Antarctica



Antarctica - Geography of Antarctica - Geology of Antarctica
Antarctic Peninsula
Climate of Antarctica and ice sheet: Climate of Antarctica
Antarctic ice sheet
2012-2015: 23 December 2012: West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate, USA researchers say - 15 April 2013: Antarctic ice melting at record rate, new research shows - 12 May 2014: The collapse of the Western Antarctica ice sheet is already under way and is unstoppable, two studies say - 20 May 2014: Antarctica is now losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean - twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed, scientists say using measurements of CryoSat-2 satellite mission - 26 March 2015: Antarctic ice shelves are melting dramatically, USA study finds
2016: 6 December 2016: Both the Arctic and Antarctic experienced record lows in sea ice extent in November, with scientists astonished to see Arctic ice actually retreating, an event attributed to warm temperatures and winds, with some areas more than 20C warmer than usual
2017: 14 February 2017: Sea ice around Antarctica has shrunk to the smallest annual extent on record after years of resisting a trend of manmade global warming, according to USA satellite data
History of exploration and demographics of Antarctica: History of Antarctica exploration - Demographics of Antarctica
Research stations in Antarctica - Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research - international coordination of Antarctic scientific activities since 1958 - International Council for Science
Transport in Antarctica
Territorial claims in Antarctica: Territorial claims in Antarctica - Economy of Antarctica
Argentina: Argentine Antarctica - Instituto Antártico Argentino
Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory
Chile: Chilean Antarctic Territory - Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region
France: Antarctica Adélie Land
New Zealand: Ross Dependency New Zealand
Norway: Peter I Island - Queen Maud Land
United Kingdom: British Antarctic Territory
Overlapping territorial claims in Antarctica: Overlapping territorial claims in Antarctica
Argentine Antarctica - Antarctic Peninsula - 22 December 2012: The UK ambassador to Argentina has been summoned to explain why part of Antarctica has been renamed in honour of the Queen
Chilean Antarctic Territory - Antarctic Peninsula
British Antarctic Territory - 22 December 2012: The UK ambassador to Argentina has been summoned to explain why part of Antarctica has been renamed in honour of the Queen
Antarctic Treaty System: Antarctic Treaty System since 1961 - Article 4: The treaty does not recognize, dispute, nor establish territorial sovereignty claims; no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat since 2003, headquarters in Buenos Aires - Antarctic Treaty Secretariat website - 36th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting 20 May 2013 - 29 May 2013
Antarctica agreements: Antarctica agreements - Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty - Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities - Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources CCAMLR - CCAMLR website
2013/2014: 22 October 2013: Antarctic nations face off again over sanctuary plans - 1 novembre 2013: Nouvel échec des négociations sur les sanctuaires marins en Antarctique, Chine et Russie faisant obstacle à la protection - 20 October 2014: Annual CCAMLR Antarctic conference in Hobart will consider proposals on the future of Antarctic research and marine protection
2016: 28 October 2016: World's largest marine protected area established in the Ross Sea, off the coast of Antarctica




Arctic



Arctic - Arctic Ocean - Geography of the Arctic Ocean - North Pole - Polar ice packs - Oceanography of the Arctic Ocean - Arctic exploration
Climate of the Arctic and ice sheet: Climate of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic
Arctic ice pack - Arctic sea ice decline
2016: 28 March 2016: Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter - 6 December 2016: Both the Arctic and Antarctic experienced record lows in sea ice extent in November, with scientists astonished to see Arctic ice actually retreating, an event attributed to warm temperatures and winds, with some areas more than 20C warmer than usual - 19 December 2016: The dramatic melting of Arctic ice is already driving extreme weather that affects hundreds of millions of people across North America, Europe and Asia, leading climate scientists say
2017: 22 March 2017: Arctic ice falls to record winter low after polar 'heatwaves', according to researchers at the USA National Snow and Ice Data Centre and Nasa
Natural resources of the Arctic: Natural resources of the Arctic - Industry in the Arctic - Energy in Alaska
Petroleum exploration in the Arctic - Arctic Refuge drilling controversy since 1966
Arctic lands: Arctic lands
Circumpolar peoples: Circumpolar peoples
Inuit Circumpolar Council since 1980
Arctic policy and territorial claims in the Arctic: Territorial claims in the Arctic - Borders of the Arctic Ocean - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Arctic policy of Canada - Canadian Arctic Archipelago
5 December 2013: Canada's PM has ordered the inclusion of the North Pole in the country's Arctic claim - 10 December: Canada's government signalled intentions to claim the North Pole and surrounding Arctic waters
Arctic policy of Denmark
Arctic policy of European Union
Arctic policy of Finland
Arctic policy of Iceland
Arctic policy of Norway
Arctic policy of Russia - Territorial claims in the Arctic - 2 August 2007: Russia claims North Pole by planting flag on seabed - 11 December 2013: Putin orders Russia's military to step up its presence in the Arctic after Canada signalled its intention to claim the North Pole
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom
Arctic policy of Sweden
Arctic policy of the USA
Arctic cooperation and politics: Arctic cooperation and politics
Arctic Council since 1996 - Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment
Arctic Ocean Conference since 2008 - May 2008 Ilulissat Arctic Ocean Conference controversy after the conference marginalised indigenous peoples
Inuit Circumpolar Council since 1980
International Arctic Science Committee since 1990
Arctic environment, social movements and protests: Marine pollution - Oil spill - Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform and environmental issues - 2013 Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 29 septembre: Un tribunal russe a ordonné dimanche le placement en détention pour deux mois de six autres membres de l'équipage du navire de Greenpeace, l'Arctic Sunrise - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 17 octobre: 11 Prix Nobel de la Paix écrivent à Poutine prenant la défense des 30 membres d'équipage d'un navire de Greenpeace arrêtés en septembre - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise - 23 octobre: La Russie réduit les charges de l'équipage Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme', punissable de sept ans - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention - 16 November: Greenpeace organised protests in 263 cities around the world on Saturday to mark two months since 30 of its environmental activists were jailed in Russia - 21 novembre: Huit militants de Greenpeace libérés sous caution en Russie - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea orders Russia to free Greenpeace activists - 25 December: Russia drops charges against 19 Greenpeace activists - 27 December: Dutch Greenpeace activist Faiza Oulahsen who spent more than two months in Russian prison says the ordeal has made her 'even more dedicated' to saving the Arctic environment






Internationale Organisationen, Institutionen etc. zur Intervention, Krisenverhinderung und Krisenbewältigung (aktualisierte Version hier aufzurufen)









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