Crises: Economy, politics, wars, natural disasters and reactions - exposition of countries in Africa, Americas, Antarctica, Arctic, Asia, Middle East, Australia/Oceania, Europe

(Since April 2011)



Global crises



Late-2000s financial crisis since 2007 - Since 2008 Great Recession, period of general economic decline observed in world markets beginning around the end of the first decade of the 21st century - 2008-2013 Timeline of the Great Recession - Effects of the Great Recession - 2010-present European sovereign debt crisis - The Great Recession in Europe is part of the Great Recession worldwide, which began in the USA - World economy
2012/2013: 9. April 2012: Laut ILO (International Labour Organization) wächst die Arbeitslosigkeit weltweit - 30 April 2012: ILO warns global employment situation is 'alarming' - 22 May 2012: Youth unemployment rising, ILO report warns - 22 January 2013: World unemployment figures set to rise in 2013, claims UN labour agency
2015: 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
2016: 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns - April 2016 'Panama Papers', period of release 1970s–2016

Capitalist mode of production - Capitalism based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit - Criticism of capitalism
Wage labour - Wage slavery refers to a social relation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate
2014/2015: 27 May 2014: Half of developing world's workers trapped in vulnerable jobs, says ILO - 24 July 2014: More than 2.2 billion people are 'poor or near-poor', amid financial crises, natural disasters, soaring food prices and violent conflicts, UNDP's report says - 19 mai 2015: Une étude de l'Organisation internationale du travail indique que seulement un quart des travailleurs à travers le monde a un emploi stable - 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
2016: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as a global network of tax havens further enables the richest individuals to hide $7.6 trillion, according to Oxfam - 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns
2017: 6 April 2017: The risk of human rights tainted tungsten, tin, tantalum and gold (3TG) entering the supply chains of tech firms is extending well beyond the traditional home of 'conflict minerals', DR Congo and the Great Lakes Region of Africa, according to new research from risk analysis firm Verisk Maplecroft - 7 April 2017: Tech companies must do more to avoid using minerals tainted by rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Colombia, Peru, Myanmar and elsewhere, according to Verisk Maplecroft

Direct and indirect consequences of colonialism and colonization - History of colonialism - History of European colonialism - Exploitation colonialism - Settler colonialism - During the late 19th and early 20th centuries colonial expansion by European powers, the USA and Japan - Decolonization, the withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power, the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies - Wars of independence

Poverty by country - List of countries by GDP - List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty - List of countries by unemployment rate
Economic inequality
2015: 19 January 2015: The gap between the richest people and the majority of the world's population is widening fast as wealth accumulated by the richest one percent will exceed that of the other 99 percent in 2016, British Oxfam charity says
2016: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new Oxfam report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as the wealth of the poorest 50% dropped by 41% between 2010 and 2015, despite an increase in the global population of 400m
2017: 16 January 2017: The world’s eight richest billionaires control the same wealth between them as the poorest half of the globe’s population, Oxfam says blaming rising inequality on aggressive wage restraint, tax dodging and the squeezing of producers by companies, adding that businesses were too focused on delivering ever-higher returns to wealthy owners and top executives - 28 septembre 2017: Les grosses fortunes ont proliféré dans le monde en 2016, selon Capgemini
Hunger, Famine, Starvation, and malnutrition - List of famines
Global Hunger Index
2015: 2015 Global Hunger Index map and scores by country
2016: 5 June 2016: Drought drives global rise in hunger, as millions of people are suffering the impact of severe drought across three continents
2017: 11 March 2017: The world faces the largest humanitarian crisis since 1945 with more than 20 million people in countries in Africa and the Middle East facing starvation and famine, UN official says - 15 September 2017: World hunger rising for first time this century, sparking concern that conflict and climate change could be reversing years of progress, according to the state of food insecurity and nutrition in 2017, a report produced by five UN agencies
Since 2017 Famine in Yemen - 16 November 2017: International aid group 'Save the Children' says an estimated 130 children or more die every day in war-torn Yemen from extreme hunger and disease
Diseases of poverty
Women's rights by region (continent) - Women's rights by country - Women's suffrage
2015: 5 June 2015: Women worldwide are the backbone of healthcare with few rewards for $3tn contribution, report says - 9 September 2015: Women’s economic opportunities and working rights still widely subject to restrictive legislation in 155 countries, having at least one law that limits women’s economic opportunities, while 100 states put restrictions on the types of jobs women can do and 18 allow husbands to dictate whether their wives can work at all, World Bank report says
Violence against women - Causes of sexual violence - Violence against women by country - International rape statistics - Domestic violence - Honor killing - Refugee women and children
2013/2014: 20 june 2013: More than one woman in three around the globe is a victim of domestic violence, the WHO says - 10 June 2014: A four-day summit on sexual violence in war is to begin in London - 30 October: UN's Ban Ki-moon backs Guardian’s global media campaign against FGM
2016: 5 February 2016: On the eve of the international day of zero tolerance for FGM, UN says that at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM, as the countries with the highest prevalence are Somalia 98%, Guinea 97% and Djibouti 93%
2016: 8 March 2016: Syrian Coalition's Suheir al-Atassi says Syrian women have been going through unspeakable suffering, whether due to displacement, loss of loved ones, detention, sexual violence, and death by starvation or under torture or in bombardment by the Assad regime
Infant mortality - List of countries by infant mortality rate - Child mortality
Children's rights - Child neglect, a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs
Child labour and poverty: Child labour - Child labour by country - - List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor - Child labour law
Child poverty
2014: 28 October 2014: Child poverty has increased in 23 countries in the developed world since the start of the global recession in 2008, Unicef says
2017: 19 September 2017: The ILO have released a companion estimate of child labour, which confirms that about 152 million children, aged between 5 and 17, were subject to child labour in 2016
Child slavery: Child slavery
Child abduction, laundering and trafficking of children: International child abduction - Child laundering - Trafficking of children
Crimes and violence against children: Crimes and violence against children
2014: 5 September 2014: No country immune from violence against children that is tolerated and even accepted as normal in many parts of the world, Unicef report says - 21 October 2014: One child dies every five minutes as a result of violence, but only a minority die in war zones, Unicef report says
2016: 28 juillet 2016: En Syrie, en Irak et au Nigéria, des milliers d'enfants sont torturés et détenus sous couvert de lutte contre le terrorisme, selon Human Rights Watch - 8 September 2016: As chemical weapons watchdog chief says Aleppo gas attack disturbing, the UN Security Council is due to discuss a report by the UN and the watchdog group OPCW, blaming Assad regime forces for previous toxic gas attacks
2017: 6 March 2017: Children in Syria are suffering from 'toxic stress', a severe form of psychological trauma that can cause life-long damage, as 5.8 million of the country’s children are in need of aid in Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, according to a study of 'Save the Children' and its partner agencies in Syria
October 2017: 5 October 2017: Millions of children caught in conflict, victims and targets of despicable harm, as children from countries such as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen, suffer an unacceptable level of violations by parties to conflict, according to UN's 2016 Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict - 1 novembre 2017: Trois quarts des enfants âgés entre 2 et 4 ans, environ 300 millions de filles et de garçons dans le monde sont victimes de violences domestiques, selon Unicef
Military use of children: Military use of children
Child abuse: Child abuse
School corporal punishment and corporal punishment in the home: School corporal punishment - Corporal punishment in the home
Street children and orphanages: Street children is a term for children experiencing homelessness who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village - Orphanage, a residential institution devoted to the care of children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them
Child marriage: Child marriage - Child marriage by region and country
2017: 11 October 2017: Early marriage not only deprives girls of education and opportunities, but also increases the risk of death or serious childbirth injuries, as at least 20,000 girls around the world are married off illegally each day, with child marriage often deeply rooted in tradition despite being outlawed in a growing number of countries, according to new analysis

Refugee women and children, facing many of the same issues in refugee camps as they do in urban slums and rural villages, broad issues such as inequality and abuse are seen universally - Refugee camps - Mental health of refugee children
2016: 14 March 2016: No place for children - the impact of five years of war on Syria's children and their childhoods, Unicef report - 7 September 2016: Child refugee figures have jumped by 75% in five years and children now make up more than half of the world’s refugees, Unicef says calling for urgent action to protect the 50 million child migrants worldwide

Refugee crises - Refugee - Refugees by nationality - Right of asylum - List of countries by refugee population - Refugee camp - Refugee camps
Since 1914-1918: First World War 1914-1918, caused by the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, uprooted millions of European civilians who were made refugees either by enemy occupation or by the state’s forcible deportation, the resulting crisis had profound consequences, not only for the individuals directly affected but also for officials and relief workers who attempted to relieve their suffering and for communities that hosted refugees and not ending in 1918
1933-1945: Between Germany's NSDAP rise to power in 1933 and Germany's surrender in 1945, more than 340,000 Jews emigrated from their country, but after Germany annexed Austria in March 1938 and particularly after the German November pogroms 1938 nations in western Europe and the Americas feared an influx of refugees, placing limits on immigration and often turning back desperate people - MS St. Louis German ocean liner trying to find homes for 908 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, but after denied entry to Cuba, Canada, and the USA, the refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, and historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in German death camps during World War II - 'Exodus 1947' was a ship that carried 4,515 Jewish emigrants from France to British Mandatory Palestine in July 1947, mostly Holocaust survivors, but the British Royal Navy seized the ship in a battle and deported all its passengers back to Europe and Germany detaining refugees in camps likened to German concentration camps
1942: 18 April 2017: Allies of World War II Soviet Union, United Kingdom and USA, that together opposed the Axis powers' aggression and war crimes, knew of Holocaust in 1942, 2 years before previously assumed, UN documents prove, shedding damning light on refusal to take in refugees
Since 1945: During World War II, NSDAP ruled Germany deported between seven and nine million Europeans, mostly to Germany and after Germany's surrender in May 1945, the Allies repatriated to their home countries more than six million displaced persons, but most Jewish survivors, who had survived concentration camps or had been in hiding, were unable or unwilling to return to eastern Europe because of postwar antisemitism and the destruction of their communities during the Holocaust
Following World War II and since 1950s: Since 1950s refugee crises in Africa, in the Americas, in Asia, in Europe, in the Near and Middle East
2017: 22 May 2017: Extent of the hidden crises, that forced 31 million people to flee within their countries in 2016, revealed by Norwegian Refugee Council report
Since 1948: Since 1948 Palestinian refugees - Palestinian diaspora - Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Since 1948: Palestinian refugee camps in Syria - Since 1957 Yarmouk Camp
2014: 17 January 2014: Assad regime’s helicopters dropped barrel bombs on the Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk, reportedly killing at least 9 people and wounding many - 18 January 2014: Damascus Yarmouk refugee camp receives aid for first time in months after reports that people have died of hunger and lack of medical care - 10 March 2014: According to Lebanese newspaper Al Akhbar Palestine's Mahmoud Abbas told Syrian opposition to trust Russia's Putin regime, not USA - 28 December 2014: 2,589 Palestinian-Syrians had been killed since March 2011, rights group says
2017: 19 April 2017: Human rights watchdog calls for the release of 1,200 Palestinian detainees from Syrian regime prisons held by Assad since 2011, including women with children, as group releases report claiming 461 prisoners have been executed or killed under torture since 2011
Since 2011: Since 2011 Refugees of the Syrian Civil War
Since 2014: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: 15 June 2015: Human rights organisation accuses politicians of shameful failure over worldwide refugee crises and neglect for the deaths of thousands of civilians fleeing wars in the Middle East and Africa - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
2016: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 26 January 2016: UN warns 2.5 million Syrian children will become refugees by the end of 2016 - 29 January 2016: Refugees are not a crisis, we are human beings, activists in the UK say in a letter, underlining that the world must work together to solve crises also by fighting against racism, murder and war - 4 February 2016: Increasingly intensive Russian airstrikes are pushing tens of thousands of Syrians from Aleppo towards the Turkish border, as Europe is struggling to respond to the existing refugee crisis - 7 February 2016: It was Bashar Assad, his allies and Islamic State terrorists who butchered their families and took their homes, but the USA, Britain and European countries left Syrian refugees in Turkey to face their fate - 9 February 2016: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands of more refugees arriving at the Turkish-Syrian border - 16 avril 2016: De violents combats, impliquant tous les protagonistes de la guerre en Syrie, poussent sur les routes des milliers de civils dans le nord - 20 June 2016: As a record 65 million men, women and children are forced from their homes by war and persecution last year, UN refugee agency sounds alarm over failure of nations to find collective solutions - 26 October 2016: A record number of people have died or gone missing while attempting to cross the Mediterranean sea, making 2016 the deadliest year for refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe, according to UNHCR's William Spindler
2017: 30 January 2017: Activists appeal for humanitarian action to save thousands of refugees in camps near Lebanon’s Arsal as snowstorm hits - 30 March 2017: The number of Syrian refugees in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt has passed 5 million for the first time in Syria's six year conflict, according to the UN refugee agency
2017: 2017 Rohingya refugee crisis following the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar since 2016 - 17 October 2017: UN released aerial footage showing thousands of Rohingya Muslims after they crossed the Naf river into Bangladesh, joining at least 536,000 Rohingya Muslims who have fled Myanmar since Augus - 20 October 2017: More than 300,000 Rohingya refugee children 'outcast and desperate', Unicef says

Arms industry, budgets, exports etc. - History of weapons - Weapons by country - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Modern military technology
Weapon of mass destruction - Chemical weapon, chemical agents and poison gas - Chemical warfare - Biological warfare - Weapons of mass destruction by country
Since 1914: Chemical warfare, industrial era and World War I 1914-1918 started by German Empire and Austria-Hungary - Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany in assaulted Belgium in 1915 - Since 1917 Mustard agent, first used effectively in World War I by the German army against British and Canadian soldiers near Ypres, Belgium, in 1917 and later also against the French Second Army - Chemical warfare, World War II 1939-1945, Imperial Japanese Army's chemical warfare and NSDAP-Germany
1920s, 1942-1945: Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s, in early 1942 Zyklon B emerged as the preferred killing tool of Nazi Germany for use in extermination camps during the Holocaust
1928: 11 June 1928: Sir W. Davison asks the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he has obtained any explanation from the German Government with regard to the large quantities of phosgene poison gas found to be stored in Hamburg contrary to the express terms of the peace treaty, as disclosed by the recent explosion of a tank containing the gas, with consequent serious loss of life, and what action is being taken in the matter - 1928: Aus ist's mit den bösen Kriegen, sagt der Völkerbund, Friedenstauben munter fliegen um das Erdenrund, Es ertönt in jedem Land Friedensmusik, Und geächtet und verbannt ist jetzt der Krieg, Nur zum Spaß macht man Gas, weil's noch keiner kennt, Panzerkreuzer sind das beste Friedensinstrument, Tankgeschwader, Fliegerbomben - nur für den Sport, Niemand denkt mehr an den Massenmord
1936-1939: 1936-1939 support for the Spanish fascists by Germany and Italy and policiy of non-intervention and isolationism of the Republic by the United Kingdom, France and USA, later identified as disastrous
September 1936: September 1936: Spanish FM Julio Álvarez del Vayo appealed to the League of Nations in September 1936 for arms to defend Spain's territorial integrity and political independence, but the League members would not intervene in the Spanish Civil War nor prevent foreign intervention in the conflict, did ban foreign volunteers in February 1937, while Adolf Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid Franco's fascists
1938: Sarin was discovered in 1938 in Wuppertal-Elberfeld in Germany by 'scientists' at IG Farben who were attempting to create stronger pesticides and in mid-1939, the formula for the agent was passed to the chemical warfare section of the German Army Weapons Office, which ordered that it be brought into mass production for wartime use
1983–1988, 1991: 1983–1988 use of mustard and nerve agent in the Iraq–Iran War by Iraqi Saddam regime forces - Halabja chemical attack by Saddam regime forces against the Kurdish people that took place on 16 March 1988, killing between 3,200 and 5,000 people and injuring 7,000 to 10,000 more, most of them civilians - 1991 use of chemical weapons by Saddam regime forces in Southern Iraq against the Popular Uprising
August 2013: 21 August 2013: Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Syria, two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin - Foreign government assessments regarding the August 2013 Ghouta sarin gas attack - International reactions to the Ghouta chemical attack
April 1915 - present: 16 September 2016: Chlorine, the gas of war crimes, first used by German war criminals 1915 in Belgium and last used in August 2016 by war criminals against the Syrian people - 16 September 2016: UN-led international inquiry has identified two Syrian Assad regime air force helicopter squadrons and two other military units it holds responsible for chlorine gas attacks on civilians
Nuclear weapon and Nuclear warfare - Nuclear weapon design - List of nuclear weapons - List of states with nuclear weapons - Nuclear weapons debate
History of nuclear weapons - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - Nuclear history by country - List of nuclear test sites - List of nuclear weapon test locations
Since 1933: Nuclear arms race before, during and since World War II and its causes - 'Einstein–Szilárd letter' sent to USA's Franklin D. Roosevelt on 2 August 1939, warning that Germany might develop atomic bombs - USA's 'Manhattan Project' since 1942 was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II - 'Trinity' nuclear test, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon on 16 July 1945, as part of USA's Manhattan Project and approved by the government on 25 July, warning aggressors and war criminals - 26 July 1945 'Potsdam Declaration' (USA, United Kingdom, China) stating, if Empire of Japan did not surrender, it would face 'prompt and utter destruction' - 'Operation Downfall' allied plan for the invasion of Japan to end World War II, abandoned when Japan surrendered following the August 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Historical nuclear weapons stockpiles and nuclear tests by country - Nuclear weapons by country
2016: 13 June 2016: At the start of 2016 nine states, the USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea, together possessed a total of approximately 15,395 nuclear weapons, Russia and the USA still account for more than 93% of all nuclear weapons, as both Russia and the USA have extensive and expensive nuclear modernization programmes under way, according to SIPRI
2017: 11 March 2017: There were an estimated 15,400 nuclear weapons in 2016, as China was thought to have 260 warheads in early 2016, India is thought to have 100-120 nuclear weapons now, Pakistan may have as many as 130 and North Korea now thought to have 10 nuclear weapons - 21 September 2017: China, India, North Korea and Pakistan expanding their nuclear arsenals, according to SIPRI, also saying that developments in North Korea’s nuclear program 'contributed to international political instability with potentially serious knock-on effects'
Nuclear warfare, the use of nuclear weaponry to inflict damage on the enemy, in contrast to conventional warfare nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time-frame and can have a long lasting radiological warfare dimension
Nuclear proliferation
Since the 1970s Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea: Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea since the 1970s
Since 1980: Since 1980 Swiss engineer Friedrich Tinner connected with the Khan network trafficking in the proliferation of nuclear materials and know-how to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea and later cover-up to hide the involvement of Urs Tinner with the CIA - 31 May 2008: Nuclear bomb blueprints and manuals on how to manufacture weapons-grade uranium for warheads are feared to be circulating on the international black market, according to investigators tracking the world's most infamous nuclear smuggling racket
2004 Khan's confession and 2011 Tinner nuclear smuggling trial: 4 February 2004: Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear programme, today asked the country's president to forgive him for selling its secrets abroad - 13 December 2011: Switzerland has charged three members of the Swiss Friedrich Tinner family for their role in the Abdul Qadeer Khan nuclear smuggling network, involving Switzerland's defence ministry destroying vital evidence in the case, and blocking the prosecution of the Tinners and the CIA for espionage, after a plea deal which will mean that their claims of collaboration with the CIA will not be examined in court
2015: 28 May 2015: Myth of a peaceful nuclear technology and tactics to trivialize the proliferation risks, as the use of civil facilities and materials in nuclear weapons research or systematic weapons programs has been commonplace and has occurred in at least the following countries Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, UK, USA, and Yugoslavia
2017: 18 October 2017: Experts and former senior officials from around the world met in Paris to discuss the threat of nuclear proliferation, something they believe is ignored despite the dire situation and, according to some, worse than it was during the Cold War - October 2017 Conference of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe 'Topical Issues of Nuclear Non-Proliferation'
List of countries by past and projected military expenditure - Weapon development - Defence and military equipment companies by country - Firearm manufacturers by country - 3D printed firearms - List of notable 3D printed weapons and parts
Weapons trade - Arms trafficking, the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition - what constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws - Small arms trade or the small arms market refer to both authorized and illicit markets for small arms and light weapons and their parts, accessories, and ammunition - Companies by arms sales - List of countries by military expenditures - Weapons by country - List of countries by level of military equipment
2001/2005 Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, as of November 2015 it has 114 parties, including 113 states and the European Union, Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, Seychelles, United Kingdom have signed the protocol but have not yet ratified it, three of the top four arms manufacturers in the world — the USA, Russia, and France — did not sign the protocol - 2013/2014 Arms Trade Treaty, a multilateral treaty that regulates the international trade in conventional weapons, 92 states have ratified the treaty, and a further 41 states have signed but not ratified it
2011: 23 November 2011: Landmine use 'highest since 2004' despite record clearances
2012: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an - 27. Februar 2012: Waffenindustrien wachsen trotz Wirtschaftskrise - USA und EU Konzerne größte Waffenproduzenten - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen der weltweiten Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - auf Platz drei folgt Deutschland mit neun Prozent - 29. August 2012: Jährliches Volumen des legalen internationalen Handels mit Kleinwaffen von mindestens 8,5 Milliarden Dollar
2013: 29 March 2013: Iran, North Korea and Syria block UN arms trade treaty - 2 April 2013: By a vote of 154 in favor, 3 against (Iran, North Korea and Syria) and 23 abstentions (Russia, China, India, Indonesia etc.), UN adopts landmark treaty to regulate multibillion-dollar global arms trade - 3 June 2013: More than 60 countries sign arms trade treaty on first day, but not China, Russia and the USA
2014: 14 April 2014: Military spending continues to fall in the West but rises in China, Russia and Saudi Arabia and everywhere else, SIPRI says - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows - 15 December 2014: Arms sales by Russian firms continue to expand despite a global downturn in defence spending, according to SIPRI - 24 December 2014: Global arms trade deal takes effect, ratified by 60 nations, but not by the USA, the world's top arms exporter
2015: 5 January 2015: 3D printing will revolutionize war and foreign policy not only by making possible incredible new designs but by turning the defense industry, IHS Technology, New America Foundation and BAE experts say - 16 March 2015: After Chinese arms sales surged 143% in 5 years, China now the world’s third-largest arms trader, the USA remains the first exporting 31% of global arms in 2010-2014 and Russia exported 27%, Sipri says - 13 April 2015: Arms spending up globally, except in USA and western Europe, as Russia’s neighbors, like Iran’s, boost defense budgets, SIPRI says - 6 October 2015: United Kingdom and USA are seeking to water down agreement over 'killer robots' (lethal autonomous weapons), so that any autonomous weapons deployed before United Nations's talks conclude will be beyond reach of ban, experts say - 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport - 18 décembre 2015: Pour 2015, les budgets de défense en hausse dans le monde, les dépenses globales atteignent quelque 1650 milliards de dollars, selon un rapport
2016: 22 February 2016: Asia (India 14% of global arms imports, China 4.7%) and the Middle East (arms imports rose by 61% between 2006–10 and 2011–15) lead rise in arms imports, the USA (33%) and Russia (25%) remain largest arms exporters, says SIPRI - 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes ou encore américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE - 3 avril 2016: L'utilisation d'armes interdites a atteint un niveau record depuis 2010 avec un pic entre 2014 et 2015, selon 'Handicap International' - 5 April 2016: World military expenditure totaled almost $ 7 trillion in 2015, according to SIPRI, an increase of 1% in real terms from 2014 also fueled by Mideast conflicts - 26 December 2016: USA and Obama administration increased weapons sales in 2015, maintaining its position as the world’s dominant supplier, as the sale of global arms dropped slightly to $80bn from 2014’s $89bn, according to a new USA congressional study
2017: 20 February 2017: Global arms trade reaches highest point since cold war era, as Middle East almost doubles weapons imports, as USA and Europe remain the main suppliers, as China joins top-tier exporters, as India was the world’s largest importer of major arms, and as arms imports by states in Asia and Oceania accounted for 43% of global imports in 2012–2016, according to SIPRI - 24 avril 2017: La Russie avec 69,2 milliards de dollars a repris en 2016 à l'Arabie saoudite, malgré la crise économique qu'elle traverse, la troisième place mondiale en matière de dépenses militaires, derrière les Etats-Unis et la Chine, selon SIPRI - 13 September 2017: North Korea singled out alongside Saudi Arabia and Iran as one of the world’s most secretive major exporters of small arms, including Kalashnikovs, rockets and machine guns, according to the Small Arms Survey Trade Update 2017
Forces of self-destruction: Non-combat military accidents

Outline of war - List of ongoing armed conflicts - Causes of war - War, history of war and types of war - Lists of wars by date - time is the same for all, but not lifetime - History of military technology
Ethnic conflict, Chauvinism is an exaggerated nationalism and a belligerent belief in national superiority and Racism by country - White supremacy ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - Imperialism is a policy of extending a state's power and influence through colonization, use of military force and other means, originating from the Roman 'imperium', which means the conquest and rule over large territories for the purpose of slave hunting and submission - Colonialism, the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony - Exploitation colonialism, the national economic policy of conquering a country to exploit its natural resources and its native population - History of nationalism
Militarization, the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence - Militarism as a cause of World War I - German kingdom of Prussia is considered the wellspring of European militarism in modern history
Crime of aggression - An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory - List of invasions - Military conquest - Warfare
History of Terrorism - Terrorist incidents by year - List of terrorist incidents 2011/I 2011/II - List of terrorist incidents 2012/I 2012/II - List of terrorist incidents 2013/I - List of terrorist incidents 2013/II - List of terrorist incidents 2014 - List of terrorist incidents 2015 - List of terrorist incidents, January–June 2016 - List of terrorist incidents, July–December 2016 - Terrorist incidents in 2016 by country - List of terrorist incidents in January 2017
Since 1982: Since 1982 Hezbollah's alleged suicide and terror attacks in the Middle East and worldwide
Since 1990s: Since 1990s timeline of al-Qaeda attacks in the Middle East and worldwide - 18 September 2001: To fight against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the Afghan jihad and Osama Bin Laden, who founded the Maktab al-Khidimat, was supported by the USA dollars, pouring $3 billion into the Afghan Islamist movement via the CIA and Bin Laden received security training from the CIA itself - July 2011: How the CIA helped to create Osama Bin Laden's terrorist network - 9 December 2014: In USA's and CIA's efforts to support the Mujahideen against the Soviets in a proxy war, the USA's support of the Mujahideen included wealthy Saudi individuals who had the ability to channel money, and tens of thousands of Islamic fighters flooded into the various fighting factions of Afghanistan from around the world, from Libya, Somalia, even the Philippines and never before such an organization has been created, an international military organization unlike any other
Since 2000: Since 2000 timeline of Abu Sayyaf attacks in the southwestern part of the Philippines and some neighbouring countries
Since 2001: 4 December 2012: The number of terrorist attacks each year has more than quadrupled in the decade since September 11, 2001, with Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan the most affected, a study of the Institute for Economics and Peace says
Since 2006: Since 2006 timeline of Al-Shabaab related events in East Africa
Since 2007: 'Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan' claimed and alleged attacks since 2007
Since 2009: Since 2009 timeline of Boko Haram terror attacks in Nigeria and some neighbouring countries (28 January 2016)
Since 2011: Since 2011 Iranian-backed Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people and timeline of Hezbollah's deployment in Syria - 23 December 2016: Lebanon’s terror group Hezbollah's Nasrallah says that Syrian dictator Assad's army’s recapture of east Aleppo, in fact attacked and destroyed by Hezbollah, Iran and Russia, has put an end to hopes that his regime could be ousted, adding that it is 'present, strong, effective, and no one in the world can ignore it'
Since 2013: Since 2013 list of terrorist incidents linked to Islamic State terrorists in the Middle East and worldwide - 10 December 2015: The international terrorist organization 'Islamic State' is the direct result of the USA-led George W. Bush-era invasion of Iraq since 2003, a rights group's report concludes
2015: 20 June 2015: Terrorism-related death toll soared in 2014 with 13,463 attacks in 95 countries, Country Reports on Terrorism report says - 17 November 2015: Terrorist killings up by 80% in 2014 with 78% of all deaths and 57% of all attacks in Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria, with civilians increasingly targeted and fuelling flow of refugees, 2015 Global Terrorism Index says
2016: 1 January 2016: Welcoming in the new year 2016 amid global terror fears - 11 February 2016: Multiple sources reveal that the Russian construction company 'Stroytransgaz' had resumed work in the Tuweinan gas facility in the Syrian Deir Ezzor province after it was captured by 'Islamic State' terrorists in early 2014, that the Russian company sent employees to the facility after it fell to IS terrorists, adding that 'Stroytransgaz' utilized a Syrian subcontractor 'Hesco', owned by Russian-Syrian dual national George Haswani - 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes et américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE - 3 March 2016: Islamic State terrorist group is making millions of dollars for its war chest by playing foreign currency markets under the noses of bank chiefs - 12 June 2016: On eve of Tel Aviv terror attack, Hamas called Ramadan 'month of jihad' - In 2016 several terrorist attacks occurred during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan 6 June to 5 July - 4 July 2016 Prophet's Mosque bombing in Medina
September 2016: 5 September 2016: Lebanon court indicted two Syrian Assad regime's intelligence officers in connection with twin bombings at mosques in Tripoli in 2013, which killed more than 40 people
8 September 2016: Russia is one of the biggest supporters of terrorism and the USA has repeatedly reneged on the promises it made to the Syrian people and to the Free Syrian Army, Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Alfahd says
November 2016: 16 novembre 2016: Selon une étude de l'Institute for Economics and Peace, le terrorisme a fait 10% de morts en moins l'an dernier avec les reculs du groupe Etat islamique et de Boko Haram en Irak et au Nigeria, après l'année 2015 aura été la deuxième année la plus meurtrière jamais vue
2017: 7 September 2017: Hundreds of violent extremists in Africa have told researchers that government action aimed at countering terrorism and insurgency across the continent was the 'tipping point' for their decision to join an extremist group
List of designated Terrorist organizations
23 February 2016: The Causes of Terrorism - a research review
Dictatorship - History of colonialism

State crime, Crimes against humanity, War, War crime
2016: 7 March 2016: Wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times', warns Médecins Sans Frontières' Joanne Liu, as attacks against civilians in war zones across the world have grown more indiscriminate due to a focus by the major global powers on fighting terrorism and failure in their duty to uphold the rules of conflict
Use of torture since 1948, abuse, mistreatment, murder of prisoners and death in custody by country
2014: 13 May 2014: Nearly half of people around the world fear becoming a victim of torture if taken into custody, a poll for human rights group says showing that many countries are carrying out torture or facilitating it in practice
Torture in Syria
2015: 14 March 2015: Nearly 13,000 Syrians, including 108 children, have been tortured to death in Syrian Assad regime prisons since March 2011, not including more than 20,000 detainees who have 'disappeared' in regime's prisons and whose fate remains unknown, and an estimated 200,000 people have been arrested over the past four years, according to Syrian Observatory for Human Rights - 1 October 2015: Inside Syrian Assad regime’s death machine - 'They were torturing to kill'
2016: 21 mai 2016: Au moins 60'000 personnes sont mortes en cinq ans sous la torture ou à cause des terribles conditions de détention dans les prisons du régime syrien, selon l'Observatoire syrien des droits de l'homme - 7 June 2016: Assad regime forces tortured Palestinian boy Mohamed Diab, who was detained three years ago at the age of 13 following protests in Hama city, to death for participating in demonstrations against the Assad regime, as the number of Palestinians tortured to death in Assad's prisons has reached 444 victims, according to the Action Group for Palestinians in Syria
2017: 7 February 2017: Syrian Assad regime killed at least 13,000 people since the start of the 2011 uprising in mass hangings at Saydnaya prison north of Damascus known to detainees as 'the slaughterhouse', according to Amnesty International, saying in a report that 20-50 people killed each week in 2011-2015 under authorization of senior Syrian officials as part of an extermination policy - 15 May 2017: Assad’s victims given voice in haunting new film by former BBC producers Sara Afshar and Nicola Cutcher, methodically documenting the brutality of the Assad government, its crackdown on democratic protests sinc 2011 and its jailing of activists including gripping firsthand testimony from some of the victims
2013/2014: Prison camps and torture in North Korea - 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea - 14 February 2014: UN rights inquiry to conclude North Korea should face international court over alleged starvation, extermination and abduction
Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran - 1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran refers to the state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and enduring for approximately five months, 4,482 disappeared prisoners during this time, but as many as 30,000 dissidents may have been executed
2016: 20 May 2016: Terrifying newspaper's report tells how pro-Russian separatists tortured 4,000 people in eastern Ukraine
Targeted killing, the premeditated killing of an individual or groups of individuals by a state, organization or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield - An extrajudicial killing is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process - Murder is the killing of another human being without justification - Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death, and are treated differently in human societies
Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process
Forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, placing the victim outside the protection of the law
Attacks on humanitarian workers - Medical Neutrality refers to a principle of noninterference with medical services in times of armed conflict

War crimes of dictator Assad's armed forces in Syria since 2011 - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people
September 2015: 30 September 2015: France opens probe into Assad regime for crimes against humanity
2016: 4 February 2016: Drone footage of Homs in western Syria, the country's third largest city, shows the devastation of four years of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians - 11 February 2016: Fatalities caused by dictator Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians, directly and indirectly, amount to 470,000, according to the Syrian Centre for Policy Research, a far higher total than the figure of 250,000 used by the United Nations until it stopped collecting statistics 18 months ago
2017: 29 September 2017: Syrian doctors decry fresh wave of hospital attacks, accusing the international community of ignoring attacks on medical facilities - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
List of barrel bomb attacks in Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of massacres during Assad's war against the Syrian people - Use of chemical weapons in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2012: 1 September 2012: Syrian Assad regime forces filmed dropping 'barrel bomb' on Homs
2016: 12 July 2016: Assad regime surrounds Aleppo, opposition groups resist despite intensified airstrikes using cluster, vacuum and barrel bombs, also targeting and killing civilians - 20 July 2016: Assad regime forces pounded the district of Daraya west of Damascus with at least 748 barrel bombs during June, killing at least 28 civilians and causing massive destruction in the rebel-held district - 21 July 2016: Assad's air strikes hit Al-Mashtal Park, Al-Jamaa and Al-Kastana neighborhoods in Idlib, killing at least 15 people
Targeted killing by the Russian government in Europe since 1996 - Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko and case of state-sponsored nuclear terrorism in London
Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2014/2016: 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
2016: 31 May 2016: 10,000 Ukrainians killed by ‘Russian-terrorist forces', more than 20,000 have been wounded and 1.8 million forced to flee their homes over the past two years, according to Ukrainian Defence Council
Since 2015 Russian military intervention in Syria perpetuating Assad's dictatorship - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people
December 2015: 20 December 2015: Russian air strikes kill at least 73 people in rebel-held Idlib - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on, hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces
2016: 24 January 2016: Intense Russian and Syrian bombing raids reportedly killed scores of children and civilians in recent days - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
Since 2011 Iranian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people perpetuating Assad's dictatorship - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of Iranian assassinations - Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran
2016: 27 January 2016: Syrian children 'protest' against Iranian intervention, increased since Rouhani came to office
Terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial almost since 2011, and turned into active support and troops deployment since 2012 in support of the Assad regime forces across Syria - Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon - Hezbollah serves a strategic arm of Iran in Syria and Lebanon - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
Concentration camps in North Korea
September 2013: 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea
Targeted killings in Pakistan, especially in Karachi and in Quetta, have been a rising form of violence and have contributed to security instability in the country
Network of extralegal detention centers established by Chinese security forces and private security companies across the P.R. of China
6 February 2013: Globalizing torture, USA's CIA secret detentions and extraordinary renditions following the terrorist attacks of September 11 in 2001 'aided by 54 countries'
USA's 'Disposition Matrix' developed by the Obama Administration since 2010, going beyond existing kill lists, and creates a blueprint for tracking, capturing, rendering, or killing suspected enemies of the USA government - USA drone strikes in Pakistan 2004-present - List of drone strikes in Pakistan since 2004 - 'Unmanned: America's Drone Wars' documentary film released in October 2013
Civilian casualties from USA drone strikes
2014: 24 November 2014: Attempts to kill 41 men resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1,147 people as of 24 November, one of the facts of the Obama administration's drone strikes, revealed by new analysis of data in Yemen and Pakistan and study by legal charity 'Reprieve'
2015: 16 October 2015: Snowden and Ellsberg hail leak of drone documents from new whistleblower, as classified documents on USA assassination program confirm, that the administration firmly prefers kill over capture despite claiming the opposite, that the USA does not know who it's killing, and that the military labels unidentified people it kills in targeted strikes as 'enemies killed in action', although victims may be family members or associates of actual targets or may just have been nearby, or mistakenly targeted
2016: 20 July 2016: 2004 to present CIA and USA military drone strikes just in Pakistan resulting in 172-207 killed children, 424-966 killed civilians, 2,499-4,001 total killed people, 1,161-1,744 injured people
Civilian casualties of the USA-led intervention in Syria
July 2016: 18 July 2016: To July 18th 2016, an overall total of between 3,181 and 4,267 civilian non-combatant fatalities had been alleged from 493 separate reported incidents in Iraq and Syria, of these Airwars presently estimates that a minimum of 1,422 civilians are likely to have died in USA-led coalition actions
2016; 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 20 July 2016: USA airstrikes on a Syrian village have killed at least 73 civilians, a majority of them women and children, activists say

Intelligence agencies by country - List of Secret police organizations - Death squads conduct extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror, often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities
Surveillance - Mass surveillance - Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders and can be traced back to the 20th century and a United Kingdom and USA agreement - Phone surveillance - Telephone tapping - Phone hacking - Computer and network surveillance
Censorship - Political censorship - Censorship by religion

Cyberwarfare - Cyberterrorism - Information warfare - Cyberwarfare by country
Cyberwarfare by Russia including denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures, some of these activities have been coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which is part of the FSB (former KGB) but others have been directed by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Military of Russia
2007/2008 cyberattacks on Estonia and during the Russo-Georgian War: 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia - 2008 Cyberattacks during the Russo-Georgian War
Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare: Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and 'Olgino's trolls' have become general terms denoting trolls who spread pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare
2016 Russian interference in the USA elections: Russian interference in the 2016 USA elections
2017 suspected Russian interference in the French elections: 7 May 2017: Russian effort suspected in French election hacking attack, as Paris’ cybersecurity agency begins to probe leak of Macron campaign documents and as expert notes ‘Cyrillic script in the metadata’ of hacked files - 7 May 2017: WikiLeaks finds Russian trace in hacker attack on Macron's headquarters
2017: 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says ahead of next week’s Tel Aviv University 'Cyber Week 2017', calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
Cyberwarfare by Iran
Cyberwarfare in China
Computer crime - Computer security - Outline of computer security - Computer systems at risk - Computer vulnerability
List and timeline of cyberattacks: List of cyberattacks - List of data breaches - Timeline of computer security hacker history
2013: 10 May 2013: Hackers steal $45 million in global plot involving bank databases, debit cards and cash machines
2017: May 2017 WannaCry malware cyber attack, infecting over 75,000 computers in 99 countries, demanding ransom payments - 12 May 2017: Computers in thousands of locations have apparently been locked by a program that reportedly demands $300 in Bitcoin - 15 May 2017: Microsoft warns governments against storing computer vulnerabilities like the leaked one at the heart of the global cyberattack that has crippled computers in more than 150 countries, partly laying blame with the USA government and its agencies for the weekend assault - June 2017 Petya cyberattack - 27 June 2017: 'Petya' ransomware attack strikes companies across Europe and USA - 23 August 2017: Researchers who warned robot manufacturers in January about vulnerabilities in their home, business and industrial robots, say only a few of the problems have been addressed

Crime by country
Organized crime - Organized crime by country - Transnational organized crime
2012: 27 September 2012: Organised crime is a big player in illegal logging, which accounts for up to 30% of all wood traded globally, the UN and Interpol are warning
2013: 24 juillet 2013: Le crime organisé international rapporte 870 milliards de dollars par an grâce aux trafics de drogue et d'êtres humains et à la cybercriminalité, selon une estimation de l'ONU
2017: March 2017: The fight against transnational crime needs to be redirected to combatting the money the crimes generate and shutting down the global shadow financial system that facilitates the moving and secreting of illicitly generated funds
Arms trafficking
2011/2012: 3 novembre 2011: 'Marchand de mort' Viktor Bout reconnu coupable de trafic d'armes - 6 April 2012: Russian arms dealer Viktor Bout sentenced to 25 years in prison by a New York judge after being convicted on terrorism charges
2012: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an
2015: 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport
Human trafficking - Human trafficking by country
2012: 25 September 2012: USA President Obama has decried human trafficking as 'modern slavery'
Contemporary slavery refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day - Contemporary slavery by continent and country
2013: 17 octobre 2013: 30 millions de personnes réduites en esclavage dans le monde
2016: 31 May 2016: More than 45 million men, women and children globally are trapped in modern slavery, far more than previously thought, with two-thirds in the Asia-Pacific, a 'Walk Free Foundation' study shows
2017: 19 September 2017: An estimated 40.3 million people were victims of modern slavery in 2016, a quarter of them children, according to new global slavery statistics released by UN’s International Labour Organisation and the Walk Free Foundation
Illegal drug trade - Illegal drug trade by country - Drug cartels, criminal organizations with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations, ranging from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises
Piracy modern age - worldwide

White collar crime - White-collar criminals by nationality
Corporate crime
Tax evasion - Tax avoidance - Tax haven - List of offshore financial centres - OECD's List of Unco-operative Tax Havens
In 2012/2013 up to $32 trillion of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens: 23 July 2012: Rich individuals have at least $20 trillion - perhaps up to $32 trillion - of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens, a study says - private 'elites' of 139 developing countries also putting wealth beyond the reach of local tax authorities - 3 April 2013: ICIJ investigating a cache of 2.5 million files cracks open the secrets of more than 120,000 offshore companies and trusts, exposing hidden dealings of politicians, con men and the mega-rich
Since April 2013 Offshore Leaks: April 2013 Offshore Leaks, the name of a report originating from the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, disclosing details of 130,000 offshore accounts in and called the biggest hit against international tax fraud of all times
Since November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks': November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal based on confidential information from 2002 to 2010, making available to the public tax rulings for over three hundred multinational companies based in Luxembourg
Since February 2015 'Swiss Leaks': February 2015 'Swiss Leaks' journalistic investigation of a giant tax evasion scheme allegedly operated with the knowledge and encouragement of the British multinational bank HSBC via its Swiss subsidiary HSBC Private Bank Suisse
June 2015 Profit-shifting and tax abuse deprive countries of resources needed to combat poverty: 2 June 2015: Profit-shifting and tax abuse by multinational corporations deprives developing countries of resources needed to combat poverty, says report by NGOs
Since April/May 2016 'Panama Papers': April 2016 'Panama Papers' set of 11.5 million leaked documents detailing financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,000 offshore companies associated with the Panamanian firm Mossack Fonseca - 3 May 2016: The Netherlands, Luxembourg along with the USA, Britain, Switzerland and Ireland were among the top destinations for funds from corporations seeking to avoid tax last year, as the British Virgin Islands and Cayman Islands received $72bn of investment becoming a focus for businesses in Russia, China, the USA and Hong Kong, according to the UN - 10 May 2016: 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists', that has published the names of thousands of offshore companies at the heart of the Panama Papers, makes data on 200,000 entities available on its website - List of people named in the 'Panama Papers'
July-September 2017: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors - 12 September 2017: Slow UK aid for hurricane-hit islands linked to tax haven ties, as Anguilla’s ex-attorney general Rupert Jones says UK government may fear exposing its role in Caribbean territories’ tax arrangements
Since November 2017 'Paradise Papers': November 2017 'Paradise Papers', a set of 13.4 million leaked documents relating to offshore investment, among those whose financial affairs are mentioned are Queen Elizabeth II and USA Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross - List of people named in the November 2017 'Paradise Papers' - 5 November 2017: The world’s biggest businesses, heads of state and global figures in politics, entertainment and sport who have sheltered their wealth in secretive tax havens are being revealed in a major new investigation 'Paradise Papers' into Britain’s offshore empires - 6 November 2017: Reaction around the world to release of 'Paradise Papers'
Money laundering
Terrorism financing - FATF blacklist issued since 2000 of 'Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories', perceived to be non-cooperative in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing - OECD 'gray list' - List of charities accused of ties to terrorism
2017: 23 June 2017: In its on-going review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identifies jurisdictions that have strategic AML/CFT deficiencies - 23 June 2017: The FATF remains concerned by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea’s failure to address the significant deficiencies in its anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime and the serious threat this poses to the integrity of the international financial system
Financial crimes - Securities fraud - Insider trading - Binary option operations, fraud and regulations
Illicit financial flows - Capital flight
Commercial crimes
Corruption - Corruption by country - Bribery
Since 1995: Corruption Perceptions Index since 1995, annually ranking countries 'by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys' - The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, promoting public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral resources
2011: 2 November 2011: Russia and China come bottom of bribe-paying Transparency-International survey
2013: 12 December 2013: Amount of dirty money leaving developing world jumped 14% in 2011, Global Financial Integrity report says - 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index
2014: 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index - Eritrea, Libya, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iraq, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Sudan, North Korea, and Somalia highest rankings
2015: 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index - 68% of countries worldwide have a serious corruption problem, half of the G20 are among them, not one single country is corruption-free
2016: 9 May 2016: More than 300 leading economists from 30 countries have today written to world leaders warning that there is no economic justification for allowing tax havens to continue, and urging them to bring an end to offshore financial secrecy - 12 May 2016: To end corruption, start with the USA and UK, allowing it in broad daylight, British newspaper says - 12 May 2016: British PM Cameron casts doubt at the close of 2016 'corruption summit' in London on whether the USA could be truly considered part of a coalition committed to the fight against corruption, saying some USA states fall far short on tax transparency and are less open than the United Kingdom’s crown dependencies
2017: 25 January 2017: Transparency-International's Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, shows growing levels of public sector corruption and more countries declining than improving compared with figures for last year - 17 février 2017: Les procureurs généraux de 11 pays se sont engagés jeudi à créer des équipes de travail communes pour coordonner leurs enquêtes sur le scandale de corruption d'Odebrecht, le groupe de BTP brésilien
Political corruption - Forms of political corruption include Bribery, Cronyism, Crony capitalism, Electoral fraud or vote rigging, Extortion, Graft (politics) Influence peddling, Kleptocracy, Lobbying, Nepotism, Patronage, Plutocracy, and Slush funds - Repression of political opponents and political repression, Police corruption and general police brutality also considered political corruption
Politicians convicted of corruption
2002: Worldwide Governance Indicators annually updated since 2002
2012: 18 February 2012: Germany's president quits over corruption charges
2014: Crony-capitalism index since 2014
2016: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters, as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, as UN's $4bn aid effort in Syria, called morally bankrupt, and UN operations have quietly secured deals with individuals and companies under both Europe and USA sanctions - 8 September 2016: More than 70 aid groups have suspended cooperation with the UN in Syria and have demanded an immediate and transparent investigation into its operations because of concerns Syrian dictator al-Assad has gained 'significant and substantial' influence over the relief effort
2017: 1 June 2017: Twenty-two senators and Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris climate accord writing a letter to the president when he was said to be on the fence about backing out, are big oil darlings and received more than $10m from oil, gas and coal companies the past three election cycles
Overview of Corruption in the Media
March 1914: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
August 1914 German massacres of hundreds of unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant: On 21/22 August 1914 German infantry and pioneers advanced into Dinant, killing seven civilians and burning 15–20 houses, on 23 August 1914 the Germans massacred 674 unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant, civilians were lined up against a wall and shot, including men over 70, women or girls, children under 14 and even babies, 1,200 houses were burned down and 400 people were deported to Germany as an area of Dinant was systematically looted and burned down by the Germans, also destroying public and historic buildings, including the collegial church and the town hall - 1914/1915 official report of massacres of peaceable citizens, women and children by the German army and testimony of eye-witnesses - 1915/1917 'Le sac de Dinant et le légendes du livre blanc allemand du 10 mai 1915', par M. Tschoffen, procureur du roi de l'arrondissement de Dinant - 12 May 1915 Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
1914 Unterstützung der Massaker von Dinant durch die SPD und ihre Presse: 1914 verfassen Adolf Köster, Redakteur des SPD-Zentralorgans Vorwärts sowie des Hamburger Echos, und Gustav Noske, SPD-Abgeordneter im Reichstag, Chefredakteur der Chemnitzer Volksstimme und Wehrexperte der Partei, eine Schrift, die die Massaker von Dinant unterstützt und den Standpunkt des deutschen Heeres teilt
1918-1945: The propaganda used by the German NSDAP in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's dictatorship of Germany 1933–1945 was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of NSDAP, SS and Gestapo policies
1933-1945 and since 1945: Peter Köpf, 1995: Schreiben nach jeder Richtung - Goebbels-Propagandisten in der westdeutschen Nachkriegspresse
2015: 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says - 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
2016: 18 July 2016: In 'a message to an obsessed world' Syrian artist Mohamed Youssef has taken advantage of the global preoccupation with the Pokemon game, featuring Pokemon in his designs alongside the tragic life Syrians are living, amid military operations and continuous bombardment, in an attempt to draw attention to a country where 9 million people have been forced to flee their homes and where cities have been obliterated by Assad’s regime, Russia, and allied militias, especially those backed by Iran
Film and film industry promotion by television and radio
2015: 17 December 2015: Echoes of famous films, including Nazi propaganda, in USA's 2015 'Star Wars' movie
Corruption, match-fixing, cheating, doping in sport
2002: 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal
2015/2016: 2015/2016 FIFA corruption case - 19 April: USA judge released transcripts of guilty pleas from three prominent defendants in the Fifa corruption investigation in which they expressed regret and suggested that bribes in the organization were standard practice
2016: 11 May 2016: 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games corruption claims bring scandal back to the IOC - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 25 July 2016: IOC’s decision against imposing a ban on the Russian Olympic contingent is a declaration of bankruptcy in the fight against doping, the winners are those who cheat, journalist says, who exposed the systematic doping in Russian athletics, adding that in the end the IOC kowtowed to the Russian regime - 31 July 2016: 13 national anti-doping organisations, including those from the USA, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and Japan have given a damning verdict on the IOC’s 'hasty and ill-conceived' response to state-sponsored doping in Russia and accused its leaders of being open to political and commercial influence at the expense of clean sport - 1 August 2016: Rio Olympic boxing tournament hit by corruption allegations - 4 August 2016: Wada-commissioned lawyer Richard McLaren accuses IOC of misrepresenting his doping report and findings, which were never designed to prove individual doping cases, but is about state-sponsored systemic doping over a period of four years across the majority of Olympic sports, manipulation of results, swapping of samples, preparation of wash-up schemes
Fake news is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation in social media or traditional news media with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically - Fake news by country, said to have influenced political discourse in multiple countries - Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect
Disinformation, intentionally false or misleading information that is spread in a calculated way to deceive target audiences - Propaganda - Propaganda techniques
2017: 14 November 2017: Governments of 30 countries around the globe are using armies of so-called opinion shapers to meddle in elections, advance anti-democratic agendas and repress their citizens, a new Freedom House report shows

Dans le domaine des sciences sociales, la brutalité se réfère à la rudesse et à la violence qui peuvent s'exprimer dans un caractère ou un comportement
Cruelty (cruauté) is indifference to suffering, and even pleasure in inflicting it

Racism - Racism by country - 'White supremacy' racist ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - 'White supremacy' by continent
Since the early 1900s: Decades before the Nazis tried to annihilate the Jews, German colonialists in Southwest Africa dehumanized, built death camps for, and slaughtered tens of thousands of tribespeople in a systematic genocide, 'subhumans', 'cattle car transports', even the 'Final Solution' have their sinister antecedents in Africa in the early 1900s - 'Aryanization', term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called 'non-Aryans' - 'Generalplan Ost' was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans
1940/2009: 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - War crimes of the Wehrmacht
Antisemitism - Antisemitism by country or region - Timeline of antisemitism, since Antiquity - Geography of antisemitism
2014: 14 August 2014: The USA-based Anti-Defamation League recorded a 'dramatic surge' in anti-Semitic incidents worldwide since the beginning of Israel's Operation Protective Edge in July against Hamas rocket and tunnel attacks
2015: 21 February 2015: As upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial, Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
2016: Antisemitic incidents in 2016, documented monthly by the CFCA
Boycotts of Israel - Antisemitic boycotts and history - Boycotts of Israel by organizations
Boycotts of Israel in sports by country - Antisemitism in the Olympic Games

Religious violence and Sectarian violence - Sectarian violence among Christians - Sectarian violence among Muslims

