of the alphabet

History of learning: History of learning is the teaching or learning of knowledge, especially to develop the reasoning, judgement and skill required in adult life and professional occupations - Learning and 'education' in the life process of individuals and in the development of communities - History of learning and 'education' in ancient civilization, as since around 3500 BCE various writing systems developed in ancient civilizations around the world - History of learning and schools in ancient Israel and Judah

Der Arbeitsprozeß: Der Arbeitsprozeß, ein Prozeß zwischen Mensch und Natur, worin der Mensch seinen Stoffwechsel mit der Natur durch seine eigne Tat vermittelt, regelt und kontrolliert, dem Naturstoff selbst als eine Naturmacht gegenübertritt, wobei - was ihn vornherein gegenüber z.B. der besten Biene beim Bau ihrer Wachszellen auszeichnet - er die Zelle in seinem Kopf gebaut hat, bevor er sie in Wachs baut, und am Ende des Arbeitsprozesses kommt ein Resultat heraus, das beim Beginn desselben schon in der Vorstellung des Arbeiters, also schon ideell vorhanden, und er verwirklicht im Natürlichen zugleich seinen Zweck, den er weiß, der die Art und Weise seines Tuns als Gesetz bestimmt und dem er seine Willen unterordnen muß - Kooperation und ihre Geschichte - Teilung der Arbeit und Manufaktur, ihre Geschichte - Maschinerie und große Industrie, wobei als Maschinerie das Arbeitsmittel eine materielle Existenzweise erhält, welche Ersetzung der Menschenkraft durch Naturkräfte und erfahrungsmäßiger Routine durch bewußte Anwendung der Naturwissenschaft bedingt, und der kooperative Charakter des Arbeitsprozesses wird jetzt durch die Natur des Arbeitsmittels selbst diktierte technische Notwendigkeit

History of technology - Outline of so-called 'prehistoric' technology
History of transport - History of navigation since Antiquity, including basic concepts and changing methods
Technologie - Technology, desribed as the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation
Medieval and modern history of technology since 300 CE

Product introductions by century - Introductions by type and century
Products introduced in 1740: Products introduced in 1740 - 1740 in transport - 1740 ships - Bateau lancé en 1740 - List of ship launches in 1740, a chronological list of ships launched in 1740 and of different countries including Denmark-Norway, Dutch Republic, Great Britain, India, Kingdom of France, Russia
Since 1740 list of product introductions by year: Since 1740 list of product introductions by year

Human evolution, interventions in the external nature, violence and criticism: Human evolution, criticism of religion, above all of professionalism of religious faith and history of study
Works about human violence - Works about wars

Denken und Nachdenken: 'Da der Denkprozeß selbst aus den Verhältnissen herauswächst, selbst ein Naturprozeß ist, so kann das wirklich begreifende Denken immer nur dasselbe sein, und nur graduell, nach der Reife der Entwicklung, also auch des Organs, womit gedacht wird, sich unterscheiden', Karl Marx an Ludwig Kugelmann 11. Juli 1868 - Evolution des Denkens und Überlegungen des Naturforschers Charles Darwins (1809-1882) zur Entwicklung der Fähigkeiten zu denken - Neuroscience, the scientific study of the nervous system - Human brain, the central organ of the human nervous system, making up the central nervous system with the spinal cord - Development of the nervous system in humans
1845/1846 the example of 'The German Ideology', criticism and relation to preceded and ongoing science: 1845/1846 'The German Ideology' set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Brussels, but not published until 1932, stating that human intelligence is subjective turning out to be objective

Since 1950s timeline of spaceflight: Since 1950s timeline of spaceflight, Spaceflight timelines
2020s Venus atmosphere investigation, planned mission for an orbiter and atmospheric probe: DAVINCI+ (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging, Plus), a planned mission for an orbiter and atmospheric probe to the planet Venus. Together with the VERITAS mission, which will also study Venus, it was selected by NASA in June 2021 to be part of their Discovery Program, as DAVINCI+ will send both an orbiter and a descent probe to Venus. The orbiter will image Venus in multiple wavelengths from above, while the descent probe will study the chemical composition of Venus' atmosphere and take photographs during descent. The DAVINCI+ probe will travel through the Venusian atmosphere, sampling the atmosphere, and returning measurements down to the surface. These measurements are important to understanding the origin of the atmosphere, how it has evolved, and how and why it is different from the atmosphere of Earth and Mars. - Future missions to Venus, including USA's 2023 Rocket Lab’s Venus probe, India's 2024 Shukrayaan-1, USA's 2028 Veritats mission, Roscosmos 2029 Venera-D mission, ESA's 2031 EnVision, and more proposed 2020s-2030s NASA missions
Since December 2021 'James Webb Space Telescope' and expectations: Since December 2021 'James Webb Space Telescope', a space telescope jointly developed by NASA, the ESA, and the CSA. It will provide improved infrared resolution and sensitivity over Hubble, and will enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe, such as the formation of the first galaxies, and detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets
Timeline of the James Webb Space Telescope: Timeline of the James Webb Space Telescope, an international space observatory scheduled to be launched on 25 December 2021, combining the largest mirror yet on a near-infrared space telescope with a suite of technologically advanced instruments from around the world
25 December 2021 new space telescope, successor to the Hubble telescope has been blasted into space: 25 December 2021: Nasa launches $10bn James Webb space telescope, as successor to the Hubble telescope has been blasted into space on top of a giant European rocket from ESA’s launch base in French Guiana

History of music: Historical development and presence of music from prehistoric times to present day, as throughout the world, every known culture partakes in it. The origins of music remain highly contentious. Historians and commentators often relate 'music' to the origin of language, with much disagreement surrounding whether music arose before, after or simultaneously with language, and as 'communication' and 'messages' of songbirds, gladly but not applicable compared to human music having a social content which is peculiar to humans

Origins of music and prehistoric music: Origins of music and prehistoric music, that encompasses all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning at least 6 million years ago, then music arose in the Paleolithic period, as the vast majority of Paleolithic instruments have been found in Europe and date to the Upper Paleolithic. It is certainly possible that singing emerged far before this time, though this is essentially impossible to confirm. The potentially oldest instrument is the Divje Babe Flute from the Divje Babe cave in Slovenia, dated to 43,000 and 82,000 and made from a young cave bear femur that received extensive scholarly attention. It could be the oldest known musical instrument and evidence of a musical culture in the Middle Paleolithic.

Music by language and world music: Music by language - Ancient music, musical cultures and practices that developed in the literate civilizations of the ancient world, succeeding the music of prehistoric societies, as major centers of Ancient music developed in - in alphabetical order - in China, Egypt (the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms), Greece (the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods), India (the Maurya, Shunga, Kanva, Kushan, Satavahana and Gupta dynasties), Iran/Persia (the Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Empires), the Maya civilization, Mesopotamia, and Roman Republic - 'Klezmer', an instrumental musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, as the essential elements of the tradition include dance tunes, ritual melodies, and virtuosic improvisations played for listening, and would have been played at weddings and other social functions. The musical genre incorporated elements of many other musical genres especially Greek and Romanian music, Baroque music, German and Slavic folk dances, and religious Jewish music - Sephardic music is an umbrella term used to refer to the music of the Sephardic Jewish community, as Sephardic Jews have a diverse repertoire the origins of which center primarily around the Mediterranean basin. In the secular tradition, material is usually sung in dialects of Judeo-Spanish, though other languages including Hebrew, Turkish, Greek, and other local languages of the Sephardic diaspora are widely used. Sephardim maintain geographically unique liturgical and para-liturgical traditions. - Secular Jewish music and Jews in classical music

Latin America, Spanish-language (former colonies) music: Latin America, Spanish-language (former colonies) music, including Argentine, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Costa Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic, Ecuadorian, Equatoguinean, Guatemalan, Honduran, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Uruguayan, and Venezuelan music

Africa, Latin America, Francophone (former colonies) music: So-called Francophone (former colonies) music, including Algerian, Burkinabé, Burundian, Cameroonian, Central African Republic, Comorian music, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guadeloupean music, Haitian, Ivorian, Malagasy, Malian, Martinican, Mauritian, Moroccan, Rwandan, Senegalese, Seychellois, and Togolese music

Africa, Latin America, Asia English-language (former colonies) music: English-language (former colonies) music in Africa, the Americas, and Asia, including Antigua and Barbuda, Barbadian, Belizean, Dominica, Gambian, Ghanaian, Irish, Jamaican, Kenyan, Malaysian, New Zealand, Nigerian, Pakistani, Papua New Guinean, Saint Lucian, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sierra Leonean, Singaporean, Solomon Islands, South African, Tanzanian, Trinidad and Tobago, and Zimbabwean music

Music of Latin America:Music of Latin America including 23 former colonies and countries, is the music originating from Latin America namely the Romance-speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the USA. Latin American music also incorporates African music from enslaved African people who were transported from West and Central Africa to the Americas by European settlers. As well as music from the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Due to its highly syncretic nature, Latin American music encompasses a wide variety of styles, including influential genres such as cumbia, bachata, bossa nova, merengue, rumba, salsa, samba, son, and tango.

Music in Europe: Music in Europe - European music by country - European musical instruments by country

Ancient Greek musical instruments: Ancient Greek music - Ancient Greek musical instruments

6th to 15th centuries medieval music in Europe: Medieval music encompasses the music of the Western Europe during the Middle Ages, from approximately the 6th to 15th centuries, the first and longest era of Western classical music and followed by the Renaissance music - Polyphony in the European music since High Middle Ages - Since about 1200 Polyphonic Era

Franco-Flemish School first international style since the unification of Gregorian chant in the 9th century: Franco-Flemish School - also called Netherlandish School, Burgundian School, or Northern School, refers to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition originating from France and from the Burgundian Netherlands, as the spread of their technique, especially after the revolutionary development of printing, produced the first true international style since the unification of Gregorian chant in the 9th century - Franco-Flemish composers 15th–16th centuries important polyphonic schools and social development: 15th–16th centuries important polyphonic schools

List of Renaissance composers by region and period: List of Renaissance composers by region and period, since 16th century including the Americas and Cuba

Approximately 1600 to 1750 'Baroque music': Approximately 1600 to 1750 'Baroque music', a period or style of music that followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era, with the galant style marking the transition between Baroque and Classical eras

Since 1730 Classical era of music: Since 1730 Classical era of music between roughly 1730 and 1820, and later, as best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms etc. - In classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition, referring to the transformation and restatement of initial material, as development is often contrasted with musical variation, which is a slightly different means to the same end, and carried out upon portions of material treated in many different presentations and combinations at a time, while variation depends upon one type of presentation at a time

20th century ethnomusicologists, pedagogues Zoltán Kodály and Béla Bartók, music education: 20th century Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, pedagogue, linguist Zoltán Kodály - Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók, considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century - Kodály's approach to music education developed in Hungary during the mid-twentieth century by Zoltán Kodály, which was then developed over a number of years by his associates including Bela Bartok, as in 2016, the method was inscribed as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage