Crises: Economy, politics, wars, natural disasters and reactions - exposition of countries in Africa, Americas, Antarctica, Arctic, Asia, Western Asia ('Middle East'), Australia/Oceania, Europe

(Since April 2011)

Global crises

Late-2000s financial crisis since 2007 - Since 2008 Great Recession, period of general economic decline observed in world markets beginning around the end of the first decade of the 21st century - 2008-2013 Timeline of the Great Recession - Effects of the Great Recession - 2010-present European sovereign debt crisis - The Great Recession in Europe is part of the Great Recession worldwide, which began in the USA - World economy
2012/2013: 9. April 2012: Laut ILO (International Labour Organization) wächst die Arbeitslosigkeit weltweit - 30 April 2012: ILO warns global employment situation is 'alarming' - 22 May 2012: Youth unemployment rising, ILO report warns - 22 January 2013: World unemployment figures set to rise in 2013, claims UN labour agency
October 2015: 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
January 2016: 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns
January 2018: 22 January 2018: Global unemployment in 2018 is projected to remain at a similar high level to last year’s and vulnerable employment is on the rise, according to ILO - Unemployment rate in 2018 by country

Capitalist mode of production - Capitalism based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit - Criticism of capitalism
Wage labour - Wage slavery refers to a social relation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate
2014/2015: 27 May 2014: Half of developing world's workers trapped in vulnerable jobs, says ILO - 24 July 2014: More than 2.2 billion people are 'poor or near-poor', amid financial crises, natural disasters, soaring food prices and violent conflicts, UNDP's report says - 19 mai 2015: Une étude de l'Organisation internationale du travail indique que seulement un quart des travailleurs à travers le monde a un emploi stable - 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
January 2016: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as a global network of tax havens further enables the richest individuals to hide $7.6 trillion, according to Oxfam - 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns
April 2017: 6 April 2017: The risk of human rights tainted tungsten, tin, tantalum and gold (3TG) entering the supply chains of tech firms is extending well beyond the traditional home of 'conflict minerals', DR Congo and the Great Lakes Region of Africa, according to new research from risk analysis firm Verisk Maplecroft - 7 April 2017: Tech companies must do more to avoid using minerals tainted by rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Colombia, Peru, Myanmar and elsewhere, according to Verisk Maplecroft
November 2018: 26 novembre 2018: La croissance des salaires au plus bas en 2017 depuis 2008 et les salaires sont insuffisants pour honorer les besoins de nombreuses personnes dans de nombreuses régions du monde, selon OIT

Direct and indirect consequences of colonialism and colonization - History of colonialism - History of European colonialism - Exploitation colonialism - Settler colonialism - During the late 19th and early 20th centuries colonial expansion by European powers, the USA and Japan - Decolonization, the withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power, the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies - Wars of independence
April 2019 debt repayments: 3 April 2019: Debt repayments by the world’s poorest countries have doubled since 2010 to reach their highest level since just before the internationally organised write-off in 2005, campaigners have warned
September 2019 mining companies' human rights abuses: 5 September 2019: Most of the world’s top companies extracting key minerals for electric vehicles, solar panels and wind turbines have been linked with human rights abuses in their mines, according to tne international corporate watchdog BHRRC, revealing that 87% of the 23 largest companies mining cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel and zinc – the six minerals essential to the renewable energy industry – have faced allegations of abuse including land rights infringements, corruption, violence or death over the past 10 years

Poverty by country - List of countries by GDP - List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty - List of countries by unemployment rate
Economic inequality
January 2015 fast growing gap between rich and poor: 19 January 2015: The gap between the richest people and the majority of the world's population is widening fast as wealth accumulated by the richest one percent will exceed that of the other 99 percent in 2016, British Oxfam charity says
2016: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new Oxfam report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as the wealth of the poorest 50% dropped by 41% between 2010 and 2015, despite an increase in the global population of 400m - April 2016 'Panama Papers', period of release 1970s–2016
2017 rising inequality: 16 January 2017: The world’s eight richest billionaires control the same wealth between them as the poorest half of the globe’s population, Oxfam says blaming rising inequality on aggressive wage restraint, tax dodging and the squeezing of producers by companies, adding that businesses were too focused on delivering ever-higher returns to wealthy owners and top executives - 28 septembre 2017: Les grosses fortunes ont proliféré dans le monde en 2016, selon Capgemini - 14 décembre 2017: Europe, Afrique, Asie ou continent américain, 'les inégalités ont augmenté dans presque toutes les régions du monde', assure un 'rapport sur les inégalités mondiales', qui compare de façon inédite la répartition des richesses au niveau mondial et son évolution depuis près de quatre décennies
January-June 2018 rising inequality: 22 January 2018: The world’s richest one percent raked in 82% of the wealth created last year while the poorest half of the population received none, according to Oxfam report, calling for action to tackle the growing gap between rich and poor, as report shows that 42 people hold as much wealth as the 3.7 billion who make up the poorest half of the world’s population - 7 April 2018: The world’s richest 1% are on course to control as much as two-thirds of the world’s wealth by 2030, according to an alarming projection produced by the House of Commons library that has lead to a cross-party call for action - 2 June 2018: Citizenship for sale, how tycoons can go shopping for a new passport
October 2018: 26 October 2018: World's billionaires became 20% richer in 2017, making more money in 2017 than in any year in recorded history and increasing their wealth to $8.9tn, according to a report by Swiss bank UBS
January 2019: 21 January 2019: The growing concentration of the world’s wealth has been highlighted by a British report, showing that the 26 richest billionaires own as many assets as the 3.8 billion people who make up the poorest half of the planet’s population, and that the 'growing gap between the rich and poor is undermining the fight against poverty, damaging economies and fueling public anger across the globe'
September 2019 ranks of super-rich continue to grow: 25 September 2019: Ranks of super-rich continue to grow despite global turmoil, as economic woes fail to stop further 2,124 people becoming ultra-high net worth people
Diseases of poverty

Hunger, Famine, Starvation, and malnutrition - List of famines
Global Hunger Index
2015-2017: 2015 Global Hunger Index map and scores by country - 2017 Global Hunger Index - global, regional and national trends
2016: 5 June 2016: Drought drives global rise in hunger, as millions of people are suffering the impact of severe drought across three continents
2017 world hunger rising: 11 March 2017: The world faces the largest humanitarian crisis since 1945 with more than 20 million people in countries in Africa and the Middle East facing starvation and famine, UN official says - 15 September 2017: World hunger rising for first time this century, sparking concern that conflict and climate change could be reversing years of progress, according to the state of food insecurity and nutrition in 2017, a report produced by five UN agencies
2018 world hunger rising: 22 mars 2018: L'intensification des conflits et la sécheresse persistante dans plusieurs régions du monde ont fait grimper à 124 millions le nombre de personnes jugées à la merci d'une famine à la fin 2017, une augmentation de 15% comparé à l'année précédente, selon UE, FAO et PAM
July 2019 world hunger rising: 15 juillet 2019: La faim dans le monde affectait 821,6 millions de personnes dans le monde en 2018, contre 811 l'année précédente, selon un rapport annuel publié par plusieurs organisations de l'ONU qui déplorent une troisième année consécutive de hausse

Use of starvation as weapon since 2011 in Syria:
October 2013: 30 October 2013: Assad regime's 'starvation until submission campaign', blocking food and medicine from entering and people from leaving besieged areas of Syria, causing starvation and death, according to residents and medical staff
March 2014: 10 March 2014: Assad's army has been using starvation as a 'weapon of war' in its siege of the Yarmuk Palestinian refugee camp on the outskirts of Damascus, according rights group, saying nearly 200 people have died since an army siege was tightened in July 2013 and access to food and medicine cut
Since 2015: Use of starvation as weapon during Assad's war against the Syrian people, since 2015 in Madaya
January 2016: 7/8 January 2016: Siege and starvation in Madaya, immediate medical evacuations and medical resupply essential to save lives
November 2017: 24 November 2017: Children starve in siege of Syria's former breadbasket Rif Damashq province, as the siege by Assad forces of eastern Ghouta, which also suffered in the deadly 2013 sarin gas attack, has continued for years with conditions getting steadily worse
Since 2016 in Yemen: Since 2016 Famine in Yemen
October 2016: 4 October 2016: Yemen famine feared as starving children fight for lives in hospital
November 2017: 16 November 2017: International aid group 'Save the Children' says an estimated 130 children or more die every day in war-torn Yemen from extreme hunger and disease
September 2018: 19 September 2018: More than five million children are at risk of famine in Yemen as the ongoing war causes food and fuel prices to soar across the country, according to charity 'Save the Children'
October 2018: 15 October 2018: Yemen on brink of 'world's worst famine in 100 years' if war triggered by Iranian-backed Houthis continues, as UN warns that famine could overwhelm country in next three months, with 13 million people at risk of starvation - 23 octobre 2018: Jusqu'à 14 millions de personnes pourraient souffrir de la famine au Yémen si les conditions de vie restent les mêmes, selon l'ONU
February 2019: 15 February 2019: Starving girl shows devastating impact of Yemeni war
October 2017 D.R of Congo: 29 October 2017: Millions face starvation in the D.R. of Congo, UN warns
2018 in South Sudan: 10 January 2018: Starvation as a weapon of war in South Sudan
September 2018: 10 September 2018: Starvation being used as a weapon of war has become the new normal, according to Save the Children, saying that more than half a million infants in conflict zones could die of malnutrition by the end of the year if they do not receive treatment

Women's rights by region (continent) - Women's rights by country - Women's suffrage
2015: 5 June 2015: Women worldwide are the backbone of healthcare with few rewards for $3tn contribution, report says - 9 September 2015: Women’s economic opportunities and working rights still widely subject to restrictive legislation in 155 countries, having at least one law that limits women’s economic opportunities, while 100 states put restrictions on the types of jobs women can do and 18 allow husbands to dictate whether their wives can work at all, World Bank report says
March 2018: 9 March 2018: International Women's Day was celebrated across the world on Wednesday at a time when the women of the Eastern Ghouta are hiding in the cellars with their children to escape a brutal campaign waged by the Russian and Iranian-backed Syrian regime on the area
Violence against women - Causes of sexual violence - Violence against women by country - International rape statistics - Domestic violence - Honor killing - Refugee women and children
2013/2014: 20 june 2013: More than one woman in three around the globe is a victim of domestic violence, the WHO says - 10 June 2014: A four-day summit on sexual violence in war is to begin in London - 30 October: UN's Ban Ki-moon backs Guardian’s global media campaign against FGM
2016: 5 February 2016: On the eve of the international day of zero tolerance for FGM, UN says that at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM, as the countries with the highest prevalence are Somalia 98%, Guinea 97% and Djibouti 93%
2016: 8 March 2016: Syrian Coalition's Suheir al-Atassi says Syrian women have been going through unspeakable suffering, whether due to displacement, loss of loved ones, detention, sexual violence, and death by starvation or under torture or in bombardment by the Assad regime
2018: 28 June 2018: India is the world’s most dangerous country for women due to the high risk of sexual violence and being forced into slave labour, according to a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey of 548 experts, ranking Afghanistan and Syria second and third, followed by Somalia and Saudi Arabia and the the USA the only western nation in the top 10 - 26 November 2018: Of a total of 87,000 women murdered globally in 2017 about 50,000 or 58% were killed by the partner or family members, according to UN
Infant mortality - List of countries by infant mortality rate - Child mortality

Children's rights - Child neglect, a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs
October 2019: 15 octobre 2019: Un jeune enfant sur trois est mal nourri, selon un rapport de l’UNICEF
18 October 2019: 9 out of 10 children in the world’s poorest countries are unable to read a basic book by the age of 10, according to data compiled by the World Bank and the UN
Child labour and poverty: Child labour - Child labour by country - - List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor - Child labour law
Child poverty
2014: 28 October 2014: Child poverty has increased in 23 countries in the developed world since the start of the global recession in 2008, Unicef says
2017: 19 September 2017: The ILO have released a companion estimate of child labour, which confirms that about 152 million children, aged between 5 and 17, were subject to child labour in 2016
June 2019: 14 June 2019: Progress on ending child labour stalls in countries supplying goods to west, as China, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia among otherwise thriving countries failing to make headway on issue affecting 152 million minors, a study has found
Child slavery: Child slavery
Child abduction, laundering and trafficking of children: International child abduction - Child laundering - Trafficking of children
Crimes and violence against children and military use: Crimes and violence against children - Military use of children
2014: 5 September 2014: No country immune from violence against children that is tolerated and even accepted as normal in many parts of the world, Unicef report says - 21 October 2014: One child dies every five minutes as a result of violence, but only a minority die in war zones, Unicef report says
2016: 28 juillet 2016: En Syrie, en Irak et au Nigéria, des milliers d'enfants sont torturés et détenus sous couvert de lutte contre le terrorisme, selon Human Rights Watch - 8 September 2016: As chemical weapons watchdog chief says Aleppo gas attack disturbing, the UN Security Council is due to discuss a report by the UN and the watchdog group OPCW, blaming Assad regime forces for previous toxic gas attacks
March 2017: 6 March 2017: Children in Syria are suffering from 'toxic stress', a severe form of psychological trauma that can cause life-long damage, as 5.8 million of the country’s children are in need of aid in Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, according to a study of 'Save the Children' and its partner agencies in Syria
October 2017: 5 October 2017: Millions of children caught in conflict, victims and targets of despicable harm, as children from countries such as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen, suffer an unacceptable level of violations by parties to conflict, according to UN's 2016 Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict - 1 novembre 2017: Trois quarts des enfants âgés entre 2 et 4 ans, environ 300 millions de filles et de garçons dans le monde sont victimes de violences domestiques, selon Unicef
December 2017: 28 December 2017: Children caught in war zones are increasingly being used as weapons of war, recruited to fight, forced to act as suicide bombers, and used as human shields, according to Unicef, summarising 2017 as a brutal year for children caught in conflict and stating that parties to conflicts were blatantly disregarding international humanitarian law
August 2018: 8 August 2018: SNHR said in a report that there were 4,360 incidents of attacks hitting 1,356 schools in Syria since 2011, which caused about half of them to go out of service, documenting the deaths of 528 civilians as a result of attacks on schools and educational institutions, as the Assad regime attacked 996 schools, the Russian forces are responsible for attacking 169 schools and the international coalition forces are responsible for attaching 87 schools
December 2018: 19 December 2018: Iranian backed Houthis in Yemen have inducted 18,000 child soldiers into their army since the beginning of their war in 2014, a senior Houthi military official acknowledged to the AP, as former child soldiers describe Houthis’ 'efficiency' when it comes to recruitment, deployment and battlefield deaths of young boys and children as young as 10 fight, kill and die
Child abuse: Child abuse
School corporal punishment and corporal punishment in the home: School corporal punishment - Corporal punishment in the home
Street children and orphanages: Street children is a term for children experiencing homelessness who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village - Orphanage, a residential institution devoted to the care of children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them
Child marriage: Child marriage - Child marriage by region and country
2017: 11 October 2017: Early marriage not only deprives girls of education and opportunities, but also increases the risk of death or serious childbirth injuries, as at least 20,000 girls around the world are married off illegally each day, with child marriage often deeply rooted in tradition despite being outlawed in a growing number of countries, according to new analysis

Refugee women and children, facing many of the same issues in refugee camps as they do in urban slums and rural villages, broad issues such as inequality and abuse are seen universally - Refugee camps - Mental health of refugee children
2016: 14 March 2016: No place for children - the impact of five years of war on Syria's children and their childhoods, Unicef report - 7 September 2016: Child refugee figures have jumped by 75% in five years and children now make up more than half of the world’s refugees, Unicef says calling for urgent action to protect the 50 million child migrants worldwide
September 2018: 2 September 2018: 'Home – Drawings by Syrian Children' is a book filled with the truest international language that we big people need to listen to closely and seriously, documenting journeys of escape, fleeing unimaginable horror, murderous men and the end of their homeland
January 2019: 15 January 2019: Winter weather kills 15 displaced children in Syria, according to UN, saying that freezing temperatures and lack of medical care claimed victims, most aged under a year and one just an hour old, thousands continue to flee fighting

Refugee crises - Refugee - Refugees by nationality - Right of asylum - List of countries by refugee population - Refugee camp - Refugee camps
Since 1914-1918: First World War 1914-1918, caused by the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, uprooted millions of European civilians who were made refugees either by enemy occupation or by the state’s forcible deportation, the resulting crisis had profound consequences, not only for the individuals directly affected but also for officials and relief workers who attempted to relieve their suffering and for communities that hosted refugees and not ending in 1918
1933-1945: Between Germany's NSDAP rise to power in 1933 and Germany's surrender in 1945, more than 340,000 Jews emigrated from their country, but after Germany annexed Austria in March 1938 and particularly after the German November pogroms 1938 nations in western Europe and the Americas feared an influx of refugees, placing limits on immigration and often turning back desperate people - MS St. Louis German ocean liner trying to find homes for 908 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, but after denied entry to Cuba, Canada, and the USA, the refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, and historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in German death camps during World War II - 'Exodus 1947' was a ship that carried 4,515 Jewish emigrants from France to British Mandatory Palestine in July 1947, mostly Holocaust survivors, but the British Royal Navy seized the ship in a battle and deported all its passengers back to Europe and Germany detaining refugees in camps likened to German concentration camps
1942: 18 April 2017: Allies of World War II Soviet Union, United Kingdom and USA, that together opposed the Axis powers' aggression and war crimes, knew of Holocaust in 1942, 2 years before previously assumed, UN documents prove, shedding damning light on refusal to take in refugees - The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945, and in which Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, Soviet prisoners of war, as well as political opponents, 'incurably sick', homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses
Since 1945: During World War II, NSDAP ruled Germany deported between seven and nine million Europeans, mostly to Germany and after Germany's surrender in May 1945, the Allies repatriated to their home countries more than six million displaced persons, but most Jewish survivors, who had survived concentration camps or had been in hiding, were unable or unwilling to return to eastern Europe because of postwar antisemitism and the destruction of their communities during the Holocaust
Following World War II and since 1950s: Since 1950s refugee crises in Africa, in the Americas, in Asia, in Europe, in the Near and Middle East - List of UNHCR registered refugees by country/territory of origin between 2006 and 2014
2016/2017: 22 May 2017: Extent of the hidden crises, that forced 31 million people to flee within their countries in 2016, revealed by Norwegian Refugee Council report
June 2018: 19 June 2018: Record 68.5 million people fleeing war or persecution worldwide, including 25.4 million refugees, 40 million internally displaced and 3.1 million asylum seekers, as UNHCR sees five countries accounting for two-thirds of all refugees including Syria (6.3 million), Afghanistan (2.6 million), South Sudan (2.4 million), Myanmar (1.2 million) and Somalia (986,400)
November 2018: 1 November 2018: As migration rises worldwide, so has its toll according to an AP tally, saying tens of thousands of people die or simply disappear during their journeys, barely counted in life, these migrants rarely register in death, almost as if they never lived at all
May 2019: 10 May 2019: Record numbers of people have been forced from their homes by conflict in a crisis that has received 'pitiful' international attention, according to the Norwegian Refugee Council, finding that a total of 41.3 million people were living in a state of internal displacement by the end of 2018 due to violence
June 2019: 19 June 2019: The number of people fleeing conflict and oppression worldwide and forced to flee their homes has exceeded 70 million for the first time since records began, according to the UN’s refugee agency, saying that the figure is a conservative estimate, because the impact of the crisis in Venezuela is still not known, also adding 'year on year the international community is proving unable to make peace'
November 2019 UN accused of trying to starve out refugees: 28 November 2019: The UN has been accused of trying to starve out refugees and asylum seekers who are sheltering for safety inside a centre run by the UN refugee agency in the Libyan capital of Tripoli
Since 1948: Since 1948 Palestinian refugees - Palestinian diaspora - Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Since 1948: Palestinian refugee camps in Syria - Since 1957 Yarmouk Camp
2014: 17 January 2014: Assad regime’s helicopters dropped barrel bombs on the Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk, reportedly killing at least 9 people and wounding many - 18 January 2014: Damascus Yarmouk refugee camp receives aid for first time in months after reports that people have died of hunger and lack of medical care - 10 March 2014: According to Lebanese newspaper Al Akhbar Palestine's Mahmoud Abbas told Syrian opposition to trust Russia's Putin regime, not USA - 28 December 2014: 2,589 Palestinian-Syrians had been killed since March 2011, rights group says
2017: 19 April 2017: Human rights watchdog calls for the release of 1,200 Palestinian detainees from Syrian regime prisons held by Assad since 2011, including women with children, as group releases report claiming 461 prisoners have been executed or killed under torture since 2011
2018: 2 April 2018: 23 Palestinians were killed in Syria during March, including 15 victims killed by gunfire, 7 killed as a result of bombardment and one as a result of lack of medical treatment, as 3,685 Palestinians have died since the beginning of Assad's war against the Syrian people seven years ago, according to the Action Group for Palestinians of Syria
Since 2011: Since 2011 Refugees of Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2014: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: 15 June 2015: Human rights organisation accuses politicians of shameful failure over worldwide refugee crises and neglect for the deaths of thousands of civilians fleeing wars in the Middle East and Africa - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
2016: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 26 January 2016: UN warns 2.5 million Syrian children will become refugees by the end of 2016 - 29 January 2016: Refugees are not a crisis, we are human beings, activists in the UK say in a letter, underlining that the world must work together to solve crises also by fighting against racism, murder and war - 4 February 2016: Increasingly intensive Russian airstrikes are pushing tens of thousands of Syrians from Aleppo towards the Turkish border, as Europe is struggling to respond to the existing refugee crisis - 7 February 2016: It was Bashar Assad, his allies and Islamic State terrorists who butchered their families and took their homes, but the USA, Britain and European countries left Syrian refugees in Turkey to face their fate - 9 February 2016: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands of more refugees arriving at the Turkish-Syrian border - 16 avril 2016: De violents combats, impliquant tous les protagonistes de la guerre en Syrie, poussent sur les routes des milliers de civils dans le nord - 20 June 2016: As a record 65 million men, women and children are forced from their homes by war and persecution last year, UN refugee agency sounds alarm over failure of nations to find collective solutions - 26 October 2016: A record number of people have died or gone missing while attempting to cross the Mediterranean sea, making 2016 the deadliest year for refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe, according to UNHCR's William Spindler
2017: 30 January 2017: Activists appeal for humanitarian action to save thousands of refugees in camps near Lebanon’s Arsal as snowstorm hits - 30 March 2017: The number of Syrian refugees in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt has passed 5 million for the first time in Syria's six year conflict, according to the UN refugee agency
January 2018: 19 janvier 2018: Le Haut-Commissariat de l'ONU pour les réfugiés a recensé 997'905 réfugiés syriens enregistrés au Liban, en grande majorité des femmes et des enfants, avec 58% des ménages vivant dans une extrême pauvreté - 20 January 2018: Thirteen Syrians, including five children and women, froze to death crossing into Lebanon when an icy storm hit a route in the mountains near a border post with Syria
March 2018: 16 March 2018: Refugees flee Eastern Ghouta - 18 March 2018: Kurds flee Afrin after Turkish troops and Arab forces they sponsor have encircled their home city except for the squeeze point they used to flee, ahead, Shia militants allied to Assad's army man checkpoints deciding who can pass
May 2018: 7 May 2018: Three Spanish firefighters and two Danish volunteers have appeared in court accused of trying to help migrants enter Greece via the island of Lesbos, after working as volunteers to aid thousands of migrants, mostly Syrians, risking their lives to reach Europe via Lesbos and other Greek islands, saying 'humanitarian assistance can not and should not be criminalised'
August 2018: 30 August 2018: Syria's refugees fear for their future after war, saying 'we can’t go back'
November 2018: 1 November 2018: Assad regime delays entry of aid to the al-Rukban Camp, UN says
May 2019: 5 May 2019: Continuous escalation including airstrikes and barrel bombs by Russian and Assad's forces in North Western Syria displaces tens of thousands - 6 May 2019: Russian and Assad's air raids and barrel bombs force more than 300,000 civilians to displace in 6 days, according to SOHR
29 July 2019: 29 July 2019: The population of Rukban camp in a USA-protected desert zone in southeast Syria has dwindled to a quarter of the more than 40,000 who lived there five months ago due to Russian moves to block supplies, Syrian aid workers, diplomats and residents said
July 2019 refugees face forcible return to warzones: 29 July 2019: Syrians living in Istanbul and Beirut have been targeted by immigration authorities in recent weeks, as thousands face forcible return to warzones under air attack - 29 July 2019: As 1,000 Syrians arrested in Turkey, crackdown fears intensify and refugees worry about being returned to the Turkish province they arrived in, or worse, Idlib
August 2019 more than 450,000 new Syrian refugees due to Assad and Putin: 2 August 2019: Bombing and shelling by the Assad regime and Russia on the provinces of Idlib and Hama in the past three months have forced more than 450,000 people to flee their homes for the Turkish borders, MSF says, adding that the aggression has led left hundreds dead and thousands injured
2017: 2017 Rohingya refugee crisis following the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar since 2016 - 17 October 2017: UN released aerial footage showing thousands of Rohingya Muslims after they crossed the Naf river into Bangladesh, joining at least 536,000 Rohingya Muslims who have fled Myanmar since Augus - 20 October 2017: More than 300,000 Rohingya refugee children 'outcast and desperate', Unicef says
September 2018: 19 September 2018: ICC's Fatou Bensouda announces investigation into the deportations of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar into Bangladesh

Causes of refugee crises include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate crises, economic hardship - 2008-2016 list of refugees and total population of concern by UN region, including 21,288,728 people in Africa in 2016, 31,168,078 people in Asia in 2016, 8,061,269 people in Latin America in 2016, and 6,210,994 people in Europe in 2016 - Migrant motives in the European refugee and migrant crisis since 2014/2015 - primarily credited to the inundation of refugees due to political and social conflicts in regions such as Syria, the greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria - 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees on 7 June 2018

Outline of war - List of ongoing armed conflicts - Causes of war - War, history of war and types of war - Lists of wars by date - time is the same for all, but not lifetime
Ethnic conflict, Chauvinism is an exaggerated nationalism and a belligerent belief in national superiority and Racism by country - White supremacy ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - Imperialism is a policy of extending a state's power and influence through colonization, use of military force and other means, originating from the Roman 'imperium', which means the conquest and rule over large territories for the purpose of slave hunting and submission - Colonialism, the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony - Exploitation colonialism, the national economic policy of conquering a country to exploit its natural resources and its native population

Dictatorship, an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders - Military dictatorship, a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and a dictator is often a high ranked military officer - Caesarism and the rule of military warlords following the dictatorship of Julius Caesar and the rise of the Roman Empire since 60 BC - Emperor - Emperors by country - Bonapartism, Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's coup d'état in December 1851 in France and his rule as Napoleon III 1852-1870 - Fascism, a form of authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy - National Socialism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party, a form of fascism, but also incorporating antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics - Military dictatorships in the 20th and 21st century - Neo-fascism since World War II - Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism
History of nationalism - History of colonialism

History of weapons, as humans have developped and used weapons in warfare, hunting, self-defense, law enforcement, and criminal activity for thousands of years, using different materials from stone and wood to different metals, chemicals and modern synthetic materials such as plastics
'Advanced' warfare since the later middle ages, as Europeans were by all means trying to outclass the Byzantines, the Indians, the Arabs and indigenous people in siege technology
Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms
1700-1900 long rifle, also known as Kentucky or Pennsylvania rifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles characterized by an unusually long barrel, used by British American colonies in their wars against Native Americans and other wars - Since the early 1700s the longrifle was developed in southeastern Pennsylvania, becoming more popular due to their longer effective range, when a rifleman could hit a man-sized target at a range of 200 yards or more
History of military technology
Militarization, the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence - Militarism as a cause of World War I - German kingdom of Prussia is considered the wellspring of European militarism in modern history
Crime of aggression - An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory - List of invasions - Military conquest - Warfare

Arms industry - Weapons by country - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Modern military technology
Weapons by user, by function and by industry - Lists of weapons by type

Weapon of mass destruction - Chemical weapon, chemical agents and poison gas - Chemical warfare - Biological warfare - Weapons of mass destruction by country
Since 1914: Chemical warfare, industrial era and World War I 1914-1918 started by German Empire and Austria-Hungary - Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany in assaulted Belgium in 1915 - Since 1917 Mustard agent, first used effectively in World War I by the German army against British and Canadian soldiers near Ypres, Belgium, in 1917 and later also against the French Second Army - Chemical warfare, World War II 1939-1945, Imperial Japanese Army's chemical warfare and NSDAP-Germany
1920s, 1942-1945: Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s, in early 1942 Zyklon B emerged as the preferred killing tool of Nazi Germany for use in extermination camps during the Holocaust
1928: 11 June 1928: Sir W. Davison asks the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he has obtained any explanation from the German Government with regard to the large quantities of phosgene poison gas found to be stored in Hamburg contrary to the express terms of the peace treaty, as disclosed by the recent explosion of a tank containing the gas, with consequent serious loss of life, and what action is being taken in the matter - 1928: Aus ist's mit den bösen Kriegen, sagt der Völkerbund, Friedenstauben munter fliegen um das Erdenrund, Es ertönt in jedem Land Friedensmusik, Und geächtet und verbannt ist jetzt der Krieg, Nur zum Spaß macht man Gas, weil's noch keiner kennt, Panzerkreuzer sind das beste Friedensinstrument, Tankgeschwader, Fliegerbomben - nur für den Sport, Niemand denkt mehr an den Massenmord
1936-1939: 1936-1939 support for the Spanish fascists by Germany and Italy and policiy of non-intervention and isolationism of the Republic by the United Kingdom, France and USA, later identified as disastrous
September 1936: September 1936: Spanish FM Julio Álvarez del Vayo appealed to the League of Nations in September 1936 for arms to defend Spain's territorial integrity and political independence, but the League members would not intervene in the Spanish Civil War nor prevent foreign intervention in the conflict, did ban foreign volunteers in February 1937, while Adolf Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid Franco's fascists
1938: Sarin was discovered in 1938 in Wuppertal-Elberfeld in Germany by 'scientists' at IG Farben who were attempting to create stronger pesticides and in mid-1939, the formula for the agent was passed to the chemical warfare section of the German Army Weapons Office, which ordered that it be brought into mass production for wartime use
1983–1988, 1991: 1983–1988 use of mustard and nerve agent in the Iraq–Iran War by Iraqi Saddam regime forces - Halabja chemical attack by Saddam regime forces against the Kurdish people that took place on 16 March 1988, killing between 3,200 and 5,000 people and injuring 7,000 to 10,000 more, most of them civilians - 1991 use of chemical weapons by Saddam regime forces in Southern Iraq against the Popular Uprising
August 2013: 21 August 2013: Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Syria, two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin - Foreign government assessments regarding the August 2013 Ghouta sarin gas attack - International reactions to the Ghouta chemical attack
April 1915 - present: 16 September 2016: Chlorine, the gas of war crimes, first used by German war criminals 1915 in Belgium and last used in August 2016 by war criminals against the Syrian people - 16 September 2016: UN-led international inquiry has identified two Syrian Assad regime air force helicopter squadrons and two other military units it holds responsible for chlorine gas attacks on civilians
June 2018: 19 June 2018: The rapid rise of synthetic biology has raised the risk of a new generation of bioweapons, according to a major USA report
October 2018 Assad's chemical attacks: 15 October 2018: A BBC investigation shows for the first time the extent to which chemical weapons have been crucial to Assad regime's war-winning strategy, saying there is enough evidence to be confident that at least 106 chemical attacks have taken place in Syria since September 2013, when Assad signed the international Chemical Weapons Convention and agreed to destroy the country's chemical weapons stockpile following the Ghouta chemical attack
February 2019 Assad's chemical attacks: 17 February 2019: New report shows there were at least 336 chemical attacks over the course of Assad's war in Syria, with 98% of them carried out by Bashar Assad’s regime, the remaining 2% attributed to the Islamic State terrorist group, and with approximately 90% of all confirmed attacks occurring after the infamous 'red line' war crime of August 2013, according to the 'Global Public Policy Institute', calling on the international community to target the military formations responsible for attacks including regime’s helicopter fleet, to prevent delivery of chemical munitions

Nuclear weapon and Nuclear warfare - Nuclear weapon design - List of nuclear weapons - List of states with nuclear weapons - Nuclear weapons debate
Nuclear warfare, the use of nuclear weaponry to inflict damage on the enemy, in contrast to conventional warfare nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time-frame and can have a long lasting radiological warfare dimension
History of nuclear weapons - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - Nuclear history by country

Since early 20th century timeline of nuclear weapons development: Timeline of nuclear weapons development since early 20th century
Since 1933: Nuclear arms race before, during and since World War II and its causes - Since April 1939 German nuclear weapons program, neglected after the German invasion of Poland - Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons, conducted during World War II - 2 August 1939 'Einstein–Szilárd letter' sent to USA's Franklin D. Roosevelt, warning that Germany might develop atomic bombs - USA's 'Manhattan Project' since 1942 was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II - 'Trinity' nuclear test, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon on 16 July 1945, as part of USA's Manhattan Project and approved by the government on 25 July, warning aggressors and war criminals - 26 July 1945 'Potsdam Declaration' (USA, United Kingdom, China) stating, if Empire of Japan did not surrender, it would face 'prompt and utter destruction' - 'Operation Downfall' allied plan for the invasion of Japan to end World War II, abandoned when Japan surrendered following the August 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Since 1945 nuclear weapons tests by USA, Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Israel and North Korea: 1945-2017 number of nuclear weapons tests by state (USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Israel and North Korea) - List of nuclear test sites - List of nuclear weapon test locations - Historical nuclear weapons stockpiles and nuclear tests by country - Nuclear weapons by country
May 1974 India's first nuclear bomb test, code-named 'Smiling Buddha': May 1974 India's first successful 'peaceful' nuclear bomb test, code-named 'Smiling Buddha', when a bomb was detonated on the Pokhran army base in Rajasthan by the Indian Army - International reaction to the nuclear test conducted by India, code-named 'Smiling Buddha'
2016 distribution of nuclear weapons: 13 June 2016: At the start of 2016 nine states, the USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea, together possessed a total of approximately 15,395 nuclear weapons, Russia and the USA still account for more than 93% of all nuclear weapons, as both Russia and the USA have extensive and expensive nuclear modernization programmes under way, according to SIPRI
2016/2017 an estimated 15,400 nuclear weapons: 11 March 2017: There were an estimated 15,400 nuclear weapons in 2016, as China was thought to have 260 warheads in early 2016, India is thought to have 100-120 nuclear weapons now, Pakistan may have as many as 130 and North Korea now thought to have 10 nuclear weapons - 21 September 2017: China, India, North Korea and Pakistan expanding their nuclear arsenals, according to SIPRI, also saying that developments in North Korea’s nuclear program 'contributed to international political instability with potentially serious knock-on effects'
May 2018 Iranian regime's nuclear archive: 8 May 2018: Israel says it has briefed 22 countries on Iranian regime's nuclear archive smuggled out of Tehran earlier this year to garner more support for renewed international pressure on Iran
June 2018 modernizing of existing nuclear weapon systems: 18 June 2018: All the nuclear weapon-possessing states are developing new nuclear weapon systems and modernizing their existing systems, as at the start of 2018 nine states possessed approximately 14,465 nuclear weapons, according to Sipri
Since 4 September 2019 Iranian regime's nuclear program: 4 September 2019: Iranian regime to develop nuclear centrifuges - 7 September 2019: Iran injects uranium gas into advanced centrifuges, violating nuclear deal - 10 September 2019: UN atomic watchdog confirms Iran installing advanced centrifuges, urging regime to ‘respond promptly’ to concerns over its breaches of limits set down in fast-unraveling nuclear deal with major powers
5 September 2019 Turkish Erdogan regime wants nuclear weapons: 5 September 2019: Erdogan tells his ruling 'Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi' that Turkey should have nuclear weapons like Israel, saying fact his country is barred from having atomic bombs is unacceptable, adding Israel is untouchable due to nuclear deterrent
10 September 2019 Saudi regime wants to enrich uranium: 10 September 2019: Saudi Arabia’s new energy minister said his country wants to pursue a 'full cycle' nuclear program, which would entail the kingdom processing and enriching its own uranium, after regime has previously announced plans to spend $80 billion to build 16 nuclear reactors over the coming two decades as it diversifies energy

Nuclear proliferation
Since the 1970s Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea: Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea since the 1970s
Since 1980: Since 1980 Swiss engineer Friedrich Tinner connected with the Khan network trafficking in the proliferation of nuclear materials and know-how to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea and later cover-up to hide the involvement of Urs Tinner with the CIA - 31 May 2008: Nuclear bomb blueprints and manuals on how to manufacture weapons-grade uranium for warheads are feared to be circulating on the international black market, according to investigators tracking the world's most infamous nuclear smuggling racket
2004 Khan's confession and 2011 Tinner nuclear smuggling trial: 4 February 2004: Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear programme, today asked the country's president to forgive him for selling its secrets abroad - 13 December 2011: Switzerland has charged three members of the Swiss Friedrich Tinner family for their role in the Abdul Qadeer Khan nuclear smuggling network, involving Switzerland's defence ministry destroying vital evidence in the case, and blocking the prosecution of the Tinners and the CIA for espionage, after a plea deal which will mean that their claims of collaboration with the CIA will not be examined in court
2015: 28 May 2015: Myth of a peaceful nuclear technology and tactics to trivialize the proliferation risks, as the use of civil facilities and materials in nuclear weapons research or systematic weapons programs has been commonplace and has occurred in at least the following countries Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, UK, USA, and Yugoslavia
2017: 18 October 2017: Experts and former senior officials from around the world met in Paris to discuss the threat of nuclear proliferation, something they believe is ignored despite the dire situation and, according to some, worse than it was during the Cold War - October 2017 Conference of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe 'Topical Issues of Nuclear Non-Proliferation'

Military robots are autonomous robots or remote-controlled mobile robots designed for military applications, from transport to search, rescue and attack - Lethal autonomous weapons, a type of autonomous military robot that can independently search and engage targets based on programmed constraints and descriptions and may operate in the air, on land, on water, under water, or in space - Unmanned combat aerial vehicle
April 2014 Russia leads new robotic arms race: 23 April 2014: Russia is taking the lead in a new robotic arms race, announcing that mobile robots, standing guard over five ballistic missile installations, can detect and destroy targets, without human involvement
April 2018 only 22 countries want global treaty to ban killer robots: 11 April 2018: Only 22 countries of the signatories to the UN's Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons support an outright ban of lethal autonomous weapons systems or killer robots - 11 April 2018: 5 years since the launch of the 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots', a global coalition of non-governmental groups calling for a ban on fully autonomous weapons, says we’re running out of time to stop killer robot weapons
October 2018 states opposing restrictions on so-called killer robots: October 2018: The latest effort toward imposing binding international restrictions on so-called killer robots was thwarted by Russia and the USA, as a group of states led by France and Germany are opposing a legally binding measure, as another group of two dozen countries and a number of civil society organizations advocate for a legally binding prohibition on use of such weapons
January 2019 61% of people worldwide oppose killer robots: 22 January 2019: Global poll shows 61% of respondents oppose the use of lethal autonomous weapons systems, also known as fully autonomous weapons or killer robots, but their voices are ignored by nationalist and aggressive regimes such as Russian and Chinese and appertaining companies, as opposition was at 59% in Russia, recently frustrating diplomatic talks also at the CCW in November 2018 by using consensus rules to hinder meaningful progress against the wishes of the majority of states
March 2019 Russia, United Kingdom and USA oppose killer robot ban: 29 March 2019: Russia, United Kingdom and USA among those opposing killer robot ban, as UN delegates discussed restrictions to lethal autonomous weapons systems that use AI
August 2019 survey of the tech sector’s stance on lethal autonomous weapons: 19 August 2019: Synesis (Belarus), AerialX (Canada), SenseTime and Yitu (China), EarthCube (France), Roboteam (Israel), BlueBearSystems and Montvieux (United Kingdom), Amazon, Anduril, Intel, Microsoft, Oracle and more (all USA), are named among the world's 'highest risk' tech companies that might be putting the world at risk through killer robot development, according to new global report from PAX, grading 50 companies from 12 countries, all working on big tech, hardware, AI software and system integration, pattern recognition, autonomous and swarming aerial systems, ground robots, as 'anything that's currently a weapon, people are working on autonomous versions, whether it's tanks, fighter aircraft, or submarines' (August 2019 survey of the tech sector’s stance on lethal autonomous weapons)
September 2019 former software engineer supports ban on killer robots: 15 September 2019: Former top Google software engineer Laura Nolan, who quit over military drone project and joined the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, fears AI and 'killer robots', having the potential to do 'calamitous things that they were not originally programmed for', could cause mass atrocities, warning they might accidentally start a war, and saying that killer robots not guided by human remote control should be outlawed by the same type of international treaty that bans chemical weapons

List of countries by past and projected military expenditure - Weapon development - Defence and military equipment companies by country - Firearm manufacturers by country - 3D printed firearms - List of notable 3D printed weapons and parts
Weapons trade - Arms trafficking, the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition - what constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws - Small arms trade or the small arms market refer to both authorized and illicit markets for small arms and light weapons and their parts, accessories, and ammunition - Companies by arms sales - List of countries by military expenditures - Weapons by country - List of countries by level of military equipment
2001/2005 Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, as of November 2015 it has 114 parties, including 113 states and the European Union, Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, Seychelles, United Kingdom have signed the protocol but have not yet ratified it, three of the top four arms manufacturers in the world — the USA, Russia, and France — did not sign the protocol - 2013/2014 Arms Trade Treaty, a multilateral treaty that regulates the international trade in conventional weapons, 92 states have ratified the treaty, and a further 41 states have signed but not ratified it
2011 rising landmine use: 23 November 2011: Landmine use 'highest since 2004' despite record clearances
2012 rising arms production and trade: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an - 27. Februar 2012: Waffenindustrien wachsen trotz Wirtschaftskrise - USA und EU Konzerne größte Waffenproduzenten - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen der weltweiten Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - auf Platz drei folgt Deutschland mit neun Prozent - 29. August 2012: Jährliches Volumen des legalen internationalen Handels mit Kleinwaffen von mindestens 8,5 Milliarden Dollar
2013 arms trade treaty blocked by Iran, North Korea, Syria and not signed by China, Russia, USA: 29 March 2013: Iran, North Korea and Syria block UN arms trade treaty - 2 April 2013: By a vote of 154 in favor, 3 against (Iran, North Korea and Syria) and 23 abstentions (Russia, China, India, Indonesia etc.), UN adopts landmark treaty to regulate multibillion-dollar global arms trade - 3 June 2013: More than 60 countries sign arms trade treaty on first day, but not China, Russia and the USA
2014 SIPRI and AFP reports: 14 April 2014: Military spending continues to fall in the West but rises in China, Russia and Saudi Arabia and everywhere else, SIPRI says - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows
15 December 2014 Russian arms sales rise: 15 December 2014: Arms sales by Russian firms continue to expand despite a global downturn in defence spending, according to SIPRI
24 December 2014 Global arms trade deal without USA: 24 December 2014: Global arms trade deal takes effect, ratified by 60 nations, but not by the USA, the world's top arms exporter
2015 new killing technologies: 5 January 2015: 3D printing will revolutionize war and foreign policy not only by making possible incredible new designs but by turning the defense industry, IHS Technology, New America Foundation and BAE experts say - 6 October 2015: United Kingdom and USA are seeking to water down agreement over 'killer robots' (lethal autonomous weapons), so that any autonomous weapons deployed before United Nations's talks conclude will be beyond reach of ban, experts say
2015 arms spending rises: 16 March 2015: After Chinese arms sales surged 143% in 5 years, China now the world’s third-largest arms trader, the USA remains the first exporting 31% of global arms in 2010-2014 and Russia exported 27%, SIPRI says - 13 April 2015: Arms spending up globally, except in USA and western Europe, as Russia’s neighbors, like Iran’s, boost defense budgets, SIPRI says - 18 décembre 2015: Pour 2015, les budgets de défense en hausse dans le monde, les dépenses globales atteignent quelque 1650 milliards de dollars, selon un rapport
December 2015 arms for 'Islamic State' terrorists: 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport
2016 arms imports and world military increase: 22 February 2016: Asia (India 14% of global arms imports, China 4.7%) and the Middle East (arms imports rose by 61% between 2006–10 and 2011–15) lead rise in arms imports, the USA (33%) and Russia (25%) remain largest arms exporters, says SIPRI - 3 avril 2016: L'utilisation d'armes interdites a atteint un niveau record depuis 2010 avec un pic entre 2014 et 2015, selon 'Handicap International' - 5 April 2016: World military expenditure totaled almost $ 7 trillion in 2015, according to SIPRI, an increase of 1% in real terms from 2014 also fueled by Mideast conflicts - 26 December 2016: USA and Obama administration increased weapons sales in 2015, maintaining its position as the world’s dominant supplier, as the sale of global arms dropped slightly to $80bn from 2014’s $89bn, according to a new USA congressional study
February 2016 equipment for 'Islamic State' terrorists: 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes ou encore américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE
2017 global arms trade rises: 20 February 2017: Global arms trade reaches highest point since cold war era, as Middle East almost doubles weapons imports, as USA and Europe remain the main suppliers, as China joins top-tier exporters, as India was the world’s largest importer of major arms, and as arms imports by states in Asia and Oceania accounted for 43% of global imports in 2012–2016, according to SIPRI - 24 avril 2017: La Russie avec 69,2 milliards de dollars a repris en 2016 à l'Arabie saoudite, malgré la crise économique qu'elle traverse, la troisième place mondiale en matière de dépenses militaires, derrière les Etats-Unis et la Chine, selon SIPRI - 13 September 2017: North Korea singled out alongside Saudi Arabia and Iran as one of the world’s most secretive major exporters of small arms, including Kalashnikovs, rockets and machine guns, according to the Small Arms Survey Trade Update 2017 - 11 December 2017: Sales of arms and military services by the world’s largest arms-producing and military services companies totalled $374.8 billion in 2016, 1.9% higher compared with 2015 and representing an increase of 38% since 2002, according to SIPRI
2018 global transfer of major weapons systems SIPRI report: 12 March 2018: Global transfer of major weapons systems between 2013 and 2017 rose by 10% compared with the precedent period, as the USA, Russia, France, Germany, China and the UK remain the world's biggest weapons exporter, as India, which receives most of its arms from Russia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE and China were the world’s top five importers, and as 'based on deals signed during the Obama administration, USA arms deliveries in 2013–17 reached their highest level since the late 1990s', according to SIPRI
March 2019 SIPRI report on 2014–2018 period: 11 March 2019: The volume of international transfers of major arms in 2014–2018 was 7.8% higher than in 2009–2013 and 23% higher than in 2004–2008, according to SIPRI, also saying arms flows to the Middle East surge and that the 5 largest exporters in 2014–2018 were the USA, Russia, France, Germany and China
April 2019 military expenditure increase SIPRI report: 29 April 2019: Total world military expenditure rose to $1822 billion in 2018, representing an increase of 2.6% from 2017, according to SIPRI, saying that the five biggest spenders in 2018 were the USA, China, Saudi Arabia, India and France, which together accounted for 60% of global military spending, as military spending by the USA increased for the first time since 2010
December 2019 arms sales rise 4,6%: 9 December 2019: Sales of arms and military services by the sector’s largest 100 companies, excluding those in China, totalled $420 billion in 2018, marking an increase of 4.6% compared with the previous year, according to SIPRI
Forces of self-destruction: Non-combat military accidents
2019 military drone crashes: 9 June 2019: Military drone crashes raise fears for civilians, as two military drones are crashing every month on average, according to research that raises questions about the safety of the technology, both in conflict zones and civilian environments

Man-made disasters by country - Violence by country - Wars by country - Lists of wars by country - War crimes committed by country - War crimes by country - Massacres by country - Terrorism by country - Terrorism committed by country
World War I by country - World War II by country - The Holocaust by country - Aftermath of World War II by country

History of Terrorism - Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create fear and terror among masses of people to achieve a religious or political aim, and is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel), while the terms 'terrorist' and 'terrorism' originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century and its 1793-1794 period 'Reign of Terror', called 'La Terreur' in France
Since August 1914 German terror, called 'Schrecklichkeit': Since August 1914 German terror, called 'Schrecklichkeit' or 'frightfulness' by English speakers to describe a perceived military policy of the German Army towards civilians in World War I, that was the basis of German actions during their march through Belgium in 1914, later in France, the Russian-held area of Poland, and in Russia
24/25 August 1914 first civilian target to be bombed from the air Belgian city of Antwerp, bombed by Germany: 24/25 August 1914 Belgian city of Antwerp the first civilian target to be bombed from the air, when Antwerp - at that moment the National Redoubt of Belgium - was bombed by German empire forces, but instead of targeting the surrounding fortresses, the Zeppelin LZ 25's intention was to bomb the clearly distinguishable historical centre of the city, and after dropping approximately ten bombs, ten people were killed and forty injured
Since August 1914 German bombing of cities during World War I and later: Since August 1914 German bombing of cities during World War I - April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica carried out by Franco's allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian victims - World War II bombing of cities conducted by Germany - 1940-1941 German bombing campaign against British industrial targets, towns, and cities including Birmingham, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Coventry, Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Portsmouth, Plymouth, Sheffield, Southampton, killing more than 40,000 civilians beginning with raids on London during the Second World War
Since the the 1910s terrorist incidents by decade: Since the the 1910s terrorist incidents by decade - Terrorist incidents in the 1910s - Terrorist incidents in the 1920s
Terrorist incidents in the 1930s, in the 1940s and 1939-1945 World War II: Terrorist incidents in the 1930s - Terrorist incidents in the 1940s - 1939-1945 Axis powers' World War II (German, Italian and Japanese empires) - Genocide, the intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part - Mass murder, the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity and the desire to kill - September 1939 bombing of Frampol occurred during the German invasion of Poland in 1939, when the town of Frampol, without military value, but with a population of 4,000 people was bombed by German bombers under General von Richthofen on 13 September as a practice run for future missions and as German fighter pilots trained strafing techniques on refugees who were trying to flee from the city
Since 1942 (1970) terrorist incidents by year and country and lists: Since 1942 terrorist incidents by year - Since 1970 lists of terrorist incidents by year - Terrorist incidents by country - Lists of terrorist incidents by country
Since 2011 terrorist incidents by year: List of terrorist incidents 2011/I 2011/II - List of terrorist incidents 2012/I 2012/II - List of terrorist incidents 2013/I - List of terrorist incidents 2013/II - List of terrorist incidents 2014 - List of terrorist incidents 2015 - List of terrorist incidents in 2016 - Terrorist incidents in 2016 by country - List of terrorist incidents in 2017 - List of terrorist incidents in 2018 - List of terrorist incidents in 2019
Since 1982 terrorist group 'Hezbollah': Since 1982 terrorist group Hezbollah's suicide and terror attacks in the Middle East and worldwide
1982-1983 Tyre truck bombings: 1982-1983 Tyre truck bombings, suicide bombings against the Israel Defense Forces' headquarters building in Tyre, killing 103 Israelis and 46–59 Lebanese, wounding 95 people, believed to be the responsibility of Hezbollah
1989 Hezbollah targeted Israeli diplomats in Brazil: 6 February 2017: Hezbollah targeted Israeli diplomats in Brazil in 1989, declassified files show
March 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires: 17 March 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires
July 1994 attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina in Buenos Aires: 18 July 1994 attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina in Buenos Aires, killing 85 people and injuring hundreds, claimed by Hezbollah front, in 2006 Argentine prosecutors including Alberto Nisman accused the Iranian regime of directing the bombing and the Hezbollah militia of carrying it out
June 1996 Khobar Towers bombing: 25 June 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, killing 19 USA Air Force personnel, a Saudi local and woundign 498 people of many nationalities, in 2006 a USA court found Iran and Hezbollah guilty of orchestrating the attack - 12 September 2018: USA court orders Iran to pay $104.7m for 1996 truck bomb attack that killed 19 military personnel, as 15 military personnel who survived Khobar Towers bombing and 24 family members are entitled to payout
February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri: 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former PM of Lebanon, killed along with 21 others in an explosion in Beirut, suspected perpetrators Hezbollah terrorists
September 2018: 21 September 2018: Brazil arrests Hezbollah financier Assad Ahmad Barakat, a key figure for the Lebanese terror group, operating in an area where three South American nations meet, considered a haven for smugglers, traffickers and counterfeiters
February 2019: 25 February 2019: The United Kingdom announced that it plans to blacklist Lebanon’s Hezbollah as a terrorist organization in its entirety, including its political wing, saying that it could no longer distinguish between the two branches
Since 1981/1987 terrorist group 'Islamic Jihad': Since 1981/1987 Islamic Jihad in Palestine, an Islamist terrorist organization whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel, labelled a terrorist organisation by the USA, the EU, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Israel, as the Iranian regime is a major financial supporter of the terrorist group - Palestinian domestic weapons production
March 2018 Iran transfers millions to Hamas and Islamic Jihad: 8 March 2018: Iran transfers $100 million every year to Hamas and Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip, as $70 million is transferred to Hamas, while Islamic Jihad gets $30 million, and the vast majority of this money is used by the two organizations to further bolster their military wings, instead of aiding the civilian population in the Gaza Strip
January 2019 Islamic Jihad's and Hamas' threats: 6 January 2019: Senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas figures praise Iran’s military support and threaten that in the next war the rocket fire from the Gaza Strip will reach all the cities in Israel
25 February 2019 Iran supported missiles: 25 February 2019: In documentary on Iranian TV, Gaza-based Palestinian terror group 'Islamic Jihad' says Iranian regime helped it make new projectile that can hit Tel Aviv and beyond, as well as precision missiles
Since 1990s terrorist group 'al-Qaeda': Since 1990s timeline of al-Qaeda attacks in the Middle East and worldwide - 18 September 2001: To fight against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the Afghan jihad and Osama Bin Laden, who founded the Maktab al-Khidimat, was supported by the USA dollars, pouring $3 billion into the Afghan Islamist movement via the CIA and Bin Laden received security training from the CIA itself
2001 September 11 al-Qaeda attacks against the USA: 2001 September 11 attacks, a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the USA, killing 2,996 people and injuring over 6,000 others
2011 CIA helped to create Osama Bin Laden's terrorist network: July 2011: How the CIA helped to create Osama Bin Laden's terrorist network - 9 December 2014: In USA's and CIA's efforts to support the Mujahideen against the Soviets in a proxy war, the USA's support of the Mujahideen included wealthy Saudi individuals who had the ability to channel money, and tens of thousands of Islamic fighters flooded into the various fighting factions of Afghanistan from around the world, from Libya, Somalia, even the Philippines and never before such an organization has been created, an international military organization unlike any other
Since 1994 Taliban: Since 1994 Taliban, a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organization in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country
Since 1996 Taliban massacre campaigns: Since 1996 Taliban massacre campaigns
Since 1996 Taliban violence against Afghan civilians: Since 1996 Taliban violence against Afghan civilians
March 2011 rising death toll of Afghan civilians: 9 March 2011: Over the past 4 years, 8,832 civilians have been killed in the Afghanistan conflict with civilian deaths increasing each year, according to UN, saying anti-government elements were linked to 75% of all civilian deaths as Taliban suicide attacks and improvised explosive devices killed the most Afghan civilians in 2010, taking 1,141 lives
2019 rising terrorist incidents in Afghanistan, targeting democracy, education and civilians: 2019 terrorist incidents in Afghanistan
14 September 2019 Taliban terrorists in Moscow for talks with Putin regime: 14 September 2019: Looking to bolster regional support, with visits also planned for China and Iran, Taliban terrorists have sent a delegation to Russia's Putin regime to discuss prospects for a withdrawal of USA troops from Afghanistan following the collapse of talks with the USA caused by series of terror attacks in the country, mass murder of civilians and killing of USA soldier
15/16 September 2019 Farah, Ghazni and Logar attacks: 16 September 2019: At least five civilians, including women and children, were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in western Farah province on Sunday, where the Taliban are active, as on Monday a sticky bomb attached to a mini bus belonging to Ghazni University exploded and killed the bus driver, wounding five Ghazni University students
17 September 2019 Taliban envoys in Tehran for talks with Iranian regime: 17 September 2019: Taliban envoys visit Iran
17 September 2019 Taliban attacks, encouraged by Iran and Russia, kill many civilians: 17 September 2019: At least 30 people were killed and dozens wounded in two Taliban attacks on 17 September in Afghanistan, as at least 24 people were killed and 30 more were wounded in a blast near an election rally in Charikar, the capital of Parwan Province - 17 September 2019 Taliban bombings
18 September 2019 Taliban death threats against students and education workers: 18 September 2019: Afghanistan's Taliban terrorist group on Wednesday warned teachers, students and other education workers to avoid the upcoming presidential vote or risk dying in attacks on election centres
19/20 September 2019 Taliban truck bomb kills dozens in Qalat: 19 September 2019: Taliban truck bomb has killed at least 30 people and wounded 95 others including several women, children, health workers and patients in Qalat's hospital when it exploded near hospital in southern Afghanistan's city of Qalat, the capital of Zabul province - 19 September 2019 Qalat Taliban suicide bombing - 20 septembre 2019: Le bilan d'un attentat des talibans ayant touché jeudi un hôpital dans le sud de l'Afghanistan est passé à au moins 39 morts et 140 blessés, selon les autorités de la province de Zaboul
20/21 September 2019 two confirmed Taliban attacks: 21 September 2019: A roadside bomb has killed at least two civilians and wounded five other people when the blast struck a vehicle Friday afternoon in Spin Boldak district in southern Kandahar province where the Taliban are active, and as two more blasts in Kabul on Friday night were claimed by the terrorist group
28 September 2019 Taliban terror attacks during election: 28 September 2019: Afghans head to the polls amid fears that voter turnout would be badly hit by disorganized balloting and threats of violence by Taliban militants, who targeted polling stations in the country's north and south, causing dozens of casualties
October 2019 Taliban election attacks destroying any future: 15 October 2019: 85 civilians were killed by the Taliban in attacks targeting September's Afghan election, according to UN report, saying attacks aiming to disrupt the electoral process also wounded 373 others, including 277 civilian casualties, a third of whom were children
18 October 2019 Haska Meyna mosque bombing: 18 October 2019 Haska Meyna mosque bombing - 19 October 2019: State blames Taliban for blasts targeting worshippers during Friday prayers, killing at least 69 people including children and elders
Since 2000 Abu Sayyaf: Since 2000 timeline of Abu Sayyaf attacks in the southwestern part of the Philippines and some neighbouring countries
Since 2001 rise of terrorist attacks: 4 December 2012: The number of terrorist attacks each year has more than quadrupled in the decade since September 11, 2001, with Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan the most affected, a study of the Institute for Economics and Peace says
Since 2006 Al-Shabaab: Since 2006 timeline of Al-Shabaab related events in East Africa
Since 2007 Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan: 'Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan' claimed and alleged attacks since 2007
Since 2009 Boko Haram: Since 2009 timeline of Boko Haram terror attacks in Nigeria and some neighbouring countries (28 January 2016)
Since 2011 Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people: Since 2011 Iranian-backed terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people and timeline of Hezbollah's deployment in Syria - 23 December 2016: Lebanon’s terror group Hezbollah's Nasrallah says that Syrian dictator Assad's army’s recapture of east Aleppo, in fact attacked and destroyed by Hezbollah, Iran and Russia, has put an end to hopes that his regime could be ousted, adding that it is 'present, strong, effective, and no one in the world can ignore it'
Since 2013 Islamic State terrorists: Since 2013 list of terrorist incidents linked to Islamic State terrorists in the Middle East and worldwide - 10 December 2015: The international terrorist organization 'Islamic State' is the direct result of the USA-led George W. Bush-era invasion of Iraq since 2003, a rights group's report concludes
2015: 20 June 2015: Terrorism-related death toll soared in 2014 with 13,463 attacks in 95 countries, Country Reports on Terrorism report says - 17 November 2015: Terrorist killings up by 80% in 2014 with 78% of all deaths and 57% of all attacks in Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria, with civilians increasingly targeted and fuelling flow of refugees, 2015 Global Terrorism Index says
2016: 1 January 2016: Welcoming in the new year 2016 amid global terror fears - 11 February 2016: Multiple sources reveal that the Russian construction company 'Stroytransgaz' had resumed work in the Tuweinan gas facility in the Syrian Deir Ezzor province after it was captured by 'Islamic State' terrorists in early 2014, that the Russian company sent employees to the facility after it fell to IS terrorists, adding that 'Stroytransgaz' utilized a Syrian subcontractor 'Hesco', owned by Russian-Syrian dual national George Haswani - 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes et américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE - 3 March 2016: Islamic State terrorist group is making millions of dollars for its war chest by playing foreign currency markets under the noses of bank chiefs - 12 June 2016: On eve of Tel Aviv terror attack, Hamas called Ramadan 'month of jihad' - In 2016 several terrorist attacks occurred during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan 6 June to 5 July - 4 July 2016 Prophet's Mosque bombing in Medina
5 September 2016: 5 September 2016: Lebanon court indicted two Syrian Assad regime's intelligence officers in connection with twin bombings at mosques in Tripoli in 2013, which killed more than 40 people
8 September 2016: 8 September 2016: Russia is one of the biggest supporters of terrorism and the USA has repeatedly reneged on the promises it made to the Syrian people and to the Free Syrian Army, Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Alfahd says
November 2016: 16 novembre 2016: Selon une étude de l'Institute for Economics and Peace, le terrorisme a fait 10% de morts en moins l'an dernier avec les reculs du groupe Etat islamique et de Boko Haram en Irak et au Nigeria, après l'année 2015 aura été la deuxième année la plus meurtrière jamais vue
September 2017: 7 September 2017: Hundreds of violent extremists in Africa have told researchers that government action aimed at countering terrorism and insurgency across the continent was the 'tipping point' for their decision to join an extremist group
March 2019 SDF liberated final area held by Islamic State terrorists: 23 March 2019: Syrian Democratic Forces announces it has liberated final area held by Islamic State terrorist group in village of Baghouz, saying caliphate is gone but pledging to fight remnants and commemorating 'thousands of martyrs whose efforts made the victory possible'
27 October 2019 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed with Kurdish help: 27 October 2019: Syria’s Kurdish commander Mazloum Abdi, head of the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces, hailed a 'historic operation' and joint intelligence work following USA media reports that Islamic State chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi had been killed during a USA raid
November 2019 IS terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops: 20 November 2019: Islamic State terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into northeastern Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops from the region, according to a report by the Pentagon's Inspector General, adding that the group will now likely have the 'time and space' to target the West
List of designated Terrorist organizations
23 February 2016: The Causes of Terrorism - a research review

State crime, Crimes against humanity, War
War of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation
War crimes by type: War crimes - War crimes by type
War crimes since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907: List of war crimes since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 in the age of modern industry and technology
War crimes committed by country: War crimes committed by country
Since 1914 German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman war crimes: Since 1914 German war crimes, as the government of the German Empire and its military in the age of modern industry and technology ordered, organized and committed war crimes in World War I - Ottoman war crimes and Ottoman World War I crimes - War crimes of World War I 1914-1918
Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I and later: Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I
Since January 1915 German large-scale use of chemical weapons: 31 January 1915 first instance of large-scale use of gas as a weapon, when Germany fired 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas on Russian positions on the Rawka River, west of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov
Since 1923 Italian war crimes: Italian war crimes have mainly been associated with Fascist Italy in the Pacification of Libya, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and World War II - 1923-1932 Second Italo-Senussi War by Italian military forces to crush local resistance in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
Since early 20th century Japanese war crimes: Japanese war crimes, as war crimes were committed by the Empire of Japan in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II
Since April 1937 German and Italian bombing in Spain and 'strategic' bombing during World War II: April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica carried out by Franco's allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian victims - World War II 'strategic' bombing conducted by Germany
Since 1939 war crimes of Germany, Italy, and Japan (and allies) in their World War II 1939-1945: German war crimes in World War II 1939-1945 - War crimes of 'Axis Powers' World War II 1939-1945, as Germany, Italy, and Japan (the Axis Powers) were the most systematic perpetrators of war crimes in history, now in the age of modern industry and technology
Since 1945 war crimes in and committed by country: War crimes in country - War crimes committed by country
1946-1954 French war crimes during France's Indochina War: French war crimes during 1946–1954 Indochina War, France's struggle against the independence movement claiming 500,000 to 1.5 million Vietnamese lives from 1945 to 1954, French concentration camps, torture, and massacres
1945–1949 Dutch war crimes during Indonesian War of Independence: Dutch war crimes during 1945–1949 Indonesian War of Independence
1950-1953 Korean War and war crimes: 1950-1953 Korean War and war crimes, including USA, North Korean and South Korean perpetrated crimes - Bombing of North Korea 1950-1953
1952-1960 British war crimes in Kenya: 1952–1960 Mau Mau uprising in Kenya and British attempt to suppress the insurgency, as British colonial authorities suspended civil liberties within the country. moved 320,000–450,000 Kenyans into concentration camps and created 'enclosed villages' - British war crimes in Kenya
1954–1962 Algerian War and French war crimes: 1954–1962 Algerian War and French war crimes - Algerian war's casualties, as the FLN estimated in 1964 that nearly eight years of revolution effected 1.5 million deaths from war-related causes - French use of torture in Algeria
1955–1975 USA's Vietnam War, war crimes and massacres: 1955–1975 USA's Vietnam War, USA's war crimes and massacres - Vietnam War crimes
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and war crimes: 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and war crimes
1975 Indonesian Invasion of East Timor: 1975 Indonesian invasion of East Timor
1975–1990 Lebanese 'Civil War' and war crimes: 1975–1990 Lebanese 'Civil War', involving the Iranian regime, the Syrian dictatorship, Hezbollah terrorists, Lebanese militias, the PLO, and war crimes
1978–present war in Afghanistan and war crimes: 1978–present civil war and war in Afghanistan, involving many countries, the UN and the Nato, and war crimes
1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War and war crimes: 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War and war crimes
1990 Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait: 1990 Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
1994–2009 Russia-Chechnya Wars: 1994–1996/1999–2009 Russia-Chechnya Wars and Russian war crimes
2003–2011 USA's and United Kingdom's Iraq War: 2003–2011 USA's and United Kingdom's Iraq War and war crimes
2011–present Assad's war against the Syrian people: 2011–present Assad's war against the Syrian people - Syrian Civil War crimes
Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and war crimes: Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and war crimes
March 2016 wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times': 7 March 2016: Wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times', warns Médecins Sans Frontières' Joanne Liu, as attacks against civilians in war zones across the world have grown more indiscriminate due to a focus by the major global powers on fighting terrorism and failure in their duty to uphold the rules of conflict
April 2019: 26 April 2019: The Syrian National Coalition has said that the mounting evidence of war crimes committed by Assad and his inner circle is enough to mount a successful prosecution

War crimes of dictator Assad's armed forces in Syria since 2011 - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
September 2015: 30 September 2015: France opens probe into Assad regime for crimes against humanity
2016: 4 February 2016: Drone footage of Homs in western Syria, the country's third largest city, shows the devastation of four years of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians - 11 February 2016: Fatalities caused by dictator Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians, directly and indirectly, amount to 470,000, according to the Syrian Centre for Policy Research, a far higher total than the figure of 250,000 used by the United Nations until it stopped collecting statistics 18 months ago
2017: 29 September 2017: Syrian doctors decry fresh wave of hospital attacks, accusing the international community of ignoring attacks on medical facilities
2018: In the February 2018 Rif Dimashq offensive eastern Ghouta is coming under a ferocious bombing campaign by regime forces who are backed by Russian air force - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
List of barrel bomb attacks in Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of massacres during Assad's war against the Syrian people - Use of chemical weapons in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2012: 1 September 2012: Syrian Assad regime forces filmed dropping 'barrel bomb' on Homs
2016: 12 July 2016: Assad regime surrounds Aleppo, opposition groups resist despite intensified airstrikes using cluster, vacuum and barrel bombs, also targeting and killing civilians - 20 July 2016: Assad regime forces pounded the district of Daraya west of Damascus with at least 748 barrel bombs during June, killing at least 28 civilians and causing massive destruction in the rebel-held district - 21 July 2016: Assad's air strikes hit Al-Mashtal Park, Al-Jamaa and Al-Kastana neighborhoods in Idlib, killing at least 15 people
September 2018: 12 September 2018: Assad's forces fired chlorine, a banned chemical weapon, on a rebel-held Damascus suburb and on Idlib province this year, in attacks that constitute war crimes, bringing to 39 the number of chemical attacks which the Commission of Inquiry on Syria has documented since 2013, UN human rights investigators said on Wednesday
October 2018: 15 October 2018: A BBC investigation shows for the first time the extent to which chemical weapons have been crucial to Assad's war-winning strategy, saying there is enough evidence to be confident that at least 106 chemical attacks have taken place in Syria since September 2013, when Assad signed the international Chemical Weapons Convention and agreed to destroy the country's chemical weapons stockpile following the Ghouta chemical attack

Since September 2015 Russian military intervention in Syria perpetuating Assad's dictatorship, turning the tide of war in Assad’s favor - Since September 2015 Russian regime's war crimes and attacks on civilians in Syria - Since September 2015 Russian–Assad regime hospital bombing campaign - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011
December 2015: 20 December 2015: Russian air strikes kill at least 73 people in rebel-held Idlib - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on, hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces
2016: 24 January 2016: Intense Russian and Syrian bombing raids reportedly killed scores of children and civilians in recent days - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - 29 September 2016: Syria hospital attacks are 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
March 2018: 26 March 2018: The 'United Nations' has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph' - 26 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Yahya Maktabi said that the mass forced displacement taking place in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta is a 'war crime' as he condemned Russian’s major role in these crimes, adding that regime forces, the Iranian militias, and Russian air force are killing civilians, targeting popular markets, residential areas and public facilities and bombing hospitals, medical centers, and rescue workers - 27 March 2018: As more than half million people killed in seven years of brutal ground and aerial bombing by the Assad regime and its allies, and as Syrian children have taken the biggest share in the horrible death toll, the unstoppable roar of Russia's warplanes has caused a heart attack for Lojain Said, taking the life of the schoolgirl who lived in the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, the Civil Defense rescue group says
August 2018: 22 August 2018: Russian regime's military have been key to propping up Syrian Assad regime and helping him reclaim key ground, as Russian ministry said Wednesday that over 63,000 Russian troops, including 434 generals, have fought in Syria and about 90% of Russian combat pilots have flown in Syria, using the operation to test some of its most advanced weapons, including the latest jets and cruise missiles, helping turn the tide of war in Assad’s favor and the Assad regime in August 2018 five years after the Ghouta chemical attack controls nearly two thirds of the country, compared to just one third back in 2014
September 2018: 30 September 2018: More than 18,000 people, nearly half of them civilians, have been killed in Russian air strikes on Syria since Putin regime began its assault three years ago, according to SOHR
November 2018: 1 November 2018: 'Syrian Archive' said that it had documented more than 1,400 attacks by Russian forces on civilians and civilian infrastructure since the start of the Russian direct military intervention on the side of the Assad regime in September 2015, as verified videos show that the Russian forces targeted at least 35 hospitals, 27 mosques, 23 schools and 27 public markets
2018/2019: 5 January 2019: The Assad regime and Russia are responsible for the majority of the recorded 223 massacres that took place across Syria in 2018, according to SNHR
January 2019: 5 January 2019: The Russian warplanes carry out a new round of aerial bombardment and of their first targeting to the western countryside of Aleppo leaving 16 citizens dead and wounded including children - 30 January 2019: Russian warplanes return to kill Syrians and raise to more than 18,100 the number of casualties of the Russian bombardment in 40 continuous months
February 2019: 9 February 2019: Russian regime’s ambassador in Lebanon Zasypkin hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria, also saying USA policies toward Iran could set off a fresh war between Israel and Lebanon - 9 February 2019: 4 civilians, including a woman, were wounded in rocket and artillery shelling by the Assad regime on the villages of Tal Minnis and Ma'arshammarin south of Idlib, and 8 civilians were killed and many others reportedly wounded in explosions of previously dropped cluster bombs by the Assad regime and Russian air forces in eastern rural Hama
March 2019: 1 March 2019: As a part of the aerial escalation, warplanes return to bomb Idlib and target major cities and towns along with ground shelling on several areas in the countryside of the province and Sahl Al-Ghab - 4 March 2019: Assad regime and Russia’s relentless bombing campaign on towns and villages in Hama and Idlib provinces forces tens of thousands to flee - 23 March 2019: Russian airstrikes killed at least 15 people, including four children and two women, and injured 27 others in at least 11 attacks on residential areas in rural Idlib including the town of Kfariya
April 2019: 8/9 April 2019: Suspected Russian long-range missiles hit the town of Jisr al-Shughour in rural Idlib, according to Syrian Civil Defense, as local observatory reported that the source of the missiles is the Russian warships stationed in the Mediterranean, wounding 12 civilians, including 10 children and a woman, and destroying a large amount of civilian property and infrastructure - 9 April 2019: The ongoing bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia has so far killed no fewer than 244 civilians since February 2, according to aid group - 17 April 2019: SNHR said that it had documented nearly 457 attacks in Syria by the Assad and Russian forces using cluster munitions, 24 of which occurred following the Sochi Agreement in September 2018 - 23 April 2019: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime and allied forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama and Idlib province, amid aerial bombardments by Russian warplanes - 26 April 2019: Russian warplanes renew their airstrikes today evening on Sahl Al-Ghab and Jabal Shashabo leaving wounded and people stuck under the rubble in Al-Amqiyyah village - 27 April 2019: Warplanes and helicopters carried out a new round of shelling, as Russian warplanes reportedly killed 15 civilians in the countryside of Idlib and Hama - 27 April 2019: After killing 15 civilians, the Russian warplanes continue their escalation within 'Putin-Erdogan' areas and carry out more raids, as Assad regime forces continue shelling targeting southern countryside of Idlib, southern countryside of Aleppo and Hama province
July 2019: 7 July 2019: At least 544 civilians have been killed and over 2,000 people injured since a Russian-led assault on the last rebel bastion in northwestern Syria began two months ago, according to rights groups and rescuers - 12 July 2019: Assad and Russian forces have escalated their airstrikes in northwestern Syria, especially in Idlib and its countryside, killing and injuring dozens of civilians including children as well as knocking out six vital civilian centers since Thursday morning - 13 July 2019: After they killed 2 families, the Russian warplanes renew their bombardment on the countryside of Hama and Idlib, and bombardment by the regime’s warplanes on a village east of Idlib leaves about 11 casualties and wounded - 13 July 2019: It rose to 14, the number of casualties documented by SOHR following a massacre carried out by Russian warplanes targeting agricultural lands in the vicinity of Khan Shaykhun, as aerial and ground bombardment by regime’s forces south of Aleppo continues - 13 July 2019: Two months of intensive airstrikes by Syrian government forces and their Russian allies, coupled with a fierce ground assault on rebel-controlled Idlib province, have killed hundreds of people and caused massive displacement while achieving little to no gain for Assad's and Putin's murderous regime - 14 July 2019: Russian warplanes renewed their airstrikes on the Hama countryside, where they carried out more raids also targeting Maarrat al-Nu’man water pumping station and water reservoir as part of the systematic policy by the Russians and Assad regime to target vital and public facilities - 22 July 2019: Assad/Russian air strikes on a popular market and residential neighbourhoods killed at least 20 people and wounded dozens on Monday in an attack on Maarat al-Numan, a densely populated opposition-held city in southern Idlib province, rescuers and residents said - 22 July 2019: It rose to 23 (19 citizens including 2 children, a woman and a member of the Civil Defense, and 4 unidentified people), the number of casualties who were killed as a result of airstrikes carried out by Russian warplanes on a local market in Maarrat Al-Nu’man city
August 2019 crimes by the Assad regime and Russian air forces: 2 August 2019: Three million civilians in the province of Idlib are being subjected to daily violations and crimes by the Assad regime and Russian air forces, Syrian Civil Defense Corps said - 6 August 2019: Russian warplanes renew the airstrikes on the northern countryside of Hama - 17 August 2019: A suspected Russian airstrike hit a displaced people's gathering in the town of Hass south of Idlib province on Friday, killing at least 13 people, including at least four children, activists and war monitor SOHR said
September 2019 Russian airstrikes continue: 12 September 2019: UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said that the Assad regime forces backed by Russian warplanes may have committed war crimes in a report issued on Wednesday - 13 September 2019: Warplanes of the Russian 'guarantor of the truce' continue raids in Idlib once again, bombarding areas in its western countryside
26 September 2019 Russia expanding air base in Syria: 26 September 2019: Russian regime is expanding its Hmeimim air base in Syria and rebuilding a second landing strip to allow the facility to serve more aircraft, expanding the Russian/Iranian version of dialogue during UN general assembly meeting in New York, saying 'give us friendly words, a propaganda stage and markets, we will give you bombs and poison gas'
13 October 2019: 13 October 2019: Russian regime's warplanes target Idlib countryside once again amid renewed rocket shelling by Assad regime forces on the area - 13 October 2019: Extensive evidence gathered and analyzed over months by USA newspaper proves that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in the span of 12 hours in May as part of Putin regime’s effort to keep Syria's Bashar Assad in power, saying 'recklessly or intentionally bombing hospitals is a war crime, but proving culpability amid a complex civil war is extremely difficult'
15 October 2019: 15 October 2019: The Russian air force used cluster bombs to hit the village of al-Bara south of Idleb city, killing a mother and her child, reports Zaman Al Wasl, after two civilians were killed and four others injured when Assad regime forces carried out surface-to-surface missiles attack on Birnas village
16 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Russian warplanes target Latakia Mountains and south Idlib
19 October 2019: 19 October 2019: Russian warplanes carry out raids on positions in Jabal al-Akrad and the southern countryside of Idlib, and dozens of raids on the countrysides of Hama, Idlib, and Latakia
23 October 2019: 23 October 2019: Assad's barrel bombs and air raids by Russian warplanes target Latakia countryside in conjunction with ground shelling on the southern countryside of Aleppo and Russian aerial bombardments of Idlib countryside
25 October 2019: 25 October 2019: Assad regime and Russian forces resumed their deadly attacks in rural Idlib as regime airstrikes hit a vegetable market in al-Janoudiya in northwestern rural Idlib, killing six civilians and wounding 16 others, and as two other people, one of them a child, were injured in Russian airstrikes that hit the Kafranbel in southern rural Idlib
6 November 2019: 6 November 2019: Russian regime's airstrikes on Idlib countryside kill 3 children of the same family, who displaced from Al-Lataminah city in Hama countryside a month ago, due to bombardment by the Russian warplanes on the residential neighborhoods in Al-Dar al-Kabirah village in the southern countryside of Idlib - 6 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard Idlib countryside along with tens of ground strikes that targeted the eastern countryside of Idlib - 6 November 2019: As airstrikes return to escalate in 'Putin-Erdogan' area, the murderous Russian warplanes target children’s hospital in Jabal al-Zawiyah and leave casualties of the medical staff
20 November 2019 Russian and Assad's bombing has killed 1,300 people since April: 20 November 2019: Bombing by Assad and Russian regime forces of the last opposition-held pockets of Syria has killed 1,300 people and displaced almost 1 million more since April, according to monitors
21 November 2019 Russian torture and killing of a prisoner in Syria in 2017 documented: 21 November 2019: Russian-speaking man who filmed the torture and killing of a prisoner in Syria has been identified as a member of Wagner, a Russian private military company with ties to Putin's regime that has aggressively expanded into the Middle East and Africa in recent years
25 November 2019 Idlib offensive as Russian warplanes bombard hospital: 25 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya, as more than 80 raids and barrel bombs target Idlib countryside - 25 November 2019: With intensive support from Russian warplanes, Assad regime forces continue to advance southeast of Idlib and control new villages and locations in the area

Since 2011 Iranian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people perpetuating Assad's dictatorship - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of Iranian assassinations - Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran
Since 2013 timeline of increasing Iranian involvement in Assad's war and expansionism: With increasing Iranian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people from 2011 onwards, the Iranian regime's struggle against Israel, its declared aim to dissolve the Jewish state and the resulting Iran–Israel conflict shifted from a proxy war into a direct confrontation by early 2018 - Iranian regime's expansionism and Iran–Israel proxy conflict
November 2015 Iran recruiting Afghan refugees to fight and support Assad's regime: 5 November 2015: Iran is recruiting Afghan refugees to fight in the foreign military contingent supporting Assad's regime in Syria, promising a monthly salary and residence permits
January 2016 increased Iranian intervention: 27 January 2016: Syrian children protest against Iranian intervention, increased since Rouhani came to office
June 2016: 30 June 2016: Iranian regime covertly recruits Afghan soldiers to fight in Syria and to support the Assad regime
August 2018 war critic jailed: 27 August 2018: Ex-mayor of Tehran Karbaschi sentenced to year in jail for panning Iran’s actions in Syria, telling rally in Isfahan in 2017 there must be better way to help Syrians than by 'killing and pounding'
January 2019 Iran says 'fully ready and impatient' to eliminate Israel 'from the Earth': 21 January 2019: As Iranian regime's general Aziz Nasirzadeh, saying 'fully ready and impatient to confront the Zionist regime and eliminate it from the Earth', uses Syrian territory for Iranian crimes, Israeli military strikes Iranian targets inside Syria
July 2019 Iranian expansionism: 1 July 2019: Iranian militias are continuing to expand their influence in the southern and eastern Aleppo countrysides, and are purchasing land and property around their bases after blocking their owners from accessing them
7/8 September 2019 Iranian oil supplies to Assad: 7 September 2019: Iranian regime's oil tanker Adrian Darya 1 appears near Tartus naval base in Syria - 8 September 2019: Iran says tanker last seen off coast of Syria has reached its destination, and oil has been sold
9 September 2019 Iran-backed rockets at Israel: 9 September 2019: Iran-backed militia in Syria, operating under the command of Iran’s Quds Force, fired several rockets toward northern Israel in the predawn hours of Monday morning
10 September 2019 Iranian regime breaches assurances: 10 September 2019: UK's Foreign Office accuses Iranian regime of selling oil from seized tanker to Syria's Assad, saying regime breaching assurances with sale to 'Assad’s murderous regime’
3 October 2019 Adrian Darya 1: 3 October 2019: Satellite images show that once-detained Iranian-flagged oil tanker Adrian Darya 1 sitting off the coast of Syria has been approached by a smaller Iranian tanker, with mooring lines between them and a crane deployed on the larger vessel

Terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in the Syrian Civil War - Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon - Hezbollah serves a strategic arm of Iran in Syria and Lebanon
Since 2011 terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war: Since 2011 terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial, and turned into active support and troops deployment since 2012 in support of the Assad regime forces across Syria
Since 2011 timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces: Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
February 2019: 9 February 2019: Russian regime’s ambassador in Lebanon Zasypkin hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria, also saying USA policies toward Iran could set off a fresh war between Israel and Lebanon

2 February 2018: North Korea has supplied weapons to Syria since 2012, including more than 40 shipments between 2012 and 2017 to Syria’s 'Scientific Studies and Research Centre', which oversees the country’s chemical weapons programme, according to a report by independent UN monitors - 4 August 2018: North Korea is cooperating militarily with Syria, has been trying to sell weapons to Yemen’s Houthis, and has not stopped its nuclear and missile programs in violation of UN sanctions continuing to defy Security Council resolutions through a massive increase in illicit ship-to-ship transfers of petroleum products, as well as through transfers of coal at sea during 2018, according to a UN report

Since January 2018 Turkish military intervention in Syria
January 2018 Turkish aerial bombardment targeting Afrin: 21 January 2018: SOHR documented the death of 6 citizens including a child under the age of 8, because of the aerial bombardment by the Turkish warplanes, which targeted today areas in Afrin city and its countryside, as Turkey bring more military reinforcements amid continued aerial and missile shelling on the area, and as UN officials underscore the obligation on all parties to the conflict in Syria and the international community, to protect civilians from atrocity crimes, as dozens of people in eastern Ghouta and Idlib province have been killed in recent airstrikes, and schools and hospitals are being deliberately destroyed by the Assad regime and its allies
Since 9 October 2019 Turkey's Rojava offensive, an ongoing military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces against areas under the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, commonly called Rojava - Turkish military action against the Syrian Democratic Forces and 2019 military intervention - International reactions to the 2019 Rojava offensive and reactions in Syria and Turkey
Since 9 October 2019 Turkish regime attacks Kurds in Syria: 9 October 2019: Turkey vows to press ahead with attack on Kurdish-led forces in Syria, as Kurds claim border is already being shelled, and Turkish regime says it will not be 'controlled by threats’ by the USA - 9 October 2019: Turkish troops advance into Syria as Trump washes his hands of the Kurds, as video footage shows civilians fleeing towns and as observers said at least seven civilians had been killed so far
10 October 2019: 10 October 2019: Turkish offensive triggers exodus of aid workers from Syria - 10 October 2019: Despite the intense ground shelling, Turkish forces fail to achieve any advancement east Euphrates and continue their shelling on Tal Abyad and Ras Al-Ayn
11 October 2019 civilian casualties of Turkey’s aggression: 11 October 2019: At least 11 civilians have died and dozens of fighters from the Kurdish-led SDF and Turkish invaders have been killed, reports say, as tens of thousands of people have fled their homes, amid growing international criticism of the offensive
11/12 October 2019 Erdogan's war crimes: 11 October 2019: Erdogan's bloodied clothes, body bags and corpse parts of innocent civilians in Syria - 12 October 2019: Kurdish civilians flee as Turkish forces bomb Syria for third day
13 October 2019 execution of Syrian civilians: 13 October 2019: Turkish proxies leading Erdogan's ground offensive on Kurdish towns in north-eastern Syria have executed nine civilians, including Kurdish politician Hevrin Khalaf and her driver, SOHR reported, as SDF said in a statement 'this is a clear evidence that the Turkish state is continuing its criminal policy towards unarmed civilians'
16 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Turkish military operation east Euphrates kills more than 70 civilians including many children so far and forces nearly 300 thousand people to displace from their areas - 16 October 2019: Video shows the moment the Turkish warplanes targeted a humanitarian support convoy in Ras al-Ayn 3 days ago, killing 19 people and injuring tens of others
16/17 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Turkish forces and their loyal factions carryout a new attack in Ras Al-Ayn city under a cover of heavy and violent aerial and ground bombardment - 17 octobre 2019: Les autorités kurdes en Syrie ont accusé jeudi la Turquie d'utiliser des armes non conventionnelles comme le napalm dans le nord de la Syrie - 17 October 2019: Humanitarian groups in northeastern Syria are scrambling to provide aid to hundreds of thousands of people, as rapidly shifting battle lines make it increasingly difficult to reach them, and as Save the Children says 'we have to leave', because Turkish onslaught displaces people, forcing them to flee to makeshift refugee camps
18 October 2019 Turkish war crimes: 18 octobre 2019: Les forces turques et leurs supplétifs ont commis des 'crimes de guerre' lors de leur offensive contre les forces kurdes en Syrie, selon Amnesty International, dénoncant des 'exécutions sommaires' et des attaques meurtrières contre des civils
18 October 2019 Turkish agression continues depite ceasefire agreement: 18 October 2019: Despite an announcement from the USA vice-president Mike Pence, that Turkish regime had agreed to a five-day ceasefire to allow the USA supervision of the withdrawal of Kurdish forces from the area, Turkish agression is continuing on the border between Syria and Turkey - 18 octobre 2019: Au moins cinq civils ont été tués vendredi dans le nord de la Syrie dans un raid aérien de la Turquie visant un village près de la localité frontalière de Ras al-Aïn
20 October 2019: 20 October 2019: Ras al-Ayn (Sari Kani) city under Turkish siege amid catastrophic humanitarian conditions, as 28 civilians lost their lives during the past 5 days in the city, as shelling and attacks by Erdogan-loyal factions continue, and as a new medical convoy is expected to enter and evacuate victims of Erdogan's agression - 20 October 2019: Turkish border guards kill a Syrian citizen as he tries to cross border from western countryside of Idlib
26 October 2019 Turkish war crimes: 26 October 2019: Calls for war crimes investigations into the conduct of militias used by Turkey in Syria are mounting after a spate of new videos depicting Ankara-linked fighters torturing Kurdish fighters and captives and mutilating dead bodies, after 170,000 Kurds have fled a battle zone along the Turkish border after a weeklong operation to push Kurds further into Syria - 26 October 2019: SOHR reveals medical reports confirming Turkey’s use of internationally prohibited weapons in northern Syria, calling on the international community to investigate and hold officials accountable
November 2019 IS terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops: 20 November 2019: Islamic State terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into northeastern Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops from the region, according to a report by the Pentagon's Inspector General, adding that the group will now likely have the 'time and space' to target the West

Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2014/2016 flight MH17 shootdown: 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions - Cause of MH17 crash
2016 Ukrainian casualties: 31 May 2016: 10,000 Ukrainians killed by Russian-terrorist forces, more than 20,000 have been wounded and 1.8 million forced to flee their homes over the past two years, according to Ukrainian Defence Council - Casualties of the Ukrainian crisis and the Russian military intervention
2014-2018 MH17 shot down by Russian army: 24 May 2018: Joint Investigation Team, comprising the authorities from Australia, Belgium, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Ukraine announces that the missile launcher used to shoot down flight MH17 in July 2014, killing 298 passengers and crew from 17 countries, was Russian army, specifically Russia's 53rd anti-Aircraft Brigade
May 2018 MH17 victims families' open letter to the Russian people: 22 May 2018: In an open letter to the Russian people families of the victims in downing of MH17 hold the Russian regime as ultimately responsible for the deaths of their family members, expressing confidence in the thoroughness and impartiality of the work conducted by the Joint Investigation Team, and condemning reports on MH17 coming out of the Russian regime and state media, asking 'do Russian people really want to live in a country where the truth has ceased to exist'
November 2018 Kerch Strait incident and Russian violations of international law: November 2018 Kerch Strait incident - 26 November 2018: Countries across the world and various politicians have reacted to Russia's attack on Ukrainian vessels in the Sea of Azov and called on Russia to stop violating international law - 28 November 2018: Following Russian regime’s seizure of three Ukrainian navy ships and crew, regime to deploy new missiles to annexed Crimea, as Ukraine president warns regime, saying 'I don’t want anyone to think this is fun and games. Ukraine is under threat of full-scale war with Russia' - 29 novembre 2018: La Russie bloque deux ports ukrainiens de la mer d'Azov
December 2018: 1 December 2018: Shooting of Ukraine's 'Berdyansk' boat by Russian regime most likely took place in international waters, as Ukrainian tug 'Yani Kapu' was intentionally rammed at least four times over a period of at least an hour, Bellingcat said - 1 December 2018: Russia must return Ukraine's sailors, vessels before administration consider rescheduled Trump-Putin summit, USA's Pompeo says - 2 décembre 2018: Poutine a affirmé que 'la guerre va continuer' dans l'est rebelle de l'Ukraine tant que les autorités ukrainiennes actuelles 'resteront au pouvoir'
19 June 2019 first trial of three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian suspect announced: 19 June 2019: Marking the beginning of the Dutch criminal proceedings, Dutch prosecutors say three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian will be tried on murder charges for their role in the 2014 downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine, saying that evidence showed a direct line of military command between Ukrainian separatists and Russia's Putin regime, as suspects will be tried for murder in the case set to start in March 2020, according to Silene Fredriksz-Hoogzand, the mother of one of the 298 victims - 19 June 2019: Identifying the separatists linked to the downing of MH17 by Bellingcat Investigation Team
16 October 2019 Putin's victims in the sixth year: 16 October 2019: Russia's hybrid military forces on October 15 mounted 26 attacks on Ukrainian Army positions in Donbas, killing two Ukrainian soldiers and wounding another four, as one of the Ukrainian troops shot dead by a sniper was a young woman who joined army ranks after her father, also a Ukrainian military, was killed in Donbas hostilities back in 2015
17 October 2019: 17 October 2019: On October 16, Russian occupation forces violated the ceasefire 30 times in the Donbas war zone, killing one Ukrainian soldier and wounding another one
14 November 2019 MH17 investigators say phone calls show Ukraine rebels' ties to Russia: 14 November 2019: MH17 investigators say phone calls show Ukraine rebels' ties to Russian Putin regime, as intercepts suggest separatists sought guidance from Russia before jet was shot down

Since February/March 2014 Russian regime's annexation of Crimea, after unmarked Russian soldiers began to take control of the Crimean Peninsula using a Russian naval base in Sevastopol, establishing checkpoints
September 2019 ECHR Russian Crimea annexation case: 11 September 2019: The Russian state directed and ran the 2014 military coup in Crimea, its subsequent annexation and is complicit in human rights abuses since 2014, Ukraine has told the European court of human rights
October 2019 UN report on the situation of human rights in Crimea: 15 October 2019: UN report on the situation of human rights in Crimea and the city of Sevastopol in Ukraine notes that Russian regime violates Geneva conventions by deliberately resettling people from mainland Russia to the Ukrainian Crimea in attempts to alter demographics in the area

February 2015 Houthi coup d'état and takeover - Since 2004 Houthi insurgency in Yemen, a sectarian military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war - Since 2015 Yemeni Civil War between factions claiming to constitute the Yemeni government following the Houthi coup d'état, along with their supporters and allies - Human rights violations during the Yemeni Civil War since 2015
Since 2009 Iranian regime's and Hezbollah's support for 'Houthis': Since 2009 Iranian regime's, Hezbollah's and North Korean financial and military support for 'Houthis'
Since February 2015 timeline of the Yemeni Civil War, human rights violations, cholera outbreak and famine: Since February 2015 timeline of the Yemeni Civil War and human rights violations - Since 2016 Yemen cholera outbreak - Since 2016 Famine in Yemen
January 2019: 19 January 2019: Illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war, UN report finds
June 2019: 20 June 2019: Human cost of Yemen war laid bare as the death toll nears 100,000, according to a report outlining the war’s impact on civilians as well as fighters as the researchers call for resolution to conflict
August 2019: 1 August 2019: Iran-aligned Houthis rebels launch missile strike on military parade in Aden and coordinated suicide bombings target a police station in another part of the city, killing at least 51 people and wounding dozens
September 2019 war crimes in Yemen: 3 September 2019: As panel lists 160 key actors in Yemen war who could face charges, UN report says Britain, France and the USA may be complicit in war crimes in Yemen by arming and providing support to a Saudi-led coalition that starves civilians as a war tactic
October 2019 Houthi's Yemen war caused 100,000 victims til today: 31 October 2019: The death toll in Yemen’s war started by Iranian backed Houthis since 2015 has reached 100,000, according to a highly regarded database project that tracks the conflict, saying 20,000 people killed this year and 12,000 civilians among total since 2015

Since 4 April 2019 military campaign by Haftar's 'Libyan National Army' to capture the western region of Libya (Western Libya Offensive) - 4 April 2019: Libyan strongman Haftar orders troops to march on Tripoli - 6 April 2019: Threat of Tripoli fighting raises atrocity concerns, according to Human Rights Watch, saying Haftar's LNA has a well-documented record of indiscriminate attacks on civilians, summary executions of captured fighters, and arbitrary detention - 6 April 2019: French FM Le Drian, whose country has been criticized for supporting Libyan eastern warlord Khalifa Haftar, said rival factions in Libya needed to hold back and that Haftar should accept a UN-backed peace effort, amid beginning evacuations of international powers - 15 April 2019: Some foreign states unified by aim of Libyan instability, Libyan government spokesperson says - 15 April 2019: Civilian casualties and displacement expected to increase in Libya due to continued use of air strikes and heavy artillery, UN report says - 16 April 2019: Libya’s UN backed government of National Accord has made a call for political dialogue with eastern commander Khalifa Haftar, also calling for an end to the fighting
16-25 April 2019: 16 avril 2019: Au moins 174 personnes ont été tuées et 758 blessées, dont des civils, depuis le lancement d'une offensive de Khalifa Haftar pour conquérir Tripoli, selon OMS - 17 April 2019: Nearly 180 people have died as a result of warlord Haftar’s assault on Tripoli, with at least four civilians killed in aerial bombardment on the Libyan capital overnight, as residents protest and government denounces attacks as barbaric, saying evidence will be passed to ICC - 25 April 2019: Young refugees held in the Qasr bin Ghashir detention centre in Libya have described being shot at indiscriminately by warlord Haftar's militias advancing on Tripoli, in an attack that reportedly left at least two people dead and up to 20 injured
3 July 2019 airstrike on migrant detention centre: 3 July 2019: An airstrike hit a detention center for migrants early Wednesday in the Libyan capital, killing at least 40 people, according to a health official in Libya's UN-supported government, blaming warlord Haftar for the airstrike, which destroyed centre holding mainly African migrants, as thousands of migrants from African countries are locked in dozens of facilities in Libya - 3 July 2019: Tripoli attack, apparently carried out by forces loyal to the warlord Khalifa Haftar, 'clearly could constitute a war crime, as it killed by surprise innocent people whose dire conditions forced them to be in that shelter', according to UN envoy Ghassan Salamé
10 July 2019 France admits Haftar military support: 10 July 2019: France admits it is owner of missiles found on Libyan rebel base used for Haftar's assault on Tripoli
13 July 2019: 13 July 2019: ICC Prosecutor initiates legal procedures in the airstrike of the immigration centre in Tajoura
5/7 August 2019 another murderous airstrike by French-backed Haftar: 5 août 2019: Au moins 42 civils ont été tués dans une frappe aérienne contre une ville du sud de la Libye, selon Ibrahim Omar, membre du conseil municipal de Morzouk, en accusant les forces de Khalifa Haftar, en ajoutant qu'un bâtiment gouvernemental où étaient réunies plus de 200 personnes, des notables et doyens de la ville pour régler des différends sociaux, a été visé par trois frappes, et en affirmant que les bombardements ont aussi fait plus de 60 blessés dont 30 dans un état grave - 7 August 2019: Libya’s FM demands ICC investigate Murzuq massacre
16 August 2019 UNSMIL deplores attacks on airports: 16 August 2019: UNSMIL deplores the ever-increasing and systemic attacks on airports in western Libya, including Zuwara and Mitiga, endangering the lives of thousands of civilian travelers, including UN staff and humanitarian workers, as Mitiga airport is the only functioning airport near Tripoli available for use by hundreds of thousands of civilians and for the delivery of humanitarian assistance
17 August 2019 Haftar's torture and executions: 17 August 2019: 12 prisoners of war, showing signs of torture and abuses, have been executed by Khalifa Haftar’s infamous Al-Kaniyat militia group after their detention in different frontlines in southern Tripoli, as two other civilians abducted by the same group in Qarabulli town east of Tripoli had the same fate, according to ministry
7 September 2019 billion dollar fund financing Libyan warlord Haftar: 7 September 2019: Inside the billion dollar fund financing Libyan warlord Haftar, who has the military backing of the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and the political and military support of Russia and France in his five-year quest to conquer the vast oil-rich country of Libya
13 September 2019 Russian technicians support Haftar: 13 September 2019: Russian technicians are supporting Khalifa Haftar's forces by repairing its Soviet-supplied armoured fighting vehicles and artillery
6 November 2019 airstrikes and Russian mercenaries: 6 November 2019: 2 Libyan policemen were killed in an air strike on a police station in the suburbs of Tripoli, the Government of National Accord said - 6 November 2019: 3 people were killed Tuesday in Libya in an airstrike carried out by forces loyal to Khalifa Haftar - 6 November 2019: After Ukraine and Syria, Russian regime turns its attention to Libya's proxy war - 6 November 2019: In the last six weeks, about 200 Russian fighters, including experienced snipers, have arrived in Libya as part of a broad campaign by the Putin regime to reassert its influence across the Middle East and Africa, the New York Times reports
18 November 2019 workers in Libyan capital killed in airstrike by Haftar’s forces: 18 November 2019: At least ten workers were killed and 35 wounded in an airstrike by Khalifa Haftar’s forces on Monday that hit a biscuit factory in Libya's Wadi Rabea, 21 km from the centre of Tripoli, called a possible war crime by the UN, as Egypt, France and the UAE are among the countries accused of sending weapons to Haftar, and as the majority of those killed in the strike were apparently migrants while two were Libyans
November 2019 'Libya is ground zero for drone wars': 27 November 2019: 'Libya is ground zero for drone wars', according to Drone Wars research group's Chris Cole, saying 'a complex network of countries are involved and nobody is precisely sure who is doing what', after warlord Haftar launched his bloody offensive in April - 30 November 2019: UAE-backed drone strike kills entire family in south Libya, as Media Centre has confirmed the killing of a whole family including children, in addition to two migrant workers in an air raid conducted by an UAE-backed drone of Haftar
9/10 December 2019 Libya arms embargo systematically violated by UN states: 9 December 2019: Libya arms embargo being systematically violated by UN states, as Jordan, Turkey and UAE singled out for 'routinely and blatantly’ supplying weapons, and as report will not identify the country responsible for a particularly egregious air assault on the Tajoura refugee detention centre in July but will make it clear the attack used weapons available only to a foreign power - 10 December 2019: Libya GNA warns from Haftar’s possible entry to Tripoli with Russian support

Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers, under the law of war, civilian casualties are civilians who perished or suffered wounds as a result of wartime acts - War casualties
Civilian casualty ratio is the ratio of civilian casualties to combatant casualties or total casualties in armed conflicts, list of war since World War I, statistics and estimations - The so-called collateral damage is a term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target
War casualties by war - War casualties by nationality
August 1914 German destruction and sacking of Kalisz: August 1914 destruction and sacking of the city of Kalisz by German Empire troops at the beginning of World War I, also known as the Pogrom of Kalisz or Poland’s Louvain, a part of German 'Schrecklichkeit' atrocities
Since August 1914 German troops executed civilians in Europe: Since August 1914 German troops burned homes and executed civilians throughout eastern and central Belgium, including Aarschot (156 dead), Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (383 dead), and Dinant (674 dead), as the victims included men, women, and children - German terrorism called 'Schrecklichkeit', the basis of German actions during their march through Belgium in 1914, followed later in France, the Russian-held area of Poland, and in Russia
Since 1914/1915 German bombing and invasion of Warsaw: After aerial bombing of the city of Warsaw in 1914 with airships, German army's invasion of Warsaw since 1 August 1915
April 1937 bombing of Guernica: 26 April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica by Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian casualties
1 September 1939 bombing of Wielun: 1 September 1939 bombing of Wielun comprised air raids on the Polish town of Wielun by Germany's Luftwaffe, that destroyed at least 70% of the town's buildings (as much as 90%, in the city center), causing hundreds of civilian casualties according to historian Norman Davies, described as the first war crime committed by Germany in World War II
September 1939 German bombing of Frampol, practicing skills to kill: September 1939 bombing of Frampol occurred during the German invasion of Poland in 1939, when the town of Frampol, without military value, but with a population of 4,000 people was bombed by German bombers under General von Richthofen on 13 September as a practice run for future missions and as German fighter pilots trained strafing techniques on refugees who were trying to flee from the city
div>Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw: Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the aerial bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939, it also may refer to German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, as during the course of the war approximately 84% of the city was destroyed due to German mass bombings, heavy artillery fire and a planned demolition campaign
Since 2015 Russian bombing campaign in Syria: Since 2015 Russian bombing campaign in Syria, civilian casualties and war crimes - Since September 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign - Russian war crimes in Syria
February 2016 Russia committing war crimes by deliberately bombing civilians and aid workers: 21 February 2016: Russia committing war crimes by deliberately bombing civilians and aid workers, rights group says
2017 - January 2018 civilian casualties global survey: 8 January 2018: In a jump of 42% in a year, more than 15,000 civilians were killed by explosive weapons in 2017, a rise driven by airstrikes, which killed almost double the number of civilians in 2017 compared with the previous year, according to a global survey seen by the Guardian, also saying that the worst impacted countries were Syria, where civilian deaths increased by 55% to 8,051, Iraq, where there was a 50% increase, to 3,271, and Afghanistan, where 994 non-combatants died
30 August 2018 about 8,000 civilians killed by the Russian strikes in 35 months: 30 August 2018: About 8,000 civilians including 3,123 children and woman are among more than 18,000 people killed by the Russian strikes in 35 months of military operations in Syria, according to SOHR, as in seven years, the casualties of Russian and Iranian backed war have grown from the first handful of protesters shot by Assad's forces to hundreds of thousands of dead
31 August 2018 Poland lost more than 5 million citizens, including 90% of Poland's Jewish population in WWII: 31 August 2018: Poland says it lost more than 5 million citizens, including 90% of Poland's Jewish population, and over $54 billion dollars worth of assets under the Nazi German occupation of the country during World War II
July 2019 Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians: 22 July 2019: Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians in Idlib province, as Syrian Coalition urges international community to stop bombing of civilians amounting to war crimes and international crimes
August 2019 433 civilians killed across Syria in July: 5 August 2019: SNHR said that it registered the names of 433 civilians who were killed across Syria in July, mostly in the ongoing onslaught the Assad regime and Russia launched against Idlib and rural Hama
30 August 2019 Syrian towns and villages have been razed to the ground: 30 August 2019: 'Entire towns and villages have been razed to the ground' in northwestern Syria, according to satellite imagery presented by UN's Mark Lowcock in his briefing to the UN Security Council, saying that 'there can be no reason, rationale, excuse or justification for the destruction of civilian areas on the scale seen in Idleb today'

Attacks on humanitarian workers - Medical Neutrality refers to a principle of noninterference with medical services in times of armed conflict - Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war - Duty to rescue
Since 2011 PHR documenting assaults on Syrian health care: Since 2011 Physicians for Human Rights researchers begin documenting assaults on Syrian health care workers and infrastructure, creating an interactive map of attacks and revealing Assad regime’s systemic targeting of hospitals and health workers - Physicians for Human Rights website and interactive map of illegal attacks on Syrian health care
March 2015: 11 March 2015: More than 600 medical workers have been killed in Syria’s civil war in deliberate and indiscriminate attacks, most of them by Assad's forces, international rights group Physicians for Human Rights announced, saying it had documented 233 attacks on 183 medical facilities across Syria since March 2011
Since September/October 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign: Since September/October 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign - 29 September 2016: Syria hospital attacks are 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says
Since September/October 2015: 29 October 2015: The escalation of attacks by Russia’s air forces, which began in late September, had targeted 12 hospitals in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, including six supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, a MSF statement says - 2 November 2015: 'Doctors Without Borders' is urging the permanent member states of the UN Security Council to comply with the responsibility to protect mandate to stop the escalating aerial massacres in Syria as quickly as possible
1 December 2015: A hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Homs partially destroyed in a 'double-tap' barrel bombing, killing seven people including a young girl and wounding many, latest in apparent escalation of strikes on medical facilities by Russian and Assad terror warplanes - 2 December 2015: Doctors Without Borders reported two barrel bombing attacks against one of their hospitals in Zafarana in Syria’s Homs Province, which left at least 7 people dead and 47 others wounded, including 23 women and children under the age of 15
2016: 9 February 2016: An airstrike hit Tafas field hospital, some 12 km from the Jordanian border in southern Syria, that is supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, killing three people including a nurse and wounding six - 15 février 2016: Un hôpital à Hadiyé dans la région de Maaret al-Noomane, lié à MSF, a été bombardé, neuf personnes, dont un enfant, ont été tuées lors de frappes de l'aviation, vraisemblablement russe - 18 February 2016: Hospitals in opposition-held parts of Syria are refusing to share GPS coordinates with Russian and Syrian authorities because of repeated attacks on medical facilities and workers, Médecins Sans Frontières and humanitarian workers on the ground say - 23 February: Survivors of MSF Hospital targeted by warplanes in Maarat al-Nouman recount their stories - 9 May 2016: Attacks on hospitals and medical facilities by the regime and Russian forces continue unabated, as Assad’s jets on Sunday bombed a hospital in Kafrnaha in rural Aleppo which is supported by Doctors Without Borders destroying three ambulances and causing damage to the hospital building
June 2016: 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings, after Russia blamed for new strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idlib city, killing scores
July 2016: 24 juillet 2016: Des bombardements aériens, menés par la Syrie et la Russie, ont touchés les établissements dans les quartiers est de la ville, assiégés depuis le 17 juillet par le régime - 24 July 2016: Four makeshift hospitals and a local blood bank in Syria's battered Aleppo city have been hit by regime air raids in the past 24 hours, including the children's hospital in a besieged eastern neighbourhood, where the bombardment killed a two-day-old baby, according to a group of doctors - 26 July 2016: Russian warplanes fired vacuum missiles and cluster bombs at residential neighborhoods, hitting Atareb's main hospital and medicine stores and wounding 45 more people - 29 July 2016: An airstrike has hit a maternity hospital in a rebel-held area of Idlib province supported by Save the Children, killing two people and injuring several others including a woman, who was six months pregnant and who lost her leg, and several babies, when their incubators crashed to the floor in the attack - 31 July 2016: Four new-born babies reportedly killed after a recent triple airstrike, which aid workers said came from Syrian government warplanes, hit besieged Aleppo’s last children’s hospital run by a group of Syrian doctors, the Independent Doctors’ Association, and backed by the charity Unicef - 31 July 2016: It rose to 9 (including 3 citizens, a child, a pharmaceutical and the deputy director of Jassem hospital) the number of people who were killed when the warplanes bombed areas of Jassem in the countryside of Daraa, where one of the raids targeted the town’s hospital area, as the Syrian Center for Policy Research puts the death toll from the six-year Assad war against Syrians at more than 470,000 people
August 2016: 8 August 2016: Hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members - 11 August 2016: Facing an attack on a medical facility every 17 hours, 15 of the last 35 doctors in rebel-held eastern Aleppo have written a letter to USA's Obama with an urgent plea for intervention to stop the bombardment of hospitals in the besieged city by the Russian-backed Syrian air force, saying 'we do not need tears or sympathy or even prayers, we desperately need a zone free from bombing over eastern Aleppo to stop the attacks', as some doctors refused to sign the letter because they had no wish to make any more appeals to the west - 13 August 2016: Russian jets destroy pediatric and maternity hospital in Kafar Hamra in Aleppo province - 17 August 2016: Russian fighter jets destroy hospital in Daret Izza, rural Aleppo
2017: 16 February 2017: The Assad regime and Russian forces were behind airstrikes that hit two hospitals in northeastern Syria in February 2016, according to an investigation initiated by Doctors Without Borders, also saying that 25 people, including an MSF staff member, were killed and 11 others wounded in the attack - 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, Medecins Sans Frontieres said - 22 September 2017: At least four hospitals were targeted by Assad regime and Russian strikes as warplanes conducted more than 105 raids within a 24-hour period, deliberately attacking medical facilities in northern Hama and southern Idleb province
January 2018: 4 January 2018: Russian jets on Tuesday bombed Hasan al-A'araj Hospital in the town of Ma'arat al-Nu'man in rural Idlib, destroying large parts of the hospital and putting the facility out of service - 8 January 2018: SNHR says that as many as 112 medical personnel and civil defense workers were killed in Syria in 2017, 51 of whom were killed in attacks by the Assad regime and 23 others in Russian airstrikes
March 2018: 26 March 2018: The United Nations has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph' - 26 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Yahya Maktabi said that the mass forced displacement taking place in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta is a 'war crime' as he condemned Russian’s major role in these crimes, adding that regime forces, the Iranian militias, and Russian air force are killing civilians, targeting popular markets, residential areas and public facilities and bombing hospitals, medical centers, and rescue workers - 27 March 2018: As more than half million people killed in seven years of brutal ground and aerial bombing by the Assad regime and its allies, and as Syrian children have taken the biggest share in the horrible death toll, the unstoppable roar of Russia's warplanes has caused a heart attack for Lojain Said, taking the life of the schoolgirl who lived in the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, the Civil Defense rescue group says
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Russian forces have targeted a medical center in rural Idlib province as the province has become home to about two million people, half of whom were forcibly displaced by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies
May 2018: 2 May 2018: Strikes of warplanes destroy the building of Kafr Zita Hospital in the northern countryside of Hama and leave casualties
August 2018: 20 août 2018: L'humanitaire, activité de plus en plus risquée, selon le centre de recherches indépendant Humanitarian Outcomes
October 2018: 16 October 2018: Boko Haram terrorists in Nigeria have killed medical aid worker Hauwa Mohammed Liman, who worked in Red Cross-supported hospital and was held hostage since March
April 2019: 30 April 2019: The intensifying airstrikes by the Russian air force knocked out two hospitals in the town of Latamina in northern rural Hama in the past 24 hours, local activists said
May 2019: 6 May 2019: Aerial bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces targeting large areas of the provinces of Idlib and Hama knocked out four hospitals on Sunday, killing a nurse and a civilian in one of these hospitals - 7 May 2019: Assad regime forces and Russia bombarding 12 medical sites over 10 days in the Hama and Idlib provinces in central and northern Syria, according to SNHR
June 2019: 2 June 2019: Dozens of prominent doctors have called for urgent action to halt the bombing campaign by Syrian and Russian planes that has targeted more than 20 hospitals in Syria’s north-west, putting many out of action and leaving millions of people without proper healthcare, after coordinates for many of those hit had been shared with the regime and its Russian backers by the UN
1 July 2019: 1 July 2019: Russian Donbas invaders opened fire at a medical evacuation vehicle of the Joint Forces which was transporting a wounded soldier in Ukraine, killing one serviceman and injuring two
12 July 2019: 12 July 2019: After UN had shared the coordinates of the hospital in Maarat al Numan with the warring parties, airstrikes against hospitals in northwest Syria, including an ambulance center, a clinic and two hospitals in Maarat al Numan, were strongly condemned by UN Secretary-General, who supported Assad's regime
August 2019: 15 August 2019: Russian double tap airstrike kills Civil Defense volunteer while trying to rescue a civilian near the village of Basika on Wednesday, after the Assad regime and Russian air forces bombed at least 29 healthcare facilities in the provinces of Idlib and Hama, causing dozens of civilian casualties - 16 August 2019: Russian airstrikes targeted an ambulance center in the town of Ma’aret Hurmeh in Idlib province, killing 3 medical workers 'as they were trying to rescue civilians wounded in the ongoing aerial bombardment', according to the Syrian American Medical Society, as at least seven people were killed in attacks on Idlib, according to SOHR
13 October 2019 proof that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in May: 13 October 2019: Extensive evidence gathered and analyzed over months by USA newspaper proves that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in the span of 12 hours in May as part of Putin regime’s effort to keep Syria's Bashar Assad in power, saying 'recklessly or intentionally bombing hospitals is a war crime, but proving culpability amid a complex civil war is extremely difficult'
10 November 2019 Turkish airstrike on Kurdish medics: 10 November 2019: Kurdish medics hit by shrapnel and injured in an attack on ambulance on its way to rescue people wounded in a Turkish airstrike, in the latest of what Kurdish groups say is a pattern of attacks against medical staff in north-eastern Syria, as ambulance with red markings indicating it was a medical vehicle was heading to villages north of the town of Tal Tamr
25 November 2019 Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya: 25 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya, as more than 80 raids and barrel bombs target Idlib countryside
5 December 2019 UN report predicts 'bleak outlook' for the world due to armed conflicts and climate emergency: 5 December 2019: Attacks on healthcare workers have reached a record high according to UN’s global humanitarian overview 2020 report, that predicts a 'bleak outlook' for the world’s poorest people due to intense armed conflict and the climate emergency, as the number of highly violent conflicts has risen to 41, from 36 in 2018, causing deaths, injuries, significant displacement and hunger, and as compliance with international law is declining, while attacks against aid and health workers in areas hit by conflict are putting 'millions of people at risk' by denying them care and aid

Economic warfare, involving the use of measures (e.g. blockade) of which the primary effect is to weaken the economy of another state - Commerce raiding, a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them - International maritime incidents, including shipwrecks by war, ship bombings, ships sunk by aircraft, submarines and mines

Economic terrorism or financial terrorism - contrary to 'economic warfare' which is undertaken by states against other states, 'economic terrorism' would be undertaken by transnational or non-state actors
May 2019 Gulf of Oman attacks on commercial ships: 12 May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident resulted in damage to 4 commercial ships near the port of Fujairah in the Gulf of Oman - 13 May 2019: The hull of a Norwegian-registered product tanker was damaged by an unknown object off the cost of the UAE port of Fujairah on Sunday - 13 May 2019: Saudi Arabia said that two of its oil tankers had been damaged in mysterious 'sabotage attacks' in the Gulf, as USA's Pompeo rushed to Brussels to hold emergency talks with his European partners about the mounting tensions in the region including the alleged attacks on the oil tankers and the status of the threat posed by Iran
14 May 2019 East–West Pipeline attack claimed by Houthis: 14 May 2019 East–West Pipeline attack was a Houthi drone attack that targeted the Saudi East–West Crude Oil Pipeline
15-17 May 2019: 15 May 2019: Saudi Arabia, the world’s top crude exporter, said that attacks on two of its tankers and a major pipeline targeted the security of global oil supplies - 17 mai 2019: Les attaques de drones en Arabie Saoudite ont mis en lumière une arme redoutable qui préoccupe tous les pays
June 2019 oil tanker attacks near Hormuz attributed to Iran: 13 June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident, in which two oil tankers were attacked near the Strait of Hormuz - 13 June 2019: Two oil tankers were hit in suspected attacks in the Gulf of Oman, shipping firms and industry sources said, sending oil prices as much as 4% higher a month after four other tankers were damaged by limpet mines in the region - 14 June 2019: After USA military issues video showing Iranian forces interfering with vessel and removing an unexploded limpet mine from one of the ships, Iranian regime’s foreign minister accused the USA, Israel and Saudi Arabia of a plot to 'sabotage diplomacy' and appeared to insinuate that those countries were behind the assaults - 14 June 2019: UK joins USA in accusing Iranian regime of tanker attacks as crew of the Norwegian-owned 'Front Altair' held by regime - 15 June 2019: USA's unmanned aircraft spotted Iranian regime's boats approaching ships hours before they were hit in alleged attack, USA official says - 17 June 2019: New images link Iran to oil tanker attacks, USA military says
20 June 2019 Iranian shoot-down of USA drone: 20 June 2019 Iranian shoot-down of USA Global Hawk surveillance drone with a 3rd-of-Khordad surface-to-air missile near the Strait of Hormuz - 21 June 2019: Major airlines from around the world avoid strait of Hormuz after Iranian strike on USA drone
June/July 2019 strikes and attacks attributed to Iran: 1 July 2019: Yossi Cohen, the head of the Mossad intelligence service, declared unequivocally that Iran was responsible for a series of strikes on oil facilities and ships in the Persian Gulf in recent months, as well as an attack on the Bahraini embassy in Baghdad last week
10/11 July 2019 Iran unsuccessfully tried to seize UK tanker: 11 July 2019: Britain confirms Iran unsuccessfully tried to seize UK tanker in the strait of Hormuz
21 July 2019 Iranian regime captured Swedish/British 'Stena Impero': 21 July 2019: A recording has emerged of Iranian coastguards telling a British Royal Navy frigate they want to inspect the captured Swedish/British Stena Impero for security reasons, as radio exchanges make no reference to a previous Iranian suggestion that the British-flagged oil tanker had been stopped due to an accident with a fishing vessel, a previous explanation given by Tehran regime for the capture of the ship
4 August 2019 Iran captured 'foreign vessel': 4 August 2019: In the regime’s third such seizure in a month, Iranian naval forces have captured a 'foreign vessel' in the Gulf, arresting 7 crew members and saying vessel was bringing 'smuggled fuel' to Arab Gulf states
17 August 2019 Shaybah attack: 17 August 2019 Shaybah attack was a suicide drone attack by the Houthis against Saudi Arabian oil and gas fields in the remote town of Shaybah
7 September 2019 Iranian regime captured foreign vessel: 7 September 2019: Iranian regime has seized a vessel for allegedly smuggling fuel in the Gulf and detained its 12 crew members from the Philippines
Since 14 September 2019 Iranian Abqaiq-Khurais attack on Saudi oil facilities, claimed by Houthis: 14 September 2019 Abqaiq-Khurais attack, a drone attack that targeted the Saudi Aramco oil factories in eastern Saudi Arabia - 14 September 2019: After previous attacks by Yemen’s Houthis and amid tensions between Iranian regime and USA, Iranian-backed Houthis claim attack on oil processing facility in Saudi Arabia and a major oilfield operated by Saudi Aramco, causing major fire at world's largest oil refinery crucial to global energy supplies
15 September 2019: 15 September 2019: USA secretary of state Pompeo accuses Iran of 'unprecedented attack’ on Saudi oil facilities, saying there is no evidence the attacks came from Yemen, as global supplies of oil are likely to suffer a 'major jolt' following Saturday’s attack by a swarm of explosive drones on the world’s biggest oil processing plant
16 September 2019 Iran seizes UAE vessel: 16 September 2019: Iran 'seizes UAE vessel' in Gulf amid Saudi oil attack standoff
16 September 2019 Iran reportedly fired cruise missiles and drones: 16 September 2019: Iran fired dozens of cruise missiles and drones in the Saturday attack on Saudi oil facilities, according to senior USA officials, saying that satellite imagery and other intelligence showed the strike was inconsistent with one launched from Yemen, where Iranian-backed Houthi rebels had claimed responsibility
18-23 September 2019 attacks on oil plants originated in Iran: 18 September 2019: USA points at Iranian regime for unprecedented strike on Saudi oil plants, saying the strikes originated in southwestern Iran and involved cruise missiles and drones, as Saudi too says will show evidence, Iranian weapons - 23 September 2019: Britain has concluded that Iran was responsible for attacks on oil facilities in Saudi Arabia, as government considers taking part in a USA-led military effort to bolster the Gulf kingdom’s defenses - 23 September 2019: Captured UK tanker Stena Impero believed to be still in Iranian waters

Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and material

War profiteering, as war initially had the objective of territorial expansion and resource gathering, states may also profit politically, economically and strategically, replacing governments that do not fulfill its interests by key allied governments - War profiteer, a persons or organization that profits from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to parties at war - Since 1914 war profits reached their highest levels in heavy industry in Germany, after beginning a long-lasting brutal war against peaceful neighbours and other industrialized countries
July 2019 Assad's war since 2011 and family's business: 12 July 2019: Who gains the most out of Syria's civil war, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' asks, saying that cousin of Bashar Assad, Rami Makhlouf, despite the sanctions imposed by the USA and some European nations and now thought to be the wealthiest man in Syria, manages the Assad family's business and is making his fortune in construction franchises, imports, newspapers and media, as well as Syriatel, a mobile service provider company, which he heads, also representing state-owned as well as private Iranian companies that received permission to invest in Syria, as circle of winners from the war encompasses not only Syrian businessmen but Iranian and Russian ones as well

United Nations's inability to prevent conflicts - since the 20th century the United Nations fail to prevent conflicts, wars and war crimes, tolerating and even supporting mass murder for example in Syria
1994: United Nations accepted failing their responsibility to prevent the Rwandan genocide in 1994
1995/2002: 10 April 2002: UN and the Netherlands blamed over 1995 Srebrenica massacre, for failing to give the troops the support they needed to defend the local population and for handing over Bosnian Muslim civilians to Serb forces, according to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation
2009: UN admits Sri Lanka civil war failure during the final months in 2009
October 2015 UN unable to protect living people in Syria: 18 October 2015: Unable to protect living people in Syria, UN peacekeepers to guard heritage sites from Islamic State, as Unesco okays Italian plan to charge Blue Helmets with protecting sites in danger zones
Since August 2016: 29 August 2016: UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, paying more than $13m to the Syrian murderous regime to boost farming and agriculture, despite the EU has banned trade with the departments in question for fear of how the money will be used, also paying at least $4m to the state-owned fuel supplier, which is also on the EU sanctions list, also partnering with the Syria Trust charity under both USA and EU sanctions, spending a total of $8.5m etc. - 30 August 2016: UN under pressure to set up inquiry into Syria aid programme, as human rights groups say UN needs to restore trust after the British newspaper 'Guardian' revealed contracts had been awarded to agencies linked to dictator Bashar al-Assad
October 2016: 28 October 2016: UN hires Assad's friends and relatives for Syria relief operation, as almost two-thirds of the emergency health supplies needed in Syria have gone to regime-held areas and 64% of the kits and medicines provided by the WHO since January have been delivered to areas held by or supporting Assad regime, only 13% of WHO supplies have reached Syria’s 'besieged' areas, according to documents seen by the Guardian newspaper
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The United Nations paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
September 2017 Putin threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate: 5 September 2017: Russian Putin regime threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate and renewal of UN peacekeeper force if Lebanon-based terror organization Hezbollah, its ally in Assad's war against the Syrian people, mentioned
February 2018 UN's Guterres supports Assad regime: 23 February 2018: With support of UN head Guterres Assad regime’s Bashar Ja’afari elected to the UN’s Special Committee on Decolonization, as Hillel Neuer, executive director of the Geneva-based human rights group UN Watch, says that 'it is incomprehensible for the UN on one day to lament the Syrian regime’s killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands of Syrians - to declare the regime guilty of a 'monstrous campaign of annihilation’ of its own people - and to then hand this gift of false legitimacy to the mass murderer Bashar al-Assad'
March 2018 UN supports Russian attacks on hospitals: 26 March 2018: The 'United Nations' has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph'
June 2018 UN's Guterres meets Putin and attends propaganda soccer match: 12 June 2018: UN Secretary-General Guterres will travel to Russia, where he is scheduled to meet with murderous Russian regime's Vladimir Putin on 20 June and attend a World Cup soccer match at Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium
July/August 2018 'Inner City Press' banned from the UN by Guterres for 361 days: 20 August 2018: Independent journalist Matt Lee forcibly removed from UN, stripped of press credentials, and 'Inner City Press' banned from the UN by Guterres for 361 days, reporting on Guterres' world of double-speak, harassment and hypocrisy
November 2018 'Les droits de l'homme ne s'appliquent plus': 18 November 2018: L'ex-procureure générale de la Confédération suisse et de l'ONU au TPIY et au TPI pour le Rwanda, Carla Del Ponte dresse un tableau sans concession de l'organisation des Nations unies et même de la justice internationale, déclarant 'Nous sommes tombés très bas. Les droits de l'homme ne s'appliquent plus', et appelant à réformer l'ONU
March 2011-2019 Syrian crisis and mass murder: 31 March 2019: As the Syrian crisis enters its ninth year, Assad's 'new' Syria is a police state more aggressive than ever with rampant poverty, a playground for superpowers, and the misery and grievances that caused the initial outbreak of mass protests - corruption, political repression and inequality - have only gotten worse, after hundreds of thousands of Syrians killed
30 May 2019: 30 May 2019: After 'over the past few hours, the Assad regime forces, the Russian occupation jets, and the Iranian militia have carried out four deadly attacks in Idlib and Aleppo provinces, bombing more than 35 towns and villages in the two provinces', the Syrian Coalition says 'these crimes have cast serious doubt about the very mission around which the United Nations was established, mainly to maintain international peace and security. These crimes have also shown how this institution, since it has been unable to intervene to resolve the most serious international conflicts, has become wholly irrelevant'
27 June 2019 UN's ability to write a letter: 27 June 2019: Following 8 years of a brutal war by Assad's, the Iranian and Russian regime against the Syrian people, facing daily war crimes such as killings of civilians, children and women, use of banned weapons including weapons of mass destruction, attacks on hospitals, schools, market places, torture and other atrocities, the United Nations are reacting ..., UN under-secretary-general for humanitarian affairs Mark Lowcock, who told the Security Council he was 'not sure' hospitals that share coordinates of their location under a UN deconfliction system will be protected, has 'written to the Russian Federation to request information as to how the details provided through the deconfliction mechanism are used'
August 2019 Syrians feel left alone: 21 August 2019: Reporting inside the country since 2011 with stories of Syrian men and women paying such a high price in asking for freedom in their own country, journalist Sara Firth says evidence of war crimes undertaken by the regime and Russia given to the UN is answered with words and promises of investigation, but 'people tell us they feel left alone', indeed left alone, with an international community that cannot or will not act to prevent daily war crimes
September 2019 Hezbollah missile attack on Israel: 6 September 2019: UN peacekeepers conducted an independent investigation of Sunday’s Hezbollah missile attack on Israel at IDF’s request, visiting the areas hit in the strikes, will present findings to UN, as UNIFIL's head called the Hezbollah missile attack a 'serious incident in violation of UN Security Council resolution 1701', referring to the decision that ended the 2006 Second Lebanon War and required all armed terror groups remain north of the country’s Litani River
23 October 2019 civilians abandoned by the UN in Libya: 23 October 2019: Survivors of a deadly air strike on a migrant detention centre in Tripoli in July have told the BBC they feel abandoned by the UN, and are desperate to escape Libya - 23 October 2019: Mitiga Airport attacked by F-16 with USA-made bombs, according to Major General Joueili, saying 'this attack is clear evidence of the direct intervention of the parties supporting Haftar in his aggression on Tripoli' - 23 October 2019: The opposing sides in Libya’s war, backed by their foreign state sponsors, are carrying out indiscriminate attacks on civilians, using high-explosive weapons in heavily populated areas, in what is likely to be war crimes, rights group says
23 October 2019 Syrian Kurdish man set himself on fire outside the UN: 23 October 2019: Syrian Kurdish man, who resides in Germany, set himself on fire outside the UN refugee agency headquarters in Geneva, then tried to enter the UNHCR building, and was flown by helicopter to the specialised burns unit at the university hospital in Lausanne - 23 October 2019: Russian regime says oil sites in northeastern Syria should be controlled by Damascus, accusing the USA of betraying Kurds in Syria, but telling them to withdraw or be mauled, after Russian-Turkish agreement to continue Turkish illegal invasion of Syria - 23 October 2019: Syrian Assad regime inflicts 72 forms of torture on prisoners, report finds - 23 October 2019: Turkish forces target positions of the Kurdish forces in Maraanaz front in the northern countryside of Aleppo by artillery shells - 24 October 2019: Russian warplanes bomb the 'de-escalation' areas in conjunction with ground shelling and violent clashes in Latakia and Hama countryside - 24 October 2019: Assad regime’s helicopters and Russian warplanes target Kabani hills by barrel bombs and air raids - 24 October 2019: A Turkish bomb that struck a Kurdish community in northern Syria, left eight-year-old Sara with serious injuries, and her right leg was so badly damaged that it had to be amputated, as Sara's older brother, Hammoudi, was killed in the bombardment - 24 October 2019: The northern sector of Aleppo countryside witnesses renewed clashes between the Turkey-loyal factions and the Kurdish Forces, according to SOHR
November 2019 UN accused of trying to starve out refugees: 28 November 2019: The UN has been accused of trying to starve out refugees and asylum seekers who are sheltering for safety inside a centre run by the UN refugee agency in the Libyan capital of Tripoli

Use of torture since 1948, abuse, mistreatment, murder of prisoners and death in custody by country
2014 torture in states worldwide: 13 May 2014: Nearly half of people around the world fear becoming a victim of torture if taken into custody, a poll for human rights group says showing that many states are carrying out torture or facilitating it in practice
Since 1932 Saudi-Arabian human rights abuses and torture: Since 1932 Islamic theocratic absolute monarchy in Saudi-Arabia, human rights abuses and torture
2015: 23 January 2015: Five worst human rights abuses in the reign of King Abdullah, torture, denied freedom of expression, persecution of minorities, non-Muslims and Shias, beheadings, violations of women's rights
June 2018: 6 June 2018: Saudi Arabia is systematically using anti-terror laws to justify torture, suppress all dissent and imprison human rights defenders, the UN has concluded following a five-day official inspection of the country at the invitation of the government
November 2018: 21 November 2018: Rights groups accused Saudi Arabia on Tuesday of subjecting several activists including some female human rights defenders detained since May to torture and sexual harassment - 21 November 2018: Saudi Arabia tortured female right-to-drive activists, says Amnesty
Since 20th century and 1979 torture in Iran: Since 1979 torture in Iran - Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran - Since 1980s return of torture to Iran
1988: 1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran refers to the state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and enduring for approximately five months, 4,482 disappeared prisoners during this time, but as many as 30,000 dissidents may have been executed
2003: 10 January 2003: The Guardian Council rejected for a third time a bill approved by the reformist Parliament that would ban torture of prisoners
Since 20th century torture in North Korea: Prison camps and torture in North Korea
2013/2014: 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea - 14 February 2014: UN rights inquiry to conclude North Korea should face international court over alleged starvation, extermination and abduction
Since 20th century torture in Russia: Since 20th century torture in Russia
May 2016 pro-Russian separatists tortured 4,000 people: 20 May 2016: Terrifying newspaper's report tells how pro-Russian separatists tortured 4,000 people in eastern Ukraine
September 2019 Ukrainian prisoner tortured by Putin regime: 16 September 2019: Ukrainian political prisoner Volodymyr Balukh, who has recently been freed from Russian captivity in a prisoner swap, has said he was tortured immediately after arriving in the Russian colony
Since 20th century torture in Syria: Torture in - Syria
2015: 14 March 2015: Nearly 13,000 Syrians, including 108 children, have been tortured to death in Syrian Assad regime prisons since March 2011, not including more than 20,000 detainees who have 'disappeared' in regime's prisons and whose fate remains unknown, and an estimated 200,000 people have been arrested over the past four years, according to Syrian Observatory for Human Rights - 1 October 2015: Inside Syrian Assad regime’s death machine - 'They were torturing to kill'
2016: 21 mai 2016: Au moins 60'000 personnes sont mortes en cinq ans sous la torture ou à cause des terribles conditions de détention dans les prisons du régime syrien, selon l'Observatoire syrien des droits de l'homme - 7 June 2016: Assad regime forces tortured Palestinian boy Mohamed Diab, who was detained three years ago at the age of 13 following protests in Hama city, to death for participating in demonstrations against the Assad regime, as the number of Palestinians tortured to death in Assad's prisons has reached 444 victims, according to the Action Group for Palestinians in Syria
2017: 7 February 2017: Syrian Assad regime killed at least 13,000 people since the start of the 2011 uprising in mass hangings at Saydnaya prison north of Damascus known to detainees as 'the slaughterhouse', according to Amnesty International, saying in a report that 20-50 people killed each week in 2011-2015 under authorization of senior Syrian officials as part of an extermination policy - 15 May 2017: Assad’s victims given voice in haunting new film by former BBC producers Sara Afshar and Nicola Cutcher, methodically documenting the brutality of the Assad government, its crackdown on democratic protests sinc 2011 and its jailing of activists including gripping firsthand testimony from some of the victims

Targeted killing, the premeditated killing of an individual or groups of individuals by a state, organization or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield - An extrajudicial killing is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process - Murder is the killing of another human being without justification - Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death, and are treated differently in human societies

Targeted killing by the Russian regime since 1996
Since 20th century worldwide terrorism by the KGB and FSB: Terrorism and support of terrorism worldwide by the KGB and FSB
2006 Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko: Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko and case of state-sponsored nuclear terrorism in London
March 2018 Salisbury 'novichok' poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal: 4 March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury using 'Novichok' nerve agent developed by the Soviet Union and Russia between 1971 and 1993
June/July 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings of two British nationals: 30 June 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings of two British nationals
14/15 September 2018: 14/15 September 2018: 'Bellingcat' investigation confirms that Russian nationals identified by UK authorities as obeying suspects in the Novichok poisonings on British soil in March and June are linked to Russian security services and military, directly contradicting claims by Russian regime's Putin on 12 September 2018, after one of the keys to identifying the insidious and coward murderous gang was the discovery of traces of novichok in their hotel room in London
26/27 September 2018: 26/27 September 2018: Anatoliy Chepiga, a Colonel in the GRU, who served in Chechyna and has received the highest honour usually awarded personally by Russian regime's Putin, is one of the suspects in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal and the killing of Dawn Sturgess, having travelled to the UK under the name Ruslan Boshirov, according to British investigative website Bellingcat and its partner The Insider
22 November 2018: 22 November 2018: DS Nick Bailey, who was left critically ill after being exposed to novichok at Skripal’s home on the night of the Russian attack in March, said that while he had made a physical recovery, the psychological impact had been serious
December 2018 FSB gang member confesses to string of murders in Siberia: 14 December 2018: A former FSB officer has confessed to being part of a criminal group of security agents accused of contract killings, armed robberies and kidnappings, Znak news reported from court in Yekaterinburg
January 2019 Russian regime's use of criminals: 18 January 2019: Russian regime's use of criminals as assets abroad
June 2019 Denis Sergeyev commanded Russian military team in the UK: 29 June 2019: Denis Sergeyev, believed to hold the rank of major general in the GRU, the 'third man' involved in the Salisbury poisoning commanded the Russian military team which carried out the attack, phone records suggest, as Bellingcat Investigation Team uncovered more details on Sergeyev’s role in several international GRU operations, including 'Mission London'
August 2019 Salisbury attack in 2018 'likely' approved by Putin, Scotland Yard says: 7 August 2019: Scotland Yard has examined the role of the Russian president Vladimir Putin in the 2018 novichok nerve agent attack in Salisbury, saying Putin is assessed as 'likely’ to have approved of nerve agent attack on Skripals
2019 Kadyrov regime's oppression and death squads: 21 September 2019: Ramzan Kadyrov rules the Caucasus republic through fear and oppression, amid reports of torture, but those seeking asylum in Europe are not safe, as assassins hunt them down
August/September 2019 assassination of Khangoshvili: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili - 2 September 2019: The murder of Chechen Khangoshvili in Berlin looks like a Russian operation, but the CDU/SPD Merkel government is not making a public fuss about that - 27 September 2019: New evidence links Russian state to Berlin assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili by suspected 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov', Bellingcat reports

North Korean politically motivated criminal actions, including international abductions, terrorism and targeted killings - Concentration camps in North Korea
September 2013: 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea
February 2017 assassination of Kim Jong-nam: 13 February 2017 assassination of Kim Jong-nam, attacked with VX nerve agent at Kuala Lumpur International Airport
April 2019: 1 April 2019: North Korea got away with the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, as no one from the regime will stand trial over the death of Kim Jong-un’s half-brother, leading to fears it will act again

Network of extralegal detention centers established by Chinese security forces and private security companies across the P.R. of China
Since 2014 Xinjiang extralegal detention centers: Since 2014 'Reeducation camps' operated secretly and outside of the legal system by the Xinjiang local government, people can be locked up without any trial and local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps

Targeted killings in Pakistan, especially in Karachi and in Quetta, have been a rising form of violence and have contributed to security instability in the country

Wahhabism and targeted killings by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Political prisoners in Saudi Arabia - Torture in Saudi Arabia - Tiger Squad, a Saudi death squad that consists of approximately fifty members from the military and intelligence agencies and has a mandate to carry out covert operations and executions, allegedly created by Mohammad bin Salman to kill Saudi critics inside and outside of Saudi Arabia
October 2018: 21 October 2018: As international condemnation grows over the 2 October 2018 disappearance of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul and later admitted assassination, EU's foreign policy chief calls it a 'shocking violation' of international conventions - 23 October 2018: Khashoggi murder 'planned days in advance', Turkey's president says - 23 October 2018: Saudi sees $50 billion in deals at investment conference despite some boycotts over Khashoggi killing
December 2018: 1 décembre 2018: Des messages interceptés par la CIA renforcent les soupçons sur le rôle du prince héritier saoudien dans la mort du journaliste Khashoggi en Turquie
February 2019: 7 February 2019: UN-led inquiry into the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi said that evidence pointed to a brutal crime 'planned and perpetrated' by Saudi officials
June 2019 Khashoggi murder 'an international crime': 19 June 2019: The crown prince of Saudi Arabia should be investigated over the murder of the dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi because there is 'credible evidence' that he and other senior officials are liable for the killing, according to a damning and forensic UN report, as UN’s special rapporteur Agnes Callamard said the death of the journalist was 'an international crime'

6 February 2013: Globalizing torture, USA's CIA secret detentions and extraordinary renditions following the terrorist attacks of September 11 in 2001 'aided by 54 countries'
USA's 'Disposition Matrix' developed by the Obama Administration since 2010, going beyond existing kill lists, and creates a blueprint for tracking, capturing, rendering, or killing suspected enemies of the USA government - USA drone strikes in Pakistan 2004-present - List of drone strikes in Pakistan since 2004 - 'Unmanned: America's Drone Wars' documentary film released in October 2013
Civilian casualties from USA drone strikes
2014: 24 November 2014: Attempts to kill 41 men resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1,147 people as of 24 November, one of the facts of the Obama administration's drone strikes, revealed by new analysis of data in Yemen and Pakistan and study by legal charity 'Reprieve'
2015: 16 October 2015: Snowden and Ellsberg hail leak of drone documents from new whistleblower, as classified documents on USA assassination program confirm, that the administration firmly prefers kill over capture despite claiming the opposite, that the USA does not know who it's killing, and that the military labels unidentified people it kills in targeted strikes as 'enemies killed in action', although victims may be family members or associates of actual targets or may just have been nearby, or mistakenly targeted
2016: 20 July 2016: 2004 to present CIA and USA military drone strikes just in Pakistan resulting in 172-207 killed children, 424-966 killed civilians, 2,499-4,001 total killed people, 1,161-1,744 injured people
Civilian casualties of the USA-led intervention in Syria
July 2016: 18 July 2016: To July 18th 2016, an overall total of between 3,181 and 4,267 civilian non-combatant fatalities had been alleged from 493 separate reported incidents in Iraq and Syria, of these Airwars presently estimates that a minimum of 1,422 civilians are likely to have died in USA-led coalition actions
2016; 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 20 July 2016: USA airstrikes on a Syrian village have killed at least 73 civilians, a majority of them women and children, activists say

Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process
Forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, placing the victim outside the protection of the law

Human rights abuses
November 2018: 28 November 2018: The report by Civicus Monitor, an alliance of civil society groups, found that fundamental rights – such as freedom of expression and peaceful assembly – were under attack in 111 of 196 countries, as countries use censorship, harassment or violence to repress public debate

Human rights abuses by country
Human rights abuses in Afghanistan
Human rights abuses and discrimination in China
Human rights abuses and torture in Iran
Human rights abuses and torture in North Korea
Human rights abuses in Pakistan
Human rights abuses in Russia
Human rights abuses and torture in Saudi Arabia
Human rights abuses in Syria
Human rights abuses in Yemen

Intelligence agencies by country - List of Secret police organizations - Death squads conduct extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror, often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities
October 2018: 5 October 2018: String of own goals by Russian spies exposes a strange sloppiness, as GRU seems to have lost its way in the age of internet search and as bungling agents leave Putin exposed in the global spotlight, after hatefully saying 'traitors will kick the bucket'

Surveillance - Mass surveillance - Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders and can be traced back to the 20th century and a United Kingdom and USA agreement - Phone surveillance - Telephone tapping - Phone hacking - Computer and network surveillance

Censorship - Political censorship - Censorship by religion

Cyberwarfare - Cyberterrorism - Information warfare - Cyberwarfare by country
Cyberwarfare by Russia including denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures, some of these activities have been coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which is part of the FSB (former KGB) but others have been directed by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Military of Russia
2007/2008 cyberattacks on Estonia and during the Russo-Georgian War: 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia - 2008 Cyberattacks during the Russo-Georgian War
Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare: Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and 'Olgino's trolls' have become general terms denoting trolls who spread pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare
2016 Russian interference in the USA elections: Russian interference in the 2016 USA elections
2017 suspected Russian interference in the French elections: 7 May 2017: Russian effort suspected in French election hacking attack, as Paris’ cybersecurity agency begins to probe leak of Macron campaign documents and as expert notes ‘Cyrillic script in the metadata’ of hacked files - 7 May 2017: WikiLeaks finds Russian trace in hacker attack on Macron's headquarters
June 2017 Russian hacker attacks: 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says ahead of next week’s Tel Aviv University 'Cyber Week 2017', calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
June 2019 Russian 'spoofing': 27 June 2019: Russian regime blamed for disruption of GPS systems at Ben Gurion Airport, appearing to stem from electronic warfare known as 'spoofing' and to originate in Syria, where Russian troops and aircraft are fighting on behalf of the country’s dictator Bashar Assad - 28 June 2019: Signals disrupting satellite navigation for planes flying through Israeli airspace in recent weeks originate inside a Russian air base inside Syria, according to USA researcher, saying signals are detectable from space, appearing to come from new deployment of Russian regime’s electronic warfare systems
Cyberwarfare by Iran
Cyberwarfare in China
Computer crime - Computer security - Outline of computer security - Computer systems at risk - Computer vulnerability
List and timeline of cyberattacks: List of cyberattacks - List of data breaches - Timeline of computer security hacker history
2013: 10 May 2013: Hackers steal $45 million in global plot involving bank databases, debit cards and cash machines
2017: May 2017 WannaCry malware cyber attack, infecting over 75,000 computers in 99 countries, demanding ransom payments - 12 May 2017: Computers in thousands of locations have apparently been locked by a program that reportedly demands $300 in Bitcoin - 15 May 2017: Microsoft warns governments against storing computer vulnerabilities like the leaked one at the heart of the global cyberattack that has crippled computers in more than 150 countries, partly laying blame with the USA government and its agencies for the weekend assault - June 2017 global Petya cyberattacks, primarily targeting Ukraine - 27 June 2017: 'Petya' ransomware attack strikes companies across Europe and USA - 23 August 2017: Researchers who warned robot manufacturers in January about vulnerabilities in their home, business and industrial robots, say only a few of the problems have been addressed
19 December 2017: North Korea is 'directly responsible' for the so-called WannaCry cyber attack that crippled hospitals, banks and other companies across the globe earlier this year, according to USA official

Crime by country
Organized crime - Organized crime by country - Transnational organized crime
September 2012: 27 September 2012: Organised crime is a big player in illegal logging, which accounts for up to 30% of all wood traded globally, the UN and Interpol are warning
July 2013: 24 juillet 2013: Le crime organisé international rapporte 870 milliards de dollars par an grâce aux trafics de drogue et d'êtres humains et à la cybercriminalité, selon une estimation de l'ONU
March 2017: March 2017: The fight against transnational crime needs to be redirected to combatting the money the crimes generate and shutting down the global shadow financial system that facilitates the moving and secreting of illicitly generated funds
December 2017: 7 December 2017: The global homicide rate rose last year for the first time in more than a decade, according to 'Small Arms Survey’s report', estimating that 385,000 people were killed in homicides across the world in 2016
October 2018: 16 October 2018: USA designates terrorist organization Hezbollah a transnational crime threat, having a sprawling network involved in money-laundering, drug trafficking, and organized crime as well as terrorism, whose reach extends across Africa and into Central and South America, and also well-documented links with drug cartels
Arms trafficking
2011/2012: 3 novembre 2011: 'Marchand de mort' Viktor Bout reconnu coupable de trafic d'armes - 6 April 2012: Russian arms dealer Viktor Bout sentenced to 25 years in prison by a New York judge after being convicted on terrorism charges
2012: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an
2015: 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport
List of countries by firearm-related death rate
2012-2016: 44% of all homicides globally involve gun violence and there were 1.4 million firearm-related deaths globally between 2012 and 2016, according to Amnesty International
Homicide statistics by country and gender according to data given by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Statistics of sex differences in crime
Human trafficking - Human trafficking by country
2012: 25 September 2012: USA President Obama has decried human trafficking as 'modern slavery'
Contemporary slavery refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day - Contemporary slavery by continent and country
2013: 17 octobre 2013: 30 millions de personnes réduites en esclavage dans le monde
2016: 31 May 2016: More than 45 million men, women and children globally are trapped in modern slavery, far more than previously thought, with two-thirds in the Asia-Pacific, a 'Walk Free Foundation' study shows
2017: 19 September 2017: An estimated 40.3 million people were victims of modern slavery in 2016, a quarter of them children, according to new global slavery statistics released by UN’s International Labour Organisation and the Walk Free Foundation
2018: 19 July 2018: The Global Slavery Index, that describes modern slavery as a complex and often hidden crime that crosses borders, sectors and jurisdictions, reports an estimated 40.3 million global total number of enslaved people with most victims in Asia, published by the 'Walk Free Foundation'
Illegal drug trade - Illegal drug trade by country - Drug cartels, criminal organizations with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations, ranging from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises
Since 1990s Afghan and Taliban opium smuggling into Iran: Since 1990s Afghan and Taliban opium smuggling into Iran
Since 2009, 2017 Obama administration covertly derailed DEA Hezbollah/Iran investigation: 18 December 2017: The Obama administration covertly derailed a campaign by the USA Drug Enforcement Administration that targeted the Iranian-backed Hezbollah terrorist group and its weapons and drug trafficking practices in order to help solidify the 2015 Iran nuclear accord, according to an investigative report by Politico
May 2015 rising opium production, the cash crop of the Taliban: 5 May 2015: Afghan poppy farmers say new seeds will boost opium output, the cash crop of the Taliban and the scourge of Afghanistan
December 2017 review of DEA Hezbollah/Iran investigation: 23 December 2017: USA attorney general orders review of DEA Hezbollah investigation, vowing to pursue terror groups, drug traffickers in wake of report asserting Obama administration derailed DEA campaign in order to clinch Iran nuke deal
June 2019 deaths from drug-related crimes and abuse on the rise: 29 June 2019: Deaths from drug-related crimes and abuse are on the rise according to a new UN report, as about 271 million people aged 15–64 used drugs in 2016
Piracy modern age - worldwide

White collar crime - White-collar criminals by nationality
Corporate crime
Tax evasion - Tax avoidance - Tax haven - List of offshore financial centres - OECD's List of Unco-operative Tax Havens
Since 2002 tax haven Monaco: Tax haven Monaco's absence of a personal income tax has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy 'tax refugee' residents who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco - 24 October 2002 Franco-Monégasque treaty greatly increases Monaco’s ability to conduct it own foreign relations, alleging that the Principality is an independent and sovereign State - Franco-Monégasque economic and political ties, including an agreement that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco and companies doing more than 25% of their business outside the country would be taxed at French rates
In 2012/2013 up to $32 trillion of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens: 23 July 2012: Rich individuals have at least $20 trillion - perhaps up to $32 trillion - of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens, a study says - private 'elites' of 139 developing countries also putting wealth beyond the reach of local tax authorities - 3 April 2013: ICIJ investigating a cache of 2.5 million files cracks open the secrets of more than 120,000 offshore companies and trusts, exposing hidden dealings of politicians, con men and the mega-rich
Since April 2013 Offshore Leaks: April 2013 Offshore Leaks, the name of a report originating from the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, disclosing details of 130,000 offshore accounts in and called the biggest hit against international tax fraud of all times
Since November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks': November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal based on confidential information from 2002 to 2010, making available to the public tax rulings for over three hundred multinational companies based in Luxembourg
Since February 2015 'Swiss Leaks': February 2015 'Swiss Leaks' journalistic investigation of a giant tax evasion scheme allegedly operated with the knowledge and encouragement of the British multinational bank HSBC via its Swiss subsidiary HSBC Private Bank Suisse
June 2015 Profit-shifting and tax abuse deprive countries of resources needed to combat poverty: 2 June 2015: Profit-shifting and tax abuse by multinational corporations deprives developing countries of resources needed to combat poverty, says report by NGOs
Since April/May 2016 'Panama Papers': April 2016 'Panama Papers' set of 11.5 million leaked documents detailing financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,000 offshore companies associated with the Panamanian firm Mossack Fonseca - 3 May 2016: The Netherlands, Luxembourg along with the USA, Britain, Switzerland and Ireland were among the top destinations for funds from corporations seeking to avoid tax last year, as the British Virgin Islands and Cayman Islands received $72bn of investment becoming a focus for businesses in Russia, China, the USA and Hong Kong, according to the UN - 10 May 2016: 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists', that has published the names of thousands of offshore companies at the heart of the Panama Papers, makes data on 200,000 entities available on its website - List of people named in the 'Panama Papers'
July-September 2017: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors - 12 September 2017: Slow UK aid for hurricane-hit islands linked to tax haven ties, as Anguilla’s ex-attorney general Rupert Jones says UK government may fear exposing its role in Caribbean territories’ tax arrangements
Since November 2017 'Paradise Papers': November 2017 'Paradise Papers', a set of 13.4 million leaked documents relating to offshore investment, among those whose financial affairs are mentioned are Queen Elizabeth II and USA Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross - List of people named in the November 2017 'Paradise Papers' - 5 November 2017: The world’s biggest businesses, heads of state and global figures in politics, entertainment and sport who have sheltered their wealth in secretive tax havens are being revealed in a major new investigation 'Paradise Papers' into Britain’s offshore empires - 6 November 2017: Reaction around the world to release of 'Paradise Papers'
December 2017 EU's tax haven lists name 17 and 47 countries: 5 December 2017: EU named and shamed 17 countries in its first ever tax haven blacklist and put a further 47 on notice, including British overseas territories and the crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man
January 2018 offshore services, terrorist financing and transnational organised crime including Assad regime: 23 January 2018: The firm 'Appleby' at the heart of the Paradise Papers leak provided offshore services to FBME bank accused of facilitating terrorist financing, transnational organised crime and the Syrian government’s chemical weapons programme
October 2018 list of 21 countries with 'golden passport' schemes: 16 October 2018: A blacklist of 21 countries, including the 3 European countries Malta, Monaco and Cyprus, whose so-called 'golden passport' schemes, fast-expanding $3bn citizenships turning nationality into a marketable commodity, threaten international efforts to combat tax evasion, has been published by the OECD
April 2019 'Panama Papers' aftermath: 3 avril 2019: 3 ans après le scandale des 'Panama Papers', les 22 Etats concernés par ce tentaculaire scandale d'évasion fiscale ont à ce jour réussi à recouvrer 1,2 milliard de dollars, selon le consortium d'enquête à l'origine des révélations
September 2019 bankers called 'the men who plundered Europe' on trial: 21 September 2019: Bankers called 'the men who plundered Europe' on trial for siphoning €60bn, as Shields and Diable are accused of tax fraud in ‘cum-ex’ scandal that exposes London City’s pursuit of profit
Money laundering - Offshore financial centre
Since 1989 FATF: Since 1989 'Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering' FATF
Since 2000/2008: Since 2000 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes - OECD 'gray list' - 2 April 2009: A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD global forum in implementing the international agreed tax standard
September 2018 Russian oligarch Abramovich case: 26 September 2018: Abramovich, one of the closest businessmen to Russian regime's Novichok/Polonium/Sarin-Putin, who once referred to him in an interview as 'our oligarch', known for 'suspicion of money laundering and presumed contacts with criminal organisations', seen as 'a danger to public security' by Swiss police, as Russian regime since 1990s has become a 'mafia state'
Terrorism financing - State-sponsored terrorism - countries - State Sponsors of Terrorism - USA list - List of charities accused of ties to terrorism
Since 1979 Iranian regime's state-sponsored terrorism: Since 1979 the Iranian regime has been accused by members of the international community of funding, providing equipment, weapons, training and giving sanctuary to terrorists
Since 1982 Iranian regime's support of Hezbollah: Since 1982 Iranian regime's support of Hezbollah terrorist group and its terror attacks
Since 2000/2001 global fight against terrorist financing: Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering FATF blacklist issued since 2000 of 'Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories', perceived to be non-cooperative in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing
June 2017: 23 June 2017: In its on-going review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identifies jurisdictions that have strategic AML/CFT deficiencies - 23 June 2017: The FATF remains concerned by the D.P.R. of Korea’s failure to address the significant deficiencies in its anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime and the serious threat this poses to the integrity of the international financial system
March 2018 Iran transfers millions to Hamas and Islamic Jihad: 8 March 2018: Iran transfers $100 million every year to Hamas and Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip, as $70 million is transferred to Hamas, while Islamic Jihad gets $30 million, and the vast majority of this money is used by the two organizations to further bolster their military wings, instead of aiding the civilian population in the Gaza Strip
Since September 2018 EU and Iranian regime: 25 September 2018: European Union EU said its members would set up a payment system to allow oil companies and businesses to continue trading with the Iranian regime in a bid to evade sanctions, siding with its state-sponsored terrorism and war once again, as Iran video threatens missile strikes on UAE and Saudi Arabia, also threatening Israel
January 2019 Islamic Jihad's and Hamas' threats: 6 January 2019: Senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas figures praise Iran’s military support and threaten that in the next war the rocket fire from the Gaza Strip will reach all the cities in Israel
January 2019: 19 January 2019: Illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war, UN report finds
25 February 2019 Iran supports missiles to attack Israel: 25 February 2019: In documentary on Iranian TV, Gaza-based Palestinian terror group 'Islamic Jihad' says Iranian regime helped it make new projectile that can hit Tel Aviv and beyond, as well as precision missiles
Financial crimes - Securities fraud - Insider trading - Binary option operations, fraud and regulations
Illicit financial flows - Capital flight
Commercial crimes

Corruption - Corruption by country - Bribery
Since 1995 Corruption Perceptions Index: Corruption Perceptions Index since 1995, annually ranking countries 'by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys' - The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, promoting public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral resources
2011 Russia and China come bottom of bribe-paying: 2 November 2011: Russia and China come bottom of bribe-paying Transparency-International survey
2013 dirty money leaving developing world jumped: 12 December 2013: Amount of dirty money leaving developing world jumped 14% in 2011, Global Financial Integrity report says - 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index
2014: 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index - Eritrea, Libya, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iraq, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Sudan, North Korea, and Somalia highest rankings
2015: 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index - 68% of countries worldwide have a serious corruption problem, half of the G20 are among them, not one single country is corruption-free
2016 tax havens: 9 May 2016: More than 300 leading economists from 30 countries have today written to world leaders warning that there is no economic justification for allowing tax havens to continue, and urging them to bring an end to offshore financial secrecy - 12 May 2016: To end corruption, start with the USA and UK, allowing it in broad daylight, British newspaper says - 12 May 2016: British PM Cameron casts doubt at the close of 2016 'corruption summit' in London on whether the USA could be truly considered part of a coalition committed to the fight against corruption, saying some USA states fall far short on tax transparency and are less open than the United Kingdom’s crown dependencies
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
2017 Transparency-International's Corruption Perceptions Index: 25 January 2017: Transparency-International's Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, shows growing levels of public sector corruption and more countries declining than improving compared with figures for last year - 17 février 2017: Les procureurs généraux de 11 pays se sont engagés jeudi à créer des équipes de travail communes pour coordonner leurs enquêtes sur le scandale de corruption d'Odebrecht, le groupe de BTP brésilien
Political corruption - Forms of political corruption include Bribery, Cronyism, Crony capitalism, Electoral fraud or vote rigging, Extortion, Graft (politics) Influence peddling, Kleptocracy, Lobbying, Nepotism, Patronage, Plutocracy, and Slush funds - Repression of political opponents and political repression, Police corruption and general police brutality also considered political corruption
Politicians convicted of corruption
3/4 August 1914 SPD members of parliament voted 96-14 to support Central powers' war: After the SPD leadership on 25 July 1914 appealed to its membership to demonstrate for peace and large numbers turned out in orderly demonstrations, SPD members of parliament voted 96-14 on 3 August 1914 to support Central powers' war (Germany, Austria-Hungary), the next day voting the money for the war in the parliament, sending the working people and people around the world to war and death
Since August 1914 pro-war socialist parties of the Central Powers: April 1915 'Vienna Socialist Conference of 1915' gathered representatives from the Socialist parties of Germany, Austria and Hungary to the only meeting of the pro-war socialist parties of the Central Powers during World War I
Since summer 1914 efforts to save peace and the international social democracy destroyed by Germany: Since 1900 International Socialist Bureau, the permanent organization of the Second International, established at the Paris congress of 1900 - September 1915 'Zimmerwald Conference' in Switzerland, the first of three international socialist conferences convened by anti-militarist socialist parties from countries that were originally neutral during World War I and subsequent conferences held at Kienthal and Stockholm, known jointly as the Zimmerwald movement, began the unraveling of the coalition between revolutionary socialists (the so-called Zimmerwald Left) and reformist socialists - Since February 1915 Inter-Allied Socialist Conferences of World War I
15 January 1919 assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: On 15 January 1919 Rosa Luxemburg, who had seen and saw the behaviour of the 'Social Democratic Party of Germany' as a complete betrayal, sending the working people in war and death, killed in SPD-linked ordered assassination in Berlin
Since 2002 Worldwide Governance Indicators: Worldwide Governance Indicators annually updated since 2002
2012: 18 February 2012: Germany's president quits over corruption charges
Since 2014 Crony-capitalism index: Crony-capitalism index since 2014
2016 UN payments to Assad's regime: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters, as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, as UN's $4bn aid effort in Syria, called morally bankrupt, and UN operations have quietly secured deals with individuals and companies under both Europe and USA sanctions - 8 September 2016: More than 70 aid groups have suspended cooperation with the UN in Syria and have demanded an immediate and transparent investigation into its operations because of concerns Syrian dictator al-Assad has gained 'significant and substantial' influence over the relief effort
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
2017 USA payments against Paris climate accord: 1 June 2017: Twenty-two senators and Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris climate accord writing a letter to the president when he was said to be on the fence about backing out, are big oil darlings and received more than $10m from oil, gas and coal companies the past three election cycles
May 2018 Spanish PP's Bárcenas jailed: 24 May 2018: Spain’s ruling party PP has suffered a major blow after its former treasurer Bárcenas was jailed for 33 years for fraud and money laundering, and the party itself was found to have profited from an illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme, in a case that has become emblematic of political corruption in Spain
June 2018 UN's Guterres meets Putin and attends propaganda soccer match: 12 June 2018: UN Secretary-General Guterres will travel to Russia, where he is scheduled to meet with murderous Russian regime's Vladimir Putin on 20 June and attend a World Cup soccer match at Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium
October 2018 Trump won't halt Saudi arms sales despite assassination of Khashoggi: 11 October 2018: Trump announces investigation concerning Jamal Khashoggi, who vanished at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, but says he won't halt Saudi arms sales, triggering questions and troubling memories of governments' recent decisions not to punish 'ruthless' regimes in China, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Russia, Syria etc. for fear of jeopardising lucrative deals and due to obsequiousness
March 2019 oil firms lobbying to block climate change policies: 22 March 2019: Top oil firms, including BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell and Total, spending millions lobbying to block climate change policies, 'InfluenceMap' report says

Overview of Corruption in the Media
March 1914: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
August 1914 German massacres of hundreds of unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant: On 21/22 August 1914 German infantry and pioneers advanced into Dinant, killing seven civilians and burning 15–20 houses, on 23 August 1914 the Germans massacred 674 unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant, civilians were lined up against a wall and shot, including men over 70, women or girls, children under 14 and even babies, 1,200 houses were burned down and 400 people were deported to Germany as an area of Dinant was systematically looted and burned down by the Germans, also destroying public and historic buildings, including the collegial church and the town hall - 1914/1915 official report of massacres of peaceable citizens, women and children by the German army and testimony of eye-witnesses - 1915/1917 'Le sac de Dinant et le légendes du livre blanc allemand du 10 mai 1915', par M. Tschoffen, procureur du roi de l'arrondissement de Dinant - 12 May 1915 Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
1914 Unterstützung der Massaker von Dinant durch die SPD und ihre Presse: 1914 verfassen Adolf Köster, Redakteur des SPD-Zentralorgans Vorwärts sowie des Hamburger Echos, und Gustav Noske, SPD-Abgeordneter im Reichstag, Chefredakteur der Chemnitzer Volksstimme und Wehrexperte der Partei, eine Schrift, die die Massaker von Dinant unterstützt und den Standpunkt des deutschen Heeres teilt
1918-1945: The propaganda used by the German NSDAP in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's dictatorship of Germany 1933–1945 was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of NSDAP, SS and Gestapo policies
1933-1945 and since 1945: Peter Köpf, 1995: Schreiben nach jeder Richtung - Goebbels-Propagandisten in der westdeutschen Nachkriegspresse
2015: 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says - 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
2016: 18 July 2016: In 'a message to an obsessed world' Syrian artist Mohamed Youssef has taken advantage of the global preoccupation with the Pokemon game, featuring Pokemon in his designs alongside the tragic life Syrians are living, amid military operations and continuous bombardment, in an attempt to draw attention to a country where 9 million people have been forced to flee their homes and where cities have been obliterated by Assad’s regime, Russia, and allied militias, especially those backed by Iran
April 2018: 13 April 2018: Hungarian journalists admit role in forging anti-migrant 'atmosphere of fear' ahead of Victor Orbán’s election victory this week, as the 'Guardian' spoke to several employees of the taxpayer-funded MTVA network to hear the inside story of how its channels pumped out government messaging, and at times false stories, with the goal of winning support for Orban's anti-immigration message
Film and film industry promotion by television and radio
2015: 17 December 2015: Echoes of famous films, including Nazi propaganda, in USA's 2015 'Star Wars' movie
Corruption, match-fixing, cheating, doping in sport
2002: 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal
2015/2016: 2015/2016 FIFA corruption case - 19 April: USA judge released transcripts of guilty pleas from three prominent defendants in the Fifa corruption investigation in which they expressed regret and suggested that bribes in the organization were standard practice
2016: 11 May 2016: 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games corruption claims bring scandal back to the IOC - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 25 July 2016: IOC’s decision against imposing a ban on the Russian Olympic contingent is a declaration of bankruptcy in the fight against doping, the winners are those who cheat, journalist says, who exposed the systematic doping in Russian athletics, adding that in the end the IOC kowtowed to the Russian regime - 31 July 2016: 13 national anti-doping organisations, including those from the USA, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and Japan have given a damning verdict on the IOC’s 'hasty and ill-conceived' response to state-sponsored doping in Russia and accused its leaders of being open to political and commercial influence at the expense of clean sport - 1 August 2016: Rio Olympic boxing tournament hit by corruption allegations - 4 August 2016: Wada-commissioned lawyer Richard McLaren accuses IOC of misrepresenting his doping report and findings, which were never designed to prove individual doping cases, but is about state-sponsored systemic doping over a period of four years across the majority of Olympic sports, manipulation of results, swapping of samples, preparation of wash-up schemes
2017: 5 December 2017: Russia’s Olympic Committee banned from the Winter Olympics in 2018 for doping and 'unprecedented attack on the integrity of the Olympic Games and sport' - 22 December 2017: Two ex-soccer officials found guilty in New York on multiple charges of corruption - 26 December 2017: Russian deputy PM Vitaly Mutko, who was banned for life from the Olympics this month, quits football role before 2018 World Cup
April 2018: 18 April 2018: After Fifa’s Gianni Infantino favoured Crimean Shampanskoye over Millennium Hotel's tea, fantastical diversions emerge to stop fretting about Russia and to start meddling with Qatar
June 2018: 9 June 2018: Fifa’s World Cup is toxic, British Guardian/Observer columnist Nick Cohen explains, after Zurich’s masters of corruption Fifa handed the World Cup first to kleptomaniac murderers who run Russia and then to the overseers of a serf economy in Qatar - Der Kick des Geldes, Frankfurt/M. 2015, von Jens Berger
January 2019 assassination of journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale: 17 January 2019: Assassinated investigative journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale had told CPJ in September 2018 that people had attempted to attack him and that he feared for his life following comments about him and the publication of his image on the national television channel Net 2 TV, which Agyapong owns, by Assin Central's MP Kennedy Agyapong - 17 January 2019: Speaking without showing his face, journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas says that his team, which had investigated corruption in Ghana's football leagues, face daily death threats
Nationalism and sport are often intertwined, as sports provide a venue for symbolic competition between nations and sports competition often reflects national conflict - Racism in sports has been a prevalent issue throughout the world, and in particular racism towards African-Americans has been especially bad over the course of the history of sports in the USA and around the world - Racism in association football - Antisemitism in the Olympic Games
'Fake news' is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation in social media or traditional news media with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically - Fake news by country, said to have influenced political discourse in multiple countries - Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect
Disinformation, intentionally false or misleading information that is spread in a calculated way to deceive target audiences - Propaganda - Propaganda techniques
November 2017: 14 November 2017: Governments of 30 countries around the globe are using armies of so-called opinion shapers to meddle in elections, advance anti-democratic agendas and repress their citizens, a new Freedom House report shows
December 2017: 31 December 2017: Syria Campaign’s report 'Killing the Truth: How Russia is fuelling a disinformation campaign to cover up war crimes in Syria' found, that co-ordinated groups of 'bots' and trolls linked to Russian Putin regime have reached millions during key moments of 2016 and 2017
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Russian regime's leaks have revealed its use of disinformation over the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 in 2014, as hacked emails linked to senior Russian officials contained a briefing document that set out eight separate messaging 'lines to take' over the crash which killed 298 people, sought to blame Ukraine for the crime although the Boeing airliner was shot down by a Russian BUK surface-to-air missile
December 2018: 10 December 2018: The Russian regime launched a year-long disinformation campaign to soften up public opinion before its recent seizure of three Ukrainian ships and their crews in the Sea of Azov, according to the EU’s security commissioner Julian King, saying false claims included that Ukraine had infected the sea with cholera and that its secret services had been trying to transport a nuclear bomb to occupied Crimea

Censorship by country - overview collecting information on censorship, Internet censorship, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of speech, and Human Rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information, as in addition to countries, the table includes information on former countries, disputed countries, political sub-units within countries, and regional organizations - Censorship by types, by media - Censorship by country
Internet censorship: Internet censorship, the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative - Internet censorship by continent
Internet censorship and surveillance by country: Internet censorship by country - Internet censorship and surveillance by country
Censorship of Wikipedia: Censorship of Wikipedia has occurred in several countries, including China, France, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela, as some instances are examples of widespread internet censorship in general that includes Wikipedia content, and others are indicative of measures to prevent the viewing of specific content deemed offensive

Commercialization of social media, interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks - Trustworthiness and reliability of social networks - Social network - Timeline of social media
December 2014: December 2014: A Review on Social Media Use or Abuse
May 2019: 15 May 2019: A 16 year-old girl has reportedly killed herself in Malaysia, after posting a poll on her Instagram account asking followers if she should die or not, and 69% of responders voting that she should
Platform Weaponization, a form or type of information warfare and psychological warfare involving the unaccounted for potential or actual actions that result in outside agents leveraging a technology platform to serve ends that run counter to those of the intended use for the system
Terrorism and social media, as due to the convenience, affordability, and broad reach of social media platforms such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, terrorist groups have increasingly used social media to further their goals and spread their message

Dans le domaine des sciences sociales, la brutalité se réfère à la rudesse et à la violence qui peuvent s'exprimer dans un caractère ou un comportement
Cruelty (cruauté) is indifference to suffering, and even pleasure in inflicting it

Crimes against humanity, acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population, the first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials, and have since been prosecuted by other international courts - Genocide, the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, cultural, religious or national group, defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948 as 'any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group'
1490-1914 genocides in Africa: 1490-1914 genocides in Africa, including 1885-1908 Atrocities in the Congo Free State under the rule of King Leopold II of Belgium, 1827-1857 French conquest of Algeria, 1904-1908 Herero and Nama genocide, a campaign of extermination and collective punishment by the German Empire in South West Africa (now Namibia) and considered the first genocide of the 20th century, 1815-1840 Mfecane, a period of widespread chaos and warfare among indigenous ethnic communities in southern Africa, following the Portuguese introduction of maize, a ten-year drought and a resulting competition for land and water resources among the peoples of the area
1490-1914 genocides in Americas: 1490-1914 genocides in Americas, including since the early 1500s colonialism and genocide in the Americas by England, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, later Great Britain and the USA, also responsible for the, California Genocide, the violence, relocation, and starvation that led to a decrease in the indigenous population of California as a result of the USA occupation of California
Since 16th century Brazil: Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil since 16th century
Since 16th century colonialism and genocides by the British Empire: Since 16th century Colonialism and genocides by the British Empire - in places like North Americas, Australia, New Zealand, settler colonialism caused the indigenous population to decrease by over half after becoming a British colony, foreign land viewed as attractive for settlement was declared as terra nullius or 'nobody's land', the indigenous inhabitants were therefore denied any sovereignty or property rights in the eyes of the British, justifying invasion and the violent seizure of native land to create colonies populated by British settlers causing a large decrease in the indigenous population from war, newly introduced diseases, massacre by colonists and attempts at forced assimilation, the gradual violent expansion of colonies into indigenous land could last for centuries
Since the 1640s Russian conquest of Siberia: Since the 1640s Russian conquest of Siberia, accompanied by massacres due to indigenous resistance to colonization by the Russian Cossacks, who savagely crushed the natives
Since 1869 Japanese colonization of Hokkaido: Since 1869 Japanese colonization of Hokkaido

Genocides in the 20th and 21th century (from 1914-1918 World War I)
Since 1500 until today genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil: Since 1500 genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil, that began with the Portuguese colonization of the Americas, starting the process that led to the depopulation of the indigenous peoples in Brazil, because of disease and violent treatment by European settlers, their gradual replacement with colonists from Europe and Africa, described as a genocide, and continuing into the modern era with the ongoing destruction of indigenous peoples of the Amazonian region - In modern Brazil over 80 indigenous tribes disappeared between 1900 and 1957, and of a population of over one million during this period 80% had been killed through repression, disease, or murder
1914-1923 Armenian Genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1914-1923 Armenian Genocide, the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire
Since 1915 Armenian Genocide recognition by country: 1915-1923 Armenian Genocide recognition by country
April 2019 recognition by 30 states: As of April 2019, 30 states had officially recognized the historical events of the 1915-1923 Armenian Genocide as genocide, as well as many other states of unions or federations, regions, provinces, municipalities and parliamentary committees
1914-1924 Assyrian or Syriac genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1914-1924 Assyrian or Syriac genocide, referring to the mass slaughter of the Syriac Christian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides - Timeline of recognition of the Assyrian or Syriac genocide
1913-1922 Greek genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1913-1922 Greek genocide, the systematic killing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath on the basis of their religion and ethnicity
1937/1938 Nanjing Massacre and Japanese war crimes since late 19th century until 1945: 1937/1938 Nanjing Massacre, an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing during the Second Sino-Japanese War - Since late 19th century war crimes committed by the Empire of Japan in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, as most Japanese war crimes were committed during the first part of the Showa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan in 1945
1933-1945 genocides and war crimes by Germany and in Nazi-occupied Europe: 1933-1945 genocides and war crimes by Germany and in Nazi-occupied Europe, including The Holocaust, Romani genocide, racial policy of Nazi Germany, Nazi crimes against the Polish nation, Generalplan Ost, World War II casualties of the Soviet Union, World War II persecution of Serbs, Nazi eugenics, Action T4, Child euthanasia in Nazi Germany, persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, and persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany
1935-1945 Romani genocide: 1935-1945 Romani genocide, also known as the Porajmos, the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people
1939-1945 Nazi crimes against the Polish nation: 1939-1945 Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
Since 1939 'life unworthy of life' policy: Since 1933 'life unworthy of life', a Nazi designation for the segments of the populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live including people with serious medical problems and those considered grossly inferior according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany and were targeted to be euthanized by the state, usually through the compulsion or deception of their caretakers
1941-1945 The Holocaust, a genocide during World War II: 1941-1945 The Holocaust, a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe in the period
1939/1941-1945 World War II casualties and losses of the Soviet Union: 1939/1941-1945 World War II casualties and losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000, both civilian and military, as the post-Soviet government puts the 'losses' at 26.6 million on the basis of the 1993 study by the Russian Academy of Sciences, including people dying as a result of battle and war related exposure
1941-1945 persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, also known as the Genocide of the Serbs: 1941-1945 persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, also known as the Genocide of the Serbs, including the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of hundreds of thousands ethnic Serbs by the genocidal policies of the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia during World War II, as the Ustashe regime systematically murdered approximately 300,000 to 500,000 Serbs out of whom up to 52,000 died at the Jasenovac concentration camp
1975-1979 Cambodian genocide: 1975-1979 Cambodian genocide, carried out by the Khmer Rouge regime under the leadership of Pol Pot, resulting in the deaths of between 1.671 and 1.871 million people or 21-24% of Cambodia’s 1975 population
1981-1983 Guatemalan genocide: 1981-1983 Guatemalan genocide refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations, including massacres, forced disappearances, torture and summary executions at the hands of USA-backed security forces
April-July 1994 Rwandan genocide: April-July 1994 Rwandan genocide, a mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda during the Rwandan Civil War, directed by members of the Hutu majority government
July 1995 Bosnian genocide and Srebrenica massacre: July 1995 Bosnian genocide refers to either genocide at Srebrenica and Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995 or the wider ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska, that took place during the 1992–1995 Bosnian War - July 1995 Srebrenica massacre of more than 8,000 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War

Racism - Racism by country - 'White supremacy' racist ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - 'White supremacy' by continent
History of slavery from ancient times to the present day: History of slavery from ancient times to the present day, when slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world (with the exception of penal labour), but when human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people are enslaved today, the majority in Asia - Slavery in antiquity - Slavery in Northern Africa, where chattel slavery had been legal and widespread when the region was controlled by the Roman Empire 145 BC – ca. 430 AD and by the Eastern Romans from 533 to 695
Since 7th century history of slavery in the Muslim world: Since 7th century history of slavery in the Muslim world - Arab slave trade mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe, occurring chiefly between the medieval era and the early 20th century - Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets, following practises of slavery in antiquity and slavery in ancient Rome
Since 1618 English/British 'headright' system to populate the colonies and to import slaves: Since 1618 English/British 'headright' system in colonies, as most headrights were for 1 to 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land, and were given to anyone willing to cross the Atlantic Ocean and help populate the colonies, headrights were granted to anyone who would pay for the transportation costs of a laborer or slaves
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and French atrocities in Haiti: In 1802, when it became apparent that the French under Napoleonic rule intended to re-establish slavery in Haiti black cultivators revolted in the summer of 1802, Leclerc's successor Vicomte de Rochambeau fought an even more brutal campaign, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since the early 1900s German crimes against humanity in Africa: Decades before Nazi Germany tried to annihilate the Jews, German colonialists in Southwest Africa dehumanized, built death camps for, and slaughtered tens of thousands of tribespeople in a systematic genocide, 'subhumans', 'cattle car transports', even the 'Final Solution' have their sinister antecedents in Africa in the early 1900s
1914-1918 War goals of the German empire and crimes: 1914-1918 War goals of the German empire included making the French economy dependent on Germany, ending trade between France and the British Empire, annexation of Belgium or making it a 'vassal state', annexation of Luxembourg, making the Netherlands dependent on Germany, creation of buffer states carved out of the western Russian Empire, such as Poland, which would remain under German sovereignty 'for all time', creation of a 'Mitteleuropa economic association' dominated by Germany, expansion of the German colonial empire first in central Africa ('Mittelafrika') at the expense of the French and Belgian colonies - World War I crimes by Imperial Germany
Since 1933 Nazi Germany and 'Aryanization': Since 1933 Nazi Germany and 'Aryanization', the term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called 'non-Aryans', resulting in mass murders and genocide - Racial policy of Nazi Germany, targeting Jews, Sinti and Roma, Afro-Germans, Poles, Russians, other Slavs, and other groups
1939-1945 War goals of the German empire: 'New Order of Europe' ('Neuordnung Europas'), the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion, publicly proclaimed by Adolf Hitler in 1941 - 'Generalplan Ost' was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans - Hunger Plan ('Hungerplan'), a plan developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food from the Soviet Union and give it to German soldiers and civilians, entailing the death by starvation of millions of so-called 'racially inferior' Slavs following Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union
1939-1945 German war crimes: 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - War crimes of the Wehrmacht

'White supremacy' by continent - White supremacy in Europe - White supremacy in North America - White supremacy in South America
August 2019 global rise in white nationalist violence: 5 August 2019: More than 175 people have been killed in at least 16 high-profile attacks linked to white nationalism around the world since 2011

Neo-Nazism by continent - Neo-Nazism in Europe - Neo-Nazism in Asia - Neo-Nazism in North America - Neo-Nazism in South America - Neo-Nazism in Africa
Wars by continent - Wars involving the states and peoples of Europe - Wars involving the states and peoples of Asia - Wars involving the states and peoples of North America - Wars involving the states and peoples of Africa
Since 1945 neo-Nazism in Germany: Neo-Nazism in Germany
1 September 2019 neo-Nazi linked German AfD party make big gains: 4 September 2019: Anti-immigration and neo-Nazi linked AfD, the third-biggest party in the 2017 German general election, main opposition, and able to mobilise several hundred thousand people who had never voted before, overtakes German Left, Greens and SPD in Saxony and German CDU, Greens and Left in Brandenburg in state elections
7/8 September 2019 CDU, SPD and FDP elected neo-Nazi to head local authority: 8 September 2019: All representatives, including representatives of the CDU, SPD and FDP, of the Ortsbeirat of Altenstadt-Waldsiedlung had voted neo-Nazi Deputy NPD state chairman Stefan Jagsch as their head

Antisemitism - Antisemitism by country or region - Geography of antisemitism - Timeline of antisemitism, since Antiquity
Since Antiquity antisemitism in Europe and Germany: European antisemitism - prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage - has experienced a long history since the days of ancient societies, with most of it having originated in the Christian and pre-Christian societies of Europe - Since the middle ages antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe 1938-1945
Since the middle ages Europe's fine art's anti-Semitism until today: 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
Since 7th century Islam and antisemitism: Islam and antisemitism, with the origin of Islam in the 7th century and its spread in the Arabian peninsula and beyond by military conquests, Jews (and many other people) came to be subject to the rule of Muslim rulers - Islam and war - from the time of the Muhammad many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare
Antisemitism in Iran: Antisemitism in Iran
Since 1979 Iranian regime's antisemitism: Since the 1979 establishment of the 'Islamic Republic' Iranian regime's antisemitism, terrorism and support of terrorism
Since 1989 increased Iranian regime's antisemitism: Since 1989 increased Iranian regime's antisemitism
Since 1982 Hezbollah's antisemitism: Since 1982 Hezbollah's antisemitism
Since 1988 Hamas antisemitism: Since 1988 Palestinian Hamas Charter containing both antisemitic passages and irredentist claims - Since the 1980s Islamism in the Gaza Strip
July 2019 Hamas leader calls to murder all Jews: 14 July 2019: Fathi Hammad, a member of the Hamas political bureau, calls for the slaughter of Jews in the world

21th century timeline of antisemitism: 21th century timeline of antisemitism - Geography of antisemitism
December 2000 Iran's Ali Khamenei calls for the destruction of Israel: 15 December 2000: Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei calls for the destruction of Israel, describing it as a 'cancerous tumor' in the Middle East
March 2015 Iran's Mohammad Reza Naqdi threatens 'erasing Israel off the map': 31 March 2015: Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Basij commander Mohammad Reza Naqdi said that 'erasing Israel off the map' is 'nonnegotiable', according to an Israel Radio report
November 2018 Iran's Rouhani calls Israel a 'cancerous tumor’: 24 November 2018: Iran’s Rouhani calls Israel a 'cancerous tumor’ established by West
28 January 2019: 28 January 2019: Iran general Hossein Salami says Tehran aims to wipe Israel off the 'global political map', one day after the, International Holocaust Remembrance Day, as Iranian regime's Ali Shamkhani says our missiles are ready to launch from Gaza and Lebanon, and regime reportedly carries out daily cyberattacks against Israel
Since 2006 Hezbollah's antisemitism, wars and Iranian regime's military expansionism: Since 2000 Hezbollah's antisemitism, terrorist attacks, wars, involvement in Syrian Assad regime's war against the Syrian people and Iranian regime's military expansionism
August 2019 Iran delivered special propellants mixer: 28 August 2019: Iran delivered special propellants mixer - used in Hezbollah's manufacturing ballistic missiles - to Lebanon in violation of international treaties
1 September 2019 Hezbollah missiles narrowly missed 5 Israeli soldiers: 3 September 2019: Hezbollah missiles narrowly missed Israeli armored car with 5 soldiers inside, as Nasrallah vows 'no more red lines against Israel' after missile attack, praised by the Iranian regime and by Syria's Assad regime, expressing 'pride', as Hamas chief praises Iranian support, including by supplying weapons, in a letter to Iranian regime's Khamenei, as Iranian and French delegations hold talks for over ten hours in Paris to shield Iranian regime's economy from USA sanctions, and as Iran’s Rouhani says no intention of holding bilateral talks with USA
6 September 2019 UN investigation of Hezbollah missile attack on Israel: 6 September 2019: UN peacekeepers conducted an independent investigation of Sunday’s Hezbollah missile attack on Israel at IDF’s request, visiting the areas hit in the strikes, will present findings to UN, as UNIFIL's head called the Hezbollah missile attack a 'serious incident in violation of UN Security Council resolution 1701', referring to the decision that ended the 2006 Second Lebanon War and required all armed terror groups remain north of the country’s Litani River
Since 2001 Hamas rocket and terrorist attacks: Since 2001 Hamas terrorist attacks - 2001 List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel - Since 2001 Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel
January 2002 some Arab states still want to destroy Israel: 18 January 2002: Some Arab states still want to destroy Israel
January 2019 Assad regime's threats against Tel Aviv: 24 January 2019: After Syrian Assad regime’s envoy to the UN threatened that the regime could attack Ben Gurion International Airport outside Tel Aviv, Israeli defense forces take precautionary measure of setting up additional air defenses in central and southern Israel, as shots fired at IDF troops on Syrian border overnight
21th century antisemitism in Europe and Germany: Antisemitism in Europe in the 21st century - antisemitism has increased significantly since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries, taking place not only in Germany and France, where antisemitic incidents are the highest in Europe but also in countries like Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom, as physical assaults against Jews including beatings, stabbings and other violence increased markedly, in a number of cases resulting in serious injury and even death
9 October 2019 Halle synagogue attack: 9 October 2019 Halle synagogue attack - 10 October 2019: Jews demand action from Germany to protect the community after at least two people were shot dead in the eastern German city of Halle in an anti-Semitic gun attack on the holy day of Yom Kippur
21th century antisemitism in Asia: Antisemitism in Asia
21th century antisemitism in USA: Antisemitism in the USA
27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting: 27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, as eleven people were killed and seven (including the perpetrator) were injured, while Shabbat morning services were being held
21th century antisemitism in Australia: Antisemitism in Australia
11 October 2019 threats against Jewish boy forced to kiss Muslim classmate’s shoes: 11 October 2019: Australian Jewish boy forced to kiss Muslim classmate’s shoes gets threats, as reports say 12-year-old boy warned he’ll be slaughtered and asked if he wants to 'talk about suicide’

Antisemitic attacks and incidents (21th century)
April 2014 Kansas Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting: 13 April 2014 Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting committed by neo-Nazi terrorist, klansman and former political candidate Glenn Miller
August 2014 surge in anti-Semitic incidents worldwide: 14 August 2014: The USA-based Anti-Defamation League recorded a 'dramatic surge' in anti-Semitic incidents worldwide since the beginning of Israel's Operation Protective Edge in July against Hamas rocket and tunnel attacks
February 2015 Tehran competition on Shoah denial: 21 February 2015: As upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial, Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest
2016 Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of worst anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents: Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents in 2016
2017: 4 January 2018: Wiesenthal Center releases 2017 top ten list of worst global anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents
April 2018: 11 April 2018: Feelings of insecurity are widespread among European Jews as a result of the resurgence of the extreme right, a heated anti-Zionist discourse on the left and radical Islam, according to a global study of antisemitism, examining the prevalence of antisemitism in Europe, the post-Soviet region, the USA, Canada, Australia, South America and South Africa
12 April 2018: Warning of 'rising anti-Semitism’, Israel ambassador to the UN Danny Danon accompanied a group of fellow diplomats to the world body in participating in the March of the Living on Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, visiting the death camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, telling fellow ambassadors that the 'international community must act with determination to ensure that such things never happen again'
1 May 2018 Mahmoud Abbas' anti-Semitism: 1 May 2018: Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas said that the Holocaust was not caused by anti-Semitsm, but by the 'social behavior' of the Jews, including money-lending - 2 May 2018: Leading scholars and activists came down on Abbas after he appeared to attribute the Nazi genocide of European Jewry to Jewish behavior and money-lending
14 May 2018: 14 May 2018: After the German Nazis adopted the phrase 'The Jews are our misfortune', in 2018 a banner with the colors of the Israeli flag that said 'The state Israel is our misfortune' was held by neo-Nazis in Dortmund, expressing their alleged solidarity with Palestinians by waving PLO flags against both the opening of the USA embassy in Jerusalem and the founding of the State of Israel
October 2018: 27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting - 27 October 2018: Eleven people were killed and six wounded in a shooting at a synagogue in USA's Pittsburgh by gunman Robert Bowers, who reportedly walked in yelling 'all Jews must die'
27 January 2019: 27 janvier 2019: Le ministre israélien de la Diaspora, Naftali Bennett, a dénoncé dimanche une hausse des attaques antisémites dans le monde
April 2019: 22 April 2019: 'Disturbed by this ghastly revival of medieval anti-Semitism', the World Jewish Congress expressed its 'disgust and outrage' following reports that an effigy made to look like a stereotypical Jew was hanged and burned in the Polish town of Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual, as residents including children beat and burned the effigy representing Judas, the discipline of Christ who betrayed him according to the New Testament, given a brimmed hat and sidelocks, making it resemble an ultra-Orthodox Jew, along with a long nose, a trope used by Nazi Germany and by anti-Semites worldwide to demonize and dehumanize Jews
27 April 2019 Poway synagogue shooting: 27 April 2019 Poway synagogue shooting, when 19-year old John T. Earnest fired shots inside the Chabad of Poway synagogue in California, killing a woman and injuring three other people, having an AR-style rifle in his possession
May 2019 spike in number of Jews murdered worldwide in 2018: 1 May 2019: More Jews were murdered in anti-Semiitc attacks around the world in 2018 than in any other year over the past several decades, according to a report by Kantor Center at Tel Aviv University and European Jewish Congress

Boycotts of Israel - Antisemitic boycotts - Boycotts of Israel by organizations
History of antisemitic boycotts: Antisemitic boycotts and history
19th century antisemitic mayor of Vienna: 19th century antisemitic mayor of Vienna, who inspired Hitler, campaigned for a boycott of Jewish businesses
Since 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: Since 1 April 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, an early governmental action against the Jews of Germany by the National Socialist government, and then a state-managed campaign of ever-increasing harassment, arrests, systematic pillaging, forced transfer of ownership actions that culminated in the 'Final Solution'
Since 1933 international impact of the Nazi boycott: Since 1933 international impact of the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, inspiring similar boycotts in other countries
Boycotts of Israel in sports by country - Antisemitism in the Olympic Games
August/September 2019 asylum request against Iranian boycott: 31 August 2019: Iranian judoka Saeid Mollaei who was allegedly pressured into throwing a match to avoid facing off against an Israeli opponent has requested asylum in Germany, as International Judo Federation confirmed his asylum request and expressed its backing of him - 2 September 2019: Iranian judoka Saeid Mollaei, who fled his home country after criticizing Iranian regime for pressuring him to throw matches to avoid competing against an Israeli opponent, has congratulated Israeli Sagi Muki on winning a gold medal
18 September 2019 Iran suspended from IJF: 18 September 2019: Iran suspended from world judo federation over Israel boycott policy

State ideologies - List of political ideologies
Since 19th century Bonapartism, the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte, his followers and successors, and more generally the ideology for political movements that advocate a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state, with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric, army support, and conservatism
Since 1922 Fascism, a form of authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe as the first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries
Since 1924 Stalinism and the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Stalin's introduction of the concept 'Socialism in One Country' in 1924, saying the Soviet Union did not need a socialist world revolution to construct a socialist society
Since 1932 Wahhabism, an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, which became the state ideology of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Since 1933 National Socialism, the ideology and practices associated with the National Socialist German Workers' Party NSDAP, a form of fascism but also incorporating fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed, as its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, and it was strongly influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after defeat of the German empire in World War I, from which came the party's 'cult of violence' which was 'at the heart of the movement'
Since 1934 Austrofascism, the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934 (which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938), based on a ruling party, the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Heimwehr (Home Guard) paramilitary militia
Since 1936-19939 (Spanish civil war) Francoism, including above all totalitarianism, ultranationalism, national Catholicism, monarchism, militarism, national conservatism, anti-Masonry, anti-Catalanism, pan-Hispanism and anti-liberalism - Since 1939 Falangism, the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the 'Falange') as well as derivatives of it in other countries, becoming in Spain under the leadership of Francisco Franco the ideology connected with Francoist Spain
Since 1949 ideology of the Communist Party of China - Since 1949 Maoism, the variety of measures that the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the one-party-state called the 'People's Republic of China'
Since 1955 North Korea's 'Juche', the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as 'Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought', that postulates that 'man is the master of his destiny', that the Korean masses are to act as the 'masters of the revolution and construction' and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a nation can achieve true socialism
Since 1970 Assadism and Saddamism, based on Ba'athism, an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party, supporting the creation of one-party states and rejects political pluralism in an unspecified length of time, also based on principles of Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism
Since 1979 ideology of the Iranian Revolution, a combination of Shia Islamic religious radicalism, militarism, antisemitism, nationalism, political populism and authoritarian system
Since 1999 intelligence state Russia, where the FSB has the right to electronically monitor the population, control political groups, search homes and businesses, infiltrate the federal government, create its own front enterprises, investigate cases, and run its own prison system, as the political system of Russia formed during the leadership of Vladimir Putin is characterized by the concentration of political and financial powers by 'siloviks', coming from overall 22 governmental enforcement agencies, the main of them being FSB, police and army
December 2010: 1 December 2010: Russia today is a corrupt, autocratic kleptocracy centred on the leadership of Vladimir Putin, in which officials, oligarchs and organised crime are bound together to create a 'virtual mafia state', according to leaked secret diplomatic cables that provide a damning USA assessment
12 September 2019 Putin regime raids opposition: 12 September 2019: Following successful election strategy which cut the presence of pro-government candidates in Moscow legislature by a half, Putin regime's police are raiding homes and offices of supporters of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny in 43 Russian cities in more than 150 raids, including robbery attempts to confiscate equipment, as police have also searched the home of Sergei Boyko, who came second with nearly 20% of the vote in the mayoral election in Novosibirsk, and homes of three of Golos monitoring group's regional coordinators
2014-2019 ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL, which controlled territory primarily in Iraq and Syria, has been described as being based on Salafism, Salafi Jihadism, and Wahhabism

Religion-based wars - State religion - Confessional state - Freedom of religion by country - Religion and politics
Since antiquity the concept of 'Holy War' in individual religious traditions
Christianity and violence
Jihad, an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim, as in classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers - Since 622 early Muslim conquests
711-1492 Reconquista, the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492, followed by the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest (Columbus got royal support in Granada in 1492, months after its conquest) of the Americas, indigenous peoples and native communities, ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires
Invasions by the Ottoman Empire

Religious violence and Sectarian violence - Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress
Persecution of Jews
Persecution by Christians - Sectarian violence among Christians - Persecution of Christians
Persecution by Muslims - Sectarian violence among Muslims - Persecution of Muslims
Persecution by Buddhists - Persecution of Buddhists
Persecution by Hindus - Persecution of Hindus
Persecution of critics of religion and atheists - Discrimination against atheists - Criticism of religion, disengagement from religion, in Christianity, Islam etc., and punishment
Religious 'cleansing', a term sometimes used to refer to removal of a population from a certain territory based on its religion, as since antiquity population cleansing was largely motivated by economic and political factors, although ethnic factors occasionally played a role
November 2018: 1 November 2018: Thousands of Islamist protesters have brought Pakistan to a standstill, burning rickshaws, cars and lorries to protest against the acquittal of Christian Asia Bibi who spent eight years on death row on false charges of blasphemy - Since 2010 Asia Bibi 'blasphemy' case - 3 November 2018: Pakistan’s government has been accused of signing the 'death warrant' of Asia Bibi after it said it would begin the process of preventing the Christian farm labourer leaving the country, who was acquitted of blasphemy after spending eight years on death row after she drank from the same cup as a Muslim, prompting false allegations that she insulted the prophet Muhammad - 3 novembre 2018: L'avocat d'Asia Bibi fuit, craignant pour sa vie

So-called 'ethnic cleansing', the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous, involving various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as genocide - List of ethnic cleansing campaigns since ancient and medieval periods - Ethnic cleansing by continent
1683 'code noir' and expelling of Jews by French colonial forces: In 1683, the Jews were expelled from Haiti and all of the other French colonies, due to the 'Code Noir', which not only restricted the activities of free black people, but forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism (it included a provision that all slaves must be baptized and instructed in the Roman Catholic religion), and in turn ordered all the Jews out of France's colonies
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and Napoleonic France's atrocities in Haiti: In 1802 French Vicomte de Rochambeau fought a brutal campaign to re-establish slavery in Haiti, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since 1885 mass deportation of Poles by the German Empire: Since 1885 mass deportation of Poles from territories controlled by the German Empire
August 1914 German destruction and sacking of Kalisz: August 1914 destruction and sacking of the city of Kalisz by German Empire troops at the beginning of World War I, also known as the Pogrom of Kalisz or Poland’s Louvain, a part of German 'Schrecklichkeit' atrocities
Since 1914 'Germanisation' by the German empire: Since 1914 'Germanisation' by the German empire, including violence,aggression and world wars, turning into a policy of ethnic cleansing and later into the genocide of some non-German ethnic groups
1937-1939 German 'Special Prosecution Book-Poland': 1937-1939 'Special Prosecution Book-Poland', the proscription list prepared by the Germans immediately before the onset of war, that identified more than 61,000 of Polish people including scientists, activists, intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former officers, and prominent others, who were to be interned or shot on the spot upon their identification following the 1939 invasion, compiled by the 'Zentralstelle IIP Polen' unit of the 'Geheime Staatspolizei' with help from some members of the German minority living in pre-war Poland
1939/1940 German mass murder 'Intelligenzaktion': 1939/1940 German 'Intelligenzaktion', a secret mass murder conducted by NSDAP-Germany against the Polish third level educated people including teachers, priests, physicians, scientists) early in the German war 1939–45, conducted to realise the 'Germanization' of regions of occupied Poland before territorial annexation to the German Reich
1940 German mass murder 'Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion' in Poland: 1940 German 'Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion' in Poland, a second stage of the Nazi German campaign of violence and mass murder during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of Polish society across the territories slated for eventual annexation, as most of the killings were arranged in a form of mass disappearances from multiple cities and towns upon the German arrival, and in the spring and summer of 1940, more than 30,000 Poles were arrested by the Nazi authorities in German-occupied central Poland, about 7,000 of them including community leaders, professors, teachers and priests were subsequently massacred secretly at various locations including at the Palmiry forest, the others were sent to German concentration camps
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
'Social cleansing', a class-based killing that consists of elimination of members of society considered 'undesirable', including but not limited to the homeless, criminals, street children, the elderly, sex workers, and sexual minorities

Progroms, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities
Progroms targeting the Jewish people since antiquity and Jewish minorities across the globe since ancient periods

Impunity refers in the international law to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice - Command responsibility
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
Since 1920 impunity for German war crimes, atrocities and terrorism in World War I: Im Februar 1920 forderten die Alliierten gemäß dem Friedensvertrag von Versailles die Auslieferung von rund 900 deutschen Kriegsverantwortlichen, unter ihnen Offiziere aller Dienstgrade bis hinauf zum Feldmarschall, Unteroffiziere, einfache Soldaten und Zivilisten einschließlich des früheren Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, aber schon am 17. Februar 1920 gaben die Alliierten deutschem Druck nach und überliessen die Anklage der Verdächtigen dem Reichsgericht in Leipzig mit dem zu erwartenden Ergebnis weitestgehender Straffreiheit
1935-1945 pre-war events, World War II: Since 1935 pre-war events, World War II, since 1936 'Francoist Repression', crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and during the first decade of Franco's dictatorship 1936-1975, the mass killings of the Spanish Republican loyalists occurred from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, in July 1936, and continued unabated until 1945, since 1939 Nazi war crimes, the Holocaust, a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators, the victims included about 1.5 million children and represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe, a broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of mass murder, based on other ethnic or biological factors, such as the Romani, and the Aktion T4 patients who were mentally and physically disabled, Japanese war crimes, Italian war crimes - War crimes of the German 'Wehrmacht', impunity and the 'Clean Wehrmacht' legend, proven false by the Wehrmacht's own documents
Since 1938 responsibility for, international response to the Holocaust and for war crimes: Responsibility for the Holocaust and war crimes of World War II - Collaboration with the Axis Powers, also including persons, organizations, or countries that were not under occupation by the Axis Powers but that ideologically, financially, or militarily, before or during World War II, supported Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, or World War II-era Imperial Japan - International response to the Holocaust - in the decades since the Holocaust, some national governments, international bodies and world leaders have been criticized for their failure to take appropriate action to save the millions of European Jews, Roma, and other victims of the Holocaust, as such intervention, particularly by the Allied governments, might have saved substantial numbers of people
May 2018, in 2012 only some 6,498 people convicted for their part in the Holocaust: 21 May 2018: As by 2012 only some 6,498 people had been convicted for their part in the Holocaust, in 2018 Germany’s Nazi hunters in final straight of race against time, urgently trying to track down and bring to justice the last remaining Holocaust war criminals
November 2018: 10 November 2018: Though up to a million people are believed to have actively participated in the extermination of millions of Jewish people during the Holocaust, only around 20,000 were ever found guilty of crimes, and fewer than 600 received heavy sentences, according to British Holocaust historian Mary Fulbrook, examining the German justice system’s prosecution of Nazi war crimes following World War II, saying that 'the total number of persons convicted under the Federal Republic for Nazi crimes was in itself fewer even than the number of people who had been employed at Auschwitz alone' and noting that West Germany’s post-war legal system was populated by many ex-Nazis

1942 - April 2017 archive of the UN war crimes commission: 1943-1949 United Nations War Crimes Commission, a commission of the UN that investigated allegations of war crimes committed by Nazi Germany and the other Axis powers in World War II, beginning its work at the behest of the British government and the other Allied nations prior to the formal establishment of the United Nations itself in October 1945
April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online
April 2017 'powers knew and did not act': 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria

Since 2006 Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko in London, remaining unpunished, international relations and foreign relations of many countries characterized by malice aforethought and insidiousness, cowardice and denial

Since 2004 'Impunity Watch', a project of the Dutch development organisation 'Solidaridad' - 'Impunity Watch' is an international non-profit human rights organisation, seeking to promote accountability for past atrocities, notably in countries emerging from a violent past - Since 2007 'Impunity Watch', online publication and interactive website by the Syracuse University College of Law, dedicated to inform the world about state violations of citizens' and human rights, operating as a law review, message board, and blog to of give a voice to people who are silenced
Since 2008 international impunity reported by 'Impunity Watch' and newspapers: Since 2008 international news published by Dutch 'Impunity Watch' - European Rights Watch - Inter-American Rights Watch - Africa Rights Watch
August 2018 Neo-Nazism in Russia, Berlin and Vienna: 19 August 2018: Neo-Nazis marched through Berlin on Saturday to commemorate the anniversary of the death of Hitler's aide Rudolf Hess, carrying a banner reading 'I don't regret anything', as Putin and Merkel had a quiet drink outside Berlin, showing memory and admiration for Russian, Iranian and Assad's assaults on the Syrian people, murdering hundreds of thousands, for the effects of Sarin, BUK-missiles, Polonium-tea and Novichok-perfume, after Putin's dancing arm-in-arm with Austria's neo-Nazi linked FM Karin Kneissl at her wedding on Saturday
15 January 2019 terrorism remains unpunished: 15 January 2019: 100 years after the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in Berlin, that remained unpunished, and 25 years after the 1994 bombing of the AMIA Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, the worst terrorist attack ever committed on Argentine soil, also facing this crime without punishment for decades, Argentines need to decide whether to pursue justice or surrender to terrorists
17 July 2019 MH17 crash ascribed to Russian regime: 17 juillet 2019: Les familles des victimes du crash du vol MH17 abattu en 2014 au-dessus de l'Ukraine se sont rassemblées mercredi à l'occasion du 5e anniversaire de la catastrophe et ont à nouveau réclamé justice, après les Pays-Bas et l'Australie ont ouvertement imputé en mai 2018 à la Russie la mort de leurs concitoyens
April 1944 - 24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 juillet 2019: Suite à la plainte de familles de victimes du massacre de 86 civils à Ascq, commis dans la nuit du 1er au 2 avril 1944 par des SS y compris Karl Münter, ce l'ancien SS, qui a assuré que le chiffre de 6 millions de juifs assassinés par les nazis était exagéré lors d'un entretien à la chaîne publique ARD diffusé le 29 novembre 2018, qui a estimé que les victimes d'Ascq étaient aussi responsables de leur mort, est enfin mis en accusation maintenant pour incitation à la haine, après en mars 2018, le Parquet allemand avait en effet annoncé l'abandon des poursuites parce que le suspect avait déjà été condamné à mort par contumace par un tribunal militaire en France en 1949 et qu'il ne pouvait donc être jugé une seconde fois pour ces mêmes faits

Violation of human rights in Russia
2019 annual review of human rights in Russia: 2019 annual 'Human Rights Watch' review of human rights in Russia

Violation of human rights in Iran
2019 annual review of human rights in Iran: 2019 annual 'Human Rights Watch' review of human rights in Iran

'Syria Watch' website of Impunity Watch online publication
February 2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 23 February 2016: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights considers that the silence of the International community for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Syria encourages the criminals to kill more and more Syrian people, because they have not found anyone that deter them from continuing their crimes that killed more than 270,000 people, injured more than 2 million, some of them with permanent disabilities, displaced more than 11 million Syrian people, and destroyed the infrastructure and private and public properties

Since 2009 International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists is marked annually on 23 November by advocates for free expression, following the 2009 Ampatuan massacre in the Philippines, when 57 individuals were murdered, including 32 journalists and media workers - 'International Day to End Impunity' website

CPJ’s Campaign Against Impunity
2015: 8 October 2015: Getting Away With Murder - CPJ's 2015 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2016: 27 October 2016: CPJ’s 2016 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2017: April 2017: List of 20 deadliest countries for journalists

People indicted for international crimes

List of people indicted in the International Criminal Court

Lawlessness - Crimes against humanity - Global politics without conscience
December 2016 absence of political will to act against war crimes: 7 December 2016: 'People ... have lost trust in everyone - in world leaders, in the international organisations that are watching them being killed, they lost faith in the United Nations, and they just count the days to their death' says Syria Relief's Dr Mounir Hakimi, the chairman of one of the last NGOs on the ground in Aleppo, as a joint statement by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK and USA contains no commitments to new action and the USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power tells AP that diplomatic efforts appeared to have failed, saying 'diplomacy has not delivered for the people of Aleppo, it is not us that walked away from diplomacy' - 8 December 2016: Western diplomats have conceded that there are no technical obstacles to a plan to deliver airdrops of food and medicine to Aleppo using a GPS-guided parachute system, but the scheme has been stalled in the face of reluctance among military commanders and an absence of political will
October 2018: 21 October 2018: Sudan's Omar al-Bashir has been travelling freely around the world despite an eight-year-old international warrant for his arrest on charges of war crimes and genocide, according to human rights lawyers, saying at least 33 countries ignored International Criminal Court’s warrants
December 2018: 10 December 2018: Nobel Peace winners Dr. Denis Mukwege of Congo and Nadia Murad of Iraq urge global action against sexual violence, as Mukwege criticized the international community for allowing Congolese to be 'humiliated, abused and massacred for more than two decades in plain sight', and as Murad told the ceremony that she wants world leaders to translate sympathy for victims into action against the abusers, saying 'the fact remains that the only prize in the world that can restore our dignity is justice and the prosecution of criminals'

A cover-up is an attempt, whether successful or not, to conceal evidence of a crime, wrongdoing, error, incompetence or other embarrassing information, in a passive cover-up, information is simply not provided, in an active cover-up, deception is used
Cases of cover-ups by subject and country
Since 1914-1918 cover-ups of German World War I crimes: Since 1914-1918 cover-ups of World War I crimes by Imperial Germany
Since 1936-1939 cover-up of Franco's war crimes: Since 1936-1939 cover-up of war crimes of Franco's war against the Spanish Republic
Since 1939-1945 cover-ups of Nazi crimes and World War II crimes: Since 1939-1945 German efforts to destroy all evidence of mass extermination and cover-ups of Nazi crimes and war crimes - Holocaust denial - 9 May 2018: Germany's AfD decides not to expel critic of Holocaust memorial - 12 June 2018: AfD party ended a drive for the expulsion of member Bjoern Hoecke who suggested the country end its tradition of acknowledging and atoning for its Nazi past
Since 1945 cover-up of Japanese war crimes: Since 1945 cover-up of Japanese war crimes after the end of World War II - Nanjing Massacre denial - Japanese history textbook controversies concern government-approved history textbooks and nationalist efforts to whitewash the actions of the Empire of Japan during World War II
1955-1975 cover-ups of crimes in USA's Vietnam War: 1955-1975 cover-ups of crimes in USA's Vietnam War - Cover-up of the March 1968 My Lai Massacre, the mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by USA troops in South Vietnam
Since the 1990s cover-ups of killings of journalists in Russia: Since the 1990s cover-ups of killings of journalists in Russia
Since 2006 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko: Since 2006 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko
2011-2018 Russian cover-up of doping: From 2011 to 2018, more than hundreds of Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from cover-ups, following systemic nature of doping in Russian sports
Since 2011 cover-ups of Assad's, Iranian and Russian war crimes: Since 2011 cover-ups of war crimes in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since March 2018 Russian cover-up of the Salisbury poisoning: Since March 2018 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, Dawn Sturgess and Charlie Rowley
Since October 2018 Saudi-Arabian cover-up of the murder of Jamal Khashoggi: Since October 2018 Saudi-Arabian cover-up of the murder of Jamal Khashoggi - 10 November 2018: France, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK and USA 'have Khashoggi tapes', after Turkey has shared audio recording of Saudi journalist’s killing - 12 November 2018: Amid international demands of satisfactory explanations of the murder, Simon McDonald, who serves as British PM May’s special envoy, is in Saudi Arabia and has met crown prince Mohammed bin Salman, the first such visit since the international outrage over the Saudi Arabian regime's killing of Jamal Khashoggi in its consulate in Istanbul, as journalist's disturbing last words revealed and Jamal Khashoggi's fiance warns not to 'cover up' death - 21 November 2018: USA's Trump administration accused of trying to turn a blind eye to the murder of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul

Whitewashing is a metaphor meaning 'to gloss over or cover up vices, crimes or scandals or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data'
July 2003: 14 July 2003: The Chinese Foreign Ministry criticized senior Japanese politician Takami Eto from PM Koizumi's Liberal Democratic Party for trying to whitewash history by denying the Nanjing Massacre
September 2917: 14 September 2017: AfD's Gauland says Germans 'have the right to be proud of the achievements of the German soldiers in two world wars'
April 1944 - 24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 July 2019: German prosecutors said they have filed charges against Karl Muenter for incitement and disparaging the memory of Nazi victims, after the former SS soldier Karl Muenter, who has a previous conviction in France for killing 86 people in the northern French village of Ascq on the night of 1 April 1944 during World War II, but was never imprisoned much more pardoned in 1955 as part of French-German 'reconciliation' and German whitewashing, has blamed French victims for their own death and denied 6 million Jews killed, making his inflammatory remarks in an interview broadcast by German channel ARD in November 2018

Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment - A lie is a statement used intentionally for the purpose of deception - Deception used by governments
False flag operations
February 1933 German Reichstag fire: 27 February 1933 Reichstag fire, an arson attack on the Reichstag building, home of the German parliament in Berlin, precisely four weeks after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany
1955 Testimony of SA-member Hans-Martin Lennings: 1955 Testimony of SA-member Hans-Martin Lennings, published in July 2019, more than 80 years after the event
1933/1955/2019: 26/27 July 2019: When witness Hans-Martin Lennings and his colleagues of the Nazis' SA arrived with van der Lubbe at the Reichstag, he noticed 'a strange smell of burning and there were clouds of smoke billowing through the rooms', saying 1955 in an account confirmed by a Hanover court 'we were convinced that van der Lubbe could not possibly have been the arsonist, because according to our observation, the Reichstag had already been burning when we dropped him off there', as Reichstag blaze in Germany was used by Adolf Hitler used to claim a Communist plot and consolidate his influence with a crackdown
Since summer 1939 false flag project by Nazi Germany to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany: 1939 operation Himmler, a false flag project planned by Nazi Germany to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which was subsequently used by the Nazis to justify the invasion of Poland, including staging false attacks on themselves using innocent people or concentration camp prisoners - Gleiwitz incident, a covert Nazi German attack on the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz on the night of 31 August 1939
Since 2014 Russian regime's 'little green men': Since 2014 'little green men', a term that refers to masked soldiers in unmarked green army uniforms and carrying modern Russian military weapons and equipment who appeared during the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 and during the annexation of Crimea by the Russian regime in 2014

Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially responsible for the harm that befell them - Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record
Since antiquity persecution of Jews and lies about a Jewish world conspiracy: 2009: After Jews were persecuted since antiquity and the 'Middle Ages', lies about a Jewish world conspiracy, later used in Nazi propaganda, turned up in Germany in 1919 and was seen by anti-Semites as proof of forces that had caused Germany to lose World War I, a defeat to be cancelled in World War II
August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident: 2 August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident
2014/2015 Putin’s Crimea speech and lies: 17 April 2014: Putin asserts right to use force in east Ukraine - 9 May 2014: The brutal, bloody history behind Putin’s Crimea speech - 17 December 2015: After two years of resolute denials, Russia's Putin admits that he sent soldiers into eastern Ukraine after all
April 2018 Russian lies about 'novichok': 2 April 2018: Russian regime claims it could have been in interests of Britain to poison Sergei Skripal, as regime's Sergei Lavrov says UK government would benefit from attack as Brexit approaches
July 2018 Russian lies about war crimes in Syria: 25 July 2018: After 'Syrian Civil Defense has lost 251 volunteers since it was established, most of whom were killed in double-tap airstrikes by the Assad regime and Russian aircraft which target the same area twice in order to kill the first responders', smear campaign, murderous threats and persecution led by Russian regime against civil defense is due to its possession of evidence indicting Russian and Assad regime, revealing 'how Russia sees this organization as a real threat to the criminals and their supporters, especially with regard to the legal aspect', Syrian Coalition says

History of law, the study of how law has evolved and why it changed, closely connected to the development of civilisations and set in the wider context of social history - International law - Conflict of laws

Abuse of the legal system - Legal abuse - State crime
Judicial misconduct - Malicious prosecution - Abuse of process - Perverting the course of justice - False accusation - False confession - Miscarriage of justice
2017: 27 April 2017: Using procedures to persuade defendants to plead guilty has reached ‘epidemic proportions’ and increases risk of miscarriage of justice, as more and more countries persuade defendants to plead guilty and renounce traditional trial rights, according to 'Fair Trials', also saying that 'abbreviated trials and cooperating witness procedures have increased about 300% since 1990, ... happening in more places than ever before

Capital punishment - Use of capital punishment by country
2009: Capital punishment in China - 2009 the Dui Hua Foundation estimates that 5,000 people were executed in China, far more than all other nations combined
2014/2015: 27 March 2014: Global executions up 15 percent in 2013, due in part to more executions in Iran and Iraq, followed by Saudi Arabia - 24 September 2015: UN issues urgent call for Saudi Arabia to stay execution of juvenile Ali Mohammed al-Nimr and his crucifixion after taking part in demonstrations three years ago for democracy and equal rights
2016: 6 April 2016: Iran and Pakistan fuel surge in executions worldwide to 25-year high, as Iran executed almost 1,000 people last year and as the world’s top five executioners in 2015 were China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia and the USA
2018: 12 avril 2018: Au total 993 exécutions ont été enregistrées dans 23 pays en 2017, soit un recul de 4% par rapport à 2016, mais ces statistiques excluent la Chine, pays qui exécute le plus mais garde le chiffre exact secret

Endangered freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of information
Since 1992 killed journalists in Russia: List of journalists killed in Russia since 1992 - Assassinated Russian journalists
1999: 22 December 1999: Journalists ‘first target’ in conflicts, International Federation of Journalists says
2000-2008 killed journalists in Russia under Putin: Journalists killed in Russia since 2000 under Putin
2008-2011 during Medvedev presidency: 2008-2011 Journalists killed in Russia during Medvedev presidency
In July 2013 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed): 9 July 2013: 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed), CPJ says
Since 2012 again under Putin: Since 2012 Journalists killed in Russia again under Putin
2012: 3. Mai 2012: Morde an Journalisten nehmen in vielen Ländern dramatisch zu - 3 May: UN chief Ban Ki-moon expresses anger over a rise in the number of journalists killed in the line of duty - 22 November 2012: More journalists (119) have been killed this year while on assignment than at any time in the last 15 years - in Syria 36 victims - 26 December 2012: The number of deaths of journalists raise to 132 in 2012 as journalist Nanao Singh was shot dead by police amid anti-rape protests in India
2013: 1 November 2013: 1017 journalists Killed since 1992, CPJ says - 2013 World Press Freedom Index, dashed hopes - 18 December: 2013 second worst year for journalists in jail and Syria represented the deadliest country, CPJ says
2014: 19 February 2014: 134 journalists and media support staff killed in 2013 while on reporting assignments, an INSI study says - Biggest rises and falls in the 2014 World Press Freedom Index - 16 December 2014: 66 journalists killed in 2014 as attacks grow more 'barbaric' and kidnappings have soared, Reporters Without Borders say - 23 December: CPJ says at least 60 journalists around the world were killed in 2014 while on the job or because of their work, and 44 percent of them were targeted for murder - 31 December: The number of journalists who died in targeted killings, bomb attacks or shootings around the world rose to 118 in 2014 from 105 in 2013, Pakistan, Syria, Afghanistan, Palestinian territories, Iraq and Ukraine most dangerous, IFJ says
2015: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris, January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris and worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 12 January 2015: Tens of thousands of people rallied worldwide in solidarity with Paris terror victims, with marchers across Europe and the Middle East saying 'Je suis Charlie' and 'Je suis Juif' and holding pens in the air - 11 February 2015: Reporters Without Borders 2015 World Press Freedom Index stated there were 3,719 violations of freedom of information in 180 countries in 2014, 8% more than 2013 - Iran, China, Syria and North Korea among the countries with the very worst levels of press freedom, Russia slipped to the 152nd spot - 22 September 2015: Syrian cartoonist Akram Raslan reported killed under torture in Assad prisons - 28 December 2015: Journalist and film maker Naji Jerf shot dead in Gaziantep, who received death threats after he produced a film which documents 'Islamic State' group’s atrocities in Aleppo province - 29 décembre 2015: 110 journalistes tués dans le monde en 2015, particulièrement en Irak, en Syrie, en France, au Yémen, au Soudan du Sud, en Inde, au Mexique, selon 'Reporters sans frontières'
2016: 5 February 2016: UN panel urges UK and Sweden to end WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's 'deprivation of liberty', arbitrarily detained by the UK and Sweden since he was arrested in London in 2010 after he enraged the USA by publishing hundreds of thousands of secret diplomatic cables - 19/23 February 2016: Syrian freelance journalist Majid Dirani was killed while photographing the shelling and aerial bombardment of Daraya, a suburb of Damascus, that has been besieged by Assad's army since 2012 - 22 February 2016: Syria the most dangerous country for the press in 2015, with at least 14 journalists killed, and at least 93 journalists killed in Syria since 2011, CPJ says condemning the killing of journalist Majid Dirani - 20 avril 2016: La liberté de la presse régresse partout dans le monde, quel que soit le paramètre considéré, selon 'Reporters sans frontières' - 25 June 2016: Syrian Coalition mourned the death of journalist Khaled Alissa, who was pronounced dead at a Turkish hospital of wounds he sustained in an assassination attempt along with fellow journalist Hadi Alabdullah in Aleppo on 17 June, and who sacrificed his life trying to document the crimes of the Assad regime against the Syrian people and to convey the truth to the world - 27 June 2016: Islamic State terrorists killed five journalists in the city of Deir-Ezzor, according to a video recording published on 26 June - 1 November 2016: Media activist and cameraman Abdel Salam Kanaan was covering events in the town of Zafarana in the northern Homs countryside when he was hit by an air raid that killed a number of civilians and wounded others - 7 November 2016: Zaman al-Wasl reporter Ammar Bakour killed along with eight civilians when Assad regime warplanes targeted the town of Al-Dana in Idlib province with four vacuum missiles, also leaving 20 others wounded - 19 December 2016: 'Reporters sans frontières' (Reporters Without Borders) say that at least 74 journalists have been killed around the world in 2016 while doing their job, as many journalists have fled countries that became too dangerous, especially Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan and Burundi
2017: 4 January 2017: At least 86 journalist and media activists were killed and 123 others injured in Syria in 2016, according to SNHR rights group, adding that Assad regime forces were responsible for the overwhelming majority of the deaths, and that 11 journalists were killed and 31 wounded in Russian attacks across Syria in 2016 - 4 February 2017: At least three journalists were killed and one more injured by Assad regime forces and Islamic State terrorists in January, SNHR says adding that nine more journalists and media activists, including two female media activists, were detained in January - 6 March 2017: At least five journalists were killed and nearly 14 more injured in military operations by Assad regime forces in Syria's liberated areas in February, while one was killed by the ISIS extremist group, according to SNHR - 16 March 2017: In Syria, 211 journalists and citizen journalists killed in conflict which began with a wave of protests exactly six years ago, Reporters Without Borders say - 28 avril 2017: Mise à mal par les dirigeants de nombreux pays, la liberté de la presse dans le monde a de nouveau reculé en 2016 et environ 45% de la population mondiale vit dans un pays où la presse n'est pas libre, selon 'Freedom House' - 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 2 November 2017: Marking the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists, SNHR says in a report that at least 634 journalists and media activists have been killed in Syria in the past seven years - 30 November 2017: 'Local media are simply disappearing', as states are using commercial ruses to squeeze out liberal media, according to openMedia Freedom 2017 report and other reviews - 30 November 2017: Journalists living in fear as states crack down, and as new ARTICLE 19 metric measures global threats to freedom of expression and information in 172 countries, showing journalists threatened by government censorship, organised crime and commercial pressures, saying that media freedom around the world has fallen to the lowest level for at least a decade, and that only few countries show improvements including Tunisia - 19 décembre 2017: 2017 aura été l'année la moins meurtrière pour les journalistes professionnels depuis 14 ans, mais la Syrie demeure le pays le plus meurtrier pour les reporters avec 12 journalistes tués recensés, devant le Mexique (11), l'Afghanistan (9), l'Irak (8) et les Philippines (4), et le bilan reste terrible avec 50 professionnels tués dans le monde, 65 journalistes au total, selon RSF
February 2018: February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak and Martina Kušnírová - 28 February 2018: Ján Kuciak was investigating political corruption linked to Italian mafia group at the time of his murder
May 2018: 30 May 2018: National newspaper's journalist Hector Gonzalez Antonio has been killed in Mexico, as CPJ demands a swift and credible investigation into his death, saying 'until Mexico takes concrete steps to solve media murders, the cycle of violence and impunity that has made the country one of the most dangerous places in the world for reporters will continue'
1 September 2018: 1 September 2018: Kiev court sentenced Borys German, who had pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with the investigation, to four-and-a-half years in prison after he was found guilty of helping to plot an attempt on the life of reporter Arkady Babchenko, who accused Russian regime of killing critics and unleashing wars in Ukraine, Syria and elsewhere
6 September 2018: 6 September 2018: The Assad regime and its Russian ally killed two media activists in August 2018 with the aim of concealing their crimes, as many as 22 media activists have been killed since the beginning of 2018, mostly by the Assad regime and its Russian ally, and the number of killed media activists and journalists in Syria since March 2011 was brought to 669, according to SNHR
2 and 18 October 2018: 2 October 2018 Assassination of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi - 18 October 2018: Washington Post publishes final Khashoggi column, warning Mideast governments 'have been given free rein to continue silencing the media at an increasing rate’
16 October 2018: 16 October 2018: Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia reported on government corruption, but no politician has been questioned about her murder, says PEN International's novelist Margaret Atwood, asking where is the justice a year after her murder
19 October 2018: 19 October 2018: USA's Trump praises congressman Gianforte for bodyslamming Guardian journalist Ben Jacobs, who is Jewish, for asking a question about health care policy in May 2017 in Montana, amid international outcry over the disappearance and later admitted assassination of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi
October/November 2018: 29 October 2018: As Saudi and Turkish prosecutors meet in Istanbul to discuss Khashoggi killing and regimes argue over which country should try the 18 suspects, rights group releases video of journalists around the world reading the Saudi writers’ final column titled 'What the Arab world needs most is free expression' - 30 October 2018: Hatice Cengiz, the Turkish fiancee of slain journalist Jamal Khashoggi, has called on USA's president Trump and other leaders to ensure that his death in Istanbul is not covered up - 17 November 2018: The assassination of journalist and Saudi regime critic Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul was ordered by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, according to an examination by USA's CIA, complicating efforts to safeguard ties with and support for a suppressing and cruel kingdom - 22 November 2018: USA's CIA is in possession of a recording of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman giving an order to 'silence Jamal Kashoggi as soon as possible', according to Hurriyet Daily News
November 2018: 24 November 2018: Syrian activists Raed Fares, since 2011 known and persecuted for his criticism of the Assad regime, jihadist groups and Western leaders he believed failed to stop the violence in Syria, and Hamod Jnaid, an advocate for freedom of expression and the rule of law, were 'shot dead by unknown assailants riding in a van in the town of Kafr Nabal' in the northwestern province of Idlib, according to their radio station Fresh FM
December 2018: 5 December 2018: Over 30 journalists, including Jamal Khashoggi, have been murdered so far this year for speaking the truth, 'The Guardian' pays tribute to some of them here - 18 décembre 2018: Les violences contre les journalistes sont reparties à la hausse en 2018, avec 80 journalistes tués à travers le monde, selon le bilan annuel de Reporters sans frontières RSF
9 January 2019: 9 January 2019: Turkish journalist and ICIJ member Pelin Ünker has been sentenced by a Turkish court in Istanbul court to more than a year in jail for her work on the 'Paradise Papers' investigation into offshore tax havens, because it revealed details of the business activities of the country’s former PM and his sons
16 January 2019 assassination of Ahmed Hussein-Suale: 16 January 2019 assassination of Ghanaian journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale, who helped expose corruption in African and Ghanaian football, after he told CPJ in September 2018 that people had attempted to attack him and that he feared for his life following the publication of his image on the national television channel Net 2 TV, which Agyapong owns - 17 January 2019: Speaking without showing his face, journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas says that his team, which had investigated corruption in Ghana's football leagues, face daily death threats
19 January 2019 death of photographer Ben Khalifa: 20 January 2019: Freelance photographer Ben Khalifa, a father of a five-month-old baby daughter, who had contributed to the AP among other news organizations was killed in clashes between rival militias in the Libyan capital Tripoli, according to government official and relatives
February 2019: 1 February 2019: Assad’s forces deliberately targeted Homs media center where foreign correspondent for The Sunday Times Marie Colvin, French photographer Remi Ochlik and others were working, as Colvin and Ochlik were assassinated by sustained artillery barrages on 22 February 2012, USA District Court Judge Amy Berman Jackson has ruled - 3 February 2019: USA's court verdict gives meaning to war reporter Marie Colvin’s death in 2012, who was remembered in December 2012 by BBC's Jeremy Bowen who knew his colleague through their work in numerous conflict zones over the past 30 years - 5 February 2019: Lebanese lawyer and expert in international law Tariq told Smart News Network that the USA court, that found the Assad regime liable for Colvin’s death, has the external jurisdiction to prosecute criminals, pointing out that the Interpol has the authority to enforce law against those who have been indicted in case international courts failed to take action
March 2019: 16 mars 2019: Santiago Barroso a été tué par balle à son domicile dans l'Etat de Sonora, devenant le troisième reporter tué au Mexique depuis le début de l'année
March/April 2019 Russian regime kills Syrian media worker: 3 April 2019: No fewer than 16 violations against journalists and media workers in Syria in March recorded by the Syrian Center for Journalistic Freedoms, saying that media worker Mahmoud Abdel-Al was killed in a Russian airstrike on the town of Jisr al-Shughour west of Idlib and two others were injured, bringing to 447 the number of media workers who where killed in Syria since mid-March 2011
May 2019 695 Syrian and foreign journalists killed across Syria since 2011: 4 May 2019: SNHR said that it registered the names of at least 695 Syrian and foreign journalists who have been killed across Syria since the beginning of the Syrian revolution in March 2011
6 May 2019 Libyan journalists kidnapped: 6 May 2019: Following the abduction of two journalists who work for Libya’s Al-Ahrar TV kidnapped by an armed group said to be loyal to warlord Khalifa Haftar, Libyan journalists protested in the capital Tripoli against the crime
23 May 2019: 23 May 2019: Sky News journalist Alex Crawford and her camera crew have been deliberately targeted by the Syrian Assad regime and repeatedly shot at while reporting on the regime’s assault on the province of Idlib
June 2019: 20 June 2019: Media activist Amjad Bakir from Saraqeb in the Idlib countryside, who was well known as a photographer, was killed while covering the ongoing fighting in the northern Hama countryside
20 July 2019 journalists killed across Syria: 20 July 2019: Two journalists were killed across Syria in June while three others were killed in the months of February, March and April, as Assad regime came at the top of the list of those responsible for the death of journalists in 2019, with the Russian forces coming second, according a report by Syrian journalists
22 July 2019 Photographer Anas Diab killed in Russian airstrikes: 22 July 2019: Photographer Anas Diab who works with the Syrian Civil Defense Corps, was killed in Russian airstrikes on the town of Khan Sheikhoun on Sunday, as violations against journalists and media activists across Syria continue
August 2019: 5 August 2019: Two journalists killed by Assad regime and Russia in July

Air pollution
Atmosphere of Earth - Greenhouse gas - Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere - Atmospheric methane
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions - List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions in 2010
2011-2013: 29 May 2011: Record high 2010 global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture - 4. November 2011: Größter je gemessener Anstieg von Treibhausgasen in 2010 (China, USA, Indien etc.) - Heal's report 7 March 2013: 'The unpaid health bill' - emissions from coal-fired power plants in the EU contribute to over 18.000 premature deaths a year and cost an annual 42,8 billion euros - 17 April 2013: Progress towards the use of cleaner fuel technology has stalled, with production of the world's energy as dirty now as it was two decades ago, the International Energy Agency says - 11 May 2013: Carbon dioxide level passes a long-feared milestone - 18 October 2013: Air pollution a leading cause of cancer, the WHO says - 6 November 2013: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere hit new record in 2013, UN's WMO says - 19 novembre 2013: Les émissions de CO2 ont encore augmenté dans le monde en 2012, de 2,2%, atteignant le record de 35 milliards de tonnes, tirées par le charbon
2014/2015: 9 September 2014: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere reach all-time high - 6 May 2015: Concentrations of CO2 greenhouse gas in the atmosphere reached record global average in March 2015 - 9 novembre 2015: La teneur de l'atmosphère en gaz à effet de serre a atteint un nouveau pic en 2014, rapporte l'Organisation météorologique mondiale
June 2016: 13 June 2016: Carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere forecast to pass 400 parts per million in 2016
November 2017: 7 November 2017: Governments have drastically underestimated methane emissions from natural gas and will miss the Paris agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 2C unless they urgently scale down its use, a major new study has found - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards'
November 2018: 22 November 2018: The main greenhouse gas emissions carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide driving climate change have all reached record levels, the UN’s meteorology experts have reported
December 2018: 5 December 2018: Global carbon emissions will jump to a record high in 2018, dashing hopes a plateau of recent years would be maintained, meaning emissions are heading in the opposite direction to the deep cuts urgently needed to fight climate change, say scientists
January 2019: 11 January 2019: Air pollution 'as bad as smoking in increasing risk of miscarriage', according to a new scientific study and research, also finding pollution particles in placentas, saying that toxic air must be cut to protect the health of the next generation
March 2019: 5 March 2019: 22 of world's 30 most polluted cities are in India, Greenpeace says, as analysis of air pollution data finds that 64% of cities globally exceed WHO guidelines
June 2019: 11 June 2019: Carbon emissions from the global energy industry last year rose at the fastest rate in almost a decade after extreme weather and surprise swings in global temperatures stoked extra demand for fossil fuel, also resulting in a second consecutive annual increase for coal use, reversing three years of decline earlier this decade, as China accounted for a third of the world's energy growth in 2018, according to BP’s annual global energy report
July 2019: 12 July 2019: The hearts of city dwellers contain billions of toxic air pollution particles, as even in the study’s youngest subject, who was three, damage could be seen in the cells of the organ’s critical pumping muscles that contained the tiny particles, research has revealed, suggesting these iron-rich particles, produced by vehicles and industry, could be the underlying cause of the long-established statistical link between dirty air and heart disease
October 2019 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions: 9 October 2019: New data shows how fossil fuel companies have driven climate crisis despite industry knowing dangers, as 'The Guardian' reveals that 20 fossil fuel companies whose relentless exploitation of the world’s oil, gas and coal reserves can be directly linked to more than one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions in the modern era
November 2019 air pollution nanoparticles linked to brain cancer: 13 November 2019: Air pollution nanoparticles linked to brain cancer for first time, according to a new study published in the journal Epidemiology, saying tiny particles produced by motor traffic can invade the brain and carry carcinogens
November 2019 'despite all the commitments' Greenhouse gases levels record high: 25 November 2019: Greenhouse gases levels in the atmosphere, the main driver of climate change, hit a record high last year, the UN said Monday, calling for action to safeguard 'the future welfare of mankind', as 'there is no sign of a slowdown, let alone a decline, in greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere despite all the commitments under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change'
December 2019 scientists say cutting air pollution can prevent deaths within weeks: 6 December 2019: Cutting air pollution can prevent deaths within weeks, according to scientists, saying they found the health benefits of clean air were 'almost immediate and substantial' and stretched into the long term, saving billions of dollars
List of countries by air pollution - Countries ranked by air pollution
2015: 16 September 2015: More than 3 million people die prematurely each year from outdoor pollution and without action deaths will double by 2050, according to a study published in the journal Nature
2016: 12 May 2016: Outdoor air pollution has grown 8% globally in the past five years, with billions of people around the world now exposed to dangerous air, according to new data from more than 3,000 cities compiled by the WHO - 9 June 2016: Air pollution now major contributor to stroke and harm caused by air pollution to the lungs, heart and brain has been underestimated, global study finds
2017: 7 November 2017: Governments have drastically underestimated methane emissions from natural gas and will miss the Paris agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 2C unless they urgently scale down its use, a major new study has found
May 2018: 1 May 2018: Pollution inequality between the world’s rich and poor is widening, according to the latest global data from the WHO which shows that 7 million people – mostly in developing nations – die every year from airborne contaminants
September 2018: 19 September 2018: EU probes German car makers including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen and Audi for suspected collusion to cheat emission tests
October 2018: 14 octobre 2018: Enclavée entre les géants indien et chinois, le Bhoutan est le seul pays au monde au bilan carbone négatif, mais n'échappe pas aux conséquences du réchauffement climatique mondial - 27 October 2018: Over 90% of the world’s population suffers toxic air and research is increasingly revealing the profound impacts on the health of people, especially children, according to WHO's Dr Ghebreyesus, saying the simple act of breathing is killing 7 million people a year and harming billions more - 29 October 2018: Poisonous air is having a devastating impact on billions of children around the world, according to WHO report
March 2019: 5 March 2019: 22 of world's 30 most polluted cities are in India, Greenpeace says, as analysis of air pollution data finds that 64% of cities globally exceed WHO guidelines
Global warming since 20th century - Earth's energy budget - Climate change - Paleoclimatology - Historical climatology - History of climate change science - Climate change denial
2016: 25 January 2016: For the first time on record, temperatures in 2015 were about 1°C above the pre-industrial era, according to a consolidated WMO analysis - 23 May 2016: World could warm by massive 10C if all fossil fuels are burned, Canadian university study says - 21 July 2016: 2016 set to be world's hottest year on record, says UN, as average temperature in the first half of 2016 was 1.3C warmer than in the late 19th century - 6 August 2016: The Earth is perilously close to breaking through a 1.5C upper limit for global warming, only eight months after the target was set in Paris, leading climate scientists have warned
2017: 10 March 2017: Earth's oceans are warming 13% faster than thought, and accelerating, according to new study based on advanced research and measurements - 21 March 2017: The record-breaking heat that made 2016 the hottest year ever recorded has continued into 2017, pushing the world into 'truly uncharted territory', according to the World Meteorological Organisation - 2 August 2017: Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia, according to 'Science Advances' - 3 August 2017: Unless world abolishes carbon emissions a lot faster, temperatures are 90% likely to rise by 2 to 5 degrees Celsius by 2100, new study warns - 30 October 2017: The health of hundreds of millions of people around the world is already being damaged by climate change, a major report of 26 institutions around the world says
2018: 11 janvier 2018: Des millions de personnes supplémentaires à travers le monde risquent d'être sous la menace de rivières en crue ces 20 prochaines années à cause du réchauffement climatique, ont averti des scientifiques - 1 août 2018: L'année écoulée a été marquée par des températures anormalement élevées et des gaz contribuant au réchauffement de la planète ont atteint des niveaux record partout dans le monde en 2017, selon NOAA
6/7 August 2018: 7 August 2018: Domino-effect of climate events could move Earth into a 'hothouse' state, according to leading scientists, warning that passing such a point would make efforts to reduce emissions increasingly futile
November 2018: 16 November 2018: China, Russia and Canada’s current climate policies would drive the world above a catastrophic 5C of warming, according to a study published in the journal Nature Communications that ranks the climate goals of different countries, saying the USA and Australia are only slightly behind and also showing even EU on course for more than double safe level of warming
January 2019: 16 January 2019: Growing tension between the world’s major powers is the most urgent global risk and makes it harder to mobilise collective action to tackle climate change, according to a WEF report
February 2019: 6 February 2019: Global temperatures in 2018 were the fourth warmest on record, adding to a stretch of five years that are now collectively the hottest period since modern measurements began, according to NASA/NOAA, as lowest Paris agreement target of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels may temporarily be surpassed for first time between now and 2023, according to Met Office
September 2019: 10 September 2019: The world’s readiness for the inevitable effects of the climate crisis is 'gravely insufficient', report says
November 2019 'Brown to Green' report, criticizing Australia, Canada, China, India, Russia, South Korea, the USA and more countries: 11 November 2019: Australia’s response to climate change is one of the worst in the G20 with a lack of policy, reliance on fossil fuels and rising emissions leaving the country exposed 'economically, politically and environmentally', according to the 2019 'Brown to Green' report, taking stock of the performance of G20 countries on climate change adaptation and mitigation across key sectors
Antarctica - Climate of Antarctica - Antarctic ice sheet - Antarctic sea ice - 23 December 2012: West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate, US researchers say - 20 May 2014: Antarctica is now losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean - twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed, scientists say using measurements of CryoSat-2 satellite mission - 18 May 2015: NASA finds Antarctic ice shelf a few years from disintegration
January 2019: 14 January 2019: Global warming melting Antarctic ice faster than ever before, according to a report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Climate of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic - 13 August 2012: Arctic sea ice 'melting faster', UK scientists say - 27 August 2012: Arctic sea ice reaches record low, Nasa says
2016: 28 March 2016: Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter - 16 August 2016: Global surface temperatures and Arctic sea ice extent have broken numerous records through the first half of 2016, according to NASA
Climate of Greenland - Greenland ice sheet - 19. August 2011: Grönlands Gletscher schwinden schneller als erwartet - 25 July 2012: NASA finds that ice cover thawed over larger area than ever detected in more than 30 years of satellite observation - 22 September 2016: Greenland's ice cap is disappearing far more rapidly than previously estimated, is part of a long-term trend, and is already a major contributor to rising sea level, according to research taking better account of the gradual rise of the entire Greenland landmass
January 2019: 21 January 2019: Greenland's ice melting faster than scientists previously thought, according to new PNAS study
Himalayas mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau - Glaciers of the Himalayas
February 2019: 4 February 2019: At least a third of the huge ice fields in Asia’s towering mountain chain are doomed to melt due to climate change, according to a landmark new report, with serious consequences for almost 2 billion people, as even radical climate change action won’t save glaciers
Ozone depletion
October 2011: 2 October 2011: Arctic ozone loss at record level
March 2014: 10 March 2014: New ozone-depleting gases found in atmosphere
May 2019: 23 May 2019: Industries in north-eastern China have released large quantities of an ozone-depleting gas into the atmosphere in violation of an international treaty, scientists have said
Weather events and natural disasters, by continent and by country - International responses to natural disasters
Heat wave - Heat waves by country - Droughts - Droughts by continent - Wildfires - Wildfires by country - Storm - Tropical cyclones - Tropical cyclones by region - Tropical cyclone impact by region
2012: 21 February 2012: Climate change increased likelihood of Russian 2010 heatwave, international study says - Summer 2012 North American heat wave
2015: 2015 Indian heat wave - June 2015 Pakistan heat wave - 26 October 2015: Extreme heatwaves could push Gulf climate including Iran’s coast beyond human endurance if the world fails to cut carbon emissions, USA study shows - 28 October 2015: Rising heat stress could threaten labour capacity across south-east Asia, with Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia worst hit, British study says
July 2018: 13 July 2018: Record high temperatures have been set across much of the world this week as an unusually prolonged and broad heatwave intensifies concerns about climate change in hottest La Niña year to date on record
September 2018: 28 September 2018: The Atlantic’s warmer waters triggered the unusual number of major hurricanes last year, according to a new study that predicts the region could see a couple of extra whopper storms each year by the end of the century
Water scarcity - Water security
Drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages its waters supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water - List of droughts
2015: 16 March 2015: Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the 2007-2010 drought, including the recent Syrian drought, causing widespread crop failure and mass migration - 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances
2018: 19 March 2018: More than 5 billion people could suffer water shortages by 2050 due to climate change, increased demand and polluted supplies, according to a UN report on the state of the world’s water - 21 March 2018: Water inequality is increasing in the world’s most environmentally stressed nations, warn the authors of a report that shows more than 800 million people need to travel and queue for at least 30 minutes to access safe supplies - 60% of the world's population lives in areas of water stress, where the water supply cannot or will not continue to meet demand, 2018 State of the World's Water report says
August 2019 water crises: 6 August 2019: New data from WRI’s Aqueduct tools reveal that 17 countries, home to one-quarter of the world’s population, face 'extremely high' levels of baseline water stress, where irrigated agriculture, industries and municipalities withdraw more than 80% of their available supply on average every year, as 44 countries, home to one-third of the world, face 'high' levels of stress, where on average more than 40% of available supply is withdrawn every year
Desertification - 21. September 2011: UN rufen zu Kampf gegen Wüstenbildung auf - 19 February 2012: Wildfires, peat fires and controlled burns on farming lands kill 339.000 people worldwide each year, says a Tasmanian university study
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale, as climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes (e.g., heat waves), changes in pests and diseases, changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations, changes in the nutritional quality of some foods, and changes in sea level
August 2018: 27 August 2018: Rising levels of carbon dioxide could make crops less nutritious and damage the health of hundreds of millions of people, research has revealed, with those living in some of the world’s poorest regions likely to be hardest hit
August 2019 climate crisis threatening civilisation: 8 August 2019: Climate crisis reducing land’s ability to sustain humanity, according to IPCC, saying global heating is increasing droughts, soil erosion and wildfires while diminishing crop yields in the tropics and thawing permafrost near the poles, threatening civilisation

Effects of global warming on oceans
September 2018: 28 September 2018: The Atlantic’s warmer waters triggered the unusual number of major hurricanes last year, according to a new study that predicts the region could see a couple of extra whopper storms each year by the end of the century
January 2019: 16 January 2019: Our oceans broke heat records in 2018 and the consequences are catastrophic
September 2019: 22 septembre 2019: Dévastés par le dérèglement climatique et les pollutions causés par l'Homme, les océans s'apprêtent à déchaîner leur puissance sur l'humanité qui ne peut vivre sans eux, selon un rapport de l'ONU
December 2019 oceans losing oxygen at unprecedented rate: 7 December 2019: Oceans losing oxygen at unprecedented rate, experts warn, as tuna, marlin and other large fish at risk from spread of 'dead zones’
Sea level rise: Current sea level rise - Future sea level
May 2015: 11 May 2015: Sea level rise accelerated over the past two decades, research finds
September 2019 serious impacts 'already inevitable': 25 September 2019: Extreme sea level events that used to occur once a century will strike every year on many coasts by 2050, no matter whether climate heating emissions are curbed or not, according to a landmark report by the world’s scientists, concluding that many serious impacts are already inevitable, from more intense storms to melting permafrost and dwindling marine life
November 2019 sea level rise to challenge human civilization for centuries: 6 November 2019: Sea level rise is set to challenge human civilization for centuries to come, even if internationally agreed climate goals are met and planet-warming emissions are then immediately eliminated, researchers have found

Climate Conference in Geneva 1979
2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancún
2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Durban - 17. Juni 2011: Vorbereitungstreffen der UN-Klimakonferenz am 17. Juni 2011 erfolglos beendet - UN official July 2011: Climate change 'threatens peace' - 18 November 2011: IPCC report says that the risk from extreme weather events is likely to increase - 28 novembre: 17e conférence de l'ONU sur le réchauffement climatique - 190 pays réunis à Durban jusqu'au 9 décembre - 1 December 2011: Climate deal pushed by poorest nations - 4 December 2011: Protests at climate change summit in Durban demanding faster action - 5. Dezember 2011: 'Neue Welle der Entwaldung' - das Abholzen der Regenwälder gefährdet Klimaschutz und die Lebensgrundlage z.B. von Millionen von Afrikanern - 5 December 2011: Discovered earth-like planet 'Kepler 22-b' is too far away to go into exile, also for the international tea-party movement - 11 December 2011: UN climate conference in Durban approves deal delaying worldwide obligation to control greenhouse gases to 2020 - 13 December 2011: Canada to withdraw from Kyoto Protocol
2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha (Qatar) - 28. März 2012: Der Weltklimarat IPCC warnt vor einer Zunahme von Extremwettern infolge des Klimawandels - extreme Temperaturen und Hitzewellen hätten seit 1950 zugenommen, heisst es im neu veröffentlichten Bericht - 23 June 2012: Rio summit ends with an agreement from world leaders that charities say represents a 'missed chance' - 25 November 2012: As Qatar welcomes world leaders to the 18th UN climate change conference, its own environmental record has come under criticism as a major contributor to greenhouse gases - 6 December: The delegate Naderev Sano from typhoon-hit Philippines demanded that ministers at the Doha conference put aside their differences and take effective steps to combat global warming - 7 December: Standoff between rich and developing countries remains as UN climate talks near end - 8 December: Rich and poor nations disagree on funding as negotiators scramble to reach a global agreement on rising CO2 emissions - 9 December: Delegates in Doha agreed to extend the Kyoto protocol until 2020
2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 19 novembre 2013: Le typhon Haiyan électrise la conférence climat de Varsovie
23 September 2014 Climate Summit at UN Headquarters in New York City - 21 September 2014: Scientists reveal ‘fair system’ for countries to tackle climate change urging rich nations to make biggest commitment and warning world leaders ahead of UN summit in New York - 22 September 2014: Poor nations’ climate change budget puts health and education funds at risk, according to ODI-led research - 22 September 2014: People rallied worldwide over climate change ahead of the climate-change summit hosted by Ban Ki-moon in New York - 2 November 2014: Time running out to reach 2°C warming target, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Lima (Peru) - 27 November 2014: UN climate change deal must have legally binding targets, EU says - 11 December 2014: Time presses as climate talks head for penultimate day - 13 December: Lima climate summit extended as poor countries demand more from rich - 14 December 2014: UN members adopt a format for national pledges to cut greenhouse gases
6 June 2015: Africa sounds the alarm over crucial climate summit
November/December 2015 UN Climate Change Conference in Paris - 10 October 2015: Pledges by nations to cut carbon emissions will fall far short of those needed to prevent global temperatures rising by more than the crucial 2C by the end of the century, climate experts say - 25/26 November 2015: The year 2015 is shaping up to be the hottest on record according to the UN's weather agency, stressing that based on current voluntary pledges, Earth is on track for 3 C
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference - 30 November 2015: The capitals of the world's two most populous nations China and India, Beijing and Delhi, were blanketed in hazardous, choking smog on Monday as climate change talks began in Paris, where China, the USA, the EU, India, Russia, Japan, Germany and Iran causing large proportion of pollution are participants - 30 November 2015: Participants in the UN climate summit in Paris on Monday observed a minute of silence during its opening for the victims of the 2015 Paris terror attacks, but will they also observe a minute of silence for the casualties of the repression of the Syrian democratic protests since 2011 and the victims of Assad's and Russian regime's daily terror attacks? - 30 November 2015: 'The terrible events that France experienced this tragic November are daily reality for Ukraine for almost 21 months, my country is suffering for the terrorism sponsored and promoted by the Russian Federation', Ukrainian president Poroshenko says in Paris
1 December 2015: Warm countries launch sun-energy alliance - 6 December: Cautious hopes as negotiators from 195 nations at UN conference agree draft climate change deal - 6 December: Small islands that bear the brunt of rising sea levels also face the greatest risk of diseases linked to a warmer planet, health leaders say, as 13 million medical professionals added to the calls for a global climate pact - 12 December: Final draft published as nearly 200 governments prepare to officially adopt climate change deal on how to cut carbon emissions post-2020 - 13 décembre: L'accord mondial sur le climat conclu samedi soir
7 October 2016: Poor countries urge fast action on Paris deal to stop catastrophic warming, as the new treaty will not stop catastrophic warming as it stands, setting the world on track to a temperature rise of about 3C over the next 50 years, enough to render many of the world’s poorest countries uninhabitable
7 au 18 novembre 2016 Conférence de Marrakech sur le réchauffement climatique, la 22e conférence des parties COP22 de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques
June 2017 USA withdrawal from the Paris climate accord
12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas
6-17 November 2017 UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn, presided over by the Government of Fiji - Novembre 2017 Conférence de Bonn sur les changements climatiques - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards', according to scientists at UN climate talks - 15 November 2017: At Bonn summint governments have acknowledged for the first time that 'first peoples', indigenous communities and groups can play a leadership role in protecting forests and limiting global warming - 18 novembre 2017: À Bonn un accord pour évaluer les émissions en décembre 2018 à Katowice
2-14 December 2018 Katowice Climate Change Conference - 2 décembre 2018: La 24e Conférence de l'ONU sur le climat à Katowice, en pleine région houillère, avec en tête l'alerte rouge lancée récemment par les scientifiques du Giec, ouvre dimanche dans l'urgence climatique - 4 December 2018: School student Greta Thunberg accuses leading politicans of a world facing global warming and climate change of behaving like irresponsible children - 11/12 December 2018: Scientists urge action at UN climate talks, saying 'window is narrowing', as Vanuatu accuses the USA and other rich and developed countries of obstructing progress at the UN climate summit - 14 décembre 2018: Malgré les désaccords, un accord est toujours possible à Katowice - 15 December 2018: UN climate change talks ended with a deal agreed on how to put the 2015 Paris agreement into action, but with other contentious problems left to be resolved next year, as Jennifer Morgan of Greenpeace says 'people expected action, and that is what governments did not deliver'

History of climate change science - Scientific consensus on climate change - Media coverage of global warming - Climate change coverage by country
Climate change denial, or global warming denial is denial, dismissal, or unwarranted doubt that contradicts the scientific consensus on climate change, including the extent to which it is caused by humans, its impacts on nature and human society
Public opinion on global warming - Climate change opinion by country

Water pollution - Marine pollution - Water pollution by country
Ocean disposal of radioactive waste
Ocean acidification, ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - Dead zones - Fish kill - Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact On European Seas
2012: 12. Januar 2012: Erderwärmung gefährdet das Leben in den Ozeanen durch Ausdehnung sauerstoffloser und sauerstoffarmer Zonen - 25 November 2012: Marine snails in seas around Antarctica are being affected by ocean acidification, internatinal study says
2018: 4 January 2018: Areas starved of oxygen in open ocean and by coasts have soared in recent decades, risking dire consequences for marine life and humanity, scientists warn in a study
Wastewater - Sewage - Sewage treatment - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
2013: 10 to 12 April 2013 International Conference on Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in European Seas - 7th International Conference on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology, Hong Kong, 17-21 June 2013
2014: 6 August 2014: The amount of mercury threatening marine life near the surface of many of the world’s oceans tripled as the result of polluting activities, study finds
2015: 16 May 2015: Shellfish species shrinking as rising carbon emissions hit marine life - 2 July 2015: New study warns of dangerous climate change risks to the Earth’s oceans, saying immediate efforts are needed to curb carbon pollution to minimize ocean ecosystem changes
Oil spill - Crude oil washing - Oil toxicity is a wildlife disease resulting from the accidental exposure of animals to oil - Oil pollution toxicity to marine fish
List of oil spills - Oil spills by country
Environmental impact of shipping
Plastic particle water pollution - Great Pacific Garbage Patch
2014: 10 December 2014: Full scale of plastic in the world's oceans revealed for first time, as data of more than five trillion pieces of plastic, floating in the world’s oceans and causing damage throughout the food chain, found by new research
2015: 29 April 2015: Effective policies to reduce the amount of plastic ending up in the ocean are urgently needed, the first global study on the sources of microplastics and their impact on the environment concludes, but even if all releases of plastic to the environment ceased immediately, the microplastic problem would persist due to the continued fragmentation of plastic bags, bottles and other rubbish
2016: 2 June 2016: Fish are being killed, and prevented from reaching maturity, by the litter of plastic particles finding their way into the world’s oceans, new research has proved
2017: 19 July 2017: Plastic pollution risks 'near permanent contamination of natural environment', according to first global analysis by USA academics of all mass–produced plastics, finding that humans have produced 8.3bn tonnes since the 1950s with the majority ending up in landfill or oceans
2018: 31 May 2018: Plastic fragment found stuck in dead harp seal's stomach found washed up on Skye, as scientists say its appearance may be associated with global climate warming affecting sea ice cover - 3 juin 2018: Une baleine est morte après avoir ingurgité plus de 80 sacs en plastique dans le sud de la Thaïlande, un pays causant chaque année la mort de centaines de créatures marines

Fresh water as a resource - Water pollution by country - Freshwater ecology - Water security, 'the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production'
2017: 19 October 2017: World's deepest lake Baikal in Siberia, which holds one fifth of the world’s unfrozen fresh water, crippled by putrid algae, poaching and pollution
May 2019: 8 May 2019: Only a third of the world’s great rivers remain free flowing, due to the impact of dams that are drastically reducing the benefits healthy rivers provide people and nature, according to a global analysis
Wastewater - Sewage - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment - Sewage treatment - Thermal pollution - Water cooling
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
Water scarcity - the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs within a region - List of countries by freshwater withdrawal
2015: 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances
December 2019 1.9 billion people at risk from mountain water shortages: 9 December 2019: A quarter of the world’s population are at risk of water supply problems as mountain glaciers, snow-packs and alpine lakes are run down by global heating and rising demand, according to an international study

Resource depletion - List of environmental issues - UNO-Weltwasserbericht 2012: 'Wir leben über unsere Verhältnisse' - 'Managing water under uncertainty and risk' - Weltwasserforum in Marseille ab 12. März 2012 - 12 August 2015: The Earth’s 'overshoot day' - based on a comparison of demands in terms of carbon emissions, cropland, fish stocks, and the use of forests for timber with the planet’s ability to regenerate such resources and absorb the carbon emitted - will occur for 2015 on Thursday six days earlier than 2014, Global Footprint Network says - 4 juin 2016: Le braconnage des espèces animales, l'exploitation minière et forestière illégale et les autres trafics de ressources naturelles ont rapporté en 2015 jusqu'à 258 milliards de dollars aux groupes criminels qui s'y livrent, selon l'ONU

Deforestation - Deforestation by region - Illegal logging
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
2016: 1 June 2016: Leaked trade industry figures show a five-fold increase in the use of palm oil for biodiesel in Europe between 2010 and 2014, providing new evidence of links between deforestation in southeast Asia and the EU’s renewable energy mandate
2017: 28 September 2017: The world’s tropical forests are so degraded they have become a source rather than a sink of carbon emissions, according to a new study that highlights the urgent need to protect and restore the Amazon and similar regions
April 2019: 25 April 2019: Millions of hectares of pristine tropical rainforest were destroyed in 2018, according to satellite analysis, with beef, chocolate and palm oil among the main causes, as clearcutting of primary forest by loggers and cattle ranchers in Brazil dominated the destruction

Overfishing - EU revamps fishing policy to save depleted stocks

Environmental disaster - List of environmental disasters
Environmental impact by man-made sources - Environmental impact of war - Environmental impact of nuclear power - List of industrial disasters
Industrial gases
Environmental impact of mining - Environmental impact of the coal industry - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Environmental impact of the energy industry
March 2017: 7 March 2017: Pollution is responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five, according to new WHO reports, with toxic air, unsafe water, and and lack of sanitation the leading causes
June 2017: 21 June 2017: Some of the world’s top banks are continuing to lend tens of billions for extracting the most carbon-intensive fossil fuels, as finance provided for tar sands, other unconventional oil and gas, as well as coal and liquefied natural gas amounted to $87bn for the top 37 banks in 2016, according to a report of top lenders
October 2017: 19 October 2017: Pollution, including toxic air, water, soils and workplaces, kills at least nine million people and costs trillions of dollars every year, according to the most comprehensive global analysis to date, which warns the crisis 'threatens the continuing survival of human societies', published by the Lancet Commission on pollution and health
October 2018: 12 octobre 2018: Le réchauffement de la planète a multiplié par quatre le nombre des catastrophes liées au climat depuis les années 70, selon une étude du FICR
November 2018: 14 November 2018: G20 nations still led by fossil fuel industry, climate report finds, showing that politicians are paying more heed to the fossil fuel industry than to advice from scientists
November 2019 world’s nations to produce more than twice as much coal, oil and gas as can be burned in 2030: 20 November 2019: The world’s nations are on track to produce more than twice as much coal, oil and gas as can be burned in 2030, according to an analysis based on the published national plans of the eight key producers Australia, Canada, Russia, USA, China, India, Indonesia and Norway, which account for 60% of global fossil fuel production, as plans of other big producers, including Saudi Arabia and Iran, are not publicly available

Toxic waste is any material in liquid, solid, or gas form that can cause serious harm to humans as well as animals and the environment - Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment
2015 toxic threats: 20 October 2015: The world’s top six toxic threats - lead, radionuclides, mercury, hexavalent chromium, pesticides and cadmium - affect the health of 95 million people, exposure to these pollutants result in debilitating and life-threatening diseases, especially in children
2016 top ten worst polluting industries: 'The World's Worst Pollution Problems 2016: The Toxics Beneath Our Feet' updates the top ten worst polluting industries

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents - Nuclear and radiation accidents - List of nuclear power accidents by country - List of nuclear and radiation fatalities by country - List of civilian nuclear accidents - List of military nuclear accidents - Nuclear fallout - Radioactive contamination
Kyshtym disaster on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the Soviet Union, causing radioactive fallout over the Soviet, many neighboring states and ongoing contamination with radioactivity
1966 Palomares B-52 crash, when a B-52G bomber of the USA Air Force's Strategic Air Command, carrying four Mk28-type hydrogen bombs, collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling - 19 October 2015: Nearly 50 years after a USA air force B-52 bomber carrying nuclear weapons crashed in Palomares in south-east Spain, USA's government has finally agreed to clean up the radioactive contamination that resulted from the 1966 crash
Three Mile Island accident, partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on 28 March 1979 in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in USA's Dauphin County in Pennsylvania
1986 Chernobyl disaster, catastrophic nuclear accident released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe - 20 avril 2016: Des sols du continent européen sont toujours «contaminés» au Cesium 137, 30 ans après la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl, selon une étude de l'ACRO - 11 July 2019: Ukraine and its European partners formally inaugurated a new metal dome encasing the destroyed reactor at the infamous Chernobyl plant, wrapping up a two-decade effort
2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster with three nuclear meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials beginning on 12 March 2011
Radioactive waste - Radioactive contamination - High-level radioactive waste management - Plutonium in the environment
List of nuclear weapons tests - List of nuclear weapon test locations
2014: 7 January 2014: N-test legacy in stratosphere bigger than thought - 2 March 2014: 60 years after USA's Bikini Atoll nuclear tests islands still unliveable
2016: 28 juillet 2016: L'ancien Premier ministre de Jacques Chirac, Alain Juppé, s’exprimait à Papeete que les expérimentations atomiques menées par la France entre 1966 et 1996 en 'Polynésie française' avaient eu un impact environnemental et sanitaire, même si l'Etat a affirmé le contraire pendant plusieurs décennies
Nuclear weapons debate - Uranium mining debate - Nuclear power debate

Environmental impact of transport (Lokomotionsindustrie und Ortsveränderung) - Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates
Since 2014 diesel emissions scandal: Since 2014 International diesel emissions scandal - raising awareness over the high levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide range of carmakers, including BMW, Citroen, Fiat, Ford, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes, Peugeot, Renault, Volkswagen group and Volvo, scandals relating to the emissions from diesel engines began in 2014 when emissions discrepancies between European and USA models of vehicles were highlighted by the International Council on Clean Transportation
2017 health impact of diesel emissions: 15 May 2017: The global human health impact of the diesel emissions scandal has been revealed by new research showing a minimum of 38,000 people a year die early due to the failure of diesel vehicles to meet official limits in real driving conditions, as most of the deaths are in Europe, where highly polluting cars are the main culprit, and in China and India
May 2018 breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits: 17 May 2018: The European Commission sent six countries, including Germany, France and the UK, to Europe’s highest court ECJ for breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits and for failing to meet EU air quality standards, in a long-running process of crimes, denials and shady tricks
April 2019 toxis air and children: 10 April 2019: Four million children develop asthma every year as a result of air pollution from cars and trucks, equivalent to 11,000 new cases a day occuring worldwide due to toxic air from traffic, a landmark study has found
September 2019 diesel car emissions: 10 September 2019: Emissions from diesel cars, even newer and supposedly cleaner models, increase on hot days, a new study has found, raising questions over how cities suffering from air pollution can deal with urban heat islands and the climate crisis
Environmental impact of aviation
October 2019 super-rich fuelling growing demand for private jets: 27 October 2019: Almost 8,000 new private jets are expected to be bought by multinational companies and the super-rich over the next decade, each of which will burn 40 times as much carbon per passenger as regular commercial flights, according to an aviation report, as growth centred in USA and China, with slowdown in Sweden

Agriculture and the environment - Sustainable agriculture
April 2016 agriculture's crucial role for planet’s future: 28 April 2016: Agriculture will play a crucial role in addressing the planet’s most pressing challenges, whether on food production, health or the preservation of the environment, special report shows
September 2019 driving the climate crisis by public farm subsidies: 16 September 2019: The public is providing more than $1m per minute in global farm subsidies, much of which is driving the climate crisis and destruction of wildlife, promoting high-emission cattle production, forest destruction and pollution from the overuse of fertiliser, as just 1% of the $700bn a year given to farmers is used to benefit the environment according to a new report

Environmental impact of agriculture
September 2017 a third of the planet’s land severely degraded: 12 September 2017: A third of the planet’s land is severely degraded and fertile soil is being lost at the rate of 24bn tonnes a year, according to a new UN-backed study that calls for a shift away from destructively intensive agriculture
Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
2013: 20 October 2013: Agrochemicals linked to health problems in Argentina - 10 December 2013: The use of pesticides increased 858% in the last 22 years in Argentina, but as there is a great business for the global poison industry, led by Monsanto and Bayer, and as its products are sprayed over areas of intense monoculture, where more than 12 million people live, the public health is faced with great problems, according to the Network of Physicians working in crop-sprayed towns
2014: 24 June 2014: The world’s most widely used insecticides have contaminated the environment across the planet so pervasively that global food production is at risk, international team of scientists says - 28 October 2014: About 2,000 hectares of fertile land are lost each day due to damage caused by salt in areas of dry irrigated land with little rainfall, according to a UN analysis
2015: 23 March 2015: The UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer says that three pesticides, the herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in USA's Monsanto's Roundup – and the insecticides malathion and diazinon, were 'probably' carcinogenic and two others, which have already been outlawed or restricted, were 'possibly' so - 11 November 2015: Glyphosate has devastating, dramatic effects on the health of people living in very close contact with it, Argentinian photographer Pablo Ernesto Piovano's report on the conditions of people living and working close to GM soy crops, where massive amounts of herbicide are used, reveals
February/March 2017: 21 February 2017: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay farm transgenic seeds glyphosate resistant, but there is an association between cancer and environmental exposure to Glyphosate - 7 March 2017: UN experts denounce 'myth' pesticides are necessary to feed the world, as report warns of catastrophic consequences and blames manufacturers for ‘systematic denial of harms’ and 'unethical marketing tactics’
July/August 2017: July/August 2017 Egg contamination scandal in EU's Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - 3 August 2017: Millions of eggs are being recalled from shops and warehouses in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium after they were found to contain high levels of a toxic insecticide banned from use in the production of food for human consumption
August 2018 Monsanto’s Roundup verdict: 11 August 2018: Monsanto, now a unit of Bayer AG, suffered a major blow with a San Francisco jury ruling that the company was liable for terminally ill Dewayne Johnson’s cancer, awarding him $289m in damages, after Monsanto’s Roundup weedkiller caused his cancer without warning him of the health hazards from exposure, and after the jury further found that Monsanto 'acted with malice or oppression' and 'fought science' for years, targeting academics who spoke up about possible health risks of the herbicide product - Monsanto legal cases
August 2018: 16 August 2018: Cancer-linked herbicide, sold as Roundup by Monsanto, present in 45 products including granola, snack bars and Cheerios, marketed to USA children, a public health organization's study has found
April 2019: 11 April 2019: French appeals court in Lyon has said USA chemicals giant Monsanto, which was bought by Germany’s Bayer last year, was guilty of poisoning a farmer who said he suffered neurological damage after accidentally inhaling fumes from a weedkiller made by the company
Pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the twentieth century - List of crop plants pollinated by bees - Beekeeping - List of diseases of the honey bee - Bees and toxic chemicals - Pesticide toxicity to bees - Imidacloprid effects on bees - 'Imidacloprid' systemic insecticide, belonging to a group of pesticides called neonicotinoids, the primary producer of imidacloprid is the German chemical firm 'Bayer CropScience'
May 2016: 11 May 2016: From April 2015 to March 2016, USA beekeepers lost 44% of their colonies, as 28% of bee colonies were lost over the 2015/16 winter and more than half of surveyed beekeepers said they suffered unsustainable losses
February 2019: 17 février 2019: Près de la moitié des espèces d'insectes, essentiels aux écosystèmes comme aux économies, sont en déclin rapide dans le monde entier, selon une étude

Sustainable food system - Sustainable diet
January 2019: 16 January 2019: Science-based diet that tackles both the poor food eaten by billions of people and averts global environmental catastrophe, requiring huge cuts in red meat-eating in western countries and radical changes across the world, has been devised by the 'EAT-Lancet Commission on Food, Planet, Health'

Genetically modified organism - Genetic engineering and agriculture - Genetically modified food controversies
2013: March Against Monsanto 25 May 2013 - 26 May 2013: Worldwide protests against seed giant Monsanto and the genetically modified food it produces

Environmental crime
2015/2016: 26 October 2015: Raging forest fires across Indonesia are thought to be responsible for up to half a million cases of respiratory infections, with the resultant haze covering parts of Malaysia and Singapore now being described as a 'crime against humanity' - 19 September 2016: Haze from Indonesian fires last year may have caused over 100,000 premature deaths, according to a new study of Harvard and Columbia universities that triggers calls for action
2016: 13 October 2016: International judges will take evidence in The Hague from witnesses and victims of USA agri-business Monsanto, which manufactured hundreds of thousands of tonnes of Agent Orange for use as a chemical weapon in the Vietnam war, and is now the world’s biggest genetically modified seed corporation also developing toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and glyphosate, in an attempt by hundreds of grassroots groups to hold the company accountable for human rights violations, crimes against humanity, and 'ecocide', or widespread environmental damage
September 2018: 19 September 2018: EU probes German car makers including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen and Audi for suspected collusion to cheat emission tests

Global Witness exposes the hidden links between demand for natural resources, corruption, armed conflict and environmental destruction
2015: 27 August 2015: Between 2002 and 2013, at least 448 environmentalists were killed in Brazil, according to Global Witness
2016: 4 March 2016: New data of Global Witness on the murder rate of environmental and land activists in Honduras, the highest in the world, for taking a stand against destructive dam, mining, logging and agriculture projects - 20 June 2016: 2015 became deadliest year for environmental activists, as at least 185 activists were killed, anti-mining activities were the most deadly with 42 deaths related to protests, according to 'Global Witness' - 21 October 2016: As last year was the deadliest on record for environmental campaigners and more than three people were killed each week in 2015 by police, private security or hired assassins, states and investors must take steps to tackle this human rights crisis, UN special rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders Michel Forst says in a report for the UN general assembly
2017/2018: 2 February 2018: 197 people killed last year for defending land, wildlife or natural resources, new Global Witness data reveals - 2 March 2018: As the Guardian and Global Witness revealed that almost four environmental defenders were murdered every week in 2017, War on Want learned of two more killings through our Latin American partner organisations - 19 mars 2018: En 2017, près de 200 personnes, activistes, leaders indigènes, scientifiques ou simples villageois, ont été tuées pour avoir voulu protéger l’environnement, première responsable l’industrie agroalimentaire, selon Global Witness
August 2019 environmental activist murders double in 15 years: 5 August 2019: Killings of environmental defenders have doubled over the past 15 years to reach levels usually associated with war zones, according to a study that reveals how murders of activists are concentrated in countries with the worst corruption and weakest laws

Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species - Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene - List of recently extinct species - Endangered species
Extinct ethnic groups
Extinction risk from global warming - Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present, habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization - Overexploitation refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns
2016: 14/16 September 2016: Humanity is driving an unprecedented extinction of sealife unlike any in the fossil record, hunting and killing larger species in a way that will disrupt ocean ecosystems for millions of years, scientists have found - 27 October 2016: World facing biggest mass extinction since dinosaurs, with two thirds of animals wiped out in 50 years, report by the World Wildlife Fund and the Zoological Society of London says
2018: 30 October 2018: Humanity has wiped out 60% of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles since 1970, leading the world’s foremost experts to warn that the annihilation of wildlife is now an emergency that threatens civilisation
May 2019 biodiversity crisis and UN report: 6 May 2019: UN’s global assessment report paints a dire picture of our effect on the natural world, saying one million species at risk of extinction - 7 May 2019: UN environment warning on biodiversity crisis
Colony collapse disorder causes significant economic losses because many agricultural crops worldwide are pollinated by honey bees - List of crop plants pollinated by bees
2010: 2 May 2010: Fears for crops as shock figures from America show scale of bee catastrophe
2017 global contamination by bee-harming pesticides: 5 October 2017: Honey tests reveal global contamination by bee-harming pesticides, as neonicotinoid insecticides are found in 75% of global honey samples and half contain a cocktail of chemicals - 6 October 2017: Nerve agents in honey
Poaching, the illegal hunting, killing, or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights - Illegal wildlife trade over the world - Wildlife smuggling
2015: 19 June 2015: The rate of extinction for species in the 20th century was up to 100 times higher than it would have been without man’s impact, scientists say in their study 'Accelerated modern human–induced species losses'
2016: 12 August 2016: Elephants on the path to extinction as the world’s population of elephants is nearing a critical point - 3 October 2016: A bid to give the highest level of international legal protection to all African elephants was defeated at a 'Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species' global wildlife summit of 182 nations in Johannesburg, after the EU played a pivotal role in blocking the proposal, which was fought over by rival groups of African nations - 8 December 2016: Giraffes facing extinction after suffering a devastating decline in numbers resulting from illegal hunting, habitat destruction, changes through expanding agriculture and mining, deforestation, pollution and civil wars, with nearly 40% of giraffes lost in the last 30 years, according to the latest IUCN 'red list' analysis

Wildfires caused by arson - Fire ecology

Urbanization and Rural development - Urbanization by country - List of metropolitan areas by population - List of agglomerations by population
March 2019: 17 March 2019: Deadly air in our cities, as traffic pollution is putting especially children at risk
Megacity, usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people
Environmental effects of urbanization - Urban heat island is a city or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities
Urban ecology, the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment - Sustainable urbanism
Urban planning - Urban design
Architecture - Herrschaftsarchitektur (ruling-class architecture) - Skyscraper - Sustainable architecture

Man-made disasters - Man-made disasters by country
Industrial accidents and incidents by country: Industrial accidents and incidents by country
Building collapses by country: Building collapses - Building collapses by country
Urban fires: Urban fires

Transport disasters - Transport disasters by country
Aviation accidents and incidents, by country and type: Aviation accidents and incidents - Aviation accidents and incidents by country - Aviation accidents and incidents by type
Bridge disasters by cause: Bridge disasters by cause
Railway accidents, by country and type: Railway accidents and incidents by country - Railway accidents by type
Road accidents and incidents by country: Road accidents and incidents - Road incidents by country
Shipwrecks by location and type: Shipwrecks - Shipwrecks by location - Shipwrecks by type
Since 2011 transport disasters involving refugees: Since 2011 transport disasters involving refugees in the international refugee and migrant crisis

Natural disasters, by continent and by country
Disaster risk reduction in the world by regions and countries - '' participatory web platform for the disaster risk reduction community



Antarctica - Arctic


Western Asia (so-called 'Near East' or 'Middle East')


Oceania countries


Internationale Organisationen, Institutionen etc. zur Intervention, Krisenverhinderung und Krisenbewältigung

United Nations:
United Nations (UN) - History of the United Nations - United Nations (Website)
Population on the earth seven billion on 31 October 2011 - UN sets out challenges in 2011 report - UN Global Sustainability Panel (January 2012)
1899/1907: Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands - An der zweiten Konferenz 1907 waren 44 Staaten beteiligt, um eine internationale Rechtsordnung auszuarbeiten und Normen für friedliche Lösungen bei internationalen Streitfällen zu erreichen, konnten sich allerdings auf keine Abrüstungsschritte einigen und scheiterten bei der Einführung einer obligatorischen Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit an der deutschen Ablehnung, der sich auch Österreich-Ungarn, die Türkei und einige kleinere Staaten anschlossen
1917/1918: Wilson's 'Fourteen Points' is a blueprint for world peace elucidated in a January 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms by USA's President Woodrow Wilson, following the 'Decree On Peace', passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the 8 November 1917
1919: 1919 'Paris Peace Conference' of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers, involving more than 32 countries and nationalities, creating the 'League of Nations', and deciding the five peace treaties with defeated enemies, including the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as 'mandates', reparations imposed on Germany, and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect the forces of nationalism
1920-1946: 'League of Nations' (Société des Nations) intergovernmental organisation to maintain world peace, founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference that ended 1914-1918 World War I
1925: Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, in international armed conflicts signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 - UNODA website: 36 Signatory States in 1925, in 2015 number of States Parties 138 - 1949 Geneva Conventions comprising four treaties and three additional protocols, establishing the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of war (1864, 1906, 1929, 1949)
1942: 1942 Declaration by the 'United Nations' agreed on 1 January was a World War II document during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, the Allies USA, the UK, the USSR, and China, nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile
1943: October/November 1943 Moscow Conference between the major Allies of World War II, agreement to create a world organization, the European Advisory Commission
1944: August-October 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization), an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders
1945: February 1945 Yalta Conference World War II meeting of the heads of government of the USA, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe - July/August 1945 Potsdam Conference and Potsdam Agreement
April-June 1945 Charter of the United Nations: United Nations Conference on International Organization of delegates from 50 Allied nations from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, reviewing and rewriting the Dumbarton Oaks agreements and resulting in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June - 1945 'Charter of the United Nations' signed in San Francisco on 26 June by 50 of the 51 original member countries

Since 1945/1946 UN Security Council - UN Security Council (Website) - List of members of the UN Security Council and members of Regional Groups
May 2014 193 UN member states and regional groups: As of May 2014 192 of the 193 UN member states are divided into five regional groups including the African Group, with 54 member states, the Asia-Pacific Group, with 53 member states, the Eastern European Group, with 23 member states, the Latin American and Caribbean Group, with 33 member states and the Western European and Others Group WEOG, with 28 member states, plus 1 member state USA as an observer state
UN Security Council subsidiary organs - UN Security Council mandates - UN Military Staff Committee, a Security Council subsidiary body whose role, as defined by the UN Charter, is to plan UN military operations and assist in the regulation of armaments - Since 2005 UN Peacebuilding Commission - Vetoed UN Security Council resolutions
Reform of the UN Security Council
Timeline of the UN Security Council's resolutions - UN Security Council resolutions by year
1960 UN resolution 138 following Argentine complaint: In June 1960, after a complaint that the transfer of Adolf Eichmann to Israel from Argentina constituted a violation of the latter's sovereignty, UN Security Council declared in its resolution 138, approved by eight votes, that such acts could endanger international peace and security and requested that Israel make the appropriate reparation in accordance with the UN Charter, but Israel held the view that the matter was beyond the Council's competence and should instead be settled via direct bilateral negotiations, as the capture of Eichmann caused alarm at the USA's CIA and West German Bundesnachrichtendienst, which had known for at least two years that Eichmann was hiding in Argentina, but did not act, fearing what Eichmann might say in his testimony about West German national security advisor CDU Hans Globke, who had coauthored several antisemitic Nazi laws, according to documents declassified in 2006, also revealing that both agencies had used some of Eichmann's former Nazi colleagues to spy on European countries
2011: 28. April 2011: UN uneins gegen Assad - 4. Juni 2011: Blutbad im syrischen Hama - 9 June 2011: European nations demand UN resolution condemning Syria's violent actions - 3. August 2011: Keine UN-Resolution zu Syrien - China, Indien und Rußland blockieren
Since 2011 vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China: List of vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China since 2011
2012: 29. März 2012: Für mehr Demokratie im Sicherheitsrat - Vorstoss der Schweiz und vier weiterer Staaten für eine Uno-Reform - 24 mai: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU est "de plus en plus inadapté" - ONG accuse - 22. August: Sucht Ban Ki Moon mit seiner Iran-Reise Ende August das besorgte 'Fachgespräch' über Krebsgeschwüre und Chemotherapie? - 6. September 2012: Ban Ki Moon kritisiert den Sicherheitsrat der UN wegen Untätigkeit und Versagen im Syrien-Konflikt - 18 October 2012: Argentina, Australia, Luxembourg, Rwanda and South Korea won non-permanent seats on the UN Security Council
2013: 16 July 2013: Russia and China block UN condemnation of Iran missile tests and oppose finding Iran in clear violation of the UN ban on Iranian arms exports, council diplomats report
August 2013: 29 August: UN Security Council members meet for second day to discuss British resolution calling for military action after a first meeting on Wednesday ended with no agreement - 29./30. August: Nach zweieinhalb Jahren brutalen Kriegs Assads gegen die syrische Bevölkerung, die gewagt hatte, friedlich für Demokratie zu demonstrieren, zaubert ein bestens gelaunter Ban Ki Moon aus dem Hut, daß die Krise 'mit friedlichen Mitteln beigelegt werden' soll: 'Es ist wichtig, dass alle Meinungsverschiedenheiten auf friedliche Weise und durch Dialog gelöst werden' - 29/30 August: After imploring the world not to stand idly by over Assad's use of chemical weapons, Cameron was forced into a climbdown by the Labour party, failing to pass a motion by 285 to 272 votes in the parliament
September 2013: 6 September: USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power challenges Russia for its obstruction in preventing the Security Council from taking a firmer hand in Syria’s Civil War, even after the chemical weapons attack on August 21st
December 2013: 13 December: UN confirms in a final report that chemical arms were used repeatedly in Syria - 14 December: UN's Ban Ki-moon deplored the use of chemical weapons in Syria demanding that those responsible are held accountable
January 2014: 9 January 2014: Russia blocked a British-drafted UN Security Council statement condemning the Assad regime attacks on the city of Aleppo and the use of missiles and barrel bombs, that killed hundreds of people - 20 January 2014: Hours after the SNC has decided to attend Switzerland peace conference, UN chief Ban Ki-moon invites Iran to take part in Switzerland, an offer Iran's regime accepts - 21 janvier: L'ONU a retiré son invitation à l'Iran à participer à la conférence de paix en Suisse sur la Syrie, l'opposition syrienne confirme sa présence
February 2014: 15 February 2014: After more than 140,000 people, over 7,000 of them children, killed in Assad's war against Syrians, UN says 'sorry' for Syria talks failure
March 2014: 2 March: Ukraine's UN ambassador asked an emergency session of the Security Council 'to do everything possible now' to stop Russian aggression as Russian troops took over Ukraine's Crimea - 15 March: Russia vetoes UN resolution declaring Crimea referendum invalid, but 13 other nations voted in favour and China abstained from voting isolating Putin regime
April 2014: 14 April: As UN Security Council meets over Ukraine and well-organised pro-Russian attackers using Russian-origin automatic weapons, Britain's UN ambassador says Russia had massed tens of thousands of well-equipped troops near the Ukrainian border in addition to the 25,000 troops it recently moved into Crimea to seize it - 18 April: UN inquiry chief Michael Kirby wants North Korea hauled before international court, but China and Russia snubbed the UN security council meeting - 24 April: UN's Ban Ki-moon demands Security Council action on Syria over denied demands for aid access - 25 April: UN Security Council asks for inquiry into South Sudan April 2014 Bentiu massacre
May 2014: 22 May 2014: Russia and China veto UN draft resolution calling for Assad's war in Syria to be referred to the ICC, ignoring support for the measure by 65 other countries and all other members of the security council
June 2014: 17 June: Russia again finds no support at UN Security Council for a resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine - 26 June: UN council demands end to Syrian military action in the Golan Heights
July 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict: 10 July 2014: Hamas' rockets and Israel-Gaza conflict prompts emergency UN security council meeting - 10 July: During council's emergency meeting UN's Ban Ki-moon says ground offensive and 'all-out escalation' are preventable 'only if Hamas stops rocket firing', adding that Gaza cannot afford another all-out war - 11 July: Hamas urges Gazans not to show Israel where they are firing from - 12 July: Palestinian envoys and their supporters are discussing the text of a UN resolution urging truce, silent on rockets - 12 July: IDF footage reveals efforts to spare civilians in Gaza - 12/13 July: As UN council members urge to reach Gaza-Israel ceasefire, some foreign ministers to meet in Vienna today - 13 July: Hamas rejects Egyptian ceasefire proposal - 20 July 2014: 'United' Nations agency UNRWA handed 20 missiles found in Gaza school back to Hamas, not to International Criminal Court - 21 July: UN Security Council 'concerned' by growing Gaza conflict casualties - 28 July: After Israeli and PA criticism of John Kerrys handling of the Gaza crisis UN security council agrees on demand for Gaza cease-fire, but Hamas rocket fire continues - 30 July: In Israel, 79-year-old Holocaust survivor worries about her Gazan daughter
July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down near Hrabove with a surface-to-air missile - 18 July: UN meets as world leaders call for global inquiry into the explosion of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 - 18 July: UN demands full MH17 inquiry but armed Russian separatists block access to crash site destroying all links to air atrocity - 19 July: Amid reports that pro-Russia separatists accused of shooting down MH17 flight remove corpses themselves and are looting credit cards and other possessions, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and more global politicians round on Vladimir Putin as separatists continue to block international inspectors attempting to identify and repatriate bodies - 20 July: As inspectors still denied access and anger mounts towards Russian regime, that is not yet ready to abandon separatists, UN considers resolution on Ukraine crash site access - 21 July: UN to vote on international access to MH17 crash site - 21 July: USA has evidence of Russia's involvement in terrorist attack against MH17 Boeing, John Kerry says - 22 July: After the passing of Australia’s UN resolution for a full investigation into the MH17 crash Australia and Netherlands join in pledge 'to bring our people home'
August 2014: 6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis - 8 August: UN Security Council urges governments to help Iraq cope with a humanitarian crisis sparked by a jihadist offensive that has left hundreds of thousands of Iraqis on the run - 15/16 August: UN security council votes unanimously to adopt a resolution to blacklist those who finance, recruit or supply weapons to Islamic State IS militants in Iraq and Syria amid reports of IS militants killing dozens of residents in besieged ethnic Yazidi areas and fears for thousands kidnapped women, men and even babies
September 2014: 18/19 September: Ebola outbreak a threat to world peace, says UN security council, as Sierra Leone launches controversial Ebola shutdown and the Guinean Ebola team deadly attacked by stone-throwing locals - 24 September: UN adopts resolution to crack down on flows of foreign terrorist fighters - 28 September 2014: World leaders demand Security Council reform - Reform of the UN Security Council
October 2014: 16 October 2014: Angola, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain and Venezuela to join UN Security Council with non-permanent seats - 24 October 2014: UN Security Council meeting due to situation Ukraine - 31 October 2014: UN Syria envoy urges action plan in embattled country
December 2014: 23 December 2014: UN Security Council has held its first-ever debate on North Korea's human rights abuses - 30 December: UN security council rejects resolution calling for an independent state of Palestine to be established within 1967 borders
January 2015: 6 January: Lithuania and UK to convene UN Security Council meeting in January on the situation in Ukraine - 14 January: The UN Security Council condemns the terrorist shelling of the passenger bus near Volnovakha in Donetsk region on Tuesday, killing 11 civilians and injuring 17 others, including women and children - 16 January: UN Security Council reportedly ready to hold meeting on Ukraine on January 21 - 21 January: UN Security Council condemns Yemen attack, voicing support for President Hadi - 25 January: Russia prevented the UN Security Council from criticizing aggressive statements by pro-Russian separatists in Ukraine and condemning their offensive against Mariupol killing dozens of civilians and wounding over one hundred - 26 January: UN Security Council condemns Japan hostage's murder by 'Islamic State' calling for the immediate release of a second hostage - 26 January: UN Security Council to urgently consider impact of terrorist attack in Mariupol - 27 January: A senior UN official told emergency Security Council meeting that the deadly rocket barrage on Mariupol came from pro-Russian controlled territory and sought to strike a civilian population - 28 January: Ahead of Security Council meeting, USA condemns Hezbollah’s attack on IDF, saying Israel has right to self-defense against Hezbollah - 29 January: UN Security Council condemns death of Spanish peacekeeper following Hezbollah’s attack on IDF and Israel's response - 29 January: Assad continues barrel bombing of civilians although a UN resolution calls for an end to the indiscriminate employment of weapons, UN's Kyung-wha Kang says during a briefing of the UN Security Council as Assad's war enters its fifth year
February 2015: 16 February: UNSC demands Iranian-backed Houthi militia in Yemen 'immediately and unconditionally' withdraw from government - 16 February: UN Security Council vote on resolution on conflict in east Ukraine postponed - 18 February: As Ukraine's president Poroshenko calls on UN Security Council to prevent full-scale war amid intensified attacks of Russian-backed militants in eastern Ukraine, UN Security Council adopts resolution 'welcoming' the declaration of Ukraine, France, Germany, and Russia, announced on February 12 in Minsk - 27 February: Following a proposal by EU's France and Germany to discuss the implementation of the Minsk Agreements and reports of the OSCE, the UN Security Council will hold an emergency meeting on the situation in Ukraine today - 27 February: Statement by OSCE ambassadors at the meeting on the situation in Ukraine
March 2015: 6 March: UN Security Council to vote on a resolution to condemn the use of chlorine as a weapon in Syria and threaten to take action if such arms are used again in the conflict - 7 March: Fourteen Security Council members, including Russia but not Venezuela, adopt a resolution condemning the use of chlorine as a weapon in Syria and 'threatening' to take action - that is another resolution in the event of non-compliance - if such arms are used again in the conflict, which is now in its fourth year - 18 March 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Security Council calling for punishing Assad under Chapter VII of UN Charter after regime's latest chlorine gas attack on Sarmin in rural Idlib on Monday - 19 March: Russia refuses to participate in UN Security Council meeting on Crimea - 20 March: UN Security Council meeting on Crimea stresses importance of monitoring human rights in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, Russia, China, Angola and Venezuela refused to participate - 21 March 2015: Russia to block UN mission in Donbas and will not vote in the UN Security Council on the draft resolution to deploy peacekeepers, regime's Lavrov says - 22 March 2015: UN Security Council to meet on Sunday on a request from embattled Yemeni President Hadi for an 'urgent intervention' - 23 March: UN backs Yemen's Hadi as Huthis seize key airport in Taez - 25 March 2015: Assad regime's helicopters drop barrel bombs loaded with chlorine gas on Binnish near Idlib, and conducted seven attacks using chlorine gas in less than 20 days since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2209 without any prosecution by UN Security Council, Syrian Coalition says - 27 March 2015: Following Syrian American Medical Society's report, UN has more than doubled its estimate of Syrians who are living in besieged areas — and risk death by starvation, dehydration and the lack of medical care — to roughly 440,000 - 27 March: Gulf states ask UN Security Council for arms embargo on Yemen's Shi'ite rebels
April 2015: 1 April: More than 25,000 foreign fighters from some 100 countries are linked to al-Qaida and Islamic State, with Syria and Iraq comprising a 'veritable international finishing school for extremists', UN experts reported to the Security Council - 3 April: UN Security Council members call to investigate the latest allegations of the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon in Syria - 7 April: UN Security Council demands aid access to Yarmouk Camp on the outskirts of Damascus - 10 April: UN vote as early as Friday on Yemen arms embargo - 11 April: Saudi-Arabia says UN could vote soon on Yemen sanctions resolution aiming to end the Houthis' attempt to take over the country - 14 April: In a resolution approved in a 14-0 vote without Russian support, UN Security Council imposes arms embargo on Houthi rebels in Yemen, also demanding all Yemeni factions to end violence and resume UN-brokered negotiations - 17 April: UN envoys hear doctors' accounts of Syria chemical attacks - 17 April: Assad attacks Idlib with chlorine gas as UN Security Council looks into evidence of previous chemical attacks - 21 April: UN Security Council demands aid access for Syria's Yarmouk camp
May 2015: 8 May 2015: A majority of UN Security Council members supports USA bid to lay blame in Assad regime's chlorine attacks as activists and a doctor report of new chemical attacks in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib - 13 May 2015: After evidence given by the CIJA, Syrian Coalition calls for holding an urgent UN Security Council meeting, saying that the international community and the members of the UN Security Council bear full responsibility of the catastrophic situation in Syria - 15 May 2015: After weeks of violence in Burundi, UN Security Council on Thursday 'condemned both those who facilitate violence of any kind against civilians and those who seek to seize power by unlawful means' - 28 May 2015: UN security council urges end to impunity for attacks on journalists
June 2015: 5 June: Today UN Security Council will hold an emergency meeting because of the deterioration of situation in the east of Ukraine - 5 June: 28 people including 9 civilians killed in recent Maryinka battle, as Russian-backed forces launched a new offensive near Donetsk, UN's Jeffrey Feltman reports at the UN Security Council - 19 June 2015: Over 70 countries demand that Assad regime stops deadly aerial attacks against the Syrian people, especially 'the systematic use of barrel bombs', as May 2015 seen as deadliest month yet in over four years of fighting, with hundreds killed by regime bombardment - 26 June: More than 80 international human rights and aid groups are urging the UN Security Council to take real, immediate action against Assad's continuing use of barrel bombs in Syria
July 2015: 8 July: UN Security Council vote on Srebrenica massacre delayed until Wednesday after Russian veto threat - 9 July: Russia blocks UN condemnation of Srebrenica as genocide - 10 July: In a letter to the Security Council, Syrian National Coalition calls attention to the grave situation in Zabadani, where inhabitants suffer under a joint offensive by Syrian regime force and foreign fighters from Hezbollah and calls to condemn in the strongest terms Hezbollah’s acts of aggression inside Syria - 11 July: Syrian Coalition's Marwa says that the USA’s circulation of a draft UN resolution that aims to establish an accountability mechanism for chemical weapons attacks in Syria is late - 20 July: Security Council adopts resolution 2231 on Iran’s nuclear programme - 21 July 2015: United Nations must be made fit for purpose, says UNDP head Helen Clark - 30 July: Russia's position on setting up an MH17 international criminal tribunal to prosecute those responsible isolates the country on the international stage, Ukrainian FM Pavlo Klimkin says, after the lone 'no' vote was cast by Russian regime
August 2015: 7/8 August 2015: UN Security Council votes unanimously to set up a panel to identify who is behind deadly chlorine gas attacks in Syria, which the West blames on Assad’s regime - 18 August: UN Security Council backs new Syria peace initiative as the death toll in Assad regime air strikes on Douma neighbourhood of Damascus nears 100, sparking global outrage - 19 August 2015: SNHR records 125 Assad regime breaches of UNSC resolution 2118, stating that 'in the event of non-compliance with this resolution, measures shall be imposed' - 19 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls for implementation of UN Security Council's resolutions to take immediate action in the besieged Douma district, urging the enforcement of resolution 2165 which calls for delivering humanitarian aid to besieged areas without the need for permission from the Assad regime - 22 August 2015: Israel’s Ambassador to the UN Ron Prosor calls for the UN to condemn Syrian-Iranian Thursday’s rocket fire on Israel, and not simply make do with a general statement, calling for both sides to 'exercise maximum restraint'
September 2015: 3 September 2015: Russia delaying start of Syria chemical weapons probe - 7 September 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon admits that the UN security council is failing Syria, urging Russia and China to stop blocking proposals to end a conflict that has cost hundreds of thousands of lives and driven the biggest refugee exodus in a generation - 11 September: UN to hold inquiry on Syria chemical attacks, diplomats say, as new evidence of Syria chemical attacks emerges - 18 September: UN Security Council expresses 'grave concern' over Jerusalem violence and is calling for restraint and calm - 23 September: USA has warned that Russia’s continued blanket use of its UN veto will jeopardise the security council’s long-term legitimacy and could lead the USA and like-minded countries to bypass it as a decision-making body
October 2015: 1 October: United Nations veto ban proposal gains support, as some 75 countries in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have already backed the proposal - 2 October: Syrian Coalition's Khoja calls on UNSC for taking immediate action to stop Russia’s brutal air raids on Damascus, Homs, and Hama, where civilian homes, hospitals, and mosques are destroyed by these attacks - 14 October 2015: The head of the UN women’s agency Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is criticising the low level of women’s inclusion at peace tables, 15 years after a landmark UN resolution that called for women to be included in decision-making positions at every level of peacemaking and peace building - 16 October: Ukraine elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council - 16 October: Security Council to hold emergency talks on Jerusalem violence - 16 October: At Security Council meeting, Israel rejects any international intervention at Temple Mount - 16 October: DRC's Julienne Lusenge addressed the security council saying that seven years earlier she described to the council the rapes, murders and massacres ravaging her country, asking for action, and in 2015 almost nothing had changed and neither research on the benefits of female involvement for peace-building nor a UN resolution have ended the routine exclusion of women from negotiations - 21 October: Syrian Coalition calls on the UN Security Council to take 'firm and effective' action to stop the Russian aggression on the Syrian people following the horrible massacre committed by the Russian air force yesterday in rural Latakia where 80 people were killed - 22 October: Britain, France, Germany and the USA asked UN Security Council sanctions committee to investigate Iran’s recent missile test on October 10, branding it a serious violation of UN resolutions - 24 October 2015: France will submit a new draft resolution to the UN Security Council calling on the Assad regime to stop using barrel bombs as well as condemning other 'indiscriminate attacks' against civilians - 27 October: UNSC must condemn Russia’s targeting of civilians and hospitals in Syria, Syrian Coalition says, stating that Russian airstrikes have killed 1,511 civilians, including women and children as of October 26
November 2015: 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 2 November 2015: 'Doctors Without Borders' is urging the permanent member states of the UN Security Council to comply with the responsibility to protect mandate to stop the escalating aerial massacres in Syria as quickly as possible - 10 November: Security Council must condemn Russia’s use of cluster bombs against populated areas in many villages and towns, Syrian Coalition demands - 11 November: Syrian Coalition calls on the UN Security Council to include the militant groups trained and funded by Iran, most notably Hezbollah, Abu al Fadl al Abbas Brigade, Fatimiyoun Brigade and Zainabiyon Brigade on the lists terrorist organizations - 17 November 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon renews calls that the situation in Syria be referred to the International Criminal Court in the 21st report he submitted to the UN Security Council - 21 novembre 2015: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a adopté à l'unanimité une résolution française qui permet de 'prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires' pour combattre le groupe Etat islamique, une semaine après les attentats à Paris
December 2015: 5 December: USA to lead UN Security Council meeting on terror financing - 8 December: China and Russia oppose UN council meeting on human rights in North Korea accused by a UN inquiry, which has the backing of the nine council members Chile, France, Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain, UK and the USA - 9 December 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the UN Security Council to intervene immediately to stop bombing of civilians and hospitals by both Assad and Russia - 12 December: USA accuses Russian regime of attempting to suppress public discussion of facts about the nearly two-year-old agression against Ukraine - 12 December: Syrian Coalition sends letter to the UNSC condemning Russia’s escalating attacks on FSA and civilians, including public markets, bakeries, and residential buildings - 16 December: Iran violated sanctions with missile test, capable of delivering nuclear weapons, says UN panel - 18 December 2015: UN Security Council adopts resolution to cut off Islamic State terrorists funding with measures such as asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo, targeting corrupt states, banks and organizations - 18 December 2015 UN Security Council Resolution 2254 concerning the conflict in Syria - 19 December 2015: UN security council adopts resolution on Syrian peace process calling for the UN to present the council with options for monitoring a ceasefire within one month, as Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing more children, in Aleppo province, killing civilians, in Idlib province, trargeting the city of Jeser al-Shogour west, killing at least 7 children and 7 women in a massacre, one of them pregnant, and again in Idlib province, targeting the town of al-Najiyyah and as a group of protesters, some holding Syrian revolutionary flags, gather in front of UN headquarters, harbouring Russian regime's Lavrov and Assad regime's Jaafari - 21 December 2015: Russian airstrikes on Idlib, targeting health and public services centers as well as apartment buildings in the city center, killing 50 civilians and wounding 170 others, violates UNSC resolution 2254, Syrian Coalition says - 22 December 2015: After less than 48 hours since the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2254, the Assad regime and Russian forces jointly escalated their war on civilians across Syria, killing innocent men, women and children through indiscriminate aerial attacks, the Council was briefed on the humanitarian situation in Syria for the twenty-third time since the adoption of resolution 2139 in February 2014, only leading to an increase in civilian death and a worsening of Syria’s humanitarian situation - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces - 23 December 2015: Assad regime forces targeted Moadamiya with sarin-filled shells, killing ten people, including women and children, and injuring over 30 others in another war crime condemned by the Syrian Coalition calling upon the UN Security Council for measures under Chapter VII - 25 December 2015: Amnesty International responds to Russia's denial of committing war crimes in Syria, saying that the organization has compelling evidence that Russian airstrikes targeted civilians in markets, hospitals, mosques and populated areas and evidence of the use of cluster bombs
January 2016: 7 January 2016: UN Security council meets over 'clear threat to international peace', but fails to agree on immediate measures against North Korean regime after it claimed to have tested a hydrogen bomb, which triggered seismic shocks around the region - 8 January 2016: Failure to enforce UN Security Council resolutions encourages Assad to starve civilians, Syrian Coalition says in a letter - 14/15 January 2016: Security Council calls emergency meeting on Syria to lift sieges on towns where hundreds of thousands have been cut off from aid and many are starving amid lack of will to bring about political transition in Syria - 18 January 2016: UN Security Council's inaction emboldens Assad to violate UN resolutions and to use starvation as a weapon of war, Syrian Coalition says, as more civilians including an entire family of 12 members were killed in Russian airstrikes on Syria on Sunday - 22 January: Syrian Coalition says, that 'the Assad regime’s siege and bombardment of civilians violate UN Security Council resolutions...(and that) Assad has been committing these crimes under military and political cover by Russia
February 2016: 7 February 2016: South Korea, USA and Japan are requesting an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council, after North Korea fired long range rocket despite UN ban - 7 February 2016: UN security council condemns North Korea rocket launch, promising to take punitive steps - 9 February 2016: Mass deaths of detainees in Syrian Government jails amounts to crime of 'extermination', UN commission of inquiry on Syria says in its report calling on the UN security council to impose sanctions against Syrian officials in the civilian and military hierarchy responsible for or complicit in deaths, torture and disappearances in custody - 18 February: UN's Ban Ki-moon tells Security Council that states and regimes must choose between implementing ceasefire or continuing to 'pursue the bankrupt logic of a military victory' - 20 February: In a letter to the UN Security Council Syrian Coalition's President Khoja condemns Russia’s latest attacks on Aleppo and its deliberate targeting of Syrian hospitals, medical facilities and schools, demands the immediate withdrawal of Russian forces from Syrian territory and also calls for ensuring accountability for all committed war crimes - 22 February: At least 19,947 barrel bombs have been dropped by the Assad regime on rebel-held areas across Syria since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2139 on 22 February 2014, SNHR says - 22 February 2016: War crimes in Syria's five-year-old conflict are widespread and Syrian government forces and Islamic State militants continue to commit crimes against humanity in the face of inaction by the international community, UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry says in its latest report - 25 February: Syrian Coalition urges UN Security Council to condemn the recent escalation of aerial bombardment on Aleppo, to break the sieges across Syria, finitely protect civilians from indiscriminate aerial bombardment, and ensure accountability for war crimes - 27 February: In response to the UN Security Council’s adoption of resolution 2268 on the 'cessation of hostiles' in Syria, the Syrian Coalition supports efforts to protect civilians and to achieve a political solution away from Assad - 27 February: Callng on the UN Security Council to respond to the Assad regime’s violations of the ceasefire agreement, the Syrian Coalition says that the Assad regime bombed 15 rebel-held areas across Syria with heavy machine-guns, artillery and barrel bombs in Damascus, Rural Damascus, Daraa, Aleppo, Homs, Hama and Lattakia province - 29 February: In a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Syrian opposition is warning attacks by Russian warplanes backing government forces are threatening fragile truce
March 2016: 3 March 2016: After the UN security council approved the toughest sanctions against North Korean regime in two decades over its nuclear and rocket tests, it fires a volley of short-range missiles into the sea off its east coast - 13 March: UN adopts resolution on combating sex crimes by its peacekeepers - 13 March: Israel calls for world powers to take 'immediate punitive steps' against Iran following its ballistic missile tests last week, adding that it would be 'a test for the powers' ability to enforce the 2015 nuclear agreement - 18 March: Russia's illegal annexation of Ukraine's Crimea on the agenda at closed-door UN Security Council meeting, as Crimean Tatar leader Dzhemilev calls for increase in sanctions against Russian regime and as human rights abuses in Crimea under Russian occupation are revealed in seperate meetings - 30 March: By launching nuclear-capable missiles Iran has defied a UN Security Council resolution that endorsed last year's historic nuclear deal, the USA and its European allies say in a joint letter
April 2016: 26 April 2016: Security Council asks UN's Secretary-General to submit a broad plan within 30 days detailing how his Yemen envoy can help the warring Yemeni parties move towards peace - 29 April: Ukraine's Vadym Prystaiko said at a meeting of the UN Security Council that the Russian Federation had concentrated a 34,000-strong hybrid military force in the occupied part of Donbas
May 2016: 4 May 2016: UN Security Council condemnation of North Korea's latest missile tests has been delayed by Russian regime - 5 May: An an emergency meeting of the Security Council UN's Feltman calls for referring Syrian Assad regime to ICC, charging the regime with war crimes - 7 May 2016: Russia blocks UN statement on Syria airstrikes - 13 May 2016: UN Security Council expressed its outrage at recent attacks in Syria targeting civilians and medical facilities, stressing these actions may amount to war crimes, as the SNHR said that it had documented 23 massacres by regime and Russian forces, hundreds of barrel bomb attacks, that claimed the lives of hundreds of civilians, and the death of 26 detainees killed under torture in April - 14 May 2016: Assad regime and Russian forces stepped up airstrikes on rural Idlib, concentrated on populated areas and vital civilian facilities on Friday, killing 20 civilians and injuring at least 35 - 18 May 2016: The UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office accuses the Assad regime of directly violating UN Security Council Resolution 2268 by seizing medical aid bound to civilians trapped in the besieged areas and preventing the evacuation of those in urgent need for treatment - 29 May: The number of Syrians living under siege has grown by some 75,000 to total 592,700, underscoring the worsening plight of civilians in the five-year war, the UN aid chief Stephen O’Brien tells the Security Council, saying that the use of siege and starvation as a weapon of war was 'reprehensible' and 'must stop immediately'
June 2016: 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings, after Russia blamed for new strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idlib city, killing scores - 2 juin 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a condamné les trois récents tirs manqués de missiles balistiques effectués par la Corée du Nord - 14 June: Saudi Arabia-backed Syrian High Negotiations Committee's Agha slams Russia's attempts to postpone political transition, saying that the UN Security Council resolution 2254 has been ignored by Russia and rejected by the Assad regime - 21 June 2016: After Russian jets on Monday bombed the towns of Huraytan, Hayyan, Anadan, Kafar Hamra, Maaret Alartiq, Urm Alqubra, Messibin, Babees and Anjara in rural Aleppo, reportedly using cluster munitions and killing at least 21 civilians and injuring dozens more, Syrian Coalition calls for UN action to stop Russia’s use of banned weapons in Syria - 24 June 2016: 12 civilians were killed and dozens more injured in Aleppo in airstrikes by Russian jets, using internationally banned weapons, most notably incendiary and cluster munitions - 24 June 2016: Saudi Arabia-backed HNC urges UN to protect Syrian civilians from Russian incendiary bombs, as UN's Stephen O’Brien says that the use of barrel bombs in the Syrian conflict 'constitutes indiscriminate attacks' against civilians, adding that their sole purpose is 'to terrorize and punish the civilian population'
July 2016: 11 juillet 2016: 'Le Conseil de sécurité s'est reposé sur la bonne volonté des dirigeants du Soudan du Sud' et 'a brandi des menaces vides d'embargo sur les armes et de sanctions individuelles' et a ainsi échoué à empêcher les violences dans la crise au Soudan du Sud, selon Human Rights Watch - 11 juillet 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité a sollicité dimanche l'aide des pays de la région pour mettre fin aux combats au Soudan du Sud et leur a demandé en particulier de fournir des Casques bleus supplémentaires à sa mission dans le pays - 16 July 2016: Syrian Coalition calls for emergency UNSC meeting to address Assad’s military escalation and the dangerous deteriorating situation on the ground in Syria in particular in Aleppo and Daraya
August 2016: 2 August 2016: One year after the UN security council adopted a resolution that set a 12 month-deadline to identify the perpetrators of chlorine attacks in Syria, dozens injured in a chemical attack using a gas cylinder laced with chlorine and targeting the town of Saraqeb in Idlib province, which is under opposition control, and near where a Russian helicopter was shot down on Monday - 2 August 2016: Syrian Coalition demands UN action under chapter VII following Assad regime chlorine attacks on Saraqib in Idlib province - 4 August 2016: Daraya local council calls on the United Nations to immediately enforce provisions set out in international resolutions pertaining to the situation in besieged areas, as Assad helicopters drop Napalm-filled barrels on Daraya and the humanitarian situation deteriorates - 8 August 2016: As Syria’s Assad regime and Russian regime are carrying out daily airstrikes, MSF's Silvia Dallatomasina demands an immediate end to attacks on hospitals, pointing that four out of five UN security council members were participants in the war in Syria, after hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members, and after UN said it had recorded 44 attacks on health facilities in Syria in July alone - 9 August 2016: UN Security Council warns Russia's proposed 'Safe Passages' are risky - 10 August 2016: Medical workers in Syrian liberated areas say that Russian and Assad regime air forces targeted around 36 medical facilities within the last 40 days in blatant violation of UN Security Council Resolution 2286 adopted on 3 May 2016, strongly condemning attacks on medical facilities and personnel - 10 August 2016: Alwaer residents appeal to UN as Assad regime tightens siege, violating UN resolutions - 12 August 2016: With 11 votes and four abstentions UN approves increase in peacekeeping force in South Sudan, as an additional 4,000 peacekeepers will be dispatched, making the total deployment 17,000 troops, that will be asked to take more 'proactive' measures to protect civilians - 16 August 2016: Over 100 barrel bombs hit Daraya in rural Damascus, some filled with napalm, as the local council callsd on the United Nations and international organizations to intervene immediately to stop the war crimes - 16 August 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bashar says that the UN has so far failed to enforce own resolutions passed on Syria, only offering flawed proposals - 17 August 2016: Assad regime and Russian terrorist air forces continue to brutally bomb Aleppo, Idlib and Daraya, killing over 400 civilians in the past week, using internationally banned weapons, most notably cluster bombs, vacuum bombs, napalm and barrel bombs - 18 August 2016: The injuring of five-year-old Omran Daqneesh 'is a daily fact of Russian and Syrian government airstrikes' and 'they take turns bombing civilians in Aleppo before the whole world', 'this child is a representative of millions of children in Syria and its cities', Aleppo-based journalist Mustafa al-Sarout says - UN World Humanitarian Day 19 August 2016 - 22 August 2016: 'I'm angry, very angry...this callous carnage that is Syria has long since moved from the cynical, to the sinful', UN's Stephen O'Brien tells the UN Security Council, adding that Aleppo is being bombed every day and has become 'the apex of horror' in 'the greatest crisis of our time', that 'you have the power with a pen - a simple pen stroke - to allow food to people' - 24 August 2016: Reports by independent human rights groups indicate that the Assad regime has used chemical weapons 136 times since the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2118 on 27 September 2013, as Syrian Coalition calls upon the UN Security Council to re-open the file of the 2013 Ghouta Massacre and refer it to the ICC - 24 August 2016: International inquiry accuses Syrian Assad regime of using chemical weapons, setting the stage for a Security Council decision of the five veto-wielding powers over whether sanctions should be imposed, as the Syrian Coalition repeats its call for referring the chemical weapons dossier in Syria to the International Criminal Court - 26 August 2016: As Syrian Coalition's Nyrabiya urges UNSC to refer chemical attacks case to ICC, warning that blocking this move will encourage the culture of impunity prevalent in Syria and will give a green light to perpetrators to carry out more crimes using internationally banned weapons, USA permanent representative to the United Nations S. Power calls the use of chemicals 'a barbaric tool, repugnant to the conscience of mankind' and urges the UN to take 'strong and swift action' - 30 August: Syrian Coalition's letter to UN Secretary General on Assad regime’s use of the UN as a 'cover' for mass displacement aimed at bringing about a demographic change in Syria - 30/31 August 2016: Russian air force carried out dozens of airstrikes on Idlib city and its countryside, using internationally banned weapons, including napalm and white phosphorus
September 2016: 1 September 2016: Human Rights Watch calls on the UN Security Council to urgently impose sanctions on the Assad regime for chemical weapon attacks in Syria and refer the situation to the International Criminal Court - 3 September: Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Secretary-General concerning the third report of the OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism on the use of chemical weapons in Syria, calling for action against Assad - 6 septembre: L'ONU condamne les tirs nord-coréens - 8 September 2016: As chemical weapons watchdog chief says Aleppo gas attack disturbing, the UN Security Council is due to discuss a report by the UN and the watchdog group OPCW, blaming Assad regime forces for previous toxic gas attacks - 16 September 2016: UN-led international inquiry has identified two Syrian Assad regime air force helicopter squadrons and two other military units it holds responsible for chlorine gas attacks on civilians - 17 September: UN Security Council cancels meeting on Syria - 18 September: USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power describes Russia’s call for an emergency closed-door security council meeting over an incident, that possibly killed through an error Assad regime military personnel, a 'stunt' that was 'uniquely cynical and hypocritical' as Russia had for years blocked UN punitive measures against the Syrian Assad regime and its perpetrators for the barrel bombing of civilian populations in rebel-held cities - 19 September 2016: At least eight civilians were killed and dozens more injured in Assad regime barrel bombs attacks on the southern Daraa province - 20 September 2016: USA blames Russia after UN aid convoy in Syria targeted by air attack and UN official says 'inexplicable' attack could amount to a war crime if bombing which killed aid workers proved to be deliberate - 20 September 2016: Red Cross president says attack on UN and Red Crescent convoy delivering supplies is unacceptable violation of international law and UN suspends all aid convoy movements in Syria after airstrike - 20 September: The UN said 18 of the trucks were damaged or destroyed and insisted that the damage to them had been caused by airstrikes, as bystanders at the scene of the attacks reported multiple airstrikes, and airstrikes in the area are realized only by Russian and Assad warplanes - 21 September 2016: Russian planes dropped bombs that destroyed UN aid convoy and killed at least 20 people in opposition-controlled Urem al-Kubra in Syria, according to USA officials also saying two Russian Sukhoi SU-24 warplanes were in the sky above the aid convoy at the precise time it was struck - 21 September: Speaking at UN Security Council meeting on Syria, USA secretary of state John Kerry accuses the Syrian Assad regime of dropping barrel bombs on children and bombing hospitals, adding that the council members know that these are flagrant violations of international law - 24 September: Syrian Coalition condemns the barbaric onslaught launched by the Assad regime and Russian forces on Aleppo, slamming the inaction of the international community and its failure to stop heinous crimes in Syria, despite promises and condemnations repeated again, again and again - 25 September 2016: UN security council to meet on Syria amid intense bombardment, appearing to include extremely powerful 'bunker buster' bombs, by Assad and Russian forces that left dozens dead and nearly 2 million without water in the city of Aleppo - 25 September: Russia accused of war crimes in Syria at UN security council session, as the ambassadors from the USA, Britain and France walk out of the council chamber in protest against Assad regime's Ja’afari and the regime's war crimes - 27 September 2016: Syrian photographer code-named Caesar wins 2017 Nuremberg International Human Rights Award for exposing torture in Assad’s prisons - 28 september 2016: As Unicef counts 96 children killed and 223 injured since Friday, the two largest hospitals in besieged eastern Aleppo, which serve a quarter of a million civilians, bombed out of service by Russian and Assad regime airforces, in what doctors describe as a catastrophic campaign that is testing the conscience of the world, giving account that 'children ... are coming to us as body parts' - 28 September 2016: Condemning Russian and Assad regime's attacks on the two largest hospitals in eastern Aleppo as 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says that 'those using ever more destructive weapons know exactly what they are doing' - 29 September 2016: Daily life in Aleppo will descend into hell within a month under air strikes from the regime and its Russian ally, civil defense official Meshal warns - 29 September: UN's Stephen O’Brien asks the Security Council 'whether there is any level of disaster and death that can be visited upon the Syrian people that might prompt the parties to this conflict, and by extension the international community, to identify a red line that will not be crossed', as the UN itself has come under intense scrutiny in recent months, with aid organisations, human rights groups and NGOs accusing it of being too close to the Assad regime without scruple and its accomplices to murder - 30 September 2016: Syrian Coalition’s legal committee submits a memorandum to the UN Security Council on the genocidal war the Assad regime as well as its Russian and Iranian allies wage on Aleppo
October 2016: 1 October 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Michel Kilo says that the international community must deter Russian aggression on Syria, warning that Russia is drawing the world to the precipice of chaos and mayhem and that Russia’s actions threaten the creation of the same conditions Hitler’s policies created and which led to the breakout of World War II - 8 October 2016: UN to vote on rival Syria resolutions and likely veto both - 9 October 2016: French foreign minister Ayrault compares Aleppo's likely fate to Guernica during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, Srebrenica during the Bosnian war and the Chechen capital Grozny destroyed by the Russian army in the mid-1990s, saying 'it is the annihilation of Aleppo', declaring that the continued bombing by Russian and Assad forces will leave the city in ruins, a place where citizens will be left to their 'executioners', as Russian regime vetoes French-drafted UN Resolution demanding immediate halt to Aleppo bombing, and a number of ambassadors walked out, including the representatives of Britain, France, Ukraine, the USA, when Assad regime's UN ambassador Ja'afari started speaking - 11 October 2016: UN's Ban Ki-moon on Monday again asked the Security Council to formally request that the International Criminal Court ICC begin investigations of war crimes in Syria - 12 October: At least 62 countries signed a letter calling on the UN Security Council to prevent further deaths resulting from a 'calculated campaign' by the Assad regime and its allies on Aleppo - 13 October: New Zealand circulated to the 15-member UN Security Council a draft resolution that would demand an end to all attacks that kill civilians in Syria, particularly air strikes in Aleppo, just days after Russia vetoed a similar text - 14 octobre 2016: Le Royaume-Uni va présenter un projet de résolution au Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU réclamant un cessez-le-feu immédiat au Yémen après le carnage perpétré dans la capitale Sanaa lors d'une cérémonie funéraire - 19 October 2016: Russian convoy of warships, including an aircraft carrier carrying fighter bombers, passes Britain on its way to Syria, monitored by governments and politicians, since nearly 6 years concerned about their discussion threads with brutal Russian, Iranian and Assad terrorists and not about the victims, where it is thought they will participate in a final assault on the besieged city of Aleppo, where children are coming as body parts to surviving doctors in out bombed hospitals - 21 October 2016: The Syrian Coalition and the Free Syrian Army say that the UN continues to ignore Russia’s crimes and its violations of international law in Syria - 22 October 2016: International inquiry has found Syrian Assad regime forces responsible for a third toxic gas attack in Qmenas in Idlib governorate on 16 March 2015, according to a fourth report submitted to the UN Security Council, after the third report by the inquiry in August blamed Assad for two chlorine attacks in Talmenes on 21 April 2014 and Sarmin on 16 March 2015, following Ghouta chemical attacks in August 2013 on opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus using chemical agent sarin, and after in September 2013 the USA Senate filed a resolution to authorize use of military force against Assad's military in response, averted when the murderous regime accepted a USA–Russian negotiated deal to turn over 'every single bit' of its chemical weapons stockpiles for destruction, but has in reality encouraged Assad to escalate his war against the Syrian people, to invite the Russian regime and its murderous military to join Assad's terrorism and to annihilate the Syrian democracy and any opposition against dictatorship - 27 October 2016: UN humanitarian chief Stephen O’Brien calls the failure of the UN security council, and Russia in particular, to stop the bombing of eastern Aleppo and the mass killing of civilians 'our generation’s shame', as envoys from France,the UK and USA come to the UN’s defence against a Russian regime's envoy, who should not sit in New York but in The Hague's ICC for complicity, as Russian or Assad's warplanes in their recent terror attack kill at least 26 people, most of them schoolchildren, teachers and rescue workers, in Syria's Idlib - 27 October 2016: The USA directly accuses either Syria or Russia of being behind airstrikes that destroyed a school complex in Idlib province on Wednesday, as rescue workers describe details of the attack that levelled much of the area, killing almost 40 people, and as a doctor who treated many of the wounded says most of the dead were children aged six to 15 as well as female teachers, putting the number of injured at more than 100 and describing that many of the children who had arrived at the hospital had lost limbs - 28 October 2016: SOHR condemns the massacres committed by the Russian and Syrian warplanes against the Syrian citizens in Syria and in Idlib's Has, murdering in the recent school attack at least 37 civilians including 15 students, 4 teachers, 3 females, and a doctor, who died wounded after the aerial bombardment, as regime forces and allies are perpetuating their terror attacks on the towns of Safohin and al-Mozara in Idlib province and across the country, despite international condemnation, due to inactivity and complicity of some states, regimes and parties - 9 November 2016: As the Assad regime’s mass forced displacement operations, which amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity, Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Jojah criticizes the international community’s failure to take action against the regime’s policies, saying that apart from shy calls by some friendly countries to end the conflict, the international community has not yet assumed its responsibility to put an end to the crimes of the Assad regime and its allies - 16 November 2016: New report by human rights group SNHR claims Assad regime is responsible for the death of 188,729 civilians, over 90% of all victims from nearly six years of war in Syria, also saying that the responsibility for war crimes also moved just weeks after the outbreak of the popular uprising in Syria in 2011 to the international community, to take collective measures in accordance with Articles 41 and 42 of the UN charter, but did not lift a finger because of Russian and Chinese protection for the Syrian regime - 16 November 2016: Bringing the total number of hospitals targeted by Russian warplanes on Monday in Aleppo's countryside to three, Russian murderous air strikes are targeting and destroying the Baghdad hospital, killing and wounding dozens and burying others under the rubble, while civil defense forces are working to lift the rubble to save the survivors and remove the corpses - 16 November 2016: Canadian FM Stephane Dion welcomes Syrian opposition leader for talks as meetings are touching on ways to circumvent Russia's veto power at the UNSC in order to end the bloodshed of Syrian civilians - 18 November 2016: UN Security Council approved a one-year extension of an international inquiry to determine blame for chemical weapons attacks in Syria - 19 November 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Bassam Abdullah says that the international community has a political, legal and moral responsibility to force the Assad regime and Russia to stop the horrific massacres they are committing in Syria - 21 November 2016: The Council of Free Aleppo Governorate calls upon the UN and human rights organizations to assume their responsibilities towards the protection of civilians in Aleppo from the fierce bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia forces - 21 November 2016: Assad's military commanders were involved in 'killing and injuring civilians' since 2011 with assaults on schools, hospitals and homes, says USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power, reading out names and the military units to a meeting of the UN security council - 22 November 2016: Israeli activists launch awareness campaign to express their solidarity with the civilians in the face of a military escalation being carried out by Russia, Assad and his allied militias, calling for communal prayers on Jewish holiday for the 'hundreds of Syrians who are dying daily in Syria, men, women and children, while the world is silent' - 22 November 2016: Aleppo siege is 'war of extermination', a doctor in eastern Aleppo says, who was wounded earlier this month in an airstrike, adding that 'everything is being exterminated with the collusion of the United Nations, they all see and hear, but they will not answer, and they cannot stop this war machine' - 28 November 2016: Syrian Coalition urges international action to end Assad regime's siege of Al-Tal saying threat must not be ignored as Assad regime has already proven willingness to commit crimes of unimaginable proportions to achieve its goals - 29 November 2016: France calls for UN Security Council meeting over Aleppo saying 'we need to urgently put in place means to end the hostilities and to allow humanitarian aid to get through unhindered', as terror group Hezbollah and allied Iranian militants announce huge victory - 30 November: Syrian Coalition's letter to UN and UN Security Council presses for stopping Assad’s and Russia’s onslaught on Aleppo
December 2016: 1 December 2016: While UN's Stephen O’Brien tells an emergency session of the UN security council that Aleppo becoming 'one giant graveyard', the recent offensive by Assad regime forces, by Russian air power, Iranian ground forces, militia fighters from Iran, Iraq and Lebanese terror group Hezbollah hasn’t just cost the opposition two-thirds of their held areas, but also displaced more than 20,000 civilians and killed hundreds - 1 December: UN tightens sanctions on North Korea after largest nuclear test yet - 2 December 2016: As the Russian and Assad regime onslaught on Aleppo continues causing an untold humanitarian catastrophe, over 220 civil society organizations from 45 countries have issued a declaration saying that the UN Security Council has 'failed to uphold its responsibility to protect the Syrian people' - 3 December 2016: Thousands of Syrians took to the streets in many towns and cities across Syria to denounce the war crimes being committed by the Assad regime and Russia as well as the Iranian-backed foreign militias in Aleppo, also chanting slogans denouncing 'the international silence' over such crimes - 5 December 2016: 38 civilians confirmed dead including 5 children and 6 persons from the same family including a woman, by Russian airstrikes targeting the city of Maara al-Nuaman in Syria's Idlib province, rising the number of murdered civilians by aerial bombardment to 73 today - 6 December 2016: Syrian opposition calls on international community to shoulder its responsibility to end the bombardment and slaughter in Syria, especially Aleppo, and actively seek to deliver humanitarian aid, as Aleppo medics convert basements into operation rooms to evade airstrikes - 6 December: Syrian Coalition's Ghadbian condemns Russia’s vetoing UN Security Council resolution, drafted by New Zealand, Spain and Egypt, calling for the imposition of a 7-day cease-fire in Aleppo so that humanitarian aid could reach the city’s besieged eastern neighborhoods - 7 December 2016: Assad regime warplanes carried out dozens of air raids using vacuum bombs on the towns and villages of the Idlib countryside, killing six civilians and wounding 15, some of them seriously, as schools in Idlib province have suspended teaching after the regime and Russia’s deadly aerial campaign killed around 70 people, including many children, over the past four days, and as in Aleppo dozens of corpses are still in the streets from Shaar neighborhood, because the ambulances and rescue teams are not able to pull the corpses due to the murderous Russian and Assad's military operations - 8 December: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Turkey issued a statement calling on the UN to hold an emergency special session of the General Assembly to end the Aleppo crisis, also condemning dealing with the Syrian crisis like it was an ordinary event, and critizising the international institution’s incapability to perform the tasks it was established for following World War II - 8 December 2016: Western diplomats have conceded that there are no technical obstacles to a plan to deliver airdrops of food and medicine to Aleppo using a GPS-guided parachute system, but the scheme has been stalled in the face of reluctance among military commanders and an absence of political will - 14 December 2016: 'Aleppo should represent the end of the quest for military victory, not the start of a broader military campaign in a country already ravaged beyond all recognition by five years of war', UN's Ban Ki-moon told an emergency meeting of the Security Council - 18 December: UN Security Council to vote Sunday on Aleppo observers, as thousands look to flee besieged areas of war-ravaged city, and as the Assad regime and Iran were trying to impose new conditions to the evacuation deal - 20 December: UN Security Council unanimously called for UN officials and others to observe the evacuation of people from eastern Aleppo and monitor the safety of civilians who remain in the rebel-held part of the city - 24 December 2016: Confusing the council with a delayed committee of the murderous Roman Empire, UN Security Council condemns Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, destroying the last remainder of UN's credibility, completely incapable to deal with proceeding war crimes against the Syrian people since 6 years - 24 December 2016: Rejecting UN Security Council's resolution which describes the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem and the Western Wall as occupied territory and condemns Israel's settlement policy, Israel's PM Netanyahu says with the necessary clarity, that 'half a million Syrians are being slaughtered in Syria, tens of thousands are butchered in Sudan, the Middle East is up in flames, yet the Obama administration and the UN Security Council choose to set upon the only democracy in the Middle East', but forgets to mention his own recent meetings with war criminal Putin in Moscow, also encouraging the Russians, Iranians and Hezbollah to commit more war crimes - 28 December 2016: Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on resolution A/71/L.48 to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses in Syria since 2011, reportedly the result of 'a cynical deal' between Jerusalem and Moscow
January 2017: 2 January 2017: Syria clashes test fragile truce after UN Security Council approved a resolution supporting a Russian and Turkish initiative - 8/9 January 2017: Jerusalem terror attack by an Israeli Arab citizen, who rammed a truck deliberately into a group of Israeli soldiers disembarking from a bus in the Israeli settlement Armon Hanatziv Esplanade in Jerusalem, killing 4 and injuring 15, condemned by the UN Security Council, emphasizing 'need for those responsible for this reprehensible act of terrorism to be held accountable' - 9/10 January 2017: Syrian Coalition urges the UN Security Council to adopt a resolution calling for the immediate withdrawal of all foreign militias from Syria and to require all parties to stop supporting or providing political and legal cover for the actions of these militias, violating the ceasefire agreement - 10 January 2017: At least 271 people, including 25 women and 34 children, reportedly killed as a result of 399 ceasefire breaches by the Assad regime and Iranian-backed militias since 29 December - 13 January 2017: UNSC urged on Thursday to discuss accountability for chemical weapons attacks in Syria - 14 January 2017: For the first time in a report published Friday, joint international team of investigators for the UN and the OPCW determined that Syrian regime's Bashar Assad and his brother Maher are suspected of being tied to several chemical weapons attacks carried out in the country in 2014 and 2015, according to a document seen by Reuters, as an ICC spokesman says, that 'the only way that (the) ICC would have jurisdiction over the situation would be through a referral by the Security Council' - 19 January: Syrian Coalition urges Russia to adopt resolution under Chapter VII to hold truce violators accountable - 27 January 2017: UN officials urged the UN Security Council to do more to ensure the delivery of life-saving aid to civilians in the besieged areas, as nearly 700,000 people still under siege across Syria and as Assad regime continues to block aid - 31 janvier 2017: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU se réunira en urgence après un tir de missile iranien
February 2017: 1 February 2017: UN Security Council's representatives, including Russian regime's, express grave concern about the dangerous deterioration of the situation in eastern Ukraine and its severe impact on the local civilian population, also calling for an immediate return to a ceasefire regime, as the Trilateral Contact Group's representatives, including Russian regime's, will meet in Minsk today - 8 February 2017: Syrian Coalition’s Muhammed Jojah renews calls to refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court and to hold the Assad regime accountable for war crimes, especially after further evidence on the scale of torture and murder perpetrated by the regime against civilian detainees has emerged in a rights group's report in February - 8 February 2017: UN reportedly 'horrified' about Amnesty’s report on Saydnaya prison - 14 February 2017: The Assad regime forces conducted coordinated chemical attacks in opposition-controlled parts of Aleppo during the final month of the battle for the city, according to Human Rights Watch - 15 February 2017: France calls on UN Security Council to respond over the Assad regime’s use of chemical weapons in Syria with a resolution that would punish those responsible for repeated attacks - 20 February: Russia is breaking promise to investigate civilian casualties of airstrikes in Syria, Human Rights Watch says - 23 February 2017: Human Rights Watch's official Whitson confirms Assad regime responsible for Sarin attack on Eastern Ghouta in 2013 - 24 February 2017: UN Security Council is likely to vote next week on a draft resolution proposing some sanctions on the Assad regime over the use of chemical weapons, but Russia is almost certain to veto the symbolic measures proposed by Britain, France and the USA, including a ban on the sale of more helicopters and a travel ban on 11 Assad regime officials
March 2017: 1 March 2017: France, UK and USA want sanctions on Syria's Assad regime over chemical weapon use, but Russia and China veto UN resolution - 6 March 2017: Call made for emergency UN security council meeting after North Korea's missile launches on Monday shocked international community - 15 March 2017: Syrian Coalition calls for an emergency UN Security Council session to discuss the serious findings of the UN Independent Commission of Inquiry on Syria - 30 March 2017: Syrian Coalition slams Russia’s support for Assad as dozens killed in airstrikes in rural Idlib, saying that Russia, as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, is responsible for maintaining international peace and security and is obliged to respect the Syrian people
April 2017: 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, according to Medecins Sans Frontieres - 4 April 2017: At least 35 people have been killed in a suspected chemical attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun in the central province of Idlib, according to SOHR - 5 April 2017: Syrian opposition blames international community for allowing conditions for further attacks on civilians after reported chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, demanding to hold the perpetrators of these crimes accountable and to take urgent action to protect civilians from the daily crimes committed against them since March 2011 - 5 April 2017: Warplanes thought to be Russian carried out heavy and concentrated airstrikes on rescue centers and medical facilities which were treating victims of the chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, Civil Defense in Idlib countryside says - 10/11 April 2017: Russian air force have intensified bombing raids on towns and villages in the provinces of Hama and Idlib in revenge attacks, causing dozens of civilian casualties and using internationally banned weapons - 12 April 2017: Using its veto power the eighth time to protect the Assad regime, Russian regime vetoed a UN draft resolution expressing the council’s full backing of OPCW's investigation and demanding the Assad regime's cooperation with the investigators of the sarin gas attack on Khan Sheikhun in Syria's Idlib province - 13 April 2017: USA intercepted communications between Syrian military and chemical weapons experts discussing plans for Khan Sheikhun poison gas attack in Idlib province, according to USA media, citing an intelligence official, as samples taken from the chemical weapons attack in Syria last week tested positive for the nerve agent sarin by British delegation to OPCW and as OPCW's investigators are already testing samples from Khan Sheikhun deadly poison gas attack - 14 April 2017: Asking 'how long can the UN endure the shame of chemical attacks on Syrian citizens?', France's and UK's foreign ministers urge the international community to 'go further' in punishing those responsible for the chemical weapons attack in Syria on 4 April 2017 - 19 April 2017: Considering the situation in the Ukrainian Crimea, occupied by Russia, and Donbas, Ukraine’s delegation has called on the UN Security Council members to pay special attention to the observance of human rights on the temporarily territories
June 2017: 3 June 2017: UN Security Council expanded targeted sanctions against North Korea after its repeated missile tests, adopting the first such resolution agreed by the USA and North Korea's only major ally China - 17 June 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif sends letter to UN, international organizations and 26 countries to urge action to stop the brutal onslaught being waged by the Assad regime and its allies on Daraa and surrounding towns and villages
July 2017: 5 July 2017: UN Security Council to hold emergency meeting on North Korea, after the regime had tested its first intercontinental ballistic missile, a new threat
August 2017: 5 August 2017: On the eve of Hiroshima Day and aimed at increasing economic pressure on North Korean regime to return to negotiations on its nuclear and missile programs, UN Security Council unanimously approved tough new sanctions against the regime including a ban on coal and other exports totaling more than $1 billion, a huge bite in its total exports, valued at $3 billion last year - 7 August 2017: Carla Del Ponte resigns from UN’s independent Commission of Inquiry on Syria, decrying Security Council inaction to hold criminals accountable in the war-battered country, saying 'for five years we’ve been running up against walls', 'the states in the Security Council don’t want justice' - 12 August 2017: Blaming Russia for blocking solution in Syria by using its repeated use of its veto power in the UN Security Council, Carla del Ponte held the council partly responsible for the continued tragedy in Syria as it has not yet put pressure on Putin regime - 14 August 2017: Enough evidence to convict Assad of war crimes, according to del Ponte, saying that 'the preparatory work has been done', but 'there is no prosecutor and no court' - 16 August 2017: UNSC discussed sending an instigative mission to determine responsibility for the April 4 sarin attack on the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib, as rights group SNHR issued its 27th report on the use of chemical weapons in Syria - 22 August 2017: Two shipments of North Korean chemical weapons bound for Syria's Assad regime and part of a Damascus-Pyongyang arms deal have reportedly been intercepted by UN member states in the past six months, as activities between Assad and North Korean regime under investigation includes Scud missile programs and surface-to-air missiles systems - 30 August 2017: UN strongly condemns the latest ballistic missile launch by the North Korean regime, which flew over Japan, as well as the series of launches that took place on 25 August
September 2017: 3 September 2017: The international community including the UN security council should react quickly and firmly to North Korea’s latest nuclear test, democratic countries demand - 4 September 2017: At an emergency session the USA urged the UN Security Council to impose the 'strongest possible measures' against North Korea in response to its sixth and most powerful nuclear test - 6 septembre 2017: Des enquêteurs de l’ONU ont indiqué pour la première fois que le régime de Damas était responsable de l’attaque au gaz sarin sur la localité de Khan Cheikhoun le 4 avril en Syrie, qui avait fait 87 morts - 11 September 2017: UN security council unanimously agrees new North Korea sanctions including ban on the country’s textile exports and capping imports of crude oil, after USA watered down initial tougher version to avoid veto by China - 29 September 2017: The Syrian opposition calls on the UN to act urgently to stop war crimes being committed by Syrian and Russian air forces, as warplanes continue to bomb towns and villages in the liberated areas
October 2017: 24 October 2017: The international community, especially the UN Security Council, is obliged to shoulder its responsibilities to put an end to the ongoing suffering of civilians in eastern Ghouta, Syrian Coalition says - 24/25 October 2017: After UN war crimes investigators said last month they had evidence that Assad regime's air force was behind the nerve gas attack in Khan Sheikhun murdering more than 87 people, Russian regime's veto puts an end to Syria chemical weapons probe, as USA Ambassador says Moscow again siding 'with the dictators and terrorists who use these weapons', as 11 countries back extending the mandate, Bolivia joins Russia in voting against and China and Kazakhstan abstain from the vote - 26 October 2017: Head of Amnesty International’s UN office Sherine Tadros says that the 'routine abuse of the veto has become the equivalent of a green light for war crimes' and that 'UN Secretary General as well as Security Council members can no longer idly stand by' - 26/27 October 2017: Syria’s Assad forces are responsible for the deadly sarin gas attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun that killed scores of people in April, UN expert panel’s report says, as USA reaffirms Assad’s rule must end
November 2017: 8 novembre 2017: La Russie, soutien de Damas, s'est à nouveau opposée aux Occidentaux sur l'implication du régime syrien dans des attaques chimiques, lors d'une réunion mardi à l'ONU sur le mandat des enquêteurs internationaux chargés d'en désigner les auteurs - 9 November 2017: Facing 'the largest famine the world has seen for many decades', according to the UN, following Iranian-backed Houthi militia's 2015 coup d'état, UN Security Council reiterates the need for the Houthis and the anti-Houthi coalition 'to provide full, safe, rapid and unhindered access for humanitarian supplies and UN personnel to the population of all affected governorates, including by air, land and sea' - 13 November 2017: Roundly rejecting Russian aspersions against the task force, Israel endorses a UN watchdog report on Assad regime’s use of chemical weapons, saying it 'unequivocally' proves Assad used poison gas and must therefore be punished by the international community - 17 November 2017: In response to Russia’s vetoing of the draft resolution calling for the extension of the mandate for the UN-OPCW investigation panel, Syrian Coalition’s Ahmad Ramadan says 'it is a disgraceful day in the history of humanity that the UN Security Council failed once again to redress thousands of victims of chemical weapons in Syria or hold war criminals accountable' - 18 novembre 2017: La Russie a opposé vendredi un deuxième veto en deux jours contre une résolution présentée devant le Conseil de sécurité, qui visait à renouveler de 30 jours le mandat de la commission d'enquête sur l'utilisation d'armes chimiques en Syrie, un message clair que Moscou n'accorde aucune importance aux victimes des attaques chimiques en Syrie, selon Mme Haley - 23 November 2017: After refusing to back extension of investigative mechanism that blamed Assad for April attack, Russian regime declares 'death' of body probing Syria chemical attacks, saying it will only discuss replacing expert panel, fearing itself investigation after Putin-Assad coalition committed war crimes in Syria, among others during aerial bombing campaign of opposition-controlled territory in Aleppo in 2016 - 29 November 2017: UN Security Council scheduled an emergency meeting for Wednesday afternoon at the request of Japan, South Korea and the USA following the launch of North Korean nuclear-capable intercontinental missile
December 2017: 1 December 2017: Remnants of four ballistic missiles fired into Saudi Arabia by Yemen's Houthi rebels from May to November 2017 appear to have been designed and manufactured by Iranian regime, despite regime denying it supplies Houthis, a confidential report by United Nations sanctions monitors said, bolstering a push by the USA to punish the Tehran government - 2 décembre 2017: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU se réunira le 15 décembre pour évoquer le programme d'armement de la Corée du Nord, une autre réunion prévue le 11 décembre sera consacrée aux violations des droits de l'homme du régime de Pyongyang
15/23 December 2017: 15 décembre 2017: Autorisée par l’ONU, la Russie s’apprête à livrer des armes à la Centrafrique, malgré l’embargo imposé au pays depuis 2013 - 23 décembre 2017: La Russie a obtenu du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU une exemption à l’embargo sur les armes imposé à la Centrafrique - Since 2014 Wagner Group, a Russian paramilitary organisation and Putin-linked military company, whose contractors take part in various conflicts, including operations in Assad's war against the Syrian people, in the War in Donbass against the Ukrainian people and since 2017/2018 in the Central African Republic
Since 18/19 December 2017: 18/19 December 2017: USA vetoes a UN Security Council draft resolution condemning the USA's recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, as Ambassador Haley defends USA's sovereignty and explains the honest and courageous recognition of reality, also noting that the USA has given more than $5 billion to the Palestinians since 1994, more than any other country, as Israel's PM Benjamin Netanyahu thanks the USA for vetoing the resolution, saying 'truth defeated lies' - 23 December 2017: UN Security Council slapped new sanctions on North Korean regime that will restrict oil supplies vital for its missile and nuclear programs, also ordering North Korean workers abroad back home and a crackdown on smuggling, after latest regime's ballistic missile launch - 23 December 2017: UN Security Council condemns this week’s ballistic missile attack by Iran-backed Houthis in Yemen against Saudi Arabia’s capital 'in the strongest possible terms', calling on Houthis to cease announced further attacks and urging implementation of arms embargo on group - 30 décembre 2017: Des navires russes ont fourni ces derniers mois des produits pétroliers à la Corée du Nord au moins à trois reprises en octobre et en novembre, en violation des dispositions adoptées à l'ONU - 31 December 2017: North Korean regime vows to press on with nuclear agenda as Russian regime denies trade violations
January 2018: 5 January 2018: After the USA asked the council to show support for anti-regime protesters, UN Security Council to meet on 2017/2018 Iranian protests - 5 January 2018: UN Security Council discusses deadly protests across Iran, told about rising poverty after the Iranian regime had spent $6 billion every year propping up the regime in Syria, as Iranian Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi urges USA and the international community to support the nationwide protests in Iran with sanctions, but not economic measures that could hit the general population - 6 January 2018: During 2017 129 massacres were committed by Assad regime forces, 83 by the Russian forces, and 113 by the international coalition forces, according to SNHR, calling on the UN to refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court and stop blocking the UN resolutions - 12 January 2018: Iran has violated a UN arms embargo by failing to block supplies to Yemen's Houthi rebels of ballistic missiles that were fired at Saudi Arabia, according to a UN experts' report - 19 January 2018: In the eighth year of Assad's Iranian-Russian backed war against the Syrian people, UN's Guterres renews calls for revival of Syria chemical weapons probe to punish those responsible, adding that the use of chemical weapons in Syria had challenged the 'global taboo' against these weapons of mass destruction - 23 January 2018: UN-Security Council discussed Turkey's aggression against Kurds in Syria and the worsening humanitarian crisis in the country, but did not condemn or demand an end to the Turkish military operation, as USA's ambassador Nikki Haley did not attend the meeting - 27 January 2018: UN's Antonio Guterres is again calling on the UN Security Council to refer Syria to the International Criminal Criminal Court, pointing to 'serious violations' including blocking aid deliveries and medical care to millions
February 2018: 2 February 2018: Between 2012 and 2017 North Korea has supplied weapons to Syria and Myanmar, according to a confidential report by independent UN monitors which also said Pyongyang's regime violated UN sanctions to earn nearly $200m in 2017 and ballistic missile and chemical weapons programmes may have benefited - 6 February 2018: The UN Security Council failed to adapt a resolution to stop such attacks or to adopt a draft resolution on the use of chemical weapons, as ferocious onslaught by the Assad regime forces and Iranian militias backed by the Russian air force continues to target civilians in many parts across Syria, and as UN's Panos Moumtzis says 'We can no longer stay silent', calling for a one-month ceasefire to ease an 'extreme situation' that 'we haven’t seen before' at any point during the war, which is soon to enter its eighth year - 9 February 2018: Damascus provincial council called upon the UN Security Council to take action to address the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the suburb of eastern Ghouta and put an end to the Assad regime's relentless bombardment of civilians - 9 February 2018: As many as 45 local non-government aid groups have issued a joint statement calling for an end to the systematic targeting of health facilities by the Assad regime forces and their allies - 9 February 2018: The suffering in Syria grows and the world turns away, the British 'Guardian' says, as the UN warns of unprecedented levels of suffering in the country that has already witnessed so many crimes and such desperation in 7 years, but as its calls for a ceasefire are ignored - 10 février 2018: Suède et Koweit tentent de faire examiner par le Conseil de sécurité une résolution visant une trêve d'un mois à des fins humanitaires, mais le régime russie, alliée du régime d'Assad, a de manière répétée bloqué toute initiative du Conseil qui viserait Assad - 13 February 2018: UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric says 'that we are witnessing (in Syria) some of the worst fighting of the entire conflict, with reports of hundreds of civilian deaths and injuries, massive displacement and the destruction of civilian infrastructure, including medical facilities' and that 'history will record failure to stop the fighting and will lay the blame on those responsible' - 14 February 2018: UN once again calls for Syria cease-fire, as UN's 'Deputy regional humanitarian coordinator for the Syria crisis' Rajasingham says it is 'very possible' - 16 February 2018: Amid military escalation by the Assad regime and its allies in many parts across Syria, described by the UN as the worst throughout the course of Assad's war in Syria, Sweden and Kuwait presented a revised draft UN Security Council resolution calling for a 30-day ceasefire, revised to obtain backing by Russian war criminals - 16 February 2018: Russia bombs seventh hospital in Syria in 2 weeks in the village of Hass in Idlib province - 21 February 2018: Fears and outrage over bloodshed in Syria, also described as a 'hell on earth' by the UN, but once again no action of the UN disabled by the Russian perpetrator (11 vetoes), China and others, as families in Ghouta take to basements in attempt to survive, and as Ghouta's desperate civilians say they've been abandoned to their fate with aid groups denied access to the devastated Syrian enclave - 23 February 2018: As Assad regime and Russian war criminals are destroying eastern Ghouta's healthcare, systematically targeting hospitals, and as Médecins Sans Frontières say 13 hospitals it supported had been destroyed or damaged in the past three days alone, Russian Putin regime blocks UN resolution on eastern Ghouta ceasefire - 23 February 2018: After 5 days of massacres which left about 2,550 civilian casualties and wounded, the escalation continues on the Eastern Ghouta by the Assad regime and its allies - 24 February 2018: Over 400 people killed and 1,000 injured as UNSC fails to stop carnage in Eastern Ghouta, according to UN, as SOHR reports about 520 civilian casualties and more than 2,500 wounded in the vicious attack on the Eastern Ghouta - 24 February 2018: Blocked by Russian perpetrators, UN Security Council once again delayed a vote on demanding a 30-day ceasefire in Syria to Saturday at noon, as USA's ambassador asks 'how many more people will die before the Security Council agrees to take up this vote', as Syrian Coalition calls for preventing Russian perpetrators from voting on Syria-related resolutions at UN Security Council, and as deaths mount in Syria - 24 February 2018: Syrian teenager tweeting the horror of life in Ghouta - 24 février 2018: Les bombes du régime syrien ont encore frappé la Ghouta orientale dans la nuit de vendredi à samedi, 21 civils sont morts - 24 February 2018: UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution demanding a 30-day cease-fire across Syria 'without delay' to deliver humanitarian aid to millions and evacuate the critically ill and wounded, after many countries have been pressing for immediate UN action as deaths mount in an Assad bombing campaign in eastern Ghouta and as USA's Nikki Haley was sharply critical of Russian regime for delaying the vote, saying it cost lives - 25 February 2018: New regime strikes hit Eastern Ghouta on Sunday despite UN Security Council demand for a ceasefire, as residents doubt Security Council resolution will be implemented, while UN diplomats say it was 'watered down' to avoid Russia veto - 25 February 2018: Iranian and Syrian Assad regime will continue attacks on Damascus suburbs despite February 2018 UN resolution demanding a 30-day truce across Syria - 26 February 2018: The wording of UNSC resolution let Russia resume bombing within hours, sidelining the UN as a decision maker and setting up Putin and his military as ultimate arbiters of who gets fed, or killed - 27 February 2018: Russian regime ordered a daily five-hour 'humanitarian pause' in the besieged eastern Ghouta, effectively replacing UN security council resolution that had demanded a month-long ceasefire in the embattled region, replaced by a choice of forced displacement and decline or being killed in Russian-backed bombardment and siege - 27 February 2018: Russian Putin regime vetoed a British-drafted UN resolution that promised action against violations of a UN arms embargo on Yemen and pointed to a report by experts that cited Iran as a violator, as the vote was 11 in favor, Russia and Bolivia opposed, and China and Kazakhstan abstaining, as 17 million people in Yemen, 60% of the total population, are in need of food aid, of whom seven million are on the brink of famine - 28 February 2018: USA and three European allies condemned Iran, after the UN found Iranian regime had violated the arms embargo on Yemen by failing to block supplies of missiles and drones to Houthi rebels, but Russia vetoed British-drafted resolution
March 2018: 1 March 2018: Speaking at a monthly Security Council meeting devoted to the Syrian conflict, UN under secretary general for humanitarian affairs Mark Lowcock says there has been no access for humanitarian convoys, nor authorization by the regime to go into the besieged areas, nor medical evacuations, on the contrary, the bombings have continued, and deaths and wounded have mounted, since the Security Council resolution was passed - 5 March 2018: USA slams Russia, Iran over 'brutal’ assault on Syria’s Eastern Ghouta, accusing them of killing 'innocent civilians under the false auspices of counterterrorism operations', as shelter still withhold by the international community and homemade shelters are tombs for the living - 5 March 2018: Residents in the besieged Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta have begun using UN aid bags as shrouds for children killed in the devastating bombardment by the Assad regime to express their frustration over the organization's inaction - 9 mars 2018: 'Le Conseil de sécurité a échoué à l'égard du peuple syrien' en raison d'oppositions de la Russie, selon l'ambassadeur britannique adjoint à l'ONU Jonathan Allen - 10 March 2018: UN aid barely suffices 25% of eastern Ghouta residents as Syrian Coalition reiterates calls for implementation of UNSC resolution 2401 - 10 March 2018: Terrifying escalation in the death toll of the Eastern Ghouta raises it to about 1,100 civilian casualties, including 227 children and 154 women, killed by aerial, rocket and artillery shelling, more than half of them since UNSC resolution, and 4,378 wounded citizens, including hundreds of children and women - 12 March 2018: Following repeated violations by the Syrian regime of the previous ceasefire resolution passed a fortnight ago, the USA demands to end chemical attacks and 'inhuman suffering', as it proposes a new binding resolution imposing an immediate 30-day ceasefire in Eastern Ghouta and signals readiness to act unilaterally, as when it attacked airbase last year - 14 March 2018: The UK has called for an urgent meeting of the UN security council to update council members on the investigation into the 'Novichok' nerve agent attack in Salisbury - 15 March 2018: Describing a pattern of Russian regime's behavior and calling to take action, allies back UK at UN security council and condemn Russia, as the Russian regime, denying known facts and Russian chemist Vil Mirzayanov's evidence of novichok, claims that it never made or even researched novichok nerve agents, and laughs at the victims suggesting that the British government might have carried out the attack itself in an effort to 'tarnish' Russia ahead of the football World Cup this summer, as attacked people are fighting for their lives, once again also in British hospitals - 16 March 2018: Tens of Russian airstrikes target the southern section of the Eastern Ghouta leaving 10 casualties and tens of wounded in Saqba - 17 March 2018: Air strikes by Assad regime and Russian jets on Eastern Ghouta killed at least 30 civilians on Saturday, according to SOHR, as rights group slams seven years of 'catastrophic failure' of the international community in Syria - France and Britain urge UNSC to enforce resolution 2401, warning of massacres in eastern Ghouta - 17 March 2018: Doctors and civil leaders among signatories to open letter to the UN, demanding action to stop massacre by Russian-backed Assad forces - 20 March 2018: Syrian Coalition calls for sending urgent commission of inquiry to eastern Ghouta - 20 March 2018: At least 738 civilians, including 116 children killed by the Assad and Russian forces in eastern Ghouta since adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2401, according to SNHR and SOHR - 20 March 2018: Russian warplanes reportedly hit a school basement in eastern Ghouta, killing at least 15 children, as in New York the UN human rights chief was blocked from addressing the Security Council on the carnage in Syria - 22 March 2018: Syrian Coalition sends letter to UK urging action against use of chemical weapons stressing that the failure of the international community had encouraged the use of chemical weapons on both Syrian and British territory - 22 March 2018: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights al-Hussein calls on the UN Security Council to refer human rights violations being committed by the Assad regime and its allied militias in Syria to the International Criminal Court ICC - 22 March 2018: Syrian Coalition calls on international community to hold Russia and Assad regime accountable for their crimes - 26 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Yahya Maktabi said that the mass forced displacement taking place in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta is a 'war crime' as he condemned Russian’s major role in these crimes, adding that regime forces, the Iranian militias, and Russian air force are killing civilians, targeting popular markets, residential areas and public facilities and bombing hospitals, medical centers, and rescue workers - 26 March 2018: The UN has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later killing at least one patient by what medics suspected to be a 'bunker-buster' bomb, according to 'The Telegraph' - 26 March 2018: 871 civilians killed in eastern Ghouta since adoption of UN-security council resolution 2401, according to SNHR - 30 March 2018: The International community and the UN failed to solve humanitarian crises in Syria and other countries, outgoing UN Undersecretary General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman said Friday - 31 March 2018: Despite fierce opposition by Israel and the USA, and requests to postpone the meeting until after the Passover holiday, the UN Security Council convenes during the Passover Seder to discuss the situation in Gaza and renewed deadly Gaza-Israel border clashes, as Israeli army says fatalities include Hamas gunmen trying to breach fence and warns of further escalation amid an already-disastrous humanitarian situation worsened after the West Bank-based Palestinian Authority refused to pay for Gaza’s electricity, in part to press it’s political rival Hamas to loosen control of the area
April 2018: 1 April 2018: USA blocks UN resolution condemning Israel for deaths in Gaza clashes, as Israeli military on Saturday night identified 10 of the 16 people reported killed during violent protests along the Gaza security fence as members of Palestinian terrorist groups, and published a list of their names and positions in the organizations, also saying it only shot at protesters charging Gaza border
7 April 2018 Douma chemical attack: International reactions to the 7 April 2018 Douma chemical attack - 11 April 2018: 'The number of dead bodies that can be established through open source data is 34+', and 'aircraft spotters reported two Mi-8 Hip helicopters heading southwest from Dumayr Airbase, in the direction of Douma, 30 minutes before the chemical attack in Douma, and two Hip helicopters were observed above Douma shortly before the attack' according to Bellingcat Investigation team
Since 8 April 2018: 8 April 2018: Israeli officials on Sunday called on the international community to intervene in Syria, where the Russian-backed Assad regime killed dozens in a chemical attack in Douma and a series of airstrikes over the weekend, according to rescuers and medics, as USA State Departement said that 'the Assad regime and its backers must be held accountable and any further attacks prevented immediately', adding that 'Russia ... ultimately bears responsibility for these brutal attacks' - 8 April 2018: Aid workers and local medics have described apocalyptic scenes in the besieged city of Douma, the site of a chemical attack that has killed at least 42 people, as they scrambled to save the survivors of the latest atrocity in Syria, as Haaretz' Anshel Pfeffer describes how the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another, saying that in the history of war, no war crime has been so well documented and so predictable to those who had it in their power to prevent it from recurring - 8 April 2018: 'What’s happening in Syria is genocide of women and children in its cruelest form, using weapons of mass destruction', Israeli chief rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says in a statement, adding that 'we have a moral obligation not to keep quiet and to try and stop this massacre' - 8 April 2018: France and eight countries seek urgent UN Security Council meet on Syria - 9/10 April 2018: As Israeli government says that Syrian chemical attack is a 'crime against humanity’, the UK ambassador to the UN, Karen Pierce, calls on the security council to conduct a thorough investigation of the alleged chemical weapons attack, demanding that Russia must uphold the chemical weapons convention, UK's Theresa May condemns 'barbaric' targeting of civilians, saying Bashar al-Assad and his Russian backers must be held to account if found responsible for the chemical attack on Douma, and USA's Trump to decide on USA response to gas attack 'within 48 hours' - 10/11 April 2018: After UN clash with Russian regime, USA readies response to Syria attacks, consulting with international allies on possible joint military response - 12 April 2018: Israel ambassador to the UN Danny Danon accompanied a group of fellow diplomats to the world body in participating in the March of the Living on Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day visiting the death camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, telling fellow ambassadors that the 'international community must act with determination to ensure that such things never happen again', and warned of 'rising anti-Semitism’ - 13 April 2018: UN Security Council met for the fourth time this week over the gas attack by Assad forces on Douma, which killed dozens of people
14 April 2018 allied military strikes against Assad's chemical weapons: 14 April 2018 allied military strikes, involving manned aircraft and ship-based missiles, against multiple Assad regime sites in Syria - 14 April 2018: Following UN's failure since 2011 to stop and to take action against Assad's, Iranin and Russian war crimes, France, United Kingdom and USA take part in strikes on targets associated with chemical weapons in the wake of gas attack on Douma
14 April 2018: Russian regime has been defeated in its bid to have the USA, France and UK airstrikes condemned in the UN security council with 8 countries voting against, and 4 abstentions of Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Peru and Equitorial Guinea, confirming how isolated Putin has become on the Syrian issue - 14 April 2018: Widespread support for allied military strikes against Assad regime, as European Union and NATO, Australia, Canada, Israel, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey immediately voiced support - 14 April 2018: NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says all NATO allies have expressed their full support for last night's military actions to degrade the Syrian regime's chemical weapons capability
15/16 April 2018: 15 April 2018: Britain, France and the USA have launched a new bid at the UN to investigate chemical weapons attacks in Syria in the missile strikes against Assad’s regime, also calling for unimpeded delivery of humanitarian aid, enforcement of a ceasefire and a demand that Syria engage in UN-led peace talk - 16 April 2018: Pressure grows on Russia to stop protecting Assad’s regime, as USA, UK and France press for inquiry into its use of chemical weapons and as UN security council’s 15 members will meet on Monday to discuss a call for a wider push to eliminate the covert Syrian regime stockpiles
18 April: 18 April 2018: OPCW's international chemical weapons inspectors were not able to go into the town of Douma in eastern Ghouta on Wednesday, a UN source in Syria told Reuters, as the USA, UK and France earlier accused Russian and Assad's regime of trying to tamper with the evidence in site of the crime
24/25 April 2018: 24 April 2018: After 7 years of Assad's Iranian and Russian backed war against the Syrian people, Western nations want to end the years-long paralysis at the UN over Syria by referring the issue of chemical weapons use to the entire UN general assembly, where Russia’s security council veto would not apply - 25 April 2018: Head of the UN’s humanitarian task force for Syria Jan Egeland warns Idlib could be next Syrian disaster zone in 'marathon of pain', now lasting 'two years longer than the second world war'
May 2018: 5 May 2018: Proposed UN security council statement expressing 'serious concern' about Abbas’s anti-Semitic remarks that Holocaust was not caused by anti-Semitism but rather by Jews’ 'social behavior', rejected by Kuwait arguing that Abbas had already apologized and that it was one-sided, and fails to win UN backing - 11 May 2018: Israel demands UN condemn Iran barrage as Novichok/Sarin-Guterres calls for calm and Iranian regime revenews threats to destroy Tel Aviv and Haifa - 14 May 2018: Iran is funding Hamas’s campaign to promote violence and attacks against Israel under the cover of mass demonstrations at Gaza border, keeping its own gunmen back ready to enter Israel if fence is breached to carry out terror attacks, the Shin Bet security service says releasing findings of interrogations of suspects - 15 May 2018: USA blocks UN Security Council call for probe of Gaza deaths and UN statement that would have expressed 'outrage at killing of Palestinian civilians exercising their right to peaceful protest', as Israel blames Hamas for the deadly violence, saying the terror group had encouraged and led the protests, which included attacks on Israeli troops and attempts to breach the border fence - 17 May 2018: Hamas co-founder al-Zahar admits 'we are deceiving the public’ about peaceful Gaza border protests, saying in an interview that 'this is not peaceful resistance', the option of armed struggle 'is growing and developing', 'this is a peaceful resistance bolstered by a military force and by security agencies' - 22 May 2018: UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees UNRWA says that the Yarmouk camp for Palestinian refugees in Damascus lies today in ruins, with hardly a single building that has not been destroyed or damaged - Foreign involvement and support for Assad's war against the Syrian people by the Russian and the Iran regime, allied with Hezbollah and Hamas - 30 May 2018: The UN Security Council will meet Wednesday at the request of the USA to discuss Palestinian militants' rocket and mortar attacks on Israel, as Israeli army says some rockets, mortars fired from Gaza in recent attacks were made in Iran - 31 May 2018: USA blasts Security Council as measure condemning Hamas' rocket attacks on Israel blocked
June 2018: 1 June 2018: The UN Security Council is set to vote on a draft resolution presented by the USA that would give warring sides in South Sudan until June 30 to end fighting or face possible sanctions - 1 June 2018: China, France and Russia were among the countries that voted in favor of the draft put forward by anti-Israel Kuwait, four countries, Ethiopia, the UK, the Netherlands and Poland abstained, and the USA opposed, bringing its own proposal condemning Hamas for its role in the escalation of violence in Gaza in the last two months, that also failed - 6 June 2018: UN Security Council condemns continuous violations of the ceasefire regime, especially the use of heavy weapons prohibited by the Minsk agreements, reaffirming its full support for resolution 2166 on the downing of flight MH17 - 9 June 2018: Israel has appealed to the UN to intervene in southern Lebanon, saying that the Palestinian terror group Hamas is working with Hezbollah to establish missile factories and camps to train thousands of fighters there, adding that 'Hamas is tightening its ties with Hezbollah with the blessing and support of Iran, which is working to entrench its own forces also on Lebanese soil' - 15 June 2018: UN security council has rejected a move to demand an immediate end to the fighting around the strategic Yemeni port of Hodeidah, with the USA and UK both voicing opposition to the text introduced by Sweden - 27 June 2018: Syrian Negotiations Commission calls for an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council to discuss the war crimes being committed by the Assad regime and its allies in the province of Dara’a, demanding an immediate cessation of military operations as they violate international resolutions on Syria - 29 June 2018: Number of displaced triples to 160,000 during Assad's and Russian assault in south Syria, according to UNHCR - 29 June 2018: Assad and Russian airstrikes pounded rebel-held areas in southwestern Syria on Thursday, killing at least 17 civilians in an underground shelter and driving thousands more from their homes, as displaced people protest near the Israeli border demanding international protection
July 2018: 4 July 2018: The UN Security Council will hold an emergency meeting after Jordan and Israel refuse to take in some 300,000 Syrians who have been displaced by Russian-backed bombings in Daraa province - 4/5 July 2018: Fears are mounting about the safety of more than 270,000 civilians who have fled recent Russian-backed offensive in southern Syria, with aid groups and local doctors issuing urgent appeals for people stranded in the desert without shelter, also worrying about insects and scorpions that come at night - 5 July 2018: Waves of air strikes pounded southern Syria on Thursday as Russian-backed regime forces with hundreds of missiles and barrel bombs launched their most intensive murderous bombing campaign yet in the two-week-old offensive in Daraa province - 5 July 2018: As UN's Security Council as a whole - except Russia - has shown a 'strong unity' to denounce the ongoing military offensive in southwest Syria and its humanitarian consequences, Russian regime blocks Council statement, after there has been a fruitless push to persuade the regime to accept a declaration based on the need to deliver humanitarian aid - 6 July 2018: Held in parallel with relentless Russian airstrikes on the town of Saida in eastern rural Dara’a resulting in the death of civilians including children, UN Security Council once again failed to stop the carnage civilians in Syria by the Assad regime forces and their allies, according to Syrian Coalition's Badr Jamous, saying that the indifference being shown by the international would remain a dark stain on humanity's conscience - 18 July 2018: Dozens of civilians, mostly women and children, were killed in Assad regime and Russian airstrikes on border villages in Syria's provinces of Quneitra and Daraa in the past 24 hours, as UN-Security Council remains silent - 19 July 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Daraa province, amid aerial bombardments by helicopters and warplanes, and in Hama province - 21 July 2018: After massacres of 26 civilian casualties, including 11 children, Russian warplanes continue to destroy and incinerate Yarmouk Basin area in Daraa province
28 July 2018: 28 July 2018: Virginia Gamba, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, told the UN Security Council that the first quarter of 2018 saw a 348% increase in killing and maiming of children in Syria compared to the previous quarter, also saying that over 100 attacks on hospitals and medical facilities or personnel have been verified since the beginning of 2018, as Guterres supports Assad's regime and therefore Assad's, Russian and Iranian war crimes
August 2018: 1 August 2018: SNHR said that the collapse of the 'de-escalation zones' agreement in southern Syria was another failure of the UN Security Council as it failed to maintain security and peace in the war-torn country, saying that at least 281 civilians, including 84 children and 63 women, were killed in the offensive the Assad regime and Russia launched in southern Syria - 4 August 2018: North Korea has not stopped its nuclear and missile programmes and is violating UN sanctions, according to UN report, also saying that North Korean regime continues military cooperation with Syria's Assad regime - 18 August 2018: In a joint letter to the UN signed by Qatar and Liechtenstein on behalf of 41 countries, including the USA, the UK, Spain, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Morocco, Mexico, Austria, Italy, Turkey, France, Canada, and the Netherlands, about the Assad regime’s recent issuance of thousands of death notices for detainees who died under torture in its prisons, condemning the Assad regime's systematic violations, torture and execution of detainee - 27 August 2018: SNHR says in a new report that the UN Security Council is still ‘dead’ despite the compelling evidence about the Assad regime’s responsibility for enforced disappearance in Syria - 31 August 2018: Russia has blocked the publication of a UN report on the implementation of sanctions against North Korea, which AFP obtained a copy of earlier this month, listing violations of a ban on North Korean exports of coal, iron, seafood and other products that generate millions of dollars in revenue for Kim Jong Un's regime
September 2018: 5/6 September 2018: Two Russian nationals Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov named and charged by British police and prosecutors over the novichok poisoning of Sergei and Julia Skripal in March in Salisbury, as Britain to lay out case against Russian regime at UN with PM Theresa May saying suspects were GRU officers, pointing to Putin, explicitly blamed by security minister Ben Wallace - 6 September 2018: Russia has come under a sustained barrage of almost universal condemnation as nations lined up at the UN security council to decry its role in the Salisbury chemical weapons attacks - 6 September 2018: In a joint statement with the UK, Canada, France, Germany and the USA reiterate their outrage at the use of a chemical nerve agent, known as Novichok, in Salisbury on 4 March, having full confidence in the British assessment that the two suspects were officers from the Russian military intelligence servic and that their operation was almost certainly approved at a senior government level
14 September 2018: USA calls UN Meeting on efforts by some countries 'to undermine and obstruct' sanctions against North Korea, after USA's ambassador accused Russian regime on Thursday of pressuring an independent panel of UN experts to alter a report on North Korea sanctions - 17 September 2018: At UN, USA accuses Russian Putin regime of 'cheating' on North Korea sanctions, citing 'evidence of consistent and wide-ranging Russian violations'
October 2018: 29 October 2018: SNHR called on the UN Security Council to put forward a recommendation to the UN General Assembly to suspend the membership of the Assad regime in response to the atrocious crimes and violations it has been committing against the Syrian people over the past seven years
November 2918: 14 November 2018: Security Council meeting ends with no action, as UN debates Gaza violence and Israel envoy sounds rocket siren - 26 November 2018: UN Security Council to hold emergency meeting over Russian aggression near Kerch Strait - 29 November 2018: Facing war, famine and cholera, Yemen ceasefire resolution blocked at UN, after the USA and other member states argued that the resolution should be delayed until the start of planned peace talks between the Yemeni government and Houthi rebels in Stockholm, which UN's Martin Griffiths hopes to broker at some point between 3 and 13 December 2018 4 years since Houthi's coup d'état 2014–15
December 2018: 4 December 2018: The UN Security Council will meet behind closed doors on Tuesday at the request of France and Britain to discuss resolution calling on Iranian regime to refrain from testing missiles capable of carrying a nuclear weapon, after they accused the regime of test-firing respective medium-range missile - 14 December 2018: Russia and China abstain on UN Central African Republic vote to extend peacekeeping mission - 20 December 2018: The USA is demanding that UN resolution on Yemen ceasefire contains reference to Iran’s role in arming the Houthis, a proposal that has led to Russian threats to veto it - 20 December 2018: UN fails to take action against Hezbollah terror tunnels, but several Security Council members join Israel in condemning Lebanese terrorist group for tunneling under the border
16 January 2019: 16 January 2019: UN trying to prevent the collapse of the ceasefire agreement in Yemen by endorsing a fresh security council resolution urgently increasing the number of monitors overseeing the deal in Hodeidah
19 January 2019: 19 January 2019: Illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war, UN report finds - 23 January 2019: UN envoy to the Mideast Nikolay Mladenov tells Security Council that international forces are being prevented from inspecting the source of the Hezbollah cross-border tunnels uncovered by Israel, protesting Lebanon not giving peacekeepers access - 23 January 2019: Assad regime's envoy to the UN warned Tuesday that if the world body did not halt Israeli strikes on his country, the regime would retaliate with an attack on Ben Gurion International Airport outside Tel Aviv
March 2019: 4 March 2019: Syrian Coalition demands accountability for chemical weapons attack launched against civilians in eastern Ghouta's Douma in the spring of 2018 - 8 March 2019: USA urges UN to toughen restrictions on Iran over missile tests - 11 March 2019: UN experts are investigating possible violations of UN sanctions on North Korea in about 20 countries, from alleged clandestine nuclear procurement in China to arms brokering in Syria and military cooperation with Iran, Libya and Sudan - 26 March 2019: UN envoy for the Middle East Nickolay Mladenov urged the Security Council to condemn the 'continued indiscriminate firing of rockets by Hamas towards Israel' - 28 March 2019: USA slammed at UN Security Council for recognizing Golan as Israeli, as USA says it wants peacekeepers to stay
April 2019: 2 April 2019: Britain, France and Germany accused Iran of developing missile technology in contravention of a UN resolution, drawing attention to regime’s ballistic missile efforts and their potential relevance for a nuclear weapons program, and called for a full UN report on recent activities, according to a letter released Tuesday - 8 April 2019: UK urges France to condemn Haftar’s assault on Tripoli, as EU foreign ministers are meeting in Brussels to condemn an assault on Tripoli by the Libyan warlord Khalifa Haftar and call for all sides to revert to UN-led political discussions about the riven country’s future, after UK-led moveto pass a security council statement condemning Haftar at the UN on Sunday was blocked by Russia - 19 avril 2019: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU s'est réuni sur la Libye sans établir de stratégie claire pour réclamer rapidement un cessez-le-feu aux belligérants, alors que les Etats-Unis et la Russie continuent d'opposer de la résistance à un projet de résolution britannique, tandis que l'émissaire Ghassam Salamé a aussi réclamé que le conseil prenne une position forte sur les violations de l'embargo sur les armes imposé sur le théâtre libyen - 20 April 2019: Libya addressed a letter to the Security Council requesting the formation of an international fact-finding mission to investigate the violations committed by Haftar's forces during their attack on Tripoli, including the killing and displacement of innocent civilians, destruction of private and public property, the recruitment of children, and the targeting of densely populated neighbourhoods with heavy weapons - 23 April 2019: The UN has backed a resolution on combatting rape in conflict by 13 votes in favour, as China and Russia abstained, excluding references in the text to sexual and reproductive health after vehement opposition from the USA, but making for the first time specific calls for greater support for children born as a result of rape in conflict, as well as their mothers, amid calls for practical steps to achieve reality
28 April 2019: 28 April 2019: Libya’s Tripoli government held the UN Security Council responsible for refraining from taking action regarding attacks on the Libyan capital by warlord Haftar and decries UN 'silence’ - 28 April 2019: Airstrikes by Khalifa Haftar's self-proclaimed Libyan National Army killed four people and wounded 20 others in Tripoli, according to Libya's internationally recognized unity government
May 2019: 5 mai 2019: Après le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU n'a pas réussi à s'entendre sur une résolution britannique demandant un cessez-le-feu en Libye, la 'communauté' internationale accepte donc de facto la poursuite d'une autre guerre périlleuse - 6 May 2019: Warlord Khalifa Haftar orders troops to fight harder during Ramadan, just hours after the UN called for a week-long humanitarian truce following a month of fighting for the capital Tripoli that has displaced 50,000 people, killed around 400, and badly damaged some southern districts
8 May 2019: 8 May 2019: Described as an 'unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe', renewed bombardment in north-west Syria that has displaced 200,000 people and destroyed 12 healthcare centres could have been sparked by Russia and Turkish moves to entrench their zones of influence and landgrab - 8 May 2019: Syrian Coalition calls for stopping Assad regime and Russia's fierce onslaught on Hama and Idlib
9-11 May 2019: 9 May 2019: Kuwait, Germany, Belgium call for urgent Syria meeting at UN, as calls emerge to stand up to the Russian and Assad regime’s deadly attacks on Syrian civilians and protect civilians in Hama and Idlib province - 11 May 2019: Assad regime troops expand offensive on rebels in northeast Syria as members of the UN Security Council call on Assad to honor cease-fire urging a return to 'calm', after UN chief Antonio Guterres supported Assad’s regime in 2018
17/18 May 2019: 18 May 2019: 'Despite our warnings our worst fears are now coming true', UN emergency relief coordinator Lowcock told the UN Security Council, saying that the Assad regime and its Russian ally have intensified attacks against Idlib province, bombing hospitals with the WHO reporting 20 attacks on 18 facilities in the past three weeks, repeating some key questions put to his office in recent weeks by Member States, NGOs, doctors and families, including 'Who is bombing all these hospitals?', 'Is the information being provided about the locations of hospitals in fact being used not to protect hospitals but to target them?', 'What is your advice to parents of children who live in the de-escalation zone?', 'Hasn’t the Security Council passed a resolution reinforcing that countries shouldn’t bomb hospitals?', 'What is the point of the Security Council passing resolutions like that if States are not going to comply with them?'
21-23 May 2019: 21 mai 2019: La bataille pour Tripoli 'n'est que le début d'une guerre longue et sanglante', a déclaré mardi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour la Libye, en réclamant des mesures pour arrêter le flot d'armes arrivant dans le pays, malheureusement sans citer les noms 'des pays (qui) alimentent ce conflit sanglant', y compris la Russie - 22 May 2019: The international community lacks the moral motivation to end the Libyan civil war and largely views the country as a prize to be captured, UN’s special envoy for Libya Salamé said, as warlord Khalifa Haftar, who launched a military offensive to capture Tripoli, ruled out an immediate ceasefire in talks with French president Macron in Paris, and as the Macron administration is accused of giving support to Haftar - 23 May 2019: Libya's UN-recognized government head urges stopping war
27-30 May 2019: 27/28 May 2019: Syrian Coalition said that the Assad regime and its allies are using 'all that tactics and weapons that are prohibited under international law against civilians in Idlib and rural Hama', calling upon active members of the UN international organisations to take action to stop attacks in Idlib and Hama and protect civilians - 29 May 2019: SNHR issued a new report detailing attacks by the Assad regime and Russian forces on healthcare facilities in northwestern Syria, as Syrian Coalition said that these attacks are aimed at putting more pressure on civilians and forcing them to flee - 29 May 2019: As Assad regime and Russian forces have further escalated the bombing campaign against towns and villages in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, targeting mainly populated areas, public markets and hospitals, UN warns more Idlib military action will overwhelm aid needs - 29 May 2019: Assad's continued assault on Idleb has killed a further 18 people in Idleb, including women and children, according to Alsouria Net, as SOHR documented about 500 air and ground strikes during the 30th day of Assad's and Russian escalation - 30 May 2019: Assad regime and their Russian backers reportedly destroyed over 20 hospitals in an assault that has killed at least 265 civilians in the past weeks - 30 May 2019: Assad's and Russian aerial bombardment continues causing more casualties in a massacre by regime’s warplanes in Maarrat al-Nu’man
30 May 2019: 30 May 2019: After 'over the past few hours, the Assad regime forces, the Russian occupation jets, and the Iranian militia have carried out four deadly attacks in Idlib and Aleppo provinces, bombing more than 35 towns and villages in the two provinces', the Syrian Coalition says 'these crimes have cast serious doubt about the very mission around which the United Nations was established, mainly to maintain international peace and security. These crimes have also shown how this institution, since it has been unable to intervene to resolve the most serious international conflicts, has become wholly irrelevant'
June 2019: 1 June 2019: Russia bears primary responsibility for Assad’s bombing of civilians, according to Syrian Coalition’s Riad al-Hassan, saying that the atrocities taking place against civilians in northwestern Syria constitute war crimes under the international law and international humanitarian law - 2 June 2019: Dozens of prominent doctors have called for urgent action to halt the bombing campaign by Syrian and Russian planes that has targeted more than 20 hospitals in Syria’s north-west, putting many out of action and leaving millions of people without proper healthcare, after coordinates for many of those hit had been shared with the regime and its Russian backers by the UN - 4 June 2019: Russia blocked the UN Security Council on Monday from issuing a statement expressing concern about attacks on civilians, the increasing fighting in and around Syria's Idlib province and the possibility of a humanitarian disaster, a council diplomat said
5 June 2019: 5 June 2019: Chinese regime, backed by Russia, blocked a bid at the UN security council to condemn the killing of civilians in Sudan and issue a pressing call from world powers for an immediate halt to the violence, after paramilitaries killed at least 60 people when they attacked pro-democracy protesters in Khartoum, injuring hundreds
7 June 2019: 7 June 2019: During a briefing to the UN Security Council, the UAE along with Saudi Arabia and Norway presented the preliminary findings of an investigation the 'sophisticated and coordinated' attacks on oil tankers on 12 May, pointing to the likelihood that a state was behind the bombings, as the council will also receive the final results of the probe to consider a possible response, and as USA and Saudi Arabia both pointed finger at Iranian regime
19 June 2019: 19 juin 2019: L'ONU attire l'attention sur la situation à Idleb, demandant à la Russie et la Turquie de stopper la 'catastrophe humanitaire' en cours - 19 June 2019: UN warned of threats to the Middle East as a result of the continued military escalation by the Assad regime and Russia in the ‘de-escalation zone’ in northwestern Syria, as UN political chief Rosemary DiCarlo told the council members that 'the continuing fighting in Idlib has become a threat to regional stability'
19 June 2019: 19 June 2019: ICC's chief prosecutor Fatou Bensouda is urging Sudan's transitional authorities to hand over or prosecute ousted president Omar al-Bashir and four others for alleged war crimes in Darfur, telling the UN Security Council she is ready to engage with authorities 'to ensure that the Darfur suspects face independent and impartial justice, either in a courtroom in The Hague, or in Sudan' if the latter court meets international standards
19/20 June 2019: 19/20 June 2019: Following her renewed call for full State accountability for the murder of dissident Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, UN-appointed independent investigator Agnes Callamard said she believed the UN chief 'should be able to establish a follow-up criminal investigation without any trigger' by other UN bodies or member states, adding 'it would be absurd to limit the intervention of the UNSG to such scenarios', as defenders of human rights and press freedom demand justice for Khashoggi, saying 'impunity in this case poses too great a risk to the safety of journalists everywhere'
24/25 June 2019 Iranian, Russian and Assad's warfare: 25 June 2019: In a unanimous press statement drafted by Kuwait, UN council condemned recent attacks on oil tankers, calling them a threat to the world’s energy supply and to international peace and security, as Iranian regime's envoy to the UN Ravanchi rejected regime talks with the USA, outside the Security Council, because regime is not a member, and as Russian regime rejected a mention of a 'state actor' - 25 June 2019: In Jerusalem, USA's John Bolton urged Iranian regime to step back from its 'malign behavior' and enter into 'real negotiations' over its nuclear weapons program, ballistic missile development, and backing for international terror groups, accusing Tehran regime of supporting violence throughout the region, from Hezbollah in Lebanon to the Assad regime in Syria, as well as Shiite militias in Iraq, Yemen’s Houthi rebels, and terror attacks on USA forces in Afghanistan, and of threatening Middle Eastern oil supplies, as Israeli PM Netanyahu told murderous Russian regime's Nikolai Patrushev that Israel will do 'anything it takes' to ensure Iran does not obtain nuclear weapons, saying 'I’m certain that Russia understands what it means for us when a regime calls for our annihilation, and acts on a daily basis to achieve that aim', amid Assad's and Russian regime's northwestern Syria offensive since April 2019, murdering hundreds of civilians, and as Iran-backed terror group Hezbollah is now giving orders to Assad’s army, using it to spy on Israel along Golan border
28 June 2019 missing persons and detainees in Syria: 28 June 2019: As many as 50 Syrian civil organizations sent a joint letter to the UN Security Council calling for immediate action on the issue of missing persons and detainees in Syria
29 June 2019 peacekeeping in Mali: 29 June 2019: UN Security Council has unanimously adopted a resolution to extend peacekeeping mission in Mali, also discussing and addressing the escalating violence in the centre of the country
3 July 2019 airstrike on migrant detention centre by warlord Haftar's forces: 3 July 2019 Tajoura migrant center airstrike and massacre by warlord Haftar's forces, backed by Egypt, France, Russia and the United Arab Emirates, after UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, on 8 May 2019 called for refugees and migrants in detention centres in conflict areas in Tripoli to be immediately evacuated to safety, after an airstrike hit a target less than 100 metres away from Tajoura detention centre, where over 500 refugees and migrants are being detained
4 July 2019: 4 July 2019: As Britain circulated a statement that condemned the air strike and called for a ceasefire, USA's Trump administration thwarts UN Security Council condemnation of attack on Libya migrant center, after administration earlier criticized the attack as 'abhorrent' but did not call for a ceasefire
5/6 July 2019 Libya crisis: 6 July 2019: Condemning the attack on the Tajoura detention camp east of Tripoli UN Security Council called for a ceasefire in Libya as the death toll from a three-month offensive on Tripoli reached 1 000, including scores killed in an air strike that hit the detention centre for migrants
22 July 2019 Iran’s seizure of 'Stena Impero': 22 July 2019: British representative to the UN Jonathan Allen has declared in a letter to the Security Council that Iran’s seizure of a British-flagged tanker 'Stena Impero' with 23 crew members aboard amounted to 'illegal interference', and he rejected Tehran regime’s version of events
25 July 2019 investigation into Russian weapons in Syria demanded: :25 July 2019: Syrian civil organizations operating in the town of Ma'aret al-Nu'man called on the international community, the UN and the Security Council to conduct an investigation into the weapons the Russian forces used in the deadly attack on the town, stressing that one of the primary tasks of the UN Security Council is to maintain international peace and security, adding that the crimes taking place against civilians in Idlib threaten international peace and security
28 July 2019 UN silence amid war crimes: 28 July 2019: At least 13 civilians including five children have been killed in air strikes in Idlib province, coming just a day after UN's Michelle Bachelet warned that those responsible for the latest wave of killings in Assad's and Russian offensive could be charged with war crimes - 28 July 2019: More casualties raise to about 35, the number of people killed and injured in the air and ground strikes by Assad's and Russian warplanes in Idlib province
29 July 2019 UN silence slammed, UN conventions dead letter: 29 July 2019: Syrian Commission of Legal Experts described the international community as 'a silent spectator of the scenes of the extermination of the Syrian civilians', slamming the international silence about the ongoing shelling of civilians and vital civilian centers in northwestern Syria, describing the human rights conventions as a dead letter
30/31 July 2019 UN council adressed: 30/31 July 2019: As affected Syrians are desperate and angry, as Assad's and Russian forces continue to attack civilians, 10 UN Security Council members have called on the UN chief to set up an inquiry into why its hospitals have been singled out, after Physicians for Human Rights' Susannah Sirkin addressed the Council regarding attacks on health facilities and personnel, and their impact on civilians in Syria, and after UN's Mark Lowcock briefed the Council on the humanitarian situation in Syria
2 August 2019: 2 August 2019: UN to investigate attacks on humanitarian facilities in Idlib province, after human rights organizations have documented dozens of attacks on medical facilities in Syria, including medical centers they support in Idlib province, and after two-thirds of the UNSC called for an inquiry
6 August 2019 UN Council demands return to UN-mediated political process as Haftar's crimes continue: 6 August 2019: The UN Security Council reaffirmed Monday the call on all Libyan parties to commit to a ceasefire and rapidly to return to a UN-mediated political process, as Libyan Ministry of Interior strongly condemns a new brutal air attack on Murzuq town southwest of Libya, calling on the international community and the UN to assume their responsibilities towards the behavior of illegal armed groups and to investigate the war crimes committed by Haftar
16 August 2019 Kashmir crisis caused by India: 16 August 2019: UN Security Council discusses Kashmir for the first time since 1965 following the one-sided August 2019 revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's special status by India, overriding human rights, imposing a curfew affecting millions of residents, arresting hundreds of citizens, blocking all communications, bringing normal life to a standstill, opening fire over the fortified line of control leaving three Pakistani soldiers and two civilians dead
19 August 2019 delay of meeting on Syria criticized: 19 August 2019: Syrian National Coalition's Dima Moussa lashed out at the international community’s silence about the atrocities taking place in Syria at the hands of the Assad regime and Russia, denouncing the decision by the UN Security Council to postpone its monthly meeting on Syria in these difficult circumstances
21 August 2019 accountability remains absent 6 years after Ghouta attacks: 21 August 2019: Accountability remains absent on the sixth anniversary of the chemical attack on the two Ghoutas, the world’s largest chemical weapons attack since the chemical weapons convention, according to SNHR, saying the Syrian regime, by its repeated use of chemical weapons, is encouraging other regimes in the world to use chemical weapons of mass destruction
21/22 August 2019 civic groups urge UN to prevent dsaster in Idlib: 21 August 2019: Civic, political bodies and trade unions in Idlib province appealed to the UN Security Council and its current president to prevent an imminent humanitarian disaster in Idlib province - 22 August 2019: UN reiterated its warning that the lives of around three million people in northwestern Syria, many of them are women and children, are at dire risk because of the offensive the Assad regime and Russia launched in the region
22 August 2019 USA vowed to hold Assad regime accountable for its use of chemical weapons: 22 August 2019: The USA vowed to hold the Assad regime accountable for its crimes in Syria in a statement marking the sixth anniversary of the Assad regime's biggest chemical attack on the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta that killed nearly 1,500 civilians, including children and women
27 August 2019: 27 August 2019: UN calls for recommitment to ceasefire agreement in Syria's Idlib province
28 August 2019 Israel demands action against Iranian attacks from Syria: 28 August 2019: Israeli Ambassador to the UN Danny Danon filed a formal letter of complaint to the UN Security Council demanding action against the Iranian attempts to attack Israel from Syria
29 August 2019 war crimes without UN response: 29 August 2019: Stressing the need for the world to put an end to the disaster the Assad regime and its allies are inflicting on the Syrian people, the Syrian National Coalition condemned the continued brutal onslaught the Assad regime and its allies have launched against northern rural Hama and various parts of Idlib province for months, saying the United Nations and the international community, most notably the group of major actors, are capable and have an obligation to put an immediate end to these attacks and crimes - 29 August 2019: 3 UN council members have put forward a draft resolution calling for a cease-fire in Syria's Idlib province, which is enduring an intensified Russia-backed offensive
30 August 2019 Syrian towns and villages have been razed to the ground: 30 August 2019: 'Entire towns and villages have been razed to the ground' in northwestern Syria, according to satellite imagery presented by UN's Mark Lowcock in his briefing to the UN Security Council, saying that 'there can be no reason, rationale, excuse or justification for the destruction of civilian areas on the scale seen in Idleb today'
4 September 2019 Syria: 4 September 2019: As the international silence continues concerning the tragedy and humanitarian disaster in the 'death mini-state', about 410 children have died since the beginning of 2019 in al-Hol camp
4/5 September 2019 Libya: 4 September 2019: Chaos and destruction awaits Libya if member states don't act, UN envoy tells Security Council - 5 September 2019: UNSMIL's Salame said that there has now been over 100 civilian deaths, 300 injured and 120,000 displaced as well as fighter deaths 'in the low thousands' as a result of the war launched by Khalifa Hafter - 5 September 2019: Libya's UN ambassador calls for an international panel to investigate war crimes
9 September 2019 humanitarian situation in northwestern Syria: 9 September 2019: Syrian Coalition sends letter to UN and Security Council on humanitarian situation in northwestern Syria
19/20 September 2019 Russian regime's deadly veto: 20 September 2019: UN resolutions on Syria cease-fire shot down as council members unable to handle humanitarian crisis in Idlib, with 400,000 people having fled their homes, caused by Assad regime's, Iranian and Russian war criminals
1 October 2019: 1 October 2019: The USA on Monday demanded the release of nearly 128,000 people who have been arbitrarily detained by the Assad regime, ambassador Kelly Craft told the UN Security Council
2 October 2019: 2 October 2019: SNHR issued a report on the victims it recorded in Syria in September, indicating that violations and crimes by the Assad regime and its backers against civilians continued unabated
12 October 2019 Arab League condemns Turkey's invasion into Syria, calling on the UN Security Council: 12 October 2019: Arab League foreign ministers condemned Turkey's military invasion into northern Syria, calling on the UN Security Council to take action against Turkey
29 October 2019 Israel’s Danny Danon blasts Turkey’s invasion of Syria: 29 October 2019: Calling 'upon the international community to take action and provide aid to the Kurdish people', Israel’s ambassador to the UN Danny Danon blasts Turkey’s invasion of Syria, accusing Erdogan of promoting anti-Semitism and the ethnic cleansing of Kurds, telling Security Council that Erdogan regime is persecuting Kurds in Turkey and sending troops 'to massacre Kurdish people in Syria as well’, 'destabilizing the region through violence and supporting terror organizations'

United Nations General Assembly
December 1960 colonial powers didn't vote in favor of UN's 'Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples': 14 December 1960 Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, adopted by the UN General Assembly as 89 countries voted in favour, and nine abstained, including colonial powers Belgium, France, Portugal, Spain, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, and USA
25 October 1971 UN General Assembly and China: On 25 October 1971 UN General Assembly Resolution 2758 passed in response to the UN General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote, recognizing the so-called People's Republic of China PRC as 'the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations' and expelled 'the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations' - During the 1950s and 1960s United Kingdom, Switzerland, Sweden, and France shifted their recognition of China from the Republic of China (Taipei) to the China's Beijing regime called PRC, in the 1970s, Canada, Turkey, the USA and more western countries established diplomatic relations with Beijing's PRC, and severed diplomatic relations with the Republic of China
Since 8 July 1998 request to review UN resolution concerning China: 8 July 1998 Need to review UN General Assembly resolution 2758 of 25 October 1971 owing to the fundamental change in the international situation and to the coexistence of two Governments across the Taiwan Strait, letter from the representatives of Burkina Faso, El Salvador, the Gambia, Grenada, Liberia, Nicaragua, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Swaziland and Solomon Islands to the UN
2012 UN Assembly remains divided over Syria and human rights: 27 September 2012: UN Assembly remains divided over Syria - ongoing support of Assad's crimes by Russia
25 December 2012: The UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly on Monday to restart negotiations on a draft international treaty to regulate the $70 billion global trade in conventional arms, opposed by US gun lobby
2013: General debate of the 68th session of the UN General Assembly 24 September 2013 - 4 October 2013 - 28 September 2013: Making a strong case for the reform of the UN Security Council to reflect current political realities, Indian PM Manmohan Singh says at the General Assembly that global peace and security issues must be handled through multilateral efforts - 1 novembre: Le Brésil et l'Allemagne ont présenté à l'ONU un projet de résolution sur la protection des libertés individuelles, dans le contexte d'espionnage international des Etats-Unis - 27 November: UN General Assembly's Third Committee adopted a weakened draft resolution calling for sn end to excessive electronic spying - 28 November: UN General Assembly committee agrees women's rights resolution despite backlash - 19 December 2013: UN General Assembly calls for end to excessive electronic spying
2014: 27 March: Ukraine is optimistic over UN General Assembly vote today on country's territorial integrity after Russian annexation of Crimea
27 March 2014 UN General Assembly Resolution 68/262 recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders and underscoring the invalidity of the 2014 Crimean referendum - 27 March: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid - 29 March: Russia threatened several Eastern European, Asian and African states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a UN resolution against its annexation of Crimea, UN diplomats say
20 May 2014: 58 countries urge United Nations to refer Syria to International Criminal Court
23 September 2014: More than 140 world leaders are converging in the UN general assembly to discuss urgent matters in this week, timetable - 24 September: At the UN Climate Change Summit Ban Ki-moon says that $2.3bn has been pledged to the Green Climate Fund, China and USA promise their support for a climate deal, without offering specifics, and France, promising $1bn to the Climate Fund for poor countries, calls for the establishment of a new green economy - 24 September: At the UN Climate Summit efforts to slow deforestation got a boost when dozens of countries, indigenous groups and companies pledged to halve destructive deforestation by 2020, and completely end losses by 2030 - 25 September: In his speech at the UN General Assembly session, Ukrainian PM Arseniy Yatseniuk urges Russia's Putin to stop the aggression against Ukraine - 28 September 2014: World leaders demanded Security Council reform during their addresses to the UN General Assembly over the past few days, calling for the addition of more permanent and non-permanent seats on the council and the elimination of the veto - 28 September 2014: Defeating terrorism starts with toppling Assad, Syrian Coalition's Hadi Al Bahra says in his speech at the UN General Assembly
19 December 2014: UN General Assembly urges Security Council to refer North Korea to ICC
21 December 2014: UN General Assembly voted on a non-binding resolution, adopted by 116 votes to 20 with 52 abstentions, condemning the Assad regime's violations of human rights
2015: 22 January 2015: UN's first-ever meeting on anti-Semitism organized in response to violence toward Jews worldwide - 23 January: UN issued a joint declaration against anti-Semitism, signed by more than 40 countries - 28 January: At UN Holocaust commemoration, Israel's President Rivlin calls on UN to do more to prevent atrocities - 3 August 2015: UN states agree post-2015 sustainable development agenda now due to be formally adopted in September, aiming to eradicate hunger and extreme poverty, reduce inequality within and between states, achieve gender equality, improve water management and energy, and take urgent action to combat climate change, over the next 15 years - 26 August 2015: Russia's veto power may be restricted at UN General Assembly, Ukraine's FM Klimkin says, as an initiative is already joined by over 40 countries - 11 September: UN approves proposal to raise Palestinian flag with 119 votes in favor and most of EU's nations among the 45 nations that abstained - 15 September: 70th UN General Assembly to start in New York with Russia-Ukraine conflict on agenda, as Ukraine wants UN to recognise Russia a state sponsor of terrorism - 16 September: 67 countries already support depriving Russian regime of veto right in UN - 26 September 2015: UN, Chad, Niger and Cameroon appealed for help for millions of people in the Lake Chad Basin region forced to flee the violence of Boko Haram and hit with repeated droughts and floods that have brought malnutrition and disease, but Nigeria did not attend the event on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly - 26 September 2015: As countries whose nationals lost their lives when the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 went down gather at the UN general assembly to discuss their options, Russia could face legal action over downing of jet over Ukraine - 28 September - 3 October 2015 general debate of the UN general assembly - 28 September: Russian delegation walks out of Poroshenko UN speech - 28 September: Poroshenko urges West not be fooled by Putin's UN speech - 28 September: Ukrainian delegation walks out of Putin's UN Assembly speech - 29 September: Ukrainians raise blood-soaked flag in a silent protest during Putin's speech at the UNGA - 29 September: Ukraine president Poroshenko accuses Russian regime of using UN veto as 'licence to kill', calling for the UN Security Council veto powers to be reviewed and urging world to unite in fight against terrorism in all its forms - 1 October: At UN Israel's Netanyahu calls on Palestinians to resume peace talks, deplores Iran for annihilation threats - 20 November 2015: The UN General Assembly's human rights committee in a non-binding resolution adopted with 76 votes criticizes Iran for cracking down on activists, journalists and dissidents and its increased use of the death penalty - 20 November 2015: Without explicitly naming Russia the UN General Assembly’s human rights committee adopted a resolution with 115 votes in favor, condemning all attacks against the Syrian moderate opposition, given that such attacks benefit ISIS and other terrorist groups, and the presence in Syria of 'all foreign terrorist fighters ... and foreign forces fighting on behalf of the Assad regime'
September 2016: 20 September 2016: 'Present in this Hall today are representatives of governments that have ignored, facilitated, funded, participated in or even planned and carried out atrocities inflicted by all sides of the Syria conflict against Syrian civilians', 'many groups have killed many innocents – but none more so than the Government of Syria, which continues to barrel bomb neighbourhoods and systematically torture thousands of detainees', 'powerful patrons that keep feeding the war machine also have blood on their hands', Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says addressing to the UN General Assembly - 22 September: Syrian opposition delegation meets with western politicians on sidelines of UN General Assembly, calling on western officials to provide protection for civilians and put an end to the Assad regime’s mass forced displacement policy - 23 September 2016: Many of the victims are children, 'they lose their limbs and become disabled for life and their only sin is that they are the children of Syria', Russian and Assad criminals 'have burned their childhood and their innocence and made them homeless in their country and all we get in return are words and promises from outside', Bara’a, a nurse in Aleppo, says - 27 September 2016: Syrian photographer code-named Caesar wins 2017 Nuremberg International Human Rights Award for exposing torture in Assad’s prisons
October 2016: 8 October 2016: After Russian regime 'has once again abused its veto privilege and sabotaged the UN security council, this time stonewalling efforts to stop the vicious assault on east Aleppo’s civilians', UN director at Human Rights Watch Louis Charbonneau says, that there is the urgent need for permanent members of the security council to shelve the veto in situations of mass atrocities, an idea supported by a vast majority of countries around the world, and that the UN general assembly should feel compelled to hold an emergency meeting, demanding an end to unlawful attacks on civilians in Aleppo - 11 October 2016: Syrian Coalition's Steifo says that the Coalition, as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people, will be working with friendly countries at the UN General Assembly to press for action under the 'Uniting for Peace' resolution to bypass the Russian veto at the UN Security Council - 11 October 2016: 'Sorry for being late, but there was a massacre', Hamza Khatib, one of the handful of medics still working in opposition-held Aleppo, told British newspaper Guardian on a brief break from tending to victims of Tuesday morning’s Russian terrorists' bombing raids - 13 October 2016: Syrian Coalition presents a detailed proposal to representatives of the Friends of the Syrian People group pushing for the adoption of a draft resolution by the UN General Assembly on Syria - 14 October 2016: Syria is suffering 'a small holocaust’ as 'every day not far from here, as we sit here, men, women and children are murdered in Syria, and particularly in Aleppo', Israeli chief rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says, demanding that Jews must not be silent in the face of genocide across northern border - 20 October: UN General Assembly must step in to fill the void left by the Security Council members’ catastrophic failure to end relentless attacks targeting the civilian population in eastern Aleppo city, Amnesty International says ahead of UNGA meeting - 24 October 2016: At least 70 countries have so far announced support for the initiative led by the Syrian Coalition and friendly countries to stop the bloodshed in Syria and avoid the veto Russia repeatedly used to block any action on Syria in the UN Security Council, Syrian Coalition says
November/December 2016: 16 November 2016: At the meeting of the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, member states adopt a resolution, supported by 73 countries, on the human rights situation in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in Ukraine, condemning the massive human rights violations in the occupied Crimea and calling on Russian regime as an occupying power to adhere to its obligations under the international law - 16 November 2016: General Assembly's human rights committee approved a resolution by a vote of 85 in favor, 35 against and 63 countries abstaining, to cease enforced disappearances and the widespread use of arbitrary detention by the Iranian regime and has expressed serious concern about severe limitations on freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief - 16 November 2016: General Assembly’s human rights committee voted 116-15 with 49 abstentions in favor of the draft resolution strongly condemning the recent escalation of attacks in Aleppo and continuing violence by the Syrian Assad regime against its own people - 20 December: UNGA to vote on draft resolution on accountability of war crimes in Syria, after the UN Security Council on Monday unanimously called for UN officials and others to observe the evacuation of people from eastern Aleppo and monitor the safety of civilians who remain in the rebel-held part of the city - 21 December 2016 'International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to Assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of Those Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law Committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011' resolution adopted by a recorded vote of 105 in favour and 15 against, with 52 abstentions, with Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on this resolution A/71/L.48 - 22 décembre 2016: Adoptée par 105 voix contre 15, l'Assemblée générale des Nations unies s'est prononcée pour la création d'une équipe spéciale chargée de 'collecter, regrouper, préserver et analyser les preuves' de crimes de guerre et atteintes aux droits humains commis en Syrie
2017: 20 January 2017: Syrian rights groups documenting violations in Syria and concerned in the issues of accountability and transitional justice expressed regret in a joint memorandum sent to the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, that they were not consulted about the new mechanism the UN General Assembly has recently established to investigate war crime and ensure accountability in Syria - 22 February 2017: Syrian Coalition urges UNGA to convene under 'Uniting for Peace' resolution to end tragedy in Syria
June 2017: 20 June 2017: After more than five months ago, the UN General Assembly decided to launch an investigation into war crimes in Syria, international and Syrian human rights organizations have launched a fundraiser campaign to fund investigations into war crimes in Syria following the failure of UN member states to secure adequate funding, organizers say - 23 June 2017: The UK suffered a humiliating defeat at the UN general assembly in a vote over decolonisation and its residual hold over disputed territory in the Indian Ocean, as delegates by a margin of 94 to 15 countries supported a Mauritian-backed resolution to seek an advisory opinion from the international court of justice in The Hague on the legal status of the Chagos Islands
August/September 2017: 26 August 2017: As Russia is blocking the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Donbas, Ukraine will present the idea of deploying a mission at the meeting of the UN General Assembly in September
September 2017: September 2017 72th session of the UN General Assembly - Since 19 September General Debate of the 72th session of the UN General Assembly, agenda - 19 September 2017: Trump blasted for threatening to 'totally destroy North Korea' in speech to UN General Assembly, as critics say 'threatening to kill 25 million North Koreans' is 'threatening to commit genocide' - 24 September 2017: North Korean regime's FM Ri Yong Ho tells the UN General Assembly that it is 'inevitable' North Korea would fire rockets at the USA, as war of words escalates and USA bombers, fighters buzz North Korea in show of force
December 2017: 21/22 December 2017: Non-binding General Assembly vote, including Germany's, rejects USA recognition of Jerusalem as Israeli capital, as USA's Nikki Haley notes '65 countries refused to condemn' USA, including some surprise abstentions, as 21 countries did not vote at all, and as Hamas, following the UN vote and fearing that protests are quieting down, calls for 'red bloody day’ in West Bank - 24 December 2017: Russian and Chinese regime oppose UN resolution on Rohingya, calling on Myanmar to allow access for aid workers and the return of refugees, as the resolution was nevertheless adopted by a vote of 122 to 10 with 24 abstentions
June 2018: 14 June 2018: Not dealing with Syria and Assad's, Russian, Iranian and Hizbollah's war crimes, UN General Assembly condemned Israel for 'excessive’ force at Gaza border, as USA amendment censuring Hamas was rejected on procedural grounds, as 120 countries voted in favor (to 8 with 45 abstentions) of resolution calling for an 'international protection mechanism', and as Israel PM says 'UN’s incessant focus on Israel not only brings shame to the organization', 'it also draws attention away from so many other pressing issues' - 14 June 2018: The silver lining in the UN’s almost-condemnation of Hamas
July 2018: 14 July 2018: UN General Assembly's member states agree on an all-encompassing global compact to better manage the international flow of migrants and protect human rights, except the USA, after the USA initially participated in the negotiations, but abruptly withdrew under orders from the Trump administration
September 2018 UN general assembly's seventy-third session: September 2018 Seventy-third session of the United Nations General Assembly
24 September 2018: 24 September 2018: South Africa’s anti-apartheid hero and first democratically elected president Nelson Mandela will be honoured at the UN General Assembly in New York, with a statue erected in the organisation’s headquarters, where over 150 speakers are expected to participate in a peace summit honouring his role in fighting for justice and peace, and where the planet’s pressing problems including war, poverty, disease, migration and climate change, will be addressed
Since 25 September 2018 general debate of the UN General Assembly: Since 25 September General Debate of the seventy-third session of the UN General Assembly - 27 September 2018: Israel had identified a 'secret atomic warehouse' in Tehran, containing nuclear equipment and radioactive material, according to Israeli PM Netanyahu, calling for new sanctions against Iran and accusing European leaders of 'appeasement' for opposing them
November 2018: 16 November 2018: UN General Assembly’s Human Rights Committee adopted a resolution by a vote of 85-30, with 68 abstentions, singling out discrimination against women, the intimidation and persecution of religious minorities by the Iranian regime, urging the regime to stop its widespread use of arbitrary detention and expressing serious concern at its 'alarmingly high' use of the death penalty - 16 November 2018: Israel one of 123 nations voting for resolution hailing the 'possibility of moving away from capital punishment through domestic decision-making’, as Knesset advances controversial legislation calling for the death penalty for convicted terrorists - 16 November 2018: USA to oppose UN motion condemning Israeli control of Golan Heights, arguing against giving back Syrian control of the territory, saying 'the atrocities the Syrian regime continues to commit prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone' - 17 November 2018: A pproved by a recorded vote of 106 in favor to 16 against, with 58 abstentions, the majority of the UN General Assembly Member States adopted a resolution strongly condemning the Assad regime’s violations of human rights in Syria
December 2018: 7 December 2018: Resolution condemning Hamas 'for repeatedly firing rockets into Israel and for inciting violence, thereby putting civilians at risk', fails at UN, despite 87 countries voted in favor, 57 opposed it, 33 abstained, but states voted that it would need a two-thirds majority to pass - 18 December 2018: UN General assembly condemns 'severe’ human rights violations in Iran, passing Canadian-drafted resolution by a vote of 84 to 30 with 67 abstentions - 23 September 2018: UN General Assembly supported a resolution condemning human rights violations in Russian-occupied Crimea, as some 65 states voted for the resolution, 27 (including Russia, Belarus, China, India, Serbia, Syria, South Africa, Nicaragua and Venezuela) voted against, and 70 abstained
26 June 2019: 26/27 June 2019: At UN General Assembly's informal session Wednesday on combating anti-Semitism and other forms of racism with over 90 countries participating, Israeli ambassador calls to name special envoy for countering anti-Semitism, as rabbi injured in Poway synagogue shooting says 'around the world Jews are becoming more vulnerable'
September 2019 74th session of the UN General Assembly: September 2019 74th session of the UN General Assembly - General Debate of the 74th session of the UN General Assembly
25/26 September 2019 war crimes, dictatorship and mass murder ignored by the UN: 25 September 2019: Now in its ninth year, Assad's war against the Syrian people has become a footnote in a long list of world crises, with Iranian, Russian and other war criminals claiming the stage together with obsequious, like Macron and Merkel, and fraudulent and insincere politicians, like Trump and Johnson, and with the so-called international community, including 193 states, people and movements defending and fighting for democracy, forced to resign and to live with dictators like Bashar Assad, responsible for hundreds of thousands of victims, ruling over a ruined country for the foreseeable future - 26 September 2019: USA confirms Syria’s Assad used chemical weapons in May 2019 in Idlib province, as Mike Pompeo says regime used chlorine in offensive, vowing a response
27 September 2019 Israeli FM calls the Iranian regime the world’s greatest sponsor of terrorism: 27 September 2019: During an address at the UN Israeli FM Israel Katz called the Iranian regime the world’s greatest sponsor of terrorism and urged the world to join USA’s sanctions against the regime, also calling on the Palestinians to resume direct negotiations with Israel, and stressing Israel’s desire to normalize relations with Arab states in the Gulf
28 September 2019: 28 September 2019: The foreign ministers of seven Western and Arab states said that they 'deeply regret that the Security Council has failed once again to unite in calling for the protection of civilians', stressing that the use of chemical weapons 'shall not be tolerated' - 28 September 2019: Accountability is only way to stop Assad regime from using chemical weapons, Syrian Coalition says
4 December 2019 more countries vote against pro-Palestine UN resolution: 4 December 2019: In surprise change, countries including Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia, Brazil and Colombia, vote against pro-Palestine UN resolution

Emergency special sessions of the General Assembly of the United Nations, under the resolution 377 A 'Uniting for peace' adopted by the General Assembly on 3 November 1950 an 'emergency special session' can be convened within 24 hours and shall be called if requested by the Security Council on the vote of any seven members, or by a majority of the Members of the United Nations because of lack of unanimity of the permanent UNSC members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression
List of emergency special sessions of the United Nations General Assembly since 1956

United Nations fact-finding missions
1991: 9 December 1991: Declaration on Fact-Finding by the United Nations in the Field of the Maintenance of International Peace and Security

United Nations conferences
Since 1979 Conference on Disarmament: The Conference on Disarmament, established in 1979 by the international community to negotiate multilateral arms control and disarmament agreements, is not formally a UN organization but is linked to the UN through a personal representative of the UN Secretary-General
July 1944: July 1944 UN Monetary and Financial Conference of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II
April-June 1945 UN Charter: UN Conference on International Organization was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco resulting in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June
April-September 1949: Lausanne Conference of 1949 was convened by the UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine from 27 April to 12 September 1949 in Switzerland
December 1973: Geneva Conference of December 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict following the October 1973 Yom Kippur War
December 1978 and since 1978 UN conferences against racism: UN World Conferences Against Racism organized by UNESCO since 1978 - December 1978 UN's World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination
June 1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992
September 1995: Fourth UN World Conference on Women - 'Action for Equality, Development and Peace' conference 4–15 September 1995 in China
Since 1995: Since 1995 UN Climate Change conference - UN climate change conferences 1998-2017, COP 24 expected to be held in December 2018 - Since 1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
August/September 2001 World Conference against Racism: World Conference against Racism was held at the Durban International Convention Centre in South Africa under UN auspices from 31 August to 8 September 2001
October 2001 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
January 2005: 18-22 January 2005 UN World Conferences on Disaster Risk Reduction since 2005 bringing together government officials, non-governmental experts and other specialists from around the world to discuss the growing trend of people affected by natural disasters
2005-2018 'Responsibility to Protect': 14–16 September 2005 World Summit follow-up summit meeting to the UN conference of 2000, which led to the declaration of 'Millennium Development Goals' - At the 14–16 September 2005 World Summit 'Responsibility to Protect' global political commitment endorsed by all member states of the UN, called 2005 UN's 'Genocide Prevention And The Responsibility To Protect', seeking to narrow the gap between Member States’ pre-existing obligations under international humanitarian and human rights law and the reality faced by populations at risk of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity - 3 January 2018: September 2005 UN declaration and solemn promise to prevent, protect and to take 'timely and decisive action, in accordance with the UN charter' broken on a daily basis all over the world
May 2010: Review Conference for the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at UN Headquarters in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010
March 2015: Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction 14-18 March 2015 in Japan - 13 March 2015: International cooperation being vital in reducing impact of natural disasters, UN conference in Sendai will discuss the creation of a forum to share scientific advances in disaster prediction
April/May 2015: April/May 2015 UN Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons - 24 April 2015: At UN conference in New York on Non-Proliferation Treaty, many non-nuclear nations frustrated by apparent lack of progress - 21 May 2015: Month-long conference of more than 150 countries at the UN to decide on an action plan for nuclear disarmament headed into a final stretch with no agreement in sight, deadlocked over demands by non-nuclear states for concrete steps from nuclear powers to reduce their arsenals and provide annual reports on the state of their stockpiles, an Austrian-led initiative backed by 159 states to ban nuclear weapons altogether has come up against strong resistance by declared nuclear powers Britain, China, France, Russia, USA - 23 May: Amid Iran nuclear talks, 1970 nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty members were unable to overcome disagreements on an atomic weapons ban for the Middle East, which the USA blamed on Egypt
July 2015: UN’s Third Financing for Development conference, in Addis Ababa 13-16 July 2015 - 13 July 2015: Financing the sustainable development goals will rely heavily on the tax factor - 14 July 2015: World’s richest countries, including the USA the UK, accused at Addis Ababa development finance summit of foiling effort to give poorer countries a greater say on UN tax policies - 16 July: Three-day conference on the future of foreign aid concludes without resolving the issue of multinational tax avoidance as richer nations reject call for tough tax provisions
September 2015: 25-27 September 2015 UN Sustainable Development Summit at UN headquarters in New York
May 2016: May 2016 World humanitarian summit held in Istanbul - 5 May 2016: Citing concern over accountability of governments 'Médecins Sans Frontières' pulls out of this month’s world humanitarian summit, describing it as a 'fig-leaf of good intentions' that will do little to protect the planet’s most vulnerable people or those trying to help them
'World Humanitarian Summit' 23-24 May 2016 - 23 May: It is necessary to stand up for international humanitarian law being disregarded, UN's Jan Eliasson says at the opening news conference of the first world humanitarian summit, citing attacks on hospitals and sieges on civilians in Syria and Yemen and adding that there are 'many signs' the Geneva convention on human rights is being neglected - 23 May: World humanitarian summit starts amid hope, hype and fear of empty words - 24 May 2016: Syrian Civil Defense Corps have recovered tens of thousands of people from under the rubble caused by aerial bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces in liberated areas since 2013, Raed Saleh says at the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul - 25 May: Syrian civil society organizations urge international community to improve humanitarian response in a letter signed by more than 80 Syrian non-governmental organizations and sent to the World humanitarian Summit
September 2016: September 2016 UN summit for refugees and migrants - 21 September 2016: As politicians gather in New York to discuss the refugee crisis, dozens of people dy and officials fear hundreds more are lost at sea after a boat carrying 600 refugees and migrants capsizes off the north Egyptian coast
November 2016: 7 au 18 novembre 2016 Conférence de Marrakech sur le réchauffement climatique, la 22e conférence des parties COP22 de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques - 14 novembre 2016: Plusieurs milliers de personnes, membres d'associations marocaines et étrangères, ont défilé dimanche à Marrakech pour réclamer plus de 'justice climatique' aux Etats réunis pour la conférence climat de l'ONU - 18 novembre 2016: Avec un appel à 'augmenter le montant, les versements et l'accès aux financements pour des projets climatiques' fin d'une COP22 bousculée par Trump - 18 November 2016: As 48 nations, including the world’s poorest countries, promise to cut their carbon emissions dramatically and rapidly move to 100% renewable power, COP22 climate summit's Salaheddine Mezouar makes a direct plea to the maybe incoming USA president Trump to join the struggle against global warming for the sake of humanity and the planet
June 2017: 5-9 June 2017 The Ocean Conference

Science: Science - History of science - Scientific revolution - emergence of modern science during the early modern period
History of Physics
History of Astronomy - History of Mathematics
History of Chemistry - Inorganic Chemistry
History of Geology - Historical geology - Geological history of Earth - Atmospheric sciences - Hydrology - Oceanography - History of Meteorology
History of Organic Chemistry - History of Biochemistry - History of Molecular Biology - Abiogenesis
History of Biology
History of the Social Sciences - History of economic thought - Classical political economy - Marxian economics
Human evolution, criticism of religion, above all of professionalism of religious faith and history of study
Works about human violence - Works about wars - Works about genocide - Works about terrorism
History of Linguistics
Origin of language - Evolutionary linguistics - Linguistic universal
History of writing - List of languages by first written accounts - History of the alphabet
History of Geography

Science in society - History of science - Science timelines
Research by country - Research projects
International scientific organizations: International scientific organizations
EU's scientific cooperation: European Union and science and technology - European Union's scientific cooperation beyond the bloc
Since 2001 Network of African Science Academies: Since 2001 Network of African Science Academies, an independent forum for African science academies to discuss scientific issues of common concern
June 2007: June 2007: The Network of African Science Academies submitted a joint 'statement on sustainability, energy efficiency, and climate change' to the leaders meeting at the G8 Summit in Germany
Since 2004 InterAmerican Network of Academies of Sciences: Since 2004 InterAmerican Network of Academies of Sciences
Since 21st century South-South cooperation: Since 21st century South-South cooperation, cooperation between two or more developing countries in the field of science and technology, also taking inspiration from the European Union model
International observational astronomy: Observational astronomy - Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology since 1600s
Since 2006 The Event Horizon Telescope: Since 2006 The Event Horizon Telescope, a large telescope array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes and combining data from several very-long-baseline interferometry stations around the Earth
April 2019: 10 April 2019: Astronomers using a network of eight radio telescopes around the world have captured the first image of a black hole, heralding a revolution in our understanding of the universe’s most enigmatic objects - 12 April 2019: The black hole, depicted in a landmark experiment, has been named 'Powehi', meaning 'the adorned fathomless dark creation' or 'embellished dark source of unending creation' by a language professor in Hawai, a name welcomed by scientists who captured first image of galactic phenomenon
International environmental and climate change organizations: International environmental organizations - Climate change organizations

Since 1992 UN's Memory of the World Programme to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction - UN's Memory of the World Register by continent and country
List of archives by countries - Libraries by country

Human rights museums - Since the ancient Western Asia (so-called near or middle East by colonial powers) and since the ancient Africa history of human rights
Since 2010 'Museum of Memory and Human Rights' located in Chile's Santiago: Since 2010 'Museum of Memory and Human Rights' located in Chile's Santiago, dedicated to commemorate the victims of human rights violations during the 1973-1990 military dictatorship of Chile headed by General Pinochet, inaugurated by former President Michelle Bachelet and forming part of government works celebrating the bicentennial of Chile

Slavery museums - Apartheid museums
Since 1977 'National Museum of Slavery' in Luanda: Since 1977 'National Museum of Slavery' in Luanda with the objective of depicting the history of slavery in Angola, adjoining the Capela da Casa Grande, a 17th-century structure where slaves were baptised before being put on slave ships for transport to the Americas
Since 2007 International Slavery Museum in Liverpool: Since 2007 International Slavery Museum in Liverpool, that focuses on the history and legacy of the transatlantic slave trade by European countries from the 16th to the 19th centuries, consisting of three main galleries which focus on the lives of people in West Africa, their eventual enslavement, and their continued fight for freedom, also discussing slavery in the modern day as well as topics on racism and discrimination
Since 2014 'Whitney Plantation Historic District' museum devoted to slavery in the southern USA: Since 2014 'Whitney Plantation Historic District' museum devoted to slavery in the southern USA, located in Louisiana the plantation was started in 1752 by German immigrants and their descendants owned it until 1867

Holocaust museums, documenting and remembering the genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe
Following the Roman empire's 63 BC siege of Jerusalem list of Holocaust memorials and museums in 36 countries: List of Holocaust memorials and museums by country (36 countries), also chronicling the persecution of Jews since the 63 BC siege of Jerusalem by the Roman empire making Judea a Roman client state and the Roman empire's following wars and exterminations
Since 1949 The Ghetto Fighters' House in the Western Galilee: Since 1949 The Ghetto Fighters' House in the Western Galilee, founded by members of Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetaot, a community of Holocaust survivors, among them fighters of the ghetto undergrounds and partisan units, and named after Itzhak Katzenelson, a Jewish poet who died at Auschwitz - The Ghetto Fighters' House website
Since 1953 Yad Vashem: Since 1953 Yad Vashem, Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, dedicated to preserving the memory of the dead, honoring Jews who fought against their Nazi oppressors, people who aided Jews in need, and researching the Holocaust in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future

Genocide museums
Since 1967 Tsitsernakaberd Armenian Genocide memorial: Since 1967/1995 Armenian Genocide memorial complex, Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd - List of Armenian Genocide memorials since 1919
Since 1994 Rwandan genocide museums: Since 1994 Rwandan genocide museums - Since 1994 Bisesero Genocide Memorial, near Karongi-Kibuye, commemorating the Rwandan genocide in 1994 and 40,000 people, who died here - Nyamata Genocide Memorial Centre - Since 1995 Murambi Genocide Memorial Centre - Since 1999/2004 Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre - Since 2004 Ntarama Genocide Memorial Centre
Since 2014 Namibia's Independence Memorial Museum's Genocide Statue: Since 2014 Namibia's Independence Memorial Museum's Genocide Statue sits south of the Nujoma memorial, depicting the 'untold hardships and suffering' at the hands of the 'Schutztruppe', the troops of the German colonial empire during the 1904–1907 war

Museums by country
August 2018 Idlib antiquities museum: 14 August 2018: Antiquities museum, damaged by air strikes and housing clay tablets dating back to 2400-2300 BCE showing invention of written alphabet, reopens in Syria’s rebel-held Idlib

Education is the teaching or learning of knowledge, especially to develop the reasoning, judgement and skill required in adult life and professional occupations - History of education
2016: 15 December 2016: Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the systematic operation to wipe out the Jews of Eastern Europe began, 75 years after falling into the abyss 'Never Again' has become an empty phrase in Germany and in many countries - 2013-2017 second banning attempt of the neo-Nazi organization 'National Democratic Party of Germany', but on 17 January the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected the attempt to outlaw the party - January 2017: On 20 January 1942 outside of Berlin a gathering of representatives of the Nazi Germany’s bureaucratic offices decided on the 'Final Solution' for genocide, in the language of bureaucracy and as among the 15 representatives not one was from the German army while eight held doctorates
Education by country - Education by method - History of education by country - Language education by country - Music education by country
Schools by country - Elementary and primary schools by country - High schools and secondary schools by country
International schools by continent and country - International schools by country of origin - International School of Aleppo, closed in 2011 due to Assad's war against the Syrian people
Science and technology by country - Science education by country
Knowledge sharing - Knowledge transfer - Technology transfer

Social movements: Social movements, Internet, World Wide Web
Since the 1950s history of the Internet and the World Wide Web (since the 1980s) - 6 May 2014: World to have nearly three billion internet users 2014 with two-thirds of them from the developing world, mobile-cellular subscriptions will reach almost seven billion 2014, UN says
Online social movement - Wikipedia collaboratively edited, multilingual, free Internet encyclopedia
Since 16th century peace movements and civil and human rights protests: Peace movements, expressly since 16th century - List of anti-war organizations - Anti-war protests - Civil and human rights protests
July/August 1914 SPD's appeal to demonstrate against the coming World War I, only to vote on 4 August for the war credits: On 25 July 1914 the executive of the Social Democratic Party of Germany issued an appeal to its membership to demonstrate against the coming war, only to vote on 4 August for the World War I credits the German Empire's government wanted
1917 Putilov strike, demonstrations and revolution in Russia: February 1917 Putilov Strike of 1917, sparking more strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd and sparking the February Revolution - On 8 March 1917, Putilov protesters were joined in uprising by those celebrating International Woman's Day and protesting against the government's implemented food rationing, both men and women flooded the streets of Petrograd, demanding an end to Russian food shortages, the end of World War I and the end of autocracy and tsarist despotism
1920-1946 League of Nations: The League of Nations intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I and was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace
Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe: Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe
Since 1950s Civil rights movements: Civil rights movements are a worldwide series of political movements for equality before the law, that peaked in the 1960s, in many situations they have been characterized by nonviolent protests, or have taken the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change through nonviolent forms of resistance
1950-1994 Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa: 1950-1994 Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare
1954-1968 African-American civil rights movement: 1954-1968 African-American civil rights movement, preceeded by the, 1865-1896 African-American civil rights movement, that aimed at eliminating racial discrimination against African Americans, improving educational and employment opportunities, and establishing electoral power, following the elimination of slavery in the South, and the 1896-1954 African-American civil rights movement
1964-1970s opposition to the USA's Vietnam War: From 1964 to the 1970s opposition to the USA's Vietnam War
Since 1980 Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War: Since 1980 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War IPPNW, a non-partisan federation of national medical groups in 64 countries, representing tens of thousands of doctors, medical students, other health workers, and concerned citizens who share the common goal of creating a more peaceful and secure world freed from the threat of nuclear annihilation
Since 1988 'March of the Living' and 'Holocaust Memorial Day' (April/May): Since 1988 'March of the Living', an annual educational program which brings students from around the world to Poland, where they explore the remnants of the Holocaust, when on 'Holocaust Memorial Day' people march from Auschwitz to Birkenau, the largest Nazi concentration camp complex built during World War II - Since 1949/1951 'Yom Hazikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah', known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah and in English as 'Holocaust Remembrance Day', observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, and for the Jewish resistance in that period, held on the 27th of Nisan (April/May)
15 February 2003 protests against USA/UK led Iraq War: 15 February 2003 coordinated protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressed opposition to the imminent USA/UK led Iraq War, part of a series of protests and political events that had begun in 2002 and continued as the war took place, and described by social movement researchers as 'the largest protest event in human history' - February 2003 anti-war protests by country - February 2003 USA anti-war protests
March 2008 Remembrance of 1968 My Lai Massacre: 16 March 2008: More than a thousand people and My Lai survivors turned out to remember the victims of My Lai Massacre during the USA's Vietnam War on 16 March 1968, when members of USA's Charlie Company killed hundreds of Vietnamese civilians, nearly all of them unarmed children, women and elderly, after My Lai courts-martial failed to uphold the laws of war established in the Nuremberg and Tokyo War Crimes Tribunals, and Telford Taylor, a senior USA prosecutor at Nuremberg, wrote that legal principles established at the war crimes trials could have been used to prosecute senior military commanders for failing to prevent atrocities such as the one at My Lai
Since December 2010 'Arab Spring': Arab Spring revolutionary wave of demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East, that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution
Since 2013 campaigns on banning lethal autonomous weapons: Since 2013 campaigns on banning lethal autonomous weapons LAWs, a type of autonomous military robot that can independently search and engage targets based on programmed constraints and descriptions
2014 anti-war protests in Russia: 2014 anti-war protests in Russia opposing the Russian military intervention in Ukraine since 2014
2015 worldwide demonstrations against Russian aggression on Syria: 17 October 2015: Worldwide demonstrations against Russian aggression on Syria denouncing the Russian air raids that kill civilians - 18 October 2015: Russian anti-war protesters in Moscow slam Putin's wars in Syria and Ukraine
2016: 16 January 2016: Organizers of worldwide protests against starvation of civilians in Syria organize sit-ins in a number of capitals with the aim of helping to break the sieges the Assad regime impose on civilians with the backing of Hezbollah militias, Iran and Russia - 8 February 2016: Hundreds of protestors gathered in Istanbul to protest against the Russian airstrikes on Syria, especially on Latakia and Aleppo provinces, triggering mass displacements and forcing tens of thousands of civilians to flee - 22 February: Hundreds of residents and protesters, mostly women and children, trapped in the district of Darayya in rural Damascus demonstrated on Sunday against the siege Assad regime forces have laid on the district for over three years - 10 March 2016: Protesters around the world gathered near Russian regime's embassies, demanding freedom for Ukrainian patriots, soldiers, journalists and other political prisoners who are currently kept in Russian jails and separatists' captivity - 25 March 2016: For the 4th Friday in a row since the truce has been declared on 27 February, the Syrian people took to the streets today in many cities and towns across Syria chanting for freedom and demanding the fall of the Assad regime
July 2016 Battle of the Somme centenary commemorations: 1 July 2016: Battle of the Somme centenary commemorations in France and in the United Kingdom - 1 juillet 2016: Près de 600 enfants - 300 Britanniques et 300 Français - doivent participer à la célébration à Thiepval pour célébrer le centenaire de la bataille de la Somme, la plus meurtrière de la Grande Guerre
2016 protests against Russian aggression on Syria: 7 October 2016: Protesters opposed to Russian military intervention in Syria gathered outside the Russian Embassy in Canberra, with some carrying placards comparing Russian regime's Vladimir Putin to Adolf Hitler - 11 October 2016: On the eve of Yom Kippur, Israeli groups unite across the country to call for aid for victims of six-year Assad's war against the Syrian people, with the involvement of rabbis and communal leaders under the banner 'The world is silent, we are not'
October 2016 Aleppo protests: 21 October 2016: Hundreds of people in the besieged parts of Aleppo took to the streets to protest against Russia’s planned 'evacuation' of besieged parts of the city, calling for toppling the Assad regime and the ousting of the Russian and Iranian invaders from Syria
November 2016: 4 November 2016: Hundreds of artificial limbs blocked the entrance to the Russian Embassy in London on Thursday as members of the Syria Campaign group protested Russian regime's airstrikes in Syria's largest city of Aleppo - 10 novembre 2016: Des milliers de manifestants se sont rassemblés à travers les Etats-Unis et ont dénoncé les vues racistes, sexistes et xénophobes de Donald Trump
December 2016: 13 December 2016: Thousands of people took to the streets of Istanbul and London on Tuesday to protest the reported massacres of civilians in Aleppo by Russian, Assad regime and allied forces and to show solidarity with the people of Aleppo facing Russian, Iranian and Assad war crimes - 14 December 2016: Protests and vigils were held in cities across the world including Ankara, Beirut, Istanbul and Paris on Tuesday and Wednesday to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being committed against civilians by the Assad regime and its Hezbollah, Iranian and Russian allies - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where at least hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy - 15 December 2016: Protests are being held in front of the Russian embassy in Kyiv, expressing anger over Russia's war crimes in Aleppo and calling on the USA and the EU to impose fresh sanctions on Russia over the war crimes in Syria, and also ensure safety and decent conditions for civilians in war-torn Syria - 15 December 2016: People continued to hold protests and vigils in many Arab and Western cities, including Copenhagen, Kuwait, Oslo, Paris, Rabat, Sarajevo, Stockholm and Washington, to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being carried out against civilians by the Assad regime - 17 December 2016: Demonstrations and vigils condemning the war crimes being committed by Assad, Russia and the Iranian militias against civilians in Syria, especially in Aleppo, continue to be held in many cities across the world, as most demonstrations were held in front of Russian and Iranian embassies in many European and Arab countries - 18 December: Doctors, nurses and medics have staged a protest outside Parliament in London against Russian, Iranian and Assad's attacks on their professional colleagues trying to save lives in Syria as thousands of people in Germany and in France were protesting against Assad's ongoing war in Syria
30 December 2016: 30 December 2016: Thousands of Syrians took to the streets in several towns and cities in Syria to demonstrate against the Assad regime a few hours after a nationwide ceasefire took effect on Thursday midnight
January 2017 protests against Assad's and allies’ war in Syria: 7 January 2017: Demonstrators take to the streets in various parts of Syria to denounce the Assad regime’s and allies’ violations of the ceasefire agreement and their continued targeting of civilians, particularly in Wadi Barada valley in Rural Damascus, as more civilians are killed and injured in bombardment by regime forces and the Hezbollah militias
January 2017 The Women’s March Global movement: 19 January 2017: The Women’s March Global movement now covers all seven continents after 'Women’s March–Antarctic Peninsula' joined 161 sister marches in 61 countries, standing in solidarity with marches in the USA on 21 January to defend human rights concerning health, economic security, safety, representation and environmental issues
21/22 January 2017 Women's March: 21 January 2017 Women's March, a political rally in cities around the world, initially centered around Washington D.C. to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues, an estimated 2.9 million people attended the 408 marches across the USA and other marches occurred in 168 countries around the world - Women's March on London 21 January 2017 - 22 January 2017: From Washington to Nairobi women around the world and millions of protesters march in solidarity against the USA's 45th president Trump
March 2017: 6 March 2017: Since Trump’s inauguration, women in the USA and around the world have been organising, protesting and preparing to run for office in a growing wave, British newspaper reports - 8 March 2017: International Women’s Day 2017 events take place around the world to mark the ongoing fight for equality, women's and human rights
April 2017 'March for Science': 22 April 2017 'March for Science' in over 600 other cities across the world - 22 April 2017: Hundreds of thousands of climate researchers, oceanographers, bird watchers and other supporters of science rallied in marches around the world on Saturday, in an attempt to bolster scientists’ increasingly precarious status with politicians
May 2017 'Mères de la Place de Mai': 1 mai 2017: Cela fait 40 ans que les 'Mères de la Place de Mai' se rassemblent pour réclamer la vérité sur la disparition de leurs enfants pendant la dictature argentine
January 2018 Hollywood protest and 2018 Women's March: 8 January 2018: Accepting Golden Globe 2018 award, Oprah Winfrey gave a powerful speech, a searing rebuke of racial injustice, sexual abuse and attacks on the integrity of the press, as more speakers and the images from this year’s ceremony spoke of women in terms of power and solidarity rather than glamour or competition - 2018 Women's March - 20 January 2018: A year after millions of women and men demonstrated in cities around the globe in an extraordinary rebuke of Donald Trump, tens of thousands turned out in Washington, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and hundreds of other cities across the USA and the world
January 2018 protests against Turkish Afrin campaign: 28 January 2018: A show of solidarity around the world for Syria's Afrin and against the Turkish campaign, as people gathered in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Brussels, Cologne, London, Ottawa, Paris, Stockholm, Washington D.C., and more than 50 places
February 2018 protests against Assad's Rif Dimashq offensive and bombing campaign: 22 February 2018: Demonstrations in towns and villages in Syria to show solidarity with the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta which is under a ferocious bombing campaign by regime forces who are backed by Russian air force - 23 February 2018: Demonstrations were held in European cities and capitals to show solidarity with the people of the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta which has been subjected to ferocious onslaught by Assad regime forces and their allies over the past few days
March 2018 protests against murder of Jan Kuciak: 2 mars 2018: Des milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Bratislava et dans d'autres villes de Slovaquie en mémoire du journaliste d'investigation Jan Kuciak assassiné, qui était spécialisé dans les enquêtes sur des fraudes fiscales et des détournements de subventions - 2 March 2018: Tens of thousands of Slovaks marched in a national rally to honor journalist Jan Kuciak and his girlfriend, who were shot dead as Kuciak was working on a story about the influence of the Italian mafia in Slovakia, as similar marches were being held in some 25 towns and cities across the country and in cities abroad, including London, Paris and Brussels
5 March 2018: Medical workers in eastern Ghouta held a sit-in in one of the hospitals in the besieged Damascus suburb to protest against the continued bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia forces, as the relentless bombardment killed hundreds of civilians, according to international reports
8 March 2018 International Women’s Day, rural and urban issues and Syria: 8 March 2018: Coinciding with 2018 International Women’s Day under its theme 'Time is Now: Rural and urban activists transforming women’s lives', an all-woman international convoy started a journey to raise awareness of the suffering of women and young girls imprisoned by the Assad regime and to reach the province of Hatay at the Turkish-Syrian border on March 8 - 8 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Dima Moussa has issued an appeal to all women across the world to participate in the campaigns and sit-ins being held across the world to spotlight the suffering Syrian women are enduring as a result of the criminal practices of the Assad regime against them - 9 March 2018: International Women's Day was celebrated across the world on Wednesday at a time when the women of the Eastern Ghouta are hiding in the cellars with their children to escape a brutal campaign waged by the Syrian regime on the area
16 March 2018: Syrians at home and abroad commemorated the seventh anniversary of the Syrian revolution which began in March 2011, vowing they would carry on with the struggle against the Assad regime until they fully regain their rights to freedom and dignity - 17 March 2018: The Civil Defense corpse in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta called on all people around the world to hold demonstrations to put pressure on their governments to work on putting an end to the brutal bombing campaign on eastern Ghouta
March 2018 'March for Our Lives' and for gun control legislation: 24 March 2018 'March for Our Lives' student-led demonstration in Washington D.C. with 845 sibling events throughout the USA and around the world for gun control legislation
11 April 2018 5 years since the launch of the 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots': 11 April 2018: 5 years since the launch of the 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots', a global coalition of non-governmental groups calling for a ban on fully autonomous weapons, we’re running out of time to stop killer robot weapons
29 April 2018: 29 April 2018: Tens of thousands have protested in Spanish cities in recent days, outraged by the decision of a court in Navarre to clear five men of gang rape and convicting them instead of the lesser offence of sexual abuse, echoing the determination of women globally to force society and the state to give them justice
July 2018 Ukraine: 2 July 2018: Dozens of Ukrainian cities have joined rallies in support of Ukrainian filmmaker Oleh Sentsov, who is - detained by FSB operatives in Crimea in the spring of 2014 - serving a 20-year term in prison in Russia and has been on hunger strike since May 14, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia
15 January 2019 anniversary of the state-sanctioned murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in 1919: 15 January 2019: The anniversary of the state-sanctioned murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in 1919 following their opposition to Germany's and Austria-Hungary's first world war brought an estimated 20,000 people on to the streets of Berlin at the weekend for a march that marked the high point of a series of commemorative events
19/20 January 2019 Women's March: 19/20 January 2019 Women's March - 19 January 2019: Demonstrators gather for 80 events across 31 cities including London, Berlin and New York to protest violence, violence against women and the gendered impact of austerity - 20 January 2019: In marches, part of the Women’s March rallies held around the world in support of women’s rights, several thousand people marched through major Australia cities on Sunday calling for safety for women after an Israeli exchange student was murdered in Melbourne
8/9 February 2019: 9 February 2019: Several thousand supporters of an exiled Iranian opposition group marched through Paris on Friday, calling for an end to Iran’s clerical regime 40 years after the regime's seizure of power and months after European authorities thwarted regime-backed plot to bomb event
March 2019 campaign for an international treaty to end violence against women: 5 March 2019: Women's rights activists from 128 nations are launching a public campaign Tuesday for an international treaty to end violence against women and girls, a global scourge estimated by the UN to affect 35% of females worldwide
May 2019 'March of the Living' and 'Holocaust Memorial Day': 2 May 2019: Numerous groups from more than 40 countries attended the annual (since 1988) three-kilometer 'March of the Living' in Poland from Auschwitz to Birkenau, ranging from Argentine, Canada, Germany, Israel, Morocco, Panama to the USA, as a total of 70 survivors participated in the 2019 march, organizers said
June 2019 D-day commemoration: 6 June 2019: World marks 75 years since D-Day in the Normandy, where thousands of men bled and died 75 years ago, remembering the sacrifices made to dismantle Nazi tyranny, with stories of those who were there on 6 June 1944, today in presence of members of the former Anti-Hitler coalition and associates in solidarity, as Rommel-Germany's public broadcaster calls D-day commemoration 'Militärspektakel'
July 2019 Syrian refugees hunger strike: 5 July 2019: More Syrian refugees in Europe are joining a hunger strike, as activists gathered in Paris on Thursday, holding signs that demonstrated solidarity with the victims of the Assad regime and Russian brutal bombing campaign, and as French government itself is involved in the July 2019 Tajoura migrant center massacre and airstrikes by warlord Haftar's forces, backed by Egypt, France, Russia and the United Arab Emirates
August 2019 descendants of Holocaust survivor gather at the Western Wall: 9 August 2019: Hundreds of descendants of Holocaust survivor Shoshanna Ovitz, who survived Auschwitz separated from her mother, who was killed by Josef Mengele, gather at the Western Wall to mark her 104th birthday on 7 August 2019, after she requested ahead of her birthday that 'all of her children, grandchildren and descendants come together to the Western Wall'
11 October 2019 protests against Turkish invasion of Northern and Eastern Syria: 11 October 2019: Activists all over the world are protesting the Turkish invasion of Northern and Eastern Syria, calling on people to boycott tourism in Turkey
December 2019 Chilean protest song about rape and victim shaming has become a viral anthem for activists around the world: 6 December 2019: A Chilean protest song about rape culture and victim shaming has become a viral anthem for activists around the world
Anti-nuclear movement: Anti-nuclear movement
1961: 1961 Women Strike for Peace and march in 60 cities in the USA to demonstrate against nuclear weapons, pushing the USA and the Soviet Union into signing a nuclear test-ban treaty two years later
Since 1980 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War since 1980
Since 2007 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons since 2007
2015: 26 April 2015: As nuclear powers meet, global activists present 8 million petitions to the UN disarmament chief demanding a world free of nuclear weapons and New York rally demands that the world's nine nuclear-armed countries do far more toward cutting stockpiles - 29 April 2015: A number of protesters were arrested by New York's police on Tuesday as they called for an end to all nuclear weapons
October 2017: 2017 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons - 6 October 2017: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons wins Nobel peace prize 2017, as Norwegian Nobel Committee says award made in recognition of work to draw attention to catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons
Since 1600 Timeline of labor issues, events and organized labor history: Since 1600 Timeline of labor issues and events - Organized labor history, as the origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society then taking place, drew women, children, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles - Trade unions by continent - Trade unions by country - List of trade unions by country - Trade unions by industry
National federations of trade unions - List of federations of trade unions by continent - International and regional union federations - Global union federation
Labour relations - Labor rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work - Industrial democracy - Workplace democracy - Labour relations by year
Since 19th century 'Social Democracy': Social democracy since 19th century
Since summer 1914 efforts to save peace and the international social democracy destroyed by Germany: Since 1900 International Socialist Bureau, the permanent organization of the Second International, established at the Paris congress of 1900 - In December 1914 the Secretary General of the International Socialist Bureau ISB Camille Huysmans moved the ISB from German-occupied Brussels to The Hague and attempted to coordinate socialist parties from the warring states to at least July 1916 - September 1915 'Zimmerwald Conference' in Switzerland, the first of three international socialist conferences convened by anti-militarist socialist parties from countries that were originally neutral during World War I and subsequent conferences held at Kienthal and Stockholm, known jointly as the Zimmerwald movement, began the unraveling of the coalition between revolutionary socialists (the so-called Zimmerwald Left) and reformist socialists - International Socialist Commission, a coordinating committee of socialists parties that adhered to the idea of the Zimmerwald Conference of 1915 - September 1917 third Zimmerwald Conference or the Stockholm Conference of 1917, the third and final of the anti-war socialist conferences that had included Zimmerwald in 1915 and Kienthal in 1916 - Since February 1915 Inter-Allied Socialist Conferences of World War I
2013 May Day rallies: 2 May 2013: Workers around the world united in anger during May Day rallies - from Europe to Asia over relentlessly low pay, the rising cost of living, elimination of jobs and hideous working conditions
2016 May Day rallies: 1 May 2016: On May day workers and activists worldwide, from Brazil, Cambodia, Chile to the USA, rallied in support of workers' rights, demanding higher wages, better conditions and more job security, criticizing the Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP agreement in Malaysia, carrying Mexican flags in Los Angeles, as in Istanbul a man was killed when he was run over by a police water cannon vehicle
Since 19th century environmental movement: Since 19th century environmental movement
Environmental protests: Environmental protests
2014: 30 March 2014: Lights off for Earth Hour's global crowdfunding call for local environmental projects
May 2015: 24 May 2015: Thousands of people hit the streets in cities across the world to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides
November 2015 climate change protests: 28 November 2015: As part of worldwide protests thousands of people rally in cities across Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines calling for action on climate change ahead of 2015 Paris summit - 29 November: Hundreds of thousands march around the world urging action to stop dangerous global warming
December 2015 climate change protests: 7 December 2015: People make the 'Pray for Paris' sign along with the slogan '100 per cent renewable' near the Eiffel Tower in Paris, as more than 10,000 climate activists pushing for an 'ambitious, fair and binding' climate deal marched along the beaches near Ostend in Belgium and as in Paris a coalition of African nations and donors unveiled an ambitious initiative to restore 100 million hectares of degraded and felled forests
October 2016: 14-16 October 2016 'Monsanto Tribunal' international civil society initiative to hold Monsanto accountable for human rights violations, for crimes against humanity, and for ecocide, as judges will hear testimonies from victims, and deliver an advisory opinion following procedures of the International Court of Justice
September 2018 'Rise for Climate' protests: 8 September 2018: Nearly 1,000 events were held in about 100 countries as part of the 'Rise for Climate' protests, calling on governments to end reliance on fossil fuels and move more rapidly toward renewable energy
December 2018 climate change protests: 4 December 2018: Action to fight global warming is coming whether world leaders like it or not, school student Greta Thunberg has told the UN climate change summit, accusing them of behaving like irresponsible children, after her solo climate protest was joint by thousands of students and school strikes have spread to at least 270 towns and cities in countries across the world
Since 15 March 2019 students global climate change protests: 15 March 2019: Students around the world walk out to press politicians to act on climate change - 17 March 2019: It’s shameful that children need to take the lead and calling politicians to account over a man-made global crisis, British newspaper says
August 2019 Brazil fires protest: 23 August 2019: Protesters have laid siege to Brazilian embassies around the world as international outrage over Jair Bolsonaro’s failure to protect the Amazon intensified
20 September 2019 climate change protests: 20 September 2019: Children in Australia and the Pacific Islands kicked off a millions-strong global climate strike, as from Sydney to Seoul to Sao Paolo, children and adults will join for what is expected to be one of the largest-ever collective calls to action in a movement fueled by social media under the hashtag #climatestrike - 20 September 2019: Part of global climate protests Filipinos marched in Manila to honor the memory of activists who were killed for defending the environment as the Philippines had the highest number of killings of environmental defenders of any country in 2018, with at least 30 murdered
20-27 September 2019 series of international climate crisis protests: 20-27 September 2019 series of international strikes and protests to demand action be taken to address climate crisis, the largest climate strikes in world history - September 2019 climate crisis protests by country - 20 September 2019: Afghan protesters risked a march down the centre of Kabul Friday despite nearly daily attacks by Russian and Iranian backed terrorists, in order to participate in the global movement against climate change, as health ministry says as many as 3,000 people die of pollution-induced illnesses in Kabul annually
27 September 2019 wave of global protests continues: 27 September 2019: 6 million people join latest wave of global protests against climate crisis that includes rising sea levels, uniting across timezones, cultures and generations to demand urgent action on the escalating ecological emergency
October 2019 7th World Mayors’ Summit denounces 'failed' UN climate summit: 9 October 2019: Mayors from a group representing more than 90 of the world’s biggest cities have launched a blistering attack on the failure to agree strong measures to fight the climate crisis at last month’s UN Climate Action Summit, blaming 'a small number of powerful governments', namely USA, Brazil, Australia, Russia and Turkey of being 'essentially representatives of the fossil fuel industry’ - C40 'Cities Climate Leadership Group' and 'C40 global initiatives'
29 November 2019 worldwide protests before UN summit: 29 November 2019: Hundreds of thousands of young people have taken to the streets from Manila to Copenhagen as part of the latest student climate strikes before UN summit to demand radical action on the unfolding ecological emergency
List of revolutions and rebellions: List of revolutions and rebellions
Since 2010: 2010/2011 Tunisian Revolution, an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations in Tunisia leading to a democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections - Arab Spring by country
2016: 10 juillet 2016: Habib Essid a félicité les forces sécuritaires après que la Tunisie a connu son premier mois de ramadan sans attaque djihadiste depuis 2012
Women-led protests and uprisings: Women-led protests and uprisings, initiated by women as an act of resistance or rebellion in defiance of an established government, a statement or action taken part to express disapproval of or object an authority, most commonly led in order to influence public opinion or government policy and ranging from village food riots against imposed taxes to protests that initiated the 1917 Russian revolution
1789 Women's March on Versailles: October 1789 Women's March on Versailles, one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution, when women in Paris rallied over the high price and scarcity of bread, quickly becoming intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries, who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France
1929 Women's insurrection in Nigeria: 1929 Women's War, an insurrection in British Nigeria when thousands of Igbo women from the Bende District, Umuahia and other places protested against the Warrant Chiefs, whom they accused of restricting the role of women in the government
1950s African-American women protests: 1950s boycott of segregated buses by African-American women
Since 2001 'World Social Forum': Since 2001 World Social Forum - March 2013 World Social Forum in Tunis - December 2014 World Social Forum on Migrations - March 2015 World Social Forum in Tunisia - 5 août 2016: Après Tunis en 2015 Montréal accueille à partir de mardi le prochain Forum social mondial
'Internet Social Forum' emerged to envision the role of the internet in help shape a new world on broadly similar lines to the WSF, founded in March 2015 at the Tunis WSF Conference
Occupy movement protest locations worldwide - Occupy movement
Since 2015 'United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda': United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda - 30 January 2012: UN panel aims for 'a future worth choosing' - UN Global Sustainability Panel (January 2012)
2015: 7 June 2015: Climate debate takes global pulse ahead of 2015 Paris summit as thousands of people gathered across 79 countries for what was touted as the world's largest-ever public debate on climate change

Cooperative movement by continent and country: List of cooperatives by continent and country - Cooperatives by country - History of the cooperative movement, concerning the origins and history of cooperatives in modern economies, as cooperative arrangements, such as mutual insurance, and principles of cooperation existed long before, the cooperative movement began with the application of cooperative principles to business organization
Worker cooperatives by country: Worker cooperative, a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers, as the control may be exercised in a number of ways - Worker cooperatives by country
Agricultural cooperatives by country: Agricultural cooperative, where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity, as a broad typology of agricultural cooperatives distinguishes between 'agricultural service cooperatives', which provide various services to their individually farming members, and 'agricultural production cooperatives', where production resources (land, machinery) are pooled and members farm jointly - Agricultural cooperatives by country

Journalism and media: News media and Journalism, the work and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the news of the day or a longer period
Newspaper, serial publication containing news and other informative articles - Online newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical - Lists of newspapers by continent, by countries, by languages, and by type
News broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio or internet - Radio news, Television news and broadcast journalism
Weather forecasting and its broadcasting
News agencies
History: History of journalism
Since 15th century: Spread of the printing press beginning with the invention of movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century, printing technology was adopted in all world regions by the end of the 19th century - List of the oldest newspapers since 1605 - 19th-century German newspaper 'Rheinische Zeitung', edited by Karl Marx since 1842 and terminated by Prussian state censorship in March 1843 - 'Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie', German daily newspaper published by Karl Marx 1848/1849, suppressed by Prussian state in May 1849
1948: 1948 United Nations 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights' states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and that this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers
Since the 1950s: History of the Internet beginning with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s
Since the 1970s: Since the 1970s Environmental journalism, the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact
1971: 1971 'Pentagon Papers'
Since 1985: Since 1985 'Reporters Without Borders' international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press - 'Reporters Without Borders' website
1991: 1991 Windhoek Declaration statement of press freedom principles by African newspaper journalists
Since 1997: Since 1997 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists ICIJ', a Washington-based international network launched by the Center for Public Integrity which includes 165 investigative journalists in over 65 countries who work together on issues such as cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of power - Investigative journalism - List of public disclosures of classified information, global and by countries
Since 2006 Wikileaks: Information published by WikiLeaks since 2006
2012: 2012 Syria Files, collection of more than two million emails from Syrian political figures and ministries and from companies including Finmeccanica and Brown Lloyd James dating from August 2006 to March 2012
Since 2014 Investigative journalists' 'Bellingcat': Since 2014 Investigative journalists' 'Bellingcat', using open source and social media investigation to investigate a variety of subjects and conflicts, for example Assad's war against the Syrian people and the Russian regime's aggression against Ukraine
2015: March/April 2015: Hacking the hackers, an interview with the recipient of the ACFE Guardian Award Brian Krebs
2016: April 2016 'Panama Papers' - TTIP Leaks - Greenpeace website
2016: 9 November 2016: Reporters Without Borders awarded its 2016 Press Freedom Prize to Syrian journalist and activist Hadi Abdullah for his efforts covering the nearly six-year conflict in Syria
March 2017: 7 March 2017: After WikiLeaks published what it described as the biggest ever leak of confidential documents from the CIA detailing the tools it uses to break into phones, communication apps and other electronic devices, USA intelligence agencies are facing fresh embarrassment
October 2018: 23 octobre 2018: Avec la volonté d'en finir avec l'impunité, la Fédération internationale des journalistes a lancé à l'ONU une campagne de sensibilisation à la nécessité de créer une 'Convention internationale pour la sécurité et l'indépendance des journalistes et des autres professionnels des médias'

Freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of information
IFEX (formerly the International Freedom of Expression Exchange) global network of over 100 independent non-governmental organisations working at the local, national, regional and international level to defend and promote freedom of expression as a fundamental human right - International Federation of Journalists - Journalism ethics and standards

Since 2012 Bellingcat website founded by the British citizen journalist Eliot Higgins, publishing the findings of citizen journalist investigations into war and the criminal underground, also publishing guides to their techniques and case studies, after in March 2012 Eliot Higgins started a blog demonstrating that the Syrian regime was using cluster munitions and chemical weapons - 'Bellingcat' website
Since 2012 Bellingcat's investigation of the use of chemical weapons in Assad's war: Since 2012 Bellingcat investigation of the use of weapons, including chemical weapons, in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2014 Bellingcat's investigation of the downing of flight MH17: Since 2014 Bellingcat investigation of the downing of the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 during the still ongoing war in eastern Ukraine
June 2017 evidence of Russian Buk 332 used to down flight MH17: 5 June 2017: Bellingcat publishes new evidence of Buk 332 origin used to down Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 - 17 July 2017: Bellingcat's team of investigative journalists has released report summarizing all major open source evidence surrounding the downing of MH17 in an easy-to-read 73-page survey, naming Buk 332 of the Russian Armed Forces to be the only credible candidate for the missile launcher that downed MH17
April 2018 illegal shipment of Sarin precursor from Belgium to Syria: 19 April 2018: Bellingcat journalists report how they tracked the illegal shipment of Sarin precursor from Belgium to Syria, after Syrian Archive and Knack revealed information that Belgium violated EU sanctions
May 2018 downing MH17: 25 May 2018: Russian GRU officer Ivannikov involved in delivery of Buk to Donbas in July 2014, Bellingcat team, The Insider and other investigators reveal, as Australia and the Netherlands formally accuse Russian Putin regime of being responsible for downing a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet in July 2014, following international Joint Investigation Team's report on, the mass murder of all 298 people on board
14/15 September 2018 Russian regime's 'Novichok' attacks: 14/15 September 2018: An ongoing 'Bellingcat' investigation conducted jointly with 'The Insider Russia' has confirmed through uncovered passport data that the two Russian nationals identified by UK authorities as obeying suspects in the Novichok poisonings on British soil in March and June are linked to Russian security services, directly contradicting claims by Russian regime's Putin on 12 September 2018, after one of the keys to identifying the insidious murderous gang was the discovery of traces of novichok in their hotel room in London
26/27 September 2018: 26/27 September 2018: Anatoliy Chepiga, a Colonel in the GRU, who served in Chechyna and has received the highest honour usually awarded personally by Russian regime's Putin, is one of the suspects in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal and the killing of Dawn Sturgess, having travelled to the UK under the name Ruslan Boshirov, according to British investigative website Bellingcat and its partner The Insider
October 2018: 8 October 2018: The investigative website Bellingcat has identified the second suspect responsible for poisoning Sergei Skripal as Alexander Mishkin, a doctor working for Russia’s GRU military spy agency - 9 octobre 2018: Le second suspect de l'empoisonnement en Angleterre a été décoré pour acte héroïque par Poutine en 2014, selon Bellingcat

Since 2010 Bureau of Investigative Journalism, a nonprofit news organisation based in London - 'Bureau of Investigative Journalism' website

Since 1997 International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, an independent Washington D.C.-based international network - 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists' website

Since 1985 Reporters Without Borders, or Reporters Sans Frontières RSF, is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press - 'Reporters Without Borders' website - The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by 'Reporters Without Borders' based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year
April 2018: 16 April 2018: Reporters Without Borders RSF calls for a full and impartial investigation into journalist Maxim Borodin’s death as a result of a fall from the balcony of his apartment in Russia's Yekaterinburg, who was known for reports on private military firm and prison investigations - 16 April 2018: Russian investigative journalist Borodin who confirmed the deaths of Russian mercenaries in Syria has died after falling from his fifth-floor balcony in the city of Yekaterinburg
December 2018: 18 décembre 2018: Quatre-vingt journalistes ont été tués à travers le monde en 2018, déplore Reporters sans frontières

Citizen journalism is based upon public citizens 'playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information' - Crowdsourcing

Collaborative journalism, a mode of journalism where multiple reporters or news organizations, without affiliation to a common parent organization, report on and contribute news items to a news story together, practiced by both professional and amateur reporters

Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing, and an investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report - Lists of investigative journalists by country
June 2018: 5 June 2018: Non-profit TRACE Foundation, that supports projects that encourage greater commercial transparency, announced the winners of the '2018 TRACE Prize for Investigative Reporting' at an award ceremony at The Newseum in Washington, D.C.

Democracy: Democracy - History of democracy - Election - Suffrage - State - Government
History of law connected to the development of civilisations and economic, social and political history - Contract law - Treaty - International law
Abolition of slavery and serfdom - timeline
Timeline of Emancipation, i.e. years when legal equality was 'granted' to Jews, since 1791 in France - Année d'obtention de l'égalité des droits pour les Juifs en Europe
Opposition to nationalism
Monarchy abolishment - Territorial evolution of monarchies in Europe since 1789 French Revolution - Monarchy abolishment since twentieth century and World War I
Democratization, the transition to a more democratic political regime, also referring to substantive changes of society moving in a democratic direction - Democratization in corporations

International law and international human rights law: International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations - History of international law - Self-determination
International human rights law is primarily made up of treaties, agreements between sovereign states intended to have binding legal effect between the parties and designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels - Sources of international law - Customary international law - Customary international humanitarian law - Crimes against humanity

Human rights by issue - Right to life - The right to health is the economic, social and cultural right to a universal minimum standard of health to which all individuals are entitled - Freedom of speech - Toleration - Right to equal protection - Children's rights
Right to work - Right to food - Human right to water and sanitation - Environmental protection

The right of self-defense: The right of self-defense, the right for people to use reasonable force or defensive force, for the purpose of defending one's own life (self-defense) or the lives of others, including (in certain circumstances) the use of deadly force - Self-defence in international law

The 'law of war' refers to the component of international law that regulates the conditions for war and the conduct of warring parties, also defining sovereignty and nationhood, states and territories, occupation, and other critical terms of international law - Sources of international law - Treaties, formal written agreements entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations, also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms, that may be considered treaties subject to the same rules under international law
Since 1969/1980 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: Since 1969/1980 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, an international agreement regulating treaties between states, establishing the rules and procedures for how treaties are defined, drafted, enforced, amended, interpreted, and generally operate

Human rights promotion
Since 1939 resistance during World War II: Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns
Since 1939 resistance operations against Nazi Germany by country and year: Since 1939 resistance operations against Nazi Germany by country and year
International human rights organizations following World War II: Since 1945 international human rights organizations following World War II
September 2018 Montréal summit: 23 septembre 2018: La quinzaine de femmes ministres des Affaires étrangères d'Afrique du Sud, d'Andorre, de la Bulgarie, de Canada, du Costa Rica, de Croatie, du Ghana, du Guatemala, d'Indonésie, du Kenya, de Namibie, de Norvège, du Panama, de Sainte-Lucie, de Suède et de l'Union européenne réunies vendredi et samedi à Montréal pour un premier sommet ont promis de se retrouver régulièrement pour faire prévaloir une 'perspective féminine' dans la politique internationale - Grassroots women's empowerment movements
October 2018 Nobel Peace Prize: 5 October 2018: The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad, a Yazidi former captive of the Islamic State terrorist group, for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict

Opposition to nationalism, racism, antisemitism, militarism and fascism: Opposition to nationalism - Anti-racism includes convincements, actions, movements, and policies inevitably developed to oppose racism, also intending to promote an egalitarian society in which people do not face discrimination - Anti-racism by continent - Anti-racism in Europe - Opposition to antisemitism - Opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals in European, African, American and Asian countries since the 1920s, an opposition spreading to other countries around the world - Anti-fascists by nationality - Antimilitarism and corresponding social movements, not rejecting war of defence, but rejecting the desire and policy to maintain a large and strong military organization in aggressive preparedness for war
Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe: Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe
Ghetto uprisings: Ghetto uprisings - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 - Ringelblum Archive, a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group 'Oyneg Shabbos', which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation and started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943
Since 1939 resistance during World War II: Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns - World War II resistance movements by country
Since 1939 resistance operations against Nazi Germany by country and year: Since 1939 resistance operations against Nazi Germany by country and year
February 2018: 22 février 2018: Le monde subit les conséquences effroyables de discours de haine qui menacent de normaliser la discrimination contre des groupes marginalisés, souligne l'ONG Amnesty International dans son rapport 2017/18 sur les droits humains dans le monde
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Paying homage to the hundreds of Jewish fighters who took up arms in the 1943 rebellion against the German forces that occupied Poland during World War II in the April-May Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Polish survivor of the Warsaw ghetto Marian Kalwary says 'I am terrified by the rebirth of fascism and nationalism and I can see nationalism being glorified and put on a pedestal as something noble'

International sanctions: International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally - Sanction
Economic sanctions: Economic sanctions
Current sanctions and arms embargo by targeted regime and country: Current sanctions by targeted regime and country - Arms embargo
1977 UN Security Council Resolution 418: 1977 UN Security Council Resolution 418 and sanctions against apartheid
1999 UN Security Council Resolution 1267: 1999 UN Security Council Resolution 1267 and sanctions against all Al-Qaida-terrorists and Taliban-associated individuals
Economic sanctions against Myanmar (Burma): Economic sanctions against Myanmar's regime (Burma)
Arms embargo on China: Arms embargo on Chinese regime

Sanctions against Iranian regime - List of UN resolutions concerning Iran - USA sanctions against Iran - EU sanctions against Iran - Iranian frozen assets - Foreign direct investments in Iran
November 2018: 13 November 2018: After the USA announced reinstatement of sanctions earlier this month to force Iranian regime to curb its nuclear and missile programs as well as its support for proxy forces in Yemen, Syria, Lebanon and others in the Middle East, the USA will step up enforcement of sanctions as Tehran tries to find ways to evade the restrictions in oil trade and in banking

Sanctions against North Korean regime

Since 2012 international sanctions on Russia following the death of Russian tax accountant Sergei Magnitsky in a Moscow prison in 2009 - Since 2014 International sanctions against Russian regime during the Ukrainian crisis
3 August 2019 new sanctions over Skripal poisoning: 3 August 2019: USA imposes new sanctions on Russia over Sergei Skripal Novichok poisoning, as USA banks are banned from providing loans to Russia, and government will oppose any loan extension to Russian Putin regime by international institutions, and as the Putin regime of coward mass murderers, for example in Syria and Ukraine, says the move will hurt already-strained USA-Russia ties

Environmental protection: Environmental protection, a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels - International environmental organizations - Environmentalism - Environmental globalization refers to the internationally coordinated practices and regulations - often in the form of international treaties - regarding environmental protection, usually supported by non-governmental organizations and also by some governments of developed countries - List of environmental issues
List of environmental organizations: List of environmental organizations, international and by country
Since 1969 Greenpeace: Since 1969 Greenpeace, a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam
Since 1969 Friends of the Earth: Since 1969 Friends of the Earth International, an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries
Since 1984 Environmental Investigation Agency: Since 1984 Environmental Investigation Agency - EIA is working with civil society collecting information, deeply entrenched in research and data analysis, and at international negotiating platforms poised to propose solutions that work to protect threatened wildlife, forests, and our global climate, according to its website
Since 1993 Global Witness: Since 1993 Global Witness, an international NGO that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide - Global Witness exposes the hidden links between demand for natural resources, corruption, armed conflict and environmental destruction, according to its website

List of supranational environmental agencies: List of supranational environmental agencies
1873-1951 International Meteorological Organization: 1873-1951 International Meteorological Organization
Since 1950/51 World Meteorological Organization: Since 1950/51 World Meteorological Organization WMO, an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories, originating from the International Meteorological Organization it became the specialised agency of the UN for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences

Environmental law and international environmental agreements: Environmental law by subject and country - International environmental law - Environmental impact assessment - Environmental protection agencies - International environmental agreement - List of international environmental agreements

List of environmental lawsuits: List of environmental lawsuits

Renewable resource - Non-renewable resource - Exploitation of natural resources - Natural resource management - Sustainable development - Participation

Greenpeace: Greenpeace, non-governmental environmental organization founded by Canadian activists in 1971 with offices in over 40 countries, with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, and stating its goal is to 'ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity' and focusing its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues - Greenpeace international website and latest updates - Greenpeace news
Greenpeace Worldwide offices

United Nations Secretariat and Secretary-General of the United Nations - UN Secretary-General selection - a candidate must receive the votes of at least 9 members of the UN Security Council, with no vetoes from permanent members, and a majority vote of the UN General Assembly, but the General Assembly has never refused to appoint the person recommended by the Security Council
1953-1961 Dag Hammarskjöld: 1953-1961 Dag Hammarskjöld, a Swedish diplomat, economist, and author, served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations
1961/2018: September 1961 Ndola United Nations DC-6 crash on Dag Hammarskjöld's way to talks aimed at ending civil war in neighbouring Congo - 26 September 2017: A UN report into the death of its secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld in a 1961 plane clash in central Africa has found that there is a 'significant amount of evidence' that his flight was brought down by another aircraft - 12 October 2018: UN investigator Othman looking into new evidence on the death of the UN secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld in a 1961 plane crash has criticised the UK and South Africa for their lack of cooperation - 13 January 2019: Documentary claims UN secretary general Hammarskjöld was assassinated in 1961 plane crash by Belgian mercenary van Risseghem, who was a former British Royal Air Force pilot
1972-1981 Kurt Waldheim: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general - 18 October 2018: Ruth Beckermann's film on Nazi-turned-Austrian president Waldheim, who played a key role in the brutal reprisals against the civilian populations of Yugoslavia and Greece, particularly in the deportation of most of Salonika’s large Jewish population to Nazi death camps, sheds light on rise of nationalism and neo-Nazism today
2007-2016 Ban Ki-moon: 2007-2016 Ban Ki-moon, a South Korean politician, diplomat and the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations
2014: 14 August 2014: After delegation of 11 organizations meets UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, leaders of major Jewish organizations accuse him of being one-sided in his handling of the crisis in Gaza - 1 November 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon appoints panel to recommend changes to international peacekeeping in the face of increasingly complex and dangerous conflicts
2015: 23 January 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon paints a worsening picture of Assad's war in Syria, citing indiscriminate government bombing and opposition shelling, high civilian casualties and deteriorating humanitarian conditions - 13 March 2015: Syrians feel 'increasingly abandoned', UN's Ban Ki-moon says - 24 March 2015: The people of Syria feel 'increasingly abandoned by the world' as global attention focuses on Islamic State militants, while violence and government bureaucracy hinder attempts to deliver aid to 12 million people, UN's Ban Ki-moon repeats on Monday 23 March - 3 May 2015: The UN is telling Syria's Assad regime that the use of explosive weapons in the besieged Palestinian refugee community of Yarmouk and other populated areas must stop - 28 May 2015: 'The level of carnage and devastation throughout the Syrian Arab Republic should shock the collective conscience of the world', UN's Ban Ki-moon says in the fifth year of Assad's war in a report - 24 June 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon again calls for urgent action in Syria - 21 July 2015: Syrian Coalition criticizes UN's Ban Ki-moon’s silence over Iran and Assad crimes - 17 September 2015: Hungary's treatment of refugees is shocking and unacceptable, UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon says - 4 October 2015: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warns of a dangerous escalation in Jerusalem and the West Bank and urges leaders to 'condemn violence and incitement' - 31 October 2015: Making reference to the 'brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international humanitarian law', which was characterized by indiscriminate attacks on civilians areas, such as one reported yesterday in a marketplace in Syria and credited to government forces, UN's Ban Ki-moon along with the head of the ICRC calls for action to stop suffering by ending conflict, saying 'Enough is enough'
2016: 15 January 2016: At a press conference in New York UN's Ban Ki-moon warns that the use of starvation as a weapon in Syria amounts to a war crime and a violation of international humanitarian law - 11 March 2016: As Iranian regime insists missiles emblazoned with 'Israel must be wiped out' are 'for legitimate defense', UN's Ban Ki-moon urges Iranian 'moderation' after missile tests, calling on the Iranian regime and its 'moderates' 'not to increase tensions through hasty actions' so soon after nuclear deal 'and so soon after the positive news of the lifting of sanctions against Iran' - 3 May 2016: New Zealand’s former PM Helen Clark started her campaign to become the first woman to lead the UN, saying in Paris that 'peace really matters to women' - 16 June 2016: Ukraine's UN ambassador is 'completely outraged' by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's speech at St. Petersburg forum, asking how the UN chief 'can say such things which sort of praise the role of Russia in settling the conflict in Ukraine when the Russian Federation is the main player in aggressing Ukraine and in keeping this conflict boiling' - 29 December 2016 (British Guardian): Can 'toothless UN seize last chance to save itself' and its task with António Guterres, a practicing catholic?
Since 2017 Antonio Guterres: 17 February 2017: UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres is due to name a judge or prosecutor as the head of a new UN team aiming to bring Syria war crimes to court - 21 février 2017: Juger les crimes contre l'humanité commis par le régime syrien, c'est la requête faite à la Cour pénale internationale par des intellectuels et des artistes syriens, consignée dans une lettre ouverte au secrétaire général de l'ONU Antonio Guterres - 25 April 2017: Syrian Interim Government sent a letter to the UN Secretary-General Guterres highlighting the systematic bombing of hospitals and medical facilities by the Assad regime and Russia forces - 1 June 2017: UN's Guterres calls for referring Syrian file to the International Criminal Court, accusing the Syrian regime of hampering the access of civilians to humanitarian aid - 8 August 2017: UN's Guterres says a UN commission probing war crimes in Syria should continue its work, despite the resignation of prosecutor Carla Del Ponte - 14 December 2017: UN secretary general Antonio Guterres has warned that Iran may be defying a call to halt ballistic missile development and may have passed ballistic missiles to Yemen's Houthis, also saying that the Simorgh space launch vehicle that Iran launched on 27 July, if configured as a ballistic missile, is 'inherently capable of delivering nuclear weapons'
January 2018: 11 January 2018: António Guterres calls on UN member states to adopt humane approach to refugees and migrants by making more travel routes available and protecting foreign workers - 30 January 2018: UN's Guterres meets with Sudan’s president, who is accused of genocide, on grounds of alleged 'operational necessity'
February 2018 UN's Guterres supports Assad regime's war criminals and mass murderers: 23 February 2018: With support of UN head Guterres Syria’s Bashar Ja’afari elected to the 'UN’s Special Committee on Decolonization', as Hillel Neuer, executive director of the Geneva-based human rights group UN Watch, says that 'it is incomprehensible for the UN on one day to lament the Syrian regime’s killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands of Syrians - to declare the regime guilty of a ‘monstrous campaign of annihilation’ of its own people - and to then hand this gift of false legitimacy to the mass murderer Bashar al-Assad'
UN Special Representatives and Envoys of the Secretary-General - UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General - Special Envoy of the Secretary-General
Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations
Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations
2016: 20 August 2016: Responding to questions about the heartbreaking photos of five-year-old Omran Daqneesh, rescued from under the rubble of his home in Aleppo that was destroyed in an airstrike and whose brother died, UN's deputy secretary-general Jan Eliasson says that the whole world has failed the Syrian people, as Syrian Coalition's Osama Taljou calls upon the United Nations to hold Assad accountable for killing over 400,000 Syrians and displacing over 13 million more, stressing that the Syrian people will never give up the struggle for freedom and dignity
UN Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict: UN Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict
2012: 11 June 2012: Annual Report of the UN Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict - 12 June 2012: Assads forces using Syrian children as human shields, UN report says
October 2017: 5 October 2017: Millions of children caught in conflict, victims and targets of despicable harm, according to UN 2016 report revealing shocking levels of grave violations against children affected by conflicts - 5 October 2017: Adding to its existing list UN blacklists Iran-allied Houthi rebel group in Yemen, Yemeni government forces, pro-government militia, al Qaeda and Saudi-led coalition for killing children in the Arabian Peninsula
November 2017: 17 November 2017: Criticizing the performance of UN staff covering the conflict in Syria, SNHR says UN Secretary General report on Syria children is ‘not accurately reflecting the atrocious reality in Syria’
July 2018: 28 July 2018: Virginia Gamba, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, told the UN Security Council that the first quarter of 2018 saw a 348% increase in killing and maiming of children in Syria compared to the previous quarter, also saying that over 100 attacks on hospitals and medical facilities or personnel have been verified since the beginning of 2018, as Guterres supports Assad's regime and therefore Assad's, Russian and Iranian war crimes
United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process: United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process - 22 June 2014: UN envoy Robert Serry denies claim he tried to funnel $20m to Hamas behind Israel's back - 5 February 2015: Nikolay Mladenov to replace Robert Serry as UN mideast envoy - 7 June 2015: Israel's PM Netanyahu chides world over silence after new Gaza rocket attacks in 2015, saying 'I have not heard a single international figure condemn the violence, not even at the United Nations' - 16 September 2015: The UN’s Mideast peace envoy Nikolay Mladenov warns that clashes between Israelis and Palestinians in and around Jerusalem’s holy sites have the potential to ignite violence well beyond the walls of its Old City, pointing to 'a vicious tide of terror and extremism' in the region
UN Special Representative and Envoy for Syria: United Nations Special Representative for Syria
2012/2013: 20 August 2012: The Syrian National Council has asked the new UN envoy Lakhdar Brahimi to apologise over his refusal to immediately call for Bashar al-Assad to step down - 17 July 2013: Five thousand people a month are dying in Syria's war, which has now generated the worst refugee crisis since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, UN says
2014: 13 May 2014: UN and Arab League special representative on Syria Brahimi resigns - 11 October 2014: UN Special Envoy for Syria Staffan de Mistura fears massacre after Islamic State terrorists seize Kurdish HQ in Kobane - 30 October 2014: UN warns that some of Syria's neighbors are at their 'breaking point', caught between a sense of duty to keep their borders open to refugees and a responsibility to their own citizens
2015: 14 February 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a strongly worded letter to the UN Security Council explaining the atrocities and massacres committed by the Assad regime in the district of Douma - 14 February 2015: France repeated its position that Syrian regime's Al-Assad must step down as part of any political transition after UN Special Envoy de Mistura said that Al-Assad 'is part of the solution' - 18 March 2015: The Syrian Coalition sent a letter to the UN Security Council calling for punishing Assad under Chapter VII of UN Charter after regime's latest chlorine gas attack on Sarmin in rural Idlib on Monday - 25 April 2015: UN envoy to Syria to begin talks with groups and regional powers in hopes to end conflict - 4 May 2015: Syrian Coalition's decision to attend Geneva meetings to consider how to get rid of Assad - 8 June 2015: UN Special Envoy to Syria de Mistura, who recently called Assad a 'part of the solution', now says the dictator must go and should be militarily pressured to do so by the USA - 19 June 2015: Over 70 countries demand that Assad regime stops deadly aerial attacks against the Syrian people - 9 July 2015: WikiLeaks Cable details private meeting between Assad and Kofi Annan in 2012 - 30 July 2015: The Palestinian Committee for Human Rights condemns the decision by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to stop the provision of aid and support to 18,000 people in Damascus' Yarmouk refugee camp, after removing the camp from its list of besieged Syrian areas - 27 December 2015: UN sets to start Syrian peace talks on 25 January 2016 in Geneva - 30 December 2015: 40,000 civilians in Syria's Madaya city, besieged by Assad regime forces and Hezbollah since months, are starving to death amid silence by the international envoy
2016: 6 January 2016: Residents of the Syrian town of Madaya north of Damascus say they are dying of starvation as a result of a months-long siege by Assad regime's forces, as an aid official, who visited Madaya and Zabadani in October, cites an appeal from the children in those two places - 6 January: Syrian Coalition calls upon the Arab League, the UN, and the UN envoy to Syria to shoulder their responsibilities towards the civilians trapped by Assad gangs and the Hezbollah militia in Madaya, Biqqin and other besieged areas - 7 January 2016: Turkey's Davutoglu says that Russia has become a partner of the Syrian regime, which is brutally bombing civilians in Syria, and the world should not tolerate a situation where Syrians are fleeing the bombing, adding that the UN Security Council and Russia are responsible for the tragedy unfolding in Syria - 18 January 2016: A leaked document from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations in Damascus shows that the organization was aware of the existence of famine in Madaya months ago - 22 January 2016: The United Nations reportedly altered a key humanitarian aid plan for Syria after consultation with the Assad regime, including deleting references to besieged areas such as Madaya where thousands of people are starving - 25 January: Sit-in of protestors in Istanbul to denounce Russian, Iranian and Assad's terrorism against the Syrian People, stressing that stopping barrel bombing and Russian airstrikes, lifting the siege and releasing the detainees are non-negotiable humanitarian demands - 25 January: UN talks on Syria due to begin later this week despite disagreement on key issues, Mistura says - 26 January: The Syrian Coalition says that 'the informal talks that De Mistura will host in Geneva assume that the problem is not in the Assad regime, but between Syrians themselves (and that) this approach will not only exempt the Assad regime from responsibility for the crisis, but will a