Impunity refers in the international law to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice - Command responsibility
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
Since 1920 impunity for German war crimes, atrocities and terrorism in World War I: Im Februar 1920 forderten die Alliierten gemäß dem Friedensvertrag von Versailles die Auslieferung von rund 900 deutschen Kriegsverantwortlichen, unter ihnen Offiziere aller Dienstgrade bis hinauf zum Feldmarschall, Unteroffiziere, einfache Soldaten und Zivilisten einschließlich des früheren Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, aber schon am 17. Februar 1920 gaben die Alliierten deutschem Druck nach und überliessen die Anklage der Verdächtigen dem Reichsgericht in Leipzig mit dem zu erwartenden Ergebnis weitestgehender Straffreiheit
1935-1945: Since 1935 pre-war events, World War II, since 1936 'Francoist Repression', crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and during the first decade of Franco's dictatorship 1936-1975, the mass killings of the Spanish Republican loyalists occurred from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, in July 1936, and continued unabated until 1945, since 1939 Nazi war crimes, the Holocaust, a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators, the victims included about 1.5 million children and represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe, a broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of mass murder, based on other ethnic or biological factors, such as the Romani, and the Aktion T4 patients who were mentally and physically disabled, Japanese war crimes, Italian war crimes - War crimes of the German 'Wehrmacht', impunity and the 'Clean Wehrmacht' legend, proven false by the Wehrmacht's own documents
1942 - April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online - 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria
Since 2007: Since 2007 Impunity Watch, online publication and interactive website dedicated to inform the world about state violations of citizens' and human rights, operating as a law review, message board, and blog to of give a voice to people who are silenced
'Syria Watch' website of Impunity Watch online publication
Since 2008: Since 2008 international news published by 'Impunity Watch', a project of the Dutch development organisation 'Solidaridad'
Since 2009: International Day to End Impunity is marked annually on 23 November by advocates for free expression, following the 2009 Ampatuan massacre in the Philippines, when 57 individuals were murdered, including 32 journalists and media workers - 'International Day to End Impunity' website
2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 23 February 2016: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights considers that the silence of the International community for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Syria encourages the criminals to kill more and more Syrian people, because they have not found anyone that deter them from continuing their crimes that killed more than 270,000 people, injured more than 2 million, some of them with permanent disabilities, displaced more than 11 million Syrian people, and destroyed the infrastructure and private and public properties
CPJ’s Campaign Against Impunity
2015: 8 October 2015: Getting Away With Murder - CPJ's 2015 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2016: 27 October 2016: CPJ’s 2016 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2017: April 2017: List of 20 deadliest countries for journalists

Lawlessness - Crimes against humanity - Global politics without conscience
December 2016: 7 December 2016: 'People ... have lost trust in everyone - in world leaders, in the international organisations that are watching them being killed, they lost faith in the United Nations, and they just count the days to their death' says Syria Relief's Dr Mounir Hakimi, the chairman of one of the last NGOs on the ground in Aleppo, as a joint statement by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK and USA contains no commitments to new action and the USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power tells AP that diplomatic efforts appeared to have failed, saying 'diplomacy has not delivered for the people of Aleppo, it is not us that walked away from diplomacy' - 8 December 2016: Western diplomats have conceded that there are no technical obstacles to a plan to deliver airdrops of food and medicine to Aleppo using a GPS-guided parachute system, but the scheme has been stalled in the face of reluctance among military commanders and an absence of political will

History of law, the study of how law has evolved and why it changed, closely connected to the development of civilisations and set in the wider context of social history - International law - Conflict of laws

Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially responsible for the harm that befell them - Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record

Abuse of the legal system - Legal abuse - State crime
Judicial misconduct - Malicious prosecution - Abuse of process - Perverting the course of justice - False accusation - False confession - Miscarriage of justice
2017: 27 April 2017: Using procedures to persuade defendants to plead guilty has reached ‘epidemic proportions’ and increases risk of miscarriage of justice, as more and more countries persuade defendants to plead guilty and renounce traditional trial rights, according to 'Fair Trials', also saying that 'abbreviated trials and cooperating witness procedures have increased about 300% since 1990, ... happening in more places than ever before

Capital punishment - Use of capital punishment by country
2009: Capital punishment in China - 2009 the Dui Hua Foundation estimates that 5,000 people were executed in China, far more than all other nations combined
2014/2015: 27 March 2014: Global executions up 15 percent in 2013, due in part to more executions in Iran and Iraq, followed by Saudi Arabia - 24 September 2015: UN issues urgent call for Saudi Arabia to stay execution of juvenile Ali Mohammed al-Nimr and his crucifixion after taking part in demonstrations three years ago for democracy and equal rights
2016: 6 April 2016: Iran and Pakistan fuel surge in executions worldwide to 25-year high, as Iran executed almost 1,000 people last year and as the world’s top five executioners in 2015 were China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia and the USA


Endangered freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of information
1999: 22 December 1999: Journalists ‘first target’ in conflicts, International Federation of Journalists says
2012: 3. Mai 2012: Morde an Journalisten nehmen in vielen Ländern dramatisch zu - 3 May: UN chief Ban Ki-moon expresses anger over a rise in the number of journalists killed in the line of duty - 22 November 2012: More journalists (119) have been killed this year while on assignment than at any time in the last 15 years - in Syria 36 victims - 26 December 2012: The number of deaths of journalists raise to 132 in 2012 as journalist Nanao Singh was shot dead by police amid anti-rape protests in India
2013: 1 November 2013: 1017 journalists Killed since 1992, CPJ says - 2013 World Press Freedom Index, dashed hopes - 18 December: 2013 second worst year for journalists in jail and Syria represented the deadliest country, CPJ says
2014: 19 February 2014: 134 journalists and media support staff killed in 2013 while on reporting assignments, an INSI study says - Biggest rises and falls in the 2014 World Press Freedom Index - 16 December 2014: 66 journalists killed in 2014 as attacks grow more 'barbaric' and kidnappings have soared, Reporters Without Borders say - 23 December: CPJ says at least 60 journalists around the world were killed in 2014 while on the job or because of their work, and 44 percent of them were targeted for murder - 31 December: The number of journalists who died in targeted killings, bomb attacks or shootings around the world rose to 118 in 2014 from 105 in 2013, Pakistan, Syria, Afghanistan, Palestinian territories, Iraq and Ukraine most dangerous, IFJ says
2015: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris, January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris and worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 12 January 2015: Tens of thousands of people rallied worldwide in solidarity with Paris terror victims, with marchers across Europe and the Middle East saying 'Je suis Charlie' and 'Je suis Juif' and holding pens in the air - 11 February 2015: Reporters Without Borders 2015 World Press Freedom Index stated there were 3,719 violations of freedom of information in 180 countries in 2014, 8% more than 2013 - Iran, China, Syria and North Korea among the countries with the very worst levels of press freedom, Russia slipped to the 152nd spot - 22 September 2015: Syrian cartoonist Akram Raslan reported killed under torture in Assad prisons - 28 December 2015: Journalist and film maker Naji Jerf shot dead in Gaziantep, who received death threats after he produced a film which documents 'Islamic State' group’s atrocities in Aleppo province - 29 décembre 2015: 110 journalistes tués dans le monde en 2015, particulièrement en Irak, en Syrie, en France, au Yémen, au Soudan du Sud, en Inde, au Mexique, selon 'Reporters sans frontières'
2016: 5 February 2016: UN panel urges UK and Sweden to end WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's 'deprivation of liberty', arbitrarily detained by the UK and Sweden since he was arrested in London in 2010 after he enraged the USA by publishing hundreds of thousands of secret diplomatic cables - 19/23 February 2016: Syrian freelance journalist Majid Dirani was killed while photographing the shelling and aerial bombardment of Daraya, a suburb of Damascus, that has been besieged by Assad's army since 2012 - 22 February 2016: Syria the most dangerous country for the press in 2015, with at least 14 journalists killed, and at least 93 journalists killed in Syria since 2011, CPJ says condemning the killing of journalist Majid Dirani - 20 avril 2016: La liberté de la presse régresse partout dans le monde, quel que soit le paramètre considéré, selon 'Reporters sans frontières' - 25 June 2016: Syrian Coalition mourned the death of journalist Khaled Alissa, who was pronounced dead at a Turkish hospital of wounds he sustained in an assassination attempt along with fellow journalist Hadi Alabdullah in Aleppo on 17 June, and who sacrificed his life trying to document the crimes of the Assad regime against the Syrian people and to convey the truth to the world - 27 June 2016: Islamic State terrorists killed five journalists in the city of Deir-Ezzor, according to a video recording published on 26 June - 1 November 2016: Media activist and cameraman Abdel Salam Kanaan was covering events in the town of Zafarana in the northern Homs countryside when he was hit by an air raid that killed a number of civilians and wounded others - 7 November 2016: Zaman al-Wasl reporter Ammar Bakour killed along with eight civilians when Assad regime warplanes targeted the town of Al-Dana in Idlib province with four vacuum missiles, also leaving 20 others wounded - 19 December 2016: 'Reporters sans frontières' (Reporters Without Borders) say that at least 74 journalists have been killed around the world in 2016 while doing their job, as many journalists have fled countries that became too dangerous, especially Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan and Burundi
2017: 4 January 2017: At least 86 journalist and media activists were killed and 123 others injured in Syria in 2016, according to SNHR rights group, adding that Assad regime forces were responsible for the overwhelming majority of the deaths, and that 11 journalists were killed and 31 wounded in Russian attacks across Syria in 2016 - 4 February 2017: At least three journalists were killed and one more injured by Assad regime forces and Islamic State terrorists in January, SNHR says adding that nine more journalists and media activists, including two female media activists, were detained in January - 6 March 2017: At least five journalists were killed and nearly 14 more injured in military operations by Assad regime forces in Syria's liberated areas in February, while one was killed by the ISIS extremist group, according to SNHR - 16 March 2017: In Syria, 211 journalists and citizen journalists killed in conflict which began with a wave of protests exactly six years ago, Reporters Without Borders say - 28 avril 2017: Mise à mal par les dirigeants de nombreux pays, la liberté de la presse dans le monde a de nouveau reculé en 2016 et environ 45% de la population mondiale vit dans un pays où la presse n'est pas libre, selon 'Freedom House' - 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 2 November 2017: Marking the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists, SNHR says in a report that at least 634 journalists and media activists have been killed in Syria in the past seven years


Air pollution
Atmosphere of Earth - Greenhouse gas - Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere - Atmospheric methane
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions - List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions in 2010
2011-2013: 29 May 2011: Record high 2010 global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture - 4. November 2011: Größter je gemessener Anstieg von Treibhausgasen in 2010 (China, USA, Indien etc.) - Heal's report 7 March 2013: 'The unpaid health bill' - emissions from coal-fired power plants in the EU contribute to over 18.000 premature deaths a year and cost an annual 42,8 billion euros - 17 April 2013: Progress towards the use of cleaner fuel technology has stalled, with production of the world's energy as dirty now as it was two decades ago, the International Energy Agency says - 11 May 2013: Carbon dioxide level passes a long-feared milestone - 18 October 2013: Air pollution a leading cause of cancer, the WHO says - 6 November: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere hit new record in 2013, UN's WMO says - 19 novembre 2013: Les émissions de CO2 ont encore augmenté dans le monde en 2012, de 2,2%, atteignant le record de 35 milliards de tonnes, tirées par le charbon
2014/2015: 9 September 2014: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere reach all-time high - 6 May 2015: Concentrations of CO2 greenhouse gas in the atmosphere reached record global average in March 2015 - 9 novembre 2015: La teneur de l'atmosphère en gaz à effet de serre a atteint un nouveau pic en 2014, rapporte l'Organisation météorologique mondiale
List of countries by air pollution - Countries ranked by air pollution
2015: 16 September 2015: More than 3 million people die prematurely each year from outdoor pollution and without action deaths will double by 2050, according to a study published in the journal Nature
2016: 12 May 2016: Outdoor air pollution has grown 8% globally in the past five years, with billions of people around the world now exposed to dangerous air, according to new data from more than 3,000 cities compiled by the WHO - 9 June 2016: Air pollution now major contributor to stroke and harm caused by air pollution to the lungs, heart and brain has been underestimated, global study finds - 13 June: Carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere forecast to pass 400 parts per million in 2016
2017: 7 November 2017: Governments have drastically underestimated methane emissions from natural gas and will miss the Paris agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 2C unless they urgently scale down its use, a major new study has found - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards'
Global warming since 20th century - Earth's energy budget - Climate change - Paleoclimatology - Historical climatology - History of climate change science - Climate change denial
2016: 25 January 2016: For the first time on record, temperatures in 2015 were about 1°C above the pre-industrial era, according to a consolidated WMO analysis - 23 May 2016: World could warm by massive 10C if all fossil fuels are burned, Canadian university study says - 21 July 2016: 2016 set to be world's hottest year on record, says UN, as average temperature in the first half of 2016 was 1.3C warmer than in the late 19th century - 6 August 2016: The Earth is perilously close to breaking through a 1.5C upper limit for global warming, only eight months after the target was set in Paris, leading climate scientists have warned
2017: 10 March 2017: Earth's oceans are warming 13% faster than thought, and accelerating, according to new study based on advanced research and measurements - 21 March 2017: The record-breaking heat that made 2016 the hottest year ever recorded has continued into 2017, pushing the world into 'truly uncharted territory', according to the World Meteorological Organisation - 2 August 2017: Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia, according to 'Science Advances' - 3 August 2017: Unless world abolishes carbon emissions a lot faster, temperatures are 90% likely to rise by 2 to 5 degrees Celsius by 2100, new study warns - 30 October 2017: The health of hundreds of millions of people around the world is already being damaged by climate change, a major report of 26 institutions around the world says
Antarctica - Climate of Antarctica - Antarctic ice sheet - Antarctic sea ice - 23 December 2012: West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate, US researchers say - 20 May 2014: Antarctica is now losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean - twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed, scientists say using measurements of CryoSat-2 satellite mission - 18 May 2015: NASA finds Antarctic ice shelf a few years from disintegration
Climate of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic - 13 August 2012: Arctic sea ice 'melting faster', UK scientists say - 27 August 2012: Arctic sea ice reaches record low, Nasa says - 28 March 2016: Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter - 16 August 2016: Global surface temperatures and Arctic sea ice extent have broken numerous records through the first half of 2016, according to NASA
Climate of Greenland - Greenland ice sheet - 19. August 2011: Grönlands Gletscher schwinden schneller als erwartet - 25 July 2012: NASA finds that ice cover thawed over larger area than ever detected in more than 30 years of satellite observation - 22 September 2016: Greenland's ice cap is disappearing far more rapidly than previously estimated, is part of a long-term trend, and is already a major contributor to rising sea level, according to research taking better account of the gradual rise of the entire Greenland landmass
Ozone depletion - 2 October 2011: Arctic ozone loss at record level - 10 March 2014: New ozone-depleting gases found in atmosphere
Weather events and natural disasters, by continent and by country
Storm
Heat wave - 21 February 2012: Climate change increased likelihood of Russian 2010 heatwave, international study says - Summer 2012 North American heat wave - 2015 Indian heat wave - June 2015 Pakistan heat wave - 26 October 2015: Extreme heatwaves could push Gulf climate including Iran’s coast beyond human endurance if the world fails to cut carbon emissions, USA study shows - 28 October 2015: Rising heat stress could threaten labour capacity across south-east Asia, with Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia worst hit, British study says
Water scarcity - Water security
Drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages its waters supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water - List of droughts
2015: 16 March 2015: Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the 2007-2010 drought, including the recent Syrian drought, causing widespread crop failure and mass migration - 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances
Desertification - 21. September 2011: UN rufen zu Kampf gegen Wüstenbildung auf - 19 February 2012: Wildfires, peat fires and controlled burns on farming lands kill 339.000 people worldwide each year, says a Tasmanian university study
Effects of global warming on oceans - Current sea level rise - Future sea level
11 May 2015: Sea level rise accelerated over the past two decades, research finds

Climate Conference in Geneva 1979
2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancún
2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Durban - 17. Juni 2011: Vorbereitungstreffen der UN-Klimakonferenz am 17. Juni 2011 erfolglos beendet - UN official July 2011: Climate change 'threatens peace' - 18 November 2011: IPCC report says that the risk from extreme weather events is likely to increase - 28 novembre: 17e conférence de l'ONU sur le réchauffement climatique - 190 pays réunis à Durban jusqu'au 9 décembre - 1 December 2011: Climate deal pushed by poorest nations - 4 December 2011: Protests at climate change summit in Durban demanding faster action - 5. Dezember 2011: 'Neue Welle der Entwaldung' - das Abholzen der Regenwälder gefährdet Klimaschutz und die Lebensgrundlage z.B. von Millionen von Afrikanern - 5 December 2011: Discovered earth-like planet 'Kepler 22-b' is too far away to go into exile, also for the international tea-party movement - 11 December 2011: UN climate conference in Durban approves deal delaying worldwide obligation to control greenhouse gases to 2020 - 13 December 2011: Canada to withdraw from Kyoto Protocol
2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha (Qatar) - 28. März 2012: Der Weltklimarat IPCC warnt vor einer Zunahme von Extremwettern infolge des Klimawandels - extreme Temperaturen und Hitzewellen hätten seit 1950 zugenommen, heisst es im neu veröffentlichten Bericht - 23 June 2012: Rio summit ends with an agreement from world leaders that charities say represents a 'missed chance' - 25 November 2012: As Qatar welcomes world leaders to the 18th UN climate change conference, its own environmental record has come under criticism as a major contributor to greenhouse gases - 6 December: The delegate Naderev Sano from typhoon-hit Philippines demanded that ministers at the Doha conference put aside their differences and take effective steps to combat global warming - 7 December: Standoff between rich and developing countries remains as UN climate talks near end - 8 December: Rich and poor nations disagree on funding as negotiators scramble to reach a global agreement on rising CO2 emissions - 9 December: Delegates in Doha agreed to extend the Kyoto protocol until 2020
2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 19 novembre 2013: Le typhon Haiyan électrise la conférence climat de Varsovie
23 September 2014 Climate Summit at UN Headquarters in New York City - 21 September 2014: Scientists reveal ‘fair system’ for countries to tackle climate change urging rich nations to make biggest commitment and warning world leaders ahead of UN summit in New York - 22 September 2014: Poor nations’ climate change budget puts health and education funds at risk, according to ODI-led research - 22 September 2014: People rallied worldwide over climate change ahead of the climate-change summit hosted by Ban Ki-moon in New York - 2 November 2014: Time running out to reach 2°C warming target, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Lima (Peru) - 27 November 2014: UN climate change deal must have legally binding targets, EU says - 11 December 2014: Time presses as climate talks head for penultimate day - 13 December: Lima climate summit extended as poor countries demand more from rich - 14 December 2014: UN members adopt a format for national pledges to cut greenhouse gases
6 June 2015: Africa sounds the alarm over crucial climate summit
November/December 2015 UN Climate Change Conference in Paris - 10 October 2015: Pledges by nations to cut carbon emissions will fall far short of those needed to prevent global temperatures rising by more than the crucial 2C by the end of the century, climate experts say - 25/26 November 2015: The year 2015 is shaping up to be the hottest on record according to the UN's weather agency, stressing that based on current voluntary pledges, Earth is on track for 3 C
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference - 30 November 2015: The capitals of the world's two most populous nations China and India, Beijing and Delhi, were blanketed in hazardous, choking smog on Monday as climate change talks began in Paris, where China, the USA, the EU, India, Russia, Japan, Germany and Iran causing large proportion of pollution are participants - 30 November 2015: Participants in the UN climate summit in Paris on Monday observed a minute of silence during its opening for the victims of the 2015 Paris terror attacks, but will they also observe a minute of silence for the casualties of the repression of the Syrian democratic protests since 2011 and the victims of Assad's and Russian regime's daily terror attacks? - 30 November 2015: 'The terrible events that France experienced this tragic November are daily reality for Ukraine for almost 21 months, my country is suffering for the terrorism sponsored and promoted by the Russian Federation', Ukrainian president Poroshenko says in Paris
1 December 2015: Warm countries launch sun-energy alliance - 6 December: Cautious hopes as negotiators from 195 nations at UN conference agree draft climate change deal - 6 December: Small islands that bear the brunt of rising sea levels also face the greatest risk of diseases linked to a warmer planet, health leaders say, as 13 million medical professionals added to the calls for a global climate pact - 12 December: Final draft published as nearly 200 governments prepare to officially adopt climate change deal on how to cut carbon emissions post-2020 - 13 décembre: L'accord mondial sur le climat conclu samedi soir
7 October 2016: Poor countries urge fast action on Paris deal to stop catastrophic warming, as the new treaty will not stop catastrophic warming as it stands, setting the world on track to a temperature rise of about 3C over the next 50 years, enough to render many of the world’s poorest countries uninhabitable
7 au 18 novembre 2016 Conférence de Marrakech sur le réchauffement climatique, la 22e conférence des parties COP22 de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques
June 2017 USA withdrawal from the Paris climate accord
12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas
6-17 November 2017 UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn, presided over by the Government of Fiji - Novembre 2017 Conférence de Bonn sur les changements climatiques - November 2017 UN-Klimakonferenz in Bonn - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards', according to scientists at UN climate talks - 15 November 2017: At Bonn summint governments have acknowledged for the first time that 'first peoples', indigenous communities and groups can play a leadership role in protecting forests and limiting global warming

Water pollution - Marine pollution - Water pollution by country
Ocean disposal of radioactive waste
Ocean acidification, ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - Dead zones - Fish kill - Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact On European Seas
2012: 12. Januar 2012: Erderwärmung gefährdet das Leben in den Ozeanen durch Ausdehnung sauerstoffloser und sauerstoffarmer Zonen - 25 November 2012: Marine snails in seas around Antarctica are being affected by ocean acidification, internatinal study says
Wastewater - Sewage - Sewage treatment - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
2013: 10 to 12 April 2013 International Conference on Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in European Seas - 7th International Conference on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology, Hong Kong, 17-21 June 2013
2014: 6 August 2014: The amount of mercury threatening marine life near the surface of many of the world’s oceans tripled as the result of polluting activities, study finds
2015: 16 May 2015: Shellfish species shrinking as rising carbon emissions hit marine life - 2 July 2015: New study warns of dangerous climate change risks to the Earth’s oceans, saying immediate efforts are needed to curb carbon pollution to minimize ocean ecosystem changes
Oil spill - Crude oil washing - Oil toxicity is a wildlife disease resulting from the accidental exposure of animals to oil - Oil pollution toxicity to marine fish
List of oil spills - Oil spills by country
Environmental impact of shipping
Plastic particle water pollution - Great Pacific Garbage Patch
2014: 10 December 2014: Full scale of plastic in the world's oceans revealed for first time, as data of more than five trillion pieces of plastic, floating in the world’s oceans and causing damage throughout the food chain, found by new research
2015: 29 April 2015: Effective policies to reduce the amount of plastic ending up in the ocean are urgently needed, the first global study on the sources of microplastics and their impact on the environment concludes, but even if all releases of plastic to the environment ceased immediately, the microplastic problem would persist due to the continued fragmentation of plastic bags, bottles and other rubbish
2016: 2 June 2016: Fish are being killed, and prevented from reaching maturity, by the litter of plastic particles finding their way into the world’s oceans, new research has proved
2017: 19 July 2017: Plastic pollution risks 'near permanent contamination of natural environment', according to first global analysis by USA academics of all mass–produced plastics, finding that humans have produced 8.3bn tonnes since the 1950s with the majority ending up in landfill or oceans

Fresh water as a resource - Water pollution by country - Freshwater ecology - Water security, 'the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production'
2017: 19 October 2017: World's deepest lake Baikal in Siberia, which holds one fifth of the world’s unfrozen fresh water, crippled by putrid algae, poaching and pollution
Wastewater - Sewage - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment - Sewage treatment - Thermal pollution - Water cooling
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
Water scarcity - the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs within a region - List of countries by freshwater withdrawal
2015: 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances

Resource depletion - List of environmental issues - UNO-Weltwasserbericht 2012: 'Wir leben über unsere Verhältnisse' - 'Managing water under uncertainty and risk' - Weltwasserforum in Marseille ab 12. März 2012 - 12 August 2015: The Earth’s 'overshoot day' - based on a comparison of demands in terms of carbon emissions, cropland, fish stocks, and the use of forests for timber with the planet’s ability to regenerate such resources and absorb the carbon emitted - will occur for 2015 on Thursday six days earlier than 2014, Global Footprint Network says - 4 juin 2016: Le braconnage des espèces animales, l'exploitation minière et forestière illégale et les autres trafics de ressources naturelles ont rapporté en 2015 jusqu'à 258 milliards de dollars aux groupes criminels qui s'y livrent, selon l'ONU

Deforestation - Deforestation by region - Illegal logging
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
2016: 1 June 2016: Leaked trade industry figures show a five-fold increase in the use of palm oil for biodiesel in Europe between 2010 and 2014, providing new evidence of links between deforestation in southeast Asia and the EU’s renewable energy mandate
2017: 28 September 2017: The world’s tropical forests are so degraded they have become a source rather than a sink of carbon emissions, according to a new study that highlights the urgent need to protect and restore the Amazon and similar regions

Overfishing - EU revamps fishing policy to save depleted stocks

Environmental disaster - List of environmental disasters
Environmental impact by man-made sources - Environmental impact of war - Environmental impact of nuclear power - List of industrial disasters
Industrial gases
Environmental impact of mining - Environmental impact of the coal industry - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Environmental impact of the energy industry
March 2017: 7 March 2017: Pollution is responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five, according to new WHO reports, with toxic air, unsafe water, and and lack of sanitation the leading causes
June 2017: 21 June 2017: Some of the world’s top banks are continuing to lend tens of billions for extracting the most carbon-intensive fossil fuels, as finance provided for tar sands, other unconventional oil and gas, as well as coal and liquefied natural gas amounted to $87bn for the top 37 banks in 2016, according to a report of top lenders
October 2017: 19 October 2017: Pollution, including toxic air, water, soils and workplaces, kills at least nine million people and costs trillions of dollars every year, according to the most comprehensive global analysis to date, which warns the crisis 'threatens the continuing survival of human societies', published by the Lancet Commission on pollution and health
Environmental impact of transport - Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates - Environmental impact of aviation
Since 2014: Since 2014 International diesel emissions scandal - raising awareness over the high levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide range of carmakers, including BMW, Citroen, Fiat, Ford, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes, Peugeot, Renault, Volkswagen group and Volvo, scandals relating to the emissions from diesel engines began in 2014 when emissions discrepancies between European and USA models of vehicles were highlighted by the International Council on Clean Transportation
2017: 15 May 2017: The global human health impact of the diesel emissions scandal has been revealed by new research showing a minimum of 38,000 people a year die early due to the failure of diesel vehicles to meet official limits in real driving conditions, as most of the deaths are in Europe, where highly polluting cars are the main culprit, and in China and India
Environmental impact of agriculture, pesticides, insecticides and chemical herbicides
2017: 12 September 2017: A third of the planet’s land is severely degraded and fertile soil is being lost at the rate of 24bn tonnes a year, according to a new United Nations-backed study that calls for a shift away from destructively intensive agriculture
Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
2013: 20 October 2013: Agrochemicals linked to health problems in Argentina - 10 December 2013: The use of pesticides increased 858% in the last 22 years in Argentina, but as there is a great business for the global poison industry, led by Monsanto and Bayer, and as its products are sprayed over areas of intense monoculture, where more than 12 million people live, the public health is faced with great problems, according to the Network of Physicians working in crop-sprayed towns
2014: 24 June 2014: The world’s most widely used insecticides have contaminated the environment across the planet so pervasively that global food production is at risk, international team of scientists says - 28 October 2014: About 2,000 hectares of fertile land are lost each day due to damage caused by salt in areas of dry irrigated land with little rainfall, according to a UN analysis
2015: 23 March 2015: The UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer says that three pesticides, the herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in USA's Monsanto's Roundup – and the insecticides malathion and diazinon, were 'probably' carcinogenic and two others, which have already been outlawed or restricted, were 'possibly' so - 11 November 2015: Glyphosate has devastating, dramatic effects on the health of people living in very close contact with it, Argentinian photographer Pablo Ernesto Piovano's report on the conditions of people living and working close to GM soy crops, where massive amounts of herbicide are used, reveals
2017: 21 February 2017: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay farm transgenic seeds glyphosate resistant, but there is an association between cancer and environmental exposure to Glyphosate - 11 May 2017: According to official reports, 60% of the food that arrives in the Central Market of Buenos Aires has agrochemical residues
July/August 2017: July/August 2017 Egg contamination scandal in EU's Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - 3 August 2017: Millions of eggs are being recalled from shops and warehouses in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium after they were found to contain high levels of a toxic insecticide banned from use in the production of food for human consumption
October 2017: 19 October 2017: Dramatic decline in flying insects at dozens of nature reserves in the past three decades in Germany that researchers say could lead to an 'ecological Armageddon', and agricultural pesticides may be to blame
Pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the twentieth century - List of crop plants pollinated by bees - Beekeeping - List of diseases of the honey bee - Bees and toxic chemicals - Pesticide toxicity to bees - Imidacloprid effects on bees - 'Imidacloprid' systemic insecticide, belonging to a group of pesticides called neonicotinoids, the primary producer of imidacloprid is the German chemical firm 'Bayer CropScience'
2016: 11 May 2016: From April 2015 to March 2016, USA beekeepers lost 44% of their colonies, as 28% of bee colonies were lost over the 2015/16 winter and more than half of surveyed beekeepers said they suffered unsustainable losses
Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment - Toxic waste is any material in liquid, solid, or gas form that can cause serious harm to humans as well as animals and the environment
2015: 20 October 2015: The world’s top six toxic threats - lead, radionuclides, mercury, hexavalent chromium, pesticides and cadmium - affect the health of 95 million people, exposure to these pollutants result in debilitating and life-threatening diseases, especially in children

Genetically modified organism - Genetic engineering and agriculture - Genetically modified food controversies - March Against Monsanto 25 May 2013 - 26 May 2013: Worldwide protests against seed giant Monsanto and the genetically modified food it produces

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents - Nuclear and radiation accidents - List of nuclear power accidents by country - List of nuclear and radiation fatalities by country - List of civilian nuclear accidents - List of military nuclear accidents - Nuclear fallout - Radioactive contamination
Kyshtym disaster on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the Soviet Union, causing radioactive fallout over the Soviet, many neighboring states and ongoing contamination with radioactivity
1966 Palomares B-52 crash, when a B-52G bomber of the USA Air Force's Strategic Air Command, carrying four Mk28-type hydrogen bombs, collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling - 19 October 2015: Nearly 50 years after a USA air force B-52 bomber carrying nuclear weapons crashed in Palomares in south-east Spain, USA's government has finally agreed to clean up the radioactive contamination that resulted from the 1966 crash
Three Mile Island accident, partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on 28 March 1979 in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in USA's Dauphin County in Pennsylvania
1986 Chernobyl disaster, catastrophic nuclear accident released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe - 20 avril 2016: Des sols du continent européen sont toujours «contaminés» au Cesium 137, 30 ans après la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl, selon une étude de l'ACRO
2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster with three nuclear meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials beginning on 12 March 2011
Radioactive waste - Radioactive contamination - High-level radioactive waste management - Plutonium in the environment
List of nuclear weapons tests - List of nuclear weapon test locations
2014: 7 January 2014: N-test legacy in stratosphere bigger than thought - 2 March 2014: 60 years after USA's Bikini Atoll nuclear tests islands still unliveable
2016: 28 juillet 2016: L'ancien Premier ministre de Jacques Chirac, Alain Juppé, s’exprimait à Papeete que les expérimentations atomiques menées par la France entre 1966 et 1996 en 'Polynésie française' avaient eu un impact environnemental et sanitaire, même si l'Etat a affirmé le contraire pendant plusieurs décennies
Nuclear weapons debate - Uranium mining debate - Nuclear power debate

Environmental crime
2015/2016: 26 October 2015: Raging forest fires across Indonesia are thought to be responsible for up to half a million cases of respiratory infections, with the resultant haze covering parts of Malaysia and Singapore now being described as a 'crime against humanity' - 19 September 2016: Haze from Indonesian fires last year may have caused over 100,000 premature deaths, according to a new study of Harvard and Columbia universities that triggers calls for action
2016: 13 October 2016: International judges will take evidence in The Hague from witnesses and victims of USA agri-business Monsanto, which manufactured hundreds of thousands of tonnes of Agent Orange for use as a chemical weapon in the Vietnam war, and is now the world’s biggest genetically modified seed corporation also developing toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and glyphosate, in an attempt by hundreds of grassroots groups to hold the company accountable for human rights violations, crimes against humanity, and 'ecocide', or widespread environmental damage

Global Witness exposes the hidden links between demand for natural resources, corruption, armed conflict and environmental destruction
2015: 27 August 2015: Between 2002 and 2013, at least 448 environmentalists were killed in Brazil, according to Global Witness
2016: 4 March 2016: New data of Global Witness on the murder rate of environmental and land activists in Honduras, the highest in the world, for taking a stand against destructive dam, mining, logging and agriculture projects - 20 June 2016: 2015 became deadliest year for environmental activists, as at least 185 activists were killed, anti-mining activities were the most deadly with 42 deaths related to protests, according to 'Global Witness' - 21 October 2016: As last year was the deadliest on record for environmental campaigners and more than three people were killed each week in 2015 by police, private security or hired assassins, states and investors must take steps to tackle this human rights crisis, UN special rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders Michel Forst says in a report for the UN general assembly

Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species - Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene - List of recently extinct species - Endangered species
Extinct ethnic groups
Extinction risk from global warming - Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present, habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization - Overexploitation refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns
2016: 14/16 September 2016: Humanity is driving an unprecedented extinction of sealife unlike any in the fossil record, hunting and killing larger species in a way that will disrupt ocean ecosystems for millions of years, scientists have found - 27 October 2016: World facing biggest mass extinction since dinosaurs, with two thirds of animals wiped out in 50 years, report by the World Wildlife Fund and the Zoological Society of London says
Poaching, the illegal hunting, killing, or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights - Illegal wildlife trade over the world - Wildlife smuggling
2015: 19 June 2015: The rate of extinction for species in the 20th century was up to 100 times higher than it would have been without man’s impact, scientists say in their study 'Accelerated modern human–induced species losses'
2016: 12 August 2016: Elephants on the path to extinction as the world’s population of elephants is nearing a critical point - 3 October 2016: A bid to give the highest level of international legal protection to all African elephants was defeated at a 'Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species' global wildlife summit of 182 nations in Johannesburg, after the EU played a pivotal role in blocking the proposal, which was fought over by rival groups of African nations - 8 December 2016: Giraffes facing extinction after suffering a devastating decline in numbers resulting from illegal hunting, habitat destruction, changes through expanding agriculture and mining, deforestation, pollution and civil wars, with nearly 40% of giraffes lost in the last 30 years, according to the latest IUCN 'red list' analysis

Wildfires caused by arson - Fire ecology

Urbanization and Rural development - Urbanization by country - List of metropolitan areas by population - List of agglomerations by population
Megacity, usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people
Environmental effects of urbanization - Urban heat island is a city or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities
Urban ecology, the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment - Sustainable urbanism
Urban planning - Urban design
Architecture - Herrschaftsarchitektur (ruling-class architecture) - Skyscraper - Sustainable architecture

Natural disasters, by continent and by country
Disaster risk reduction in the world by regions and countries - 'PreventionWeb.net' participatory web platform for the disaster risk reduction community






Africa





Americas



Antarctica - Arctic





Asia



Middle East (Naher Osten)





Australia



Oceania countries





Europe







Internationale Organisationen, Institutionen etc. zur Intervention, Krisenverhinderung und Krisenbewältigung



United Nations:
United Nations (UN) - History of the United Nations - United Nations (Website)
Population on the earth seven billion on 31 October 2011 - UN sets out challenges in 2011 report - UN Global Sustainability Panel (January 2012)
1899/1907: Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands - An der zweiten Konferenz 1907 waren 44 Staaten beteiligt, um eine internationale Rechtsordnung auszuarbeiten und Normen für friedliche Lösungen bei internationalen Streitfällen zu erreichen, konnten sich allerdings auf keine Abrüstungsschritte einigen und scheiterten bei der Einführung einer obligatorischen Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit an der deutschen Ablehnung, der sich auch Österreich-Ungarn, die Türkei und einige kleinere Staaten anschlossen
1917/1918: Wilson's 'Fourteen Points' is a blueprint for world peace elucidated in a January 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms by USA's President Woodrow Wilson, following the 'Decree On Peace', passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the 8 November 1917
1919: 1919 'Paris Peace Conference' of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers, involving more than 32 countries and nationalities, creating the 'League of Nations', and deciding the five peace treaties with defeated enemies, including the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as 'mandates', reparations imposed on Germany, and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect the forces of nationalism
1920-1946: 'League of Nations' (Société des Nations) intergovernmental organisation to maintain world peace, founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference that ended 1914-1918 World War I
1925: Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, in international armed conflicts signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 - UNODA website: 36 Signatory States in 1925, in 2015 number of States Parties 138 - 1949 Geneva Conventions comprising four treaties and three additional protocols, establishing the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of war (1864, 1906, 1929, 1949)
1942: 1942 Declaration by the 'United Nations' agreed on 1 January was a World War II document during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, the Allies USA, the UK, the USSR, and China, nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile
1943: October/November 1943 Moscow Conference between the major Allies of World War II, agreement to create a world organization, the European Advisory Commission
1944: August-October 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization), an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders
1945: February 1945 Yalta Conference World War II meeting of the heads of government of the USA, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe - July/August 1945 Potsdam Conference and Potsdam Agreement
April-June 1945 Charter of the United Nations: United Nations Conference on International Organization of delegates from 50 Allied nations from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, reviewing and rewriting the Dumbarton Oaks agreements and resulting in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June - 1945 'Charter of the United Nations' signed in San Francisco on 26 June by 50 of the 51 original member countries

UN Security Council - UN Security Council (Website) - 18 October 2012: Argentina, Australia, Luxembourg, Rwanda and South Korea won non-permanent seats on the UN Security Council - 16 October 2014: Angola, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain and Venezuela to join UN Security Council with non-permanent seats
Reform of the UN Security Council - 28 September 2014: World leaders demand Security Council reform - 21 July 2015: United Nations must be made fit for purpose, says UNDP head Helen Clark
2011: 28. April 2011: UN uneins gegen Assad - 4. Juni 2011: Blutbad im syrischen Hama - 9 June 2011: European nations demand UN resolution condemning Syria's violent actions - 3. August 2011: Keine UN-Resolution zu Syrien - China, Indien und Rußland blockieren
Since 2011 vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China: List of vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China since 2011
2012: 29. März 2012: Für mehr Demokratie im Sicherheitsrat - Vorstoss der Schweiz und vier weiterer Staaten für eine Uno-Reform - 24 mai: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU est "de plus en plus inadapté" - ONG accuse - 22. August: Sucht Ban Ki Moon mit seiner Iran-Reise Ende August das besorgte 'Fachgespräch' über Krebsgeschwüre und Chemotherapie? - 6. September 2012: Ban Ki Moon kritisiert den Sicherheitsrat der UN wegen Untätigkeit und Versagen im Syrien-Konflikt
2013: 16 July 2013: Russia and China block UN condemnation of Iran missile tests and oppose finding Iran in clear violation of the UN ban on Iranian arms exports, council diplomats report
August 2013: 29 August: UN Security Council members meet for second day to discuss British resolution calling for military action after a first meeting on Wednesday ended with no agreement - 29./30. August: Nach zweieinhalb Jahren brutalen Kriegs Assads gegen die syrische Bevölkerung, die gewagt hatte, friedlich für Demokratie zu demonstrieren, zaubert ein bestens gelaunter Ban Ki Moon aus dem Hut, daß die Krise 'mit friedlichen Mitteln beigelegt werden' soll: 'Es ist wichtig, dass alle Meinungsverschiedenheiten auf friedliche Weise und durch Dialog gelöst werden' - 29/30 August: After imploring the world not to stand idly by over Assad's use of chemical weapons, Cameron was forced into a climbdown by the Labour party, failing to pass a motion by 285 to 272 votes in the parliament
September 2013: 6 September: USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power challenges Russia for its obstruction in preventing the Security Council from taking a firmer hand in Syria’s Civil War, even after the chemical weapons attack on August 21st
December 2013: 13 December: UN confirms in a final report that chemical arms were used repeatedly in Syria - 14 December: UN's Ban Ki-moon deplored the use of chemical weapons in Syria demanding that those responsible are held accountable
January 2014: 9 January 2014: Russia blocked a British-drafted UN Security Council statement condemning the Assad regime attacks on the city of Aleppo and the use of missiles and barrel bombs, that killed hundreds of people - 20 January 2014: Hours after the SNC has decided to attend Switzerland peace conference, UN chief Ban Ki-moon invites Iran to take part in Switzerland, an offer Iran's regime accepts - 21 janvier: L'ONU a retiré son invitation à l'Iran à participer à la conférence de paix en Suisse sur la Syrie, l'opposition syrienne confirme sa présence
February 2014: 15 February 2014: After more than 140,000 people, over 7,000 of them children, killed in Assad's war against Syrians, UN says 'sorry' for Syria talks failure
March 2014: 2 March: Ukraine's UN ambassador asked an emergency session of the Security Council 'to do everything possible now' to stop Russian aggression as Russian troops took over Ukraine's Crimea - 15 March: Russia vetoes UN resolution declaring Crimea referendum invalid, but 13 other nations voted in favour and China abstained from voting isolating Putin regime
April 2014: 14 April: As UN Security Council meets over Ukraine and well-organised pro-Russian attackers using Russian-origin automatic weapons, Britain's UN ambassador says Russia had massed tens of thousands of well-equipped troops near the Ukrainian border in addition to the 25,000 troops it recently moved into Crimea to seize it - 18 April: UN inquiry chief Michael Kirby wants North Korea hauled before international court, but China and Russia snubbed the UN security council meeting - 24 April: UN's Ban Ki-moon demands Security Council action on Syria over denied demands for aid access - 25 April: UN Security Council asks for inquiry into South Sudan April 2014 Bentiu massacre
May 2014: 22 May 2014: Russia and China veto UN draft resolution calling for Assad's war in Syria to be referred to the ICC, ignoring support for the measure by 65 other countries and all other members of the security council
June 2014: 17 June: Russia again finds no support at UN Security Council for a resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine - 26 June: UN council demands end to Syrian military action in the Golan Heights
July 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict: 10 July 2014: Hamas' rockets and Israel-Gaza conflict prompts emergency UN security council meeting - 10 July: During council's emergency meeting UN's Ban Ki-moon says ground offensive and 'all-out escalation' are preventable 'only if Hamas stops rocket firing', adding that Gaza cannot afford another all-out war - 11 July: Hamas urges Gazans not to show Israel where they are firing from - 12 July: Palestinian envoys and their supporters are discussing the text of a UN resolution urging truce, silent on rockets - 12 July: IDF footage reveals efforts to spare civilians in Gaza - 12/13 July: As UN council members urge to reach Gaza-Israel ceasefire, some foreign ministers to meet in Vienna today - 13 July: Hamas rejects Egyptian ceasefire proposal - 20 July 2014: 'United' Nations agency UNRWA handed 20 missiles found in Gaza school back to Hamas, not to International Criminal Court - 21 July: UN Security Council 'concerned' by growing Gaza conflict casualties - 28 July: After Israeli and PA criticism of John Kerrys handling of the Gaza crisis UN security council agrees on demand for Gaza cease-fire, but Hamas rocket fire continues - 30 July: In Israel, 79-year-old Holocaust survivor worries about her Gazan daughter
July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down near Hrabove with a surface-to-air missile - 18 July: UN meets as world leaders call for global inquiry into the explosion of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 - 18 July: UN demands full MH17 inquiry but armed Russian separatists block access to crash site destroying all links to air atrocity - 19 July: Amid reports that pro-Russia separatists accused of shooting down MH17 flight remove corpses themselves and are looting credit cards and other possessions, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and more global politicians round on Vladimir Putin as separatists continue to block international inspectors attempting to identify and repatriate bodies - 20 July: As inspectors still denied access and anger mounts towards Russian regime, that is not yet ready to abandon separatists, UN considers resolution on Ukraine crash site access - 21 July: UN to vote on international access to MH17 crash site - 21 July: USA has evidence of Russia's involvement in terrorist attack against MH17 Boeing, John Kerry says - 22 July: After the passing of Australia’s UN resolution for a full investigation into the MH17 crash Australia and Netherlands join in pledge 'to bring our people home'
August 2014: 6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis - 8 August: UN Security Council urges governments to help Iraq cope with a humanitarian crisis sparked by a jihadist offensive that has left hundreds of thousands of Iraqis on the run - 15/16 August: UN security council votes unanimously to adopt a resolution to blacklist those who finance, recruit or supply weapons to Islamic State IS militants in Iraq and Syria amid reports of IS militants killing dozens of residents in besieged ethnic Yazidi areas and fears for thousands kidnapped women, men and even babies
September 2014: 18/19 September: Ebola outbreak a threat to world peace, says UN security council, as Sierra Leone launches controversial Ebola shutdown and the Guinean Ebola team deadly attacked by stone-throwing locals - 24 September: UN adopts resolution to crack down on flows of foreign terrorist fighters
October 2014: 24 October: UN Security Council meeting due to situation Ukraine - 31 October: UN Syria envoy urges action plan in embattled country
December 2014: 23 December 2014: UN Security Council has held its first-ever debate on North Korea's human rights abuses - 30 December: UN security council rejects resolution calling for an independent state of Palestine to be established within 1967 borders
January 2015: 6 January: Lithuania and UK to convene UN Security Council meeting in January on the situation in Ukraine - 14 January: The UN Security Council condemns the terrorist shelling of the passenger bus near Volnovakha in Donetsk region on Tuesday, killing 11 civilians and injuring 17 others, including women and children - 16 January: UN Security Council reportedly ready to hold meeting on Ukraine on January 21 - 21 January: UN Security Council condemns Yemen attack, voicing support for President Hadi - 25 January: Russia prevented the UN Security Council from criticizing aggressive statements by pro-Russian separatists in Ukraine and condemning their offensive against Mariupol killing dozens of civilians and wounding over one hundred - 26 January: UN Security Council condemns Japan hostage's murder by 'Islamic State' calling for the immediate release of a second hostage - 26 January: UN Security Council to urgently consider impact of terrorist attack in Mariupol - 27 January: A senior UN official told emergency Security Council meeting that the deadly rocket barrage on Mariupol came from pro-Russian controlled territory and sought to strike a civilian population - 28 January: Ahead of Security Council meeting, USA condemns Hezbollah’s attack on IDF, saying Israel has right to self-defense against Hezbollah - 29 January: UN Security Council condemns death of Spanish peacekeeper following Hezbollah’s attack on IDF and Israel's response - 29 January: Assad continues barrel bombing of civilians although a UN resolution calls for an end to the indiscriminate employment of weapons, UN's Kyung-wha Kang says during a briefing of the UN Security Council as Assad's war enters its fifth year
February 2015: 16 February: UNSC demands Iranian-backed Houthi militia in Yemen 'immediately and unconditionally' withdraw from government - 16 February: UN Security Council vote on resolution on conflict in east Ukraine postponed - 18 February: As Ukraine's president Poroshenko calls on UN Security Council to prevent full-scale war amid intensified attacks of Russian-backed militants in eastern Ukraine, UN Security Council adopts resolution 'welcoming' the declaration of Ukraine, France, Germany, and Russia, announced on February 12 in Minsk - 27 February: Following a proposal by EU's France and Germany to discuss the implementation of the Minsk Agreements and reports of the OSCE, the UN Security Council will hold an emergency meeting on the situation in Ukraine today - 27 February: Statement by OSCE ambassadors at the meeting on the situation in Ukraine
March 2015: 6 March: UN Security Council to vote on a resolution to condemn the use of chlorine as a weapon in Syria and threaten to take action if such arms are used again in the conflict - 7 March: Fourteen Security Council members, including Russia but not Venezuela, adopt a resolution condemning the use of chlorine as a weapon in Syria and 'threatening' to take action - that is another resolution in the event of non-compliance - if such arms are used again in the conflict, which is now in its fourth year - 18 March 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Security Council calling for punishing Assad under Chapter VII of UN Charter after regime's latest chlorine gas attack on Sarmin in rural Idlib on Monday - 19 March: Russia refuses to participate in UN Security Council meeting on Crimea - 20 March: UN Security Council meeting on Crimea stresses importance of monitoring human rights in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, Russia, China, Angola and Venezuela refused to participate - 21 March 2015: Russia to block UN mission in Donbas and will not vote in the UN Security Council on the draft resolution to deploy peacekeepers, regime's Lavrov says - 22 March 2015: UN Security Council to meet on Sunday on a request from embattled Yemeni President Hadi for an 'urgent intervention' - 23 March: UN backs Yemen's Hadi as Huthis seize key airport in Taez - 25 March 2015: Assad regime's helicopters drop barrel bombs loaded with chlorine gas on Binnish near Idlib, and conducted seven attacks using chlorine gas in less than 20 days since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2209 without any prosecution by UN Security Council, Syrian Coalition says - 27 March 2015: Following Syrian American Medical Society's report, UN has more than doubled its estimate of Syrians who are living in besieged areas — and risk death by starvation, dehydration and the lack of medical care — to roughly 440,000 - 27 March: Gulf states ask UN Security Council for arms embargo on Yemen's Shi'ite rebels
April 2015: 1 April: More than 25,000 foreign fighters from some 100 countries are linked to al-Qaida and Islamic State, with Syria and Iraq comprising a 'veritable international finishing school for extremists', UN experts reported to the Security Council - 3 April: UN Security Council members call to investigate the latest allegations of the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon in Syria - 7 April: UN Security Council demands aid access to Yarmouk Camp on the outskirts of Damascus - 10 April: UN vote as early as Friday on Yemen arms embargo - 11 April: Saudi-Arabia says UN could vote soon on Yemen sanctions resolution aiming to end the Houthis' attempt to take over the country - 14 April: In a resolution approved in a 14-0 vote without Russian support, UN Security Council imposes arms embargo on Houthi rebels in Yemen, also demanding all Yemeni factions to end violence and resume UN-brokered negotiations - 17 April: UN envoys hear doctors' accounts of Syria chemical attacks - 17 April: Assad attacks Idlib with chlorine gas as UN Security Council looks into evidence of previous chemical attacks - 21 April: UN Security Council demands aid access for Syria's Yarmouk camp
May 2015: 8 May 2015: A majority of UN Security Council members supports USA bid to lay blame in Assad regime's chlorine attacks as activists and a doctor report of new chemical attacks in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib - 13 May 2015: After evidence given by the CIJA, Syrian Coalition calls for holding an urgent UN Security Council meeting, saying that the international community and the members of the UN Security Council bear full responsibility of the catastrophic situation in Syria - 15 May 2015: After weeks of violence in Burundi, UN Security Council on Thursday 'condemned both those who facilitate violence of any kind against civilians and those who seek to seize power by unlawful means' - 28 May 2015: UN security council urges end to impunity for attacks on journalists
June 2015: 5 June: Today UN Security Council will hold an emergency meeting because of the deterioration of situation in the east of Ukraine - 5 June: 28 people including 9 civilians killed in recent Maryinka battle, as Russian-backed forces launched a new offensive near Donetsk, UN's Jeffrey Feltman reports at the UN Security Council - 19 June 2015: Over 70 countries demand that Assad regime stops deadly aerial attacks against the Syrian people, especially 'the systematic use of barrel bombs', as May 2015 seen as deadliest month yet in over four years of fighting, with hundreds killed by regime bombardment - 26 June: More than 80 international human rights and aid groups are urging the UN Security Council to take real, immediate action against Assad's continuing use of barrel bombs in Syria
July 2015: 8 July: UN Security Council vote on Srebrenica massacre delayed until Wednesday after Russian veto threat - 9 July: Russia blocks UN condemnation of Srebrenica as genocide - 10 July: In a letter to the Security Council, Syrian National Coalition calls attention to the grave situation in Zabadani, where inhabitants suffer under a joint offensive by Syrian regime force and foreign fighters from Hezbollah and calls to condemn in the strongest terms Hezbollah’s acts of aggression inside Syria - 11 July: Syrian Coalition's Marwa says that the USA’s circulation of a draft UN resolution that aims to establish an accountability mechanism for chemical weapons attacks in Syria is late - 20 July: Security Council adopts resolution 2231 on Iran’s nuclear programme - 30 July: Russia's position on setting up an MH17 international criminal tribunal to prosecute those responsible isolates the country on the international stage, Ukrainian FM Pavlo Klimkin says, after the lone 'no' vote was cast by Russian regime
August 2015: 7/8 August 2015: UN Security Council votes unanimously to set up a panel to identify who is behind deadly chlorine gas attacks in Syria, which the West blames on Assad’s regime - 18 August: UN Security Council backs new Syria peace initiative as the death toll in Assad regime air strikes on Douma neighbourhood of Damascus nears 100, sparking global outrage - 19 August 2015: SNHR records 125 Assad regime breaches of UNSC resolution 2118, stating that 'in the event of non-compliance with this resolution, measures shall be imposed' - 19 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls for implementation of UN Security Council's resolutions to take immediate action in the besieged Douma district, urging the enforcement of resolution 2165 which calls for delivering humanitarian aid to besieged areas without the need for permission from the Assad regime - 22 August 2015: Israel’s Ambassador to the UN Ron Prosor calls for the UN to condemn Syrian-Iranian Thursday’s rocket fire on Israel, and not simply make do with a general statement, calling for both sides to 'exercise maximum restraint'
September 2015: 3 September 2015: Russia delaying start of Syria chemical weapons probe - 7 September 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon admits that the UN security council is failing Syria, urging Russia and China to stop blocking proposals to end a conflict that has cost hundreds of thousands of lives and driven the biggest refugee exodus in a generation - 11 September: UN to hold inquiry on Syria chemical attacks, diplomats say, as new evidence of Syria chemical attacks emerges - 18 September: UN Security Council expresses 'grave concern' over Jerusalem violence and is calling for restraint and calm - 23 September: USA has warned that Russia’s continued blanket use of its UN veto will jeopardise the security council’s long-term legitimacy and could lead the USA and like-minded countries to bypass it as a decision-making body
October 2015: 1 October: United Nations veto ban proposal gains support, as some 75 countries in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have already backed the proposal - 2 October: Syrian Coalition's Khoja calls on UNSC for taking immediate action to stop Russia’s brutal air raids on Damascus, Homs, and Hama, where civilian homes, hospitals, and mosques are destroyed by these attacks - 14 October 2015: The head of the UN women’s agency Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is criticising the low level of women’s inclusion at peace tables, 15 years after a landmark UN resolution that called for women to be included in decision-making positions at every level of peacemaking and peace building - 16 October: Ukraine elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council - 16 October: Security Council to hold emergency talks on Jerusalem violence - 16 October: At Security Council meeting, Israel rejects any international intervention at Temple Mount - 16 October: DRC's Julienne Lusenge addressed the security council saying that seven years earlier she described to the council the rapes, murders and massacres ravaging her country, asking for action, and in 2015 almost nothing had changed and neither research on the benefits of female involvement for peace-building nor a UN resolution have ended the routine exclusion of women from negotiations - 21 October: Syrian Coalition calls on the UN Security Council to take 'firm and effective' action to stop the Russian aggression on the Syrian people following the horrible massacre committed by the Russian air force yesterday in rural Latakia where 80 people were killed - 22 October: Britain, France, Germany and the USA asked UN Security Council sanctions committee to investigate Iran’s recent missile test on October 10, branding it a serious violation of UN resolutions - 24 October 2015: France will submit a new draft resolution to the UN Security Council calling on the Assad regime to stop using barrel bombs as well as condemning other 'indiscriminate attacks' against civilians - 27 October: UNSC must condemn Russia’s targeting of civilians and hospitals in Syria, Syrian Coalition says, stating that Russian airstrikes have killed 1,511 civilians, including women and children as of October 26
November 2015: 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 2 November 2015: 'Doctors Without Borders' is urging the permanent member states of the UN Security Council to comply with the responsibility to protect mandate to stop the escalating aerial massacres in Syria as quickly as possible - 10 November: Security Council must condemn Russia’s use of cluster bombs against populated areas in many villages and towns, Syrian Coalition demands - 11 November: Syrian Coalition calls on the UN Security Council to include the militant groups trained and funded by Iran, most notably Hezbollah, Abu al Fadl al Abbas Brigade, Fatimiyoun Brigade and Zainabiyon Brigade on the lists terrorist organizations - 17 November 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon renews calls that the situation in Syria be referred to the International Criminal Court in the 21st report he submitted to the UN Security Council - 21 novembre 2015: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a adopté à l'unanimité une résolution française qui permet de 'prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires' pour combattre le groupe Etat islamique, une semaine après les attentats à Paris
December 2015: 5 December: USA to lead UN Security Council meeting on terror financing - 8 December: China and Russia oppose UN council meeting on human rights in North Korea accused by a UN inquiry, which has the backing of the nine council members Chile, France, Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain, UK and the USA - 9 December 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the UN Security Council to intervene immediately to stop bombing of civilians and hospitals by both Assad and Russia - 12 December: USA accuses Russian regime of attempting to suppress public discussion of facts about the nearly two-year-old agression against Ukraine - 12 December: Syrian Coalition sends letter to the UNSC condemning Russia’s escalating attacks on FSA and civilians, including public markets, bakeries, and residential buildings - 16 December: Iran violated sanctions with missile test, capable of delivering nuclear weapons, says UN panel - 18 December 2015: UN Security Council adopts resolution to cut off Islamic State terrorists funding with measures such as asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo, targeting corrupt states, banks and organizations - 18 December 2015 UN Security Council Resolution 2254 concerning the conflict in Syria - 19 December 2015: UN security council adopts resolution on Syrian peace process calling for the UN to present the council with options for monitoring a ceasefire within one month, as Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing more children, in Aleppo province, killing civilians, in Idlib province, trargeting the city of Jeser al-Shogour west, killing at least 7 children and 7 women in a massacre, one of them pregnant, and again in Idlib province, targeting the town of al-Najiyyah and as a group of protesters, some holding Syrian revolutionary flags, gather in front of UN headquarters, harbouring Russian regime's Lavrov and Assad regime's Jaafari - 21 December 2015: Russian airstrikes on Idlib, targeting health and public services centers as well as apartment buildings in the city center, killing 50 civilians and wounding 170 others, violates UNSC resolution 2254, Syrian Coalition says - 22 December 2015: After less than 48 hours since the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2254, the Assad regime and Russian forces jointly escalated their war on civilians across Syria, killing innocent men, women and children through indiscriminate aerial attacks, the Council was briefed on the humanitarian situation in Syria for the twenty-third time since the adoption of resolution 2139 in February 2014, only leading to an increase in civilian death and a worsening of Syria’s humanitarian situation - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces - 23 December 2015: Assad regime forces targeted Moadamiya with sarin-filled shells, killing ten people, including women and children, and injuring over 30 others in another war crime condemned by the Syrian Coalition calling upon the UN Security Council for measures under Chapter VII - 25 December 2015: Amnesty International responds to Russia's denial of committing war crimes in Syria, saying that the organization has compelling evidence that Russian airstrikes targeted civilians in markets, hospitals, mosques and populated areas and evidence of the use of cluster bombs
January 2016: 7 January 2016: UN Security council meets over 'clear threat to international peace', but fails to agree on immediate measures against North Korean regime after it claimed to have tested a hydrogen bomb, which triggered seismic shocks around the region - 8 January 2016: Failure to enforce UN Security Council resolutions encourages Assad to starve civilians, Syrian Coalition says in a letter - 14/15 January 2016: Security Council calls emergency meeting on Syria to lift sieges on towns where hundreds of thousands have been cut off from aid and many are starving amid lack of will to bring about political transition in Syria - 18 January 2016: UN Security Council's inaction emboldens Assad to violate UN resolutions and to use starvation as a weapon of war, Syrian Coalition says, as more civilians including an entire family of 12 members were killed in Russian airstrikes on Syria on Sunday - 22 January: Syrian Coalition says, that 'the Assad regime’s siege and bombardment of civilians violate UN Security Council resolutions...(and that) Assad has been committing these crimes under military and political cover by Russia
February 2016: 7 February 2016: South Korea, USA and Japan are requesting an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council, after North Korea fired long range rocket despite UN ban - 7 February 2016: UN security council condemns North Korea rocket launch, promising to take punitive steps - 9 February 2016: Mass deaths of detainees in Syrian Government jails amounts to crime of 'extermination', UN commission of inquiry on Syria says in its report calling on the UN security council to impose sanctions against Syrian officials in the civilian and military hierarchy responsible for or complicit in deaths, torture and disappearances in custody - 18 February: UN's Ban Ki-moon tells Security Council that states and regimes must choose between implementing ceasefire or continuing to 'pursue the bankrupt logic of a military victory' - 20 February: In a letter to the UN Security Council Syrian Coalition's President Khoja condemns Russia’s latest attacks on Aleppo and its deliberate targeting of Syrian hospitals, medical facilities and schools, demands the immediate withdrawal of Russian forces from Syrian territory and also calls for ensuring accountability for all committed war crimes - 22 February: At least 19,947 barrel bombs have been dropped by the Assad regime on rebel-held areas across Syria since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2139 on 22 February 2014, SNHR says - 22 February 2016: War crimes in Syria's five-year-old conflict are widespread and Syrian government forces and Islamic State militants continue to commit crimes against humanity in the face of inaction by the international community, UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry says in its latest report - 25 February: Syrian Coalition urges UN Security Council to condemn the recent escalation of aerial bombardment on Aleppo, to break the sieges across Syria, finitely protect civilians from indiscriminate aerial bombardment, and ensure accountability for war crimes - 27 February: In response to the UN Security Council’s adoption of resolution 2268 on the 'cessation of hostiles' in Syria, the Syrian Coalition supports efforts to protect civilians and to achieve a political solution away from Assad - 27 February: Callng on the UN Security Council to respond to the Assad regime’s violations of the ceasefire agreement, the Syrian Coalition says that the Assad regime bombed 15 rebel-held areas across Syria with heavy machine-guns, artillery and barrel bombs in Damascus, Rural Damascus, Daraa, Aleppo, Homs, Hama and Lattakia province - 29 February: In a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Syrian opposition is warning attacks by Russian warplanes backing government forces are threatening fragile truce
March 2016: 3 March 2016: After the UN security council approved the toughest sanctions against North Korean regime in two decades over its nuclear and rocket tests, it fires a volley of short-range missiles into the sea off its east coast - 13 March: UN adopts resolution on combating sex crimes by its peacekeepers - 13 March: Israel calls for world powers to take 'immediate punitive steps' against Iran following its ballistic missile tests last week, adding that it would be 'a test for the powers' ability to enforce the 2015 nuclear agreement - 18 March: Russia's illegal annexation of Ukraine's Crimea on the agenda at closed-door UN Security Council meeting, as Crimean Tatar leader Dzhemilev calls for increase in sanctions against Russian regime and as human rights abuses in Crimea under Russian occupation are revealed in seperate meetings - 30 March: By launching nuclear-capable missiles Iran has defied a UN Security Council resolution that endorsed last year's historic nuclear deal, the USA and its European allies say in a joint letter
April 2016: 26 April 2016: Security Council asks UN's Secretary-General to submit a broad plan within 30 days detailing how his Yemen envoy can help the warring Yemeni parties move towards peace - 29 April: Ukraine's Vadym Prystaiko said at a meeting of the UN Security Council that the Russian Federation had concentrated a 34,000-strong hybrid military force in the occupied part of Donbas
May 2016: 4 May 2016: UN Security Council condemnation of North Korea's latest missile tests has been delayed by Russian regime - 5 May: An an emergency meeting of the Security Council UN's Feltman calls for referring Syrian Assad regime to ICC, charging the regime with war crimes - 7 May 2016: Russia blocks UN statement on Syria airstrikes - 13 May 2016: UN Security Council expressed its outrage at recent attacks in Syria targeting civilians and medical facilities, stressing these actions may amount to war crimes, as the SNHR said that it had documented 23 massacres by regime and Russian forces, hundreds of barrel bomb attacks, that claimed the lives of hundreds of civilians, and the death of 26 detainees killed under torture in April - 14 May 2016: Assad regime and Russian forces stepped up airstrikes on rural Idlib, concentrated on populated areas and vital civilian facilities on Friday, killing 20 civilians and injuring at least 35 - 18 May 2016: The UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office accuses the Assad regime of directly violating UN Security Council Resolution 2268 by seizing medical aid bound to civilians trapped in the besieged areas and preventing the evacuation of those in urgent need for treatment - 29 May: The number of Syrians living under siege has grown by some 75,000 to total 592,700, underscoring the worsening plight of civilians in the five-year war, the UN aid chief Stephen O’Brien tells the Security Council, saying that the use of siege and starvation as a weapon of war was 'reprehensible' and 'must stop immediately'
June 2016: 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings, after Russia blamed for new strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idlib city, killing scores - 2 juin 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a condamné les trois récents tirs manqués de missiles balistiques effectués par la Corée du Nord - 14 June: Saudi Arabia-backed Syrian High Negotiations Committee's Agha slams Russia's attempts to postpone political transition, saying that the UN Security Council resolution 2254 has been ignored by Russia and rejected by the Assad regime - 21 June 2016: After Russian jets on Monday bombed the towns of Huraytan, Hayyan, Anadan, Kafar Hamra, Maaret Alartiq, Urm Alqubra, Messibin, Babees and Anjara in rural Aleppo, reportedly using cluster munitions and killing at least 21 civilians and injuring dozens more, Syrian Coalition calls for UN action to stop Russia’s use of banned weapons in Syria - 24 June 2016: 12 civilians were killed and dozens more injured in Aleppo in airstrikes by Russian jets, using internationally banned weapons, most notably incendiary and cluster munitions - 24 June 2016: Saudi Arabia-backed HNC urges UN to protect Syrian civilians from Russian incendiary bombs, as UN's Stephen O’Brien says that the use of barrel bombs in the Syrian conflict 'constitutes indiscriminate attacks' against civilians, adding that their sole purpose is 'to terrorize and punish the civilian population'
July 2016: 11 juillet 2016: 'Le Conseil de sécurité s'est reposé sur la bonne volonté des dirigeants du Soudan du Sud' et 'a brandi des menaces vides d'embargo sur les armes et de sanctions individuelles' et a ainsi échoué à empêcher les violences dans la crise au Soudan du Sud, selon Human Rights Watch - 11 juillet 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité a sollicité dimanche l'aide des pays de la région pour mettre fin aux combats au Soudan du Sud et leur a demandé en particulier de fournir des Casques bleus supplémentaires à sa mission dans le pays - 16 July 2016: Syrian Coalition calls for emergency UNSC meeting to address Assad’s military escalation and the dangerous deteriorating situation on the ground in Syria in particular in Aleppo and Daraya
August 2016: 2 August 2016: One year after the UN security council adopted a resolution that set a 12 month-deadline to identify the perpetrators of chlorine attacks in Syria, dozens injured in a chemical attack using a gas cylinder laced with chlorine and targeting the town of Saraqeb in Idlib province, which is under opposition control, and near where a Russian helicopter was shot down on Monday - 2 August 2016: Syrian Coalition demands UN action under chapter VII following Assad regime chlorine attacks on Saraqib in Idlib province - 4 August 2016: Daraya local council calls on the United Nations to immediately enforce provisions set out in international resolutions pertaining to the situation in besieged areas, as Assad helicopters drop Napalm-filled barrels on Daraya and the humanitarian situation deteriorates - 8 August 2016: As Syria’s Assad regime and Russian regime are carrying out daily airstrikes, MSF's Silvia Dallatomasina demands an immediate end to attacks on hospitals, pointing that four out of five UN security council members were participants in the war in Syria, after hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members, and after UN said it had recorded 44 attacks on health facilities in Syria in July alone - 9 August 2016: UN Security Council warns Russia's proposed 'Safe Passages' are risky - 10 August 2016: Medical workers in Syrian liberated areas say that Russian and Assad regime air forces targeted around 36 medical facilities within the last 40 days in blatant violation of UN Security Council Resolution 2286 adopted on 3 May 2016, strongly condemning attacks on medical facilities and personnel - 10 August 2016: Alwaer residents appeal to UN as Assad regime tightens siege, violating UN resolutions - 12 August 2016: With 11 votes and four abstentions UN approves increase in peacekeeping force in South Sudan, as an additional 4,000 peacekeepers will be dispatched, making the total deployment 17,000 troops, that will be asked to take more 'proactive' measures to protect civilians - 16 August 2016: Over 100 barrel bombs hit Daraya in rural Damascus, some filled with napalm, as the local council callsd on the United Nations and international organizations to intervene immediately to stop the war crimes - 16 August 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bashar says that the UN has so far failed to enforce own resolutions passed on Syria, only offering flawed proposals - 17 August 2016: Assad regime and Russian terrorist air forces continue to brutally bomb Aleppo, Idlib and Daraya, killing over 400 civilians in the past week, using internationally banned weapons, most notably cluster bombs, vacuum bombs, napalm and barrel bombs - 18 August 2016: The injuring of five-year-old Omran Daqneesh 'is a daily fact of Russian and Syrian government airstrikes' and 'they take turns bombing civilians in Aleppo before the whole world', 'this child is a representative of millions of children in Syria and its cities', Aleppo-based journalist Mustafa al-Sarout says - UN World Humanitarian Day 19 August 2016 - 22 August 2016: 'I'm angry, very angry...this callous carnage that is Syria has long since moved from the cynical, to the sinful', UN's Stephen O'Brien tells the UN Security Council, adding that Aleppo is being bombed every day and has become 'the apex of horror' in 'the greatest crisis of our time', that 'you have the power with a pen - a simple pen stroke - to allow food to people' - 24 August 2016: Reports by independent human rights groups indicate that the Assad regime has used chemical weapons 136 times since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2118 on 27 September 2013, as Syrian Coalition calls upon the UN Security Council to re-open the file of the 2013 Ghouta Massacre and refer it to the ICC - 24 August 2016: International inquiry accuses Syrian Assad regime of using chemical weapons, setting the stage for a Security Council decision of the five veto-wielding powers over whether sanctions should be imposed, as the Syrian Coalition repeats its call for referring the chemical weapons dossier in Syria to the International Criminal Court - 26 August 2016: As Syrian Coalition's Nyrabiya urges UNSC to refer chemical attacks case to ICC, warning that blocking this move will encourage the culture of impunity prevalent in Syria and will give a green light to perpetrators to carry out more crimes using internationally banned weapons, USA permanent representative to the United Nations S. Power calls the use of chemicals 'a barbaric tool, repugnant to the conscience of mankind' and urges the UN to take 'strong and swift action' - 30 August: Syrian Coalition's letter to UN Secretary General on Assad regime’s use of the UN as a 'cover' for mass displacement aimed at bringing about a demographic change in Syria - 30/31 August 2016: Russian air force carried out dozens of airstrikes on Idlib city and its countryside, using internationally banned weapons, including napalm and white phosphorus
September 2016: 1 September 2016: Human Rights Watch calls on the UN Security Council to urgently impose sanctions on the Assad regime for chemical weapon attacks in Syria and refer the situation to the International Criminal Court - 3 September: Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Secretary-General concerning the third report of the OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism on the use of chemical weapons in Syria, calling for action against Assad - 6 septembre: L'ONU condamne les tirs nord-coréens - 8 September 2016: As chemical weapons watchdog chief says Aleppo gas attack disturbing, the UN Security Council is due to discuss a report by the UN and the watchdog group OPCW, blaming Assad regime forces for previous toxic gas attacks - 16 September 2016: UN-led international inquiry has identified two Syrian Assad regime air force helicopter squadrons and two other military units it holds responsible for chlorine gas attacks on civilians - 17 September: UN Security Council cancels meeting on Syria - 18 September: USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power describes Russia’s call for an emergency closed-door security council meeting over an incident, that possibly killed through an error Assad regime military personnel, a 'stunt' that was 'uniquely cynical and hypocritical' as Russia had for years blocked UN punitive measures against the Syrian Assad regime and its perpetrators for the barrel bombing of civilian populations in rebel-held cities - 19 September 2016: At least eight civilians were killed and dozens more injured in Assad regime barrel bombs attacks on the southern Daraa province - 20 September 2016: USA blames Russia after UN aid convoy in Syria targeted by air attack and UN official says 'inexplicable' attack could amount to a war crime if bombing which killed aid workers proved to be deliberate - 20 September 2016: Red Cross president says attack on UN and Red Crescent convoy delivering supplies is unacceptable violation of international law and UN suspends all aid convoy movements in Syria after airstrike - 20 September: The UN said 18 of the trucks were damaged or destroyed and insisted that the damage to them had been caused by airstrikes, as bystanders at the scene of the attacks reported multiple airstrikes, and airstrikes in the area are realized only by Russian and Assad warplanes - 21 September 2016: Russian planes dropped bombs that destroyed UN aid convoy and killed at least 20 people in opposition-controlled Urem al-Kubra in Syria, according to USA officials also saying two Russian Sukhoi SU-24 warplanes were in the sky above the aid convoy at the precise time it was struck - 21 September: Speaking at UN Security Council meeting on Syria, USA secretary of state John Kerry accuses the Syrian Assad regime of dropping barrel bombs on children and bombing hospitals, adding that the council members know that these are flagrant violations of international law - 24 September: Syrian Coalition condemns the barbaric onslaught launched by the Assad regime and Russian forces on Aleppo, slamming the inaction of the international community and its failure to stop heinous crimes in Syria, despite promises and condemnations repeated again, again and again - 25 September 2016: UN security council to meet on Syria amid intense bombardment, appearing to include extremely powerful 'bunker buster' bombs, by Assad and Russian forces that left dozens dead and nearly 2 million without water in the city of Aleppo - 25 September: Russia accused of war crimes in Syria at UN security council session, as the ambassadors from the USA, Britain and France walk out of the council chamber in protest against Assad regime's Ja’afari and the regime's war crimes - 27 September 2016: Syrian photographer code-named Caesar wins 2017 Nuremberg International Human Rights Award for exposing torture in Assad’s prisons - 28 september 2016: As Unicef counts 96 children killed and 223 injured since Friday, the two largest hospitals in besieged eastern Aleppo, which serve a quarter of a million civilians, bombed out of service by Russian and Assad regime airforces, in what doctors describe as a catastrophic campaign that is testing the conscience of the world, giving account that 'children ... are coming to us as body parts' - 28 September 2016: Condemning Russian and Assad regime's attacks on the two largest hospitals in eastern Aleppo as 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says that 'those using ever more destructive weapons know exactly what they are doing' - 29 September 2016: Daily life in Aleppo will descend into hell within a month under air strikes from the regime and its Russian ally, civil defense official Meshal warns - 29 September: UN's Stephen O’Brien asks the Security Council 'whether there is any level of disaster and death that can be visited upon the Syrian people that might prompt the parties to this conflict, and by extension the international community, to identify a red line that will not be crossed', as the UN itself has come under intense scrutiny in recent months, with aid organisations, human rights groups and NGOs accusing it of being too close to the Assad regime without scruple and its accomplices to murder - 30 September 2016: Syrian Coalition’s legal committee submits a memorandum to the UN Security Council on the genocidal war the Assad regime as well as its Russian and Iranian allies wage on Aleppo
October 2016: 1 October 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Michel Kilo says that the international community must deter Russian aggression on Syria, warning that Russia is drawing the world to the precipice of chaos and mayhem and that Russia’s actions threaten the creation of the same conditions Hitler’s policies created and which led to the breakout of World War II - 8 October 2016: UN to vote on rival Syria resolutions and likely veto both - 9 October 2016: French foreign minister Ayrault compares Aleppo's likely fate to Guernica during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, Srebrenica during the Bosnian war and the Chechen capital Grozny destroyed by the Russian army in the mid-1990s, saying 'it is the annihilation of Aleppo', declaring that the continued bombing by Russian and Assad forces will leave the city in ruins, a place where citizens will be left to their 'executioners', as Russian regime vetoes French-drafted UN Resolution demanding immediate halt to Aleppo bombing, and a number of ambassadors walked out, including the representatives of Britain, France, Ukraine, the USA, when Assad regime's UN ambassador Ja'afari started speaking - 11 October 2016: UN's Ban Ki-moon on Monday again asked the Security Council to formally request that the International Criminal Court ICC begin investigations of war crimes in Syria - 12 October: At least 62 countries signed a letter calling on the UN Security Council to prevent further deaths resulting from a 'calculated campaign' by the Assad regime and its allies on Aleppo - 13 October: New Zealand circulated to the 15-member UN Security Council a draft resolution that would demand an end to all attacks that kill civilians in Syria, particularly air strikes in Aleppo, just days after Russia vetoed a similar text - 14 octobre 2016: Le Royaume-Uni va présenter un projet de résolution au Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU réclamant un cessez-le-feu immédiat au Yémen après le carnage perpétré dans la capitale Sanaa lors d'une cérémonie funéraire - 19 October 2016: Russian convoy of warships, including an aircraft carrier carrying fighter bombers, passes Britain on its way to Syria, monitored by governments and politicians, since nearly 6 years concerned about their discussion threads with brutal Russian, Iranian and Assad terrorists and not about the victims, where it is thought they will participate in a final assault on the besieged city of Aleppo, where children are coming as body parts to surviving doctors in out bombed hospitals - 21 October: The Syrian Coalition and the Free Syrian Army say that the UN continues to ignore Russia’s crimes and its violations of international law in Syria - 22 October 2016: International inquiry has found Syrian Assad regime forces responsible for a third toxic gas attack in Qmenas in Idlib governorate on 16 March 2015, according to a fourth report submitted to the UN Security Council, after the third report by the inquiry in August blamed Assad for two chlorine attacks in Talmenes on 21 April 2014 and Sarmin on 16 March 2015, following Ghouta chemical attacks in August 2013 on opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus using chemical agent sarin, and after in September 2013 the USA Senate filed a resolution to authorize use of military force against Assad's military in response, averted when the murderous regime accepted a USA–Russian negotiated deal to turn over 'every single bit' of its chemical weapons stockpiles for destruction, but has in reality encouraged Assad to escalate his war against the Syrian people, to invite the Russian regime and its murderous military to join Assad's terrorism and to annihilate the Syrian democracy and any opposition against dictatorship - 27 October 2016: UN humanitarian chief Stephen O’Brien calls the failure of the UN security council, and Russia in particular, to stop the bombing of eastern Aleppo and the mass killing of civilians 'our generation’s shame', as envoys from France,the UK and USA come to the UN’s defence against a Russian regime's envoy, who should not sit in New York but in The Hague's ICC for complicity, as Russian or Assad's warplanes in their recent terror attack kill at least 26 people, most of them schoolchildren, teachers and rescue workers, in Syria's Idlib - 27 October 2016: The USA directly accuses either Syria or Russia of being behind airstrikes that destroyed a school complex in Idlib province on Wednesday, as rescue workers describe details of the attack that levelled much of the area, killing almost 40 people, and as a doctor who treated many of the wounded says most of the dead were children aged six to 15 as well as female teachers, putting the number of injured at more than 100 and describing that many of the children who had arrived at the hospital had lost limbs - 28 October 2016: SOHR condemns the massacres committed by the Russian and Syrian warplanes against the Syrian citizens in Syria and in Idlib's Has, murdering in the recent school attack at least 37 civilians including 15 students, 4 teachers, 3 females, and a doctor, who died wounded after the aerial bombardment, as regime forces and allies are perpetuating their terror attacks on the towns of Safohin and al-Mozara in Idlib province and across the country, despite international condemnation, due to inactivity and complicity of some states, regimes and parties - 9 November 2016: As the Assad regime’s mass forced displacement operations, which amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity, Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Jojah criticizes the international community’s failure to take action against the regime’s policies, saying that apart from shy calls by some friendly countries to end the conflict, the international community has not yet assumed its responsibility to put an end to the crimes of the Assad regime and its allies - 16 November 2016: New report by human rights group SNHR claims Assad regime is responsible for the death of 188,729 civilians, over 90% of all victims from nearly six years of war in Syria, also saying that the responsibility for war crimes also moved just weeks after the outbreak of the popular uprising in Syria in 2011 to the international community, to take collective measures in accordance with Articles 41 and 42 of the UN charter, but did not lift a finger because of Russian and Chinese protection for the Syrian regime - 16 November 2016: Bringing the total number of hospitals targeted by Russian warplanes on Monday in Aleppo's countryside to three, Russian murderous air strikes are targeting and destroying the Baghdad hospital, killing and wounding dozens and burying others under the rubble, while civil defense forces are working to lift the rubble to save the survivors and remove the corpses - 16 November 2016: Canadian FM Stephane Dion welcomes Syrian opposition leader for talks as meetings are touching on ways to circumvent Russia's veto power at the UNSC in order to end the bloodshed of Syrian civilians - 18 November 2016: UN Security Council approved a one-year extension of an international inquiry to determine blame for chemical weapons attacks in Syria - 19 November 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Bassam Abdullah says that the international community has a political, legal and moral responsibility to force the Assad regime and Russia to stop the horrific massacres they are committing in Syria - 21 November 2016: The Council of Free Aleppo Governorate calls upon the UN and human rights organizations to assume their responsibilities towards the protection of civilians in Aleppo from the fierce bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia forces - 21 November 2016: Assad's military commanders were involved in 'killing and injuring civilians' since 2011 with assaults on schools, hospitals and homes, says USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power, reading out names and the military units to a meeting of the UN security council - 22 November 2016: Israeli activists launch awareness campaign to express their solidarity with the civilians in the face of a military escalation being carried out by Russia, Assad and his allied militias, calling for communal prayers on Jewish holiday for the 'hundreds of Syrians who are dying daily in Syria, men, women and children, while the world is silent' - 22 November 2016: Aleppo siege is 'war of extermination', a doctor in eastern Aleppo says, who was wounded earlier this month in an airstrike, adding that 'everything is being exterminated with the collusion of the United Nations, they all see and hear, but they will not answer, and they cannot stop this war machine' - 28 November 2016: Syrian Coalition urges international action to end Assad regime's siege of Al-Tal saying threat must not be ignored as Assad regime has already proven willingness to commit crimes of unimaginable proportions to achieve its goals - 29 November 2016: France calls for UN Security Council meeting over Aleppo saying 'we need to urgently put in place means to end the hostilities and to allow humanitarian aid to get through unhindered', as terror group Hezbollah and allied Iranian militants announce huge victory - 30 November: Syrian Coalition's letter to UN and UN Security Council presses for stopping Assad’s and Russia’s onslaught on Aleppo
December 2016: 1 December 2016: While UN's Stephen O’Brien tells an emergency session of the UN security council that Aleppo becoming 'one giant graveyard', the recent offensive by Assad regime forces, by Russian air power, Iranian ground forces, militia fighters from Iran, Iraq and Lebanese terror group Hezbollah hasn’t just cost the opposition two-thirds of their held areas, but also displaced more than 20,000 civilians and killed hundreds - 1 December: UN tightens sanctions on North Korea after largest nuclear test yet - 2 December 2016: As the Russian and Assad regime onslaught on Aleppo continues causing an untold humanitarian catastrophe, over 220 civil society organizations from 45 countries have issued a declaration saying that the UN Security Council has 'failed to uphold its responsibility to protect the Syrian people' - 3 December 2016: Thousands of Syrians took to the streets in many towns and cities across Syria to denounce the war crimes being committed by the Assad regime and Russia as well as the Iranian-backed foreign militias in Aleppo, also chanting slogans denouncing 'the international silence' over such crimes - 5 December 2016: 38 civilians confirmed dead including 5 children and 6 persons from the same family including a woman, by Russian airstrikes targeting the city of Maara al-Nuaman in Syria's Idlib province, rising the number of murdered civilians by aerial bombardment to 73 today - 6 December 2016: Syrian opposition calls on international community to shoulder its responsibility to end the bombardment and slaughter in Syria, especially Aleppo, and actively seek to deliver humanitarian aid, as Aleppo medics convert basements into operation rooms to evade airstrikes - 6 December: Syrian Coalition's Ghadbian condemns Russia’s vetoing UN Security Council resolution, drafted by New Zealand, Spain and Egypt, calling for the imposition of a 7-day cease-fire in Aleppo so that humanitarian aid could reach the city’s besieged eastern neighborhoods - 7 December 2016: Assad regime warplanes carried out dozens of air raids using vacuum bombs on the towns and villages of the Idlib countryside, killing six civilians and wounding 15, some of them seriously, as schools in Idlib province have suspended teaching after the regime and Russia’s deadly aerial campaign killed around 70 people, including many children, over the past four days, and as in Aleppo dozens of corpses are still in the streets from Shaar neighborhood, because the ambulances and rescue teams are not able to pull the corpses due to the murderous Russian and Assad's military operations - 8 December: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Turkey issued a statement calling on the UN to hold an emergency special session of the General Assembly to end the Aleppo crisis, also condemning dealing with the Syrian crisis like it was an ordinary event, and critizising the international institution’s incapability to perform the tasks it was established for following World War II - 8 December 2016: Western diplomats have conceded that there are no technical obstacles to a plan to deliver airdrops of food and medicine to Aleppo using a GPS-guided parachute system, but the scheme has been stalled in the face of reluctance among military commanders and an absence of political will - 14 December 2016: 'Aleppo should represent the end of the quest for military victory, not the start of a broader military campaign in a country already ravaged beyond all recognition by five years of war', UN's Ban Ki-moon told an emergency meeting of the Security Council - 18 December: UN Security Council to vote Sunday on Aleppo observers, as thousands look to flee besieged areas of war-ravaged city, and as the Assad regime and Iran were trying to impose new conditions to the evacuation deal - 20 December: UN Security Council unanimously called for UN officials and others to observe the evacuation of people from eastern Aleppo and monitor the safety of civilians who remain in the rebel-held part of the city - 24 December 2016: Confusing the council with a delayed committee of the murderous Roman Empire, UN Security Council condemns Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, destroying the last remainder of UN's credibility, completely incapable to deal with proceeding war crimes against the Syrian people since 6 years - 24 December 2016: Rejecting UN Security Council's resolution which describes the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem and the Western Wall as occupied territory and condemns Israel's settlement policy, Israel's PM Netanyahu says with the necessary clarity, that 'half a million Syrians are being slaughtered in Syria, tens of thousands are butchered in Sudan, the Middle East is up in flames, yet the Obama administration and the UN Security Council choose to set upon the only democracy in the Middle East', but forgets to mention his own recent meetings with war criminal Putin in Moscow, also encouraging the Russians, Iranians and Hezbollah to commit more war crimes - 28 December 2016: Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on resolution A/71/L.48 to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses in Syria since 2011, reportedly the result of 'a cynical deal' between Jerusalem and Moscow
January 2017: 2 January 2017: Syria clashes test fragile truce after UN Security Council approved a resolution supporting a Russian and Turkish initiative - 8/9 January 2017: Jerusalem terror attack by an Israeli Arab citizen, who rammed a truck deliberately into a group of Israeli soldiers disembarking from a bus in the Israeli settlement Armon Hanatziv Esplanade in Jerusalem, killing 4 and injuring 15, condemned by the UN Security Council, emphasizing 'need for those responsible for this reprehensible act of terrorism to be held accountable' - 9/10 January 2017: Syrian Coalition urges the UN Security Council to adopt a resolution calling for the immediate withdrawal of all foreign militias from Syria and to require all parties to stop supporting or providing political and legal cover for the actions of these militias, violating the ceasefire agreement - 10 January 2017: At least 271 people, including 25 women and 34 children, reportedly killed as a result of 399 ceasefire breaches by the Assad regime and Iranian-backed militias since 29 December - 13 January 2017: UNSC urged on Thursday to discuss accountability for chemical weapons attacks in Syria - 14 January 2017: For the first time in a report published Friday, joint international team of investigators for the UN and the OPCW determined that Syrian regime's Bashar Assad and his brother Maher are suspected of being tied to several chemical weapons attacks carried out in the country in 2014 and 2015, according to a document seen by Reuters, as an ICC spokesman says, that 'the only way that (the) ICC would have jurisdiction over the situation would be through a referral by the Security Council' - 19 January: Syrian Coalition urges Russia to adopt resolution under Chapter VII to hold truce violators accountable - 27 January 2017: UN officials urged the UN Security Council to do more to ensure the delivery of life-saving aid to civilians in the besieged areas, as nearly 700,000 people still under siege across Syria and as Assad regime continues to block aid - 31 janvier 2017: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU se réunira en urgence après un tir de missile iranien
February 2017: 1 February 2017: UN Security Council's representatives, including Russian regime's, express grave concern about the dangerous deterioration of the situation in eastern Ukraine and its severe impact on the local civilian population, also calling for an immediate return to a ceasefire regime, as the Trilateral Contact Group's representatives, including Russian regime's, will meet in Minsk today - 8 February 2017: Syrian Coalition’s Muhammed Jojah renews calls to refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court and to hold the Assad regime accountable for war crimes, especially after further evidence on the scale of torture and murder perpetrated by the regime against civilian detainees has emerged in a rights group's report in February - 8 February 2017: UN reportedly 'horrified' about Amnesty’s report on Saydnaya prison - 14 February 2017: The Assad regime forces conducted coordinated chemical attacks in opposition-controlled parts of Aleppo during the final month of the battle for the city, according to Human Rights Watch - 15 February 2017: France calls on UN Security Council to respond over the Assad regime’s use of chemical weapons in Syria with a resolution that would punish those responsible for repeated attacks - 20 February: Russia is breaking promise to investigate civilian casualties of airstrikes in Syria, Human Rights Watch says - 23 February 2017: Human Rights Watch's official Whitson confirms Assad regime responsible for Sarin attack on Eastern Ghouta in 2013 - 24 February 2017: UN Security Council is likely to vote next week on a draft resolution proposing some sanctions on the Assad regime over the use of chemical weapons, but Russia is almost certain to veto the symbolic measures proposed by Britain, France and the USA, including a ban on the sale of more helicopters and a travel ban on 11 Assad regime officials
March 2017: 1 March 2017: France, UK and USA want sanctions on Syria's Assad regime over chemical weapon use, but Russia and China veto UN resolution - 6 March 2017: Call made for emergency UN security council meeting after North Korea's missile launches on Monday shocked international community - 15 March 2017: Syrian Coalition calls for an emergency UN Security Council session to discuss the serious findings of the UN Independent Commission of Inquiry on Syria - 30 March 2017: Syrian Coalition slams Russia’s support for Assad as dozens killed in airstrikes in rural Idlib, saying that Russia, as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, is responsible for maintaining international peace and security and is obliged to respect the Syrian people
April 2017: 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, according to Medecins Sans Frontieres - 4 April 2017: At least 35 people have been killed in a suspected chemical attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun in the central province of Idlib, according to SOHR - 5 April 2017: Syrian opposition blames international community for allowing conditions for further attacks on civilians after reported chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, demanding to hold the perpetrators of these crimes accountable and to take urgent action to protect civilians from the daily crimes committed against them since March 2011 - 5 April 2017: Warplanes thought to be Russian carried out heavy and concentrated airstrikes on rescue centers and medical facilities which were treating victims of the chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, Civil Defense in Idlib countryside says - 10/11 April 2017: Russian air force have intensified bombing raids on towns and villages in the provinces of Hama and Idlib in revenge attacks, causing dozens of civilian casualties and using internationally banned weapons - 12 April 2017: Using its veto power the eighth time to protect the Assad regime, Russian regime vetoed a UN draft resolution expressing the council’s full backing of OPCW's investigation and demanding the Assad regime's cooperation with the investigators of the sarin gas attack on Khan Sheikhun in Syria's Idlib province - 13 April 2017: USA intercepted communications between Syrian military and chemical weapons experts discussing plans for Khan Sheikhun poison gas attack in Idlib province, according to USA media, citing an intelligence official, as samples taken from the chemical weapons attack in Syria last week tested positive for the nerve agent sarin by British delegation to OPCW and as OPCW's investigators are already testing samples from Khan Sheikhun deadly poison gas attack - 14 April 2017: Asking 'how long can the UN endure the shame of chemical attacks on Syrian citizens?', France's and UK's foreign ministers urge the international community to 'go further' in punishing those responsible for the chemical weapons attack in Syria on 4 April 2017 - 19 April 2017: Considering the situation in the Ukrainian Crimea, occupied by Russia, and Donbas, Ukraine’s delegation has called on the UN Security Council members to pay special attention to the observance of human rights on the temporarily territories
June 2017: 3 June 2017: UN Security Council expanded targeted sanctions against North Korea after its repeated missile tests, adopting the first such resolution agreed by the USA and North Korea's only major ally China - 17 June 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif sends letter to UN, international organizations and 26 countries to urge action to stop the brutal onslaught being waged by the Assad regime and its allies on Daraa and surrounding towns and villages
July 2017: 5 July 2017: UN Security Council to hold emergency meeting on North Korea, after the regime had tested its first intercontinental ballistic missile, a new threat
August 2017: 5 August 2017: On the eve of Hiroshima Day and aimed at increasing economic pressure on North Korean regime to return to negotiations on its nuclear and missile programs, UN Security Council unanimously approved tough new sanctions against the regime including a ban on coal and other exports totaling more than $1 billion, a huge bite in its total exports, valued at $3 billion last year - 7 August 2017: Carla Del Ponte resigns from UN’s independent Commission of Inquiry on Syria, decrying Security Council inaction to hold criminals accountable in the war-battered country, saying 'for five years we’ve been running up against walls', 'the states in the Security Council don’t want justice' - 12 August 2017: Blaming Russia for blocking solution in Syria by using its repeated use of its veto power in the UN Security Council, Carla del Ponte held the council partly responsible for the continued tragedy in Syria as it has not yet put pressure on Putin regime - 14 August 2017: Enough evidence to convict Assad of war crimes, according to del Ponte, saying that 'the preparatory work has been done', but 'there is no prosecutor and no court' - 16 August 2017: UNSC discussed sending an instigative mission to determine responsibility for the April 4 sarin attack on the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib, as rights group SNHR issued its 27th report on the use of chemical weapons in Syria - 22 August 2017: Two shipments of North Korean chemical weapons bound for Syria's Assad regime and part of a Damascus-Pyongyang arms deal have reportedly been intercepted by UN member states in the past six months, as activities between Assad and North Korean regime under investigation includes Scud missile programs and surface-to-air missiles systems - 30 August 2017: UN strongly condemns the latest ballistic missile launch by the North Korean regime, which flew over Japan, as well as the series of launches that took place on 25 August
September 2017: 3 September 2017: The international community including the UN security council should react quickly and firmly to North Korea’s latest nuclear test, democratic countries demand - 4 September 2017: At an emergency session the USA urged the UN Security Council to impose the 'strongest possible measures' against North Korea in response to its sixth and most powerful nuclear test - 6 septembre 2017: Des enquêteurs de l’ONU ont indiqué pour la première fois que le régime de Damas était responsable de l’attaque au gaz sarin sur la localité de Khan Cheikhoun le 4 avril en Syrie, qui avait fait 87 morts - 11 September 2017: UN security council unanimously agrees new North Korea sanctions including ban on the country’s textile exports and capping imports of crude oil, after USA watered down initial tougher version to avoid veto by China - 29 September 2017: The Syrian opposition calls on the UN to act urgently to stop war crimes being committed by Syrian and Russian air forces, as warplanes continue to bomb towns and villages in the liberated areas
October 2017: 24 October 2017: The international community, especially the UN Security Council, is obliged to shoulder its responsibilities to put an end to the ongoing suffering of civilians in eastern Ghouta, Syrian Coalition says - 24/25 October 2017: After UN war crimes investigators said last month they had evidence that Assad regime's air force was behind the nerve gas attack in Khan Sheikhun murdering more than 87 people, Russian regime's veto puts an end to Syria chemical weapons probe, as USA Ambassador says Moscow again siding 'with the dictators and terrorists who use these weapons', as 11 countries back extending the mandate, Bolivia joins Russia in voting against and China and Kazakhstan abstain from the vote - 26 October 2017: Head of Amnesty International’s UN office Sherine Tadros says that the 'routine abuse of the veto has become the equivalent of a green light for war crimes' and that 'UN Secretary General as well as Security Council members can no longer idly stand by' - 26/27 October 2017: Syria’s Assad forces are responsible for the deadly sarin gas attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun that killed scores of people in April, UN expert panel’s report says, as USA reaffirms Assad’s rule must end
November 2017: 8 novembre 2017: La Russie, soutien de Damas, s'est à nouveau opposée aux Occidentaux sur l'implication du régime syrien dans des attaques chimiques, lors d'une réunion mardi à l'ONU sur le mandat des enquêteurs internationaux chargés d'en désigner les auteurs - 9 November 2017: Facing 'the largest famine the world has seen for many decades', according to the UN, following Iranian-backed Houthi militia's 2015 coup d'état, UN Security Council reiterates the need for the Houthis and the anti-Houthi coalition 'to provide full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for humanitarian supplies and UN personnel to the population of all affected governorates, including by air, land and sea' - 13 November 2017: Roundly rejecting Russian aspersions against the task force, Israel endorses a UN watchdog report on Assad regime’s use of chemical weapons, saying it 'unequivocally' proves Assad used poison gas and must therefore be punished by the international community - 17 November 2017: Russian regime blocks extension of chemical attacks probe
United Nations General Assembly
2012: 27 September 2012: UN Assembly remains divided over Syria - ongoing support of Assad's crimes by Russia
25 December 2012: The UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly on Monday to restart negotiations on a draft international treaty to regulate the $70 billion global trade in conventional arms, opposed by US gun lobby
2013: General debate of the 68th session of the UN General Assembly 24 September 2013 - 4 October 2013 - 28 September 2013: Making a strong case for the reform of the UN Security Council to reflect current political realities, Indian PM Manmohan Singh says at the General Assembly that global peace and security issues must be handled through multilateral efforts - 1 novembre: Le Brésil et l'Allemagne ont présenté à l'ONU un projet de résolution sur la protection des libertés individuelles, dans le contexte d'espionnage international des Etats-Unis - 27 November: UN General Assembly's Third Committee adopted a weakened draft resolution calling for sn end to excessive electronic spying - 28 November: UN General Assembly committee agrees women's rights resolution despite backlash - 19 December 2013: UN General Assembly calls for end to excessive electronic spying
2014: 27 March: Ukraine is optimistic over UN General Assembly vote today on country's territorial integrity after Russian annexation of Crimea
27 March 2014 UN General Assembly Resolution 68/262 recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders and underscoring the invalidity of the 2014 Crimean referendum - 27 March: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid - 29 March: Russia threatened several Eastern European, Asian and African states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a UN resolution against its annexation of Crimea, UN diplomats say
20 May 2014: 58 countries urge United Nations to refer Syria to International Criminal Court
23 September 2014: More than 140 world leaders are converging in the UN general assembly to discuss urgent matters in this week, timetable - 24 September: At the UN Climate Change Summit Ban Ki-moon says that $2.3bn has been pledged to the Green Climate Fund, China and USA promise their support for a climate deal, without offering specifics, and France, promising $1bn to the Climate Fund for poor countries, calls for the establishment of a new green economy - 24 September: At the UN Climate Summit efforts to slow deforestation got a boost when dozens of countries, indigenous groups and companies pledged to halve destructive deforestation by 2020, and completely end losses by 2030 - 25 September: In his speech at the UN General Assembly session, Ukrainian PM Arseniy Yatseniuk urges Russia's Putin to stop the aggression against Ukraine - 28 September 2014: World leaders demanded Security Council reform during their addresses to the UN General Assembly over the past few days, calling for the addition of more permanent and non-permanent seats on the council and the elimination of the veto - 28 September 2014: Defeating terrorism starts with toppling Assad, Syrian Coalition's Hadi Al Bahra says in his speech at the UN General Assembly
19 December 2014: UN General Assembly urges Security Council to refer North Korea to ICC
21 December 2014: UN General Assembly voted on a non-binding resolution, adopted by 116 votes to 20 with 52 abstentions, condemning the Assad regime's violations of human rights
2015: 22 January 2015: UN's first-ever meeting on anti-Semitism organized in response to violence toward Jews worldwide - 23 January: UN issued a joint declaration against anti-Semitism, signed by more than 40 countries - 28 January: At UN Holocaust commemoration, Israel's President Rivlin calls on UN to do more to prevent atrocities - 3 August 2015: UN states agree post-2015 sustainable development agenda now due to be formally adopted in September, aiming to eradicate hunger and extreme poverty, reduce inequality within and between states, achieve gender equality, improve water management and energy, and take urgent action to combat climate change, over the next 15 years - 26 August 2015: Russia's veto power may be restricted at UN General Assembly, Ukraine's FM Klimkin says, as an initiative is already joined by over 40 countries - 11 September: UN approves proposal to raise Palestinian flag with 119 votes in favor and most of EU's nations among the 45 nations that abstained - 15 September: 70th UN General Assembly to start in New York with Russia-Ukraine conflict on agenda, as Ukraine wants UN to recognise Russia a state sponsor of terrorism - 16 September: 67 countries already support depriving Russian regime of veto right in UN - 26 September 2015: UN, Chad, Niger and Cameroon appealed for help for millions of people in the Lake Chad Basin region forced to flee the violence of Boko Haram and hit with repeated droughts and floods that have brought malnutrition and disease, but Nigeria did not attend the event on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly - 26 September 2015: As countries whose nationals lost their lives when the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 went down gather at the UN general assembly to discuss their options, Russia could face legal action over downing of jet over Ukraine - 28 September - 3 October 2015 general debate of the UN general assembly - 28 September: Russian delegation walks out of Poroshenko UN speech - 28 September: Poroshenko urges West not be fooled by Putin's UN speech - 28 September: Ukrainian delegation walks out of Putin's UN Assembly speech - 29 September: Ukrainians raise blood-soaked flag in a silent protest during Putin's speech at the UNGA - 29 September: Ukraine president Poroshenko accuses Russian regime of using UN veto as 'licence to kill', calling for the UN Security Council veto powers to be reviewed and urging world to unite in fight against terrorism in all its forms - 1 October: At UN Israel's Netanyahu calls on Palestinians to resume peace talks, deplores Iran for annihilation threats - 20 November 2015: The UN General Assembly's human rights committee in a non-binding resolution adopted with 76 votes criticizes Iran for cracking down on activists, journalists and dissidents and its increased use of the death penalty - 20 November 2015: Without explicitly naming Russia the UN General Assembly’s human rights committee adopted a resolution with 115 votes in favor, condemning all attacks against the Syrian moderate opposition, given that such attacks benefit ISIS and other terrorist groups, and the presence in Syria of 'all foreign terrorist fighters ... and foreign forces fighting on behalf of the Assad regime'
September 2016: 20 September 2016: 'Present in this Hall today are representatives of governments that have ignored, facilitated, funded, participated in or even planned and carried out atrocities inflicted by all sides of the Syria conflict against Syrian civilians', 'many groups have killed many innocents – but none more so than the Government of Syria, which continues to barrel bomb neighbourhoods and systematically torture thousands of detainees', 'powerful patrons that keep feeding the war machine also have blood on their hands', Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says addressing to the UN General Assembly - 22 September: Syrian opposition delegation meets with western politicians on sidelines of UN General Assembly, calling on western officials to provide protection for civilians and put an end to the Assad regime’s mass forced displacement policy - 23 September 2016: Many of the victims are children, 'they lose their limbs and become disabled for life and their only sin is that they are the children of Syria', Russian and Assad criminals 'have burned their childhood and their innocence and made them homeless in their country and all we get in return are words and promises from outside', Bara’a, a nurse in Aleppo, says - 27 September 2016: Syrian photographer code-named Caesar wins 2017 Nuremberg International Human Rights Award for exposing torture in Assad’s prisons
October 2016: 8 October 2016: After Russian regime 'has once again abused its veto privilege and sabotaged the UN security council, this time stonewalling efforts to stop the vicious assault on east Aleppo’s civilians', UN director at Human Rights Watch Louis Charbonneau says, that there is the urgent need for permanent members of the security council to shelve the veto in situations of mass atrocities, an idea supported by a vast majority of countries around the world, and that the UN general assembly should feel compelled to hold an emergency meeting, demanding an end to unlawful attacks on civilians in Aleppo - 11 October 2016: Syrian Coalition's Steifo says that the Coalition, as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people, will be working with friendly countries at the UN General Assembly to press for action under the 'Uniting for Peace' resolution to bypass the Russian veto at the UN Security Council - 11 October 2016: 'Sorry for being late, but there was a massacre', Hamza Khatib, one of the handful of medics still working in opposition-held Aleppo, told British newspaper Guardian on a brief break from tending to victims of Tuesday morning’s Russian terrorists' bombing raids - 13 October 2016: Syrian Coalition presents a detailed proposal to representatives of the Friends of the Syrian People group pushing for the adoption of a draft resolution by the UN General Assembly on Syria - 14 October 2016: Syria is suffering 'a small holocaust’ as 'every day not far from here, as we sit here, men, women and children are murdered in Syria, and particularly in Aleppo', Israeli chief rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says, demanding that Jews must not be silent in the face of genocide across northern border - 20 October: UN General Assembly must step in to fill the void left by the Security Council members’ catastrophic failure to end relentless attacks targeting the civilian population in eastern Aleppo city, Amnesty International says ahead of UNGA meeting - 24 October 2016: At least 70 countries have so far announced support for the initiative led by the Syrian Coalition and friendly countries to stop the bloodshed in Syria and avoid the veto Russia repeatedly used to block any action on Syria in the UN Security Council, Syrian Coalition says
November/December 2016: 16 November 2016: At the meeting of the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, member states adopt a resolution, supported by 73 countries, on the human rights situation in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in Ukraine, condemning the massive human rights violations in the occupied Crimea and calling on Russian regime as an occupying power to adhere to its obligations under the international law - 16 November 2016: General Assembly's human rights committee approved a resolution by a vote of 85 in favor, 35 against and 63 countries abstaining, to cease enforced disappearances and the widespread use of arbitrary detention by the Iranian regime and has expressed serious concern about severe limitations on freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief - 16 November 2016: General Assembly’s human rights committee voted 116-15 with 49 abstentions in favor of the draft resolution strongly condemning the recent escalation of attacks in Aleppo and continuing violence by the Syrian Assad regime against its own people - 20 December: UNGA to vote on draft resolution on accountability of war crimes in Syria, after the UN Security Council on Monday unanimously called for UN officials and others to observe the evacuation of people from eastern Aleppo and monitor the safety of civilians who remain in the rebel-held part of the city - 21 December 2016 'International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to Assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of Those Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law Committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011' resolution adopted by a recorded vote of 105 in favour and 15 against, with 52 abstentions, with Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on this resolution A/71/L.48 - 22 décembre 2016: Adoptée par 105 voix contre 15, l'Assemblée générale des Nations unies s'est prononcée pour la création d'une équipe spéciale chargée de 'collecter, regrouper, préserver et analyser les preuves' de crimes de guerre et atteintes aux droits humains commis en Syrie
2017: 20 January 2017: Syrian rights groups documenting violations in Syria and concerned in the issues of accountability and transitional justice expressed regret in a joint memorandum sent to the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, that they were not consulted about the new mechanism the UN General Assembly has recently established to investigate war crime and ensure accountability in Syria - 22 February 2017: Syrian Coalition urges UNGA to convene under 'Uniting for Peace' resolution to end tragedy in Syria
June 2017: 20 June 2017: After more than five months ago, the UN General Assembly decided to launch an investigation into war crimes in Syria, international and Syrian human rights organizations have launched a fundraiser campaign to fund investigations into war crimes in Syria following the failure of UN member states to secure adequate funding, organizers say - 23 June 2017: The UK suffered a humiliating defeat at the UN general assembly in a vote over decolonisation and its residual hold over disputed territory in the Indian Ocean, as delegates by a margin of 94 to 15 countries supported a Mauritian-backed resolution to seek an advisory opinion from the international court of justice in The Hague on the legal status of the Chagos Islands
August/September 2017: 26 August 2017: As Russia is blocking the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Donbas, Ukraine will present the idea of deploying a mission at the meeting of the UN General Assembly in September
September 2017: September 2017 72th session of the UN General Assembly - Since 19 September General Debate of the 72th session of the UN General Assembly, agenda - 19 September 2017: Trump blasted for threatening to 'totally destroy North Korea' in speech to UN General Assembly, as critics say 'threatening to kill 25 million North Koreans' is 'threatening to commit genocide' - 24 September 2017: North Korean regime's FM Ri Yong Ho tells the UN General Assembly that it is 'inevitable' North Korea would fire rockets at the USA, as war of words escalates and USA bombers, fighters buzz North Korea in show of force

Emergency special sessions of the General Assembly of the United Nations, under the resolution 377 A 'Uniting for peace' adopted by the General Assembly on 3 November 1950 an 'emergency special session' can be convened within 24 hours and shall be called if requested by the Security Council on the vote of any seven members, or by a majority of the Members of the United Nations because of lack of unanimity of the permanent UNSC members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression
List of emergency special sessions of the United Nations General Assembly since 1956

United Nations fact-finding missions
1991: 9 December 1991: Declaration on Fact-Finding by the United Nations in the Field of the Maintenance of International Peace and Security

United Nations Secretariat and Secretary-General of the United Nations
1953-1961: 1953-1961 Dag Hammarskjöld, a Swedish diplomat, economist, and author, served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations
1961/2017: September 1961 Ndola United Nations DC-6 crash - 26 September 2017: A UN report into the death of its secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld in a 1961 plane clash in central Africa has found that there is a 'significant amount of evidence' that his flight was brought down by another aircraft
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
2014: 14 August 2014: After delegation of 11 organizations meets UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, leaders of major Jewish organizations accuse him of being one-sided in his handling of the crisis in Gaza - 1 November 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon appoints panel to recommend changes to international peacekeeping in the face of increasingly complex and dangerous conflicts
2015: 23 January 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon paints a worsening picture of Assad's war in Syria, citing indiscriminate government bombing and opposition shelling, high civilian casualties and deteriorating humanitarian conditions - 13 March 2015: Syrians feel 'increasingly abandoned', UN's Ban Ki-moon says - 24 March 2015: The people of Syria feel 'increasingly abandoned by the world' as global attention focuses on Islamic State militants, while violence and government bureaucracy hinder attempts to deliver aid to 12 million people, UN's Ban Ki-moon repeats on Monday 23 March - 3 May 2015: The UN is telling Syria's Assad regime that the use of explosive weapons in the besieged Palestinian refugee community of Yarmouk and other populated areas must stop - 28 May 2015: 'The level of carnage and devastation throughout the Syrian Arab Republic should shock the collective conscience of the world', UN's Ban Ki-moon says in the fifth year of Assad's war in a report - 24 June 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon again calls for urgent action in Syria - 21 July 2015: Syrian Coalition criticizes UN's Ban Ki-moon’s silence over Iran and Assad crimes - 17 September 2015: Hungary's treatment of refugees is shocking and unacceptable, UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon says - 4 October 2015: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warns of a dangerous escalation in Jerusalem and the West Bank and urges leaders to 'condemn violence and incitement' - 31 October 2015: Making reference to the 'brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international humanitarian law', which was characterized by indiscriminate attacks on civilians areas, such as one reported yesterday in a marketplace in Syria and credited to government forces, UN's Ban Ki-moon along with the head of the ICRC calls for action to stop suffering by ending conflict, saying 'Enough is enough'
2016: 15 January 2016: At a press conference in New York UN's Ban Ki-moon warns that the use of starvation as a weapon in Syria amounts to a war crime and a violation of international humanitarian law - 11 March 2016: As Iranian regime insists missiles emblazoned with 'Israel must be wiped out' are 'for legitimate defense', UN's Ban Ki-moon urges Iranian 'moderation' after missile tests, calling on the Iranian regime and its 'moderates' 'not to increase tensions through hasty actions' so soon after nuclear deal 'and so soon after the positive news of the lifting of sanctions against Iran' - 3 May 2016: New Zealand’s former PM Helen Clark started her campaign to become the first woman to lead the UN, saying in Paris that 'peace really matters to women' - 16 June 2016: Ukraine's UN ambassador is 'completely outraged' by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's speech at St. Petersburg forum, asking how the UN chief 'can say such things which sort of praise the role of Russia in settling the conflict in Ukraine when the Russian Federation is the main player in aggressing Ukraine and in keeping this conflict boiling' - 29 December 2016: With António Guterres 'the toothless United Nations must seize this last chance to save itself' and its task, the Guardian's Mary Dejevsky says
2017: 17 February 2017: UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres is due to name a judge or prosecutor as the head of a new UN team aiming to bring Syria war crimes to court - 21 février 2017: Juger les crimes contre l'humanité commis par le régime syrien, c'est la requête faite à la Cour pénale internationale par des intellectuels et des artistes syriens, consignée dans une lettre ouverte au secrétaire général de l'ONU Antonio Guterres - 25 April 2017: Syrian Interim Government sent a letter to the UN Secretary-General Guterres highlighting the systematic bombing of hospitals and medical facilities by the Assad regime and Russia forces - 1 June 2017: UN's Guterres calls for referring Syrian file to the International Criminal Court, accusing the Syrian regime of hampering the access of civilians to humanitarian aid - 8 August 2017: UN's Guterres says a UN commission probing war crimes in Syria should continue its work, despite the resignation of prosecutor Carla Del Ponte
UN Special Representatives and Envoys of the Secretary-General - UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General - Special Envoy of the Secretary-General
Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations
Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations
2016: 20 August 2016: Responding to questions about the heartbreaking photos of five-year-old Omran Daqneesh, rescued from under the rubble of his home in Aleppo that was destroyed in an airstrike and whose brother died, UN's deputy secretary-general Jan Eliasson says that the whole world has failed the Syrian people, as Syrian Coalition's Osama Taljou calls upon the United Nations to hold Assad accountable for killing over 400,000 Syrians and displacing over 13 million more, stressing that the Syrian people will never give up the struggle for freedom and dignity
UN Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict: UN Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict
2012: 11 June 2012: Annual Report of the UN Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict - 12 June 2012: Assads forces using Syrian children as human shields, UN report says
October 2017: 5 October 2017: Millions of children caught in conflict, victims and targets of despicable harm, according to UN 2016 report revealing shocking levels of grave violations against children affected by conflicts - 5 October 2017: Adding to its existing list UN blacklists Iran-allied Houthi rebel group in Yemen, Yemeni government forces, pro-government militia, al Qaeda and Saudi-led coalition for killing children in the Arabian Peninsula
United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process: United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process - 22 June 2014: UN envoy Robert Serry denies claim he tried to funnel $20m to Hamas behind Israel's back - 5 February 2015: Nikolay Mladenov to replace Robert Serry as UN mideast envoy - 7 June 2015: Israel's PM Netanyahu chides world over silence after new Gaza rocket attacks in 2015, saying 'I have not heard a single international figure condemn the violence, not even at the United Nations' - 16 September 2015: The UN’s Mideast peace envoy Nikolay Mladenov warns that clashes between Israelis and Palestinians in and around Jerusalem’s holy sites have the potential to ignite violence well beyond the walls of its Old City, pointing to 'a vicious tide of terror and extremism' in the region
UN Special Representative and Envoy for Syria: United Nations Special Representative for Syria
2012/2013: 20 August 2012: The Syrian National Council has asked the new UN envoy Lakhdar Brahimi to apologise over his refusal to immediately call for Bashar al-Assad to step down - 17 July 2013: Five thousand people a month are dying in Syria's war, which has now generated the worst refugee crisis since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, UN says
2014: 13 May 2014: UN and Arab League special representative on Syria Brahimi resigns - 11 October 2014: UN Special Envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura fears massacre after Islamic State terrorists seize Kurdish HQ in Kobane - 30 October 2014: UN warns that some of Syria's neighbors are at their 'breaking point', caught between a sense of duty to keep their borders open to refugees and a responsibility to their own citizens
2015: 14 February 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a strongly worded letter to the UN Security Council explaining the atrocities and massacres committed by the Assad regime in the district of Douma - 14 February 2015: France repeated its position that Syrian regime's Al-Assad must step down as part of any political transition after UN Special Envoy de Mistura said that Al-Assad 'is part of the solution' - 18 March 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Security Council calling for punishing Assad under Chapter VII of UN Charter after regime's latest chlorine gas attack on Sarmin in rural Idlib on Monday - 25 April 2015: UN envoy to Syria to begin talks with groups and regional powers in hopes to end conflict - 4 May 2015: Syrian Coalition's decision to attend Geneva meetings to consider how to get rid of Assad - 8 June 2015: UN Special Envoy to Syria de Mistura, who recently called Assad a 'part of the solution', now says the dictator must go and should be militarily pressured to do so by the USA - 19 June 2015: Over 70 countries demand that Assad regime stops deadly aerial attacks against the Syrian people - 9 July 2015: WikiLeaks Cable details private meeting between Assad and Kofi Annan in 2012 - 30 July 2015: The Palestinian Committee for Human Rights condemns the decision by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to stop the provision of aid and support to 18,000 people in Damascus' Yarmouk refugee camp, after removing the camp from its list of besieged Syrian areas - 27 December 2015: UN sets to start Syrian peace talks on 25 January 2016 in Geneva - 30 December 2015: 40,000 civilians in Syria's Madaya city, besieged by Assad regime forces and Hezbollah since months, are starving to death amid silence by the international envoy
2016: 6 January 2016: Residents of the Syrian town of Madaya north of Damascus say they are dying of starvation as a result of a months-long siege by Assad regime's forces, as an aid official, who visited Madaya and Zabadani in October, cites an appeal from the children in those two places - 6 January: Syrian Coalition calls upon the Arab League, the UN, and the UN envoy to Syria to shoulder their responsibilities towards the civilians trapped by Assad gangs and the Hezbollah militia in Madaya, Biqqin and other besieged areas - 7 January 2016: Turkey's Davutoglu says that Russia has become a partner of the Syrian regime, which is brutally bombing civilians in Syria, and the world should not tolerate a situation where Syrians are fleeing the bombing, adding that the UN Security Council and Russia are responsible for the tragedy unfolding in Syria - 18 January 2016: A leaked document from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations in Damascus shows that the organization was aware of the existence of famine in Madaya months ago - 22 January 2016: The United Nations reportedly altered a key humanitarian aid plan for Syria after consultation with the Assad regime, including deleting references to besieged areas such as Madaya where thousands of people are starving - 25 January: Sit-in of protestors in Istanbul to denounce Russian, Iranian and Assad's terrorism against the Syrian People, stressing that stopping barrel bombing and Russian airstrikes, lifting the siege and releasing the detainees are non-negotiable humanitarian demands - 25 January: UN talks on Syria due to begin later this week despite disagreement on key issues, Mistura says - 26 January: The Syrian Coalition says that 'the informal talks that De Mistura will host in Geneva assume that the problem is not in the Assad regime, but between Syrians themselves (and that) this approach will not only exempt the Assad regime from responsibility for the crisis, but will also present the regime as the only salvation for a community that is fragmented and divided (and that) Tehran will appear as a guarantor of Syria’s unity after it was the dynamite that blew it apart'
January 2016 UN hosted Geneva Syria talks: 30 January 2016: Part of Syrian opposition announced late Friday that it would join the Geneva talks after receiving 'UN assurances' - 30 janvier 2016: La délégation de l'opposition syrienne doit arriver samedi soir à Genève pour participer aux discussions organisées par l'ONU, mais en Syrie 16 autre personnes sont mortes de faim dans la ville de Madaya, assiégée par les forces pro Assad, depuis que des convois humanitaires y sont entrés mi-janvier - 30 January: Syrian opposition demands release of prisoners before peace talks - 30 January 2016: Russian air forces have murdered 1,380 civilians, including 332 children, 195 women and 853 men and young men, since the 30th of September 2015, documented by SOHR - 30 January 2016: Despite promises which has been said that the opposition delegation received for Geneva consultations, Russian warplanes continue to target the Syrian areas and the siege also continues - 31 January 2016: Russian war planes strike Homs as Geneva hosts UN-brokered 'peace' talks
February 2016: 2 February: Situation remains unclear in Geneva as UN's Mistura announces start of Syrian talks - 2 February: After the Assad regime, Russia and Iran even have escalated barbaric attacks, Riyad Naasan Agha urges the international community and the UN to take measures in order to deter Russia and the Assad regime from committing further crimes against the Syrian people - 3 February: The Assad regime and Russia have killed nearly 300 civilians in Syria since the launch of the Geneva III conference on January 29th, according to the SNHR - 4 February: After UN envoy Mistura halted his efforts to conduct Geneva talks, Turkish president Erdogan says Syrian talks in Geneva are pointless while Assad's forces and Russia continue their attacks - 4 February: Syrian Coalition says that UN envoy Mistura’s decision to suspend Geneva talks due to Assad's refusal to implement UN Security Council resolution 2254, and that it's reflecting the international community’s failure to put pressure on the regime and its allies, mainly Russia and Iran - 4 February 2016: Russian bombs triggering mass Aleppo exodus, Syria conference told - 5 February 2016: As murderous Russian and Assad regime's airstrikes, killing hundreds of civilians, trigger mass exodus from Aleppo, Turkey's Erdogan slams world’s silence over Russia’s aggression on Syria - 10 February: UK special representative for Syria Bayley says that Russia 'cannot continue to claim a seat at the table whilst deliberately bombing the moderate opposition and killing civilians in blatant breach of international humanitarian law' - 12 February: Partial ceasefire 'within a week' in Syria agreed at Munich talks but no end in sight to Russian airstrikes, as UN’s Zeid Ra’ad al Hussein underlines the urgency of the need for humanitarian access to besieged areas, condemning Assad regime's offensive and Russian airstrikes displacing tens of thousands of Syrian civilians, as Syrian Coalition's Hijab, at a news conference in London, condemns the scorched earth policy through the intensification of the bombardment by Russians and Iranians, and as USA's Warren describes the Assad regime’s and Russia’s onslaught on Aleppo province as 'systematic and widespread attack on civilians' - 13 February 2016: UN-backed investigators to look into reports of five possible uses of chlorine and mustard gas on rebel-held areas in Syria - 13 February 2016: Ukrainian President Poroshenko at Munich 'Security Conference', focusing on the migrant crisis as well as the war in Syria, underlines the importance of not giving into the Russian propaganda during the conference, saying 'Mr Putin, Mr Lavrov, Mr Medvedev, this is your aggression in Ukraine and we do not give you any tiny opportunity to provide here propaganda, Kremlin style propaganda, to poison the opinion of European people' - 14 February: So-called 'ceasefire' deal seems more an endorsement of Russian regime's murderous role in Syria than a challenge to it, as opposition against dictatorship in Syria is abandoned by the USA and European governments, British newspaper states - 14/15 February: Riyad Hijab says in Munich that the solution for the crisis in Syria lies in neutralizing foreign hostile operations carried out by Russia and Iran and its allied militias, and in stopping the bombardment that Russian warplanes are carrying out on populated areas - 15 February 2016: A makeshift clinic supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Idlib province hit by a suspected Russian strike, killing nine people and wounding dozens, as in a separate incident seven Russian missiles struck a hospital in the northern town of Azaz - 15 February: Following the recent war crime in Idlib, Syrian Coalition condemns Russian crimes and airstrikes targeting civilian neighborhoods, medical centers, schools and houses of worship adding the crime in Idlib will not be the last as long as the international community keeps silent and shirks its responsibility to respond to them - 16 February: France and Turkey say that air strikes on hospitals in northern Syria constitute war crimes - 16 February: SNHR says it had documented eight new chemical weapons attacks by Assad regime forces against rebel-held areas in Syria in late 2015, that killed 19 people and also caused dozens of cases of asphyxiation - 19 February: Considering Russian aggression in Syria as 'blatant violations of international law' in the same way as spokesperson Farhan Haq for the UN Secretary General, Syrian Network for Human Rights calls upon the USA and Europe to stop considering Russia a key partner in the efforts aimed at finding a political solution in Syria - 22 February 2016: War crimes in Syria's five-year-old conflict are widespread and Syrian government forces and Islamic State militants continue to commit crimes against humanity in the face of inaction by the international community, UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry says in its latest report - 22 February: Syrian opposition's faction provisionally agrees to temporary truce, provided there were guarantees Assad’s allies including Russia would implement the ceasefire - 23 February: Syrian Coalition aays Assad regime unable to control foreign, Iranian-backed militias - 26 February: Syrian Coalition demands investigation into regime’s seizing of UN aid airdrops on Deir Ezzor - 26 February: Excluding the district of Darayya from ceasefire agreement is unacceptable, Syrian Coalition says - 27 February: UN wants ot respond quickly to violations to reach cessation of attacks in Syria, following agreement that urges weapons such as aerial bombing, mortal shelling, and rockets not to be used - 27 February: The Syrian Coalition says that the Assad regime has violated the 'cessation of hostilities' agreement after it took effect at Friday midnight, bombing 15 rebel-held areas across Syria with heavy machine-guns, artillery and barrel bombs in Damascus, Rural Damascus, Daraa, Aleppo, Homs, Hama and Latakia province - 29 February: Syria’s opposition will stick to the cessation of hostilities despite violations and more breaches on Sunday, Salem al-Muslat says - 29 February: In a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Syrian opposition is warning attacks by Russian warplanes backing government forces are threatening fragile truce - 29 February: The district of Qaboun in the northern suburbs of Damascus remains under siege despite a cease-fire agreement reached two years ago in early 2014 and despite new 'cessation of hostilities', residents and activists say - 29 February 2016: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places, carry out raids and drop more barrel bombs on areas in Idlib province, dropping several barrel bombs on the villages of al-Najyeh and al-Kenda and carrying out airstrikes on the city of Jisr al-Shughur, which killed a pregnant woman and injured 12 others, including four children and 2 citizen women, in Lattakia province, also dropping barrel bombs, in Homs province, also dropping barrel bombs, in Rif Damashq province, where civilians were wounded by regime forces and activists accused regime forces in using gases, and in Aleppo province - 29 February / 1 March: Activists say that 29 civilians, including 15 in Aleppo, were killed in Russian and regime attacks on rebel-held areas on Sunday, recording attacks on 40 areas across Syria in violation of the UN-backed truce agreement
March 2016: 1 March 2016: Syrian Assad regime forces and their allies accused of threatening the fragile ceasefire, as aid groups still hope to reach over a hundred thousand people in desperate need - 2 March 2016: War Monitor SNHR documents 44 violations on third day of UN-backed truce - 2 March: Syrian Coalition calls on UN to deter Assad breaches of truce, as 143 regime violations of truce are documented since Saturday - 3 March: The Syrian Network for Human Rights says it has documented 35 violations of the UN-sponsored truce on its fifth day, Wednesday - 4 March: Russian and Assad regime forces have deliberately struck hospitals and medical facilities in Aleppo as they advanced on the north Syrian town, killing and wounding civilians and medical workers, according to rights group - 7 March: Turkey and Qatar backed Syrian Coalition demands release of detainees - 8 March 2016: Assad’s forces, supported by Russian air strikes, had carried out a massacre of dozens of civilians around Aleppo on Monday, Riad Hijab says - 9 March 2016: Syrian Coalition calls for urgent international action to lift siege on Darayya and for the release of detainees from the prisons of the Assad regime to enhance chances of a political solution - 12 March: Main Syrian opposition will attend peace talks in Geneva, starting in two days’ time - 13 March: Syrian Coalition calls for full sustained access of aid convoys to besieged areas - 14 March: Syrian opposition delegation arrives in Switzerland ahead of second round of UN-backed peace talks - 14/15 March: Syrian opposition delegation will meet with the UN envoy to discuss the political transition process, the forming of a transitional governing body with full powers to find a permanent political solution and to alleviate the suffering of the Syrian people - 15 March: After Russian regime's Putin announced on Monday that 'the main part' of its armed forces in Syria would start to withdraw, UN human rights investigators on Syria say that preparing prosecutions against war criminals should not be delayed until the end of the conflict in Syria, now entering its sixth year - 19 March: UN raises pressure on Syrian Assad regime as peace talks end first week - 22 March 2016: A total of 530 people were killed in the first 23 days of a truce in Syria in areas covered by the cessation of hostilities agreement, SOHR days - 23 March: The Syrian opposition said on Tuesday there was no common ground with the Assad regime after more than a week of peace talks, accusing the regime of renewing sieges and stepping up barrel bombings on civilians - 23 March: Syrian Coalition demands to put pressure on the Assad regime to be serious in Geneva talks - 24 March: Saudi Arabia-backed Syrian opposition’s negotiating delegation in Geneva has laid out a comprehensive vision for the transitional period in Syria, involving the formation of a transitional governing body with full powers, drafting a new constitution and holding free and democratic elections - 24 March: Summing up 'Geneva III Intra-Syrian Talks' press conferences with Mistura, who now acknowledges that there are 'two negotiating parties' - 25 mars: Reprise des discussions de Genève le 9 ou 10 avril, selon l'ONU - 25 March: Syrian Coalition's Samira al-Masalmah says that Syrian Women aspire to a political transition that achieves justice, freedom, dignity and equality for all Syrians and accountability for crimes against the Syrian people, criticizing calls to lift economic sanctions on the Assad regime - 27 March 2016: More than 170 civilians including 41 children and 34 women are among the 646 people killed in a month of 'truce' in Syria, according to SOHR - 28 March: The Syrian Network for Human Rights documented 896 violations of the February 'cessation of hostilities' agreement, saying that nearly 129 people, including 28 children and 11 women, were killed in these violations
April 2016: 1 April 2016: Syrian Coalition urges UNSC to stop Assad regime violations of truce and targeting of civilians, as regime’s warplanes continue to commit massacres - 4 April: Assad regime reportedly continues to block aid to besieged areas - 6 April 2016: SOHR documented the death of 2,658 persons in March 2016 including 588 civilians and 214 child and citizen women, 223 citizens including 43 children and 45 citizen women were killed in raids by Russian and Syrian warplanes’ bombing and helicopters’ barrel bombs, 90 civilians including 23 children and 5 citizen women were killed in the shelling and sniper fire of the regime forces, 28 civilians were killed under torture in Assad regime prisons and dungeons of its intelligence branches, 5 citizens including 3 children and a citizen women died due to poor health conditions and the bad living conditions and the lack of medication, 13 civilians including 7 children and 2 citizen women were killed in the bombing by warplanes of the international coalition - 13 April 2016: Syrian activists and civil society associations have appealed to end the siege on the city of Daraya, south-western Damascus, and other besieged areas days after the UN criticized the Syrian Assad regime for hindering the delivery of aid to blockaded areas - 13/15 April: Syrian Coalition's Nyrabiya says that Assad killed 1,400 Syrians during truce and that political transition is vital to protect Syrians, also saying that Assad is using truce deal to make advances on the ground - 15 April: Syrian Coalition’s Yasser Farhan says that the intransigence of the Assad regime and its refusal to lift the blockades on the besieged cities have exacerbated the suffering of civilians - 16 avril 2016: De violents combats qui ont déjà fait 210 morts depuis dimanche dernier, impliquant tous les protagonistes de la guerre en Syrie, poussent sur les routes des milliers de civils dans le nord, jetant une ombre sur les pourparlers entre le régime et l'opposition à Genève - 20 April 2016: Political solution in Syria impossible while criminal Assad remains, Riyad Hijab says - 20 April 2016: Political opposition adjourns UN-led peace talks as Syrian Assad regime's air strikes kill at least 35 civilians and injure dozens in Idleb following attacks on crowded areas of two marketplaces - 22 April 2016: UN will name a coordinator to probe the fate of Syrians in Assad’s prisons, killed, tortured and starving in custody - 23 April: Syrian Coalition Anas al-Abdah says that the international community’s soft stance in dealing with Assad, who continues to commit massacres against civilians in Syria, is seen by him as a license to carry on with his crimes against the Syrian people, as at least 20 civilians, including children, were killed and many more wounded in intensified aerial bombing of Aleppo on Friday by regime and Russian forces - 25 April: Regime forces carried out two appalling massacres on Saturday in the Damascus countryside and the city of Aleppo, with dozens of dead and wounded, including women and children - 25 April: Hijab says number of civilian casualties and besieged cities has increased since envoy Mistura's appointment, after comments in which Mistura described the withdrawal of the committee from the talks as a political display - 27 April: Date of new Geneva Syria talks unclear amid conflicting reports - 27 April: Syrian Coalition calls for timetable for lifting sieges and releasing detainees, as meeting with representatives of the 'Friends of the Syrian People' group also touches on the suggestion to establish a safe area in Syria - 28 April: Assad’s targeting of hospitals a war crime backed by Russia and Iran, Syrian Coaltion says - 29 April: United Nations and USA condemn Syria hospital bombing in war-ravaged Aleppo, with UN officials also voicing alarm at the 'catastrophic deterioration' of the situation in Syria and appealing on world powers to salvage February truce - 29 April 2016: United NGOs International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières demand end to Syria atrocities as Assad regime's Aleppo airstrikes continue - 30 April: Surge in fighting on the Aleppo battlefied shows 'monstrous disregard' for civilian lives, UN says
May 2016: 1 May 2016: Syrian Coalition's Anas al-Abdah urges 'Friends of Syria' to end Assad regime’s war crimes in Aleppo, as regime and Russian warplanes continue to launch brutal attacks for the ninth consecutive day, hitting Aleppo with all types of bombs and missiles and returning to bomb the same target after rescue workers and first responders have gathered to help the victims - 1 May 2016: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places, carry out raids and drop more barrel bombs on areas in Aleppo, in Hayan and the village of Tal Msibin, as violent clashes in the countryside continue, in Homs, Idlib and al-Suwaidaa province, in Hama province, and in Rif Damashq province
- 1 May 2016: Despite the alleged truce and the data of Mistura, 3,116 people including 859 civilians were killed during the second month of it, documented by the SOHR during the month of April - 2 May: Russian regime offering the Syrian people 'two hard choices', accepting Assad’s terms or the bombing and destruction of whole cities and vital civilian facilities, Syrian Coalition's Nyrabia says, as Russian regime is directly involved in the massacres, also bombing hospitals as strategy of war - 3 May: Russia deceiving international community to keep Assad in power, Syrian Coalition’s Nora al-Ameer says - 6 May: Assad regime accused of bombing a Syrian refugee camp near Sarmada, a town in Idlib province, that left dozens of civilians dead and wounded and the camp in ruins, with one witness describing a scene of horror, with tents on fire and body parts strewn around the area - 6 May: Syrian Coalition urges UN to visit Hama prison, warns of imminent massacre - 6 May: Assad regime forces prevent UN aid convoys from entering the district of Al-Waer in Homs - 9 May: Syrian Coalition's Abu Hatab slams international community’s reluctance to establish no-fly zone to protect hospitals, as health services in the liberated areas have seriously deteriorated as a result of the continued deliberate targeting of hospitals and medical facilities by regime and Russian forces - 11 May: During meeting with Friends of Syria Group in Paris Riyad Hijab says that the political process can only continue by immediately and unconditionally implementing UN resolutions related to the cessation of violence - 11 May: Assad continues to bomb Aleppo, as UN investigators demand halt to attacks on civilians, as 10 people, including women and children, are killed in airstrikes by regime forces on the town of Binnish in rural Idlib and Alzoabi says that Russia and USA are unable to stop Assad’s crimes - 14 May 2016: Assad regime and Russian forces stepped up airstrikes on rural Idlib, concentrated on populated areas and vital civilian facilities on Friday, killing 20 civilians and injuring at least 35 - 16 May: International Syria Support Group ISSG should raise Russia’s aggression during next meeting in Vienna on Tuesday, Riad Nassan Agha says - 19 May: Alzoabi says that the statements made by the Assad regime and its allies on a political solution in Syria are just a smokescreen behind which they hide their real intentions and plans - 21 May: Russia is offering the Syrian people a choice between Assad or continued killings, head of the opposition’s negotiation delegation Alzoabi says, criticizing the role of the UN's Mistura in the negotiations, saying Mistura listens to decisions by Russia and the USA and serves the interests of major powers - 24 Mai 2016: Assad regime continues to block aid convoys to besieged civilians, UN's Dujarric says - 25 May: Forming a transitional governing body will help defeat terror in Syria, Syrian coalition's Hisham Marwa says - 29 May: Fears of UN reversal over aid airdrops plan to send food and urgent medicine to besieged towns in Syria, as British MP's ask whether the words of the international community are meant to mean anything - 30 May: Chief negotiator of Syria's main opposition umbrella group Mohammed Allush resigns over the failure of UN-backed peace talks, the continued shelling of rebel-held areas by al-Assad's regime, and over 'international community’s lack of seriousness'
June 2016: 1 June 2016: Russia blamed for overnight strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idleb city, killing scores including several children, in the latest incident in a systematic aerial campaign against medical personnel and facilities that has gone unpunished despite its intensification over the last year and a half - 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings - 1 June 2016: Sources from Idlib province have confirmed that Russian air forces were responsible for targeting Idlib Monday 30 May, killing and injuring scores while causing destruction to vital infrastructure - 2 June: Syrian opposition has proposed a nationwide truce on the occasion of Ramadan, as a UN aid convoy entered the besieged towns of Daraya and Moadamiya, reaching besieged suburb of the Syrian capital in a first delivery since 2012, but according to reports 'there is no indication that there is a true move towards loosening the sieges and allowing an end to the starvation strategy' - 6 June 2016: At least 53 civilians, including women and children, were killed and many more wounded in intense bombardment of Aleppo by the Assad regime and Russian forces on Sunday - 13 June: Russia’s continued aggression on Syria disrupted Geneva negotiations, Syrian Coalition says in Brussels - 17 June 2016: 80 civilians killed by Russian airstrikes on Aleppo despite 48-hour truce, Syrian Coalition says that Russian regime has lost its credibility as a sponsor of negotiations and that the regime proves day after day it cannot claim to be a guarantor of the political process as it is directly complicit in the crimes and terrorism perpetrated against the Syrian people - 24 June 2016: UN urged to protect Syrian civilians from Russian incendiary bombs - 27 June 2016: Syrian Coalition's Muwaffaq Nyrabiya says, UN reluctance to hold Assad accountable risks shattering political process - 28 June 2016: UK envoy to Syria Bayley says reports of Russian strikes on civilian areas constitute a violation of the UN-backed cessation of hostilities agreement, as Russian warplanes continue to target Deir-ez-Zor civilians
July 2016: 18 July 2016: Syrian Coalition's Maktabi says that the USA continues to ignore the terror practiced by the Russians in cooperation with the Iranians and the Assad regime in Syria, criticizing the absence of the international will to hold the Assad regime accountable for the war crimes and the inability of the international community to stop those crimes - 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 19 July 2016: As at least 500 civilians were killed in aerial attacks by the Assad regime and Russia forces on Aleppo and its countryside between 11-19 July mainly directed on the rebel-held areas, Syrian Coalition's Yahya says that the Syrian people lost confidence in the international community as more get killed every day - 22 July 2016: Asa’ad Alzoabi says the Hezbollah militias have been recruiting children to fight alongside the Assad regime, calling on the international community to take action in order to stop the flow of foreign fighters to Syria - 25 July: Bombing of hospitals by Assad and Russian regime disprove claims they agree to political solution, Syrian Coalition's Steifo says - 26 July 2016: Russian warplanes fired vacuum missiles and cluster bombs at residential neighborhoods, hitting Atareb's main hospital and medicine stores and wounding 45 more people - 26 July 2016: Syrian Coalition's Alabdah calls on International Syria Support Group to take urgent action after regime and Russian air forces escalated their attacks with systematic targeting of vital civilian infrastructure; particularly medical facilities - 28 July 2016: 5,188 civilians killed since start of 'Cessation of Hostilities', SNHR says - 28 July 2016: The regime forces with full Russian air cover control the entire factories of Leiramon and large parts of Bani Zaid neighborhood north of Aleppo, as Assad's helicopters also dropped barrel bombs on areas at Bab al-Hadid neighborhood - 31 July: UN's Syria envoy urges Russia to leave so called 'humanitarian corridors' to UN - 31 July 2016: Four new-born babies reportedly killed after a recent triple airstrike, which aid workers said came from Syrian government warplanes, hit besieged Aleppo’s last children’s hospital run by a group of Syrian doctors, the Independent Doctors’ Association, and backed by the charity Unicef
August 2016: 1 August 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bashar says that the international community standing by as Russian and Assad regimes destroy Aleppo - 8 August 2016: Russian warplanes are attacking the town of Saraqeb, its vicinity and countryside until today with more than 105 airstrikes causing destruction of homes, schools, public facilities, institutions of electricity and water and medical points, leaving four casualties at least including a child, and about 70 wounded - 8 August 2016: Hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members - 8 August 2016: Continuous airstrikes target Aleppo, its countryside and outskirts, causing casualties and wounded people - 25 August 2016: Special Advisor Jan Egeland says UN ready to send aid to Aleppo at any time, waiting for ceasefire - 27 August 2016: Syrian Coalition condemns forced displacement of Daraya residents as the spokesman for the local council in Darya F. Mohammed points out that Mistura's statement regarding the evacuation of Daraya is aimed at evading responsibility to protect the people of Daraya and preventing their forced displacement by the Assad regime, adding that the UN and Mistura chose to remain silent about the regime’s torching of Daraya farmlands, its deliberate bombing of its only field hospital, and its use of incendiary napalm against residential neighborhoods in the district - 31 August: Syrian Coalition calls for inquiry into UN dealings with the Assad regime following corruption revelations
September 2016: 1 September 2016: Women of Syria, a strong constituency for peace, says Insaf Hamad, member of the first-ever Women’s Advisory Board, composed of 12 independent civil society representatives from diverse backgrounds, who consult regularly with the UN Special Envoy for Syria, raising matters that are missing from the agenda and providing recommendations to assist the peace talks - 7 September: After Assad's helicopters dropped several barrel bombs filled with the toxic chlorine gas on the Aleppo neighborhood of Alsukkari Syrian Coalition says that the international community’s silence on Assad’s crimes has encouraged the regime to use chemical weapons against unarmed civilians over again - 8 September: Opposition sets out three-phase plan for political solution in Syria - 10 September: Putin-Assad forces renew terror attacks in Syria hours after USA-Russia deal, as 'Bellingcat' journalists document that Russian regime lied about its noninvolvement in the 17 August bombing of Al-Qaterji district in Aleppo city, that wounded five-year-old Omran Daqneesh and killed his brother - 13 September 2016: In breach of the agreement to allow unhindered access, Syrian Assad regime is blocking aid from entering eastern Aleppo, claims UN - 15 September 2016: Aleppo Local Council rejects presence of Russian forces on Castello Road, saying presence is not acceptable due to its lack of neutrality - 15 September: UN's Mistura admits 'we have a problem' on getting humanitarian aid into Syria, despite the USA-Russia brokered deal - 16 September: Aid delivery into besieged areas does not require regime’s consent and requests by UN's Mistura 'for the regime’s approval to go ahead with the delivery of aid contravenes the UN Security Council resolutions on Syria and renders the cessation of hostilities agreement meaningless', Syrian Coalition says - 16 September: Syrian Coalition's Yahya says that absence of punishment encourages Assad regime and its allies to violate ceasefire agreements, as SCHR says that at least 129 civilians were killed across Syria between 12-15 September, including 78 civilians killed as a result of bombardment by the Russian and regime forces - 19 septembre: L'ONU déplore le blocage d'un convoi d'aide pour les habitants des quartiers est d'Alep à la frontière turco-syrienne pendant la semaine de trêve - 20 September 2016: USA blames Russia after UN aid convoy in Syria targeted by air attack and UN official says 'inexplicable' attack could amount to a war crime if bombing which killed aid workers proved to be deliberate - 20 September 2016: Red Cross president says attack on UN and Red Crescent convoy delivering supplies is unacceptable violation of international law and UN suspends all aid convoy movements in Syria after airstrike
October 2016: 6 October 2016: Eastern Aleppo could be destroyed by Christmas if the 'cruel, constant' Russian-backed bombing of the Syrian city continues, UN Syria envoy says warning of 'another Srebrenica, another Rwanda' and offering to personally escort Islamist fighters out of city to halt bombing - 13 October 2016: USA Secretary of State John Kerry plans to meet Russian regime's FM Sergey Lavrov in Switzerland on 15 October and to try once again to reach an agreement on a cessation of violence in Syria and renewal of humanitarian help deliveries, as several countries call the USA and the EU to add more sanctions against Russian regime and as rescue workers say, that 145 people, including many children, are killed in last two days of Russian/Assad bombing of Syria's Aleppo - 15 octobre 2016: Négociations à Lausanne, Alep sous les bombes - 15 October 2016: Syria talks with Russian regime, including envoys from Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, in Lausanne's lakeside 'Beau-Rivage' hosted by USA's John Kerry end without agreement, highlighting once again the world’s inability to tackle Assad's, Russian and Iranian crimes against humanity and to find a peaceful path out of a conflict with as many as half a million murdered people, followed by Europe’s worst refugee crisis since the second world war, and that has created a vast space of instability that also 'Islamic State', another terrorist group, has exploited - 18 October 2016: USA and UK reject a Russian and Assad regime offer of a temporary 'pause' on airstrikes in Aleppo as the basis for reopening talks, saying there has to be a credible and durable ceasefire that should initially last as long as 48 hours, as the UN humanitarian spokesman says that relief workers need longer than eight hours to help extricate the injured and Syrian Coalition’s Michel Kilo says that Russia’s announcement of a so-called eight-hour 'humanitarian pause' in Aleppo is a gimmick aimed at crushing the FSA and rebels’ resistance and quashing the revolution - 20 October 2016: UN proposal on Aleppo 'flawed', and made amid mass forced displacement operations around Damascus, Syrian Coalition says - 21 October: Aleppo ceasefire at risk after Russian regime says all rebels can be eliminated - 31 October 2016: Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Fahd criticizes de Mistura's remarks about Aleppo FSA and rebel offensive, describing these remarks as biased and a form of 'double standards'
November 2016: 1 November 2016: At least 1,106 people, including 791 civilians, were killed in attacks by the Assad regime and Russian forces across Syria in October 2016, SNHR says - 2 November 2016: Syrian Coalition's Riad Hijab slams Russia's defense minister's remarks about postponing political solution 'indefinitely’ - 3 November: FSA reaffirms commitment to civilian protection against the barbaric onslaught by the Assad regime and its allies, and denies allegations about attacks on civilians in Aleppo - 14 November 2016: Syrian Coalition stresses the need for a new, comprehensive, and integrated strategy to protect civilians in Syria through cessation of hostilities and the establishment of no-bombing zones - 16 November 2016: New report by human rights group SNHR claims Assad regime is responsible for the death of 188,729 civilians, over 90% of all victims from nearly six years of war in Syria, also saying that the responsibility for war crimes also moved just weeks after the outbreak of the popular uprising in Syria in 2011 to the international community, to take collective measures in accordance with Articles 41 and 42 of the UN charter, but did not lift a finger because of Russian and Chinese protection for the Syrian regime - 16 November 2016: Bringing the total number of hospitals targeted by Russian warplanes on Monday in Aleppo's countryside to three, Russian murderous air strikes are targeting and destroying the Baghdad hospital, killing and wounding dozens and burying others under the rubble, while civil defense forces are working to lift the rubble to save the survivors and remove the corpses - 16 November 2016: Canadian FM Stephane Dion welcomes Syrian opposition leader for talks as meetings are touching on ways to circumvent Russia's veto power at the UNSC in order to end the bloodshed of Syrian civilians - 18 November 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Osama Taljo expresses surprise at the silence of the UN envoy to Syria Staffan de Mistura over the war crimes that the Assad regime and the Russians are committing in Aleppo - 21 November 2016: The Council of Free Aleppo Governorate calls upon the UN and human rights organizations to assume their responsibilities towards the protection of civilians in Aleppo from the fierce bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia forces - 21 November 2016: At a meeting with French FM Jean-Marc Ayrault Syrian Coalition's Hijab stresses that the brutal onslaught on Aleppo by Assad and its Russian and Iranian allies are war crimes and crimes against humanity, calling upon the international community to assume its duty to stop Assad and Russia’s massacres in Syria - 24 November 2016: Residents and a group of activists including doctors and civil servants from Aleppo's rebel-held areas urged the international community to make airdrops of humanitarian aid to put an end to the siege the Assad regime and its allies have imposed on the city for nearly three months - 28 November 2016: Syrian Coalition urges international action to end Assad regime's siege of Al-Tal saying threat must not be ignored as Assad regime has already proven willingness to commit crimes of unimaginable proportions to achieve its goals
December 2016: 1 December 2016: Over 400,000 displaced in Aleppo after tens of thousands more flee, UN's special envoy Mistura says, as Assad's and Russian regimes decline UN request for a pause in fighting to evacuate 400 sick and wounded in need of immediate treatment - 3 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ahad Steifo stresses the urgent need for the resumption of the political process through negotiations in Geneva and the enforcement of UN resolutions, especially the humanitarian provisions that call for an end to the bombing, lifting the sieges, the delivery of aid to civilians in need, and the release of detainees - 9 December: Russia has not halted military operations in besieged eastern Aleppo despite Russia’s claims of a pause, as 'Doctors of the World’ slams international silence over ongoing atrocities against Syrian civilians - 11 December 2016: USA's Kerry denounced Russian and Assad 'war crimes’ in Syria after new round of talks in Paris, before USA and Russian officials once again will convene in Geneva - 13 December 2016: Urgent calls to save Aleppo civilians as UN voices alarm over atrocity reports, and as residents are giving account that 'people are under the rubble alive and no one can save them, some people are injured in the streets and no one can go to help them, the cries and fear of women and children heard from the streets' - 13 December 2016: At least 82 civilians, including 11 women and 13 children, in four different neighborhoods of eastern Aleppo have been killed by Assad regime troops and allied Iraqi militia, 'being shot in the street trying to flee and shot in their homes', UN says - 14 December 2016: Residents still await evacuation of east Aleppo, which the UN said had endured a brutal 'meltdown of humanity' as forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad rampaged through newly reclaimed districts reportedly carrying out extrajudicial killings - 17 December 2016: 'The carnage in Syria remains a gaping hole in the global conscience, Aleppo is now a synonym for hell' says UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, as terrified residents cram on buses for journey into the unknown - 18 December 2016: Thousands of Aleppo residents in limbo as transport fails to arrive, and as a senior Syrian rebel blames Iran and its Shia militias of holding up the evacuation of civilians - 27 December 2016: UN says situation of Aleppo evacuees catastrophic as regime and allies mass forces to attack western rural Aleppo - 30 December 2016: Syrian Coalition calls for stopping attempts by the Assad regime and its Iranian ally to sabotage ceasefire agreement as over 30 violations of the agreement by Assad and the Iranian-backed foreign militias have been recorded
2016/2017: 10 February 2017: At least 162 rescue workers have so far lost their lives while performing their humanitarian duty in search and rescue operations among the rubble of buildings destroyed by the Assad regime and Russian forces in 2016, according to the Syrian Civil Defense's 3rd Annual Conference
January 2017: 2 January 2016: Assad regime and Russia must respect ceasefire in Barada Valley, FSA spokesman Osama Abazeid says - 5 January 2017: Syrian Coalition denounces Russian attempts to interfere in representation of the Syrian people - 6 January 2017: Assad regime forces and the Iranian-backed militias committed no fewer than 251 breaches of the nationwide ceasefire in its first week, according to Syrian Coalition - 7 January 2017: Activists in Deir Ezzor call for sparing civilians and ceasing the bombing of the city, denying claims that civilians in the city constitute a social base for Islamic State terrorists - 24 janvier: Le mécanisme trilatéral, sur lequel viennent de se mettre d'accord la Russie, la Turquie et l'Iran, sera destiné à surveiller l'application du cessez-le-feu en Syrie, selon un agence de presse - 30 January 2017: Mass forced displacement of Wadi Barada residents violates truce and is a crime against humanity, Syrian Coalition says - 31 January: Syrian Coalition records 911 truce violations by Assad regime in 1st month - 31 January 2017: Assad regime and Iran continue to violate truce as Russia renege on its pledges, Syrian Coalition's Fahd says
February 2017: 1 February 2017: UN postpones Syria political talks until 20 February, as Mistura alleges that the cease-fire is broadly working 'quite effectively', and as SOHR documented since the 24th of August 2016, the date of the entry of Turkish forces into Syria, the death of 3,231 Syrian civilians by Russian, Assad and Turkish airstrikes, including 784 children and 436 citizen women - 12 février 2017: L'opposition syrienne a présenté les 21 membres d'une délégation unifiée, dont dix représentants des rebelles, qui se rendront à Genève pour les pourparlers de paix prévus le 20 février - 14 February 2017: Regime forces and the Iranian-backed militias continue to violate the ceasefire agreement in many areas across Syria, as UN says attacks were the bloodiest since truce took effect - 16 February: Opposition's official media claims nation-wide ceasefire at risk of total collapse due to Russia's support for regime bombardment of the southern Syrian province, which has killed 47 people in past three days - 17 February: UN's Jan Egeland calls to allow aid convoys to reach besieged and hard-to-reach areas of Syria, critizising that not a single UN-arranged land convoy has reached any of more than a dozen besieged towns or villages this year, citing a lack of approvals from authorities - 20 February: Assad regime forces and the Iranian-backed militias continue to block the entry of aid convoys to Alwaer district in Homs to undermine the political process and to prevent political transition in Syria, Syrian Coalition’s Mohammed Jojah says - 22/23 February: Assad regime and Iranian-backed militias loot UN aid convoy heading to besieged Alwaer district in Homs, as the Syrian Coalition criticizes the failure of the UN to enforce its resolutions - 23 février: Reprise des pourparlers à Genève, peu d'espoir - 27 February 2017: Syrian Opposition's Nasr al-Hariri says Geneva talks must focus on political transition, criticizing the Iranian and Russian violent interference and the international community's silence over the daily crimes that have been committed against the Syrian people for nearly six years now - 28 February: Syrian Opposition's Nasr al-Hariri says that the regime's proposal for a national unity government during the political transition phase is not backed by any previous UN resolutions
March 2017: 1 March 2017: A total of 413 people had been killed across Syria within a week of the start of the fourth round of talks in Geneva, which began on February 20, according to SNHR - 4 March 2017: Sit-in in front of UN Geneva headquarters to support Syrian people’s demands in Geneva talks - 14 March 2017: A total of 488 people have been killed in Syria since the ceasefire agreement was announced in Syria on 29 December, the victims included over 107 children and 56 women, according to SNHR - 25 March 2017: Syrian opposition's HNC discussed in detail the question of a transitional governing body during their first meeting in Geneva with the UN special envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura
April 2017: 3 April 2017: A total of 1,134 civilians were killed in Syria in March 2017 despite the December 'ceasefire', according to SNHR - 8 April 2017: USA warns Assad over using chemical weapons again, also saying that Russia bears responsibility for Assad's gas attack - 8 April 2017: Syrian Coalition welcomes USA strikes on Shaerat airbase in eastern Homs province, calling for further strikes until Assad is removed from power, as USA Secretary of State Tillerson says that 'steps are underway' with our partners around the world to ultimately remove Bashar al-Assad from power through a political process
May 2017: 3 May 2017: Syrian Coalition condemns the bombing that targeted the headquarters of the Syrian interim government in Azaz in northern Aleppo province, killing at least five civilians and wounding many more - 4 May 2017: Angry delegates leave Astana conference called to announce 'de-escalation' plan agreed by Turkey, Iran and Russia amid the ongoing war led by the Assad, Iranian and Russian regimes against the Syrian people - 6 May 2017: Assad regime forces shell the towns of Kafr Zita and Latamneh and fighter jets fire at the rebel-held village of al-Zalakiyat and nearby positions in the Hama countryside, following a so-called 'safe zones' agreement by Russia, Turkey and Iran, announced to go into effect at midnight on Friday, which evidentially exists only on paper - 12 May 2017: UN demands more details on Syria 'safe zones' deal as some UN members remain skeptical of plan as Security Council reportedly prepares to meet in 'closed session' to debate specifics of the deal - 15 May 2017: The Syrian Kurds will not attend the next round of Geneva talks on Syrian settlement due to Turkey’s anti-Kurdish sentiment - 17 May 2017: Syrian Coalition's Nazir Hakim warns that international inaction towards the Assad regime’s use of chemical and non-conventional weapons against the Syrian people risks creating security threats affecting the whole world, as EU's Federica Mogherini says that accountability for war crimes is key to resolving the conflict in Syria - 19 May 2017: Syrian peace talks in Geneva break up as UN’s special envoy defends himself against charge that talks have become hopelessly bogged down - 24 May 2017: The Syrian National Coalition condemns the Islamic State’s massacre of Syrian civilians in rural Hama, emphasizing that the Assad regime and its allied Iranian militias are fully responsible for the group’s crimes and calling for an alliance of 'civilized world' to tackle threat of Assad regime and all forms of terrorism - 24 May 2017: Assad forces carried out a series of airstrikes on a city that has been declared a safe zone under a recent Russia-sponsored deal, as 12 airstrikes and at least nine barrel bombs hit the city of Daraa
June 2017: 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses
August 2017: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists, including 'Syria Trust charity' chaired by Assad’s wife Asma, spending a total of $8.5m though Asma is under both USA and EU sanctions - 3 August 2017: The UN-brokered Syrian peace talks are failing due to external interference and can only be rescued by refocusing on the issue of political transition, a coalition of 160 Syrian civil society groups says in an open letter to the UN’s special envoy - 7 Augut 2017: UN Syria investigator Carla del Ponte quits over lack of political backing - 25 August 2017: UN adviser Jan Egeland urges pause in Raqqa fighting to allow civilians out
September 2017: 6 September 2017: Syrian Coalition urges international community to take action to stop Assad’s ongoing crimes - 6 September 2017: UN appointed French judge Marchi-Uhel vows justice for atrocities in Syria - 27 September 2017: Russia and the Assad regime escalate bombing on all liberated areas in violation of ceasefire agreements, as a total of 140 civilians were killed and dozens more injured in intensified aerial attacks - 29 September 2017: Syrian Coalition's Salwa Akso warns of the consequences of turning a blind eye to the crimes and killings Russia is committing in Syria, noting that the indiscriminate bombardment 'mainly targets civilians and forces of the revolution with the aim of eliminating them', as UN's Jan Egeland denounces air raids on hospitals and calls for establishing system of notification to prevent attacks on humanitarian facilities in Syria
November 2017: 1 November 2017: Russia’s efforts to broker a Syrian peace deal outside the UN’s Geneva process stumbled on Wednesday after the official Syrian opposition said it would not attend talks planned for later this month
United Nations, Russian aggression against Ukraine since 2014, Special Representative in Crimea and observers: 28 February 2014: Ukraine's UN envoy tells UNSC that Russian military helicopters and transport planes are entering his country, and that Russian armed forces seized Crimea airport - 2 March: Ukraine's UN ambassador asked an emergency session of the Security Council 'to do everything possible now' to stop Russian aggression as Russian troops took over Ukraine's Crimea - 5 March 2014: UN special representative Robert Serry to 'end mission in Crimea' after he was stopped and threatened by armed men in a coffee shop and then surrounded outside by crowds shouting the name of Russian regime's Putin - 27 March 2014: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN Assembly declares Crimea referendum invalid - 2 April: In a diplomatic blow to Russia, the UN will continue to view Crimea as part of Ukraine in line with a General Assembly resolution - 16 May: Listing numerous specific examples of targeted killings, torture, beatings, abductions and intimidation mostly carried out by well-organized and well-armed anti-Government groups, UN report warns of an alarming deterioration in human rights in eastern Ukraine
Since 17 July 2014 International reactions to the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown by Russian BUK missile
6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis - 11 September 2014: The mission of UN observers has extended the term of its work in Ukraine until December 15 - 4 October: As UN expresses concern over the intensification of fighting in Donbas since the September 5 ceasefire agreement, saying in a report that a total of 3,627 people have been killed and 8,447 more have been wounded since the beginning of the conflict, USA urges Russia to immediately influence militants so that they end their attacks in eastern Ukraine, and also warns it of the need to stop the flow of arms and manpower into sovereign Ukrainian territory
2015: 16 February 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon concerned about reports of continuing military clashes in Debaltseve - 12 March 2015: UN counts nearly 1.8 million refugees and internally displaced persons in Ukraine - 2 June 2015: Since the beginning of the war in Donbas, 6362 people have been killed, another 16,000 injured, UN monitoring team says - 2 June 2015: UN's Ivan Simonovic reports on increasing evidence of Russia's invasion of Donbas - 5 June: 28 people including 9 civilians killed in recent Maryinka battle, as Russian-backed forces launched a new offensive near Donetsk using tanks, mortars, and artillery, UN's Jeffrey Feltman says - 30 June: Violence in Ukraine has killed 6,500 people in the past year, wounded 16,000 and left 5 million people in need of humanitarian aid, UN says - 8/9 September 2015: Close to 8,000 people have lost their lives in eastern Ukraine since mid-April 2014, UN says, indicating that Russian regime bore responsibility for the increasing death toll - 12 September: Ukrainian PM Yatsenyuk calls on world leaders to put more pressure on Putin, saying that Putin would see the lifting of sanctions as sign of weakness - 13 October 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon expresses willingness to increase the UN presence in Ukraine for de-escalation and stabilization of the situation in Donbas
2016: 5 January 2016: UN delegates invite to Ukraine's war-torn eastern regions to assess the possibility of an international peacekeeping mission, but main militant leader in Donetsk region has already dismissed the idea - 21 February: Unicef says, that more 580,000 children have been affected by the nearly two year conflict in eastern Ukraine, that 215,000 children are internally displaced and that at least 20 children were killed as a result of the violence last year - 3 March 2016: Since the start of the Russian invasion in 2014 9,167 people have been killed and 21,044 have been wounded, including civilians, UN says, adding that people continue dying in the Donbas region as 21 people were killed during February 15 - March 1 - 23 March 2016: UN Secretary General supports Ukrainian side in Savchenko's case - 24 March 2016: Foreign armed actors in Donbas range from volunteers to paid-service men and women, and from independent militants to professional militaries, according to preliminary findings by the UN Working Group on mercenaries - 29 April 2016: Ukraine's Vadym Prystaiko said at a meeting of the UN Security Council that the Russian Federation had concentrated a 34,000-strong hybrid military force in the occupied part of Donbas - 23 May 2016: Ukraine's president takes part in the first ever UN World Humanitarian Organization Summit in Tureky, problems of Crimean Tatars and Russian annexation top Poroshenko's agenda - 3/4 August 2016: UN rings alarm bells on record number of civilian casualties in eastern Ukraine, as OSCE says, that Minsk contact group ignores numerous ceasefire violations, promoting unpunishment - 20 August 2016: Ukraine has drawn the attention of the United Nations to another illegal visit of Russia's Putin to the occupied Crimean peninsula - 15 October 2016: Ukrainian president Poroshenko believes that Russia will not terminate its policy of aggression until the world is united to stop Russian Putin regime, calling 'to make every effort to unmask the manifestation of Russian aggression wherever we only can – in Donbas, in the case of the downed MH17, and in Aleppo', emphasizing the importance of solidarity of the whole world in this issue and further extension of sanctions against Russia
2017: 21 June 2017: UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine has recorded 375 conflict-related civilian casualties - 67 killed and 308 injured - in Donbas since the beginning of 2017
UN envoy for Yemen and Special Adviser to the Secretary-General: UN Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Yemen - 16 April 2015: UN envoy to Yemen Benomar of the United Kingdom resigns after criticism of failed peacemaking - 17 April 2015: Calling for an immediate cease-fire by all parties in Yemen, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is expected to nominate a new special envoy to Yemen - 25 April 2015: UN Secretary-General appoints Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed of Mauritania as new special envoy for Yemen - 31 May 2015: UN envoy for Yemen Cheikh Ahmed launches a mission to discuss stalled Geneva peace talks as Saudi-led coalition warplanes pounded Iran-backed Houthi positions across the war-ravaged country
June 2015: 15 June 2015: At the opening of consultations on the situation in Yemen, UN's Ban Ki-moon says in Geneva international community has 'obligation to act' for Yemen peace - 18 June 2015: UN extends critical Yemen peace talks as 'Islamic State' terrorists' bombings kill dozens in Sanaa
2016: 18 avril 2016: Les protagonistes du sanglant conflit yéménite se retrouvent lundi au Koweït pour de nouveaux pourparlers, selon le médiateur de l'ONU Ismaïl Ould Cheikh Ahmed - 31 juillet 2016: Les pourparlers de paix pour le Yémen, infructueux depuis avril, ont été prolongés d'une semaine à Koweït en dépit de tentatives d'incursion samedi de rebelles chiites yéménites en Arabie saoudite qui ont fait sept morts parmi les soldats saoudiens - 29 September 2016: Saudi Arabia and other Arab states have fended off the threat of an independent UN-sanctioned inquiry into human rights abuses in Yemen, but have been forced to accept that UN investigators will be tasked with documenting rights violations
2017: 26 April 2017: Yemen aid not reaching intended recipients, say activists on ground, as donors at a fundraising conference gather in Geneva - 5 September 2017: More than 1,100 children have been killed in Yemen, most in airstrikes by the Saudi military coalition, while some as young as 10 have been recruited to fight in the 'manmade catastrophe', according to the latest UN human rights office's report on the three-year conflict, also showing apparent indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations by both sides

Reform of the United Nations: Reform of the United Nations
2011: 31 May 2011: UN's Ban Ki-moon announces that he has appointed UN official Atul Khare to spearhead efforts to implement a reform agenda aimed at streamlining and improving the efficiency of the world body
Reform of the UN Security Council: Reform of the United Nations Security Council and its key issues: categories of membership, the question of the 'veto' held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Security Council and its working methods, and the 'Security Council' - 'General Assembly' relationship - UN Security Council veto power - L.69 Group of Developing Countries is a cross regional grouping of 42 developing countries from Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, that is focused on achieving lasting and comprehensive reforms of the UN Security Council, since 2007 - 'Uniting for Consensus' movement, developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the UN Security Council, aiming to counter the bids for permanent seats proposed by G4 nations and calling for a consensus before any decision is reached - G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the UN Security Council
2016: 8 October 2016: After Russian regime 'has once again abused its veto privilege and sabotaged the UN security council, this time stonewalling efforts to stop the vicious assault on east Aleppo’s civilians', UN director at Human Rights Watch Louis Charbonneau says, that there is the urgent need for permanent members of the security council to shelve the veto in situations of mass atrocities, an idea supported by a vast majority of countries around the world, and that the UN general assembly should feel compelled to hold an emergency meeting, demanding an end to unlawful attacks on civilians in Aleppo
Criticism of the United Nations: Criticism of the United Nations, representing the interests of governments
2017: 13 September 2017: The UN is failing – states must back off and give its leader the power to act, former New Zealand premier and UN official Helen Clark says
United Nations Parliamentary Assembly: United Nations Parliamentary Assembly is a proposed addition to the UN system that would allow for participation of member nations' legislators and, eventually, direct election of United Nations parliament members by citizens worldwide - Campaign for the Establishment of a UN Parliamentary Assembly since 2007

United Nations corruption: Criticism of the United Nations corruption and scandals
2005: 9 August 2005: Independent commission has found that Benon Sevan, the former head of the UN's oil-for-food programme in Iraq, 'corruptly benefited' from kickbacks while he was in charge, and another UN official, from the procurement office, is accused of soliciting bribes
2007: 17 January 2007: Former executive director Sevan of the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq was indicted yesterday by a Manhattan federal prosecutor for taking about $160,000 in bribes, but not extradited to the USA after his flight to his native Cyprus
2012: 27 June 2012: UN tribunal finds ethics office failed to protect diplomat and whistleblower James Wasserstrom, who was fired and detained by UN police after raising suspicions of corruption - 14 July 2012: In spite of his questionable performance as the head of UN Peacekeeping, Kofi Annan went on to become UN Secretary General for almost a decade 1997-2006, and six years later he is leading the UN's respond to the crisis in Syria, seeing the 'UN Security Council do nothing meaningful to stop the' slaughter - 9 July 2015: WikiLeaks Cable details private meeting between Assad and Kofi Annan in 2012
2013: March 2013: United Nations corruption and the need for reform - the United Nations is a hotbed for corruption and abuse, it is opaque, diplomatically immune, largely unaccountable and does not issue clear reports to donor nations on how their money is spent
2014: 7 February 2014: An appropriations bill passed by the USA Congress requires the State Department to cut annual contribution to the UN by 15% if the UN does not establish protections for employees who expose corruption, as Government Accountability Project's Bea Edwards says that the new measure is needed because corruption problems at the UN are 'quite widespread'
2015: 14 September 2015: Ostracised, sacked and even arrested, the fate of whistleblowers at the UN revealed as former investigator Caroline Hunt-Matthes, who took nine years to get redress after being ousted from the UN - 28 October 2015: USA Federal prosecutors are wrestling with questions of diplomatic immunity and the handling of classified information as they pursue a corruption investigation that has implicated current and former diplomats at the United Nations
February-April 2016: 27 February 2016: French energy giant Total ordered to pay 7,50,000 euros on Friday for siphoning cash from the UN 'oil-for-food' programme that aided sanctions-hit Iraq under Saddam Hussein and Swiss-based oil group Vitol fined 3,00,000 euros for irregularities in Friday's judgement - 3 April 2016: United Nations audit identifies serious lapses linked to alleged bribery
May/June 2016: 17 May 2016: UN/WHO panel in conflict of interest row over glyphosate cancer risk, chairman of UN’s joint meeting on pesticide residues co-runs scientific institute which received donation from USA's Monsanto, which uses glyphosate - 9 June 2016: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon admitted today that the Saudi Arabia-led coalition in Yemen was removed from the UN's blacklist of groups that kill children, because the UN was threatened by reduced funding, rejecting that member states exert undue pressure as scrutiny is necessary part of the work of the UN
Since August 2016: 29 August 2016: UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, paying more than $13m to the Syrian murderous regime to boost farming and agriculture, despite the EU has banned trade with the departments in question for fear of how the money will be used, also paying at least $4m to the state-owned fuel supplier, which is also on the EU sanctions list, also partnering with the Syria Trust charity under both USA and EU sanctions, spending a total of $8.5m etc. - 30 August 2016: UN under pressure to set up inquiry into Syria aid programme, as human rights groups say UN needs to restore trust after the British newspaper 'Guardian' revealed contracts had been awarded to agencies linked to dictator Bashar al-Assad - 8 September 2016: More than 70 aid groups have suspended cooperation with the UN in Syria and have demanded an immediate and transparent investigation into its operations because of concerns Syrian dictator al-Assad has gained 'significant and substantial' influence over the relief effort
October 2016: 28 October 2016: UN hires Assad's friends and relatives for Syria relief operation, as almost two-thirds of the emergency health supplies needed in Syria have gone to regime-held areas and 64% of the kits and medicines provided by the WHO since January have been delivered to areas held by or supporting Assad regime, only 13% of WHO supplies have reached Syria’s 'besieged' areas, according to documents seen by the Guardian newspaper
2016/2017: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists

Since 2008 Global Centre for the Responsibility, established to promote universal acceptance and effective operational implementation of the norm of the 'Responsibility to Protect' populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, serving as a resource and a forum for governments, international institutions and non-governmental organizations working to protect populations from mass atrocities
October 2016: 8 October 2016: UN General Assembly should now be allowed utilizing the 'Uniting for Peace' mechanism as the long-suffering people of Syria cannot wait any longer for the Security Council to live up to its responsibilities, as for the fifth time since the conflict began in 2011 a veto by Russia has blocked efforts to protect civilians in Syria, to reinstate the cessation of hostilities, to establish a military no-fly zone over Aleppo, to provide unhindered humanitarian access, and to hold perpetrators of atrocities accountable, being Russian votes in favor of continued bloodshed

Government Accountability Project whistleblower protection and advocacy organization in the USA - Government Accountability Project - website
September 2015: 14 September 2015: Figures obtained by the Government Accountability Project, which supports whistleblowers, reveal that the UN ethics office had received 447 approaches up to July 2014 from those alleging they have faced retaliation for exposing wrongdoing

UN Watch Geneva-based non-governmental organization whose stated mission is 'to monitor the performance of the United Nations by the yardstick of its own Charter'

UN budget and funding: UN budget and funding - the UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states, the General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member, broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by its gross national income, the so-called core UN budget does not include peacekeeping or the costs of several major UN agencies funded by voluntary contributions from member states
2012/2013: 2012/2013: The UN General Assembly approved the two-year programme (regular) budget for 2012-2013 in the amount of US$ 5,152 billion
2014/2015: 27 December 2013: UN General Assembly approves $5.5 billion budget for 2014/2015, not including peacekeeping, currently running at over $7 billion a year, or the costs of several major UN agencies
2016:2017: 23 December 2015: UN budget at the amount of US$ 5.4 billion for 2016/17 adopted by UN General Assembly




United Nations conferences
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - UN Climate Change conference - UN climate change conferences 1998-2015
The Conference on Disarmament, established in 1979 by the international community to negotiate multilateral arms control and disarmament agreements, is not formally a UN organization but is linked to the UN through a personal representative of the UN Secretary-General
1944: UN Monetary and Financial Conference of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II
1945: UN Conference on International Organization was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco resulting in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June
1949: Lausanne Conference of 1949 was convened by the UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine from 27 April to 12 September 1949 in Switzerland
1973: Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict following the Yom Kippur War 1973
1978: UN World Conferences Against Racism organized by UNESCO since 1978
1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992
1995: Fourth UN World Conference on Women - 'Action for Equality, Development and Peace' conference 4–15 September 1995 in China
2001 World Conference against Racism: World Conference against Racism was held at the Durban International Convention Centre in South Africa under UN auspices from 31 August to 8 September 2001
2001 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
2005: UN World Conferences on Disaster Risk Reduction since 2005 bringing together government officials, non-governmental experts and other specialists from around the world to discuss the growing trend of people affected by natural disasters
2005: 2005 World Summit follow-up summit meeting to the UN conference of 2000, which led to the declaration of 'Millennium Development Goals'
2010: Review Conference for the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at UN Headquarters in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010
2015: Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction 14-18 March 2015 in Japan - 13 March 2015: International cooperation being vital in reducing impact of natural disasters, UN conference in Sendai will discuss the creation of a forum to share scientific advances in disaster prediction
April/May 2015 UN Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - 24 April 2015: At UN conference in New York on Non-Proliferation Treaty, many non-nuclear nations frustrated by apparent lack of progress - 21 May 2015: Month-long conference of more than 150 countries at the UN to decide on an action plan for nuclear disarmament headed into a final stretch with no agreement in sight, deadlocked over demands by non-nuclear states for concrete steps from nuclear powers to reduce their arsenals and provide annual reports on the state of their stockpiles, an Austrian-led initiative backed by 159 states to ban nuclear weapons altogether has come up against strong resistance by declared nuclear powers Britain, China, France, Russia, USA - 23 May: Amid Iran nuclear talks, 1970 nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty members were unable to overcome disagreements on an atomic weapons ban for the Middle East, which the USA blamed on Egypt
July 2015: UN’s Third Financing for Development conference, in Addis Ababa 13-16 July 2015 - 13 July 2015: Financing the sustainable development goals will rely heavily on the tax factor - 14 July 2015: World’s richest countries, including the USA the UK, accused at Addis Ababa development finance summit of foiling effort to give poorer countries a greater say on UN tax policies - 16 July: Three-day conference on the future of foreign aid concludes without resolving the issue of multinational tax avoidance as richer nations reject call for tough tax provisions
September 2015: 25-27 September 2015 UN Sustainable Development Summit at UN headquarters in New York
May 2016: May 2016 World humanitarian summit held in Istanbul - 5 May 2016: Citing concern over accountability of governments 'Médecins Sans Frontières' pulls out of this month’s world humanitarian summit, describing it as a 'fig-leaf of good intentions' that will do little to protect the planet’s most vulnerable people or those trying to help them
'World Humanitarian Summit' 23-24 May 2016 - 23 May: It is necessary to stand up for international humanitarian law being disregarded, UN's Jan Eliasson says at the opening news conference of the first world humanitarian summit, citing attacks on hospitals and sieges on civilians in Syria and Yemen and adding that there are 'many signs' the Geneva convention on human rights is being neglected - 23 May: World humanitarian summit starts amid hope, hype and fear of empty words - 24 May 2016: Syrian Civil Defense Corps have recovered tens of thousands of people from under the rubble caused by aerial bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces in liberated areas since 2013, Raed Saleh says at the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul - 25 May: Syrian civil society organizations urge international community to improve humanitarian response in a letter signed by more than 80 Syrian non-governmental organizations and sent to the World humanitarian Summit
September 2016: September 2016 UN summit for refugees and migrants - 21 September 2016: As politicians gather in New York to discuss the refugee crisis, dozens of people dy and officials fear hundreds more are lost at sea after a boat carrying 600 refugees and migrants capsizes off the north Egyptian coast
November 2016: 7 au 18 novembre 2016 Conférence de Marrakech sur le réchauffement climatique, la 22e conférence des parties COP22 de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques - 14 novembre 2016: Plusieurs milliers de personnes, membres d'associations marocaines et étrangères, ont défilé dimanche à Marrakech pour réclamer plus de 'justice climatique' aux Etats réunis pour la conférence climat de l'ONU - 18 novembre 2016: Avec un appel à 'augmenter le montant, les versements et l'accès aux financements pour des projets climatiques' fin d'une COP22 bousculée par Trump - 18 November 2016: As 48 nations, including the world’s poorest countries, promise to cut their carbon emissions dramatically and rapidly move to 100% renewable power, COP22 climate summit's Salaheddine Mezouar makes a direct plea to the maybe incoming USA president Trump to join the struggle against global warming for the sake of humanity and the planet
June 2017: 5-9 June 2017 The Ocean Conference




Science: Science - History of science - Scientific revolution - emergence of modern science during the early modern period
History of Physics
History of Astronomy - History of Mathematics
History of Chemistry - Inorganic Chemistry
History of Geology - Historical geology - Geological history of Earth - Atmospheric sciences - Hydrology - Oceanography - History of Meteorology
History of Organic Chemistry - History of Biochemistry - History of Molecular Biology - Abiogenesis
History of Biology
History of the Social Sciences - History of economic thought - Classical political economy - Marxian economics
Human evolution, criticism of religion, above all of professionalism of religious faith and history of study
Works about human violence - Works about wars - Works about genocide - Works about terrorism
History of Linguistics
History of Geography


Democracy - History of democracy - Election - Suffrage - State - Government
History of law connected to the development of civilisations and economic, social and political history - Contract law - Treaty - International law
Abolition of slavery - timeline
Opposition to nationalism
Monarchy abolishment - Monarchy abolishment since twentieth century and World War I
Democratization, the transition to a more democratic political regime, also referring to substantive changes of society moving in a democratic direction - Democratization in corporations


Education is the teaching or learning of knowledge, especially to develop the reasoning, judgement and skill required in adult life and professional occupations - History of education
2016: 15 December 2016: Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the systematic operation to wipe out the Jews of Eastern Europe began, 75 years after falling into the abyss 'Never Again' has become an empty phrase in Germany and in many countries - 2013-2017 second banning attempt of the neo-Nazi organization 'National Democratic Party of Germany', but on 17 January the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected the attempt to outlaw the party - January 2017: On 20 January 1942 outside of Berlin a gathering of representatives of the Nazi Germany’s bureaucratic offices decided on the 'Final Solution' for genocide, in the language of bureaucracy and as among the 15 representatives not one was from the German army while eight held doctorates
Education by country - Education by method - History of education by country - Language education by country - Music education by country
Schools by country - Elementary and primary schools by country - High schools and secondary schools by country
International schools by continent and country - International schools by country of origin - International School of Aleppo, closed in 2011 due to Assad's war against the Syrian people
Science and technology by country - Science education by country
Knowledge sharing - Knowledge transfer - Technology transfer


News media and Journalism, the work and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the news of the day or a longer period - History of journalism - Newspaper, serial publication containing news and other informative articles - Online newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical - Lists of newspapers by continent, by countries, by languages, and by type - News broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio or internet - Radio news, Television news and broadcast journalism - Weather forecasting and its broadcasting - News agencies
Since 15th century: Spread of the printing press beginning with the invention of movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century, printing technology was adopted in all world regions by the end of the 19th century - List of the oldest newspapers since 1605 - 19th-century German newspaper 'Rheinische Zeitung', edited by Karl Marx since 1842 and terminated by Prussian state censorship in March 1843 - 'Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie', German daily newspaper published by Karl Marx 1848/1849, suppressed by Prussian state in May 1849
1948: 1948 United Nations 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights' states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and that this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers
Since the 1950s: History of the Internet beginning with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s
Since the 1970s: Since the 1970s Environmental journalism, the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact
1971: 1971 'Pentagon Papers'
Since 1985: Since 1985 'Reporters Without Borders' international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press - Reporters Without Borders' website
1991: 1991 Windhoek Declaration statement of press freedom principles by African newspaper journalists
Since 1997: Since 1997 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists ICIJ', a Washington-based international network launched by the Center for Public Integrity which includes 165 investigative journalists in over 65 countries who work together on issues such as cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of power - Investigative journalism - List of public disclosures of classified information, global and by countries
Since 2006 Wikileaks: Information published by WikiLeaks since 2006
2012: 2012 Syria Files, collection of more than two million emails from Syrian political figures and ministries and from companies including Finmeccanica and Brown Lloyd James dating from August 2006 to March 2012
Since 2014 Investigative journalists' 'Bellingcat': Since 2014 Investigative journalists' 'Bellingcat', using open source and social media investigation to investigate a variety of subjects and conflicts, for example Assad's war against the Syrian people and the Russian regime's aggression against Ukraine
2015: March/April 2015: Hacking the hackers, an interview with the recipient of the ACFE Guardian Award Brian Krebs
2016: April 2016 'Panama Papers' - TTIP Leaks - Greenpeace website
2016: 9 November 2016: Reporters Without Borders awarded its 2016 Press Freedom Prize to Syrian journalist and activist Hadi Abdullah for his efforts covering the nearly six-year conflict in Syria
2017: 7 March 2017: After WikiLeaks published what it described as the biggest ever leak of confidential documents from the CIA detailing the tools it uses to break into phones, communication apps and other electronic devices, USA intelligence agencies are facing fresh embarrassment
2017: 5 June 2017: Bellingcat publishes new evidence of Buk 332 origin used to down Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 - 17 July 2017: Bellingcat's team of investigative journalists has released report summarizing all major open source evidence surrounding the downing of MH17 in an easy-to-read 73-page survey, naming Buk 332 of the Russian Armed Forces to be the only credible candidate for the missile launcher that downed MH17

Freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of information
IFEX (formerly the International Freedom of Expression Exchange) global network of over 100 independent non-governmental organisations working at the local, national, regional and international level to defend and promote freedom of expression as a fundamental human right - International Federation of Journalists - Journalism ethics and standards


Social movements, Internet, World Wide Web
Since the 1950s history of the Internet and the World Wide Web (since the 1980s) - 6 May 2014: World to have nearly three billion internet users 2014 with two-thirds of them from the developing world, mobile-cellular subscriptions will reach almost seven billion 2014, UN says
Online social movement - Wikipedia collaboratively edited, multilingual, free Internet encyclopedia
Peace movement - List of anti-war organizations - Anti-war protests - Civil and human rights protests - Environmental protests
1914: On 25 July 1914 the executive of the Social Democratic Party of Germany issued an appeal to its membership to demonstrate against the coming war, only to vote on 4 August for the war credits the German Empire's government wanted
1917: On 8 March 1917, Putilov protesters were joined in uprising by those celebrating International Woman's Day and protesting against the government's implemented food rationing, both men and women flooded the streets of Petrograd, demanding an end to Russian food shortages, the end of World War I and the end of autocracy and tsarist despotism
1920-1946: The League of Nations intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I and was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace
1964-1970s: From 1964 to the 1970s opposition to the USA's Vietnam War
Since 1980: Since 1980 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War IPPNW, a non-partisan federation of national medical groups in 64 countries, representing tens of thousands of doctors, medical students, other health workers, and concerned citizens who share the common goal of creating a more peaceful and secure world freed from the threat of nuclear annihilation
2014: 2014 anti-war protests in Russia opposing the 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2015: 17 October 2015: Worldwide demonstrations against Russian aggression on Syria denouncing the Russian air raids that kill civilians - 18 October 2015: Russian anti-war protesters in Moscow slam Putin's wars in Syria and Ukraine
2016: 16 January 2016: Organizers of worldwide protests against starvation of civilians in Syria organize sit-ins in a number of capitals with the aim of helping to break the sieges the Assad regime impose on civilians with the backing of Hezbollah militias, Iran and Russia - 8 February 2016: Hundreds of protestors gathered in Istanbul to protest against the Russian airstrikes on Syria, especially on Latakia and Aleppo provinces, triggering mass displacements and forcing tens of thousands of civilians to flee - 22 February: Hundreds of residents and protesters, mostly women and children, trapped in the district of Darayya in rural Damascus demonstrated on Sunday against the siege Assad regime forces have laid on the district for over three years - 10 March 2016: Protesters around the world gathered near Russian regime's embassies, demanding freedom for Ukrainian patriots, soldiers, journalists and other political prisoners who are currently kept in Russian jails and separatists' captivity - 25 March 2016: For the 4th Friday in a row since the truce has been declared on 27 February, the Syrian people took to the streets today in many cities and towns across Syria chanting for freedom and demanding the fall of the Assad regime
1 July 2016: Battle of the Somme centenary commemorations in France and in the United Kingdom - 1 juillet 2016: Près de 600 enfants - 300 Britanniques et 300 Français - doivent participer à la célébration à Thiepval pour célébrer le centenaire de la bataille de la Somme, la plus meurtrière de la Grande Guerre
October 2016: 7 October 2016: Protesters opposed to Russian military intervention in Syria gathered outside the Russian Embassy in Canberra, with some carrying placards comparing Russian regime's Vladimir Putin to Adolf Hitler - 11 October 2016: On the eve of Yom Kippur, Israeli groups unite across the country to call for aid for victims of six-year Assad's war against the Syrian people, with the involvement of rabbis and communal leaders under the banner 'The world is silent, we are not'
October 2016: 21 October 2016: Hundreds of people in the besieged parts of Aleppo took to the streets to protest against Russia’s planned 'evacuation' of besieged parts of the city, calling for toppling the Assad regime and the ousting of the Russian and Iranian invaders from Syria
November 2016: 4 November 2016: Hundreds of artificial limbs blocked the entrance to the Russian Embassy in London on Thursday as members of the Syria Campaign group protested Russian regime's airstrikes in Syria's largest city of Aleppo - 10 novembre 2016: Des milliers de manifestants se sont rassemblés à travers les Etats-Unis et ont dénoncé les vues racistes, sexistes et xénophobes de Donald Trump
December 2016: 13 December 2016: Thousands of people took to the streets of Istanbul and London on Tuesday to protest the reported massacres of civilians in Aleppo by Russian, Assad regime and allied forces and to show solidarity with the people of Aleppo facing Russian, Iranian and Assad war crimes - 14 December 2016: Protests and vigils were held in cities across the world including Ankara, Beirut, Istanbul and Paris on Tuesday and Wednesday to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being committed against civilians by the Assad regime and its Hezbollah, Iranian and Russian allies - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where at least hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy - 15 December 2016: Protests are being held in front of the Russian embassy in Kyiv, expressing anger over Russia's war crimes in Aleppo and calling on the USA and the EU to impose fresh sanctions on Russia over the war crimes in Syria, and also ensure safety and decent conditions for civilians in war-torn Syria - 15 December 2016: People continued to hold protests and vigils in many Arab and Western cities, including Copenhagen, Kuwait, Oslo, Paris, Rabat, Sarajevo, Stockholm and Washington, to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being carried out against civilians by the Assad regime - 17 December 2016: Demonstrations and vigils condemning the war crimes being committed by Assad, Russia and the Iranian militias against civilians in Syria, especially in Aleppo, continue to be held in many cities across the world, as most demonstrations were held in front of Russian and Iranian embassies in many European and Arab countries - 18 December: Doctors, nurses and medics have staged a protest outside Parliament in London against Russian, Iranian and Assad's attacks on their professional colleagues trying to save lives in Syria as thousands of people in Germany and in France were protesting against Assad's ongoing war in Syria
30 December 2016: 30 December 2016: Thousands of Syrians took to the streets in several towns and cities in Syria to demonstrate against the Assad regime a few hours after a nationwide ceasefire took effect on Thursday midnight
31 December 2016: 31 December 2016: Women’s and men's march planned for 30 cities around the world on 21 January 2017, the day after grabbing Trump’s inauguration as president of the USA, as after a year of seismic shocks - including the controversial transition of power to unscrupulous Trump, who publicly admired and admires Putin amid his proceeding war crimes, and despite H. Clinton received about 2.9 million more votes nationwide - protests and fightback continue - Women's March on London 21 January 2017
January 2017: 7 January 2017: Demonstrators take to the streets in various parts of Syria to denounce the Assad regime’s and allies’ violations of the ceasefire agreement and their continued targeting of civilians, particularly in Wadi Barada valley in Rural Damascus, as more civilians are killed and injured in bombardment by regime forces and the Hezbollah militias
19 January 2017: The Women’s March Global movement now covers all seven continents after 'Women’s March–Antarctic Peninsula' joined 161 sister marches in 61 countries, standing in solidarity with marches in the USA on 21 January to defend human rights concerning health, economic security, safety, representation and environmental issues
21/22 January 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March, a political rally in cities around the world, initially centered around Washington D.C. to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues, an estimated 2.9 million people attended the 408 marches across the USA and other marches occurred in 168 countries around the world - 22 January 2017: From Washington to Nairobi women around the world and millions of protesters march in solidarity against the USA's 45th president Trump
March 2017: 6 March 2017: Since Trump’s inauguration, women in the USA and around the world have been organising, protesting and preparing to run for office in a growing wave, British newspaper reports - 8 March 2017: International Women’s Day 2017 events take place around the world to mark the ongoing fight for equality, women's and human rights
April 2017: 22 April 2017 'March for Science' in over 600 other cities across the world - 22 April 2017: Hundreds of thousands of climate researchers, oceanographers, bird watchers and other supporters of science rallied in marches around the world on Saturday, in an attempt to bolster scientists’ increasingly precarious status with politicians
May 2017: 1 mai 2017: Cela fait 40 ans que les 'Mères de la Place de Mai' se rassemblent pour réclamer la vérité sur la disparition de leurs enfants pendant la dictature argentine
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons since 2007 - International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War since 1980
1961: 1961 Women Strike for Peace and march in 60 cities in the USA to demonstrate against nuclear weapons, pushing the USA and the Soviet Union into signing a nuclear test-ban treaty two years later
2015: 26 April 2015: As nuclear powers meet, global activists present 8 million petitions to the UN disarmament chief demanding a world free of nuclear weapons and New York rally demands that the world's nine nuclear-armed countries do far more toward cutting stockpiles - 29 April 2015: A number of protesters were arrested by New York's police on Tuesday as they called for an end to all nuclear weapons
October 2017: 2017 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons - 6 October 2017: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons wins Nobel peace prize 2017, as Norwegian Nobel Committee says award made in recognition of work to draw attention to catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons
Anti-nuclear movement
Social democracy since 19th century
2013: 2 May 2013: Workers around the world united in anger during May Day rallies - from Europe to Asia over relentlessly low pay, the rising cost of living, elimination of jobs and hideous working conditions
2016: 1 May 2016: On May day workers and activists worldwide, from Brazil, Cambodia, Chile to the USA, rallied in support of workers' rights, demanding higher wages, better conditions and more job security, criticizing the Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP agreement in Malaysia, carrying Mexican flags in Los Angeles, as in Istanbul a man was killed when he was run over by a police water cannon vehicle
United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda - 30 January 2012: UN panel aims for 'a future worth choosing' - UN Global Sustainability Panel (January 2012)
2015: 7 June 2015: Climate debate takes global pulse ahead of 2015 Paris summit as thousands of people gathered across 79 countries for what was touted as the world's largest-ever public debate on climate change
28 November 2015: As part of worldwide protests thousands of people rally in cities across Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines calling for action on climate change ahead of 2015 Paris summit - 29 November: Hundreds of thousands march around the world urging action to stop dangerous global warming
2014: 30 March 2014: Lights off for Earth Hour's global crowdfunding call for local environmental projects
2015: 24 May 2015: Thousands of people hit the streets in cities across the world to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 7 December 2015: People make the 'Pray for Paris' sign along with the slogan '100 per cent renewable' near the Eiffel Tower in Paris, as more than 10,000 climate activists pushing for an 'ambitious, fair and binding' climate deal marched along the beaches near Ostend in Belgium and as in Paris a coalition of African nations and donors unveiled an ambitious initiative to restore 100 million hectares of degraded and felled forests
2016: 14-16 October 2016 'Monsanto Tribunal' international civil society initiative to hold Monsanto accountable for human rights violations, for crimes against humanity, and for ecocide, as judges will hear testimonies from victims, and deliver an advisory opinion following procedures of the International Court of Justice
Since 2001 World Social Forum since - March 2013 World Social Forum in Tunis - December 2014 World Social Forum on Migrations - March 2015 World Social Forum in Tunisia - 5 août 2016: Après Tunis en 2015 Montréal accueille à partir de mardi le prochain Forum social mondial
'Internet Social Forum' emerged to envision the role of the internet in help shape a new world on broadly similar lines to the WSF, founded in March 2015 at the Tunis WSF Conference
Occupy movement protest locations worldwide - Occupy movement
List of revolutions and rebellions
Since 2010: 2010/2011 Tunisian Revolution, an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations in Tunisia leading to a democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections - Arab Spring by country
2016: 10 juillet 2016: Habib Essid a félicité les forces sécuritaires après que la Tunisie a connu son premier mois de ramadan sans attaque djihadiste depuis 2012




Unicef: Unicef United Nations Children's Fund - Unicef's country statistics
2012-2014: 11 October 2012 International Day of the Girl Child - 28 October 2014: Unicef report finds number of children entering poverty during global recession is 2.6 million greater than number lifted out of it - 20 November 2014: Unicef's 'The State of the World’s Children 2015' marks the 25th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child - 18 December 2014: Basic income paid to the poor can transform lives, Unicef funded tests say
2015: 27 January 2015: As shelling batters Ukraine's cities, children increasingly in danger, Unicef says - 13 March 2015: About 14 million children are suffering hardship and trauma from the war in Syria and Iraq, Unicef says - 19 August 2015: Months of brutal conflict in Yemen have killed or injured more than 1,000 children, the number of young people recruited or used as fighters has soared, and millions are in need of aid, Unicef says - 3 September 2015: War stops 13 million going to school in Middle East, North Africa, Unicef report says - 9 September; Child mortality halved since 1990, but MDG goal missed, Unicef report says - 4 November 2015: Unicef's Marie-Pierre Poirier informs the media after she has completed a one week mission in Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia, amid rising numbers of refugees, women and children and bad weather - 2 December 2015: Citing Russia's bombing of the Al-Khafsa water treatment facility in Aleppo province on Thursday Unicef's Hanaa Singer condemns airstrikes cutting water supplies to Aleppo, noting that 'the rules of war, including those meant to protect vital civilian infrastructure, continue to be broken on a daily basis'
2016: 15 January 2016: In a joint statement Unicef and WHO call on Syrian regime to allow aid to reach besieged committees adding that 'siege and the denial of humanitarian access to civilians continue to be used as a tactic of war in violation of international humanitarian law' - 16 janvier 2016: Un garçon de 16 ans est mort de faim devant les représentants de l'Unicef, qui menaient une évaluation médicale sur la famine dans la ville de Madaya de 40'000 habitants, dont la moitié sont des enfants de moins de 18 ans, assiégée par l'armée de Bachar el-Assad depuis six mois - 5 January 2016: The huge global scale of female genital mutilation has been revealed in disturbing new Unicef statistics, which show at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone ritual cutting, half of them living in just three countries - 21 February 2016: Unicef says, that more 580,000 children have been affected by the nearly two year conflict in eastern Ukraine, that 215,000 children are internally displaced and that at least 20 children were killed as a result of the violence last year - 15 March 2016: UNICEF report estimates up to 3.7 million Syrian children born into devastating conflict conditions, and that at least eight million children in Syria and the neighboring countries are in need of humanitarian aid, including 2.4 million Syrian refugee children - 14 avril 2016: Éducation, santé, revenu, satisfaction à l'égard de leur vie, les enfants sont encore loin d'être égaux aussi dans les pays riches et le fossé se creuse dans plusieurs d'entre eux entre les plus démunis et les autres, selon un rapport de l'Unicef - 6 May 2016: Nearly a quarter of the world’s school-aged children – about 462 million – now live in countries affected by crisis, figures released by Unicef show - 6 July 2016: UNICEF and UNRWA condemn bombing of 'Child Friendly Space' in the latest attack on Khan Eshieh Refugee Camp, home to Palestinian refugees and internally displaced Syrians - 31 July 2016: Four new-born babies reportedly killed after a recent triple airstrike, which aid workers said came from Syrian government warplanes, hit besieged Aleppo’s last children’s hospital run by a group of Syrian doctors, the Independent Doctors’ Association, and backed by the charity Unicef
August 2016: 29 August 2016: Unicef has paid $267,933 to the Al-Bustan Association, owned and run by Rami Makhlouf, a friend and cousin of Assad, whose charity has been linked to several regime militia groups, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to murderous Assad regime that controls UN activities and aid for Syrian people
September/October 2016: 8 September 2016: Some 50 million children have been 'uprooted' across the globe, according to Unicef - 4 October 2016: More than half of Yemen’s 28 million people are already short of food and children are particularly badly hit following Iranian-backed Houthi sectarian military rebellion, with hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation, UN says - 5 October 2016: Nearly half of all children in sub-Saharan Africa are living in extreme poverty, according to Unicef-World Bank report, with figures showing that almost 385 million children worldwide survive on less than $1.90 a day, the World Bank international poverty line - 14 octobre 2016: Dans les pays pauvres, 5 enfants sur 6 de moins de 2 ans ne consomment pas assez d'aliments nutritifs pour leur âge, selon Unicef - 30 October 2016: The dead from Wednesday’s Russian airstrikes near a school complex in Idlib province included 22 children, Unicef's director Alan Lane says, adding that six teachers also died in the attacks - 31 octobre 2016: Quelque 300 millions d'enfants dans le monde, soit un sur sept, vivent dans un endroit où la pollution de l'air extérieur excède jusqu'à six fois les normes internationales, contribuant dans une large mesure à la mortalité infantile, selon l'Unicef
February 2017: 1 February 2017: In 2017 Unicef intends to provide assistance to 48 million children suffering from the consequences of conflicts or natural disaster, namely from such countries as Syria, Yemen, Iraq, South Sudan, Nigeria and Ukraine
March 2017: 13 March 2017: Syrian children 'pushed to the brink' after worst atrocities since Assad's war against the Syrian people began in 2011, according to Unicef report - 22 March 2017: One in four of the world’s children will be living in areas with extremely limited water resources by 2040 as a result of climate change, according to Unicef, to mark World Water Day on Wednesday
May/June 2017: 25 May 2017: More than 2 million children live under siege and in hard-to-reach areas across Syria with little to no humanitarian aid, Unicef says - 20 June 2017: On the eve of World Refugee Day, Unicef announced the appointment of 19-year-old education activist and Syrian refugee Muzoon Almellehan as its newest and youngest Goodwill Ambassador
August/September 2017: 26 August 2017: Six and a half years of conflict have robbed millions of Syrian children of their childhood and inflicted untold suffering on them, Unicef's Fran Equiza says, urging parties to the conflict to stop the violence and live up to their legal obligations to children - 11 September 2017: Child soldier recruits double in one year in Middle East and North Africa, according to Unicef report, saying 28 million children living in countries at war are now in need of humanitarian help as families struggle to cope amid the chaos and violence
November 2017: 11 November 2017: An estimated one million Syrian children have lost one or both parents since 2011 when the Assad regime declared war on the Syrian people, according to Unicef

Committee on the Rights of the Child: Committee on the Rights of the Child - Committee on the Rights of the Child (website) - Convention on the Rights of the Child
2014: 5 February 2014: The Vatican should 'immediately remove' child abusers instead of putting the reputation of Church officials above protection of children, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child says
8 May 2014: WHO/UNICEF highlight need to further reduce gaps around the world in access to improved drinking water and sanitation
2016: 5 February 2016: UN Committee on the Rights of the Child urges Iranian regime to repeal legislation permitting child sex abuse, causing rising number of Iranian girls as young as 9 and 10 forced to marry, in a state that also executes children
2017: 21 April 2017: UN Committee on the Rights of the Child calls for investigations into all attacks on children in Syria and for bringing the perpetrators to justice, saying that 'children are bearing the brunt of horrific attacks in Syria' and that States Parties to the 'Convention on the Rights of the Child', which include Syria, as well as other actors, have an obligation to prevent violations of international human rights and humanitarian laws

UN Commission on the Status of Women: UN Commission on the Status of Women - UN Commission on the Status of Women - website
2013/2014: 16 March 2013: Iran, Libya, Sudan and other Muslim nations ended threats to block a landmark UN declaration urging an end to violence against women and stating that violence against women could not be justified by 'any custom, tradition or religious consideration' - 22 July 2013: 30 million girls risk genital mutilation, Unicef says - 22 March 2014: UN commission approves document on gender equality, expressing deep concern that overall progress toward the UN goal of gender equality and empowerment of women remains 'slow and uneven'
2015: International Women's Day 2015 message by UN Women's Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo - 59th session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York from 9-20 March 2015 - 10 March 2015: Syrian Coalition commends Syrian women on International Women's Day - 10 March: As thousands marched through Manhattan on 8 March to show solidarity for the global women’s movement, UN’s Commission and government ministers adopted a political declaration confirming their commitment to achieve gender equality by 2030
October 2015: 9 October 2015: Preventing conflict, transforming justice, securing the peace - a global study on the implementation of UN Security Council resolution 1325 - 14 October 2015: The head of the UN women’s agency Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is criticising the low level of women’s inclusion at peace tables, 15 years after a landmark UN resolution that called for women to be included in decision-making positions at every level of peacemaking and peace building

UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women - UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women - website
2016: 24 April 2016: UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women marks 20 years with event in Amsterdam - 3 May 2016: New Zealand’s former PM Helen Clark started her campaign to become the first woman to lead the UN, saying in Paris that 'peace really matters to women'




Opposition to nationalism and racism: Opposition to nationalism - Anti-racism includes convincements, actions, movements, and policies inevitably developed to oppose racism, also intending to promote an egalitarian society in which people do not face discrimination - Opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals in European, African, American and Asian countries since the 1920s, an opposition spreading to other countries around the world

Conference on Disarmament: Conference on Disarmament - Conference on Disarmament (Website) - UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (Website) - UN Disarmament Commission (Website)
Nuclear disarmament and states with nuclear weapons: Nuclear disarmament - History of the anti-nuclear movement - List of states with nuclear weapons
2014: 16 June 2014: Nuclear-armed states are modernising their arsenals and appear determined to keep sizable numbers, SIPRI says
Since 1961 'Nuclear-weapon-free zones': Since 1961 Nuclear-weapon-free zone, defined by the United Nations as an agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention, that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area, that has mechanisms of verification and control to enforce its obligations, and that is recognized as such by the General Assembly of the UN
Since 1970 'Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons': Nuclear proliferation - Since 1970 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Since 2016 proposed 'Nuclear-weapon-ban treaty': Nuclear-weapon-ban treaty, a proposed legally binding international agreement to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination, according to a mandate adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 2016 negotiations on the treaty began at the United Nations in March 2017 and will continue from 15 June to 7 July 2017 - International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons ICAN, a coalition of non-government organizations in one hundred countries advocating for a strong and effective nuclear weapon ban treaty
2016: 11 May 2016: Public and parliamentary support for a treaty banning nuclear weapons in several countries, including Australia, the Netherlands and Norway - 26 May 2016: 8 out of 10 Swedes want the government to pursue a ban on nuclear weapons, as a proposed ban treaty gets huge support from all political parties according to an opinion poll of 'Swedish Physicians Against Nuclear Weapons' - 21 August 2016: At a UN meeting on disarmament, a proposal recommending a conference be held next year to negotiate 'a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination', was eventually passed with 68 voting in favour, 22 against and 13 abstaining - 28 octobre 2016: Une commission de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU a décidé que des négociations seront organisées dès l'an prochain pour tenter de parvenir à un traité interdisant totalement les armes nucléaires
2017: 16 June 2017: UN negotiations toward the first global treaty banning atomic weapons resumed Thursday despite a boycott by nuclear powers
7 July 2017 'Nuclear-weapon-ban treaty': 7 July 2017: At a UN meeting boycotted by all nuclear-armed nations including China, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, United Kingdom and USA, 122 countries adopt the first-ever treaty banning nuclear weapons, but none of the nine countries known or believed to possess nuclear weapons support legally binding pact - 21 September 2017: As UN treaty office says 51 countries are expected to attach their names on the opening day for signatures, nations began signing the first treaty to ban nuclear weapons, a pact backed by over 100 countries but spurned by those with nuclear arms
October 2017: 6 October 2017: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons wins Nobel peace prize 2017, as Norwegian Nobel Committee says award made in recognition of work to draw attention to catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons - 2017 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization CTBTO - Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization since 1996 - Preparatory Commission's website
2015: 8 April 2015: Some 100 representatives from Arab and Muslim states expected in Jerusalem next week for summit on banning nuclear testing sponsored by the UN and organized by CTBTO - 24 June 2015: CTBTO Executive Secretary Lassina Zerbo urges Iran, which shuttered its seismic nuclear test detection station in 2006, to ratify nuclear test ban treaty as quickly as possible to prove that it is serious about not wanting to develop atomic arms - 12 September 2015: CTBT treaty chief Lassina Zerbo says Iranian regime not ratifying document 'will leave room for doubt' about Iran’s intentions

UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: UNOG: The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and annexed Protocols I-V - UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Protocol on Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices
Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons
Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War
2014: 13 May 2014: In a four-day session of the UN Convention on Conventional Weapons in Geneva governments are holding the first-ever talks focused exclusively on so-called 'Killer Robots' or 'lethal autonomous robots'
2015: 6 October 2015: United Kingdom and USA are seeking to water down agreement over 'killer robots' (lethal autonomous weapons), so that any autonomous weapons deployed before United Nations's talks conclude will be beyond reach of ban, experts say
Ban Cluster Bombs Coalition and Convention: Cluster Munition Coalition is a global civil society campaign working to eradicate cluster munitions and prevent further casualties from these weapons
2014/2015: 2014/2015: Cluster Munition Coalition calls to action on Syria, demanding that governments worldwide should continue to condemn use of cluster munitions in Syria and call for Syria and all states to join the Convention on Cluster Munitions
2015: 9 October 2015: Russian warplanes reportedly dropped cluster bombs on refugee camps in Idlib province, killing at least five civilians and injuring dozens - 11 October 2015: An advanced type of Russian cluster munition used in an airstrike southwest of Aleppo on 4 October 2015, Human Rights Watch says, raising concerns that Russia is either using cluster munitions in Syria or providing the Syrian air force with new types of cluster munitions to use


Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons: Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPCW intergovernmental organisation since 29 April 1997 - Chemical Weapons Convention signed 13 January 1993 - List of parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention
Since 2011 use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war: Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war since 2011
September-November 2013: 20 September 2013: Syria's Assad regime details its chemical weapons arsenal to the OPCW but needs to fill in gaps by next week to launch a rapid disarmament operation, following the 21 August 2013 Ghouta chemical attack - 21 September 2013: The OPCW has begun to examine details of the chemical arsenal supplied by the Assad regime - 17 November 2013: The OPCW adopted a final roadmap for ridding Syria of its arsenal by mid-2014
October-December 2014: 7 October 2014: Syrian Assad regime discloses four secret chemical weapons facilities, UN says - 5 December 2014: The Syrian Coalition calls on the OPCW to refer Assad’s chemical weapons file to the International Criminal Court - 6 December 2014: At the Hague, the USA accused the Syrian regime of continuing to use chemical weapons on civilians as recently as September
January 2015: 7 January 2015: Assad regime used chlorine gas in helicopter attacks, OPCW chemical weapons experts say - 9 January 2015: OPCW reaffirms Assad's use of chemical weapons offering more proof as French President Hollande regrets that there was no military intervention against Assad
2015: 27 March 2015: OPCW to investigate Assad’s chlorine gas attack on Sarmin that killed six and wounded dozens earlier this month - 9 May 2015: OPCW inspectors find undeclared chemical weapons in Syria, diplomats say traces of sarin, VX nerge agent found at previously unknown military site - 24 July 2015: Assad did not give up entire chemical weapons arsenal, tucking away 'caches of even deadlier nerve agents', USA, world powers 'never exercised the right' to demand access to sites, report says - 11 septembre 2015: L'ONU pourra enquêter sur les armes et attaques chimiques attribuées au régime syrien, après une résolution créant un 'mécanisme conjoint d'enquête' entre l'ONU et l'Organisation pour l'interdiction des armes chimiques et sa blocage par la Russie - 5 novembre 2015: Des experts en armes chimiques ont conclu pour la première fois que du gaz moutarde, banni par l'ONU en 1993, avait été utilisé à Marea, lors de combats en Syrie en août
2016: 6 January 2016: A fact-finding mission of OPCW indicates that people in Syria are still exposed to deadly Sarin gas, or a compound like it, according to a report released by the UN - 13 February 2016: Investigators to look into reports of five possible uses of chlorine and mustard gas on rebel-held areas in Syria - 14 March 2016: Syrian American Medical Society's report claims that chemical weapons have been used at least 161 times through the end of 2015 and caused 1,491 deaths in Syria, saying that such attacks are increasing, with a high of at least 69 attacks last year, and 14,581 people have been injured in all - 13 August 2016: Reports of chlorine gas that targeted civilians in Aleppo, documented by 'Bellingcat' investigative journalists - 24 August 2016: International UN and OPCW inquiry accuses Syrian Assad regime of using chemical weapons, setting the stage for a Security Council decision of the five veto-wielding powers over whether sanctions should be imposed - 13 December 2016: OPCW seriously concerned about claims that at least 105 civilians, mostly women and children, were killed by a gas attack in central Syria when airstrikes hit a cluster of five villages, as up to 300 people were injured as a result of the intense airstrikes and attacks by Sarin nerve agent by Assad regime and Russian air forces on several villages in eastern rural Hama
January/February 2017: 14 January 2017: For the first time in a report published Friday, joint international team of investigators for the UN and the OPCW determined that Syrian regime's Bashar Assad and his brother Maher are suspected of being tied to several chemical weapons attacks carried out in the country in 2014 and 2015, according to a document seen by Reuters, as an ICC spokesman says, that 'the only way that (the) ICC would have jurisdiction over the situation would be through a referral by the Security Council' - 18 February 2017: UN-OPCW investigative panel is pressing the Assad regime to hand over the names of commanders, military units and other entities suspected of carrying out chemical attacks
March 2017: 4 March 2017: OPCW watchdog examines 8 alleged gas attacks in Syria this year
April 2017: 6 April 2017: If Assad has been hiding chemical weapons, the world needs to know, UN weapons inspectors must be allowed in to survey the damage and tell who was responsible, before the dust settles on the latest atrocity in Syria, the 4 April Khan Shaykhun chemical attack - 13 April 2017: OPCW's investigators are already testing samples from Khan Sheikhun deadly poison gas attack in Syria's Idlib province, as samples taken from the chemical weapons attack in Syria last week tested positive for the nerve agent sarin by British delegation to OPCW, not waiting for the allowance of the war criminals Assad and Putin, who blocked a UN Security Council resolution on Syria the eighth time - 14 April 2017: Syrian interim government says that the results of sample analysis carried out by independent institutions shows that the sarin nerve agent was used in the attack, collected from the site of the chemical attack on the town of Khan Sheikhoun, as residents of the town and survivors confirm that the Assad regime’s aircraft carried out the attack - 15 April 2017: Brig. Gen. Zaher al-Sakat, who was head of chemical warfare in the Syrian army’s Fifth Division and was ordered to carry out chemical strikes on three different occasions before he defected from Assad’s forces in 2013, told British newspaper that Assad had deceived United Nations inspectors sent into the country to destroy his chemical stockpiles, saying that according to his contacts inside Syria, Assad has not manufactured new weapons since 2014, but 'they don’t need any more, they have all they need already' - 19 April 2017: Concerning the chemical weapons use in the Khan Sheikhun area of southern Idlib on 4 April, OPCW’s Director-General Ahmet Üzümcü updated Council members stating clearly that 'the results of these analyses from four OPCW designated laboratories indicate exposure to Sarin or a Sarin-like substance', 'while further details of the laboratory analyses will follow, the analytical results already obtained are incontrovertible' - 21 April 2017: The global chemical arms watchdog OPCW on Thursday 'overwhelmingly' rejected a Russian-Iranian move to launch a new investigation into the chemical attack on Khan Sheikoun, delegates said, backing the probe already underway - 29 avril 2017: L'OIAC étudie 45 attaques chimiques présumées en Syrie depuis la mi-2016, selon son directeur
May/June 2017: 4 May 2017: Syria's Assad regime reportedly continues to make chemical weapons in violation of 2013 deal to eliminate them - 30 June 2017: The nerve agent sarin was used in an attack in April on the Syrian town of Khan Sheikhun and was likely to have spread from a crater in a road where a projectile had hit, OPCW confirms - 30 June 2017: USA urges OPCW to assign responsibility for Khan Sheikhoun chemical weapons attack in April - 6 septembre 2017: Des enquêteurs de l’ONU ont indiqué pour la première fois que le régime de Damas était responsable de l’attaque au gaz sarin sur la localité de Khan Cheikhoun le 4 avril en Syrie, qui avait fait 87 morts
October 2017: 5 October 2017: Tests found traces of 'sarin or sarin-related chemicals' in Ltamenah in northern Syria after a 30 March 2017 attack that injured 50 people, days before the deadly strike using the same nerve agent in the Syrian town of Khan Sheikhoun, according to OPCW - 26 October 2017: Syria’s Assad forces are responsible for the deadly sarin gas attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun that killed scores of people in April, UN expert panel’s report says


UN Peacekeeping: UN Peacekeeping - UN Peacekeeping (Website) - Department of Peacekeeping Operations
Since 1948 list of United Nations peacekeeping missions: List of United Nations peacekeeping missions since 1948
2014: 16 May 2014: UN peacekeeping missions routinely avoid using force to protect civilians who are under attack, intervening in only 20% of cases, an internal UN study says - 10 October 2014: Member states owe UN $3.5bn including $2.6bn for international peacekeeping efforts, as the UN owes $1.2bn to member states that contribute towards peacekeeping operations
2015: 18 October 2015: Unable to protect living people in Syria, UN peacekeepers to guard heritage sites from Islamic State, as Unesco okays Italian plan to charge Blue Helmets with protecting sites in danger zones
Since 1948 in Kashmir, India and Pakistan: United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan and UN mediation of Kashmir
Since 1948 in the Middle East: United Nations Truce Supervision Organization UNTSO founded in May 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East, providing the military command structure to enable the peace keepersto in the Middle East to observe and maintain the cease-fire, the command structure of the UNTSO was maintained to cover the later peace keeper organisations
Since 1964 in Cyprus: United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus UNFICYP peacekeeping force established in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting following intercommunal violence between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots
Since 1974 in the Middle East following Arab States' Yom Kippur War against Israel: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDOF established in May 1974 to implement Resolution 338 which called for an immediate ceasefire on the same day the 'Agreement on Disengagement' was signed between Israeli and Syrian forces on the Golan Heights, finally establishing a ceasefire to end the 1973 Yom Kippur War fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel in the Middle East
June 2017: 29 June 2017: UN tells Syrian forces to leave buffer zone on border with Israel and renews mandate of local peacekeeping force
Since 1978, 1982, 2000 and 2006 in Lebanon: Since 1978 United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, adjusted in 1982 and in 2000, enhanced in 2006 and renewed by United Nations Security Council annually
September 2017: 5 September 2017: Russian Putin regime threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate and renewal of UN peacekeeper force if Lebanon-based terror organization Hezbollah, its ally in Assad's war against the Syrian people, mentioned
Since 1991 in Western Sahara: United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara MINURSO peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front, representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara
1992-2002 in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina: United Nations Protection Force 1992-1995 was the first UN peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars - United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995-2002
1995: Srebrenica massacre 1995
2013/2014: 6 September 2013: The Netherlands, during UN peacekeeping mission, is liable for the deaths of three Bosnian Muslim men killed in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled - 16 July 2014: Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths and Dutch UN peacekeepers must compensate families of Bosnian Muslim men turned over to Serb forces 19 years ago, Court at the Hague says
2015: 18 March 2015: Following a war crimes investigation, Serbia arrests seven men over 1995 Srebrenica massacre and slaughter of more than 1,000 Muslims in what was Europe’s worst civilian slaughter since second world war
1993-1996 in Rwanda: United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda 1993-1996
1994 Rwandan Genocide: Rwandan Genocide 1994 - Role of the international community in the Rwandan Genocide - Role of the United Nations in the Rwandan Genocide
1994: 12 April 1994: UN troops stand by and watch carnage
Since 8 November 1994 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda since 8 November 1994, ongoing
1999/2000: 15 December 1999: Inqiry into the actions of the UN during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda - 7 July 2000: Rwanda - The Preventable Genocide
2004: 26 March 2004: When Kofi Annan ("I believed at that time that I was doing my best") was head of UN peacekeeping forces 800,000 died - one survivor, Specios Kenya Bugoi, described how 4,000 Tutsis took shelter close to Belgian troops hoping to be safe, and how the troops left and the killings began
2008: Jason A. Edwards 2008: The Mission of Healing - Kofi Annan’s Failed Apology
2013: As of 24 July 2013 the ICTR has indicted 95 individuals since
2013/2014: 12 May 2013: 'We live with those who killed our families. We are told they're sorry, but are they?' - 4 February 2014: Former Rwandan intelligence chief Simbikangwa tried in France charged with complicity in the 1994 genocide
2014: 7 April: Rwanda marks 20th anniversary of genocide 1994
2015: 11 December 2015: Interpol agents arrested Rwandan Ladislas Ntaganzwa in the eastern Congo city of Goma, who is among the most wanted for the 1994 genocide in which 800,000 people died
2016: 6 July 2016: Two Rwandan mayors jailed for life over 1994 massacre, as Paris court convicts Octavien Ngenzi and Tito Barahira of crimes against humanity and genocide over killing of 2,000 people
Since 1999 in Kosovo: Since 1999 United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Since 1999 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ongoing: United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo established by Security Council resolutions 1999 and 2000 to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict
Since 2004 in Haiti: United Nations Stabilization Mission In Haiti UNSTAMIH, a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that has been in operation since 2004, the mission's military component is led by the Brazilian Army and the force commander is Brazilian
2016: 1 December 2016: United Nations admits for first time that its peacekeepers were directly responsible for bringing cholera to Haiti, bringing to an end a six-year delay in which the world body consistently ducked responsibility for importing the disease that has potentially killed up to 30,000 people
Since 2004 in Côte d'Ivoire: United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
2012: 9 June 2012: Seven UN-peacekeepers from Niger killed in an ambush while on patrol near the border with Liberia
Since 2007 in Darfur region, ongoing: African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur UNAMID, a joint African Union and United Nations peacekeeping mission since July 2007 to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan
Since 2011 in Sudanese Abyei area: United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei UNISFA peacekeeping force since 2011 in Sudanese Abyei area, which is contested between the Republic of Sudan and the newly independent Republic of South Sudan, after a flareup in the South Kordofan conflict earlier in June 2011, the Ethiopian Army is the largest contributor
Since 2011 in South Sudan, ongoing: Since 2011 United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan UNMISS
2015: 15 December 2015: UN peacekeeping mission has failed to stop systematic atrocities, MSF says, as civil war in South Sudan enters third year
2016: 12 August 2016: UN approves increase in peacekeeping force in South Sudan, as an additional 4,000 peacekeepers will be dispatched, making the total deployment 17,000 troops, that will be asked to take more 'proactive' measures to protect civilians - 17 August 2016: UN is under intense pressure to explain why thousands of well-armed peacekeeping troops failed to respond to urgent calls for help from international humanitarian workers under attack only minutes away from its bases during fighting in South Sudan last month - 6 October 2016: UN peacekeepers stayed in their bases rather than protect civilians during an outbreak of fighting in South Sudan in July, and Chinese UN peacekeepers in the capital Juba 'abandoned their posts entirely' at one civilian protection site where tens of thousands had sought safety from successive bouts of fighting, rights group says - 1 November 2016: The UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan failed to protect hundreds of civilians from death or rape because of a risk-averse culture and chaotic leadership, despite multiple requests to stand up a quick reaction force to respond a total of 73 people were killed, including 20 people who were under UN protection, according to the independent Patrick Cammaert’s damning report
Since 2013 in Mali, ongoing: United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali MINUSMA, peacekeeping mission established on 25 April 2013 by UN Security Council Resolution 2100 to stabilise the country following the Tuareg rebellion since 2012
2015: 29 November 2015: Two UN peacekeepers from Guinea and a civilian contractor killed and four seriously injured in a rocket attack on a UN base in Kidal in northeastern Mali claimed by militant group
2016: 7 August 2016: One UN peacekeeper killed, four wounded in north Mali mine attack
2017: 9/10 June 2017: Militants on Thursday killed three United Nations peacekeepers in a attack outside their base in Kidal in northern Mali, after more than 100 peacekeepers have died in recent months, making it the most deadly UN mission to date
Since 2014 in the Central African Republic, ongoing: United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic MINUSCA, peacekeeping mission since April 2014 to protect Central African Republic civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter

Child sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers - Department of Peacekeeping Operations
2003: 9 October 2003: UN's special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse
2015: 19 March 2015: Leaked report details UN peacekeepers' sexual exploitation and abuse - 29 April 2015: UN aid worker Anders Kompass said to have passed confidential document to French authorities because of UN’s failure to stop abuse of children in CAR suspended by UN for leaking report on child abuse by French troops - 29 April 2015: France promises to act after leaked UN report says its soldiers abused children and the repeated failure by the UN to take action to stop the abuse - 1 May 2015: French authorities sent a letter of thanks to the UN whistleblower Anders Kompass, who faces dismissal from UN for leaking report into claims of child abuse by its peacekeeping troops in Africa - 6 May 2015: UN suspension of sexual abuse report whistleblower is unlawful, tribunal rules
July 2015: 30 July 2015: After leaked documents marked 'strictly confidential' United Nations forced to explain how a Russian aviation firm implicated in sexual exploitation managed to expand its contracts with the UN, spending half a billion dollars on contracts with the company since discovering its wider culture of sexual exploitation
August-December 2015: 12 August 2015: UN peacekeeping chief in CAR sacked over sex abuse claims and UN security council special meeting called over issue of allegations of sex abuse by peacekeepers - 17 December 2015: UN's failure to respond to allegations that French peacekeepers sexually abused children in Central African Republic amounted to 'gross institutional failure' and allowed assaults to continue, according to an independent panel’s damning report
2016: 18 January 2016: UN whistleblower Anders Kompass, who exposed the sexual abuse of children by peacekeepers in Central African Republic, has been completely exonerated after an internal investigation - 7 June 2016: UN whistleblower Anders Kompass who was suspended for exposing the sexual abuse of children by UN-peacekeepers has resigned over the organisation’s failure to hold senior officials to account, saying he could no longer work for an organisation with no accountability, as UN Watch, a human rights body in Geneva which monitors the UN, says that 'UN officials, including at the highest levels, ... did everything to protect both governments and their own careers'
2017: 28 March 2017: Broken promises for the children of Bangui abused by UN peacekeepers, as children left homeless and on the streets to fend for themselves


Duty to rescue: Duty to rescue, a concept in tort law that arises in a number of cases, describing a circumstance in which a party can be held liable for failing to come to the rescue of another party in peril - Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong - Common heritage of mankind - World conscience
Duty to rescue by country: Many civil law systems, which are common in Continental Europe, Latin America and much of Africa, impose a duty to rescue, in some countries there exists a legal requirement for citizens to assist people in distress - Non-assistance à personne en danger, l'abstention volontaire de porter assistance à une personne en péril dans le Code pénal français


Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE - Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media - OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
OSCE ministerial council meetings
2014: 21 March 2014: OSCE to send observers to Ukraine as quickly as possible - Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine since June 2014
September-December 2014: 5 September 2014 'Minsk Protocol' agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine - 20 September 2014: Memorandum on ceasefire in Donbas signed in Minsk, concerning a security zone and the withdrawal of all foreign mercenaries - 26 December: Following the recent meeting in Minsk, OSCE vows to help deliver Ukrainian humanitarian aid to Donbas
2015: 11 February 2015 Minsk II agreement - 7 May: In Minsk Trilateral Contact Group agreed to send observers from each subgroup to the contact line in Donbas - 7 July 2015: Trilateral contact groups meets in Minsk to discuss Ukraine conflict, as Russian-backed militants have shelled the positions of Ukrainian forces in Donbas 7,398 times for six months after signing the Minsk agreements - 8 July: OSCE Ukrainian representative Martin Sajdik expects specific results of Trilateral Contact Group meeting in two weeks - 9 July 2015: The Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE has recognized the facts of military aggression of Russia against Ukraine - 28 December 2015: One Ukrainian soldier killed and three wounded by Russian-backed terrorists over the past day, as OSCE observers come under fire near Kominternovo seized by combined Russian-separatist forces in eastern Ukraine last Tuesday
2016: 19 February 2016: As key Minsk deal points including heavy weapons pullback and prisoner exchanges are incomplete, OSCE extends Ukraine monitoring mission until March 2017 - 4 March 2016: OSCE's Alexander Hug warns that Ukrainian children caught up in the war continue to pay a heavy price, as youngsters are being forced to live in shelters and being prevented from going to school - 11 March 2016: OSCE observers to Ukraine are still facing obstacles when fulfilling their duties, especially in the occupied districts of Donetsk region, Alexander Hug says in Kramatorsk - 9 May 2016: OSCE says open to sending armed monitors to Ukraine conflict zone, but only if that is agreed by all sides - 4 August 2016: Minsk contact group ignores numerous ceasefire violations, OSCE's Hug says - 25 November 2016: The OSCE Special Monitoring mission in Ukraine in the mid-November reports on the highest number of ceasefire violations since the beginning of the observations in Donbas in 2014 - 8/9 December 2016: Ukraine and Syria wars will dominate OSCE conference agenda in Hamburg, as Russian-backed separatist forces attack Ukrainian towns and positions of Ukrainian in Donetsk and Luhansk regions, as OSCE aims to replace its surveillance drones destroyed by Russian-backed separatist forces, its mission in eastern Ukraine used to monitor ceasefire violations, and as people in Aleppo 'have lost trust in everyone, in world leaders, in the international organisations that are watching them being killed' due to an absence of political will to confront war criminals since nearly 6 years - 24 December 2016: Latest truce deal, negotiated in Minsk, just to be violated shortly after
2017: 25 January 2017: OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Dunja Mijatovic condemns deterioration of media freedom, journalist safety in occupied Ukraine - 24 February 2017: OSCE's Alexander Hug has stated that the SMM observers recorded shelling from the center of Donetsk - 24 February 2017: Russian-backed militants shoot at OSCE monitors in eastern Ukraine, seize UAV - 1/2 April 2017: Despite recent agreements reached by the Trilateral Contact Group in Minsk on a ceasefire along the entire contact line from 00:00 local time on the same day, Russia's hybrid military forces on Saturday 1 April continued provocations in Donbas and mounted 37 attacks on Ukrainian positions, as Ukrainian servicemen have strictly been adhering to the ceasefire regime and have not fired back, but four Ukrainian defenders were wounded - 23 avril 2017: Un membre de la mission d'observation spéciale de l'OSCE a été tué et deux autres blessés dimanche dans l'explosion d'une mine dans l'est de l'Ukraine, la première victime que déplore cette mission depuis son déploiement il y a plus de trois ans - 9 July 2017: OSCE PA condemns Russian aggression in Ukraine - 9 November 2017: OSCE calls on the parties in eastern Ukraine's conflict to pull back tanks and other heavy weapons, after five people were injured and a nine-year-old child was killed over the weekend, after over 10,000 people have died since 2014 and as Russian regime is accused of sending troops and heavy weapons also to this region




UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA): UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator
2015: 14 January 2015: UN's Valerie Amos suggests more intervention in humanitarian emergencies as she says some states were aggressively asserting sovereignty rights to stop action being taken to protect civilians, citing Syrian Assad regime as an example - 17 August 2015: Speaking at the end of a three-day visit to Damascus, UN’s most senior humanitarian official O’Brien reiterated that Assad regime's 'attacks on civilians are unlawful, unacceptable and must stop', saying 'I am particularly appalled by reports of air strikes causing scores of civilian deaths and hundreds injured' - 28 October 2015: Syrian Coalition calls upon the OCHA to open a serious and transparent investigation into the food poisoning of 250 children and women as a result of consuming biscuits provided by the UN to residents in the besieged towns of Zabadani and Madaya, also reminding the UN to investigate cases involving the regime forces’ seizure of aid intended for the displaced people in Syria
2016: 12 January 2016: UN humanitarian affairs chief calls for the evacuation of about 400 people from Madaya hospital after aid trucks reached the Syrian town which has been cut off by Assad forces for months, also saying that aid to besieged towns must be repeated - 18 January 2016: A leaked document from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations in Damascus shows that the organization was aware of the existence of famine in Madaya months ago - 28 January 2016: Saying that Assad's regime blocks most aid requests, UN's Stephen O’Brien urges an end to targeting civilians and public infrastructure in Syria, calling for more action to facilitate unhindered, unconditional and sustained access to all those in need, including besieged and hard-to-reach areas - 30 janvier 2016: La délégation de l'opposition syrienne doit arriver samedi soir à Genève pour participer aux discussions organisées par l'ONU, mais en Syrie 16 autre personnes sont mortes de faim dans la ville de Madaya, assiégée par les forces pro Assad, depuis que des convois humanitaires y sont entrés mi-janvier, selon MSF - 11 February 2016: UN's Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Syrian crisis Kevin Kennedy says that the UN continues to deliver humanitarian aid to Syria, noting that 85 aid workers have so far been killed in Syria as a result of the Russian and Assad regime's targeting of public facilities such as schools and hospitals - 12 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, as civil authorities in the towns of Sidon, Eastern al-Gharya, Western al-Gharya and Naemeh closed the schools and hospitals as a result of the continued targeting by warplanes for vital facilities and people’s homes in these towns - 22 August 2016: Aleppo is being bombed every day and has become 'the apex of horror' in 'the greatest crisis of our time', UN's Stephen O'Brien tells the UN Security Council, adding that 'you have the power with a pen - a simple pen stroke - to allow food to people'
2017: 10/11 March 2017: The world faces the largest humanitarian crisis since 1945 with more than 20 million people in countries in Africa and the Middle East facing starvation and famine, UN official says

United Nations, Human Rights and Syria: United Nations, Human Rights and Syria
Since 2011: Since 2011 Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, set up by the UN Human Rights Council on 22 August to investigate human rights violations during Assad's war against the Syrian people - Website of the 'Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic'
Since 2013: Since 2013 UN Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, a fact-finding mission to investigate possible use of chemical weapons in Syria, established by the UN Secretary-general Ban Ki-moon on 21 March 2013 to investigate the Khan al-Assal chemical attack that occurred on 19 March 2013 - Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war
2013: 3 December 2013: Evidence has been uncovered in Syria that implicates Bashar al-Assad and his administration in war crimes and crimes against humanity, UN human rights official says
2014: 5 March 2014: Chemical weapons used in the Damascus suburb of al-Ghouta on August 21 and in Khan al-Assal near Aleppo in March 2013 appear to come from the stockpiles of the Syrian military, UN human rights investigators say - 16 September 2014: Assad atrocities outstrip Islamic State in Syria, UN panel says - 17 September: Immediate measures must be taken to save Syrian children, Syrian Coalition's Noura Al Ameer says during a session of the UNHRC
2015: 11 March 2015: Exhibition of photographs showing the victims of atrocities and torture carried out by Assad regime goes on display at UN headquarters - 12 March 2015: The war in Syria has plunged 80 percent of its people into poverty and reduced life expectancy by 20 years since the conflict began, according to a UN-backed report of the Syrian Center for Policy Research - 12 March 2015: World utterly failing Syria after 4 years of conflict, aid organizations say ahead of the fourth anniversary of the peaceful pro-democracy protests that marked the start of the devastating conflict - 18 March 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Security Council calling for punishing Assad under Chapter VII of UN Charter after regime's latest chlorine gas attack on Sarmin in rural Idlib on Monday - 25 March 2015: Assad regime's helicopters drop barrel bombs loaded with chlorine gas on Binnish near Idlib, and conducted seven attacks using chlorine gas in less than 20 days since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2209 without any prosecution by UN Security Council, Syrian Coalition says - 27 March 2015: Following Syrian American Medical Society's report, UN has more than doubled its estimate of Syrians who are living in besieged areas — and risk death by starvation, dehydration and the lack of medical care — to roughly 440,000 - 20 April 2015: Syrian Network for Human Rights says it has recorded 87 violations of the UN Security Council resolution 2118 by the Assad regime, 59 of which occurred in 2014, and 28 in 2015, also reporting 15 violations of UN resolution 2209 by the Assad regime - 30 April 2015: Syrian Coalition's Khoja delivered a speech at UN on the Day of Remembrance for all victims of chemical warfare, marking the first large-scale use of chemical weapons in 1915 during World War I - 5 May 2015: Al-Assad’s Syrian regime is committing war crimes and crimes against humanity by systematically using barrel bombs to kill civilians and destroy infrastructure in Aleppo, rights group says - 13 May 2015: A three-year operation to smuggle official documents out of Syria has produced enough evidence to indict Bashar al-Assad and 24 senior members of his regime, 'Commission for International Justice and Accountability' CIJA says - 29 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the international community to shoulder its humanitarian and ethical responsibilities towards the Syrian people and to work on ending the Syrian refugees’ crisis - 3 septembre 2015: 'L'impunité qui règne en Syrie est une honte pour l'ONU', dit Carla del Ponte - 22 September: UN investigator Carla del Ponte sees Milosevic's fate awaiting Assad - 5 October 2015: Assad’s Russian-backed deadly escalation in Homs province aims to change its demography, Syrian Coalition says calling on the United Nations to assume legal, humanitarian and ethical responsibilities towards the tragedy of the Syrian people - 17 November 2015: The Eastern Ghouta Women Center for Training and Rehabilitation organized a sit-in calling on the international community and the UN to work on protecting civilians from the fighting in Syria in general and in eastern Ghouta in particular, calling to stop the bombing of residential areas and the massacres and for opening humanitarian corridors to enter relief and medical aid - 17 December 2015: Human Rights Watch report presents compelling evidence on mass deaths and torture of detainees in Assad’s prisons - 21 December 2015: Human Rights Watch denounces Russia’s extensive use of cluster bombs in Syria
2016: 26 janvier 2016: Les Syriens sont en train 'de perdre espoir' sur l'intérêt du monde pour la crise chez eux, a dit mardi à Genève le coordinateur humanitaire de l'ONU Yacoub El Hillo, et 'chaque heure perdue' pour entamer des discussions politiques provoque le déplacement de 50 familles, a souligné Jan Egeland - 26 January: UN warns 2.5 million Syrian children will become refugees by 2017 - 9 February 2016: Mass deaths of detainees in Syrian Government jails amounts to crime of 'extermination', UN commission of inquiry on Syria says in its report calling on the UN security council to impose sanctions against Syrian officials in the civilian and military hierarchy responsible for or complicit in deaths, torture and disappearances in custody - 9 February 2016: Human Rights Watch documents in a report, that Assad regime forces and the Russian military have been carrying out daily cluster bomb attacks in Syria over the past few weeks, killing and wounding dozens of civilians, including many children and women - 22/23 February 2016: War crimes in Syria's five-year-old conflict are widespread and Syrian government forces and Islamic State militants continue to commit crimes against humanity in the face of inaction by the international community, UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry says in its latest report - 15 March 2016: After Russian regime's Putin announced on Monday that 'the main part' of its armed forces in Syria would start to withdraw, UN human rights investigators on Syria say that preparing prosecutions against war criminals should not be delayed until the end of the conflict in Syria, now entering its sixth year - 15 March 2016: Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has documented death of 273,520 persons since 18 March 2011, which witnessed the fall of the first martyr in Daraa, until today - 17 March 2016: Assad regime must be held accountable for the crimes committed in Syria to achieve transitional justice, Syrian Coalition’s Hanan al-Balkhi says - 22 April 2016: United Nations will name a coordinator to probe the fate of detainees in Assad’s prisons, a move sought by the opposition as the Assad regime has been torturing, starving and killing people in custody - 9 May 2016: UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Adama Dieng, expresses his outrage at the ongoing 'indiscriminate and seemingly calculated' attacks against civilians and civilian objects in Syria - 24 June 2016: UN's Stephen O’Brien says that the use of barrel bombs in the Syrian conflict 'constitutes indiscriminate attacks' against civilians, adding that their sole purpose is 'to terrorize and punish the civilian population', denouncing the international community’s silence over crimes committed by the Assad regime and terrorist groups in Syria for over five years - 12 August 2016: 3 days have passed since the child Ghani Quider began pleading to no avail for the United Nations to evacuate her from the besieged city of Madaya in the western Damascus countryside and treat her after she was struck by bullets fired by Lebanese Hezbollah’s snipers, as city’s activists and its medical and aid agencies have called for the evacuation of dozens of wounded and sick people, and are now accusing the United Nations of collusion with and bias toward the Syrian regime
August 2016: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters, as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, as UN's $4bn aid effort in Syria, called morally bankrupt, and UN operations have quietly secured deals with individuals and companies under both Europe and USA sanctions
December 2016: 22 December 2016: Adopting a resolution with 105 in favor, 15 against and 52 abstentions, UN General Assembly voted to establish a special team to 'collect, consolidate, preserve and analyze evidence' as well as to prepare cases on war crimes and human rights abuses committed in Syria
January 2017: 5 January 2017: Destruction in Aleppo unimaginable, 400,000 civilians are displaced inside, according to UNHCR's Sajjad Malik
March 2017: 2 March 2017: UN-established Commission of Inquiry on Syria says in a report that Bashar al-Assad’s regime had used chlorine weapons to retake the city of Aleppo last year and that the air campaign by the regime and Russia on the city, which deliberately targeted hospitals and humanitarian convoys, amounts to war crimes - March 2017 UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria's press conference in Geneva - 14 March 2017: Warring parties continued to target civilians for abuses over last seven months, UN Commission of Inquiry says - 14 March 2017: Assad's air force deliberately bombed water sources in December 2016, a war crime that cut off water for 5.5 million people in and around the capital Damascus, the UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria says, adding that the attack was one of several war crimes including the use of lethal chlorine gas and the bombing of shools and medical facilities committed by Assad's forces - 15 March 2017: The Assad regime’s airstrikes on the headquarters of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent in Idlib on February constitute a war crime by intentionally targeting humanitarian relief objects and humanitarian relief personnel, the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria says
April 2017: 5 April 2017: UN war crimes investigators to probe chemical attack regime forces carried out on the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib on Tuesday
July 2017: 4 juillet 2017: La juge française Catherine Marchi-Uhel, ancienne juge internationale au Kosovo, au Cambodge et au tribunal pénal international pour l'ex-Yougoslavie, va conduire une enquête internationale de l'ONU sur d'éventuels crimes de guerre en Syrie - 25 July 2017: International investigators urge accountability for war crimes in Syria, as UN commission member Carla Del Ponte says that the violations in Syria are by far the worst she has ever come across, 'but nothing happens, only words, words, and more words'
August/September 2017: 7 August 2017: Former war crimes prosecutor Carla Del Ponte says she is resigning from the UN’s independent Commission of Inquiry on Syria, decrying Security Council inaction to hold criminals accountable in the war-battered country, saying 'we thought the international community had learned from Rwanda', 'but no, it learned nothing' - 8 September 2017: UN confirms Assad regime used chemical weapons over two dozen times

International humanitarian aid during the Syrian Civil War: International humanitarian aid during the Syrian Civil War coordinated by the UNOCHA
2015: 18 January 2015: UN relief agencies appeal for more funding as freeze sweeps region - 30 July 2015: The Palestinian Committee for Human Rights condemns the decision by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to stop the provision of aid and support to 18,000 people in Damascus' Yarmouk refugee camp, after removing the camp from its list of besieged Syrian areas
2016: 8 January 2016: Failure to enforce UN Security Council resolutions encourages Assad to starve civilians, Syrian Coalition says in a letter, critizising the servility of the UNOCHA - 19 January 2016: After reports revealed that the UN knew about mass starvation in Syria for months before providing humanitarian in 2016 under international pressure, the UN’s conduct during Syria's starvation crisis has prompted outrage from 112 Syrian humanitarian workers, who, in an open letter published on 13 January, accused the UN kowtowing to Assad’s regime and 'chasing permission you do not even need' - 9 February 2016: Besieged Syrian town of Madaya is facing starvation again due to meagre supplies delivered last month already running out, as the UN is accused of severely underestimating the number of people suffering under blockades around the country - 17 February 2016: Some humanitarian aid trucks entered Madaya, Zabadani, Kafriya and Al-Fu’ah in Syria's Rif Dimashq and Idlib province - 26 February 2016: Syrian Coalition demands investigation into Assad regime’s seizing of UN aid airdrops on Deir Ezzor - 3 March 2016: The UNOCHA says that the Assad regime still blocks the delivery of some surgical items to the district of Moadamiyah west of Damascus - 11 March 2016: 30 aid agencies, including Oxfam, release a new report cataloguing deteriorating conditions in Syria and calling on Russia, USA, France and the UK to 'safeguard the glimmer of hope' February’s ceasefire has brought to civilians - 7 April 2016: UN's Jan Egeland says in Geneva that pro-Assad regime forces still besiege 15 areas across Syria blocking the entry of food and medical supplies - 29 avril 2016: L'ONU a averti jeudi que des centaines de milliers de Syriens risquaient de ne plus pouvoir recevoir d'aide d'urgence si les combats se poursuivaient, mais Salem al-Meslet du HCN a estimé que le régime de Bachar el-Assad 'refuse de mettre fin aux souffrances du peuple syrien' - 2 June 2016: As the UN has infuriated the Syrian opposition by saying that a previous commitment to push for airdrops to deliver food aid to besieged towns cannot go ahead without the permission of the Russian regime, UN 'aid' convoy entering Damascus suburb of Darayya for the first time since 2012 did not contain food and instead was largely made up of mosquito nets and shampoo - 16 June 2016: Rights group's report, based on interviews with aid workers, including current and former UN staff, accuses the United Nations of delivering 99% of its aid to regime-controlled territories, calling on the UN to 'restore its impartiality' - 6 July 2016: UN's Yacoub El Hillo has expressed alarm over reports of deteriorating humanitarian conditions and urgent medical evacuation needs in the Syrian towns of Madaya, Foah, Zabadani and Kefraya, where more than 62,000 people are besieged
August 2016: 29 August 2016: UN is continuing to allow the Assad regime to dictate whether aid can be delivered to certain areas of the country, further restricting what can be distributed and by whom, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, as UN's $4bn aid effort in Syria, called morally bankrupt, and UN operations have quietly secured deals with individuals and companies under both Europe and USA sanctions - 8 September 2016: More than 70 aid groups have suspended cooperation with the UN in Syria and have demanded an immediate and transparent investigation into its operations because of concerns Syrian dictator al-Assad has gained 'significant and substantial' influence over the relief effort
September 2016: 12 September 2016: UN aid deliveries are consistently failing to reach the vast majority of the 590,200 Syrians living in besieged areas, as Assad regime is accused of using restrictions as war tactic and the lack of aid in besieged areas is a driving factor in reported evacuations, raising questions about the UN’s ability to provide aid - 30 September 2016: More than 80% of the UN’s Syrian aid convoys have been blocked or delayed by Assad regime this month, denying millions of people essential supplies in some of the country’s hardest-hit areas, only six convoys have so far reached their destinations, and from some that did get through Assad regime forces had removed substantial amounts of medicine and surgical equipment before the vehicles were loaded
December 2016: 22 December 2016: UN says it is concerned about evacuees’ safety as the last rebel convoys and civilians leave eastern Aleppo, also warning that Idlib could be the next Aleppo - 22 December 2016: The number of people who died of their injuries after being displaced from eastern Aleppo has risen to 15, caused by the brutal onslaught by the Assad regime, Russia, and the Iranian-backed militias
January 2017: 25 January 2017: At an aid conference held in Finland, the UN said it would need a total of $8 billion this year to provide life-saving assistance to millions of Syrians inside their shattered homeland and to refugees and their host communities in neighboring countries
March 2017: 9 March 2017: UN called for greater efforts to address the needs of more than 7 million women and girls in Syria impacted by the conflict, now approaching its 7th year
October 2017: 12 October 2017: Up to 13 million civilians inside Syria are in dire need for relief aid, UN Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for Syria Panos Moumtzis says, adding that available funding covers only 35% of the total number of those in need

Humanitarian aid organizations - Disaster management is the creation of plans through which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters - Emergency management - Civil defense - Emergency organisations - Since 1963 Disasters Emergency Committee umbrella group comprising 13 UK charities, all associated with disaster related issues such as providing clean water, humanitarian aid and medical care
2016: 8 January 2016: 'Médecins Sans Frontières' (Doctors Without Borders) calls for immediate delivery of food and medicine to Syria's city of Madaya, under siege for months by Assad regime forces - 8 January: Deliveries of food, medical supplies and blankets to three towns in Syria where residents are starving to death will begin by Monday, Red Cross says amid global outrage - 11 January 2016: ICRC's Pawel Krzysiek, who accompanied an aid convoy on Monday to Madaya, reports that 'the first impression is really heartbreaking', seeing 'many just simply too weak' to welcome the convoy - 9 February 2016: A million Syrian civilians are living in besieged towns, with 300,000 more under threat in Aleppo, aid organisation 'Siege Watch' (PAX, Syria Institute) says in 'First Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria' - 18 February 2016: Hospitals in opposition-held parts of Syria are refusing to share GPS coordinates with Russian and Syrian authorities because of repeated attacks on medical facilities and workers, Médecins Sans Frontières and humanitarian workers on the ground say
2017: 5 September 2017: Africa was in a 2016 survey of 139 countries the only continent to report a continent-wide increase of its index generosity score when compared to its five-year average, as helpfulness worldwide fell by nearly 2%, according to the Charities Aid Foundation CAF


Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Website)
2012/2013: In 2012/2013 the agency 'Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights' had a budget of $177.3 million and 1,000 employees based in Switzerland's Geneva
2013 Investigation into drone strikes: 24/25 January 2013: The UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights has launched an investigation into drone strikes in five places and will review resultant civilian casualties to determine whether the attacks constitute a war crime - Unmanned combat air vehicles (drones) - Targeted killing - October 2011 (ongoing): List of unmanned aerial vehicles in 50 countries
2013 Moratorium on killer robots: 3 May 2013: UN Human Rights Commission's report wants moratorium on killer robots - 30 May: UN expert Heyns demands freeze on robot weapons
2014: 19 September 2014: Deaths of up to 500 Palestinians, Syrians, Egyptians and Sudanese migrants and refugees in an intentional boat-ramming in the Mediterranean must be investigated, says UN's Zeid Raad al-Hussein Zeid
2 October 2014: UN report covering the period from 6 July to 10 September 2014 details 'staggering array' of serious violations of international humanitarian law and gross abuses of human rights that have been perpetrated by ISIL and associated armed groups in northern Iraq
2015: 20 February: UN's Zeid Ra'ad Al-Hussein urges Assad regime to release all activists, lawyers and other detainees they have been holding without due process, including detainees jailed since first anti-Assad protests in Syria four years ago - 18 April 2015: At least 6,116 people, both military personnel and civilians, have been killed, another 15,500 wounded since start of the conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014, UNHCHR says
22 June 2015: UNHCHR's Gaza report on Operation Protective Edge in 2014 reveals nothing but UN’s cluelessness
16 September 2015: UN calls for Sri Lanka war crimes court to investigate atrocities
2016: 1 February 2016: UN Human Rights High Commissioner Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein says that starvation of Syrian civilians is a potential war crime and a crime against humanity that should be prosecuted and not covered by any amnesty linked to ending the conflict - 11 March 2016: UN Human Rights Office's new report on South Sudan describes a multitude of horrendous human rights violations, including a government-operated 'scorched earth policy', deliberate targeting of civilians for rape, pillage, torture, murder and deliberate mass displacement - UN's Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein says there is strong evidence that Ketaeb Hezbollah perpetrated atrocities in Iraq after telling civilians that they were there to help, also saying that the Shi’ite militia backed by Iran fighting alongside Iraqi forces against Islamic State terrorists to retake Fallujah may have kidnapped 900 civilians and executed at least 50, some by beheadings and torture
August 2016: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters and as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes
2017: 10 March 2017: UN report details massive destruction and serious rights violations since July 2015 in southeast Turkey, during operations that have affected more than 30 towns and neighbourhoods and displaced between 355,000 and half a million people, mostly of Kurdish origin - 14 March 2017: Syria a 'torture-chamber', a 'place of savage horror and absolute injustice', UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein told the 'Geneva Forum' in call for Assad to release prisoners and for torturers to be brought to court, as the Assad regime did not attend and a Russian envoy, its main ally, called the Geneva event a 'waste of valuable time' - 30 August 2017: Marking 'International Day of the Victims of Enforced Disappearance' Syrian civil society and human rights organizations call on the UN human rights chief to address the tragedy of the tens of thousands of Syrians who have been forcibly disappeared since March 2011 - 27 October 2017: UN condemned the 'deliberate starvation of civilians' as a war tactic following the release of 'shocking' images showing severely malnourished children in an area near Damascus besieged by Assad’s military, as UN human rights chief says starving civilians as a method of warfare is a clear violation of international law

Since 2000 UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues: Since 2000 UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues - Indigenous peoples
2007 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: 2007 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, was adopted by the General Assembly's majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine)
Since 2008/2009 Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment Initiative: Since 2008/2009 Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment Initiative
UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples: UN-Sonderberichterstatter für die Rechte indigener Völker - UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples
2017: 7/9 August 2017: World still lagging on indigenous rights 10 years after historic declaration, UN experts warn - 9 August 2017: ‘Indigenous peoples are the best guardians of world's biodiversity’, UN Special Rapporteur Victoria Tauli-Corpuz says
List of human rights organisations - List of indigenous rights organizations

United Nations Human Rights Committee: United Nations Human Rights Committee is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by its State parties
United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
United Nations Committee Against Torture: United Nations Committee Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is the body of 18 independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child: United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child
United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention
2016: 5 February 2016: UN panel urges UK and Sweden to end WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's 'deprivation of liberty', arbitrarily detained by the UK and Sweden since he was arrested in London in 2010 after he enraged the USA by publishing hundreds of thousands of secret diplomatic cables


United Nations Human Rights Council: United Nations Human Rights Council
2012: 6 July 2012: The UN Human Rights Council has passed its first resolution on Internet freedom with a call for all states to support individuals' rights online as much as offline
2014: 17 February 2014: World must act on North Korea rights abuse, says UN report - 24 July 2014: In Geneva the UN human rights council voted to launch an international inquiry to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in Gaza, with the USA opposing the move and 17 countries abstaining
2015: 26 March 2015: 43 UN member states call on Russia to comply with Minsk II peace agreement in a joint statement issued in the UN Human Rights Council - 12 May 2015: USA administration admits at UN Human Rights Council that it 'crossed the line' on interrogating detainees also saying that it should 'do better' in police conduct toward minorities - 25 June: In a session congruently to the 29th UN Human Rights Council meeting titled 'Syria after Tyranny' Syrian Coalition’s Hisham Marwa says that the continued failure of the UN Security Council to refer the Syrian file to the ICC gives the Assad regime a green light to shed more blood in Syria - 24 September 2015: UN issues urgent call for Saudi Arabia to stay beheading of juvenile Ali Mohammed al-Nimr and his crucifixion after taking part in demonstrations three years ago for democracy and equal rights - 24 September 2015: USA 'welcomes' Saudi Arabia as head of UN Human Rights Council
2016: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters and as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes - 19 October 2016: UN Human Rights Council will hold a special session on the worsening situation in Aleppo on Friday after a formal request from Britain on behalf of a core group of 11 Western and Arab countries - 22 October 2016: UN Human Rights Council demands immediate end to aerial bombardment of Aleppo, as UN's High Commissioner Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein says that the siege and aerial bombing of Aleppo constitutes 'crimes of historic proportions' that have caused and is causing heavy civilian casualties amounting to war crimes - 25 October 2016: Over 80 human rights and aid organizations, including Human Rights Watch, CARE International and Refugees International, have urged the United Nations member states to expel Russia from the Human Rights Council over its military campaign in Syria - 28 October 2016: It was the first time Russia and one of the permanent five members of the security council had failed to get elected to the HRC since its formation a decade ago, and followed a campaign by human rights groups opposing Russian membership because of its role in the bombing of Syrian cities, eastern Aleppo in particular
2017: 24 June 2017: UNHRC passes climate change resolution co-sponsored by about 50 countries calling to issue climate change response policies in line with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change - 6 September 2017: Human Rights Watch accuses Beijing regime of sabotaging United Nations efforts to promote rights, slamming the world body for often capitulating to Chinese pressure - 29 September 2017: UN human rights council has agreed to set up an independent investigation into all alleged abuses of human rights in Yemen by all sides in the three-year civil war, dating back to September 2014, including seeking to identify those responsible and coming after intensive talks between the Saudis, the Arab League, the Netherlands, the UK, France and the USA - 30 September 2017: UN Human Rights Council condemned the continued widespread and gross violations of human rights and all violations of international humanitarian law by the Assad regime forces and their allied militias
List of human rights organisations - List of indigenous rights organizations
'Geneva Summit for Human Rights and Democracy' annual human rights summit sponsored by a coalition of 20 non-governmental organizations
2015: 24 February 2015: Saudi Arabian blogger Raif Badawi was awarded a prize for courage at the 2015 Geneva Summit for Human Rights and Democracy held on Tuesday - 30 June: Some 1,200 people rally for Israel at UN Human Rights Council
2016: 25 October 2016: Over 80 human rights and aid organizations, including Human Rights Watch, CARE International and Refugees International, have urged the United Nations member states to expel Russia from the Human Rights Council over its military campaign in Syria
2017: 22 février 2017: Des dirigeants du monde entier, comme Donald Trump aux Etats-Unis, propagent des discours de haine 'diabolisant' certains groupes, une rhétorique 'toxique' qui rend le monde plus dangereux, selon Amnesty international dans son rapport annuel
Human Rights Watch international non-governmental organization since 1978 conducting research and advocacy on human rights, headquarters are in New York City with offices in Amsterdam, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Nairobi, Paris, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Washington, D.C., and Zurich - Human Rights Watch website
2017: 1 May 2017: New evidence shows pattern of nerve-agent use by the Syrian Assad regime, according to Human Rights Watch - 1 May 2017 Human Rights Watch documentation: Death by Chemicals - The Syrian Government’s Widespread and Systematic Use of Chemical Weapons - 4 August 2017: HRW says that the execution of cyber-activist Bassel Khartabil, also known as Bassel Safadi, by Assad’s security services is 'a prime example of Syria’s horrific justice system', 'not only did the authorities torture and execute him, they also caused suffering to his family by keeping his fate secret' - 17 August 2017: Human Rights Watch has denounced a call by Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte for police to shoot rights activists who get in the way of his bloody drug war, saying that 'Duterte threatens human rights community'
October 2017: 28 October 2017: Human Rights Watch has urged the international community to slap sanctions on the Assad regime after UN investigators blamed Assad regime forces for a sarin gas attack that killed dozens back in April 4
Save the Children since 1919, an international non-governmental organization that promotes children's rights, helping to improve the lives of children through better education, health care, and economic opportunities, as well as providing emergency aid in natural disasters, war, and other conflicts - Save the Children comprises 'Save the Children International' and 28 member organisations working to deliver change for children in 120 countries
2017: 20 July 2017: Charities have urged the UN to name and shame the Saudi-led coalition over child rights violations in Yemen after research showed more than 120 children were killed or maimed in airstrikes by the alliance last year


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
2014: 5 May 2014: After talks at the Zaatari camp in Jordan with the UN high commissioner for refugees Turkey, Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon urge the implementation of a UN resolution passed in February demanding rapid unhindered access for aid - 20 June: Number of displaced people over 50m for first time since second world war, UNHCR says adding that more than half of those displaced are children - 20 June: At a UNHCR conference marking World Refugee Day Malta's Helena Dalli says that Europe has 'a lot to do to make up for the damage it had caused'
2015: 19 March 2015: UN High Commissioner for Refugees says seven million Syrians are internally displaced as a result of Assad's war against Syrian people, 2.2 million from Rural Damascus, 1.7 million from Aleppo, 1.1 million from Homs, 390,000 from Deir Ezzor, 300,000 from Latakia, 245,000 from Dara’a, 235,000 from Hama and 520,000 from Idlib, Damascus, and Al-Hasakah - 27 March 2015: The number of people applying for asylum in safer countries soared to a 22-year high in 2014, as hundreds of thousands fled conflicts in Syria and Iraq, UNHCR says - 16 April 2015: The war in Syria is largest humanitarian disaster since WWII, UNHCR says urging the international community to act - 19 June 2015: Syria world’s biggest source of refugees, UNHCR says - 1 July 2015: More than 135,000 refugees reached Europe by sea in first half of 2015, with most of the burden being borne by countries in southern Europe, UNHCR says, adding that increased EU funding for rescue operations has meant a decrease in the number of deaths at sea since May - 1 July 2015: The sea route to Europe, the Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees - 9 July 2015: Latest figures from UNHCR put the total number of refugees from Syria fleeing war and persecution to just over 4,013,000 people, the largest exodus from a single conflict in a generation, and with at least 7.6 milion people forced from their homes within Syria - 4 September: UNHCR Antonio Guterres says mass relocation programme needed in the EU to help refugees fleeing war and persecution - 27 September 2015: World waited too long to act on refugee crisis, Antonio Guterres says in an interview on the sidelines of UN General Assembly - 3 October 2015: About half of the 380,000 migrants and refugees who have claimed asylum in Europe this year are Syrian, according to UN, but most Syrian refugees are just too poor to flee to Europe - 24 October 2015: UNHCR's Amin Awad says that Russian airstrikes and increased fighting around the Syrian city of Aleppo had contributed to the 'dynamic of displacement', with about 30,000 displaced, as the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs puts the number at 50,000 - 3 November 2015: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands more refugees to Europe, as UNHCR reports 30% in increase in refugees since Russia began bombing Syria - 24 November: UNHCR decries restrictions on refugees, upholds right to asylum - 19 December: UN refugee chief Guterres calls for 'massive resettlement' of Syrians in Europe - 22 December: Refugee and migrant arrivals in EU pass 1 million in 2015, while thousands died or went missing, UNHCR says
2016: 16 January 2016: Calling on politicans, new UN chief for refugees Filippo Grandi says he hopes international refugee and migration crisis will be solved soon if the necessary political decisions are made - 20 January 2016: More than a million Syrians are enduring another winter as refugees in Lebanon, as for some it is their fifth in a row, displaced by Assad's war that has driven 4.4 million Syrians into neighboring countries and that the UN was unable end - 10 February 2016: UN refugee agency in February 2016 urges Turkey to open borders to Syrian refugees, following murderous Assad regime's, Russian and Iranian attacks on Aleppo - 13 February 2013: Over 80,000 refugees and migrants have already arrived in Europe since the beginning of 2016, the majority of those arriving in January 2016 were women and children making up nearly 58%, over 400 have died trying to cross, according to UNHCR's Melissa Fleming - 21 February 2016: UN officially registered more than a million Syrian refugees in Lebanon, the highest concentration in the world, making up more than a quarter of the country's population, with 70% of them living below the poverty line - 8 March 2016: UN refugee agency has concerns over the deal reached between the EU and Turkey that would see refugees sent back to Turkey, where some nationalities lack protection - 22 March 2016: UNHCR has stopped transporting refugees and migrants arriving on Lesbos from Turkey to a reception facility as their subsequent freedom of movement is no longer guaranteed, a UNHCR spokesman says, referring to last week's EU-Turkey deal - 20 May 2016: Hundreds of UN schools in Syria, Palestinian territories, Lebanon and Jordan run by the UN have been attacked, damaged or rendered inoperable by armed conflict and violence in the Middle East over the past five years, disrupting the education of thousands of children, a UN report says - 20 June 2016: As a record 65 million men, women and children are forced from their homes by war and persecution last year, and as the three countries Syria, Afghanistan and Somalia produce half the world’s refugees, UN refugee agency sounds alarm over failure of nations to find collective solutions
August 2016: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters and as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes - In 2015 UNHCR said that funding shortage leaves Syrian refugees in danger of missing vital support
September 2016: 15 September 2016: Highlighting the impact of conflicts on civilians in a report showing that the global number of displaced people is equivalent to the UK’s population of 65 million, World Bank and UNHCR show that the root of the problem are 10 conflicts in Afghanistan, Burundi, the Caucasus, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, the former Yugoslavia, saying that 89% of refugees and 99% of internally displaced people were hosted by around 15 developing countries, as xenophobic reactions in high-income countries threaten the consensus that is underpinning global economic growth

UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East: UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East since 1949
Since 1947: United Nations Special Committee on Palestine UNSCOP created on 15 May 1947 in response to a United Kingdom government request - report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the UN General Assembly - United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine recommended a partition - on 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the plan as resolution 181 - List of the UN resolutions concerning Israel and Palestine since 1947
Since 1950: UNRWA education programme in the Middle East with 700 schools employing more than 20,000 mostly Palestinian teaching and support staff - Palestinian curriculum and Antisemitism - Antisemitism in the Arab world in the twentieth century - Antisemitism in the Palestinian territories
Since 1950: Since 1950 UNRWA the main healthcare provider for the Palestinian refugee population
Since 2003: UNRWA accused of hiring known militants, perpetuating Palestinian dependency, demonizing Israel, and funneling money from Western governments to line the pockets of the Palestinian Authority and purchasing arms for terrorists
December 2007: 3 December 2007: How UNRWA creates dependency
February 2009: 8 February 2009: Ex-UNRWA official blasts agency for politicizing Palestinian refugee issue - 26 February 2009: Australian lawmaker Michael Danby said Australia’s $30 million in funding for Palestinians since 2007, largely through the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, was being 'diverted to arms purchases, terrorist operations and anti-Israel incitement, as well as into the pockets of the Palestinian Authority leadership'
2014: 22 June 2014: UN envoy Robert Serry denies claim he tried to funnel $20m to Hamas behind Israel's back - 13/14 July 2014: Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Council Kraishi says every missile fired from Gaza at Israel is a crime against humanity because it is directed at civilian targets and, unlike IDF, 'we never warn anyone about where these missiles are about to fall' - 17 July: 20 missiles found in UN-run school in Gaza, confirming Israel’s oft-repeated claim that Hamas and other Gazan terror groups use civilian infrastructure to hide weapons - 19 July: UN's Ban Ki-moon joins efforts for ceasefire negotiations after Hamas's rejection and as death toll reaches 350 - 20 July 2014: 'United' Nations agency UNRWA handed 20 missiles found in Gaza school back to Hamas, not to International Criminal Court - 22 July 2014: Israeli newspaper asks wether is was a war crime that UNRWA handed rockets over to Hamas - 22 July: For the second time in less than a week, rockets have been found in a school in Gaza operated by the UNRWA - 23 July 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon is 'alarmed' to hear that rockets placed in UN-run school in Gaza now 'have gone missing', demanding a full review - 28 July 2014: Hamas fired anti-tank missile from UNRWA school in Beit Hanoun on Thursday, yard was empty when IDF responded, IDF investigation says - 30 July 2014: UN agency for Palestinian refugees admits that a stockpile of Hamas rockets for the third time since the onset of Operation Protective Edge was found in UNRWA’s Gaza schools, but was not publicized by UNRWA - 30 July 2914: Three Israeli soldiers were killed and 15 injured in an explosion at a booby-trapped UNRWA 'health clinic' in Gaza's Khan Yunis that housed the opening of a Hamas tunnel for terrorist attacks in Israel - 2 August: Finnish reporter admits Gaza rockets launched from hospital - 13 August: Concerned by rockets turned over to local authorities by the UN organization, USA lawmakers want UNRWA investigated over troubling Gaza role
2015: 3 June 2015: Marking the 65th anniversary of the UNRWA Ban Ki-moon calls for an immediate resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations saying that UNRWA was never meant to exist for 65 years, but 'it exists because of political failure' - 13 August 2015: UNRWA in financial crisis from warfare in Gaza and Syria, threatening the reopening of schools that it runs in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria - 17 October 2015: Palestinian employees of UN refugee agency UNRWA are inciting Palestinians to commit terror attacks against Israelis from social media accounts on which they explicitly identify as United Nations workers, a report from a UN watchdog published Friday charged
2017: 6 February 2017: Palestinian employees of United Nations refugee agency UNRWA are continuing to use social media to support terror activities and spread anti-Semitism, despite a previous outcry in 2015 over the issue, according to a report by UN watchdog - February 2017: Poisoning Palestinian Children - UN Watch's report on UNRWA teachers' incitement to jihadist terrorism and antisemitism - 23 April 2017: UNRWA’s Gaza union head al-Hindi, accused of Hamas ties and elected to a leadership role in the terror group in February vote, no longer employed by agency


International Commission on Missing Persons: International Commission on Missing Persons (intergovernmental organization) - International Commission on Missing Persons - icmp website - Missing people organizations
10 November 2013: DNA advances make it possible to identify bodies from mass graves, providing evidence to bring warlords to trial


International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement - International Committee of the Red Cross - International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
2014/2015: 12 August 2014: Humanitarian aid to eastern Ukraine under auspices of Red Cross excludes armed escorts, ICRC says - 13 August 2014: Red Cross does not know the content of Russian convoy - 14 August 2014: Red Cross sends envoy to Moscow, Kyiv to discuss Russian regime's convoy to Luhansk - 3. Oktober 2015: Internationales Komitee des Roten Kreuzes schickt mit 12 LKW humanitäre Hilfe für die Einwohner der besetzten Gebiete von Donbas
2016: 11 January 2016: ICRC aid convoys head for Syrian towns and villages including Madaya besieged by Assad forces, where thousands are trapped and people are reported to have died of starvation despite calls for UN aid since October - 16 January 2016: Doctors Without Borders said on Friday that medics it supports in the besieged town of Madaya confirmed five deaths from starvation since the first humanitarian convoy arrived on 11 January - 29 April 2016: United NGOs demand end to Syria atrocities as Assad regime's Aleppo airstrikes continue
July 2016: 30 July 2016: Hundreds of thousands of residents in the besieged Syrian city of Aleppo in fear of Assad's and Russian war crimes, as ICRC says that the safety of those who decide to stay must be guaranteed
October 2017: 6 October 2017: The International Committee of the Red Cross voiced alarm at a surge in violence resulting in hundreds of civilian casualties and the destruction of hospitals and schools over the past two weeks in Syria amid bombing campaigns by the Assad and Russian regime and also by the international coalition
November 2017: 2 November 2017: The Dutch Red Cross offers its 'deep apologies' for failing to act to protect Jews during World War II, following the publication of a research paper on its inaction, as Dutch Red Cross’ Inge Brakman says there was a 'lack of courage' on the part of the organization during the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands


Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders: Médecins Sans Frontières - 'Médecins Sans Frontières' website
2016: 30 janvier 2016: En Syrie 16 autre personnes sont mortes de faim dans la ville de Madaya, assiégée par les forces pro Assad, depuis que des convois humanitaires y sont entrés mi-janvier, selon MSF - 7 March 2016: Wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times', warns Médecins Sans Frontières' Joanne Liu, as attacks against civilians in war zones across the world have grown more indiscriminate due to a focus by the major global powers on fighting terrorism and failure in their duty to uphold the rules of conflict - 18 June 2016: MSF rejects EU funding in protest at the way Europe has responded to the refugee crisis - 1 October 2016: Doctors Without Borders called upon that the Assad regime and its allies to halt the indiscriminate bombing that has killed and wounded hundreds of civilians, many of them children, over the past week in Aleppo - 5 October 2016: Abu Khalid, an orthopaedic surgeon and director of an MSF-supported hospital in east Aleppo says 'I have seen people with injuries that I cannot describe'
2017: 16 février 2017: Des vidéos, trouvées sur les réseaux sociaux, montrent 'qu'il y a des attaques systématiques des hôpitaux de la part des armées russe et syrienne', estime un porte-parole d'un centre de recherche britannique, qui a procédé à l'analyse des images 'dans le moindre détail' pour MSF - 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, Medecins Sans Frontieres said - 1 August 2017: Sick and injured civilians within and outside Raqqa city are facing major difficulties obtaining urgent lifesaving medical care due to the ongoing battle to control the northeastern Syrian city, according to 'Médecins Sans Frontières' - 29 September 2017: An escalation in the targeted bombing of medical facilities since September 19 has forced the closure and evacuation of hospitals throughout northwestern Syria, leaving people trapped in a war zone without access to health care, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières MSF said, as UN's Jan Egeland denounces air raids on hospitals and calls for establishing system of notification to prevent attacks on humanitarian facilities in Syria
Attacks on humanitarian workers and hospitals: Attacks on humanitarian workers - Medical Neutrality refers to a principle of noninterference with medical services in times of armed conflict
Since September/October 2015: 29 October 2015: The escalation of attacks by Russia’s air forces, which began in late September, had targeted 12 hospitals in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, including six supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, a MSF statement says - 2 November 2015: 'Doctors Without Borders' is urging the permanent member states of the UN Security Council to comply with the responsibility to protect mandate to stop the escalating aerial massacres in Syria as quickly as possible
3 October 2015: 3 October 2015 bombing of Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Kunduz - 5 November 2015: New report reveals MSF staff's fruitless calls for help as hospital in Kunduz came under USA fire and increases pressure on the ongoing Obama administration's investigation to explain how a manned gunship could for over an hour strafe a marked hospital, whose GPS coordinates were known, also reiterating MSF’s claim that the hospital was targeted deliberately and with precision and quoting staff saying the plane shot people trying to escape
26 October 2015: On 26 October 2015 a Saudi Arabian-led coalition airstrike completely destroyed the Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Saada, in northwestern Yemen, including the operating room
1 December 2015: 1 December 2015: A hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Homs partially destroyed in a 'double-tap' barrel bombing, killing seven people including a young girl and wounding many, latest in apparent escalation of strikes on medical facilities by Russian and Assad terror warplanes - 2 December 2015: Doctors Without Borders reported two barrel bombing attacks against one of their hospitals in Zafarana in Syria’s Homs Province, which left at least 7 people dead and 47 others wounded, including 23 women and children under the age of 15
2016: 10 January 2016: A missile hit a health centre operated by Medecins Sans Frontieres in northern Yemen on Sunday, killing four people and wounding 10 others - 9 February 2016: An airstrike hit Tafas field hospital, some 12 km from the Jordanian border in southern Syria, that is supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, killing three people including a nurse and wounding six - 15 février 2016: Un hôpital à Hadiyé dans la région de Maaret al-Noomane, lié à MSF, a été bombardé, neuf personnes, dont un enfant, ont été tuées lors de frappes de l'aviation, vraisemblablement russe - 18 February 2016: Hospitals in opposition-held parts of Syria are refusing to share GPS coordinates with Russian and Syrian authorities because of repeated attacks on medical facilities and workers, Médecins Sans Frontières and humanitarian workers on the ground say - 23 February: Survivors of MSF Hospital targeted by warplanes in Maarat al-Nouman recount their stories - 29 April 2016: Médecins Sans Frontières’ request for independent inquiry into 3 October USA airstrike that killed 42 civilians remains open after military fails to yield charges - 9 May 2016: Attacks on hospitals and medical facilities by the regime and Russian forces continue unabated, as Assad’s jets on Sunday bombed a hospital in Kafrnaha in rural Aleppo which is supported by Doctors Without Borders destroying three ambulances and causing damage to the hospital building - 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings, after Russia blamed for new strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idlib city, killing scores - 24 juillet 2016: Des bombardements aériens, menés par la Syrie et la Russie, ont touchés les établissements dans les quartiers est de la ville, assiégés depuis le 17 juillet par le régime - 24 July 2016: Four makeshift hospitals and a local blood bank in Syria's battered Aleppo city have been hit by regime air raids in the past 24 hours, including the children's hospital in a besieged eastern neighbourhood, where the bombardment killed a two-day-old baby, according to a group of doctors - 26 July 2016: Russian warplanes fired vacuum missiles and cluster bombs at residential neighborhoods, hitting Atareb's main hospital and medicine stores and wounding 45 more people - 29 July 2016: An airstrike has hit a maternity hospital in a rebel-held area of Idlib province supported by Save the Children, killing two people and injuring several others including a woman, who was six months pregnant and who lost her leg, and several babies, when their incubators crashed to the floor in the attack - 31 July 2016: Four new-born babies reportedly killed after a recent triple airstrike, which aid workers said came from Syrian government warplanes, hit besieged Aleppo’s last children’s hospital run by a group of Syrian doctors, the Independent Doctors’ Association, and backed by the charity Unicef - 31 July 2016: It rose to 9 (including 3 citizens, a child, a pharmaceutical and the deputy director of Jassem hospital) the number of people who were killed when the warplanes bombed areas of Jassem in the countryside of Daraa, where one of the raids targeted the town’s hospital area, as the Syrian Center for Policy Research puts the death toll from the six-year Assad war against Syrians at more than 470,000 people - 8 August 2016: Hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members - 11 August 2016: Facing an attack on a medical facility every 17 hours, 15 of the last 35 doctors in rebel-held eastern Aleppo have written a letter to USA's Obama with an urgent plea for intervention to stop the bombardment of hospitals in the besieged city by the Russian-backed Syrian air force, saying 'we do not need tears or sympathy or even prayers, we desperately need a zone free from bombing over eastern Aleppo to stop the attacks', as some doctors refused to sign the letter because they had no wish to make any more appeals to the west - 13 August 2016: Russian jets destroy pediatric and maternity hospital in Kafar Hamra in Aleppo province - 15 August: At least 11 people have been killed and 19 injured in an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition, that includes USA, UK and Sunni Arab allies, on a Yemeni hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières as the conflict escalates following the collapse of peace talks, as MSF's desk manager for the Emergency Unit in Yemen Teresa Sancristóval says that 'this is the fourth attack against an MSF facility in less than 12 months' - 17 August 2016: Russian fighter jets destroy hospital in Daret Izza, rural Aleppo
2017: 16 February 2017: The Assad regime and Russian forces were behind airstrikes that hit two hospitals in northeastern Syria in February 2016, according to an investigation initiated by Doctors Without Borders, also saying that 25 people, including an MSF staff member, were killed and 11 others wounded in the attack - 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, Medecins Sans Frontieres said - 22 September 2017: At least four hospitals were targeted by Assad regime and Russian strikes as warplanes conducted more than 105 raids within a 24-hour period, deliberately attacking medical facilities in northern Hama and southern Idleb province




North Atlantic Treaty Organization: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - Member states of NATO - Enlargement of NATO
2013: 2 September 2013: NATO's secretary-general Rasmussen claimed he had seen evidence convincing him Assad regime was behind the deadly chemical weapons attack near Damascus and said it would send a dangerous signal to dictators if the world did not respond firmly
2014: 2 March 2014: NATO meets on Ukraine, says Russia risks destabilizing Europe - 15 March: NATO's Anders Fogh Rasmussen says a planned referendum in Ukraine's Crimea region would violate international law - 16 March: Hackers calling itself 'cyber berkut' in Russian rather than Ukrainian brought down several public NATO websites with cyber-attacks on Saturday - 29 March: Norway's Stoltenberg to become next NATO chief - 1 April: Nato plans stronger ties to states south of Russia by increasing military co-operation with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova - 1 April: NATO to bolster its military presence in eastern Europe as it sees no sign that Putin regime is withdrawing tens of thousands of troops from the Ukrainian border - 2 April: NATO suspends cooperation with Russia over its annexation of Crimea and will draft measures to strengthen its defences and reassure Eastern European countries - 8 April: NATO's chief warned Russian regime that it would be committing a historic mistake if it intervened further in Ukraine, urging it to step back after pro-Kremlin militants seized government buildings in several cities in the east - 10 April: As Russian military amassing near Ukraine border are 'ready to go,' NATO's Europe commander says USA troops may be sent to alliance member states in Eastern Europe now feeling at risk - 11 April: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May 2014: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 24 July: NATO continues to see evidence of weapons being moved into Ukraine from Russia since the downing of Malaysian MH17 airliner - 26 July: USA passed intelligence data to NATO indicating that Russian regime launches missiles at targets in Ukraine - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law - 3 December 2014: NATO steps up actions to deal with Ukraine crisis, announcing the establishment of an interim spearhead force
2015: 22 January 2015: NATO confirms Russian troops shift to Ukraine - 5 February: Nato will set up six new command posts on its eastern borders and create a 5,000-strong rapid reaction force to counter perceived threat of Russian aggression - 18 February 2015: Russian-backed militants advancing in eastern Ukraine despite ceasefire use modern weapons and not the old Soviet arms as Russia says, according to Nato - 25 June: NATO strengthens rapid response force up to 40,000 personnel, as eastern EU-member states alarmed by Russian regime's military incursions in Ukraine - 28 July: NATO holds emergency meeting to discuss Turkey-Syria border crisis and Turkey's campaign against 'Islamic State' terrorists and Kurdish militants - 28 July: Turkey urged at Nato meeting not to abandon Kurdish peace process - 10 September: NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg sounds the alarm over Russian intentions in Syria amid reports that Russian forces have begun participating in military operations in Syria in support of Assad regime's troops - 8 October 2015: NATO prepares major troop deployment to Turkey after a series of violations of Turkish airspace by Russian jets bombing Syria - 14 October 2015: MH17 crash perpetrators should be prosecuted as soon as possible, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg says welcoming publication of the Dutch Safety Board report on the causes - 21 October: NATO member states are conducting largest military exercise in ten years in Mediterranean
2016: 9 March 2016: NATO plans to increase its presence in eastern member states in the face of a more aggressive Russia and in response to Russian military deployment close to members' borders - 6 June 2016: Ten-day NATO military exercise Anaconda-2016 will involve 31,000 troops and thousands of vehicles from 24 countries, as Nato and partner countries seek to mount a display of strength as a response to concerns about Russia’s assertiveness and actions
8-9 July 2016 NATO summit in Warsaw - 8 July 2016: NATO summit in Warsaw starts today regarding numerous world crises - 9 July: At the Nato summit in Warsaw British PM Cameron warns that Europe must remain united in the face of the threat from Russia
2017: 1 February 2017: NATO calls on Russia to stop the violence in Donbas, as the OSCE informed of 5,600 ceasefire violations during the last week - 18 March 2017: British troops have arrived in Estonia as part of a major Nato mission in the Baltic states to deter Russian aggression - 8 April 2017: NATO blames the Assad regime for the USA bombing of Syria’s Shaerat airbase in Homs, justifying it as a reaction to the chemical attack carried out this week against civilians - 25 May 2017: Video shows Montenegro PM at Nato photocall in the new headquarters in Brussels pushed aside by USA's Trump
Foreign relations of Nato: Foreign relations of Nato - Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council - Mediterranean Dialogue forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean since 1994 - Individual Partnership Action Plan
Nato/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Nato/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Nato/Georgia relations: Nato/Georgia relations
Nato/Macedonia relations: Nato/Macedonia relations
Nato/Moldova relations: Nato/Moldova relations
Nato/Montenegro relations: Nato/Montenegro relations
December 2015: 2 décembre 2015: L'Otan a invité le Monténégro à devenir son 29e Etat membre
April 2017: 28 April 2017: Voting 46-0 in favour, Montenegro’s parliament supports the Balkan country’s membership in Nato in a historic turn toward the west amid protests by Russian regime and the pro-Russia opposition
Nato/Pakistan relations: Nato/Pakistan relations
Nato/Russia relations: Nato/Russia relations
2015: 18 February 2015: Russian-backed militants advancing in eastern Ukraine despite ceasefire use modern weapons and not the old Soviet arms as Russia says, according to Nato 12 April 2015: NATO accuses Russian regime of continuing to supply the militants in east Ukraine with more weapons and troops - 5 October 2015: Nato condemns Russia for violation of Turkey's airspace as Russian fighter jets carry out murderous air attacks on Syrian rebels including the democratic opposition - 12 October 2015: NATO members to strengthen sanctions against Russian regime if it does not stop its aggression against Ukraine, after Parliamentary Assembly approved a 'Solidarity with Ukraine' resolution - 25 November 2015: NATO's Jens Stoltenberg offers support for Turkey after a Russian fighter jet was shot down near the Syrian border, rejecting any suggestion that the incident happened outside of Turkey's borders
2016: 13 February 2016: NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg urges firm reaction to Russia's destabilisation of European security order - 21 June: Alliance has to respond to Russia that has tripled its military spending since 2000, in non-compliance with the NATO-Russia Founding Act as one of the deal's basic principles is the respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg says adding that the Alliance seeks no confrontation
2017: 15 May 2017: Staged by Stratcom security specialists from 27 countries including Britain and the USA will meet in Prague in what is being billed as the most concerted attempt yet to counter alleged Russian regime's destabilisation measures aimed at undermining democratic elections
Nato/Syria relations: 8 April 2017: NATO blames the Assad regime for the USA bombing of Syria’s Shaerat airbase in Homs, justifying it as a reaction to the chemical attack carried out this week against civilians
Nato/Ukraine relations: Nato/Ukraine relations - 5 February 2015: Ukrainian president Poroshenko calls for NATO states to provide weapons saying that civilian deaths and the growing conflict should provide the alliance with enough reason to come to Ukraine's aid - 9 July 2016: NATO members 'stand united in support for Ukraine's sovereignty, territorial integrity', NATO says in Warsaw




UN International Court of Justice: UN International Court of Justice - UN International Court of Justice (Website)
2011: International Court of Justice 18 July 2011: Thai-Cambodian troops 'must leave Preah Vihear temple'
2012: 28 April 2012: Indian judge Dalveer Bhandari voted to UN's highest court
2014: 30/31 March 2014: ICJ set to rule on Japan's whale hunting in Antarctic, after Australia demanded UN court's decision - 31 March: UN court puts halt to Japan's Antarctic whale hunt
24 April 2014: Marshall Islands that was site of 67 nuclear tests between 1946 and 1958, accuses states of 'flagrant denial of human justice' and sues at the international court of justice at The Hague nuclear powers USA, Russia, China, France, the UK, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel over failure to disarm
2015: 3 February 2015: International Court of Justice to judge on Croatia, Serbia genocide claims - 30 novembre 2015: Contraint de renoncer à la saison 2014-2015 après une décision en mars 2014 de la CIJ, le Japon repart chasser la baleine demain
2016: 30 January 2016: After the Marshall Islands in 2014 accused China, Britain, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia and the USA of 'not fulfilling their obligations with respect to the cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament', the Marshall Islands will seek to persuade the UN’s International Court of Justice to take up a lawsuit against India, Pakistan and Britain, which it accuses of failing to halt the nuclear arms race - 10 March 2016: Marshall Islands begins legal action against the world’s nuclear powers aimed at global nuclear disarmament, argueing at International Court of Justice that health and lives of its people destroyed by dozens of nuclear tests along its territory from 1946-1958
2017: 6 mars 2017: L'Ukraine demande à la Cour internationale de Justice de prendre des mesures urgentes afin que le régime russe mette fin 'à tout appui', financier, armé ou humain, au 'terrorisme' dans le conflit impliquant des rebelles séparatistes prorusses qui déchire l'est de l'Ukraine, alors que les tensions s'intensifient, ainsi qu'à ce que l'Ukraine qualifie de 'discrimination' envers les minorités de la Crimée annexée par la Russie


UN War Crimes Commission 1943-1949: UN War Crimes Commission 1943-1949, initially called the UN Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes, was a commission of the UN that investigated allegations of war crimes committed by Nazi Germany and the other 'Axis powers' in World War II, had no power to prosecute criminals by itself
2014: 11 November 2014: Secret, internationally approved war crimes indictments of tens of thousands of Nazis have been released to researchers at Soas, University of London, after a seven-year fight, and will soon be made available to the public
2015: 16 July 2015: UN war crimes files reveal that SS guard Gröning faced trial after the war for his role in the Holocaust but USA cold war fears led to Nazis being released
January 2017: 25 January 2017: Researchers uncover vast numbers of unknown Nazi killing fields, as the 'Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos' set for completion in 2025, has now documented 42,500 sites of Nazi persecution, over eight times more than predicted - 25 January 2017: After changes in Germany's prosecution policy since 2011 have resulted in more investigations, in 2015/2016 Germany opened investigations against 42 individuals and convicted Oskar Groening, as seven decades after World War II there have been 103 convictions of Nazi war criminals, with Italy and the USA topping the list, according to the annual Simon Wiesenthal Center report, published since 2002
1942 - April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online - 18 April 2017: Allies of World War II Soviet Union, United Kingdom and USA, that together opposed the Axis powers' aggression and war crimes, knew of Holocaust in 1942, 2 years before previously assumed, UN documents prove, posing questions on efforts to halt slaughter and shedding damning light on refusal to take in refugees - 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria
Nuremberg trials 1945-1949: Nuremberg trials 1945/1946 series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes - The subsequent Nuremberg trials 1946-1949, series of twelve USA military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany
2014: 27 October 2014: USA intelligence and law enforcement agencies likely employed over 1,000 Nazis as spies during the Cold War, sometimes ignoring or concealing their war crimes and helping them immigrate to the USA, some had served at the highest levels of the Nazi Party and were recruited to work as spies for the USA in Europe
International Military Tribunal for the Far East 1946-1948: International Military Tribunal for the Far East, convened on 29 April 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for war crimes


International Criminal Court ICC: International Criminal Court ICC, the primary goal of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, entered into force on 1 July 2002, is 'to put an end to impunity for the perpetrators' 'of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole' - International Criminal Court (Website) - States parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Non-signatory states to the statute of the ICC
Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, the officer of the International Criminal Court whose duties include the investigation and prosecution of the crimes under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes as well as the crime of aggression once that crime comes under the Court's jurisdiction
2011: 1 December 2012: Consensus candidate for next ICC Prosecutor - 1 December 2011: Gambia's Fatou Bensouda to be new ICC chief prosecutor
2012: Fatou B. Bensouda is a Gambian lawyer, former advisor of Yahya Jammeh, international criminal law prosecutor and legal adviser - 15 June 2012: Fatou Bensouda sworn in as ICC prosecutor - 29. Juni 2012: Gegen Gewaltherrschaft und Straflosigkeit - 10 Jahre Internationaler Strafgerichtshof
November 2015: 17 November 2015: 14th session of the Assembly of ICC States Parties 18-26 November 2015 - 18 November 2015: On the sidelines of the 14th session of the ICC Assembly Syrian Coalition’s office in Brussels organized 'The Caesar Photo Exhibit' in The Hague to showcase photographs documenting the crimes committed by the Assad regime against Syrian detainees
2016: 15 September 2016: Environmental destruction and landgrabs could lead to governments and individuals being prosecuted for crimes against humanity by the ICC following a decision to expand its remit
2017: 25 April 2017: ICC accepts criminal lawsuit the Syrian Coalition filed against Assad regime for war crimes and crimes against humanity
Europe:
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia - List of indictees of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
United Nations Protection Force 1992-1995 - the first UN peacekeeping force in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars - UNPROFOR and Srebrenica massacre
Bosnian War, prosecutions and legal proceedings - Srebrenica massacre - 5. Juli 2011: Urteil des Berufungsgerichts in Den Haag gegen die Niederlande betreffend Srebrenica Massaker - S. Milosevic trial - Karadzic trial - Mladic in Serbia arrested May 2011 - 6 April 2012: Bosnians mark 20 years since war began - 16 May: Ratko Mladic to go on trial over Bosnian war crimes, Peter Biles reports - 28 June: Radovan Karadzic fails at The Hague war crimes tribunal to be cleared of all charges against him - 16 October 2012: Bosnian Serb wartime leader Karadzic denies war crimes - 11 July 2013: Karadzic genocide charge reinstated - 6 September 2013: The Netherlands, during UN peacekeeping mission, is liable for the deaths of three Bosnian Muslim men killed in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled Friday
4 July 2015: New research reveals that Britain and the USA knew six weeks before Srebrenica massacre that enclave would fall, but they decided to abandon Srebrenica to its fate in their efforts for peace
Croatian War of Independance - Goran Hadzic - Croatia war crimes suspect Goran Hadzic in Serbia arrested July 2011 - 22 July: Serbia extradites Goran Hadzic to Hague court - 25. Juli: Hadzic erstmals vor UN-Kriegsverbrechertribunal - 4 July 2012: Victims of wartime Serb propaganda seek justice
6 September 2011: Serbian general Perisic jailed for 27 years at Hague
24 March 2016: 21 years since he was first charged, after 11 years on the run, a five-year trial and the 18 months the judges took to deliberate over a verdict, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžic was convicted of genocide for the 1995 slaughter at Srebrenica, and nine other counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, including murder, terror and extermination, as victims say 40-year sentence is too lenient and many Serbs continue to support the murder Karadžic
31 March 2016: UN judges acquitted Serbian nationalist firebrand Vojislav Seselj of war crimes and crimes against humanity on Thursday, a shock verdict that delivers a boost to his anti-EU Serbian Radical Party ahead of April elections and that sees war victims and leaders of neighbouring countries reacting with dismay
2003-2016: 10 July 2016: British and USA 2003 invasion of Iraq was illegal, former Deputy PM John Prescott says - 10 juillet 2016: Ministre du gouvernement de Tony Blair en 2003 John Prescott a déploré dimanche une guerre 'illégale' et regrette amèrement sa décision d'entrer en guerre contre l'Irak et ses conséquences
Since 2011 Russian support of Assad's war against the Syrian people: Since 2015 Russian military intervention in Syria supporting Assad's dictatorship - 2015 Russian air raids in Syria - 30 September 2015: Syrian Coalition's Ghalioun warns that Russia’s Putin will personally face criminal responsibility for aiding and abetting Assad in his ongoing war crimes and crimes against humanity - 10 October 2015: Human Rights Watch says that Russian air strikes on Talbiseh in northern Homs that killed at least 17 civilians should be investigated for possible violations of the laws of war - 26 October 2015: Human Rights Watch accuses Russia of war crimes in Syria - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 9 November 2015: Motii Jalal's footage shows the moment a Russian airstrike hits the Sarmin National hospital in Idlib province, killing 12 people and injuring 20 - 23 décembre 2015: Amnesty International a accusé mercredi la Russie d'avoir tué des 'centaines de civils' et causé des destructions massives en Syrie dans des raids contre des zones d'habitation pouvant 'constituer des crimes de guerre'
2016: 30 January 2016: Russian air forces have murdered 1,380 civilians, including 332 children, 195 women and 853 men and young men, since the 30th of September 2015, documented by SOHR - 23 February 2016: As Russia is consistently denying accusations of bombing civilian areas, reports from the field tell a different story, rescue workers on the scene confirm the assaults were happening every day, and rights group says that Russia is guilty of some the most 'egregious' war crimes it has seen in decades
September 2016: 22 September 2016: Assad regime and Russian air forces have targeted no fewer than 52 hospitals and medical centers since the beginning of 2016, also repeatedly targeting aid convoys destined for besieged civilians, the latest of which was a UN-Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy near Aleppo on Tuesday, Syrian interim government's Jawad Abu Hatab states - 23 September 2016: FSA groups have footage showing the moment the attack on Aleppo-bound aid convoy on Tuesday took place and the remnants of the weapons used, as the Russian invaders bombed the town with internationally banned weapons, especially napalm, and facilities and universities were also targeted by air strikes which killed a number of students, says interim government PM
October 2016: 5 October 2016: Analysis of satellite imagery of the deadly attack near Aleppo on the UN and Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy last month shows that it was an air strike, UN expert Lars Bromley says
Since 2014: Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine since February 2014 - 17 April 2014: Putin, who earlier denied the presence of Russian troops in Crimea who described themselves as self-defense forces, admits during a Q&A session that people in military uniforms without any insignia in Crimea were Russian military
Since 17 July 2014: Since 17 July 2014 International reactions to the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown by Russian BUK missile
2015: 18 March 2015: Ukraine will file a suit to the Hague tribunal on the recognition of Russia's aggression against Ukraine since 2013/2014 - 8/9 September 2015: Close to 8,000 people have lost their lives in eastern Ukraine since mid-April 2014, UN says, indicating that Russian regime bore responsibility for the increasing death toll - 26 October 2015: Hague tribunal receives evidence of more than 300 war crimes committed in Donbas
2016: 26 April 2016: The report 'Russian War Crimes in Eastern Ukraine' submitted to the International Criminal Court in the Hague on 22 April - 29 April 2016: ICC in the Hague has started examining the materials on Russian military crimes in eastern Ukraine - 6 July 2016: During spring-summer of 2014, several villages of Luhansk region have been shelled with tube and rocket artillery from Russia's territory, according to international human rights organization documenting more evidence for the International Criminal Court ICC - 28 August 2016: Ukrainian Justice Minister Petrenko forecasts that the Hague tribunal might take up Ukraine's case against Russia only after the war has ended, while it might take the European Court of Human Rights up to five years to consider claims by Ukraine against Russia
September 2016: 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
3 July 2015: Dutch seek UN tribunal to prosecute downing of Malaysian plane MH17 by Russian-backed separatists in eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014 - 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists - 16 July 2016: Misdated and edited satellite images of the MH17 crash, published by Russian Defense Ministry in July 2014, were 'so heavily manipulated that they lack any credibility as evidence', independent investigation group Bellingcat states - 17 July 2016: Only Russia hinders MH17 crash investigation, abusing the veto in the UN Security Council, Ukraine's Poroshenko says marking the second anniversary of the tragedy
Middle East:
Special Tribunal for Lebanon - Lebanon - Civil War and beyond
30 June 2011: UN tribunal issues arrest warrants for the murder of Rafiq Hariri - 30 June 2011: Special Tribunal for Lebanon has charged four Hezbollah members - 17 August 2011: UN tribunal releases Hariri indictment - 24 October 2012: Judges at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon on Wednesday said in an appeal ruling that the court could try four members of the powerful Hezbollah movement for the murder of former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri - 16 January 2014: The trial of four men accused of murdering former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri is set to begin at an unprecedented tribunal at The Hague
3 April 2012: ICC rejects Palestinian bid for Israeli war crimes inquiry in Gaza conflict
Since 2011 War crimes in Syria: War crimes in Syria since 2011
2 December 2013: UN implicates Bashar al-Assad in Syria war crimes - 20 May 2014: 58 countries urge United Nations to refer Syria to International Criminal Court
13 May 2015: A three-year operation to smuggle official documents out of Syria has produced enough evidence to indict Bashar al-Assad and 24 senior members of his regime, 'Commission for International Justice and Accountability' CIJA says, as Syrian Coalition calls for holding an urgent UN Security Council meeting, saying that the international community and the members of the UN Security Council bear full responsibility of the catastrophic situation in Syria
30 September 2015: France launches war crimes and crimes against humanity investigation into Bashar al-Assad's regime - 30 September - 1 October 2015: France is investigating Bashar al-Assad over alleged crimes against humanity, also examining claims of torture and kidnapping by Assad's forces and opened 'on the basis of indications received from the foreign ministry' on 10 September
11 April 2017: Spanish National Court judge Eloy Velasco in Madrid has begun hearing testimony against potential war crimes by al-Assad's regime in Syria, investigating nine of his close aids in the security and intelligence apparatus, including long-time Vice President Farouk al-Sharaa and intelligence chief Ali Mamlouk, as the Spanish plaintiff Amal Hag Hamdo Anfalis, whose brother was abducted and tortured in Damascus before being executed, explained how the family identified the victim's body among photos smuggled out of Syria by a sympathetic forensic photographer codenamed Caesar
30 September 2015: Syrian Coalition's Ghalioun warns that Russia’s Putin will personally face criminal responsibility for aiding and abetting Assad in his ongoing war crimes and crimes against humanity - 10 October 2015: Human Rights Watch says that Russian air strikes on Talbiseh in northern Homs that killed at least 17 civilians should be investigated for possible violations of the laws of war - 26 October 2015: Human Rights Watch accuses Russia of war crimes in Syria - 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 9 November 2015: Motii Jalal's footage shows the moment a Russian airstrike hits the Sarmin National hospital in Idlib province, killing 12 people and injuring 20 - 17 November 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon renews calls that the situation in Syria be referred to the International Criminal Court in the 21st report he submitted to the UN Security Council
30/31 August 2016: Russian air force carried out dozens of airstrikes on Idlib city and its countryside, using internationally banned weapons, including napalm and white phosphorus - 5 October 2016: Analysis of satellite imagery of the deadly attack near Aleppo on the UN and Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy last month shows that it was an air strike, UN expert Lars Bromley says
10 October 2016: France will ask the International Criminal Court's prosecutor to launch an investigation into war crimes it says have been committed by Syrian and Russian forces in Syria's eastern Aleppo
Since 2014 killing of military and civilian captives by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' terrorist group - Genocide of Yazidis by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' terrorist group - Genocide of Christians by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' terrorist group - Genocide of Shias by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' terrorist group - Massacres perpetrated by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' terrorist group - List of terrorist incidents linked to the 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' terrorist group since 2013 - Since 2014 a number of people from various countries were beheaded by the 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' terrorist group
19 March 2015: 'Islamic State' fighters may have committed genocide against the minority Yezidi community in Iraq as well as crimes against humanity and war crimes against civilians including children and that Iraqi government forces and affiliated militia 'may have committed some war crimes' while battling the insurgency, UN Human Rights Office says
Africa:
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda since 8 November 1994, ongoing - List of people indicted in the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda - as of 24 July 2013 the ICTR has indicted 95 individuals - 11 December 2015: Interpol agents arrested Rwandan Ladislas Ntaganzwa in the eastern Congo city of Goma, who is among the most wanted for the 1994 genocide in which 800,000 people died
Special Court for Sierra Leone since January 2002 - Special Court for Sierra Leone (Website) - 26 April 2012: The UN-backed international special court for Sierre Leone has convicted former Liberian president Charles Taylor of war crimes - 27 April 2012: Victims, rights groups and nations hailed a historic verdict after Liberia's Charles Taylor was convicted Thursday - 31 May 2012: Former Liberian president Taylor gets 50 years in jail for war crimes - 26 septembre 2013: L'ex-président libérien Charles Taylor condamné en appel à 50 ans de prison pour crimes contre l'humanité perpétrés lors de la guerre civile en Sierra Leone 1991-2002
Second Congo War 1998-2003 - Kivu conflict (ongoing) - International Criminal Court investigation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 2004
25. August 2011: Schlußplädoyer im Prozeß gegen Exrebellenführer Thomas Lubanga - während des kongolesischen Bürgerkriegs hunderte Kinder zu Soldaten rekrutiert und zu Mördern gemacht - 14. März 2012: Kongolesischer Rebellenführer Lubanga in Den Haag verurteilt - erstes Urteil des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs - 10 juillet: Reconnu coupable le 14 mars d'avoir utilisé des enfants soldats la Cour pénale internationale prononce sa première condamnation contre Thomas Lubanga
14 July 2012: ICC issues warrants for DR Congo warlords
15. Mai 2012: ICC-Chefankläger will FDLR-Milizenführer Mudacumura im Kongo festnehmen lassen
7 March 2014: DR Congo warlord Germain Katanga found guilty of war crimes at ICC
21 June 2016: Former vice-president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba has been sentenced to 18 years in prison for rape and pillage committed by his troops, becoming the highest-level official to be sentenced at the international criminal court - 22 March 2017: Former warlord and ex-vice-president of the DRC Jean-Pierre Bemba has been sentenced by the international criminal court to a year in jail and fined €300,000 for bribing witnesses during an earlier war crimes trial at the ICC
International Criminal Court investigation in Darfur - War in Darfur since 2003
International Criminal Court investigation in Uganda since 2003/2004
International Criminal Court investigation in Kenya since 2010 - 25 August 2011: Education minister Ruto, accused by the ICC of leading Kenya's 2007/2008 post election violence, has been sacked - 10 septembre 2013: Le vice-président kényan William Ruto devant la Cour pénale internationale
4 May 2011: ICC - Evidence to charge Libya's Gaddafi - 16. Mai 2011: Haftbefehl gegen Gaddafi beantragt - 27 June 2011: ICC issues Gaddafi arrest warrant
International Criminal Court investigation in Mali since 2012
7 February 2014: ICC opens Central African Republic 'war crimes' preliminary investigation
14 June 2015: ICC calls on South Africa to arrest Sudanese dictator Bashir wanted for war crimes, who arrived in Johannesburg for a summit of the African Union - 15 June 2015: Ban Ki-moon says ICC’s ruling on Sudan's Bashir must be implemented - 15 June: As court considers arrest, Sudan's Omar al-Bashir leaves South Africa, despite two pending warrants from the ICC for his arrest
21 June 2016: Tthe former vice-president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba has been sentenced to 18 years in prison for his part in campaign of rape and murder committed by his troopsin Central African Republic from 2002-2003
Americas:
2016: 10 July 2016: British and USA 2003 invasion of Iraq was illegal, former Deputy PM John Prescott says - 10 juillet 2016: Ministre du gouvernement de Tony Blair en 2003 John Prescott a déploré dimanche une guerre 'illégale' et regrette amèrement sa décision d'entrer en guerre contre l'Irak et ses conséquences
November 2016: 15 novembre 2016: Les forces armées des États-Unis d'Amérique et l'agence de renseignement américaine CIA pourraient avoir commis des crimes de guerre en Afghanistan en 2003-2004 à l'encontre de détenus, notamment des actes de torture et des traitements cruels, a affirmé la procureure Fatou Bensouda de la Cour pénale internationale
Asia:
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ECCC since 1997 - Website ECCC - Four Khmer Rouge leaders go on trial 27 June 2011 - 3 February 2012: Khmer Rouge chief jailer given life sentence
9 October 2015: ICC prosecutor seeking probe into 2008 Russia-Georgia war
Australia/Oceania:


Extraordinary African Chambers in Senegal: Statute of the Extraordinary African Chambers within the courts of Senegal created to prosecute international crimes committed in Chad between 1982 and 1990
2013-2015: 13 February 2013: Extraordinary African Chambers to try former Chad dictator Hissène Habré - 7 July 2015: The former Chadian dictator Hissène Habré goes on trial on 20 July 2015, almost 25 years after being toppled in a coup, charged with crimes against humanity, war crimes, and torture before a specially commissioned court in Senegal
May 2016 Habré verdict:30 May 2016: Chad'´s former dictator Hissène Habré found guilty of crimes against humanity, summary execution, torture and rape at a landmark trial in Senegal and sentenced to life in prison


Impunity Watch: Impunity Watch is an international non-profit foundation that originated in 2005 as a special programme of the Dutch development organisation Solidaridad, seeking to promote accountability for serious crimes and human rights abuses in countries emerging from armed conflict or periods of repression - Impunity Watch - website



Permanent Court of Arbitration: Permanent Court of Arbitration international organization based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, a permanent bureaucracy that assists temporary tribunals to resolve disputes among states and similar entities, intergovernmental organizations, or even private parties arising out of international agreements, and the cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade - Permanent Court of Arbitration (Website)
2015: Mauritius v. United Kingdom arbitration case concerning the status of the Chagos Archipelago, on the 18 March 2015 the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the Chagos Marine Protected Area was 'not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention' - Chagos Marine Protected Area
2015/2016: Philippines v. China is a pending arbitration case concerning the legality of China's 'nine-dotted line' claim over the South China Sea - 23 November 2015: UN tribunal at The Hague to rule on rival claims to South China Sea islands - 19 April 2016: Britain says that a ruling expected in late May in an international arbitration case the Philippines has brought against China’s South China Sea claims must be binding - 13 July 2016: Chinese regime attacks UN tribunal’s stinging rejection of its territorial claims in the South China Sea threatening a possible military escalation




European Court of Human Rights: European Court of Human Rights - European Court of Human Rights ECHR (Website) - Council of Europe
2007: 10 April 2007: Evans v United Kingdom - Natallie Evans from Trowbridge left infertile after cancer therapy has lost her fight to use embryos fertilised by an ex-partner
2012: NZZ 20. April 2012: Die Justizminister der 47 Mitgliedsstaaten des Europarats haben britische Forderungen nach einer Einschränkung der Kompetenzen des Europäischen Menschenrechtsgerichtshof abgewiesen - 23 February 2012: The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Italy violated the rights of Eritrean and Somali migrants by sending them back to Libya under Gaddafi - 19 October 2012: The member of anti-Kremlin punk group Yekaterina Samutsevich freed on appeal has taken her case to the European Court of Human Rights, her lawyer said on Friday, accusing Russia of violating her right to freedom of speech and illegally detaining her
13 December 2012: European Court of Human Rights rules that German citizen Khaled el-Masri, arrested 2003 in Macedonia, was an innocent victim of extraordinary rendition, torture and ill-treatment by US CIA-agents
2013: 27. Oktober 2013: Zehntausende Menschen haben in Madrid gegen ein Urteil des Europäischen Gerichtshofes für Menschenrechte protestiert, welches verlangt, Dutzende von inhaftierten Terroristen der ETA auf freien Fuss zu setzen - 3. Dezember 2013: Zwei Guantánamo-Häftlinge klagen vor dem Europäischen Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte, weil sie von 2002 bis 2003 in einem Geheimgefängnis des US-Geheimdienstes CIA in Polen gefangen gehalten und gefoltert worden seien
2014: 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 13 June 2014: Ukraine filed a lawsuit at the European Court of Human Rights concerning the kidnapping by terrorists of orphans from Snizhne - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European Court of Human Rights
2015: Perinçek v. Switzerland concerning Genocide denial - 14 April 2015: ECHR postpones Ukraine's lawsuit against Russia over the actions of the Russian regime in Donbas and Crimea for six months at Russian request - 3 December 2015: Ukrainian citizens have filed 700 complaints to the ECHR against the Russian Federation in connection with military actions in Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the occupation of Crimea, as the court is expected to make the first ruling on these complaints in the near future
January 2016: 13 January 2016: ECHR to rule on prison term for Russian activist Kashapov, who was arrested in December 2014 for criticizing Crimea annexation by Russian regime in 2014
May 2016: 21 May 2016: Australian law firm wants compensation from Russian regime for MH17 crash and its President Putin on behalf of families of victims of July 2014 catastrophe, the relevant application was submitted on 9 May 2016 to the European Court of Human Rights (Cour européenne des droits de l'homme)
May 2016: 31 May 2016: Russian regime must pay editor for breaching freedom of expression rights of Yelena Mikhaylovna Nadtoka, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Vecherniy Novocherkassk, who was found guilty in 2004, in a breach of her rights under article 10 of the European convention, of causing insult to a politician, ECHR rules saying that the newspaper’s article sought to complain of corruption on the part of the mayor of Novocherkassk, which was a subject of public interest
October 2016: 11 October 2016: Chess master Garry Kasparov wins a case against Russian regime at the European Court of Human Rights for unlawful arrest in 2007 and violation of his right to attend a rally in Samara he missed as a result of his detention in Moscow
January/February 2017: 26 January 2017: 'Among the Council of Europe member, the majority of judgments defining at least one violation of the European Convention on Human Rights in 2016 was delivered against Russia (222 judgments)', followed by Turkey with 77 judgments, the ECHR says - 10 February 2017: Ukrainian librarian Natalya Sharina held under house arrest in Russia since October 2015, has taken her case to the European court of human rights
April 2017: 13 April 2017: Russian authorities failed to take sufficient steps to stop the 2004 Beslan school siege in North Ossetia in which more than 330 people were killed, the European court of human rights has ruled
June 2017: 20 June 2017: Russian law '2013 federal statute' encourages homophobia and discrimination, the European court of human rights has ruled, in a sharply worded rebuke to the Russian regime
September 2017: 25 September 2017: Portuguese schoolchildren from the area struck by the country’s worst forest fires are seeking crowdfunding, supported by the NGO Global Legal Action Network, to sue 47 European countries, alleging that the states’ failure to tackle climate change threatens their right to life
October 2017: 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's Catalan plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights

List of Human Rights organisations - Human rights in Europe - Human rights in European countries

European Court of Justice: European Court of Justice - 12. Juli 2012: Der Europäische Gerichtshof hat in einem wegweisenden Urteil die Rechte von Bauern und kleinen Agrargemeinschaften gegenüber internationalen Saatgutkonzernen gestärkt - 8 April 2014: EU Court of Justice rejects requirement to keep data of telecom users and declares the Data Retention Directive invalid - 14 May 2014: The European Court of Justice's ruling, saying that Google must respect 'right to be forgotten', may burden internet operators with extra costs, and is likely to benefit ordinary people rather than public figures - 17 December 2014: After a decision of European Court of Justice, Israel expects the EU to put Hamas back on the terror blacklist immediately
2015: 6 October 2015: USA digital data storage systems do not provide sufficient privacy from state surveillance, the European court of justice has ruled
2017: 14 March 2017: Employers may bar staff from wearing visible religious symbols, the European Court of Justice rules in its first decision on the issue of women wearing Islamic headscarves at work, saying that ban on visible wearing of political, philosophical or religious sign does not constitute direct discrimination




United Nations Office on Drug and Crime UNODC: United Nations Office on Drug and Crime UNODC - United Nations Office on Drug and Crime UNODC (Website)
Terrorism Prevention Branch of UNODC: Terrorism Prevention Branch of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC, the key entity with the mandate and expertise to deliver counter-terrorism legal technical assistance to Member States for the ratification, legislative incorporation and implementation of the international legal instruments against terrorism - Since 1963 the international community has elaborated 19 international legal instruments to prevent terrorist acts, developed under the auspices of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA
1997: 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings
1999: 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
Since 2005 Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force CTITF: Since 2005 Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force CTITF of the UNODC
Since 2011 UN Counter-Terrorism Center UNCCT: Since 2011 UN Counter-Terrorism Center UNCCT
2017: 31 May 2017: Fifth report of the Secretary-General on the threat posed by Islamic State terrorists to international peace and security and the range of UN efforts in support of Member States in countering the threat
UNODC's Action against Corruption and Economic Crime: UNODC's Action against Corruption and Economic Crime
June 2017: 19-23 June 2017 eighth session of the Implementation Review Group of the United Nations Convention against Corruption
Since 1997: Since 1997 Law Enforcement, Organized Crime and Anti-Money-Laundering Unit of UNODC, responsible for carrying out the Global Programme against Money-Laundering, Proceeds of Crime and the Financing of Terrorism
UNODC is the guardian of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Organized Crime Convention) and the three Protocols - on Trafficking in Persons, Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking of Firearms - that supplement it
Global Firearms Programme of UNODC: UNODC Global Firearms Programme
2014: 11 April 2014: Almost half a million people murdered worldwide in 2012, with the highest murder rates logged in the Americas and Africa, and the lowest in Europe, Asia and Oceania, the UNODC says indicating that 95% of the perpetrators are men
Since 1992 Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice CCPCJ: Since 1992 Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice CCPCJ, established by the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC upon request of General Assembly - Crime prevention is a multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary, and integrated endeavour - UNODC's work in the area of Criminal Justice Reform covers Police reform, Prosecution service, Judiciary (the courts), Access to legal defence and legal aid, Prison reform and alternatives to imprisonment
1985: 1985 UN General Assembly's 'Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary'
2005: 2005 ECOSOC Resolution 'Action to promote effective crime prevention'

United Nations Convention against Corruption - International Corruption Perceptions Index
International asset recovery - Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
2016: April 2016 'Panama Papers', date of documents 1970s – 2016 - 3 April 2016: Findings of a yearlong investigation by the ICIJ of the 'Panama Papers' (also concerning the British Virgin Islands and other offshore havens), a giant leak of offshore financial records, expose global array of crime, corruption, offshore holdings of politicians and public officials from around the world including Putin, Assad associates, Argentina's president Macri, the family of China’s Xi Jinping, the king of Saudi Arabia, Qatar's Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Ukraine's Poroshenko, the familiy of Pakistan's Nawaz Sharif, people in more than 200 countries and territories (Kojo Annan, Jackie Chan, Eugenio Figueredo, Lionel Messi, Nico Rossberg, Jérôme Valcke etc.), people and companies blacklisted because of evidence that they’d been involved in wrongdoing and war crimes, such as doing business with Mexican drug lords, terrorist organizations like Hezbollah or rogue nations like North Korea and Iran, the support of Assad's barrel bombs, and involving major banks including British banks, German banks, banks of Luxembourg, Switzerland's UBS, Credit Suisse and HSBC Private Bank - List of people named in the Panama Papers - 4 April 2016: Global reactions to huge leak of offshore tax files - 4 April 2016: The Procuraduría de la Nación announces that it will open an investigation concerning the international journalistic investigation 'Panama papers', where Mossack Fonseca is involved, also indicating that companies using offshore were accused ofproviding fuel for the Syrian Assad regime's murderous air force






Greenpeace: Greenpeace, non-governmental environmental organization founded by Canadian activists in 1971 with offices in over 40 countries, with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, and stating its goal is to 'ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity' and focusing its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues - Greenpeace international website and latest updates - Greenpeace news
Greenpeace Worldwide offices




WHO: UN World Health Organization - World Health Organization WHO (website)
August/September 2016: 29 August 2016: WHO has spent more than $5m to support Syrian murderous Assad regime’s national blood bank, controlled by Assad’s 'defence' department, as documents show funds spent on blood supplies came directly from donors who have economic sanctions against the Syrian regime, including the UK, also showing the WHO had 'concrete concerns' about whether blood supplies would reach those in need, or be directed to the military first - 27 September 2016: WHO meets with Assad regime's Aleppo governor to discuss cooperation - 27 September 2016: New drone footage shows the devastation in Aleppo, which have faced intense Russian and Assad airstrikes - 28 September 2016: Assad loyalists party in regime-held area of Aleppo as city's eastern neighborhoods is decimated and as Russian and Assad murderous forces escalate attacks
October 2016: 28 October 2016: UN hires Assad's friends and relatives for Syria relief operation, as almost two-thirds of the emergency health supplies needed in Syria have gone to regime-held areas and 64% of the kits and medicines provided by the WHO since January have been delivered to areas held by or supporting Assad regime, only 13% of WHO supplies have reached Syria’s 'besieged' areas, according to documents seen by the Guardian newspaper
2017: 23 May 2017: WHO elects first ever African director-general, the former Ethiopian health minister Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus - 22 October 2017: Following global concerns WHO revokes appointment of Mugabe as goodwill ambassador
World Health Reports: World Health Report - Health by country - Health systems by country - Universal health care usually refers to a health care system which provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country - Universal health coverage by country
2013: 20 june 2013: More than one woman in three around the globe is a victim of domestic violence, the WHO says - 18 October 2013: Air pollution a leading cause of cancer, the WHO says - 24 October: Suspected polio outbreak in Syrian province spreads, WHO says
2014: 25/26 March 2014: Pollution kills 7 million people every year, says WHO report - 8 May 2014: WHO/UNICEF highlight need to further reduce gaps around the world in access to improved drinking water and sanitation
2015: 13 June 2015: An estimated 400 million people worldwide lack access to at least one of seven essential health services, ranging from pregnancy care to clean water, WHO and World Bank say - 14 November 2015: About 25,000 people are wounded each month in escalating warfare in Syria since Russian intervention, as medicines are lacking and cholera is feared, WHO says - 2-4 December 2015: 25 chemical risk assessment institutions from 21 developing countries and countries with economies in transition attended the meeting of the WHO Chemical Risk Assessment Sub-Network of Developing Countries in Thailand
2016: 16 January 2016: Scientists and the WHO issue a stark new warning about deadly levels of pollution in many of the world’s biggest cities, claiming poor air quality is killing millions and threatening to overwhelm health services across the globe - 15 March 2016: One in four deaths worldwide are due to environmental factors like air, water and soil pollution, as well as unsafe roads and workplace stress, WHO says in a new study - 21 May 2016: Syria is world’s deadliest place for health workers, as over 70% hospitals and medical facilities in liberated areas have been targeted by regime and Russian jets, WHO's Dr Ala Alwan says - 26 May 2016: WHO says military and militia hospital attacks claimed 959 lives in two years, Syria worst hit by atrocities that have disrupted public health services
2017: 7 March 2017: Pollution is responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five, according to new WHO reports, with toxic air, unsafe water, and and lack of sanitation the leading causes - 17 mai 2017: Les données de la santé mondiale sont de plus en plus complètes et près de la moitié des décès peuvent être désormais liés à une cause connue, selon OMS - 20 September 2017: Drug-resistant infections are a 'global health emergency', according to WHO's report, also saying that there is a lack of new treatments being developed to combat antibiotic-resistant infections, such as tuberculosis which kills around 250,000 people each year
Since 1959 History of spread of HIV/AIDS: Since 1959 History of spread of HIV/AIDS - Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS - as of 2014, approximately 36.9 million people are living with HIV globally - List of countries by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate
2016: 31 July 2016: Hope for 'end of Aids' is disappearing as efforts to combat the epidemic also in Africa are seriously faltering, with drugs beginning to lose their power, the number of infections rising and funding declining, raising the prospect of the epidemic once more spiralling out of control, according to experts
2010 Haiti cholera outbreak: Since 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak, the worst epidemic of cholera in recent history, following the 2010 earthquake it killed thousands and sickened a few hundred thousand more while spreading to neighboring countries including the Dominican Republic and Cuba
2016: 18 August 2016: UN makes first public admission of blame for Haiti cholera outbreak - 1 December 2016: United Nations admits for first time that its peacekeepers were directly responsible for bringing cholera to Haiti, bringing to an end a six-year delay in which the world body consistently ducked responsibility for importing the disease that has potentially killed up to 30,000 people
2013: 24 October 2013: Hundreds of millions of dollars needed to stop a deadly form of drug-resistant malaria jumping from Southeast Asia to the rest of the world, the WHO says
2016: 26 April 2016: Malaria deaths rising in Angola as health crisis spreads, according to the WHO
2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak: 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak - List of Ebola outbreaks - 1 August 2014: WHO's Margaret Chan on Friday warned west Africa's Ebola-hit nations that Ebola is 'moving faster than efforts to control it' - 8 August: WHO's Margaret Chan calls for international response to Ebola outbreak - 14 October 2014: UN medical official, who caught Ebola while working in Liberia, has died at a clinic in Leipzig - 16 October 2014: UN agencies fear a major food crisis in West Africa if the Ebola outbreak continues to grow exponentially over the coming months
2015: 14 August 2015: 'If the current intensity of case detection and contact tracing is sustained', Ebola epidemic in West Africa could be completely over by the end of the year, WHO's Margaret Chan says
Since 2015 Zika virus outbreak: Since April 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Brazil subsequently spread to other countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean - Since 2015 Zika virus epidemic began in early 2015 in Brazil, then spread to other parts of South and North America and also affecting several islands in the Pacific
2016: 25 January 2016: The mosquito-borne Zika virus disease shows that pushing the limits of the planet’s ecology has become dangerous in novel ways - 1 February 2016: Birth defects linked to Zika virus declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organisation - 22 March: Zika virus is now 'implicated' in the large numbers of brain-damaged babies in Brazil and the increase in the nerve disorder Guillan-Barré syndrome, according to WHO experts, who say urgent action is needed to deal with a growing crisis
2016: 6 April 2016: Stating that there were 422 million adults living with diabetes in 2014, a fourfold increase since 1980, WHO says that governments around the world must act to ensure people can make healthier food choices

UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response: UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response UNMEER
2 October 2014: The UN launched a mission to prevent the worldwide spread of Ebola as the USA hunted for people who came in contact with the first African diagnosed with the deadly virus outside the continent

Global health: Global health - Health disasters by continent - Health disasters by country - Diseases and disorders by country
Lists of Diseases - List of causes of death by rate
Infection, the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce
Epidemic - List of infectious diseases - List of epidemics in the 21st century - Infectious disease deaths by country
2013: 9 October 2013: UN sued over Haiti cholera epidemic in 2010, when the disease killed more than 8,000 people and made hundreds of thousands sick - 19 October 2013: Madagascar had 256 plague cases and 60 deaths in 2012, the world's highest recorded number, the ICRC says
2016: 1 December 2016: United Nations admits for first time that its peacekeepers were directly responsible for bringing cholera to Haiti, bringing to an end a six-year delay in which the world body consistently ducked responsibility for importing the disease that has potentially killed up to 30,000 people
2017: 12 October 2017: Yemen's cholera outbreak now the worst in history as experts predict fastest-spreading cholera epidemic since records began will affect at least 1 million people by turn of year, including at least 600,000 children
Cardiovascular disease, a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels, are the leading cause of death globally
Cancer - a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body - List of cancer types
Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time
2016: 5 Septmber 2016: Toxic nanoparticles from air pollution have been discovered in human brains in 'abundant' quantities, raising concerns because of suggested links to Alzheimer’s disease
Medicine, the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease - History of medicine
Epidemiology - the study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations
Speciality in medicine is a branch of medical practice - Specialties that are common worldwide - Preventive healthcare
Healthcare, the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings - Healthcare by country
2012: 16 May 2012: Paralysed patients use thoughts to control robotic arm - 5 November: Zac Vawter climbs 103 floors of Chicago skyscraper using thought-controlled bionic leg
Universal health care: Universal health care - Public health
Global mental health

Diseases of poverty: Diseases of poverty
2013: 23 October 2013: Tuberculosis killed 1.3 million last year, WHO says
Infant mortality - List of countries by infant mortality rate - Child mortality
2012: 'The Lancet' 11 May 2012: Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 - 11. Mai 2012: Vermeidbare Infektionskrankheiten haben 2010 fast zwei Drittel aller Todesfälle bei Kindern unter fünf Jahren verursacht - 12 September 2012: Unicef says global mortality rates fall

Diseases of luxury:
Drug advertising
Tobacco advertising is the advertising of tobacco products or use by the tobacco industry through a variety of media including sponsorship, particularly of sporting events
Health effects of tobacco - List of tobacco diseases - Smoking
2017: 5 April 2017: One in 10 deaths around the world is caused by smoking, according to a major new 'Lancet' study that shows the tobacco epidemic is far from over and that the threat to lives is spreading across the globe
Tobacco and other drugs
List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication
Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media
Alcohol and health - short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration, long-term effects of alcohol consumption include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain and alcoholism - Long-term effects of alcohol consumption
Drug-related deaths - Drug-related deaths by country
Tattoo, a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary
2017: 12 September 2017: Microscopic particles from tattoo ink can migrate into the body and wind up in lymph nodes, crucial hubs of the human immune system, a new study has revealed
Professional sports - professional athleticism depending on the development of media - Sports broadcasting contracts by country - List of sports television broadcast contracts
2012: 9. Mai 2012: Segnungen des kommerzialisierten 'Sports' im Zeitalter moderner Medien: Hirngeschädigte und selbstmordgefährdete Footballspieler, Boxer etc.
2016: 15 February 2016: NFL official Jeff Miller has acknowledged a link between football and the chronic brain disease CTE, the degenerative brain condition caused by repeated blows to the head, for the first time
Boxing and medical concerns - knocking a person unconscious or even causing concussion may cause permanent brain damage and there is no clear division between the force required to knock a person out and the force likely to kill a person, since 1983 the Australian, British, Canadian and USA's Medical Associations have called for bans on boxing, that 'should not be sanctioned by any civilized society' - Boxing by country - Famous deaths due to injuries sustained in boxing - 2011: Death under the Spotlight - The Manuel Velazquez Boxing Fatality Collection
2014: 28. November 2014: Ziel eines Boxkampfes ist es aus medizinischer Sicht, beim Gegner ein stumpfes Schädel-Hirn-Trauma herbeizuführen, möglichst mit der Folge einer kurzen Bewusstlosigkeit, im Unterschied zu anderen Sportarten ist die Besonderheit beim Boxen, dass es die erklärte und auch von den Zuschauern gewünschte Absicht und d.h. der Vorsatz ist, eine oder mehrere üblicherweise strafrechtlich sanktionierte Körperverletzung(en) herbeizuführen, bei ca. 20% der Profiboxer kommt es zu schweren Folgeerkrankungen des Gehirns wie Parkinson, Sprachstörungen, Gleichgewichtsstörungen, Verlangsamung des Denkens, Gedächtnisstörungen bis hin zu einer Demenz (deutlich erhöhtes Risiko), Depression, Reizbarkeit, Kriminalität, Sucht
2016: 1 October 2016: Doctors, health experts and politicians have repeated demands that boxing should be banned following the death of Scottish Mike Towell, father of a little boy, after suffering severe bleeding to brain in a fight at the Radisson Blu hotel in Glasgow
Doping in sport - Lists of doping cases - List of doping cases in cycling - Doping at the Tour de France - List of doping cases in athletics - World Anti-Doping Agency
2013: 17 January 2013: Cyclist Lance Armstrong admitted to using through most his cycling career a cocktail of drugs, including testosterone, cortisone, human growth hormone and the blood booster EPO - 22 June 2013: 16 years later Tour de France winner Ullrich (Team Telekom) admits to doping - 14 juillet 2013: l'ex recordmen du monde Asafa Powell et Tyson Gay contrôlés positif - 24 juillet 2013: Confirmation officielle de dopage pour Pantani et Ullrich sur le Tour de France 1998 - 28 July 2013: German Erik Zabel admits to having used doping products including EPO from 1996 to 2004
2015: 15 January 2015: A new doping scandal involving Russian athletes erupts after the IAAF confirmed it is investigating allegations that Elena Lashmanova, who won gold at the London Olympics, took part in a race in December despite being subject to a two-year doping ban - 2 August 2015: World Anti-Doping Agency 'very alarmed' by claims that a third of Olympic and world championships medals, including 55 golds, for endurance events were won by athletes who recorded suspicious doping tests - 6 August: The IAAF officially confirms that all competitive results set by Russian marathoner Liliya Shobukhova as of 9 October 2009 have been disqualified due to doping allegations
November 2015: 9 November 2015: 2012 London Olympics were sabotaged by Russia’s doping and the inaction of authorities, according to an independent World Anti-Doping Agency commission's investigation headed by Dick Pound - 9 November 2015: Russia accused of ‘state-sponsored doping’ and should be banned from athletics, according to damning Wada report - 13 November 2015: IAAF has provisionally suspended the All-Russia Athletic Federation ARAF as an IAAF Member with immediate effect - 15 November: Russia must end systemic culture of doping and corruption, IAAF says - 19 November 2015: The World Anti-Doping Agency has suspended Russia's national anti-doping body as the international governing body continues its crack down on Russian drug cheats
2015/2016 Russia doping scandal since years: Doping in Russia - 2015/2016 Russia doping scandal since years
2016: 12 January 2016: IAAF considered hiding Russian drug bans before 2012 Olympic Games - 14 January 2016: Russian regime's Putin personally involved in orchestrating his country's state sponsored doping athletics scheme, according to a report by the World Anti-Doping Agency about Russia's alleged cheating in international athletics - 13 May 2016: 'Stunning' Russian Olympic doping report prompts calls for action against Putin regime's doping and cheating
June 2016: 17 June 2016: There will be no track and field athletes competing under the Russian flag at the Rio Olympics 2016 after IAAF ruled they had not met readmission criteria imposed when they suspended over widespread state sponsored doping in November 2015 - 18 June 2016: The International Olympic Committee says it welcomed the IAAF's 'strong stance against doping' following athletics ruling body's extension of Russia's ban ahead of Rio Olympics
July 2016: 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 19 July 2016: Several former Olympians who now serve on the International Olympic Committee’s athletes’ commission have warned of catastrophic consequences if the organisation does not ban Russia completely from the Rio Games - 21 July: The Court of Arbitration for Sport has rejected the appeal of the Russian Olympic Committee and 68 Russian athletes over the ban imposed on them for next month's Olympics in Rio de Janeiro - 25 July 2016: The World Anti-Doping Agency is 'disappointed' its recommendation to ban Russia from next month's Olympic Games in Rio has been rejected by the International Olympic Committee, saying the IOC's decision will inevitably mean 'lesser protection for clean athletes'
August 2016: 4 August 2016: Wada-commissioned lawyer Richard McLaren accuses IOC of misrepresenting his doping report and findings, which were never designed to prove individual doping cases, but is about state-sponsored systemic doping over a period of four years across the majority of Olympic sports, manipulation of results, swapping of samples, preparation of wash-up schemes - 23 August 2016: Russia banned from Paralympics due to 'inability to fulfil its responsibilities' over doping after losing appeal against doping exclusion, the court of arbitration for sport has announced
December 2016: 9 December 2016: Over 1000 Russian athletes from over 30 disciplines were involved in state-sponsored doping programme in 2011-2015, including London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games winners and medalists, and that also helped forging fake doping probes results by involving special services, World Anti-Doping Agency's report on Russian doping row says - 24 December 2016: Following Sochi's loss last week of the right to host February's bobsleigh and skeleton world championships, Biathlon and speed skating events February/March 2017 taken away from Russia over doping scandal - 27 December 2016: Russian officials admit for the first time to a state-backed campaign of doping that involved hundreds of the country’s athletes, as the acting director of Russia’s national anti-doping agency Anna Antseliovich and others in a serie of interviews detail that 'it was an institutional conspiracy' concerning the entire Olympic movement
List of Formula One fatalities since 1952
4 October 2015: More than 20 people have been injured, some in critical condition, after a British millionaire crashed his supercar into spectators at Malta car show
Media and entertainment controversies
2010: Dezember 2010 querschnittsgelähmter Samuel Koch seit TV-Unterhaltungssendung
Exotic pets and dangerous animals: Exotic pets are rare or unusual animal pets, or animals kept within human households which are generally thought of as a wild species not typically kept as a pet - Dangerous animals and exotic pets
4 April 2012: Lions, tigers become problem pets in the Gulf - 29 December 2014: Wild animals on sale as pets in Qatar - 11 March 2016: Social media erupted when someone captured on video a tiger roaming the streets of Doha, as earlier this month the local newspapers reported that a young man had been attacked by a lioness while he was trying 'to train it'
Animal Bites: Animal Bites - most animal bites in the USA are dog bites (80-90%), most bites occur in the victim's home or in the home of a friend or relative and the animal is known to the victim - 2008: Animal bites in USA's emergency medicine - reports estimate 4.5 million dog bites per year and in 2008 this resulted in approximately 316,000 emergency department visits - 1980-2012: There was an 82% increase in fatal dog attacks in the USA from the 1980s to 2012 - 28 May 2015: Hospital admissions for injuries caused by dogs have risen by 76% over the past 10 years to 7,227 in the 12 months from March 2014 to February 2015 in England with under-10s most likely to be admitted, according to official statistics - 2016: Fatal dog attacks in the USA reported in 2016 - 6 mai 2016: Un American Staffordshire Terrier tue un petit garçon de 18 mois en Alsace, en 16 ans en France 24 personnes ont été tuées par des chiens, dont 12 enfants

Reproduction: Reproduction
Evolutionary history of life - science resp. scientists trace the processes by which living and fossil organisms have evolved since life appeared on the planet, until the present day - In the 'Evolutionary biology' there are studied the Evolution resp. evolutionary processes, giving rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules, these processes including the descent and reproduction - not production - of humans - Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans and their further development, whose life is a process and not some-thing that can be accessed by a 'Process management'
Assisted reproductive technology - Surrogacy
In vitro fertilisation: In vitro fertilisation
2015: 25 February 2015: Britain will become the first nation to legalize a 'three-parent' IVF technique which critics fear will lead to 'designer babies' - 10 September 2015: Genetically modified human embryos should be allowed, members of 'Hinxton Group' say
2016: 1 February 2016: Brititsh scientists get the permission by the government to 'gene edit' human embryos, using a technique that could eventually be used to create 'designer babies' - 27 September 2016: World's first baby born from new procedure using DNA of three people, after two of the parents travelled from Jordan to Mexico where they were cared for by USA citizens beyond the reach of any regulatory framework and without publishing details of the treatment
2017: 11 January 2017: A new lab procedure that can and could allow fertility clinics to make sperm and eggs from animal's and people’s skin may lead to 'embryo farming' on a massive scale, researchers warn


UN International Atomic Energy Agency: UN International Atomic Energy Agency
2001: Since 2001 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management - as of October 2015 it has 70 state parties - High-level radioactive waste management
2011/2012: 8 November 2011: IAEA set to report on Iran nuclear ambitions amid international fears and discussion - 9 November: IAEA says in its report it has information indicating Iran has carried out tests 'relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device' - call to engage with the agency without delay - 25 February 2012: 'Major differences' with Iran on nuclear drive, says IAEA - 21 September 2012: Iran and Israel face off at IAEA meeting
2013/2014: 16 May 2013: IAEA nuclear talks with Iran fail once again to let it resume an investigation into suspected atomic bomb research - 21 September: UN nuclear assembly rejects an Iranian-backed Arab resolution to single out Israel - 28 February 2014: Israel urges IAEA to issue full report on Iran nuclear research - 19 September 2014: Russia fails to remove Syria nuclear probe from UN atomic watchdog's agenda
2015: 17 September 2015: IAEA votes 61-43 against Egyptian proposal calling on Israel to join NPT, allow inspection of atomic sites
2016: 26 March 2016: Ahead of a summit to discuss the security of nuclear materials, IAEA's Yukiya Amano warns that terrorists possess 'the means, the knowledge and the information' to produce or acquire a nuclear bomb, adding that the international community must do more to ensure extremists cannot get hands on material needed to produce atomic weapons
2015 Iran, nuclear deal between the Iranian regime and the USA, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the European Union 2 March 2015: IAEA's Yukiya Amano says cannot say when investigation into Iran's nuclear work will end, 'it depends on the level and pace of cooperation from Iran' - 23/24 March 2015: The UN nuclear watchdog IAEA's Yukiya Amano says the agency still was not able to conclude whether all nuclear material in Iran was being used for peaceful purposes, regretting slow pace of Iran cooperation
2015 'Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear program' and 'Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action' - 3 April 2015: IAEA welcomes framework agreement on Iran's nuclear program reached on Thursday in Lausanne, in which Iran is set to allow the agency more access to its nuclear sites - 14 July 2015 'Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action' on the nuclear program of Iran - 23 July 2015: USA lawmakers complain about secret agreements between Iranian regime and UN watchdog IAEA over Parchin military site and nuclear program’s 'military dimensions' - 23 July: Obama administration admits Iran held 'side' deal with UN watchdog - 24 July 2015: USA's Obama administration ducks response to claims Iran gets to self-inspect suspect nuke sites - 25 July 2015: Iran vows to bar international inspectors from military sites - 19/20 August 2015: In an unusual arrangement, Iran will be allowed to use its own experts without any intervention by UN inspectors to inspect Parchin site allegedly used to develop nuclear arms, under a secret agreement with the UN agency that normally carries out such work - 18 September: Several nuclear security experts with long experience in international weapons inspections urge release of details of IAEA inspection at Iran site - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful - 3 December 2015: Iran worked on developing nuclear weapons, with some activities continuing up to 2009, according to IAEA report, after Iran has consistently denied any interest in nuclear arms or past work on such weapons
2016 Iran: 16 January 2016: IAEA satisfied with Iranian regime’s moves to comply with some UN nuclear watchdog's demands, but hopes that it would bring movement in other realms remain unfulfilled, nevertheless USA and European officials in Vienna immediately announced that deal was officially implemented, and that nuclear sanctions on the regime had been removed - 23 December 2016: 'Clarifications' to Iran deal ease restrictions on enriched uranium stock
2015 Crimea, after Russian annexation: 9 June 2015: In its annual report the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency asserted that a nuclear reactor in the city of Sevastopol is in Ukraine, despite Russian protest over Crimea
Radioactive waste - 30. Oktober 2013: 350'000 Tonnen hochradiokativen Abfalls weltweit laut IAEA - wohin mit dem Atommüll?

Nuclear Security Summits since 2010
2012: 2012 Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul
2014: 2014 Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague

The International Panel on Fissile Materials, established in 2006, is a group of independent nuclear experts from 16 countries, aiming to advance international initiatives to 'secure and to sharply reduce all stocks of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium, the key materials in nuclear weapons, and to limit any further production'
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists journal since 1945, that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and diseases




UN World Meteorological Organization: UN World Meteorological Organization
2012/2013: 23 August 2012: World Meteorological Organisation calls for integrated drought plan - meeting on national drought policy in March 2013 - 6 November 2013: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere hit new record in 2013, UN's WMO says - 13 November: 2013 marked by 'record sea level, weather extremes', WMO says
2015: 9 novembre 2015: La teneur de l'atmosphère en gaz à effet de serre a atteint un nouveau pic en 2014, rapporte OMM - 26 November 2015: WMO says data from the first 10 months of 2015 suggest temperatures over land and sea would tick in at their highest level ever measured, after already reaching record highs in 2014
2016: 25 January 2016: For the first time on record, temperatures in 2015 were about 1°C above the pre-industrial era, according to a consolidated WMO analysis
2017: 21 mars 2017: Les conditions météorologiques et climatiques extrêmes se poursuivent en 2017, a averti l'organisation météorologique mondiale, après une année 2016 où la température moyenne a atteint un record, la banquise s'est fortement réduite, le niveau de la mer a continué à augmenter et les océans à se réchauffer - 30 October 2017: The WMO reported on Monday that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere made a record jump in 2016 to hit a concentration not seen for more than three million years

UN-Water: UN-Water - UN water homepage - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification - United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development - World Water Assessment Programme - UN World Water Development Report
Water security - 23 March 2013: Water should be considered vital to national security, a report of the UN water task force on water security says - 20 March 2015: The world will have only 60% of the water it needs in just 15 years unless countries dramatically change their use of the resource, a UN report warns

United Nations Forum on Forests
Reforestation: Reforestation - Forest restoration - Forest landscape restoration - Groasis Waterboxx

UN Convention to Combat Desertification
Desert greening: Desert greening is the process of man-made reclamation of deserts for ecological reasons (biodiversity), farming and forestry, but also for reclamation of natural water systems and other Life support systems - Erosion control - Land restoration - Holistic management in agriculture - Ecoscaping - Agroforestry - Fertilizer tree - Agricultural wastewater treatment


UN Food and Agriculture Organization: UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - 26. Juni 2011: José Graziano da Silva als erster Südamerikaner zum Leiter der UN Organisation für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft FAO gewählt
2011: 7 July 2011: World food prices near record high, says the UN's FAO
2012/2013: 9 août 2012: Les prix alimentaires mondiaux ont grimpé de 6% en juillet - 18 November 2012: Global Soil Week 2012 - 11 September 2013: The UN food agency says one-third of all food produced in the world gets wasted, amounting to an annual loss of $750 billion - 31 octobre 2013: Un quart de la production agricole mondiale est issu de régions subissant un fort stress hydrique et 40% de l'alimentation disponible provient déjà de cultures irriguées, selon l'étude de l'institut World Ressource Initiative
2016: 26 April 2016: Syria's shortage of its main staple wheat is worsening, as the area of land sown with cereals has fallen again this year and farming infrastructure, including irrigation canals and grain depots, has been destroyed, according to the FAO
Food security
2016: 10 May 2016: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew's 'State of the World’s Plants report' reveals that there are currently 390,000 species of known plants with more than 30,000 used by people, and that the biggest factors threatening plant species with extinction are the destruction of habitats for farming (31%), such as palm oil production and cattle ranching, deforestation for timber (21%) and construction of buildings and infrastructure (13%) - 13 mai 2016: Environ 32 millions de personnes sont en état d'insécurité alimentaire en Afrique australe, et en cause la grave sécheresse qui frappe la région depuis près de deux ans, selon le Programme alimentaire mondial de l'ONU
2017: 15 September 2017: World hunger rising for first time this century, sparking concern that conflict and climate change could be reversing years of progress, according to the state of food insecurity and nutrition in 2017, a report produced by five UN agencies

UN World Food Programme - UN World Food Programme (Website) - WFP and the Zero Hunger Challenge (Website)
2014: 8 April 2014: The UN's food aid agency WFP warned that Syria was facing a drought that could put millions of people's lives at risk, compounding the impact of years of war - 1 October 2014: A lack of funds is forcing the World Food Program to cut back on food parcels and vouchers for almost six million refugees and displaced people in Syria - 16 October: World Food Program's Denise Brown fears a major food crisis in West Africa if the Ebola outbreak continues to grow exponentially over the coming months
2016: 4 October 2016: With political tension forcing half a million people to return to Afghanistan, Afghan exodus from Pakistan could be 'catastrophic' without urgent aid, UN's World Food Programme says, warning that the freezing winter could prove deadly - 18 November 2016: WFP and FAO warn against food shortage and starvation in Syria, as the governorates with the largest increase of people in need are Quneitra, Daraa, Damascus, Idlib and Aleppo, according to a joint statement


International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems IPES-Food
2015: 20 May 2015: Who shapes food systems, and who has a say in how they are reformed?
2016: 2 June 2016: From Uniformity to Diversity: A paradigm shift from industrial agriculture to diversified agroecological systems

ETC Group on Erosion, Technology and Concentration
2016: 8 June 2016: ETC Group urges that gene drive patents and governance be handed to the United Nations, following first NAS study on gene drive governance that avoids the explosive issues militarization, commercialization, food security - 15 September 2016: The Monsanto–Bayer tie-up is just one of seven, as mega-mergers and big data domination threaten seeds, food security


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Kyoto Protocol 1997
2011: 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Durban - NZZ 18. November 2011: Weltklimarat IPCC warnt vor Zunahme extremer Wetterphänomene
2012: 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Qatar - 9 December 2012: UN conference extends the Kyoto Protocol until 2020
2013: 27 September 2013: UN panel blames mankind for global warming - UN climate report: Key points - 27 September 2013: UN panel's climate report sparks concern - 22 October 2013: Global warming linked to wildfires, UNFCCC's Christiana Figueres says
2013: United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November 2013 - 19 novembre 2013: Le typhon Haiyan électrise la conférence climat de Varsovie - 21 November: The second-last day of the global climate change conference in Warsaw has seen 800 NGO delegates walk out of the talks over a lack of progress - 23 November: UN climate talks blocked over aid, steps to 2015 deal - 24 November: Widely criticised as lacking urgency UN climate talks kept alive hopes for a global deal in 2015 to fight climate change after overcoming disputes on greenhouse gas emissions cuts and aid for poor nations
2014: 23 March 2014: UN scientists are set to deliver their darkest report yet on the impacts of climate change, pointing to a future stalked by floods, drought, conflict and economic damage if carbon emissions go untamed - 31 March: UN report says that unless governments act now to reduce emissions, no one will be safe from effects of climate change, 'already affecting food supply - 13 April 2014: 'To save the planet', UN report demands an radical and faster shift from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy such as wind, solar or nuclear power, that would shave only about 0.06% a year off world economic growth - 2 November 2014: Time running out to reach 2°C warming target, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says
2015: 14 February: Ahead of Paris conference by the end of this year, negotiators in Geneva adopted a climate blueprint, a 86-page draft plan for limiting man-made global warming
2017: 18 janvier 2017: L'année 2016 a été la plus chaude, confirme l'ONU




UN International Labour Organization: UN International Labour Organization - International Labour Organization (Website) - Youth employment
2012/2013: 30 avril 2012: Chômage attendu en hausse dans le monde à 202 millions de personnes en 2012, selon l'OIT - 22 May 2012: Global Employment Trends for Youth 2012 - 1 June 2012: 21 million people are now victims of forced labour, ILO says - 22 January 2013: The number of jobless people around the world rose by 4 million in 2012 to 197 million and is expected to grow further, the UN labour agency warns
2014: 24 February 2014: Employment practices and working conditions in Thailand’s fishing sector, ILO report - 31 March 2014: UN agency ILO criticises Qatar over migrant workers' rights after 36 Nepalese and Indian workers died in February in Qatar - 20 May 2014: Trafficking, forced labour and modern slavery are big business generating profits estimated at $150 billion a year, the ILO says, adding that forced labour has no place in our society - 10 June 2014: Thai 'ghost ships' that enslave, brutalise and even kill workers are linked to global shrimp supply chain producing prawns for supermarkets in US, UK, Europe, including Walmart, Carrefour, Costco, Tesco, Aldi, Morrisons, the Co-operative and Iceland
2015: 19 mai 2015: Une étude de l'Organisation internationale du travail OIT indique que plus de 60% des travailleurs à travers le monde n'ont aucun contrat de travail et seulement un quart des travailleurs a un emploi stable - 20 May 2015: Waged employment on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa but youth and women see further job losses, ILO says in its annual outlook


UN Economic and Social Council/Department: United Nations Economic and Social Council
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs - Sustainable development goals following the Rio+20 Conference 2012 - 'The Future We Want'
July 2015: UN’s Third Financing for Development conference, in Addis Ababa 13-16 July 2015 - 13 July 2015: Development agenda must address causes of migrant crisis, UN adviser Amina Mohammed says - 13 July 2015: Financing the sustainable development goals will rely heavily on the tax factor - 14 July 2015: World’s richest countries, including the USA the UK, accused at Addis Ababa development finance summit of foiling effort to give poorer countries a greater say on UN tax policies
2017: 22 June 2017: The world’s current population of 7.6 billion will reach 9.8 billion in 2050, with India’s numbers to surpass China’s in just seven years, and Nigeria will overtake the USA by 2050 to become the third most populous country in the world, according to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs


UN Development Group: United Nations Development Group - Members of the UNDG United Nations Development Group
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues, the organization's goals are to 'maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis' - United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, since 1966 'to promote the progressive harmonization and unification of international trade law'
United Nations Industrial Development Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation

UN Development Programme: United Nations Development Programme
UNDP's 2014 Human Development Report
2000 MDGs: 'Millennium Development Goals' MDGs are the eight international development goals that were established following the 'Millennium Summit' of the UN in 2000, committing to help achieve the MDGs by 2015
2014: 24 July 2014: More than 2.2 billion people are 'poor or near-poor', amid financial crises, natural disasters, soaring food prices and violent conflicts, UNDP's report says - 24 July 2014: Jobs and social security needed as global income inequality widens, UNDP's report warns - 23 September 2014: More than 30 countries set the first-ever deadline to end deforestation by 2030, but Brazil said it would not join
2015: 19 mai 2015: Une étude de l'Organisation internationale du travail indique que seulement un quart des travailleurs à travers le monde a un emploi stable - 31 July 2015: Rich get richer even as poverty and inequality deepen, South African market research firm's 'Africa wealth report 2015' says, criticising development strategies - 3 August 2015: UN states agree post-2015 sustainable development agenda now due to be formally adopted in September, aiming to eradicate hunger and extreme poverty, reduce inequality within and between states, achieve gender equality, improve water management and energy, and take urgent action to combat climate change, over the next 15 years - 18 August 2015: Rights group's findings reflect the global trend, that children with disabilities continue to be left out of school even as some countries assert that they have met the UN millennium development goal to grant every child access to primary education - 19 September 2015: Without change, UN anti-poverty targets are still out of reach, London-based Overseas Development Institute's study finds, as politicians and diplomats are expected to attend the UN’s sustainable development summit next weekend in USA's New York to renew promises

United Nations Environment Programme: United Nations Environment Programme, an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices, since 1972 - UNEP OzonAction is a branch of the UN Environment Programme and is part of UNEP's Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, created in 1991 - United Nations-Oceans, an inter-agency coordination mechanism of the United Nations since 2003, set up to enhance cooperation and coordination of activities concerned with the world oceans and coasts
1987: 1987 'Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer', an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion
1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992
October 2016: 15 October 2016: A worldwide deal has been reached to limit the use of hydrofluorocarbons in a gradual process beginning in 2019 with action by developed countries including the USA, the world’s second worst polluter, more than 100 countries, including China, the world’s top carbon emitter, will start taking action in 2024 and a small group of countries including India, Pakistan and some Gulf states pushed for and secured a later start in 2028




Unesco: Unesco - UN 'Educational, Scientific and Cultural' Organization - Unesco member states - 31 octobre 2011: Les États-Unis suspendent leur contribution promise à l'Unesco suite à l'adhésion de la Palestine - 9 November 2013: The USA and Israel lose Unesco voting rights for halting funds after the agency admitted Palestine as a member
2012: 18. Juli 2012: Mit Preisverleihung in Diktatorendiensten die Unesco am Tiefpunkt - Unesco verleiht erstmals einen von Äquatorialguinea gestifteten Forschungspreis - 16 octobre 2012: En 2015, peu de pays pourront atteindre les six objectifs de 'l'Education pour tous' fixés en 2000, selon un rapport de l'Unesco
2014: 19 January 2014: Israel's PM Benjamin Netanyahu condemns Unesco decision to postpone an exhibit tracing 3,500 years of ties between the Jewish people and Israel, following pressure from Arab countries - 26 June: Unesco admits it will be impossible to achieve 'millennium' development goal for universal primary education by 2015
2015: 28 February 2015: Unesco urges ICC action against 'Islamic State' terror group following destruction of ancient artifacts in Iraq as UN Security Council condemns the 'Islamic State’s' barbaric acts - 6 March: Destruction of ancient Iraq site near Mosul is an 'Islamic State' war crime, Unesco's Irina Bokova says - 16 April 2015: Unesco adopts by an overwhelming majority resolution to continue monitoring the situation in Crimea, despite unprecedented pressure of Russia on the member states - 4 May 2015: Unesco awards its annual press freedom prize to Syrian journalist and rights activist Mazen Darwish who has been jailed by the Assad regime for more than three years - 13 July 2015: Designating Jordan’s baptismal area of Jesus on the eastern bank a World Heritage Site, ridiculous Unesco decides in fact over tourism dollars and its own reputation - 24 August 2015: UN’s 'cultural' agency's Irina Bokova described Islamic State’s destruction of Baal Shamin Roman temple in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, also murdering archaeological expert Khaled al-Asaad, as a 'war crime' and an 'immense loss for the Syrian people and for humanity', but who will at long last prosecute and punish war crimes, mass murder and mass atrocities against humans in Syria, after Assad began war in 2011 against the Syrian people demanding democracy? - 6 October 2015: After Russian airstrikes hit 2000 years old Serjila town, Syrian Coalition urges the Unesco and regional organizations to condemn Russia’s aggression in Syria, calling for taking urgent action against these crimes and protect Syria’s historical and archaeological sites
2016: 25 February 2016: Unesco refuses to recognize Crimean historic site and Ukraine's national museum-reserve Tauric Chersonese, which was illegally annexed by the Russian regime in 2014, as part of Russia - 14 May 2016: French President Hollande sent a letter Wednesday to leaders of the local Jewish community, saying that the government's support for an anti-Israeli Palestinian resolution in Unesco, which ignored any Jewish connection to Jerusalem's Temple Mount, was a result of a 'misunderstanding'
October 2016: 13 October 2016: A Unesco - so-called UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - resolution, adopted in a 24 (Algeria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Chad, China, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Vietnam) to 6 (only Estonia, Germany, Lithuania, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, USA) vote at the committee stage (abstaining Albania, Argentina, Cameroon, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Haiti, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kenya, Nepal, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and Nevis, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, absent Serbia and Turkmenistan), seeks to erase Jewish ties to Jerusalem, uses only Muslim names for the Jerusalem holy sites and is harshly critical of Israel for what it termed 'provocative abuses that violate the sanctity and integrity' of the area - 13 October 2016: Unesco's motion ignoring Jewish link to Temple Mount draws scorn from across Israeli political spectrum, including charges of anti-Semitism - Tisha B'Av, an annual fast day in Judaism which commemorates the anniversary of a number of disasters in Jewish history, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple in AD 70 by the Romans in Jerusalem - 14 octobre 2016: Israël a décidé de suspendre sa coopération avec l'Unesco au lendemain d'un vote dénoncé dans l'Etat hébreu comme déniant le lien historique millénaire entre les juifs et Jérusalem - 17 October: Unesco chief Irina Bokova reportedly received 'death threats' after expressing reservations about an Arab-backed resolution denying Israel’s history in Jerusalem - 18 October 2016: Unesco’s formal adoption of a resolution effectively disregarding Jewish ties to Jerusalem called a victory by Hamas
20/26 October 2016: 20 October 2016: Israeli archaeologists found the site of a fierce battle where the Roman army bombarded and breached the walls of Jerusalem before conquering the city and destroying the Second Jewish Temple almost 2,000 years ago, confirming Josephus’s account of the conflict that saw Roman destruction of Second Temple, which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE, replacing Solomon's Temple, the First Temple which was destroyed by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 586 BCE - 26 October 2016: Oldest Hebrew mention of Jerusalem found on rare papyrus from 7th century BCE, as reference to consignment of wineskins 'to Jerusalem' appears on 2,700-year-old First Temple-era scrap believed plundered from Judean Desert cave
26 October 2016: 26 October 2016: Unesco adopts another resolution ignoring Jewish link to Temple Mount, as in secret ballot 'cultural' body’s World Heritage Committee approves text using only the site’s Muslim name, 10 states vote in favor, 2 oppose, 8 abstain
2 May 2017: 2 May 2017: The USA rejects the 'biased' and 'counterproductive' UNESCO resolution passed Tuesday that suggested Israel has no sovereign claim to Jerusalem, saying cultural agency ‘too often used as a vehicle by member states inclined to deride and delegitimize the State of Israel' - 24 May 2017: Czech parliament calls for sanctions against UNESCO over anti-Israel bias, passing a resolution with an overwhelming majority of 112 to 2
October 2017: 13 October 2017: Netanyahu orders diplomats to start preparing for Israel's departure from UNESCO, saying that 'UNESCO has become a theater of the absurd', after the USA has formally notified the Unesco that it is withdrawing its membership of the organisation citing 'continuing anti-Israel bias' and taking effect on 31 December 2018
November 2017: 16 November 2017: South Korean diplomat Lee Byong Hyun elected as the new chairperson of UNESCO’s Executive Board in a secret ballot by 32 to 25, surprisingly beating Iranian regime's Jalali, who had long been favored to get the job




World Bank - Weltbank - World Bank Group
2011/2012: 26 September 2011: World Bank increases drought aid to Horn of Africa - 16. April 2012: Jim Yong Kim wird Weltbankpräsident - 30 August 2012: Global food prices have leapt by 10% in July, raising fears of soaring prices for the planet's poorest, the World Bank warns - 19 November 2012: The World Bank has warns that global temperatures could rise by four degrees this century
2013/2014: 24 July 2013: Commitments for the International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank reached $16.3 billion in the 2013 fiscal year, half of it to Africa - 12 novembre 2013: Il faut agir contre le changement climatique et le réchauffement, selon le patron de la BM Jim Yong Kim - 2 December 2014: Ebola to push Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone into recession, World Bank says
2015: 16 April 2015: The World Bank repeatedly violated its own policies on protecting the rights of indigenous people by funding projects that forced nearly 3.4 million slum-dwellers, farmers and villagers from their homes and jobs over the past decade, according to documents - 2 July 2015: Lidl supermarket chain owned by one of Germany’s wealthiest families given almost $1bn in public development funding over past decade by World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and others as it expands into eastern Europe - 29 July 2015: World Bank rejects energy industry notion that coal can cure poverty - 9 September 2015: Two decades after Beijing declaration on gender equality, women’s economic opportunities and working rights still widely subject to restrictive legislation in 155 countries, World Bank study says - 9 November 2015: Efforts to curb climate change must be twinned with programmes to cut poverty, warns a World Bank study of the threat posed by global warming to food security
2016: 8 September 2016: Air pollution costs trillions, holds back poor countries and is the fourth leading cause of premature deaths worldwide, known to lead to cancers and heart, lung and respiratory diseases, World Bank says
2017: 11 July 2017: Syria’s 6-year-old conflict, in which over 320,000 people have been killed and more than half the country’s population displaced, has ravaged its infrastructure and caused losses to its economy of $226 billion, according to estimates published by the World Bank - 12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas - 15 October 2017: Speeding up urgently needed help for Somalia will only happen if World Bank and IMF are prepared to have a fight with the USA, something they are reluctant to do at a time when USA's Trump has the world’s multilateral organisations in his sights - 9 November 2017: World Bank lending to countries like China that are rich enough to finance their own development hurts poor countries that need help, USA's David Malpass says, citing China as the World Bank's biggest borrower with $2.4 billion in loans this year




Multilateral Development Banks Multilaterale Entwicklungsbanken
Afrikanische Entwicklungsbank
Asiatische Entwicklungsbank
Bank des Südens

Central Banks - List of Central Banks
Central Bank of Argentina
Reserve Bank of Australia
Central Bank of Brazil
Bank of Canada
People's Bank of China
European System of Central Banks - European Central Bank Europäische Zentralbank - EZB-Kritik am EU-Krisenmanagement - Italiens Schuldenberg von 120% des BIP löst Sorgen aus - Rettungsschirm zu gering? - 5 July 2012: The ECB cuts its key interest rate to 0.75 per cent and the interest rate it pays banks on overnight deposits to zero - 7 November 2013: ECB cuts key interest rate to all-time low of 0.25%
Reserve Bank of India
Bank of Indonesia
Bank of Japan
Bank of Korea
Bank of Mexico
Central Bank of the Russian Federation
South African Reserve Bank
Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Bank of England (United Kingdom)
Federal Reserve System FED (USA)


International Monetary Fund IMF - Internationaler Währungsfonds IWF
2011: 2011 Affaire Dominique Strauss-Kahn - IWF - Carstens' Kandidatur wird aussichtsreicher - Christine Lagarde named IMF chief - 4. August 2011: Französisches Gericht ordnet Untersuchung gegen neue IWF-Chefin Christine Lagarde an - Amtsmißbrauch bei 285 Mill. Euro 'Entschädigungszahlung' an Bernard Tapie - 'Adidas'/Bernard Tapie affair - 16. August 2011: Französisches Gericht eröffnet Verfahren gegen IWF-Chefin Lagarde
2012/2013: 20 April 2012: The IMF says it has received firm commitments of more than $430bn as part of a global effort to bolster the fund's lending capacity - 19 June: Brics nations to increase contribution to IMF resources - 5 juin 2013: Le FMI admet des 'échecs notables' et doute de la troïka, parce que l'économie de la Grèce a été confrontée à une récession bien plus forte
2014/2015: 28 March 2014: The IMF announced a $14-$18 billion bailout for Ukraine as the UN General Assembly refused to recognise Russia's annexation of the Crimea peninsula - 10 October 2014: Ukraine will need additional external loans to support its economy, and they should come from multiple sources, IMF's Christine Lagarde says - 20 January 2015: IMF has lowered its forecast for global economic growth for this year and next - 11 March 2015: IMF signs off $17.5bn loan for Ukraine in second attempt to stave off bankruptcy - 2 July 2015: IMF says no third bailout for Greece without debt relief, after Greek government failed to repay IMF and as bailout runs out - 8 July 2015: Saying that Greece's massive debt will need restructuring, International Monetary Fund's head reiterates that the global financial institution can not bend its rules when it comes to Greece - 5 August 2015: IMF grants Ukraine second loan tranche worth $1.7 billion
2016: 5 October 2016: The International Monetary Fund has urged governments to take action to tackle a record $152tn debt mountain, more than twice the size of the global economy, before it triggers a fresh global financial and economic crisis - 19 December 2016: IMF's Christine Lagarde has been found guilty of negligence in approving a massive payout of taxpayers’ money to controversial French businessman Bernard Tapie but avoided a jail sentence
2017: 23 May 2017: IMF and eurozone states fail to bridge divide over Greek debt relief - 15 October 2017: Speeding up urgently needed help for Somalia will only happen if World Bank and IMF are prepared to have a fight with the USA, something they are reluctant to do at a time when USA's Trump has the world’s multilateral organisations in his sights


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD - Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques OCDE - OECD member countries
2015: 26 mai 2015: Les pays de l'OCDE ont alloué en 2014 moins d'un tiers de leur aide au développement aux pays les plus pauvres, une aide qui s'est en outre réduite depuis quatre ans, dénonce l'ONG ONE
2016: 9 June 2016: Air pollution is becoming a 'terrifying' problem around the globe, with toxic air set to cause as many as 9 million premature deaths a year around the world in the next four decades and with economic costs rising to trillions a year if urgent steps are not taken to control the pollution, OECD warns - 3 July 2016: OECD’s tax reform expert Pascal Saint-Amans calls for register of owners of corporate trusts in the wake of the Panama Papers scandal, saying efforts to improve sharing of information between countries must go further to fight tax dodging and corruption




World Trade Organization
Economic history of the world - International trade - the exchange of goods and services across international borders or territories - Timeline of international trade - History of accounting - History of money - History of banking - Merchant bank
Environmental economics, concerned with environmental issues - Ecological economics addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems - Ecology, the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, geography, and Earth science
Energy economics
Foreign trade by country - Commodity markets
Economic integration
World Trade Organization by subject - World Trade Organization member economies - Ministerial Conferences - World Trade Organization agreements - World Trade Organization's website - Annual World Trade Report
2001: Doha Development Round since 2001 - 2001 WTO negotiations on trade and the environment
2013: 3 December 2013: China challenges US anti-dumping measures at WTO in Bali - 4 December: India rejects WTO proposals on food security in Bali - 7 December 2013: WTO reaches its first ever reform deal simplifying procedures to boost global trade, allowing countries to provide subsidy on staple food crops without any threat of punitive action
2014: 2 August 2014: WTO's future in doubt after India blocks trade deal
Criticism of the World Trade Organization: Criticism of the World Trade Organization
1994-2004 Global Environment and Trade Study: Global Environment and Trade Study non-profit research institute established in 1994 to study the complex linkages between international trade and environmental sustainability
1999 lack of legitimacy of the WTO: 1999 Lack of transparency, participation and legitimacy of the WTO
Since 1999 labour standards debate: Since 1999 trade and labour standards debate among and within WTO member countries, after ILO member governments agreed to prohibit and eliminate the worst forms of child labour
2002 WTO and world poverty: 2002 'World Poverty and Human Rights' study explaining that the poorest 44% of humankind have 1.3% of global income and that out of a total of 6,575 million human beings 826 million of them do not have enough to eat
2013 WTO, energy production and trade: 2 September 2013: WTO, energy trade, implications for renewable energy and the OPEC cartel - the WTO does not deal specifically with the energy sector, creating several problems when it comes to regulating trade in energy goods and services




World Social Forum - Fórum Social Mundial (homepage) - 26 to 30 March 2013 World Social Forum in Tunis - 2016 World Social Forum in Montreal



Global economic conferences

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC - APEC 24th annual gathering on Russky Island 2012 - 9 September 2012: USA Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urges Asian countries not to let their territorial disputes disrupt co-operation in a region she called the 'engine' of the global economy - APEC Indonesia October 2013
APEC China November 2014
APEC Philippines November 2015 - 18 November 2015: Hundreds of protesters have taken to the streets on the first day of the APEC leaders' meeting in Manila calling on leaders to put a stop to policies that solely benefit multinationals and rich countries at the expense of people in developing nations
APEC Peru November 2016 - 19 November: USA's Obama tries to reassure APEC at its annual summit that the USA will continue to pursue closer ties with the Asia Pacific, downplaying effects of looming Trump’s presidency, blathering about demcocracy and again being poised to shake hands with poisonous Russian war criminal Putin and allied Chinese regime's criminals and cynics
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum
2012: 9 July 2012: Tension in the South China Sea is expected to top the agenda for Asean's regional forum this week in Phnom Penh - 10 July 2012: Asean now seeks China agreement on adopted South China Sea code - 12 July: Speaking to foreign ministers at the Southeast Asian conference the US secretary of state Clinton says the US wants to ensure freedom of navigation and peace - 13 July: Days of heated diplomacy at Southeast Asian talks have ended in failure, as deep splits over China prevented the ASEAN grouping from issuing its customary joint statement - 18 November 2012: ASEAN Summit discusses territorial disputes in the South China Sea, and ethnic conflict in Myanmar - 19 November 2012: 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations fails to present a united front over the South China Sea dispute
2013/2014: 9 October 2013: Asean summit gets under way in Brunei - 11 May 2014: Concerns over China's aggressive behavior in the South China Sea top the agenda in first ASEAN summit talks hosted by Myanmar
2015: 4 November 2015: South-east Asian ministers cancel joint accord amid South China Sea hostility, following divisions over China’s claim on disputed islands
Pacific Islands Forum aiming to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean since 1971
2014: 30 July 2014: A summit of Pacific leaders opened in Palau with a call for developed nations to take action on climate change and stop overfishing the world's largest ocean
Summits of the so-called 'Group of Seven' - 11 May 2013: 'Group of Seven' agree to target tax evasion and avoidance - 24 March 2014: 'Group of Seven' countries snub Putin and refuse to attend planned G8 summit in Russia amid fears of further Russian military moves in Ukraine, warning Russia of more sanctions if Ukraine crisis escalates - 26 April 2014: In a joint statement the G7 nations say they will act urgently to intensify 'targeted sanctions' on Russian regime - 5 June 2014: 'Group of Seven', gathered in Brussels, focused on Russia's involvement in the Ukraine crisis, urging Russian regime to respect international law - 31 July: G7 states have threatened Russian regime with tougher sanctions if it continues to oppose the de-escalation of the conflict in eastern Ukraine
April 2015: 15 April 2015: As the USA is concerned about the ceasefire violation by the pro-Russian forces in eastern Ukraine, G7 countries in a meeting of foreign ministers in Lübeck discuss escalation in violence in Ukraine - 16 April: G7 ministers have not discussed Russia's return to group
June 2015: 41st G7 summit 7-8 June 2015 - 5 June 2015: Ukrainian FM Klimkin expects powerful signals at G7 summit for the full implementation of the 2015 Minsk agreements - 5 June 2015: Canadian PM Stephen Harper says Russia with Putin shouldn't rejoin G7, explaining that there 'really is no point in having a dialogue' - 8 June: G7 summit opens with tough line on Russian agression against Ukraine - 8 June 2015: G7 industrial nations agree to phase out fossil fuel use by end of century, also announcing initiatives to work for an end to extreme poverty and hunger
April/May 2016: 11 April 2016: At a meeting in Hiroshima, G7 calls on Russian regime to comply with Minsk accords and to influence Russian-backed militants in eastern Ukraine and condemns the illegal annexation of Crimea - 16 May: Ukraine's Poroshenko urges G7 countries to continue their sanctions against Russia following its failure to observe Minsk agreement - 21 May 2016: The Group of Seven major economies commit to step up war on terrorist funding issues 'action plan' for increased information-sharing and collaboration on sanctions for terror group money networks - 26 May 2016: Guardian's live coverage as group of seven convenes at controversial Japanese Ise-Shima location, with global economy, terrorism, refugee crisis and South China Sea high on agenda, and G7 summit politicians planting Japanese cedar trees close to the inner Naiku shrine at Ise Jingu - 29 May: G7 governments welcome the substantial energy policy reforms ongoing in Ukraine, and strongly urge it to pursue further ambitious reform of its energy sector, reiterating that 'in the context of the ongoing crisis between the Russian Federation and Ukraine ... energy should not be used as a means of political coercion or as a threat to security
April 2017: 10 April 2017: Last week’s murderous chemical attack on Khan Sheikhun in Syria and Russia’s support for the Assad regime are likely to top the agenda as G7 foreign ministers gather for a meeting in Italy's city of Lucca - 11/12 April 2017: G7 foreign ministers seek new push to end Syria war, blaming Assad’s military for a deadly chemical attack last week, as UK's Boris Johnson calls for more sanctions against Russian and Syrian regime, claiming that Putin is 'toxifying' Russia’s image and that he has to choose between withdrawing support for Assad or facing penalties, but France, Germany and Italy vetoed the idea of targeting Russian and Syrian military leaders, encouraging war criminals
May 2017: 43rd G7 summit will be held on May 26–27, 2017 in Taormina, Sicily, Italy - 26 May 2017: With the USA president apparently reluctant to compromise with Europeans over climate change, trade, famine, refugees and migration, hopes for crisis plan fall into chasm between G7 and USA's Trump
Summits of the so-called 'Group of Eight'
2012: 38th G8 summit 18–19 May 2012 - 10 May 2012: Russia President Putin will miss G8 Camp David summit later this month
2013: 39th G8 summit 17–18 June 2013 - 16 June 2013: The crisis in Syria is likely to top the agenda at the G8 summit in Northern Ireland 2013 - thousands of protesters were due on the streets of Belfast on Saturday to urge G8 leaders to act on global poverty - 18 June 2013: OECD report to help G8 offensive against tax evaders outlining how to bring about automatic sharing of financial information - 18 June 2013: Syrian conflict gets the spotlight as ‘G7 plus one’ summit opens - 18 June: Isolated at global summit, Russia's Putin clashed with other leaders - call for immediate peace talks on Syria
2014: 40th G8 summit was planned for 4–5 June 2014 at the Black Sea resort of Sochi - 3 March: Russia's Ukraine actions 'incompatible' with G8 membership, west says as G7 leaders withdraw from preparations for June summit in Sochi - 24 March: Western nations cancel G8 summit planned for Sochi after Russia violated international law in Ukraine
'Brics' (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) summits - 27 March 2013: 'Brics' bloody hands summit as Assad's Russian warplanes continue to destroy Syrian neighbourhoods and as the opposition, having few weapons to counter Assad’s helicopter gunships, warplanes and missiles, asks for international help to protect suffering and murdered people
Summits of the group of 20 major economies - 28 November 2013: US reportedly spied on G8 and G20 summits in Ontario in 2010
2012/2013: 5 novembre 2012: Les devoirs budgétaires et deux journées de débats du G20 à Mexico - 17 February 2013: G20 financial officials meeting agree not to manipulate their currencies to benefit their economies - 20 July 2013: Finance ministers from the G20 group have formally backed plans to tackle international tax avoidance and evasion
2013: 5/6 September 2013 G-20 Saint Petersburg summit - 5 September 2013: Obama to make G20 push for strike against Assad regime - 5 September 2013: After David Cameron’s presentation of new data about sarin nerve gas use in the chemical attack near Damascus in August, the Putin regime answers that Britain is 'a small island no one listens to', apart from some oligarchs - 6 September: British PM David Cameron bristles at Russia's 'small island' comment, starting with British resistance against fascism during World War II - 6 September: Ten members of the Group of 20 international economies joined the United States in accusing the Syrian government of carrying a chemical weapons attack on civilians last month and called for a strong international response against the Assad regime - 10 December: Chinese hackers spied on Europeans before G20 meeting
10 octobre 2013: Les ministres des Finances du G20 à partir de jeudi à Washington, en marge des réunions du FMI et de la Banque mondiale, pour maintenir le cap d'une économie mondiale désorientée, entre autres, par les Etats-Unis
2014: 21 September 2014: In Cairns (Australia) G20 finance ministers agree to automatically exchange tax information on a reciprocal basis by end of 2018 to stamp out evasion - 22 September: G20 worried about the 'stumbling block' of Europe's slow growth
15/16 November 2014 G-20 Brisbane (Australia) summit
2015: 15/16 November 2015 G-20 Antalya summit - 15 November 2015: G20 summit in the Turkish city of Antalya, as global security and the conflict in Syria are likely to be even more pressing following Islamic State's terror attacks in Paris which claimed more than 120 lives - 22 November 2015: Western politicians who met on the margins of G-20 summit agreed to extend sanctions imposed on Russia for its intervention in Ukraine by six months until July 2016, despite some calls to cooperate more closely with Russian regime, committing war crimes and supporting terrorism
2016: 23 July 2016: G20 ministers urge tighter tax rules for multinationals not contributing appropriately to the economies where they make their money
4/5 September 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit - 2-4 September 2016: China and the USA, the world’s biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, join 2015 Paris climate pact on eve of G20 summit in Hangzhou, as Hurricane Hermine leaves two people dead in Florida, after storm tore a path of destruction, flooding low-lying areas and raising concerns about the spread of the Zika virus due to the massive pools of standing water left behind
2017: 26 June 2017: Dozens of city mayors from around the world led by Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo call on G20 leaders to stick to their commitments on tackling climate change, saying they are inspired by the 'courage' shown by more than 300 mayors in cities across the USA who have committed to upholding the Paris Agreement - 7–8 July 2017 G20 Hamburg summit in the city of Hamburg - G20 Hamburg summit protests June-July 2017
World Economic Forum: World Economic Forum WEF since 1971
2017: 11 January 2017: Before its annual meeting in Davos next week, the WEF says that the gap between rich and poor, the rising income inequality and the polarisation of societies pose a risk to the global economy in 2017 and had been behind the UK’s Brexit vote in 2016 and Donald Trump’s election victory in the USA - 20 January 2017: Assad and Putin cause main global security challenges, Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko says in an interview to CNN in Davos






Weiter zum Artikel: Crises in Europe - economy, politics, wars, natural disasters

Weiter zum Artikel: Eine sich verändernde Welt: Demokratie in Tunesien - eine Chance auch für ein sich veränderndes Europa

Weiter zum Artikel: Der Gazakrieg 2008/2009 ist eine Krise Europas und Deutschlands

Weiter zum Artikel: Europäische Union - Mitgliedstaaten, Beitrittskandidaten, Wahlen



zurück zur Einstiegsseite