European Union - member states, future enlargement, EU Parliament elections 2019, 2019 local electoral calendar, 2019 national electoral calendar EU states and worldwide and list of elections in 2019 by continent

2017-2019 UK's withdrawal from the European Union

(Article since June 2011)

Austria - Geography of Austria - History of Austria - Demographics of Austria
Economy of Austria: Economy of Austria - List of companies of Austria - Tourism in Austria
Agriculture in Austria: Agriculture in Austria
Tourism in Austria: Tourism in Austria - Tourist attractions in Austria - Austria–Slovenia border
September 2019: 6 September 2019: German tourist sued for complaints about hotel's Nazi portraits in the Tyrolean Alps last August
Banking in Austria: Banking in Austria - Banks of Austria - Hypo Group Alpe Adria - bank scandal - 14 December 2009: Austria nationalises ailing Hypo Group Alpe Adria
April 2013 banking secrecy: 8. April 2013: Nach Luxemburg beginnt auch in Österreich das Bankgeheimnis zu bröckeln
Economic history of Austria and economic cycles: Economic history of Austria
Labor in Austria: Labor in Austria - Labour disputes in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Taxation in Austria: Taxation in Austria
Politics of Austria: Politics of Austria - Political parties in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Elections and politics in Austria: Elections in Austria
2008: 28 September 2008 Austrian legislative election
2010: 25 April 2010 Austrian presidential election - 10 October 2010 Viennese state election
2013: 3 March 2013 Carinthian state election - 3 mars 2013: En Carinthie les différents instituts de sondages donnent autour de 32% (contre 28,8% en 2009) au candidat social-démocrate Peter Kaiser contre seulement autour de 21% au gouverneur sortant de l'Etat régional - Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 2013
September 2013 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2013 Austrian legislative election - 29 septembre: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour 6,4 millions d'électeurs qui doivent renouveler les 183 députés de leur Conseil national - 29 septembre: La coalition sortante des sociaux-démocrates et conservateurs remporte la majorité absolue, forte poussée de l'extrême droite
2014 European Parliament election: Austria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015 Styrian and Vienna election: 31 May 2015 Styrian state election, Social Democrats win Styrian state election, securing 29.29% of the vote despite Freedom party gains - 11 October 2015: Social Democrats win Vienna election, securing 39.5% of Sunday’s vote, ahead of the Freedom party on 31%
April 2016 Austrian presidential election: 24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election - 25 April 2016: Far-right and anti-immigration 'Freedom' party's Norbert Hofer takes 36% of the vote as candidates from the two governing parties fail to make runoff
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Faymann quits as Austrian chancellor - 21 May 2016: Far-right Austrian presidential candidate Hofer accused of lying over Jerusalem terror incident
22 May Austrian presidential election second round - 23 mai 2016: Alexander Van der Bellen, former Green party leader, elected president in Austria in narrow defeat for far right
July 2016: 1 juillet 2016: Après un coup de théâtre sans précédent de l'invalidation du résultat de l'élection présidentielle par la Cour constitutionnelle les Autrichiens vont retourner aux urnes pour élire un président
December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election: 4 December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election - 5 December 2016: Austria’s voters have resoundingly rejected anti-immigration and eurosceptic Hofer’s bid to become EU’s first far-right president, instead electing former leader of the Green party Van der Bellen who said he would be an 'open-minded, liberal-minded and above all a pro-European president', a result greeted with relief
January 2017: 30. Januar 2017: SPÖ und ÖVP stimmen neuem Regierungspakt zu
October 2017 Austrian legislative election: 15 October 2017 Austrian legislative election - 16 October 2017: Stoking concerns about a record influx of migrants into Europe following the failure of the international community to tackle crises in the Middle East and Africa, Austria's 'People’s Party' got 31.4% of the vote, the 'Freedom Party' came in second with 27.4% and the 'Social Democratic Party of Austria', which now governs in coalition with 'People’s Party', got 26.7% - 24 October 2017: Austria’s Sebastian Kurz on Tuesday agreed to hold coalition talks with the FPÖ, potentially rekindling an alliance previously dubbed a 'pact with the devil' by the media
December 2017: 15/16 December 2017: Having Nazi roots and campaigning on an anti-immigrant platform Austria’s anti-immigration FPOe and the OeVP agreed a coalition deal - 20 December 2017: Rise of 'Freedom Party' founded in 1956 by a former SS officer raises fears Austria hasn’t learned from Nazi past
January/February 2018: 11 January 2018: The Jewish Community of Vienna, which represents most Jews in Austria, continues long-standing policy of boycotting the 'Freedom Party' with its Nazi roots, as Israel also rejects meetings with party ministers - 24 January 2018: FPÖ candidate for state office Udo Landbauer was a member of student fraternity whose songbook contains Nazi lyrics - 21 Februar 2018: Austrian Jewish students disrupted cabinet minister Fassmann’s speech at a conference on anti-Semitism over the fact that Kurz government includes politicians from the 'Freedom Party' known for anti-Semitic and racist incidents involving its members and leaders
Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair: Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair, an ongoing political scandal in Austria involving FPÖ's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Vice-Chancellor of Austria, FPÖ's Johann Gudenus and the Austrian 'Freedom Party' FPÖ in general, causing the collapse of the Austrian governing coalition
26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Austria: 26 mai 2019 élections européennes en Autriche
27-31 May 2019: 27 mai 2019: Le chancelier autrichien Sebastian Kurz a été renversé par une motion de censure adoptée par les principaux partis d'opposition, dix jours après le scandale de l'Ibizagate qui a fait exploser la coalition qu'il avait formée avec l'extrême droite - 31 May 2019: Austria gets its first female chancellor, for now as constitutional court president Brigitte Bierlein named as interim premier
July 2019: 2 juillet 2019: Le parlement autrichien a approuvé mardi une interdiction totale du glyphosate sur le territoire national, au nom du 'principe de précaution'
September 2019 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2019 Austrian legislative election in the second half of the year, called as a result of 2019 Ibiza affair and the breakup of the ruling ÖVP–FPÖ coalition in May 2019 - Opinion polling for the 2019 Austrian legislative election
November 2019 three people arrested in connection with FPÖ-Strache video: 20 November 2019: Austrian prosecutors say three people have been arrested in connection with a video that triggered the collapse of the government earlier this year
Social movements, criticism and protests: Protests in Austria
2009: 2009 student protests in Austria
2013: 2 February 2013: Nine protesters have been arrested for civil disorder in demonstrations against a right-wing ball in Vienna's imperial Hofburg Palace - 20 April 2013: Austrians disagree with their government over the need to maintain the country's banking secrecy, according to polls which showed a majority in favour of lifting the controversial measure
2015: 31 January 2015: Austrian police hold 38 people as thousands protest outside controversial palace ball in Vienna
September 2015: 1 September 2015: About 20,000 people took to the streets of Vienna on the eve of 1 September to demonstrate against ill-treatment of refugees, after the bodies of 71 people were found on Austria’s A4 motorway in an abandoned truck last week and as the European refugee and migrant crisis escalates - 1 September 2015: Along with several hundred citizens wanting to pay respect to refugees, Vienna and Austrian officials hold memorial for 71 refugees found dead in an abandoned lorry
2016: 1 May 2016: Around 80,000 people on May Day in Vienna greeted SPÖ's Faymann with loud boos and calls to step down, following the ruling coalition’s handling of the refugee and migrant crisis, rising unemployment and disastrous defeat in presidential ballot
December 2017 protest against ÖVP/Freedom party deal: 18 December 2017: Thousands protest as natioalist ministers enter government in Austria, following a deal of ÖVP with the 'Freedom party' founded after the second world war by former members of the Nazi party
January 2018 'Never Again' protest: 13/14 January 2018: Thousands of Austrians gathered to protest against the new coalition government, which includes the FPO founded by former Nazis, with a march in Vienna, carrying placards reading 'Never Again' and chanting slogans such as 'Don't Let Nazis Govern'
June 2018: 30 juin 2018: Plus de 80'000 personnes ont manifesté samedi face à la volonté du gouvernement d'étendre à 12 heures par jour et à 60 par semaine la durée maximale autorisée de travail
October 2018: 4 octobre 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Vienne pour ressusciter les 'manifestations du jeudi' de l'année 2000 contre le premier gouvernement de coalition entre ÖVP et FPÖ
December 2018: 16 December 2018: Thousands of protesters in Vienna braved snow and icy temperatures Saturday to protest Austria’s ruling coalition between the conservatives and xenophobic FPOe a year after they came to power
Austrian society, demographics, culture and human rights: Austrian society - Human rights in Austria - Legal history of Austria
Demographics of Austria: Demographics of Austria - Austrians - Ethnic groups in Austria - Ethnic groups in Vienna
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria begins with exodus of Jews from Palestine under Roman occupation - History of the Jews in Vienna - History of the Jews in Salzburg
Romani people in Austria: Romani people in Austria
Arabs in Austria: Arabs in Austria, the people from Arab countries, particularly Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Jordan
Filipinos in Austria: Filipinos in Austria
Hungarians in Austria: Hungarians in Austria
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria
Turks in Austria: Turks in Austria
Immigration and refugees in Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
2014-2016: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Since 2015 Austrian border barrier: Austrian border barrier is a border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia, as a 'response' to the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 15 mai 2015: La Croix-Rouge a vivement critiqué la création de camps de tentes pour les demandeurs d'asile en Autriche, annoncé par le gouvernement - 28 August 2015: More than 70 migrants were found dead in an abandoned lorry on Austria’s A4 motorway between Neusiedl and Parndorf, registered to a Romanian citizen from the Hungarian city of Kecskemét - 29 August 2015: Three young children are recovering in hospital in Braunau from severe dehydration after police in Austria stopped a truck with 26 refugees and migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Bangladesh inside - 31 August: Austria toughens border controls in trafficking clampdown - 1 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees arrive from Hungary in Vienna and ran towards the next trains heading for Germany - 5 September: A first bus carrying refugees who have been stranded in the Hungarian capital reached the Austrian border early Saturday, after Austria and Germany agreed to take in refugees - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 7 September: As Thousands of refugees arrive by foot, buses, and trains to Vienna, Austrians offer food and water to arriving refugees - 10 September: Thousands more migrants stream into Austria from Hungary - 20 September 2015: Around 13,000 people entered Austria on Saturday, according to the Red Cross, after being shunted through Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia and forced away from these EU members - 23 October: As thousands more refugees and migrants have crossed from Slovenia to Austria, travelling for days from the Serbian border with Croatia, Austrian officials ask EU for more assistance to tackle refugee crisis
2016: 18 February 2016: Austria's announcement to limit the number of refugees allowed to enter its territory receives a sharp rebuke from the European commission which branded the move 'plainly incompatible' with international law
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy
2018: 2 mars 2018: Cinq migrants, quatre Iraniens et un Pakistanais, abandonnés dans le froid par des passeurs ont été secourus vendredi sur une autoroute du sud-est de l'Autriche où ils marchaient pour certains pieds nus
Culture and languages of Austria: Culture of Austria - Languages of Austria - Austrian German - Vienna culture
Music in Austria: Music in Austria
Viennese classical period of music: Viennese classical period of music in the 18th and 19th century - Musical development - 1732-1809 Joseph Haydn, born in Rohrau - 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg - 1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, born in Bonn - 1797-1828 Franz Schubert, born in Vienna
Education in Austria: Education in Austria - Education in Austria by state
Schools in Austria: Schools in Austria
Universities and colleges in Austria: Universities and colleges in Austria
Museums in Austria: Museums in Austria - Museums in Austria by state - Museums in Austria by city
History museums in Austria: History museums in Austria - Archives in Austria
Since 3 May 1975 Mauthausen Museum: Since 3 May 1975 Mauthausen Museum, 30 years after the Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp's liberation by the USA army - Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp east of Linz, plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany
Since 1991 Jewish Museum Hohenems: Since 1991 Jewish Museum Hohenems, a regional museum in Austria that deals with the Jewish presence Hohenems, surrounding regions, and elsewhere in Europe, also covering - since there is no longer a Jewish community in Hohenems and it is no Jewish life left there - the Diaspora and Israel and with questions of the future of the European immigration society
2 May 2019: 2 May 2019: A majority of Austrians are unaware of the magnitude of the Holocaust and the number of Jews murdered, while concurrently downplaying their country’s role in the genocide, according to a study released on Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, as Holocaust survivors before March of the Living warn amid surge of anti-Semitic incidents around the world
Health in Austria: Health in Austria
Healthcare in Austria: Healthcare in Austria
Hospitals in Austria: Hospitals in Austria - List of hospitals in Austria by city
'Steinhof' and 'Am Spiegelgrund' hospitals and Nazi regime's euthanasia programme: 'Steinhof' hospital in Vienna - during the Second World War, some 700 children were tortured and murdered in the hospital - Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO) became the head prison doctor in 'Am Steinhof' hospital in 1955, ill-famed for his proven involvement in the killing of at least nine children with physical, mental and/or emotional/behavioral characteristics considered 'unclean' by the Nazi regime under its Euthanasia Program as Gross was head of the Spiegelgrund children's psychiatric clinic for two years during World War II, and as his role in hundreds of other cases of infanticide remained unclear - Am Spiegelgrund clinic - Action T4 euthanasia centres
April 2002: 29 April 2002: The remains of the last two of almost 800 children and babies killed in Vienna in the Nazi regime's euthanasia programme, who had been kept ntil recently in the cellar of the Spiegelgrund children's clinic in Vienna, where they died and where, until the early 90s, they remained under the supervision of Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO), who is alleged to have murdered them were laid to rest during a joint funeral and memorial service at Vienna central cemetery yesterday
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Austrian Dr Hans Asperger, after whom Asperger syndrome is named, was an active participant in the regime of National Socialism, assisting in the Third Reich’s euthanasia programme and supporting the concept of racial hygiene by deeming certain children unworthy to live, according to a study by medical historian Herwig Czech, following eight years of research
Media of Austria: Media of Austria
Newspapers in Austria: Newspapers in Austria
Broadcasting in Austria: Radio in Austria - TV in Austria
Internet in Austria: Internet in Austria
Crime in Austria: Crime in Austria
Austrian National Socialism: Austrian National Socialism, formed at the beginning of the 20th century taking a concrete form on 15 November 1903 when the German Worker's Party DAP was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic, its political organization DNSAP banned in early 1933 revived and made part of the German NSDAP after the German annexation of Austria in 1938
Antisemitism in Austria: Antisemitism in Austria - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria - März 1945 Massaker von Rechnitz - 13 July 2017: 'My aunt had a dinner party, and then she took her guests to kill 180 Jews' in March 1945, journalist Sacha Batthyany reveals more than 60 years later
Antisemitism and Neo-Nazism in contemporary Austria: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria - Neo-Nazism in Austria
2015: 11 February 2015: Call to kill Jews is legal criticism of Israel, Austrian prosecutor says - 4 April 2015: Anti-Israel protesters call 'Kill the Jews' in Vienna as Bosnian soccer fans join pro-Palestinian rally
2016: 20 octobre 2016: Un policier autrichien a été condamné à neuf mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir crié 'Heil Hitler' à un automobiliste lors d'un contrôle routier
2018 anti-Semitic hate speech incidents: 16 February 2018: Anti-Semitic hate speech incidents in Austria at all-time high, according to watchdog Forum Against Anti-Semitism, saying expression of hatred towards Jews has become more 'socially acceptable'
May 2019: 27 May 2019: Photos of Holocaust survivors on exhibit in Vienna vandalized for 3rd time
Corruption in Austria: Corruption in Austria
December 2010 Rampant corruption in Austria<: 10 December 2010: Rampant corruption in Austria
June-September 2013: 14 June 2013: Vienna prosecutors this week charged nine people, including the deputy governor of the Austrian National Bank, over suspected bribes and kickbacks for banknote contracts with Azerbaijan and Syria - 14. September 2013: Haftstrafen für verdeckte Parteienfinanzierung der Telekom Austria in der Höhe von 960.000 Euro an das von Haider gegründete 'Bündnis Zukunft Österreich' im Herbst 2006
Since 17 May 2019 FPÖ's Ibiza affair: Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair, an ongoing political scandal in Austria involving FPÖ's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Vice-Chancellor of Austria, FPÖ's Johann Gudenus and the Austrian 'Freedom Party' FPÖ in general, causing the collapse of the Austrian governing coalition - 27 mai 2019: Dans une vidéo tournée en caméra cachée, l'on peut voir le dirigeant nationaliste Heinz-Christian Strache se montrait disposé à se compromettre avec un intermédiaire russe en échange de financements
Human trafficking in Austria: Human trafficking in Austria
Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria: Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria - Sexual abuse scandal in Vienna archdiocese
Political scandals in Austria: Political scandals in Austria
2011 cash for influence scandal - 9 August 2012: Former Austrian interior minister and Euro MP, Ernst Strasser, has been charged in Vienna with corruption
Law and legal history of Austria: Austrian law - Legal history of Austria - Constitutional history of Austria - Constitution of Austria - Federal Constitutional Law is the centerpiece of the constitution of the Republic of Austria
Courts in Austria: Courts in Austria
September 2019 Nazi photo in guesthouse: 7 September 2019: An Austrian court in Innsbruck has ruled that a German tourist who took exception to a World War II portrait showing a soldier and NSDAP member in Wehrmacht uniform wearing insignia with a swastika in a guesthouse, had no right to complain about it on travel sites, saying there had been 'a photo of a Nazi grandpa hanging in the hall'
Law enforcement in Austria: Law enforcement in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria: Foreign relations of Austria
Wars involving Austria and military history of Austria: Wars involving Austria - Military history of Austria
Treaties of Austria: Treaties of Austria - United Nations Charter and since 1955 Austrian membership - Treaties entered into by the European Union
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government - 26 October 1955 Austria's Declaration of Neutrality - the Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed itself to declare its neutrality
Austria/European Union relations: Austria/European Union relations - 1994 Austrian European Union membership referendum - Euroscepticism in Austria
Austria/United Nations relations: Austria/United Nations relations
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
Immigration to Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
Since 2014: Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - Austrian border barrier
Bilateral relations of Austria: Bilateral relations of Austria
Austria/Belgium relations: Austria/Belgium relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Austria/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations:
1878-1914: Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 - Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878-1918 - Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 - Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Since 1908 Austro-Hungarian 'Schutzkorps' militia's persecution of Serbs the first large-scale persecution of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina because of their ethnicity
1914-1918: 28 June 1914 Assassination in Sarajevo - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo - July Crisis 1914 - Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign (World War I) 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War I casualties
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Brazil relations: Austria/Brazil relations
Since 1940, 1951-1967 Austrian protection of Nazi war criminal Stangl: 1 July 2017: Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka, since 1940 superintendent of the T-4 Euthansia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim, commandant of Sobibor from March 1942 until September 1942, when he was transferred to Treblinka, always dressed in white riding clothes, since 1951 in Brazil where he was given an engineering job, since 1959 working at a Volkswagen AG factory, for years his responsibility in the mass murder of men, women and children had been known to the Austrian authorities, but Austria did not issue a warrant for Stangl’s arrest until 1961, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested in Brazil
Austria/Czech Republic relations: Austria/Czech Republic relations - Austrian Empire
Austria/Germany relations: Austria/Germany relations - History of the Holy Roman Empire 962–1806 - Military history of the Holy Roman Empire - Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 - Military history of Austria
1914-1945: July Crisis 1914 - 5/6 July 1914 Hoyos Mission and 'Blank cheque' in Berlin - World War I 1914-1918 - German occupation 1938: "Anschluss" - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2012-2013: 12 October 2012: Vienna will erect first monument to remember the thousands of people executed by the Nazis for deserting or refusing to serve in the military during World War II - 10 mars 2013: Des historiens exhument le passé nazi de l'orchestre philharmonique de Vienne - 12 mai 2013: Plus de 10.000 personnes venues de plus de 50 pays ont commémoré dimanche le 68e anniversaire de la libération du camp de concentration nazi de Mauthausen
2014: 24. Oktober 2014: Denkmal für die Verfolgten der NS-Militärjustiz als zentrale österreichische Gedenkstätte für Deserteure des NS-Regimes am Wiener Ballhausplatz von Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer der Öffentlichkeit übergeben
2015: 5. Mai 2015: Nach Berichten, daß der BND dem USA-Geheimdienst NSA beim Ausspionieren österreichischer Behörden geholfen habe, erstattet Österreich Strafanzeige
June 2018: 16 juin 2018: L'exécutif autrichien a demandé à l'Allemagne des explications après de nouvelles allégations visant les services secrets allemands, accusés d'avoir espionné un grand nombre d'institutions et d'entreprises en Autriche, dont des ambassades et organisations internationales
Austria/Hungary relations: Austria/Hungary relations - Hungarians in Austria - History of the Hungarians in Vienna
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary 1867-1918
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918
Austria/Israel relations: Austria/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Austria
1938-1945: The Holocaust in Austria - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2014: 24 July 2014: Israeli footballers assaulted by pro-Palestinians during match in Bischofshofen
Austria/Italy relations: Austria/Italy relations
1848/1849 First Italian War of Independence and first aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice: First Italian War of Independence 1848-1849 following Revolution of 1848 in the Italian states - Republic of San Marco 1848-1849 reconquered by Austrian troops following a long siege and an Austrian bombardment 1849 - 1849 First aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice
1914-1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary's and Germany's campaign against Italy in World War I 1914-1918 - Deutscher Giftgaseinsatz und Massenmord an Italiern entschied im Herbst 1917 die Schlacht bei Kobarid (19. Mai 1998)
2016: 2 avril 2016: L'Autriche envoie l'armée à la frontière italienne contre un afflux de migrants et de réfugiés cherchant à gagner le nord de l'Europe - 27 April 2016: Austria plans Italian border fence to control refugee and migrant flow, as Italy says Brenner Pass restrictions would be illogical and against EU rules
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy, as Brussels urged Europe to help Italian authorities manage an 'unprecedented' arrival of people from north Africa
Austria/Poland relations: Austria/Poland relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
Since 1772 partitions of Poland conducted by Austria, Prussia and Russia: Since 1772 three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
1938-1945 relationship between Austria and Poland and Axis powers' war crimes: Relationship between Austria and Poland, that started at 1920 disappeared at 1938, following the Anschluss which Nazi Germany, and until 1945 relationship went tense due to German invasion of Poland, thus sparked the World War II, and Austria participated in the occupation of Poland and had committed many crimes against Polish people under the banner of Nazi Germany
Nazi war crimes in Poland and convicted Austrian Nazis: Nazi war crimes in Poland - Austrian Nazis convicted of war crimes - Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Austria/Russia relations: Austria/Russia relations
2016: 20 December 2016: Austrian Freedom Party's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Austrian party founded by former Nazis, signed a cooperation agreement with Russian Vladimir Putin's United Russia party and met with Michael Flynn, President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for national security adviser at Trump Tower in New York (USA)
Austria/Serbia relations: Austria/Serbia relations
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria, there are between 200,000 and 300,000 people of Serbian descent living in Austria
1788–1792 Habsburg-occupied Serbia: 1788–1792 Habsburg-occupied Serbia
1908-1909 Bosnian crisis (Annexation crisis): 1908-1909 Bosnian crisis, also known as the Annexation crisis, when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formerly within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, sparking protestations from all the Great Powers and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours, Serbia and Montenegro
July 1914: 23 July 1914: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia - July 1914 preparations for the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, content and Serbian response - 28/29 July 1914: Austria has declared war upon Serbia and Austro-Hungarian troops reportedly invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz
28 July 1914 - 1918 Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign: 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 Serbian Campaign of World War I, from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia until the war's conclusion in November 1918, after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary, Allied and Serbian victory, and Serbian troops re-entering Belgrade on 1 November 1918
October 1914 trials of the Sarajevo assassins in Sarajevo and punishment: Arrest, prosecution, October 1914 trials of the Sarajevo assassins in Sarajevo and punishment, following the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
April 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers: April 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia, a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II
April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade: 'Operation Retribution', the April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade, the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in retaliation for the coup d'état that overthrew the government that had signed the Tripartite Pact
1941-1945 occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers, war crimes and resistance: 1941-1945 occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers, resistance and Allied victory - Axis war crimes in Yugoslavia - Nazi war crimes in Serbia
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Slovenia relations: Austria/Slovenia relations
Austria-Slovenia border: Austria–Slovenia border - Austrian border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia against refugees from Syrian and some other countries in the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 November 2015: Austria has put up barbed wire at a border crossing with Slovenia used by hundreds of refugees and migrants despite chancellor's pledge
Austria/Switzerland relations: Austria/Switzerland relations - Duchy of Austria 1156–1453 - House of Habsburg originally from Aargau - Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1516 - Swiss Confederacy, reformation, Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 and recognition of independence of Switzerland from the 'Holy Roman Empire' - The Congress of Vienna 1814/1815 re-established Swiss independence, European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality - During both World War I 1914-1918 and World War II 1939-1945 Switzerland's 'neutrality' allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry
Austria/Syria relations: Austria/Syria relations
2016: 15 January 2015: The Syrian community in Austria calls on the Austrian Government to cut off economic relations with the Assad regime and to expel its ambassador to Vienna
Austria/Turkey relations: Austria/Turkey relations - Turks in Austria
1529: 1529 Siege of Vienna, first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna
1683: Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months
1683-1699: Great Turkish War 1683-1699 between the Ottoman Empire and several contemporary European powers joined into 'Holy League'
1787–1791: Austro-Turkish War 1787–1791 - Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
1914-1918: Austrian and Ottoman empires allies during the First World War
2017: 5. März 2017: Bundeskanzler Christian Kern hat sich für ein EU-weites Verbot von Wahlkampfauftritten türkischer Politiker ausgesprochen und wirft Erdogans Regime vor, 'Menschenrechte und demokratische Grundrechte mit Füßen' zu treten
Austria/Ukraine relations: Austria/Ukraine relations - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918 - a big portion of West Ukraine (Galicia and Carpathia) were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today consisting of Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 - during the war Ukraine was occupied by the Central powers military force including the Austrian military that drove Bolsheviks out of the country
1918: Februar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine–Central Powers
2015: 1 May 2015: An Austrian court refuses to extradite Ukrainian tycoon in gas trading and chemicals Dmytro Firtash to the USA over corruption charges, indicted in 2013 along with a member of India's parliament and four others
Austria/United Kingdom relations: Austria/United Kingdom relations
Natural disasters in Austria: Natural disasters in Austria - May/June 2013 European floods

Belgium - Belgique - Geography of Belgium - History of Belgium - Demographics of Belgium
Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - Companies of Belgium - Companies of Belgium by industry
Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium
2016: 3 January 2016: Belgian ageing nuclear reactor Doel 1 shut down on Saturday again, just three days after it was restarted
Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders
Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium, dating back to 1831
Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium
Political parties and trade unions in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium - Trade unions in Belgium
Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium
2010: Belgien Parlamentswahlen 2010 - Belgiens designierter Premier Elio Di Rupo gibt im Juli 2011 auf - 8 October 2011: Belgian parties strike key reform deal to end political crisis - 27 November: Belgian leaders agree on federal budget - 13 juillet 2012: Le Parlement belge a adopté à 106 voix contre 42 le projet de loi 'scindant' l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
2012: Belgian provincial and municipal elections, 14 October 2012 - 14/15 October 2012: Local elections have resulted in widespread gains for the Flemish Nationalist Party, which wants to divide the country - 15 octobre 2012: Le chef des indépendantistes flamands, vainqueur des municipales à Anvers en Belgique, a lancé un appel au Premier ministre Elio Di Rupo pour qu'il négocie avec lui une réforme de l'État ouvrant la voie à une confédération
2014: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to 44
May 2014 Belgium Federal and regional elections: Belgian federal election 25 May 2014 - Belgian regional elections 25 May 2014 - 26 May 2014: First estimates give 33% of the vote in Flanders to the New Flemish Alliance
May 2014 Belgium European Parliament election: Belgium European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May-October 2014: 2014 Belgian government formation - 8 October: The Francophone liberal Charles Michel will become Belgium’s PM - 11 October: Belgium's new center-right government took office announcing to raise the retirement age and slash costs by about 8 billion euros
December 2018: 19 December 2018: Belgian PM Michel resigns after he lost support of key coalition partner, the nationalist New Flemish Alliance, when backing UN bid to improve coordination on migrants, and after the parliament rejected Michel's appeal for its support for a minority administration, now bracing for a snap election in January
May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium
May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium
May 2019 Belgian federal election: 26 May 2019 Belgian federal election
October 2019 Sophie Wilmès new PM: 28 October 2019: Sophie Wilmès was appointed as the new PM of Belgium, becoming the first female premier in the country's history - 28 October 2019: Centrist politician Sophie Wilmes, who will head a caretaker government during negotiations on the formation of a coalition, which in Belgium has been known to take months, is the first Jewish person to become PM of Belgium
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium
2011: 2. Dezember 2011: In Brüssel gewerkschaftliche Großdemonstration von Zehntausenden gegen Sparpolitik
2012-2014: 30 January 2012: Strike set to bring Belgium to a halt - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 December 2014: Air, train links cut as national strike begins against the new government's austerity policies
2016: 17 avril 2016: Des milliers de personnes ont rendu hommage, dimanche à Bruxelles, aux 32 morts des attentats du 22 mars
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Nearly 50,000 people marched through the European quarter of Brussels on Thursday night in support of Catalan independence and the region’s ousted president Carles Puigdemont, who has avoided arrest in Spain by taking refuge in Belgium
2018: 26 février 2018: Quelque 10'000 personnes ont manifesté dimanche à Bruxelles dans le froid pour témoigner leur solidarité avec les migrants et exiger du gouvernement belge une politique migratoire 'plus humaine'
Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Belgium: Belgian society
Human rights in Belgium: Human rights in Belgium
Minority and employees' rights in Belgium: Minority and employees' rights in Belgium
Demographics of Belgium: Demographics of Belgium - Belgians - Belgian people by ethnic or national origin - Immigrants to Belgium
Flemish people: Flemish people
Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia
History of the Jews in Belgium: History of the Jews in Belgium - History of the Jews in Antwerp - Great Synagogue of Europe is the main synagogue in Brussels - 16 January 2015: Jewish schools in Belgium close amid terror threat
Afro Belgians: Afro Belgians are Belgian citizens and members of the Black African community in Belgium
Culture and languages of Belgium: Culture of Belgium - Languages of Belgium
Flemish culture
Walloon culture - Ars nova, music which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages until the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377
Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature
Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Education in Belgium: Education in Belgium
Science and technology in Belgium
Health in Belgium: Health in Belgium
Healthcare in Belgium: Healthcare in Belgium
Belgian media: Belgian media
2015: 15 January 2015: Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris
Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium
Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists
Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers
1995-1996 child and serial killer Marc Dutroux: Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux, convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls from 1995 to 1996
Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and 1998 Parliamentary investigation: Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - 1998 Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence
2004 Dutroux's trial: 2004 Dutroux's trial, some seven and a half years after his initial arrest - 23 June 2004: Marc Dutroux sentenced to life in prison for a series of child kidnappings, child rapes and murders that prompted sweeping police reforms and a crackdown on child sex crimes, Dutroux's ex-wife, Michelle Martin sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Racism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium
2002: 18 July 2002: Belgium confronts its colonial demons
2017: 15 August 2017: Decades after Belgium ended its colonial rule in Congo, and a century after the atrocities committed in Congo Free State, Belgians are slowly beginning to reconcile with this troubled history - 17 October 2017: As Belgium confronts the identity crisis of its disillusioned minorities and homegrown terrorism, its genocidal colonial legacy remains tucked away from the public discourse, confined to art, culture and religion
Antisemitism in Belgium: Antisemitism in Belgium
1940-1945 The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation: The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation of Belgium - German Nazi concentration camps in Belgium
Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium: Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium
July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack: July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack on a group of 40 Jewish children - Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May 2014: Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May 2014: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2,000 people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June 2014: The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack
July 2014: 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some 500 people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'
August 2016: 25 August 2016: Belgian government-funded Catholic Sint-Jozefs Institute secondary school stated pride in and support for retired teacher Descheemaeker who had published anti-Semitic caricatures, and who recently won a cash prize at Iran’s Holocaust mockery cartoon competition
February 2018: 12 February 2018: Belgian police detain refugee for anti-Semitic hate crimes, filmed destroying at least 20 mezuzahs and vandalizing Jewish institutions in Antwerp
August 2018: 9 August 2018: Jewish couple in Belgium targeted with death threats
December 2018: 21 December 2018: Belgian soccer fans sing chant about burning Jews
March 2019: 7 March 2019: Aalst's Vismooil’n group behind anti-Semitic carnival float at Belgium’s most celebrated carnival, added in 2010 to UNESCO’s list of events, and mayor Christoph D’Haese are not sorry, as Pascal Soleme calls the float, which featured anti-Semitic depictions of Jews with money bags and rats, a 'celebration of humor', saying 'people who got offended live in the past'
Terrorism and massacres in Belgium: Terrorism in Belgium - List of massacres in Belgium
1914-1918: German war crimes in World War I in Belgium
1940-1945: May 1940 at least 86 civilians killed by the German Wehrmacht known in Belgium as the Vinkt Massacre, the first of several German massacres in World War II in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
1985: 1985 kidnapping of the Belgian-French family Houtekins-Kets by Palestinian terrorists and the Libyan government from their yacht Silco in the Mediterranean, the Belgian part of the family was held for almost five years of captivity in Libya, but were freed after the liberation of Abu Nidal terrorist Said Al Nasr
Since 1988: Since 1988 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May 1996: List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July 1979, according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
2011: 14 décembre 2011: À Liège une fusillade d'un homme armé a fait au moins cinq morts et plus de 100 blessés
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 22 March 2016: Multiple casualties after airport and metro blasts in Brussels - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 24 March: Raising awkward questions for Belgium’s intelligence services, Turkey’s Erdogan says that Belgium ignored Turkey’s warnings that Ibrahim el-Bakraoui was a foreign fighter - 24 March: As names of victims of Tuesday’s suicide bombings emerge, and as survivors reveal the horror of the blasts and narrow escapes, investigations and search for suspects continue - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids - 26 March: Search for suspects in Belgium continues, as a series of raids and arrests reveal more links with the November Paris killings and a new French plot, and as reports reveal that suspects Ibrahim and Khaled El Bakraoui were on USA terror watch list as of last year - 28 March: Three men held as part of 13 raids in Brussels, Mechelen and Duffel at weekend charged with terrorist activity, as anti-immigrant demonstrators trample the memorial in Place de la Bourse in Brussels for victims of last week’s suicide bombings - 9 April: Belgian police detain two key suspects in the Islamic State attacks on Paris and Brussels
August 2016: 6 August 2016 Charleroi attack - 6 August 2016: Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack
June 2017: On 20 June 2017 a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June 2017: Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station
August 2017: 25 August 2017 Brussels attack - 25 August 2017: A man who attacked and injured two soldiers with a knife in Brussels reportedly shouting 'Allahu Akbar' shot dead by the army - 27 August 2017: Islamic State terrorists says Brussels attacker belonged to group
May 2018: 29 May 2018 Liège attack - 29 May 2018: A gunman has killed two police officers and a passerby before being shot dead in the centre of the Belgian city of Liège, as the anti-terrorist crisis centre says terrorism could not be excluded - 30 May 2018: Shooter Herman, who was on a terror watchlist because of his contacts with radical Islamists, was released from prison on Monday, killed a former fellow inmate that night before Liege rampage - 30 May 2018: 'Islamic State' terrorists claim deadly attack on Belgium police
Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium
2015: January 2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium, including operation in Verviers against Islamist radicals and operations in Brussels, the nearby communes of Schaerbeek, Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Vilvoorde, and Zaventem - 15 January 2015 Belgian anti-terrorist operation against Islamists - 15 January 2015: Casualties in Belgium police anti-terror raid in Verviers
November 2015: Since 21 November 2015 the government imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to information about potential terrorist attacks in the wake of the series of coordinated attacks in Paris by Islamic State terrorists
2016: 16 March 2016: Police kill gunman during Brussels raid related to deadly Paris attacks in 2015 - 20 March 2016: Main suspect of November's Paris attacks Salah Abdeslam tells Belgian investigators he planned to blow himself up a day after he was shot in the leg and captured during a police raid in Brussels - 18 June: Belgium arrests 12 suspected of planning Euro soccer tournament attack
Prevention: 30 novembre 2015: La commune bruxelloise de Molenbeek a lancé des initiatives pour prévenir la radicalisation de jeunes en perdition susceptibles de suivre l'itinéraire meurtrier des frères Abdeslam, impliqués dans les attentats de Paris
Law and legal history of Belgium: Law of Belgium - Legal history of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium - Human rights in Belgium
Judiciary and court system in Belgium: Judiciary and court system in Belgium
April 2018: 23 avril 2018: Le djihadiste français Salah Abdeslam et le seul suspect survivant des attentats de Paris le 13 novembre 2015 était jugé pour son implication dans une fusillade en Belgique
January 2019: 10 January 2019: Brussels Jewish museum terror attack trial opens in a Brussels criminal court, as Frenchman Mehdi Nemmouche faces life sentence if convicted of 2014 shooting
March 2019: 7 March 2019: Frenchman Mehdi Nemmouche was found guilty by Belgian court of the terrorist murders of four people at Brussels’ Jewish museum in 2014 - 12 March 2019: French citizen Mehdi Nemmouche was sentenced to life in jail on Monday for shooting dead four people in the Belgium Jewish Museum in 2014, saying 'life goes on' in his last words in the court room, as families of victims and survivors of the attacks voiced relief at the end of a trial dogged by theories put forward by Nemmouche’s defense lawyers
Constitutional Court of Belgium: Constitutional Court of Belgium
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Law enforcement in Belgium: Law enforcement in Belgium
Local and Federal Police in Belgium: Local Police in Belgium - Federal Police
Police brutality in Belgium: Police brutality in Belgium
2003: 13 December 2003: After four police officers were found guilty of 'involuntarily' suffocating Nigerian Sémira Adamu, a 20-year-old asylum seeker, to death, Belgium suspended its policy of forcibly deporting failed asylum seekers
2013: 22 February 2013: Police brutality video sends shock wave through Belgium after a young man was was brutally treated in a police cell in Mortsel and died of his injuries
2016: 4 November 2016: Human Rights Watch details in an extensive report accounts of minorities in Belgium subjected to verbal and physical abuse by police in the wake of the terrorist attacks
2017: 20 September 2017: Police brutality remains a serious problem in Belgium, due in part to judges
May 2018: 18 May 2018: Authorities in Belgium have admitted that two-year-old girl Mawda who died after police opened fire on a van carrying migrants near Mons on Thursday was shot in the face
Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium
Belgian colonial empire and relations with former colonies: Belgian colonial empire - Belgium/Former colonies relations
Treaties of Belgium: Treaties of Belgium
Belgian membership in international organisations: Belgian membership in international organisations
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
2015: 21 novembre 2015: L'alerte terroriste a été élevée au niveau maximum dans la capitale Bruxelles - 22 November: Belgium maintains maximum security for the capital Brussels on Sunday
2016: 22 March 2016: The public and European politicians respond to March 2016 Brussels attacks with show of solidarity
September 2018: 27 September 2018: Jo Cox square unveiled in Brussels in memory of murdered British MP, wanting UK to remain in the EU
Belgium/United Nations relations: Belgium/United Nations relations
February 1961 UN Security Council Resolution 161 after the killings of Patrice Lumumba: 21 February 1961 UN Security Council Resolution 161 after the killings of Patrice Lumumba, Maurice Mpolo and Joseph Okito, urging the UN to immediately take measures to prevent the occurrence of civil war in the Congo, further urging the withdrawal of all Belgian and other foreign military, paramilitary personnel and mercenaries not with the UN and calling upon all states to take measures to deny transport and other facilities to such personnel moving into the Congo, also to launch an investigation into the death of Mr. Lumumba and his colleagues promising punishment to the perpetrators
Since 1960 Congo Crisis and aftermath: 1960-1966 Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War
Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba: Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba in January 1961
2002: 6 February 2002: Belgian government expressed 'its profound and sincere regrets and its apologies' for Belgium's role in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the first PM of its former colony Congo, in 1961
Bilateral relations of Belgium: Bilateral relations of Belgium
Belgium/Austria relations: Belgium/Austria relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Belgium/Burundi relations: Belgium/Burundi relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations: Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations
1867-1885 European colonization of the Congo: Colonization of the Congo 1867-1885, by the end of the 19th century, the Congo Basin had been carved up by European colonial powers, into the 'Congo free state', the 'French Congo' and the 'Portuguese Congo'
1885-1908 Belgian 'Congo Free State': 'Congo Free State' in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908, which was in personal union with the Kingdom of Belgium under Leopold II
Since 1885 Belgian atrocities, Red Rubber system and forced labour in the 'Congo Free State': 1885-1908 Atrocities in the 'Congo Free State' - Red Rubber system and forced labour
1908-1960 'Belgian Congo' colony: 1908-1960 'Belgian Congo', Belgian colony in Central Africa in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais': Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais' African nationalist party within the Belgian Congo and a united front organization bringing together members from a variety of political backgrounds in order to achieve independence, and created around a charter which was signed by, among others Patrice Lumumba, Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Iléo
1960-1971 Republic of the Congo: 1960-1971 Republic of the Congo, a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the 'Belgian Congo' in 1960 - Since 1960 Republic of the Congo, also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the former 'French Congo' is a country in Central Africa bordered by Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Cameroon to the northwest, the Central African Republic to the northeast, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south, and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest
Since 1960 Congo Crisis and aftermath: 1960-1966 Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War
2002: 6 February 2002: Belgian government expressed 'its profound and sincere regrets and its apologies' for Belgium's role in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the first PM of its former colony Congo, in 1961
1960-2010: 30 June 2010: New row over colonial past as Congo marks 50th anniversary of independence and Belgians may face charges over the assassination in January 1961 of Patrice Lumumba, Congo's first post-independence prime minister
1897, 1958-2018: 16 April 2018: Belgium comes to terms with 'human zoos' of its colonial past, as 60 years ago Belgium set up a live display of people from Congo for the 1958 world fair, but is now rethinking that legacy
Since 1960 UN forces and operations in the Congo: Since 1960 UN Operation in the Congo - Since 1999 UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a UN peacekeeping force to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict
Belgium/Ecuador relations: Relaciones Bélgica/Ecuador
July 2018: 4 juillet 2018: La justice équatorienne a lancé un mandat d'arrêt contre l'ex-président Correa 2007-2017, qui vit en Belgique, l'accusant d'avoir commandité une tentative d'enlèvement de l'opposant politique Fernando Balda en 2012
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
2015: 21 novembre 2015: L'alerte terroriste a été élevée au niveau maximum dans la capitale Bruxelles - 22 November: Belgium maintains maximum security for the capital Brussels on Sunday - 25 November: Brussels schools, metro reopen under tight security - 26 novembre: Après six jours, le niveau de menace terroriste à Bruxelles a été baissé d'un cran, à 3 sur une échelle de 4
2016: 22 March 2016: The public and European politicians respond to March 2016 Brussels attacks with show of solidarity
Belgium/France relations: Belgium/France relations - 10 October 2011: Belgian government will take full control of the Belgian arm of Franco-Belgian Dexia bank - 8 septembre 2012: Vive la Belgique! Le patron français de l'empire du luxe LVMH Bernard Arnault sollicite la nationalité belge - 3 mars 2013: Le Parquet de Bruxelles a pour la deuxième fois rejeté la demande de naturalisation de Bernard Arnault
Belgium/Germany relations: Belgium/Germany relations - From World War I to World War II - Buts de guerre des Empires centraux 1914-1918 - In August 1914, Ebert led the Social Democratic Party to vote almost unanimously in favour of war loans and mass murder - German war crimes World War I - Chemical weapons in World War I - April/May 1915 Second Battle of Ypres - Germany used the first time poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front - By 1916 the German Empire had become a military dictatorship under the control of Hindenburg and Ludendorff - German occupation of Belgium during World War II - German war crimes World War II - Belgian prisoners of war in World War II - The Holocaust in Belgium
Belgian Resistance
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 26 June 2014: European prime ministers and presidents attend first world war ceremony in Ypres - 3 August: Mons prepares to mark centenary at place where first and last British soldiers fell - 28 October 2014: Representatives from World War I enemies in Nieuwpoort to mark the centenary of the first big battle on Flanders Fields and four years of death of hundreds of thousands
Belgium/India relations: Belgium/India relations - 24 January 2013: Steel and mining company ArcelorMittal has announced it will close a coke plant and six production lines in Belgium, in a move that threatens 1.300 jobs - 26 January: ArcelorMittal workers and police clash outside Belgium PM's house - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 October 2013: Belgian steelworker suicide blames Lakshmi Mittal for job loss at a steel plant in the town of Liege
Belgium/Israel relations: Belgium/Israel relations
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 25 May: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack
November 2019 Belgian officials boycott trade delegation to Israel: 30 November 2019: Belgian officials boycott trade delegation to Israel, blaming alleged Israeli violations of international law
Belgium/Liberia relations: 10 January 2013: Overview of the bilateral trade relations between Liberia and Belgium - 26 January 2014: Belgium reestablishes ties with Liberia - 7 October 2014: Former Liberian NPFL rebel commander Martina Johnson called to account at a court in Belgium’s city of Ghent for actions during civil war, following years of work by campaigners
Belgium/Netherlands relations: Belgium/Netherlands relations - Burgundian Netherlands 1384-1482 - United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815-1839 - Belgian Revolution 1830-1831, secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands establishing an independent Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium/Rwanda relations: Belgium/Rwanda relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Rwandan Genocide 1994 - Role of Belgium in the Rwandan Genocide
Belgium/Spain relations: Belgium/Spain relations - Seventeen Provinces 1549-1581 of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century - Spanish Netherlands 1581-1714
Belgium/Syria relations: Belgium/Syria relations
1915-2015: 19 June 2015: A hundred years since WW I 70 countries across the planet united in a letter, organized by Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, to express outrage over the Syrian Assad regime's systematic use of barrel bombs and to demand an end to the deadly, indiscriminate attacks
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Three Belgian companies are being prosecuted for exporting chemicals to Syria, one of which could be used in the production of sarin gas, as according to 'Bellingcat' and 'Syrian Archive' Belgium is the only EU country to have exported a chemical called isopropanol since July 2013 when a prohibition from the OPCW came into force
Belgium/Ukraine relations: Belgium/Ukraine relations
2016: 22 March 2016: Ukrainians are laying flowers outside the Belgian Embassy in Kyiv to express condolences to the victims of March 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels
Belgium/United Kingdom relations: Belgium/United Kingdom relations
2015: 25 June 2015: Belgium warns talks on Cameron's EU renegotiation will be tough
Belgium/USA relations: Belgium/USA relations - 30 June 2013: US spied on EU diplomats in Washington, New York and Brussels, according to documents taken by Edward Snowden

Bulgaria - Geography of Bulgaria - History of Bulgaria - Demographics of Bulgaria
Economy of Bulgaria: Economy of Bulgaria - main industries include electricity, gas and water, food, beverages and tobacco, machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel - Companies of Bulgaria by industry
Agriculture in Bulgaria: Agriculture in Bulgaria - products include wheat, corn, and barley, sugar beets, sunflowers, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, apples, grapes and tobacco, livestock products
Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria
Rivers of Bulgaria: Rivers of Bulgaria - Danube, the longest river in the European Union region, located in Central and Eastern Europe, passing through or touching Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before emptying into the Black Sea - Since 1994 International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
2016: 13 November 2016: Looming pollution threats to the Danube, the world’s most international river
Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria
Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria: Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria - Since 2007Bulgarian economic development following EU membership
Banking and banks of Bulgaria: Banks of Bulgaria - Bulgarian National Bank
Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria
2008: 2008 Bulgarian energy crisis
Since 2009: Since 2009 economic downturn in Bulgaria following the international financial and economic crisis
Taxation in Bulgaria: Taxation in Bulgaria - taxes in Bulgaria are collected on both state and local levels, the most important taxes are collected on federal level, including an income tax, social security, corporate taxes and value added tax
Politics of Bulgaria: Politics of Bulgaria - Political parties in Bulgaria
2009: Bulgarian parliamentary election 2009 - European Parliament election, 2009
2011: Bulgarian presidential election 2011 - Stichwahl zwischen Kalfin und Plewneliew am 30. Oktober - 31 octobre: Le candidat conservateur Plevneliev élu président de la République
2013: Bulgarian nuclear power referendum January 2013 - 27 janvier 2013: Les bureaux de vote ont ouvert pour un référendum sur un projet bulgaro-russe d'une nouvelle centrale nucléaire à Béléné
February: 20 February 2013: Bulgaria's government resigned from office after nationwide protests against high electricity prices - 25 February: Tens of thousands of people have taken to the streets across Bulgaria to protest against corruption and the country's rising cost of living - 28 February: Bulgaria will hold an early election on May 12, Rosen Plevneliev says as the government seeks a way out of a political crisis
Bulgarian parliamentary election 12 May 2013 - 12 May: Bulgarians began voting Sunday in a tight and tense snap election - 13 mai: Les conservateurs en tête des législatives bulgares en recueillant entre 29,6 % et 32% des suffrages, le Parti socialiste entre 25,6 et 26,2%
May 2014 Bulgaria European Parliament election: Bulgaria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May 2019 European Parliament election in Bulgaria: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Bulgaria
Protests in Bulgaria: Protests in Bulgaria
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria - Ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria
History of the Jews in Bulgaria: History of the Jews in Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria
Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria
Crime in Bulgaria: Crime in Bulgaria
Corruption in Bulgaria: Corruption in Bulgaria
Human trafficking in Bulgaria: Human trafficking in Bulgaria
Organized crime in Bulgaria: Organized crime in Bulgaria - Bulgarian mafia
Terrorism in Bulgaria: Terrorism in Bulgaria
July 2012 Burgas bus bombing: July 2012 Burgas bus bombing
Judiciary of Bulgaria: Judiciary of Bulgaria
Law enforcement in Bulgaria: Law enforcement in Bulgaria
Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Treaties of Bulgaria: Treaties of Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Since 2014 international and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Bulgaria's membership in international organisationsBulgaria's membership in international organisations
Bulgaria and the European Union: Bulgaria and the European Union - Bulgaria and the euro
Bilateral relations of Bulgaria: Bilateral relations of Bulgaria
Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations: Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations
Bulgaria/Germany relations: Bulgaria/Germany relations
1939-1945 World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact: World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact
Bulgaria/Lebanon relations: Bulgaria/Lebanon relations
Bulgaria/Romania relations: Bulgaria/Romania relations
Bulgaria/Syria relations: Bulgaria/Syria relations
Bulgaria/United Kingdom relations: Bulgaria/United Kingdom relations
19 October 2019 Bulgaria soccer coach quits after racist chants Nazi: 19 October 2019: Bulgaria soccer coach quits after racist chants Nazi salutes at England match
Bulgaria/USA relations: Bulgaria/USA relations

Croatia - Geography of Croatia - History of Croatia - Croatian War of Independance
Demographics of Croatia
Agriculture in Croatia: Agriculture in Croatia
May 2019 European Parliament election in Croatia: 23-26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Croatia
December 2019 Croatian presidential election: 22 December 2019 Croatian presidential election
Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Croatia: Croatian society
Regions and cunties of Croatia: Regions of Croatia - 20 Counties of Croatia
Cities and towns in Croatia: Cities and towns in Croatia
Demographics of Croatia: Demographics of Croatia
Ethnic groups in Croatia: Ethnic groups in Croatia
Immigration to Croatia: Immigration to Croatia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 16 September 2015: First refugees head for Croatia after Hungary's border crackdown - 18 September 2015: As Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia and police stand guard in front of refugees and migrants, Hungary builds border fence with Croatia - 18 September: Croatia fails to cope with refugee and migrant influx, as refugees wait for the trains that never come - 27 September 2015: Record migrant arrivals in Croatia as crisis deepens - 5 October: Refugees and migrants continue to cross from Serbia to Croatia in their thousands - 19 October 2015: Thousands of refugees trying to make their way to western Europe have rushed over Serbia’s border to Croatia after they were stranded for days in dangerous and deteriorating conditions, 'the last person to go was a young boy without a leg, and we helped him cross in a wheelchair', UNHCR's Melita Sunjic reports, as UN's Ban Ki-moon says, refugees are fleeing difficult hardships they can't bear by themselves
Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia
Health in Croatia: Health in Croatia
Healthcare in Croatia: Healthcare in Croatia
Sport in Croatia by sport: Sport in Croatia by sport
Media of Croatia: Media of Croatia
Newspapers in Croatia: List of newspapers in Croatia
Internet in Croatia: Internet in Croatia
Law and legal history of Croatia: Law of Croatia - Legal history of Croatia
Judiciary of Croatia: Judiciary of Croatia
Law enforcement in Croatia: Law enforcement in Croatia
Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia
Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Croatia/Serbia relations: Croatia/Serbia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence

Cyprus - Modern history of Cyprus - Northern Cyprus - Demographics of Cyprus
Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus
Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus
Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus
May 2011 Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May 2011
24 February 2013: Cyprus president-elect Nicos Anastasiades pledged after his poll victory on Sunday to work for an early EU bailout accord to rescue the island from bankruptcy - 18 mars: Le Parlement chypriote se réunit pour examiner le plan de sauvetage européen qui a exigé que tous les dépôts bancaires soient taxés - 20 March: Emergency meeting after Cyprus MPs reject bank levy - 21 March: Cypriot president to present 'Plan B' rescue package - 23 March: Parliament, in a late-night session, backed the first three of eight measures advanced by the government - 25 mars: Le plan de sauvetage conclu entre le gouvernement chypriote et la troïka comprend une taxe sur les dépôts de plus de 100.000 euros et la fermeture de la deuxième banque du pays - 26 March: Closed since March 16 to avert run on deposits Cyprus banks to remain closed until Thursday - 28 March: Temporary limits on daily withdrawals will remain in place as Cyprus reopens banks amid protests - 29 March: Cypriot president rules out leaving eurozone
May 2019 European Parliament election in Cyprus: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Cyprus
Social movements and protests in Cyprus:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cyprus: Cypriot society - Human rights in Cyprus
Demographics of Cyprus: Demographics of Cyprus
Women in Cyprus: Women in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus: Education in Cyprus
Healthcare in Cyprus: Healthcare in Cyprus
Internet in Cyprus: Internet in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus: Foreign relations of Cyprus
Treaties of Cyprus: Treaties of Cyprus
Membership of Cyprus in international organisations: Membership of Cyprus in international organisations
Bilateral relations of Cyprus: Bilateral relations of Cyprus
Cyprus/Egypt relations: Cyprus/Egypt relations
Cyprus/Germany relations: Cyprus/Germany relations
Cyprus/Greece relations: Cyprus/Greece relations
Cyprus/Israel relations: Cyprus/Israel relations
Cyprus/Russia relations: Cyprus/Russia relations
Cyprus/Turkey relations: Cyprus/Turkey relations
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus: 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute: Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute
Cyprus/United Kingdom relations: Cyprus/United Kingdom relations
1914–1960 British Cyprus: British Cyprus 1914–1960
Cyprus/USA relations: Cyprus/USA relations

Czech Republic - Geography of the Czech Republic - History of the Czech lands - Demographics of the Czech lands
Agriculture in the Czech Republic: Agriculture in the Czech Republic
Tourism in the Czech Republic: Tourism in the Czech Republic
Taxation in the Czech Republic: Taxation in the Czech Republic
Political parties in the Czech Republic: Political parties in the Czech Republic
Trade unions in the Czech Republic: Trade unions in the Czech Republic
Elections and politics in the Czech Republic: Elections in the Czech Republic
May 2010 Czech legislative election: 28/29 May 2010 Czech legislative election
October 2012 Czech Senate election: Czech Senate election, October 2012
May 2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic: 24-25 May 2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic
Social movements and protests in the Czech Republic: Protests in the Czech Republic
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Czech Republic: Czech society - Human rights in the Czech Republic
Cities in the Czech Republic: Cities and towns in the Czech Republic
Demographics in the Czech Republic: Demographics of the Czech lands
Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic: Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic
Immigration to the Czech Republic: Immigrants to the Czech Republic
Women in the Czech Republic: Women in the Czech Republic
Education in the Czech Republic: Education in the Czech Republic
Health in the Czech Republic: Health in the Czech Republic
Healthcare in the Czech Republic: Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Czech media: Czech media
Newspapers in the Czech Republic: Newspapers published in the Czech Republic
Internet in the Czech Republic: Internet in the Czech Republic
Crime in the Czech Republic: Crime in the Czech Republic
Corruption in the Czech Republic: Corruption in the Czech Republic
Racism in the Czech Republic: Racism in the Czech Republic
Human trafficking in the Czech Republic: Human trafficking in the Czech Republic
Judiciary and courts of the Czech Republic: Judiciary of the Czech Republic - Courts of the Czech Republic
Supreme Court of the Czech Republic: Since 1993 Supreme Court of the Czech Republic
Law enforcement in the Czech Republic: Law enforcement in the Czech Republic
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Treaties of the Czech Republic: Treaties of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic's participation in international organizations: Czech Republic's participation in international organizations
Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic: Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic/Austria relations: Czech Republic/Austria relations
Czech Republic/P.R of China relations: Czech Republic/P.R of China relations
Czech-Chinese trade relations:Czech Republic/P.R of China trade relations
Czech Republic/France relations: Czech Republic/France relations
Czech Republic/Germany relations: Czech Republic/Germany relations
1938-1945 Czech resistance to Nazi occupation: Czech resistance to Nazi occupation 1938-1945
Czech Republic/Poland relations: Czech Republic/Poland relations
Czech Republic/Slovakia relations: Czech Republic/Slovakia relations
Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations: Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations

Denmark - Geography of Denmark - History of Denmark - Demographics of Denmark
Economic history of Denmark and economic cycles: Economic history of Denmark - Income inequality in Denmark
Since 2001 Danish property bubble: Danish property bubble of 2000s
Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe: Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe - Denmark
Employment in Denmark: Employment in Denmark
Unemployment benefits in Denmark: Unemployment benefits in Denmark
Taxation and budget in Denmark: Taxation in Denmark - Budgets of Danish government
Political parties in Denmark: Political parties in Denmark
Trade unions in Denmark: Danish Confederation of Trade Unions
Elections and politics in Denmark: Elections in Denmark - Danish EU membership referendum 2011
May 2019 European Parliament election in Denmark: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Denmark
Social movements and protests in Denmark: Protests in Denmark - Social and political movements in Denmark
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Denmark: Danish society - Human rights in Denmark - Freedom of speech and freedom of the press in Denmark
Faroese Dane: Faroese Dane
Museums in Denmark: List of museums in Denmark
Economy, history and culture of Copenhagen: Economy of Copenhagen - History of Copenhagen - Culture in Copenhagen
Youth in Denmark: Youth in Denmark
Health care in Denmark: Health care in Denmark
Crime in Denmark: Crime in Denmark
Corruption in Denmark: Corruption in Denmark
Tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark: Elements of income tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark
Human trafficking in Denmark: Human trafficking in Denmark
Law enforcement in Denmark: Law enforcement in Denmark
Courts of Denmark: Courts of Denmark
Police of Denmark: Police of Denmark
Foreign relations of Denmark: Foreign relations of Denmark
Treaties of Denmark: Treaties of Denmark
Bilateral relations of Denmark: Bilateral relations of Denmark
Denmark/Germany relations: Denmark/Germany relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Denmark/Iran relations: Denmark/Iran relations
Denmark/Norway relations: Denmark/Norway relations
Denmark/Poland relations: Denmark/Poland relations
Denmark/Sweden relations: Denmark/Sweden relations
Denmark/Syria relations: Denmark/Syria relations
Denmark/Ukraine relations: Denmark/Ukraine relations
Denmark/USA relations: Denmark/USA relations
Geography and Kingdom of Denmark: Geography of Denmark - Kingdom of Denmark
Forests of Denmark: Forests of Denmark
Water in Denmark: Water in Denmark
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Denmark: Environmental issues in Denmark - Environmentalism in Denmark
Natural disasters in Denmark: Natural disasters in Denmark
Weather events in Denmark: Weather events in Denmark
Faroe Islands: Faroe Islands, politically associated with the Kingdom of Denmark, but self-governing since 1948
Ports and harbours and water transport in the Faroe Islands: Ports and harbours of the Faroe Islands - Water transport in the Faroe Islands
Demographics and society of the Faroe Islands: Demographics of the Faroe Islands - Faroese society
Education in the Faroe Islands: Education in the Faroe Islands
Health in the Faroe Islands: Health in the Faroe Islands
Political parties on the Faroe Islands: List of political parties on the Faroe Islands
Elections in the Faroe Islands: Elections in the Faroe Islands
August 2019 Faroese general election: 31 August 2019 Faroese general election
Faroese law: Faroese law
Greenland: Greenland
Geography of Greenland: Geography of Greenland
Climate of Greenland: Climate of Greenland
Greenland ice sheet and ice cap climate: Greenland ice sheet - Ice cap climate
Water in Greenland: Water in Greenland
History of Greenland: History of Greenland
Economy of Greenland: Economy of Greenland
Education in Greenland: Education in Greenland
Health in Greenland: Health in Greenland

Estonia - Geography of Estonia - History of Estonia - Demographics of Estonia
Agriculture in Estonia: Agriculture in Estonia
Forestry in Estonia: Forestry in Estonia
Taxation in Estonia: Taxation in Estonia
May 2019 European Parliament election in Estonia: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Estonia
Society, demographics and culture of Estonia: Estonian society - Human rights in Estonia
Estonians: Estonians
History of the Jews in Estonia: History of the Jews in Estonia
Russians in Estonia: Russians in Estonia
Education in Estonia: Education in Estonia
Healthcare in Estonia: Healthcare in Estonia
Internet in Estonia: Internet in Estonia
Estonia/Germany relations: Estonia/Germany relations - German occupation of Estonia during World War II 1939-1945 - The Holocaust in Estonia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Estonia by Germany
Estonia/Latvia relations: Estonia/Latvia relations
Estonia/Russia relations: Estonia/Russia relations
Estonia/Ukraine relations: Estonia/Ukraine relations
Estonia/USA relations: Estonia/USA relations

Finland - Geography of Finland - History of Finland - Demographics of Finland
Mines in Finland: Mines in Finland
Manufacturing companies of Finland: Manufacturing companies of Finland
Electronics companies of Finland: Electronics companies of Finland
Nuclear power in Finland: Nuclear power in Finland
Coal and peat energy in Finland: Peat energy in Finland - Coal in Finland
Agriculture in Finland: Agriculture in Finland
Forestry in Finland: Forestry in Finland
Tourism in Finland: Tourism in Finland
Economic history of Finland and economic cycles: Economic history of Finland
Taxation in Finland: Taxation in Finland
Welfare in Finland: Welfare in Finland
Political parties in Finland: Political parties in Finland
Trade unions in Finland: Trade unions in Finland
Politics and elections in Finland: Elections in Finland
October 1994 Finnish European Union membership referendum: Finnish European Union membership referendum 16 October 1994
October 2012 Finnish municipal elections: Finnish municipal elections October 2012
May 2014 European Parliament election in Finland: 25 May 2014 European Parliament election in Finland
May 2019 European Parliament election in Finland: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Finland
Social movements and protests in Finland: Social movements in Finland - Environmentalism in Finland
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Finland: Finnish society - Human rights in Finland
Sami people: Sami people
History of the Jews in Finland: History of the Jews in Finland
Swedish-speaking population of Finland: Swedish-speaking population of Finland
Karelians: Karelians
Culture and languages of Finland: Culture of Finland - Languages of Finland
Women and women’s rights in Finland: Women in Finland - Women’s rights in Finland
Childhood and youth in Finland: Childhood in Finland - Youth in Finland
Education in Finland: Education in Finland
Universities in Finland: List of universities in Finland
Health in Finland: Health in Finland
Healthcare in Finland: Healthcare in Finland
Finnish media: Finnish media
Newspapers in Finland: List of newspapers in Finland
Broadcasting in Finland: Broadcasting in Finland
Internet in Finland: Internet in Finland
Crime in Finland: Crime in Finland
Guns and gun politics in Finland: Guns and gun politics in Finland
School shootings in Finland: School shootings in Finland
Spree shootings in Finland: Spree shootings in Finland
February 1999 Helsinki shooting club shooting: 21 February 1999 Helsinki shooting club shooting with a rented pistol
Terrorism in Finland: Terrorism in Finland
Racism in Finland: Racism in Finland
Corruption in Finland: Corruption in Finland
Sexual violence in Finland: Sexual violence in Finland
Law and legal history of Finland: Law of Finland - Legal history of Finland - Constitution of Finland
Judicial and court system of Finland: Judicial system of Finland - Court system in Finland
Supreme Court of Finland: Supreme Court of Finland
Since 1945 War-responsibility trials in Finland: War-responsibility trials in Finland since 1945
Law enforcement in Finland: Law enforcement in Finland
Foreign relations of Finland: Foreign relations of Finland
Treaties of Finland: Treaties of Finland
Bilateral relations of Finland: Bilateral relations of Finland
Finland/Denmark relations: Finland/Denmark relations
Finland/Estonia relations: Finland/Estonia relations
Finland/Germany relations: Finland/Germany relations
1939-1945 Finland's cooperation with Nazi Germany and military history of Finland during World War II: Finland sided with Nazi Germany - World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact - Military history of Finland during World War II 1939-1945
Finland/Norway relations: Finland/Norway relations
Finland/Russia relations: Finland/Russia relations
1939-1945 Finland's cooperation with Nazi Germany and military history of Finland during World War II: Finland sided with Nazi Germany - World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact - Military history of Finland during World War II 1939-1945 - Paris Peace Treaties 1947
Finland/Sweden relations: Finland/Sweden relations
Finland/Ukraine relations: Finland/Ukraine relations
History of Finland-Ukraine relations: History of Finland-Ukraine relations
Environment of Finland: Environment of Finland
Protected areas of Finland: Protected areas of Finland
Environmental issues in Finland: Environmental issues in Finland
Water in Finland: Water in Finland

France - Geography of France - Gaul during the Iron Age inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, of the Netherlands and of Germany - Gallic Wars and expansion of the Roman Empire over the whole of Gaul 58–52 BC - Frankish Kingdom 481–843 during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages - History of France - Early modern France 1453–1789 - French colonial empire 1534-1980 - French Revolution 1789-1799 marking the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and replacing them with democracies and republics, and Napoleon until 1815 - France in the twentieth century, post World War II period 1945-present - Demographics of France
French bicycle industry: French bicycle industry
Shipbuilding companies of France: Shipbuilding companies of France
Tractor manufacturers of France: Tractor manufacturers of France
Chemical companies of France: Chemical companies of France
Clothing companies of France: Clothing companies of France
Energy and energy companies of France: Energy in France - Energy companies of France
Fossil fuels and oil companies of France: Fossil fuels in France - Oil companies of France
French wine: French wine
Water pollution in France: Water pollution in France
Transport in France by city: Transport in France by city - Transport in Paris
Foreign trade of France: Foreign trade of France
Banking in France: Banking in France
Since 2010 Bank of France controversy: Since 2010 Bank of France controversy
Since 2010 BNP Paribas controversies: BNP Paribas controversies since 2010
Since 2006 Crédit Agricole controversies: Crédit Agricole controversies since 2006
Since the early 1990s Société Générale controversies: Société Générale controversies since the early 1990s
Since 2010 Groupe BPCE controversy: Groupe BPCE controversy since 2010
Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy: Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy
Late 2000s recession in Europe and France: Late 2000s recession in Europe: France
Chômage en France: Chômage en France
Inégalités de revenu en France: Inégalités de revenu en France
Poverty in France: Poverty in France
French Armed Forces: French Armed Forces
Military budget in France: Military budget
Intelligence agencies of France: List of intelligence agencies of France
Taxation and budget in France: Taxation in France - Budget of France
June 1960 amendment concerning French colonies in Africa and French pressure: 4 June 1960 adopted amendment to the constitution concerning the independence of 'African Member States of the French Community' - 1960 independance of 13 African countries from France during the 'Year of Africa', as France exerted pressure to remain within the French sphere of influence, particularly in economic terms, and French companies thus accepted arrangements, because they would remain well-positioned to profit from the newly independent countries - 1960 is referred to as the 'Year of Africa' because of a series of events that took place during the year, mainly the independence of 17 African nations, that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent, a culmination of African independence movements and the subsequent emergence of Africa as a major force in the UN
Political parties and trade unions in France: Political parties of France - Trade unions in France
Parliament of France: French Parliament
Government of France: Government of France
Elections and politics in France: Elections in France
Élections cantonales mars 2011: Élections cantonales mars 2011
Élection présidentielle francaise 22 avril/6 mai 2012: Élection présidentielle francaise avril/mai 2012 - Juin 2011: Martine Aubry annonce sa candidature pour la présidentielle 2012 - History of the 'Left' in France: Affaire Dominique Strauss-Kahn - 29. August 2011: Frankreich Sozialisten im Zeichen verschärfter Rivalität - vgl. Artikel dieser Website und darin den Abschnitt über die aktuelle Krise der europäischen Sozialdemokratie 2009 - 10 October: French Socialists face presidential primary run-off - 17. Oktober 2011: Frankreichs Sozialisten mit Kandidatur Hollandes ohne Zeichen der Erneuerung - 23 April: Nicolas Sarkozy won only 27.1% of the vote, while his socialist rival Francois Hollande took 28.6% - 3. Mai: François Bayrou nennt Sarkozy's Politik in Einwanderungsfragen 'obsessiv' und spricht sich für Hollande aus - 7 May: François Hollande wins France’s presidential election claiming around 51.67% of the runoff vote - 17 May: Cabinet Ayrault takes power in France - 17 May: New French government to hand itself a pay cut
January-May 2016: 27 January 2016: French minister Christiane Taubira resigns after fallout over controversial plan to strip people convicted of terrorism of their French citizenship - 1 février 2016: Christiane Taubira n'a pas abandonné le débat sur la déchéance de nationalité pour autant et va publier un livre-réquisitoire - 10 February 2016: French MPs vote in favour of in 2012 elected president Hollande’s heavily contested package of measures to change the French constitution enshrining 'emergency powers' - 10/11 February: French FM Fabius steps down questioning the USA’s commitment to resolving the crisis in Syria, saying its 'ambiguous' policy was contributing to the problem, as Hollande brings Greens and former PM Ayrault to government in cabinet reshuffle - 4 mai 2016: François Hollande à son plus bas niveau historique
June 2017 French legislative election: 11 and 18 June 2017 French legislative election - 12 June 2017: Amid concerns over low turnout of just 48.71%, 'La République En Marche' party and its allies take 32,32% of vote in first round, ahead of 'Les Républicains' and its allies on 21.56%, the anti-EU 'Front National' on 13.20%, followed by 'La France Insoumise' and its allies on 11,02%, the 'Socialist party', that took just 9.51% of the vote with its allies, and 'Europe Écologie Les Verts' on 4.3% - 18/19 June 2017: Tempered by a record low turnout of 42.64% and as abstention particularly high in low-income areas reopens the debate about France’s social divide, the French voting system and legitimacy, Macron’s party and its ally has won a large majority in the French parliament, taking 350 out of 577 seats, handing him a relatively free rein to implement his plans to change French labour law and overhaul unemployment benefits and pensions
Since 18 July 2018 Benalla-Macron affair: Since 18 July 2018 Benalla affair, a political and judicial case involving Alexandre Benalla, who served as a security officer and deputy chief of staff to Emmanuel Macron - 19 July 2018: France’s public prosecutor has opened a preliminary inquiry after Benalla, one of Emmanuel Macron’s top security officers, was filmed hitting and stamping on a young man at the edge of a Paris demonstration on 1 May while illegally dressed as a police officer, as it emerged that Benalla had continued to take part in other high-profile presidential security operations and MPs suggest there had been a cover up - 20 July 2018: French politicians insisted on a parliament inquiry into how Macron's security officials could have appeared wearing a police armband and visor, committing violence among real police officers without being stopped, as second bodyguard Vincent Crase who worked for Macron also featured wearing a police armband, violently dragging, shaking and raising his hand against young man - 23 July 2018: Macron under pressure to say why aide's brutality went unreported - 25 July 2018: Saying 'Alexandre Benalla has never had the nuclear codes, ... neither has Alexandre Benalla ever been my lover', Emmanuel Macron - after keeping Benalla’s assaults quiet for more than two months - wants to take the blame over Benalla scandal, caused by hate against the national and international labour movement
December 2018: 2 December 2018: French government to hold emergency meeting after central Paris saw its worst unrest in a decade on Saturday afternoon as masked protesters fought running battles with police, set fire to cars, banks and houses and burned makeshift barricades on the edges of demonstrations against rising fuel taxes and living costs, as peaceful protestors complained that the use of teargas had begun very early in the morning, and as Alexandre Benalla's foster-father Macron said he would 'never accept violence' - 4 December 2018: French government reportedly 'to suspend fuel tax increase' following protests - 10 December 2018: In a long-awaited address on television, Macron tried to talk the protesters out of further action, promising a rise in the minimum wage and tax concessions, saying he had heard and understood protesters’ anger and indignation, which he said was 'deep and in many ways legitimate' - 11 December 2018: Macron’s appeal to French from behind gold desk reportedly leaves 'gilets jaunes' protesters unimpressed, as a record 23 million people tuned in - 16 décembre 2018: L'ex-collaborateur déchu de l'Élysée Alexandre Benalla a de nouveau été mis en examen le 29 novembre pour des violences commises en marge du défilé du 1er mai à Paris - 16 décembre 2018: Le premier ministre Philippe a concédé que l'Exécutif n'avait 'pas assez écouté les Français' et 'fait des erreurs' dans la gestion de la gestion de la crise des 'gilets jaunes'
February 2019: 1 février 2019: 'Nous sommes un peuple violent, depuis des siècles et des siècles. La France n'est pas la Suisse', s'exprime Macron dans une 'discussion au coin du feu' - 1 février 2019: Le Conseil d'Etat français est resté sourd aux demandes de la Ligue des droits de l'homme contre les violences policières et l'usage du LBD à l'origine de nombreuses blessures graves, utilisée plus de 9200 fois depuis le début du mouvement de contestation sociale - 10 février 2019: Une enquête judiciaire a été ouverte après qu'un manifestant a eu la main déchiquetée par une grenade samedi à Paris - 20 February 2019: A French senate committee has recommend prosecuting Alexandre Benalla, the former security aide of the French president Macron, for perjury following a seven-month investigation into his violent conduct during a street protest
May 2019 European Parliament election in France: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in France
August 2019 victims of 1982 anti-Semitic attack demand parliamentary inquiry: 9 August 2019: Families of the victims of the 1982 terrorist attack on Paris’ Jewish quarter and Jo Goldenberg’s restaurant are demanding a parliamentary inquiry into an alleged secret pact of French intelligence with the perpetrators, after ex-French spy chief Yves Bonnet now, in 2019, admitted the 1980s pact with Fatah terrorists, following the August 1982 bombing and shooting attack by the Abu Nidal Organization - Since 28 August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following the 9 August 1982 terrorist attack in Paris, when a secret police anti-terrorist cell established by president François Mitterrand arrested three Irish nationals in Vincennes, proudly proclaiming a victory against 'international terrorism', until in 1983 the case fell apart and the suspects were exonerated when it was revealed that weapons and other evidence used against the three had been planted by the arresting officers, who then lied to the courts with the support of the executive - 17 June 2015: Suspects, including the mastermind al-Abassi of the 1982 bomb attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris, were identified 32 years later thanks to statements from Abu Nidal group members to whom French judges guaranteed anonymity
2 September 2019 France canvasses Iranian regime: 2 September 2019: Once again France hosts Iranian regime officials, presenting offers including a $15 billion credit line for oil 'pre-purchases' to threatening Iranian regime, also praising terror group Hezbollah's Sunday missile attack on IDF targets, as regime's diplomats travel to France and Russia to reinforce regime's Friday deadline for Europe to offer it a way to sell its crude oil on the global market, and as Yad Vashem marks 80th anniversary of start of World War II with online exhibit, describing the progression of the war and exploring the lives of Europe’s Jewish communities with many unable to comprehend the impending horror the war would bring, following European and American retreat in the face of getting stronger nazism and fascism
8 December 2019 pensions overhaul to go ahead despite huge protests: 8 December 2019: France pensions overhaul to go ahead despite huge protests
Social movements and protests in France: Protests in France - Political movements in France
2013: 5 janvier 2013: Lors d'une rencontre avec une délégation des salariés de Petroplus à Val-de-Reuil (Eure), Hollande a exclu une reprise du site par les pouvoirs publics - 25 March 2013: Paris police used tear gas and batons to fight hundreds of thousands of people protesting against a draft law allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children - 5 mai: Grande manifestation anti-austérité du Parti de Gauche à Paris - 6 June: Protests held in France after left-wing student Clement Meric beaten to death by a group of far-right militants - 10 septembre: Entre 155 000 et 360 000 personnes ont participé aux quelque 180 rassemblements organisés en France pour protester contre la première réforme des retraites - 17 October: Paris students protest against the deportation of foreign pupils following the high-profile eviction of a 15-year-old Roma girl - 1 décembre: Face aux récentes attaques contre la ministre Christiane Taubira, plusieurs milliers de personnes se sont rassemblées à Paris pour dire non à toutes formes de discrimination - 3 décembre: Soirée contre la haine au Théâtre du Rond-Point à Paris
2015: 9 January: Thousands of people took to the streets in France and other countries again Thursday to condemn the killing of 12 people by terrorists at Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 11 January: As police hunt suspected accomplice more than 700,000 people took to the streets of France in solidarity with terror victims ahead of Paris march - 11 January: An estimated 3.7 million people across France march in solidarity with terror victims, all ages, nations and religions showing their support for the Republic's 'liberté, égalité, fraternité' - 2 March: As Russians march in mourning for murdered opposition leader Nemtsov in Moscow, in Paris about 100 people gathered to remember Nemtsov, asking for an international investigation to be opened and carrying posters reading 'I am Boris' - 24 May 2015: About 3,000 protesters gathered in Paris to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 5 septembre: Plus de 10000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans toute la France, et notamment à Paris, pour l’accueil des réfugiés - 19 October 2015: Thousands of people demonstrated in the capitals of France, Spain and Italy on Sunday in solidarity with Israel, as the wave of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories continued unabated - 22 novembre 2015: Plus de 10.000 manifestants 'contre la barbarie' à Toulouse, une semaine après les attentats de Paris - 2 December 2015: A court in Paris fines a woman €1,000 for refusing to have her fingerprints taken at a rally where clashes erupted between protesters and security forces ahead of 2015 UN climate summit
2016: 26 January 2016: Day of protest as taxi drivers, teachers, farmers and air traffic controllers among employees taking industrial action across France - 27 February: Angry French farmers heckle Hollande at agricultural fair amid rising tensions in agricultural sphere over competition from big industry and neighbouring countries in Europe's single market - 9 March 2016: French students take to the streets to protest far-reaching labour-law reforms as labour unions pledge to hold about 150 marches and protests nationwide - 24 mars 2016: Les manifestations contre le projet de loi travail, présenté en Conseil des ministres, ont rassemblé jeudi plusieurs milliers de jeunes et salariés à Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Grenoble ou encore Besançon, à l'appel de sept syndicats et organisations de jeunes, une vidéo montrant un policier frappant un jeune fait le buzz - 31 March 2016: Hundreds of thousands of workers and high-school students joined protest marches across France to challenge plans to loosen the country's protective labour laws that unions say favour businesses
January/February 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Bordeaux, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 18 février 2017: 4000 à 5000 personnes selon les organisateurs, se sont réunies samedi à Paris à l'appel notamment d'associations antiracistes et de syndicats, pour protester contre les violences policières après le viol à la matraque présumé d'un jeune noir, Théo, au cours d'une interpellation - 19 février 2017: Des manifestations contre la 'corruption' en politique se sont déroulées dimanche à Paris et ailleurs en France, une première depuis les accusations d'emplois fictifs visant le candidat de droite à la présidentielle François Fillon et la candidate d'extrême droite Marine Le Pen
December 2018: 3 décembre 2018: Une vieille dame, qui a été atteinte par une grenade lacrymogène tirée lors des manifestations des 'gilets jaunes' à Marseille, est morte à l'hôpital - 7 December 2018: French high school students in Paris made to kneel with hands on heads by police, as protests at nearly 300 schools against stricter university entrance requirements have added to recent unrest - 8 December 2018: Over 350 detained and police accused to use teargas against protesters, as Paris braces for ‘yellow vest’ protest violence, and tens of thousands of police took position around France, fearing worsening violence in a new round of anti-government protests - 9 December 2018: 'Protesters' faced off with French riot police in Paris, hurling projectiles, torching cars, vandalising shops, restaurants and newsstands, also damaging a social movement which stands up for an increase to the minimum wage, lower taxes, higher salaries, cheaper energy, better retirement benefits and help for hard-pressed households, certainly without ability to replace torched cars - 9 December 2018: Uniting green and yellow vest protesters, people took to the streets in Paris on Saturday to demand that global leaders take action on climate change
January 2019: 5 janvier 2019: Les 'gilets jaunes' continuent la mobilisation dans plusieurs villes de France, pour défier le gouvernement - 6 janvier 2019: Lors des rassemblements des 'gilets jaunes' à Toulon, un officier de police a été filmé en train de frapper plusieurs personnes, pour le procureur de la République c'était un acte 'proportionnel' - 6 janvier 2019: Des centaines de femmes 'gilets jaunes' se sont rassemblées dimanche dans plusieurs villes, souhaitant donner une image pacifique du mouvement au lendemain d'une mobilisation nationale aussi marquée à la fin par de nouvelles violences - 11 janvier 2019: Manifestation des 'gilets jaunes' interdite à Bourges - 12 janvier 2019: Des dizaines de milliers de 'gilets jaunes' sont de nouveau attendus samedi partout en France contre la politique sociale et fiscale du gouvernement - 12 January 2019: Police use water cannon and teargas on Paris protesters, as at least 84,000 demonstrators turned out across France, according to officials, and as in Bourges, a town of 66,000 people (chosen because of its central location) about 6,700 gilets jaunes gathered despite a ban on protests in its historical centre
March 2019: 16 March 2019: An 18th weekend of gilets jaunes protests erupted once more into violence and looting as masked demonstrators smashed their way into luxury stores on the Champs-Élysées, first and foremost damaging a movement allegedly aiming to improve living conditions, following the worldwide practice of inciting agents (agent provocateur) since centuries - 18 mars 2019: Sous le feu des critiques, le président Macron et son gouvernement envisagent de nouvelles mesures sécuritaires, après la manif des 'gilets jaunes' samedi - 23 March 2019: Police and demonstrators clashed sporadically in Paris and other French cities as gilets jaunes protests against president Macron’s government were largely peaceful, but turned violent in the late afternoon in Paris - 24 March 2019: Relatives of a 73-year-old gilets jaunes protester who was seriously injured when French riot police pushed back demonstrators in Nice on Saturday are to file an official complaint for 'wilful violence'
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in France: French society
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and French atrocities in Haiti: In 1802, when it became apparent that the French under Napoleonic rule intended to re-establish slavery in Haiti black cultivators revolted in the summer of 1802, Leclerc's successor Vicomte de Rochambeau fought an even more brutal campaign, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since 1930/1931 and since 1945 French use of torture in Vietnam: French Army practiced torture in Vietnam since 1930 and during its Indochina War since 1945
Timeline of Paris: Timeline of Paris
March 2018 protest against the stabbing of Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll: 27 March 2018: Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo, actitivsts and politicians call for all the city's residents to march Wednesday in memory of Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death in an apparent anti-Semitic attack, as politicians across the political spectrum pledge to attend - 28 March 2018: Several thousand people took part in a silent march in Paris on Wednesday and in other large French cities including Lyon, Marseille and Strasbourg in memory of Mireille Knoll who survived the Holocaust but was stabbed to death last week, in what is being investigated as an antisemitic attack, raising questions about France’s failure to tackle resurgent antisemitism after in 2017 Orthodox Jewish Sarah Halimi was beaten and thrown out of the window of her home in Paris
11 November 2019 mothers call on Macron to use gangland profits to revive communities: 11 November 2019: Marseille's mothers call on Macron to use gangland profits to revive communities
Since 2015 Lyon Metropolis: Since 2015 Lyon Metropolis
Timeline of Grenoble: Timeline of Grenoble since 43 BCE
Demographics of France: Demographics of France
Ethnic groups in France: Ethnic groups in France
French people by ethnic or national origin: French people - French people by ethnic or national origin
Jews and Judaism in France and history: Jews and Judaism in France - History of the Jews in France
Since 1007 persecutions of Jews in the Kingdom of France: Since 1007 widespread persecutions of Jews in France instigated by the King of France
Since 1799/1804 Napoleon Bonaparte's 'First French Empire' and the Jews in France: Since 1799/1804 Napoleon Bonaparte's 'First French Empire' and the Jews in France
African immigration to France: African immigration to France
2016: 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 13 février 2016: Le Premier ministre français Valls ne veut pas aller plus loin que le quota de 30'000 réfugiés en France et a d'ailleurs rencontré CSU Horst Seehofer, l'une de ces voix critiques parmi les alliés de la chancelière allemande - 13 February 2016: French PM Valls rejects permanent quota system for refugees, saying 'We won't take any more' - 28 February 2016: The first purpose-built camp in France to provide proper, humanitarian-standard shelter to refugees who are currently sleeping rough is to open near the port of Dunkirk next month, after the local Green mayor Damien Carême approached Médecins sans Frontières and asked the organisation to construct temporary shelters, saying he was exasperated by what he deemed to be the inaction of the French Socialist government
2018: 8 janvier 2018: La France a enregistré un niveau 'historique' de demandes d'asile en 2017, alors que le gouvernement prépare une loi sur l'immigration déjà à l'origine de débats animés - 11 January 2018: Anger grows at French president over migration law plans, shariong close views with Austria's Kurz on European issues including migration - 17 January 2018: NGOs accuse Macron, who campaigned for president last year as a champion of open borders, of betraying France’s long tradition of offering sanctuary, also accusing the police in Calais of trying to drive out migrants by 'exhaustion' - 24 mars 2018: Une migrante nigériane, qui a souhaité finir sa grossesse auprès de sa soeur en France mais était bloqué par les gendarmes français qui l'ont juste déposée en pleine nuit devant la gare de Bardonnecchia, est morte la semaine dernière dans un hôpital de Turin, son bébé Israel est né par césarienne juste avant
Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France: Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France
Language policy in France: Language policy in France
Architecture and arts in France: Architecture in France - Arts in France - French literature
Music of France: Music of France
Music history of France: French music history
Women and women's rights in France: Women in France - Women's rights in France
1791 Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen 1791
Islamic dress controversy in France: Islamic dress controversy in France
Violence against women in France: Violence against women in France
Protection de l'enfance en France: Protection de l'enfance en France
Colleges and universities in France: Universities and colleges in France
Health in France: Health in France
Health care and hospitals in France: Health care in France - Hospitals in France - Hospitals in France by region
Athletics, swimming, water sports, skiing and gymnastics in France: Athletics in France - Swimming in France - Water sports in France - Sailing in France - Skiing in France - Gymnastics in France
Handball, basketball, ice hockey and tennis in France: Handball in France - Basketball in France - Volleyball in France - Ice hockey in France - Tennis in France
2016: 9-11 June 2016 Marseille riots before and after UEFA Euro 2016 football match between England and Russia - 11/12 June 2016: Reports from Marseille suggest an England supporter is fighting for his life after an attack from Russian fans ahead of their Euro 2016 match on Saturday evening - 12 June 2016: Violence in Nice as Northern Ireland and Poland fans attacked by local hooligans - 12 June 2016: Russian hooligans reportedly approached the violence, which occurred before and after England’s opening Euro 2016 game in Marseille, with 'military organisation', well equipped and disguised, as Uefa opens disciplinary proceedings against Russia’s football union - 13 June 2016: German hooligans attack Ukraine fans in Lille also showing fascist symbolism at UEFA Euro 2016 - 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 14 June: Russia handed suspended '2016 UEFA European Football Championship' disqualification, confirmed by UEFA - 16 June: Dozens arrested in Lille after England and Russia foot supporters clash and more people are hospitalised - 18 June: Senior UK government officials fear the violence unleashed by Russian hooligans at Euro 2016 was sanctioned by Vladimir Putin’s regime and are investigating links with his regime as a significant number of those involved in savage and highly coordinated attacks on England fans and others in Marseille and Lille have been identified as being in the 'uniformed services' in Russia
Cycling and cycle racing in France: Cycling in France - Cycle racing in France
Hate speech laws in France: Hate speech laws in France
History of French journalism: History of French journalism
Since 1789 newspapers of the French Revolution: List of journals appearing under the French Revolution
Newspapers in France: Newspapers in France
Internet in France: Internet in France
Internet censorship in France: Internet censorship in France
2013 censorship of Wikipedia in France: 2013 censorship of Wikipedia in France
Telecommunications in France: Telecommunications in France
Crime in France: Crime in France
French war crimes: French war crimes
Since 1799 Napoleonic wars, casualties and war crimes: 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars, total war, millions of Napoleonic wars casualties, leading to an ongoing period of restoration, reaction, nationalism and chauvinism worldwide - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior' - 25. Januar 2006: Daß Napoleon Bonaparte ein überzeugter Rassist war, der schwarze Franzosen vergasen ließ, rüttelt an den Grundfesten der 'Grande Nation' der französischen Kolonialherren
Since 1930/1931 and since 1945 French use of torture in Vietnam: French Army practiced torture during its Indochina War in Vietnam since 1945
Antisemitism in France: Antisemitism in France
1940-1944 Vichy France, French Nazi collaborators and history of Jews in Vichy France: Vichy France 1940-1944 - French Nazi collaborators - Histoire des Juifs sous le régime de Vichy
Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps: Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps
2014 French payment of $60 million for Holocaust victims deported by state rail company: 5 December 2014: France to pay $60 million for Holocaust victims deported by state rail company to Nazi death camps
2017 Céline praised by Emmanuel Macron: 31. Dezember 2017: Von Louis-Ferdinand Céline, so Emmanuel Macron im Interview mit Michel Houellebecq im Mai 2017, könne man lernen, die Sorgen des 'Mannes auf der Straße' ernstzunehmen, Macron erwähnt allerdings nicht, daß Céline in seinen Schriften 'dem Mann auf der Straße' den Nationalsozialismus empfiehlt und z.B. Ernst Jünger auffordert mit seiner Kompanie die Juden abzuschlachten 'und keinen übrig zu lassen' - In his 1937 antisemitic pamphlet 'Bagatelles pour un massacre' Céline campaigned for an alliance between France and Nazi Germany, writing 'Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism is. Who has done the most for the working man? The USSR or Hitler? Hitler has. Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler
Holocaust denial in France: Holocaust denial in France
France's 'National Front': France's 'National Front'
Racism and Antisemitism in 21st-century France: Antisemitism in 21st-century France
2015: 7 January 2015: Unidentified individuals started a fire inside a synagogue in Garges near Paris and drew a swastika on its wall - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - 3 February 2015: Anti-terror patrol soldiers stabbed outside Jewish cultural center in Nice - 15 February 2015: Several hundred tombs desecrated with Nazi swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans at the Jewish cemetery of Sarre-Union near the German border a day after a deadly shooting at Copenhagen synagogue - 19 February 2015: The French are becoming more racist and intolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities including both Muslims and Jews, according to a Council of Europe report this week - 28 February 2015: Paris killer asked victims if they were Jewish before firing, transcript shows - 10 April: After defending Petain's cooperation with Nazi Germany and his past comment that Nazi gas chambers were a 'detail of history', France's National Front founder Le Pen rebuffs daughter's call to quit - 27 April 2015: Front National founder Jean-Marie Le Pen allegedly kept €2.2m in hidden Swiss bank account - 2 May 2015: Two Jewish residents of Paris were assaulted on the street Friday by a gang of about 40 people - 25 November 2015: A Belgian court finds French Dieudonne guilty of hate speech, incitement to hatred and Holocaust denial
March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll: 23 March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll, officially described as a hate crime - 25 March 2018: Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll’s body found burnt, stabbed in Paris apartment, who had previously reported that a neighbor threatened to burn her, according to BNVCA and French media - 26 mars 2018: Deux hommes ont été placés en garde à vue et le parquet de Paris a retenu le caractère antisémite dans l’enquête sur le meurtre de Mireille Knoll, qui avait rescapée de la rafle des Juifs du Vel d’Hiv’ de juillet 1942 en s’enfuyant de Paris avec sa mère - 27 March 2018: Family members of Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death and set on fire in her Paris apartment, told Israeli media she had known one of her assailants, a Muslim neighbor, since he was seven years old, as police admits that Mireille Knoll had previously called police and complained that the neighbor had threatened to kill her
Toulouse and Montauban shootings March 2012: March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings - 19 March 2012: A motorcycle gunman opened fire on Monday in front of a Jewish school in Toulouse, killing a father, his two sons and one other child - 20. März 2012: Tausende an Schweigemarsch in Paris nach den tödlichen Schüssen in einer jüdischen Schule in Toulouse - 21 mars: Opération en cours contre le suspect de la tuerie de Toulouse - 22 March: Siege of alleged gunman in Toulouse enters second day - 22 March: French gunman who shot dead 3 Jewish children killed in siege in Toulouse - 25 March: Several thousand people have marched silently through Paris urging unity and tolerance of all religions and cultures after deadly shootings of Jewish schoolchildren - 28 March: Vigilance call after French Jews hit by new attacks
Clément Méric assassiné le 5 juin 2013: Clément Méric, membre de l’Action antifasciste, assassiné à Paris, le 5 juin 2013 - 6 juin 2013: Agressé par un groupe de plusieurs militants d'extrême droite JNR, le militant du Parti de Gauche Clément Méric en état de mort cérébrale - 6 juin: Clément Méric, le militant antifasciste agressé par des skinheads, est mort - 8 June: Five skinheads to face court after assassination of Clement Meric - 14 September 2018: Two skinheads convicted over 2013 death of anti-fascist activist Clement Méric, as Méric’s mother Agnes says 'what is needed is to continue to fight against the breeding grounds of the extreme right', and several hundred anti-fascists gathered in Paris for the verdict, chanting 'Clement! Clement! We do not forget, we do not forgive'
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - Worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 7 January: Worldwide vigils as French authorities seek terrorists who stormed the Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people - 8 January: Arrests made as police hunt for suspects of Charlie Hebdo shooting - 9 January: France to host international 'anti-terrorism' meeting in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris - 9 January: Search for terrorists continues as Charlie Hebdo announces to print 1 million copies next week - 10 January: Two hostage standoffs end with four hostages killed in Paris kosher grocery, three terrorists dead and four more hostages badly hurt - 9 March: Four people including a policewoman arrested over suspected links to Paris kosher market terrorist
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 14 Novemer 2015: Gunmen kill at least 120 people in terror attacks in Paris, injuring some 200 people - 15 November: French national suicide bomber Ismael Omar Mostefai in Paris attacks identified, who had been flagged as a possible security threat in 2010, as investigation spreads across Europe - 16 November: French police carry out raids as investigations across borders continue - 17 November: France calls for EU help following Paris attacks - 18 November: Police in St-Denis arresting suspects, two suspects dead in ongoing raid, including a woman who detonated an explosive device - 19 November: Raids in Brussels linked to Stade de France suicide bomber as latest evidence points to wider conspiracy of primarily young Europeans - 20 November: Three people died during the Wednesday night raid in St-Denis, where the alleged ringleader of the Paris attacks Abaaoud was killed, prosecutor says - 21 November: Raids and Paris attacks investigations across borders continue as three suspects arrested in Turkey - 23 November: UK's Cameron visits Paris offering support, also offering French use of RAF Cyprus base for attacks against IS terrorists - 24 November: 'Belt of explosives' found south of Paris in town of Montrouge - 27 novembre 2015: Un quotidien allemand affirme vendredi que les fusils d'assaut qui ont servi dans la capitale proviendraient du Bade-Wurtemberg - 27 November: Survivors and victims' families of Paris terror attacks attend memorial ceremony
July 2016: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when a suspected armed French-Tunisian man drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 15 July 2016: After attack in Nice France mourns and investigates again - International reactions to the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 17 juillet: Un feu d'artifice tiré dans la nuit depuis le Grand hôtel de Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat 48 heures après l'attentat commis sur la Promenade des Anglais, a suscité une vague d'indignation sur Twitter - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples - 22 July 2016: Five suspects formally charged over Bastille day's truck attack in Nice that killed 84 people - 22 July: Authorities in Nice refuse a request from French anti-terror police to delete surveillance camera images of Bastille day's deadly truck attack, amid growing questions over the scale of the police presence at the time and after interior minister Cazeneuve acknowledged that only lightly armed local police were guarding the entrance to the pedestrian zone on the Nice beachfront - 24 juillet: La policière responsable de la vidéosurveillance à Nice affirme avoir subi des pressions du ministère de l'Intérieur lors de la rédaction d'un rapport sur le 14-juillet, on lui aurait demandé de mentionner la présence de policiers nationaux sur les lieux de l'attaque - 25 juillet 2016: La policière municipale Sandra Bertin qui a accusé dans le Journal du dimanche le ministère de l'Intérieur de lui avoir fait subir des pressions pour qu'elle modifie un rapport sur le dispositif de sécurité après l'attentat du 14 juillet à Nice a maintenu dimanche soir ses accusations
Police violence and abuses in France: Police abuses in France
1961 Paris massacre: Paris massacre of 1961
Riots in France: Riots in France
June 2016 UEFA Euro riots in France: UEFA Euro 2016 riots in France
Since August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following anti-Semitic attack: Since 28 August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following the 9 August 1982 terrorist attack in Paris, when a secret police anti-terrorist cell established by president François Mitterrand arrested three Irish nationals in Vincennes, proudly proclaiming a victory against 'international terrorism', until in 1983 the case fell apart and the suspects were exonerated when it was revealed that weapons and other evidence used against the three had been planted by the arresting officers, who then lied to the courts with the support of the executive - 9 August 1982 Goldenberg restaurant attack, a bombing and shooting attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris's Marais district carried out by the Abu Nidal Organization - 17 June 2015: Suspects, including the mastermind al-Abassi of the 1982 bomb attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris, were identified 32 years later thanks to statements from Abu Nidal group members to whom French judges guaranteed anonymity - 9 August 2019: Families of the victims of the 1982 terrorist attack on Paris’ Jewish quarter and Jo Goldenberg’s restaurant are demanding a parliamentary inquiry into an alleged secret pact of French intelligence with the perpetrators, after ex-French spy chief Yves Bonnet now, in 2019, admitted the 1980s pact with Fatah terrorists
Accusation d’emplois fictifs au MoDem, le Mouvement démocrate de François Bayrou - 8 juin 2017: L'affaire des collaborateurs de députés du Parlement européen contamine de plus en plus les alliés centristes de l'entourage de Macron - 9 juin 2017: Une dizaine de salariés du MoDem ont également été employés par des eurodéputés MoDem et rémunérés comme assistants parlementaires, dont deux ministres en exercice, selon Franceinfo - 20 June 2017: French defence minister Sylvie Goulard, who is second minister to go in 24 hours, steps down over allegations her MoDem party misused European funds - 21 June 2017: Two more ministers quit Macron administration amid funding inquiry, bringing the number of ministers to leave to four - François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez, Richard Ferrand and Sylvie Goulard - in just 48 hours
Violence against women and rape in France: Violence against women in France - Viol en France
Child abuse and sexual abuse in France: Child abuse in France - Child sexual abuse in France
Judiciary of France: Judiciary of France
Wars involving France: Wars involving France
Resistance to the French colonial empire: Resistance to the French colonial empire
1793 slave rebellion in Guadeloupe: 1793 slave rebellion in Guadeloupe
French Polynesia: French Polynesia
Réunion: Réunion
Treaties of France: Treaties of France
French membership in international organisations: French membership in international organisations
Since 1945 France and the United Nations: France and the United Nations
France and NATO: France and NATO
1966-2009 French withdrawal from NATO: 1966-2009 French withdrawal from NATO
November 2019 Macron criticised over Nato 'brain death' claims: 7 November 2019: France's Macron criticised by USA and Germany over Nato 'brain death' claims
August 2019 G7 summit in Biarritz: 24-26 August 2019 G7 summit in Biarritz
24 August 2019 G7 emergency talks over Amazon wildfires crisis: 24 August 2019: G7 leaders to hold emergency talks over Amazon wildfires crisis
Foreign relations of France by continent and country: Foreign relations of France by continent - Bilateral relations of France
France/Africa relations: France/Africa relations
France/Algeria relations: France/Algeria relations
1830-1962 rule in Algeria: 1830-1962 French rule in Algeria
Since 1960 French nuclear test site Reggane: France and weapons of mass destruction - France and nuclear weapons
France/Americas relations: France/Americas relations
From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade: From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery: Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery
France/Angola relations: France/Angola relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
France/Asia relations: France/Asia relations
1887-1954 'French Indochina': 1887-1954 'French Indochina'
France/Belgium relations: France/Belgium relations
France/Benin relations: France/Benin relations
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War: February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War
1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War: 1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War
August 1960 Dahomey's independence from France: On 1 August 1960 Dahomey declared independence from France
France/Brazil relations: France/Brazil relations
France-Brazil economic relations: France-Brazil economic relations
France/Burkina Faso relations: France/Burkina Faso relations
France/Chad relations: France/Chad relations
France-Chad trade relations: France-Chad trade relations
France/Republic of the Congo relations: France/Republic of the Congo relations
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum
France/Egypt relations: France/Egypt relations
France/Equatorial Guinea relations: France/Equatorial Guinea relations
2014-2018: First World War 1914-1918 centenary 2014-2018 - 12 octobre 2013: Les commémorations du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale, qui devraient se prolonger sur cinq ans, ont été partiellement dévoilées à Blois - 12 November 2013: French police detained about 70 people at an Armistice Day memorial ceremony on Monday after protesters whom the government said were linked to the far right booed President Hollande - 29 mai 2016: Les africains, qui se sont battus dans les tranchées, et le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun de la première guerre mondiale déclarée par l'Allemagne - 29 mai 2016: Bayeux a commémoré le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, conçue par le commandant en chef de l'Armée allemande général Erich von Falkenhayn comme une bataille d'attrition pour 'saigner à blanc l'Armée française' sous un déluge d'obus - 29 mai 2016: Cannes commémore le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, la plus terrible bataille que l'humanité ait connue - 29 mai 2016: Cent ans après l'enfer de Verdun, François Hollande et Angela Merkel commémoraient la bataille de Verdun, une journée placée sous le signe de l'Europe dans un contexte difficile
France/Greece relations: France/Greece relations
France/Haiti relations: France/Haiti relations
1625-1809 Colony of France Saint-Domingue: Colony of France Saint-Domingue 1625-1809
Since 1804 external debt of Haiti: External debt of Haiti, one of the main factors that has caused the country's persistent poverty, after the slaves declared themselves free and the country independent in 1804 and France, with the complicity of its allies, demanded that the newly formed country pay the French government and French slaveholders the modern equivalent of US $21 billion dollars for the 'theft' of the slaves' own lives and the land that they had turned into profitable sugar and coffee-producing plantations, this independence debt was financed by French banks and the American Citibank, and finally paid off 143 years later, in 1947 - The Haiti indemnity controversy culminated in an agreement by Haiti to a 1825 gold demand by France for a FRF 150 million indemnity to be paid by the Republic of Haiti in claims over property lost through the Haitian Revolution, delivered to the country by 12 French warships armed with 528 cannons, in return for diplomatic recognition
France/India relations: France/India relations
France/Iran relations: France/Iran relations
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
France/Iraq relations: France/Iraq relations
France/Israel relations: France/Israel relations
France/Italy relations: France/Italy relations
France/Japan relations: France/Japan relations
France/Jordan relations: France/Jordan relations
France/Korea relations: France/Korea relations
France/North Korea relations: France/North Korea relations
France/South Korea relations: France/South Korea relations
France/Laos relations: France/Laos relations
1893–1945, 1946–1953 French 'Protectorate' of Laos: French Protectorate of Laos 1893–1945, 1946–1953
France/Lebanon relations: France/Lebanon relations
France/Libya relations: France/Libya relations
Since 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, trial and Libyan compensation: 19 September 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, investigation, trial and Libyan compensation
Since 2007 alleged Libyan influence in the French elections: Alleged Libyan influence in the 2007 French elections
April 2019 France’s double game in Libya: 17 April 2019: France’s double game in Libya
13-20 April 2019 Libyan protests against Haftar's offensive and backers: 13 April 2019: Thousands of Libyans came out to demonstrate in Tripoli and Misrata against the war on Tripoli waged by Khalifa Haftar, calling for a civilian state and objecting to possible military rule with placards not only denouncing Haftar but also his French, UAE and Saudi backers - 15 April 2019: Some foreign states unified by aim of Libyan instability, Libyan government spokesperson says - 15 April 2019: Civilian casualties and displacement expected to increase in Libya due to continued use of air strikes and heavy artillery, UN report says - 20 April 2019: Libyans accuse France of backing Tripoli assault, as protesters demonstrated in the Libyan capital Tripoli against the offensive by military strongman Haftar
France/Mali relations: France/Mali relations
France/Middle East relations: France/Middle East relations
France/Monaco relations: France/Monaco relations
France/Morocco relations: France/Morocco relations
1912-1956 French 'protectorate' of Morocco: French 'protectorate' of Morocco 1912-1956
France/Norway relations: France/Norway relations
France/Russia relations: France/Russia relations
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
Since May 2017: 29 May 2017: As USA senator calls Russian Putin the biggest threat to global security, French Macron welcomes and hosts war criminal Putin at the former royal palace of Versailles outside Paris, exchanging cordial handshakes and smiles, kneeling down in ridiculous posture before Putin and the absolute monarchy, betraying the French revolution since 1789 and the Syrian people and democracy attacked since 2011 by Assad, Putin and Ali Khamenei, after France's president and government still called in October 2016 for war crimes investigation against Russia over Syria - 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says, calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
France/Rwanda relations: France/Rwanda relations
1994 Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide: Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide 1994
France/Saudi-Arabia relations: France/Saudi Arabia relations since 1926
France/Senegal relations: France/Senegal relations
1659 French conquest of Senegal: French conquest of Senegal 1659 - Ndar (Saint-Louis)
1895-1958 French West Africa: French West Africa 1895-1958
1960 Independence of Senegal: 1960 Independence of Senegal
France/Spain relations: France/Spain relations
17th century France/Spain relations: 17th century France/Spain relations
18th century France/Spain relations: 18th century France/Spain relations
July 1808 Battle of Bailén: July 1808 Battle of Bailén
19th century Latin American revolutions and wars of independence: Following the French invasion of Spain during the early 19th century, American opposition against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence, as after the restoration of rule by Ferdinand VII in 1814 and his rejection of the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, social and political movements hardened their stance toward Spanish colonialism and they increasingly sought political independence - During the late 18th and early 19th centuries Latin American revolutions and wars of independence, resulting in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America following the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the British, Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies in the Americas
1939-1946 Camp de Gurs: 1939-1946 Camp de Gurs
21th century France/Spain relations: 21th century France/Spain relations
France/Switzerland relations: France/Switzerland relations
France/Syria relations: France/Syria relations
August/September 2013: 27 August: President Hollande says that France was 'ready to punish' those behind last week's deadly chemical attack in Syria - 30 August: President François Hollande says that the UK parliamentary vote against taking military action in Syria would not affect France’s will to act alongside the United States in 'punishing' Assad regime for a chemical weapons attack - 2 September: Assad forces carried out a 'massive and coordinated' chemical attack on August 21 near Damascus posing a major threat to national and global security, according to a declassified French intelligence report - 7 September 2013: International support is growing for a strong response to the chemical weapons attack by the Syrian regime, France's foreign minister Fabius said during a joint press conference with USA counterpart Kerry - 20 September 2013: France suggests it is ready to give weapons to Syria's opposition in a 'controlled framework' - 29 septembre 2013: Appel de parlementaires PS et EELV à une aide militaire aux forces de l'opposition en Syrie
2014/2015: 13 May: France calls on United Nations to refer Syrian War to International Criminal Court - 27 February 2015: France and Britain dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition - 5 March: French President Hollande receives Syrian Coalition delegation in Paris - 23 May 2015: A majority of 55% of French people are in favour of a military intervention by France in Syria, poll says - 27 September 2015: France launches first airstrikes against Islamic State terrorists in Syria, as French president says 'civilian populations must be protected against all forms of violence, ... also against the murderous bombings of Bashar al-Assad' - 29 September: In New York, Syrian Coalition's Khoja and France's Hollande agree on Syria without Assad, as Khoja explains the regime’s brutal practices against civilians, most notably using barrel bombs which account for nearly 95% of the overall civilian deaths in Syria, and as France will discuss with its partners in the coming days a proposal by Turkey and the Syrian opposition for a no-fly zone in northern Syria - 30 September: France is investigating Bashar al-Assad over alleged crimes against humanity, also examining claims of torture and kidnapping by Assad's forces and opened 'on the basis of indications received from the foreign ministry' on 10 September - 8 October: France will support establishing safe zones in Syria - 24 October 2015: France's FM Fabius announced that Paris will host foreign-minister level talks on Syria on 27 October, adding that Russia's foreign minister Lavrov will not be part of the talks and reiterating that Bashar al-Assad could not be part of any solution in Syria
2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 1 April 2016: France accuses Syrian Assad regime of violating ceasefire, saying that airstrikes in south-east Damascus were intended to terrorise people and undermine international peace efforts - 11 June 2016: Photos of 1,000 Syrian detainees out of hundreds of thousands of detainees currently in Assad’s prisons will be raised by Syrian and French activists at the 'Place de la Bastille' in Paris - 10 October 2016: Saying that France is 'committed as never before to saving the population of Aleppo’ and that he will ask the international court of justice to investigate possible war crimes in Syria French FM Ayrault also says that President Hollande will take into account the situation in Syria's Aleppo when deciding whether to see Russia's Putin when he visits Paris on 19 October - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria - 21 November 2016: At a meeting with French FM Jean-Marc Ayrault Syrian Coalition's Hijab stresses that the brutal onslaught on Aleppo by Assad and its Russian and Iranian allies are war crimes and crimes against humanity, calling upon the international community to assume its duty to stop Assad and Russia’s massacres in Syria - 2 December 2016: The Syrian civil defense was awarded the Franco-German Prize for Human Rights and the Rule of Law a few days after receiving the Alternative Nobel Prize honoring their humanitarian role in relief work, as French FM Ayrault condemns the attacks that target civilians and hospitals in Aleppo, adding that systematic war crimes are being committed in the war-torn city and that the international community often ignores these crimes, as Syrian Coalition's Abdah calls for urgent action to save the people of Aleppo from the ongoing genocide, warning of an unprecedented humanitarian disaster that will have serious political, humanitarian consequences for the Syrian people and the peoples of the region
2017: 9 January 2017: Syria's war criminal al-Assad on Sunday received a number of members of the French National Assembly, headed by Thierry Mariani - 22 June 2017: France's Macron breaks with previous French policy in support of the struggle for freedom and democracy also in Syria, saying that 'nobody has shown me a legitimate successor' to Syria's dictators Hafez al-Assad 1970-2000 and Bashar al-Assad since 2000 - 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses - 3 juillet 2017: Des intellectuels et spécialistes français et syriens reprochent au président français son revirement à propos de Bachar el-Assad, qu'ils qualifient d'erreur d'analyse majeure - 20 September 2017: During meeting with French president, opposition leader Hijab ties a successful solution to the Syrian crisis with the prosecution of Assad - 26 December 2017: French rights groups and associations are seeking to coordinate their efforts to condemn the Assad regime at European and international judicial institutions, such as the European Court and the International Criminal Cour
France/Tunisia relations: France/Tunisia relations
1881-1956 French conquest and 'protectorate' of Tunisia: French conquest of Tunisia 1881 - French 'protectorate' of Tunisia 1881-1956
France/Turkey relations: France/Turkey relations
France/Ukraine relations: France/Ukraine relations
25/26 June 2019: 25 June 2019: Ukrainian president Zelensky is disappointed by PACE's decision to reinstate the voting rights of the Russian regime, saying he 'tried to convince Mr. Macron and Mrs. Merkel that the return of the Russian delegation to the PACE is possible only after Russia fulfills the Assembly's fundamental requirements. It is a pity that our European partners haven't heard us' - 26 June 2019: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE is reportedly set to lift remaining sanctions from the murderous Russian regime after it became known that PACE committees had considered the question of the powers of Russia's delegation and recommended they should be reinstated with simultaneous cancellation of the remaining restrictions left after the Assembly passed a respective resolution, in order to get regime's contribution to the council’s annual budget, as Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko said 'money turned out [to be] more important than principles'
France/United Kingdom relations: France/United Kingdom relations
1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars: 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars tragedy
2015: 18 February 2015: United Kingdom's Chelsea soccer fans prompt outcry with racist behavior in Paris - 18 February 2015: British Chelsea soccer fans prompt outcry with racist behavior in Paris - 1 August 2015: As part of a long-running dispute over 600 job losses, striking French ferry workers block Calais port route with huge fire, causing gridlock amid attempts by dozens of migrants to cross Channel to UK - 21 August 2015: Britain and France announced a new 'command and control centre' to tackle smuggling gangs in Calais, as Europe grapples with its biggest migration crisis since World War II - 2 November 2015: Refugees in northern France face hard conditions as winter nears - 2 décembre 2015: De nouveau affrontements ont eu lieu sur la rocade portuaire de Calais dans la crise migratoire en Europe
2016: 1 March 2016: Calais camp is razed by French authorities with nowhere for most refugees to go - 20 June 2016: France’s first Shakespearean-style theatre near Condette in northern France built as tribute to Anglo-French friendship vandalised - 26 juillet 2016: Un migrant éthiopien a été tué aux abords de la 'Jungle' de Calais lors de rixes, qui ont également fait six blessés, et ont éclaté 'à proximité du camp opposant des migrants africains (Soudanais, Erythréens, Ethiopiens) et afghans' - 24 September 2016: Up to 1,000 unaccompanied minors will be left to fend for themselves when the bulldozers move in Calais refugee camp and French authorities hope Britain will honour pledges and rescue minors - 1 October: Child refugees at Calais plunged into despair by plan to close camp - 23 October 2016: Despite concerns about the safety of thousands of children and vulnerable adults living there, French officials are expected to press ahead with plans to start dismantling the Calais refugee camp on Monday - 27 October 2016: Charities fear for safety of unregistered minors as French officials try to declare camp's clearout complete and fires ravage camp - 5 November 2016: Nearly all of the children who stayed in the now demolished Calais camp for refugees have a mental health condition such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression, according to 'Citizens UK', which is supporting scores of children dispersed around France - 19 November 2016: Child refugees sent from the demolished Calais 'jungle' to supposedly safe welcome centres across France claim they have been pressed into forced labour
France/USA relations: France/USA relations - French American
1939-1945 World War II, France stayed in Indochina tolerated by Japan: France stayed in Indochina during 1939-1945 World War II, tolerated by the Japanese Army
France/Yemen relations: France/Yemen relations
Forests of France: Forests of France
Water pollution in France: Water pollution in France
Fauna of France and endangered species: Fauna of France - List of birds of Metropolitan France

Germany - Geography of Germany - Demographics of Germany
History of Germany: History of Germany
Second 'careers', protection of Nazi murderers (ongoing):
2011: 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012/2013: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 2 September: Germany tries 92-year-old member of the Nazi Waffen SS Siert Bruins for Nazi war crime - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir
24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 juillet 2019: Suite à la plainte de familles de victimes du massacre de 86 civils à Ascq, commis dans la nuit du 1er au 2 avril 1944 par des SS y compris Karl Münter, ce l'ancien SS, qui a assuré que le chiffre de 6 millions de juifs assassinés par les nazis était exagéré lors d'un entretien à la chaîne publique ARD diffusé le 29 novembre 2018, qui a estimé que les victimes d'Ascq étaient aussi responsables de leur mort, est enfin mis en accusation maintenant pour incitation à la haine, après en mars 2018, le Parquet allemand avait en effet annoncé l'abandon des poursuites parce que le suspect avait déjà été condamné à mort par contumace par un tribunal militaire en France en 1949 et qu'il ne pouvait donc être jugé une seconde fois pour ces mêmes faits
Automotive industry in Germany: Automotive industry in Germany
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Since 1914 Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history: Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history - Since 1914 Chemical weapons in World War I
Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
Economic history and economic cycles in Germany: Economic history of Germany since 1945
Labor and labor relations in Germany: Labor in Germany - German labour law - Trade unions in Germany
1996: 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen)
Since 1955 list of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers: List of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers - 1940-1945 Adolf Heusinger devient chef de la section des opérations ('Operationsabteilung') à l’OKH et participe aux décisions opérationnelles et stratégiques, les crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - Heinrich Trettner 1907-2006, rejoint la Légion Condor et sert comme adjudant et officier d'opérations du Generalmajor Hugo Sperrle et Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen durant la Guerre civile d'Espagne, ensuite un Generalleutnant allemand qui a servi au sein de la Heer dans la Wehrmacht pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de 1964 à 1966 Inspecteur général de la Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr)
German military personnel: German military personnel
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany (see also 'crime in Germany', explained further below): List of intelligence agencies of Germany
Military budget of Germany: Military budget of Germany
Taxation in Germany: Taxation in Germany
Federal budget of Germany: Federal budget of Germany
Politics of Germany: Politics of Germany
Elections and politics in Germany: Elections in Germany - Political parties in Germany
Federal election 2013: German federal election 22 September 2013 - 22 septembre 2013: Les Allemands ont voté en masse dimanche matin pour les élections législatives qui devraient confirmer Angela Merkel - 23 September: Germany's CDU/CSU wins by a landslide but faces tough coalition choices - 23/24 September: 'This morning I stood in front of my wardrobe and I thought red is no good, bright green is no good, blue was yesterday, what are you going to do?' CDU chancellor Merkel said - 17 octobre 2013: Merkel tente un rapprochement avec les sociaux-démocrates - 20 octobre: La convention du parti social-démocrate a donné son feu vert aux négociations pour former une coalition avec la CDU - 27 November: CDU/CSU and SPD reach deal on forming a coalition - 14 décembre 2013: Feu vert des sociaux-démocrates à la 'grande coalition' dans un référendum interne - 18 December: Angela Merkel elected to a third term as chancellor in a vote in the German lower house of parliament
May 2014 German European Parliament election: German European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - 13 October 2015: Anti-refugee protesters create a gallows for Angela Merkel over her open-door refugee policies as housing for those who have fled the Middle East are daubed in racist graffiti - 17 October 2015: Henriette Reker, running for the office of the Mayor of Cologne, was seriously wounded by an assailant with a knife while shouting against refugees - 7 November 2015: Just two days after resolving a coalition row over how to handle the record influx of refugees, row over their status reopened by the CDU/CSU interior minister saying Syrian refugees would receive a modified status and be barred from having family members join them
May 2019 European Parliament election in Germany: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Germany
Subdivisions of Germany: Subdivisions of Germany
Municipalities, cities and towns in Germany: Municipalities of Germany - List of cities and towns in Germany
History of Baden-Württemberg: History of Baden-Württemberg
History of Bavaria: History of Bavaria
Munich Metropolitan Region: Munich Metropolitan Region
History of Brandenburg, Prussia and Berlin: History ofPrussia - History of Brandenburg
18 January 1871 Berlin becomes capital of the German Empire: Since 18 January 1871 Berlin becomes capital of the newly unified German Empire
Since October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital: 3 October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital of the 'Federal Republic of Germany'
Jews and Judaism in Berlin: Jews and Judaism in Berlin
History of Hesse: History of Hesse
History of North Rhine-Westphalia: History of North Rhine-Westphalia
History of cities in North Rhine-Westphalia: History of cities in North Rhine-Westphalia
History of Rhineland-Palatinate: History of Rhineland-Palatinate
History of Saxony: History of Saxony
History of Saxony-Anhalt: History of Saxony-Anhalt
September 2019 Brandenburg state election: 1 September 2019 Brandenburg state election
May 2019 Bremen state election: 26 May 2019 Bremen state election
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen): Elections in Lower Saxony
2011 local elections in Lower Saxony: 11. September 2011 Kommunalwahlen Niedersachsen
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen): State elections in North Rhine-Westphalia
Rhineland-Palatinate: Elections in Rhineland-Palatinate
2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election: March 2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election
September 2019 Saxony state election: 1 September 2019 Saxony state election
2011 Saxony-Anhalt state election: March 2011 Saxony-Anhalt state election
March 2016 Saxony-Anhalt state election: 13. März 2016 Landtagswahl in Sachsen-Anhalt
Social movements and protests: Protests in Germany
2015: 5 January 2015: Thousands take to the streets in Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden to oppose racism and xenophobia - 10 January: Tens of thousands of people rally in Dresden against racism and xenophobia - 12 January: 'Anti-Islamisation' Pegida marchers were outnumbered by tens of thousands counterdemonstrators across the country, with 30,000 people in Leipzig, 20,000 in Munich, in Dresden and other cities - 13 January: Rally to condemn the Paris jihadist attacks and take a stand against Islamophobia draws 10,000 people in Berlin - 19 April: Thousands in Germany protest against Europe-USA trade deal that they fear will erode food, labour and environmental standards - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria
2016: 16 January 2016: Thousands of protesters in Berlin call for organic farming, which is done without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, without the use of antibiotics for livestock and GMO feed, also protesting against corporate agriculture as well as the pending TTIP free trade agreement between the EU and the USA - 11 avril 2016: Environ 45'000 salariés de la sidérurgie ont manifesté pour dire leurs inquiétudes quant à leur avenir, dans un secteur soumis à la concurrence féroce des acteurs chinois - 24 April 2016: Tens of thousands of opponents of a proposed transatlantic trade deal poured onto German streets Saturday on the eve of a visit by USA's Obama - 29 avril 2016: Plusieurs débrayages ont eu lieu dans toute l'Allemagne pour réclamer de meilleures conditions de travail et une augmentation de salaires pour une vaste branche fourre-tout qui recouvre l'automobile, les industries électriques, la métallurgie, et emploie 3,4 millions de personnes
June/July 2017: 27 June 2017: Greenpeace, Oxfam and other organizations, preparing protests against the G20 summit in July, demand solutions and cooperation to combat famines, inequality, climate change, wars and displacements, not provided by present G20 policy, and call for developing democracy, strengthening parliaments, creating transparency, enabling effective public participation in important decisions, also in Germany and Hamburg, that will host Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in July - Proteste und Gegenveranstaltungen gegen den G20-Gipfel in Hamburg am 7./8. Juli 2017 - zahlreiche Bündnisse und Initiativen organisieren Veranstaltungen um Alternativen zum beim G20 vertretenen Wirtschaftssystem aufzuzeigen - 7 July 2017: New York city mayor Bill De Blasio, one of Trump's sharpest critics, will take part in protests against the G20 summit in Hamburg and will be a keynote speaker on Saturday at a rally for human rights and democracy
January 2019 remembrance of the 100th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: In January 2019 German democrats commemorated the 100th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht - 13 January 2019: Jewish-born anti-war and anti-racism activist and scientist Rosa Luxemburg, who was killed in 1919 amid renewed repression following WWI, commemorated Sunday two days before the 100th anniversary of her murder in Berlin, as a whole week of events is planned for the commemoration, although neo-Nazi linked politicians have tried to ban demonstrations honoring 'enemies of democracy and free society' - 13 janvier 2019: Karl Liebknecht, autre personnage majeur contre la guerre 1914-1918, assassiné lui aussi en janvier 1919, a attiré plusieurs milliers de sympathisants dimanche dans le centre de la capitale.
Society, demographics, languages, human rights, religion, racism and antisemitism in Germany: German society - Demographics of Germany - Human rights in Germany - Ethnic groups in Germany - Immigrants to Germany
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages - Category: Jewish German history - Antisemitism and Holocaust (the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany) in Germany and Europe - The end of the Cold War 1990/91 contributed to a growth in the Jewish people of Germany with a population of more than 100,000 registered citizens - May 2005: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe - sixty years after the end of World War II - 14 September 2014: 'Stand Up Against Anti-Semitism: No More Jew-Hatred' Rally at the Brandenburg Gate on Sunday afternoon in the middle of Berlin, attended by 5,000 people - 20 February 2015: Berlin's Jewish community removes its logo on envelopes containing its monthly magazine to protect members from anti-Semitic attacks
October 2012 memorial in Berlin to Roma and Sinti victims: 24 October 2012: Long-delayed memorial in Berlin to Roma and Sinti victims of the Nazis
Arabs in Germany: Arabs in Germany
Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany: Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany
Kurds in Germany: Kurds in Germany
Russians in Germany: Russians in Germany
Spaniards in Germany: Spaniards in Germany
Turks in Germany: Turks in Germany
Immigration and refugees in Germany: Immigration to Germany
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'
Music in Germany and history: Music in Germany - History of music in Germany
Religion and history of religion in Germany: History of religion in Germany - Religion in Germany
Christianity and antisemitism: Christianity and antisemitism - Medieval antisemitism
Antisemitism in Germany and Europe: Antisemitism in Germany - Antisemitism in Europe
Religious disaffiliation (Kirchenaustritte): Kirchenaustritte in Deutschland
Women and women's rights in Germany: Women in Germany - Women's rights in Germany
2016: 5 janvier 2016: Entre 200 et 300 personnes se sont rassemblées devant la cathédrale de Cologne pour appeler à plus de respect envers les femmes - 2016 New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robbery in Germany - 8 January 2016: German police have identified 18 asylum-seekers among 31 suspects in connection with crimes committed in Cologne at New Year, as government spokesman tells reporters that there are 9 Algerians, 8 Moroccans, 5 Iranians, 4 Syrians, 2 Germans and one person each from Iraq, Serbia and the USA among the suspects - 11 May 2016: Women's rights activists say that while government plans to allow women to compare their salaries against peers were a good start, more still needs to be done - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
Childhood and children's rights in Germany: Childhood in Germany - Children's rights in Germany
Universities and colleges in Germany: Universities and colleges in Germany by state
History museums in Germany: History museums in Germany
Since 1997 Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma: Since 1997 Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma was established in Heidelberg
Health disasters in Germany: Health disasters in Germany
Drugs in Germany: Drugs in Germany
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany
Freedom of press and censorship in Germany: Freedom of press in Germany - Censorship in Germany
March 1914 German newspapers beat the war drums: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
Since March 1935 Television history in Germany: Television history in Germany began in Berlin March 1935
Crime in Germany: Crime in Germany
Racism in Germany: Racism in Germany
Since 17th century German colonialism in Africa and worldwide since 19th century: Since 1680 German colonization of Africa - Since 1884 German colonial empire -
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
July 2014: 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March
2015: 5 January 2015: A 26-year-old Israeli was beaten by a group of seven men on a Berlin subway car after he filmed them singing an anti-Semitic song and refused to delete the video - 27 January 2015: Auschwitz survivors gather for memorial 70 years after liberation - 17 February: Jewish cemetery in the northern German city of Oldenburg vandalized, targeted over the past few years by right-wing extremists - 28 June 2015: Berlin’s philharmonic’s new conductor met by anti-Semitism in German press, as NDR website calls Russian-born Kirill Petrenko, philharmonic’s first Jewish conductor, 'the tiny gnome, the Jewish caricature' - 16 November 2015: Ursula Haverbeck after calling the Holocaust in a statement broadcast on television outside of the trial of former SS guard Oskar Groening 'the biggest and most sustainable lie in history', sentenced to 10 months in jail
Since 19th century timeline of Nazism and since 1919 NSDAP's rise to power: Since 19th century timeline of Nazism in Germany - Since 1919 Adolf Hitler's rise to power
1914-1918 World War I and German Empire since 1871: World War I 1914-1918 and German Empire since 1871 - German war crimes in World War I
15 January 1919 SPD-linked ordered assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: 15 January 1919 ordered assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht - German army officer Pabst, who ordered the executions of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in 1919 as well as summary executions of many other Communist Party of Germany members, was never brought to justice even in the later Federal Republic of Germany, became an industrialist and eventually Director of Rheinmetall Borsig in Berlin, later settled in Switzerland, where he took a post with the arms manufacturer Oerlikon and following World War II, Pabst took some involvement in the activities of the neo-Nazi Bruderschaften, small groups that existed across Europe and which attempted to co-ordinate their political activism, later returned to Germany in 1955, settling in Düsseldorf, and there became involved with neo-Nazis - In 1962 in an interview and in his memoirs, Pabst maintained that he had talked in 1919 on the phone with SPD-Noske in the Chancellery, and that SPD-Noske and SPD-Ebert had approved of his assassination actions, never challenged, especially since neither the Reichstag, the Bundestag nor the courts in Germany until today ever examined the case
1918-1933 Political violence in Germany: 1918-1933 Political violence in Germany
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
German war crimes in World War II, crimes of the Wehrmacht and the Holocaust: German war crimes in World War II - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - The Holocaust
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany: List of intelligence agencies of Germany - Bundesnachrichtendienst BND's Nazi tradition
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
Since 1945 neo-Nazism in Germany: Chauvinism, fascism and neo-Nazism in Germany - Neo-Nazism
Nazi terrorism since 1945, Nazi party 'NPD' and neo-Nazi linked AfD in German parliaments: Todesopfer rechtsextremer Gewalt in Deutschland nach 1945
11. April 1968 Attentat auf Rudi Dutschke: 11. April 1968 Attentat auf Rudi Dutschke in West-Berlin
September 1991 Riot of Hoyerswerda: Riot of Hoyerswerda September 1991
August 1992 Riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen: Riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen August 1992
1992 Mordanschlag von Mölln: Mordanschlag von Mölln 1992
1999 Hetzjagd in Guben: Hetzjagd in Guben 1999
Since 1990th to 2011 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group: 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group's serial murders - Neonazi-Mordserie bis 2011
2011/2012: 12. November 2011: Mordserie an Ausländern und Polizistin von seit 90er Jahren bekannten Neonazis - 13 November 2011: Police made a second arrest after the discovery of evidence linking a Nazi group to 10 murders - Untersuchungsausschuss zur Terrorgruppe Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund seit Januar 2012 - 13. März 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei polizeilicher Aktion gegen die kriminelle Vereinigung 'Aktionsbüro Mittelrhein' und deren 'Braunes Haus' - 27 March 2012: 'Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose a threat', British TV report says - 30. Mai 2012: Von fünf mutmasslichen Helfern der Rechtsterroristen sind nur noch zwei in Haft - 15. Juni 2012: Bundesgerichtshof hebt Haftbefehl gegen weiteren mutmaßlichen Helfer der rechtsterroristischen NSU auf - 28. Juni 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' vernichtete im November 2011 Akten über seine Verbindung zu Naziterroristen nach Aufforderung zu deren Übermittlung - 23. November 2012: Bundespräsident Gauck lehnt Treffen mit den Opferfamilien der NSU-Morde ab und schlägt Bitte der Türkischen Gemeinde für ein persönliches Treffen zum Jahrestag der Aufdeckung der NSU-Mordserie aus
2013: 26 Mart 2013: Almanya’da sekizi Türk 10 kisiyi öldüren neonazi terör örgütü NSU’nun yargilanacagi davada Münih Yüksek Eyalet Mahkemesi - 2. April 2013: 50 'Verfassungsschutz' V-Leute im NSU-Umfeld identifiziert, schwerste Straftaten, hohe Honorare des Staates (fünf- bis sechsstellig) und oftmals ohne Strafverfolgung - 2. April: Celal Özcan erklärt. daß 'Hürriyet' immer wieder beim OLG München angerufen und um eine Vorabinformation gebeten habe, wann die Akkreditierungsfrist beginnen würde - 'die Verfahrensweise ist ungerecht und nicht akzeptabel' - 2. April: Statt das Anliegen, die Teilnahme türkischer Medien und der Botschaft am NSU-Prozeß vor dem Münchner OLG zu gewährleisten, als Vorsitzender des Auswärtigen Ausschusses nach Kräften zu unterstützen, maßt sich CDU-Polenz von der Kiesinger/Filbinger/Globke-CDU an, die 'türkische Politik' 'dringend zu warnen' - vor dem Zustand eines Landes, dessen Behörden den Naziterror sogar finanziell gefördert haben (ein Grund, sich zu schämen und zu entschuldigen), und welchen auch dieser CDU/CSU-Politiker mit herbeigeführt hat und nun selbst offenbart - 4 April: A Turkish newspaper complains to Germany's highest court over German neo-Nazi trial access - 12 avril: La Cour constitutionnelle allemande a ordonné au tribunal de Munich d'accorder des places supplémentaires aux médias étrangers pour couvrir le procès de néonazis jugés à partir de mercredi pour des meurtres racistes - 15 avril: Le procès de néo-nazis allemands accusés de meurtres racistes est reporté au 6 mai - 25 April: The German lower house, the Bundestag, refuses to back a ban of the neo-nazi party NPD
2015: 21 January 2015: The leader of far-right and anti-Muslim movement Pegida resigned after a photo of him posing as Hitler and reports that he called refugees 'scumbags' - 11 February 2015: German refugee centres face drastic rise in extremist attacks - 23 Februar 2015: Bachmann wieder im Pegida-Vorstand - 9 March 2015: Village of Tröglitz mayor Markus Nierth quits over neo-Nazi protest after neo-Nazis were given permission to demonstrate outside his home over his support of asylum seekers - 29. März 2015: Zeugin und Ex-Freundin von Florian H. tot, der im Herbst 2013 im Auto verbrannte bevor er im NSU-Ausschuß aussagen konnte - 4 April 2015: Asylum seekers' accommodation set on fire in suspected far-right arson attack in village of Tröglitz - 22 April 2015: Germany grapples with attitudes to asylum seekers - 6 May 2015: Police detained four people suspected of setting up a right-wing extremist group that was planning bomb attacks on Muslims and refugees, as a separate investigation began into arsonists who damaged a shelter for asylum-seekers - 30 July 2015: A worrying rise of fire bombings and violent attacks on asylum-seekers has marred German attempts to integrate desperate refugees from Syria, Eritrea and also people from the Balkans, as in the past 25 years in Germany 75 people have been murdered in rightwing extremist attacks - 23 August 2015: The outbreak of violence by right-wing radicals against refugees followed a demonstration of some 1,000 people in Heidenau, near Dresden against the roughly 250 refugees - 26 August: Two new attacks hit refugee centres in Leipzig and Parchim - 17 October 2015: Mayoral candidate Henriette Reker, responsible for taking charge of refugees in her city, stabbed in Cologne in a racist attack wounding four other people and linked to migrants policy - 19 October 2015: At the anniversary of the Pegida rallies in Dresden on 19 October 2015 keynote speaker Pirinçci tries to stir up hatred against refugees in Europe and Germany saying 'KZs sind ja leider derzeit außer Betrieb' - 22 October 2015: In the first three quarters of 2015 there were a total of 461 attacks across Germany against asylum seekers’ homes believed to have been driven by xenophobic motives, including scores of arson attacks - 7 December: Germany's constitutional court to hear case on banning neo-Nazi NPD in March 2016 - 22 December 2015: A German town council member of the National Democratic party has been given only a suspended sentence over a tattoo bearing a notorious Nazi concentration camp slogan and a rendering of Auschwitz
2016: 11 January 2016: Two Pakistanis and a Syrian man were injured in attacks by gangs of people in Cologne, German police said late on Sunday - 11 January 2016: Gangs attacked groups of foreigners in four separate incidents on Sunday in Cologne, after attackers reportedly arranged via Facebook to go on 'manhunt' of foreigners after assaults on women on New Year’s Eve - 12 January: Over 200 masked anti-refugee supporters, carrying placards with racist overtones, went on a rampage in the German city of Leipzig on Monday night, throwing fireworks, breaking windows and vandalising buildings, police says - 20 February 2016: A video showing a mob of people in Saxony chanting hate slogans at a bus full of visibly shaken refugees has sparked outrage among German social media users - 20 février: Tollé après la diffusion de vidéos montrant en Saxe des policiers évacuant brutalement un bus de demandeurs d'asile qui refusent de gagner leur foyer, effrayés par des manifestants anti-réfugié - 21 February: A fire that destroyed a hotel being converted into a shelter for refugees in Saxony's city of Bautzen was cheered and celebrated by onlookers, police say treating the incident as suspected arson - 8 March 2016: Congo-born priest Ndjimbi-Tshiende in Germany's Bavaria quits over death threats he received since speaking out in defence of refugees and after he was fed up with xenophobic utterances from prominent CSU local politicians Sylvia Boher and Johann Haindi - 19 April 2016: In diesem Jahr sind in Deutschland bereits mehr als 300 Straftaten gegen Asylunterkünfte verübt worden - 11. Mai 2016: Mobiltelefon des mittlerweile toten Neonazis 'Corelli', V-Mann des sogenannten 'Verfassungsschutzes', aufgetaucht, welches 2012 (!) bei der Aufnahme in ein 'Zeugenschutzprogramm' der NSU-Untersuchung übergeben wurde und auf dem sich zahlreiche Bild-Dateien und Kontakte befinden - 6 July 2016: Anti-immigration party AfD plunged into a leadership crisis over Holocaust denial and antisemitic views expressed by one of its MPs - 13 July 2016: A group of young men left a black man bloodied and unconscious after he tried to stop them harassing some Somalis in Munich - 16 August 2016: Berlin authorities must cancel contracts with Pewobe company that runs nine homes for asylum seekers after leaked emails showed managers including a former DVU member joking about executing refugees, suggesting to invest a €5,000 donation from BMW in 'a small guillotine for children' and joking that disposing of the bodies would require a 'large-volume crematorium' - 27 September 2016: Police suspect a 'xenophobic motive’ after two improvised explosive devices detonated outside a mosque and congress centre in Dresden on Monday - 7 October: A group of young people in eastern Germany's Sebnitz threatened three Syrian refugee children with a knife and hit them before chanting right-wing slogans, police said - 20 October 2016: Police officer dies from injuries after being shot by Neo-Nazi 'Reichsbürger' extremist - 23 October 2016: As police and fire officers tried to persuade a Somali boy not to jump, onlookers were spending a long time, watching and calling on the migrant teen to leap from an apartment block in German town of Schmoelln and to suffer fatal injuries - 31 October 2016: Two weeks after a 'Reichsbürger' Neo-Nazi killed an officer during a police raid, German police are investigating within their own ranks for links to the extremist movement with the largest number of cases in Bavaria and Saxony-Anhalt
January/February 2018: 2 janvier 2018: La responsable du parti Alternative pour l'Allemagne a vu son tweet retiré des réseaux sociaux après avoir comparé les réfugiés à des 'hordes de barbares' - 22 February 2018: Germany's AfD set to embrace anti-Islam and neonazi-linked Pegida, as latest INSA poll this week showed the AfD on 16%, overtaking the SPD for the first time - 22 February 2018: A German-Russian dual national has been arrested and accused of 'politically motivated' attempted murder after he attacked three asylum seekers with a knife in Heilbronn - 27 February 2018: In a vote on Monday night, the local council in southwestern Germany's Herxheim near Heidelberg decided by 10 votes to 3 that a Nazi-era bell, complete with the inscription 'Everything for the Fatherland - Adolf Hitler', should continue to hang in the local church, as councilors said the bell, which also bears a swastika, should serve as a force for reconciliation and a memorial against violence and injustice
Terrorism in Germany: Terrorism in Germany
In the wake of the hostage-taking, public criticism of the Olympic Committee's decision to continue the games, but about 80,000 people who filled Munich's Olympic Stadium for a West German football match carried noisemakers, waved flags, and when several spectators unfurled a banner reading '17 dead, already forgotten?' security officers removed the sign and expelled those responsible from the grounds, the remaining members of the Israeli team withdrew from the Games and left Munich after a memorial service with the notorious Brundage - Accusation of German foreknowledge of the attack, revealed since 2012 - 1 December 2015: In 1992 the lawyer Mr. Zeltzer and Ms. Spitzer, the widow of the fencing coach Andre Spitzer, pressured the German government into releasing the file, which included the photographs 1972 Munich Olympic massacre's victims - 2 December 2015: Horrific new details emerge about the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre, as Israeli athletes were beaten until their bones snapped and one man was castrated by Palestinian terrorists
May 1993 Solingen arson attack: 28 May 1993 Solingen arson attack
22 July 2016 Munich shooting: 22 July 2016 Munich shooting - 22 July 2016: Munich police warned people to avoid public places as they hunted for the shooter who opened fire at a shopping mall, killing at least eight people and wounding others - 23 July: 18-year-old German-Iranian from Munich kills 9 people then himself in Munich terror rampage - 23 July: Munich attack reports, live updated by British newspaper - 24 July: 18-year-old Ali Sonboly from Munich, who killed nine people mostly teenagers including three children from Turkey, three ethnic Albanians from Kosovo and at least one Greek teenager, was reportedly obsessed with mass killings, played computer shooting games and was interested in the Neo-Nazi terrorist Anders Breivik, who murdered 77 mostly young people on 22 July 2011 targeting an AUF camp, and whose face was used by Sonboly as his profile picture on the WhatsApp messaging service - 24 July: Police arrest a 16-year-old Afghan youth on suspicion of a connection to the killing of nine people by Sonboly, as authorities confirmed that the gunman had written a manifesto before the attack without revealing any details about its content, and that he spent more than a year planning the attack and was able to buy a handgun on the dark web - 27. Juli 2016: Der Münchner Todesschütze Sonboly hat es Presseberichten zufolge als 'Auszeichnung' empfunden, am einem 20. April wie Adolf Hitler geboren worden zu sein, war als Deutsch-Iraner stolz darauf Arier zu sein, habe Araber und Türken gehasst und ihnen gegenüber 'Höherwertigkeitsgefühle' gehegt - 27 July: Police investigate Sonboly's targeting of people of foreign origin, saying the gunman was racist and a rightwing extremist
Political violence in Germany: Political violence in Germany
June 2019 murder of pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke: 2. Juni 2019 gewaltsamer Tod des Regierungspräsidenten des Regierungsbezirks Kassel Walter Lübcke - 9 June 2019: After neo-Nazi linked accounts on social media celebrated Lübcke’s death, drawing condemnation from across the political spectrum, detectives investigating the death of German politician Walter Lübcke have questioned a man in connection to the suspected murder - 17 June 2019: Identified only as Stephan E, with links to neo-Nazi groups, who once planted a pipe bomb outside a home for asylum seekers, is a suspect in the murder of German politician Lübcke, according to security sources - 26 June 2019: Stephan Ernst, a 45-year-old German man with a string of convictions for violent anti-migrant crime, has confessed to murdering a pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke
July 2916 Russian mafia 'increasingly active' in Germany: