European Union - member states, future enlargement, EU Parliament elections, EU states and worldwide 2016, EU states and worldwide 2017 and next general elections by continent

2017-2019 UK's withdrawal from the European Union

(Article since June 2011)





Austria - Geography of Austria - History of Austria - Demographics of Austria
Economy of Austria: Economy of Austria - List of companies of Austria - Tourism in Austria
Agriculture in Austria: Agriculture in Austria
Tourism in Austria: Tourism in Austria - Tourist attractions in Austria - Austria–Slovenia border
Banking in Austria: Banking in Austria - Banks of Austria - Hypo Group Alpe Adria - bank scandal - 14 December 2009: Austria nationalises ailing Hypo Group Alpe Adria
8. April 2013: Nach Luxemburg beginnt auch in Österreich das Bankgeheimnis zu bröckeln
Taxation in Austria: Taxation in Austria
Politics of Austria: Politics of Austria - Political parties in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Elections and politics in Austria: Elections in Austria
2008: 28 September 2008 Austrian legislative election
2010: 25 April 2010 Austrian presidential election - 10 October 2010 Viennese state election
2013: 3 March 2013 Carinthian state election - 3 mars 2013: En Carinthie les différents instituts de sondages donnent autour de 32% (contre 28,8% en 2009) au candidat social-démocrate Peter Kaiser contre seulement autour de 21% au gouverneur sortant de l'Etat régional - Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 2013
September 2013 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2013 Austrian legislative election - 29 septembre: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour 6,4 millions d'électeurs qui doivent renouveler les 183 députés de leur Conseil national - 29 septembre: La coalition sortante des sociaux-démocrates et conservateurs remporte la majorité absolue, forte poussée de l'extrême droite
2014 European Parliament election: Austria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015 Styrian and Vienna election: 31 May 2015 Styrian state election, Social Democrats win Styrian state election, securing 29.29% of the vote despite Freedom party gains - 11 October 2015: Social Democrats win Vienna election, securing 39.5% of Sunday’s vote, ahead of the Freedom party on 31%
April 2016 Austrian presidential election: 24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election - 25 April 2016: Far-right and anti-immigration 'Freedom' party's Norbert Hofer takes 36% of the vote as candidates from the two governing parties fail to make runoff
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Faymann quits as Austrian chancellor - 21 May 2016: Far-right Austrian presidential candidate Hofer accused of lying over Jerusalem terror incident
22 May Austrian presidential election second round - 23 mai 2016: Alexander Van der Bellen, former Green party leader, elected president in Austria in narrow defeat for far right
July 2016: 1 juillet 2016: Après un coup de théâtre sans précédent de l'invalidation du résultat de l'élection présidentielle par la Cour constitutionnelle les Autrichiens vont retourner aux urnes pour élire un président
December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election: 4 December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election - 5 December 2016: Austria’s voters have resoundingly rejected anti-immigration and eurosceptic Hofer’s bid to become EU’s first far-right president, instead electing former leader of the Green party Van der Bellen who said he would be an 'open-minded, liberal-minded and above all a pro-European president', a result greeted with relief
Social movements, criticism and protests: Protests in Austria
2009: 2009 student protests in Austria
2013: 2 February 2013: Nine protesters have been arrested for civil disorder in demonstrations against a right-wing ball in Vienna's imperial Hofburg Palace - 20 April 2013: Austrians disagree with their government over the need to maintain the country's banking secrecy, according to polls which showed a majority in favour of lifting the controversial measure
2015: 31 January 2015: Austrian police hold 38 people as thousands protest outside controversial palace ball in Vienna
September 2015: 1 September 2015: About 20,000 people took to the streets of Vienna on the eve of 1 September to demonstrate against ill-treatment of refugees, after the bodies of 71 people were found on Austria’s A4 motorway in an abandoned truck last week and as the European refugee and migrant crisis escalates - 1 September 2015: Along with several hundred citizens wanting to pay respect to refugees, Vienna and Austrian officials hold memorial for 71 refugees found dead in an abandoned lorry
2016: 1 May 2016: Around 80,000 people on May Day in Vienna greeted SPÖ's Faymann with loud boos and calls to step down, following the ruling coalition’s handling of the refugee and migrant crisis, rising unemployment and disastrous defeat in presidential ballot
Austrian society, demographics, culture and human rights: Austrian society - Human rights in Austria - Legal history of Austria
Demographics of Austria: Demographics of Austria - Austrians - Ethnic groups in Austria - Ethnic groups in Vienna
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria begins with exodus of Jews from Palestine under Roman occupation - History of the Jews in Vienna - History of the Jews in Salzburg
Romani people in Austria: Romani people in Austria
Arabs in Austria: Arabs in Austria, the people from Arab countries, particularly Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Jordan
Filipinos in Austria: Filipinos in Austria
Hungarians in Austria: Hungarians in Austria
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria
Turks in Austria: Turks in Austria
Immigration and refugees in Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
2014-2016: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Since 2015 Austrian border barrier: Austrian border barrier is a border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia, as a 'response' to the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 15 mai 2015: La Croix-Rouge a vivement critiqué la création de camps de tentes pour les demandeurs d'asile en Autriche, annoncé par le gouvernement - 28 August 2015: More than 70 migrants were found dead in an abandoned lorry on Austria’s A4 motorway between Neusiedl and Parndorf, registered to a Romanian citizen from the Hungarian city of Kecskemét - 29 August 2015: Three young children are recovering in hospital in Braunau from severe dehydration after police in Austria stopped a truck with 26 refugees and migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Bangladesh inside - 31 August: Austria toughens border controls in trafficking clampdown - 1 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees arrive from Hungary in Vienna and ran towards the next trains heading for Germany - 5 September: A first bus carrying refugees who have been stranded in the Hungarian capital reached the Austrian border early Saturday, after Austria and Germany agreed to take in refugees - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 7 September: As Thousands of refugees arrive by foot, buses, and trains to Vienna, Austrians offer food and water to arriving refugees - 10 September: Thousands more migrants stream into Austria from Hungary - 20 September 2015: Around 13,000 people entered Austria on Saturday, according to the Red Cross, after being shunted through Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia and forced away from these EU members - 23 October: As thousands more refugees and migrants have crossed from Slovenia to Austria, travelling for days from the Serbian border with Croatia, Austrian officials ask EU for more assistance to tackle refugee crisis
2016: 18 February 2016: Austria's announcement to limit the number of refugees allowed to enter its territory receives a sharp rebuke from the European commission which branded the move 'plainly incompatible' with international law
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy
Culture and languages of Austria: Culture of Austria - Languages of Austria - Austrian German - Vienna culture
Music in Austria: Music in Austria
Viennese classical period of music: Viennese classical period of music in the 18th and 19th century - Musical development - 1732-1809 Joseph Haydn, born in Rohrau - 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg - 1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, born in Bonn - 1797-1828 Franz Schubert, born in Vienna
Education in Austria: Education in Austria
Healthcare in Austria: Healthcare in Austria
Media of Austria: Media of Austria - Newspapers in Austria
Internet in Austria: Internet in Austria
Crime in Austria: Crime in Austria
Austrian National Socialism: Austrian National Socialism, formed at the beginning of the 20th century taking a concrete form on 15 November 1903 when the German Worker's Party DAP was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic, its political organization DNSAP banned in early 1933 revived and made part of the German NSDAP after the German annexation of Austria in 1938
Antisemitism in Austria: Antisemitism in Austria - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria - März 1945 Massaker von Rechnitz - 13 July 2017: 'My aunt had a dinner party, and then she took her guests to kill 180 Jews' in March 1945, journalist Sacha Batthyany reveals more than 60 years later
Antisemitism and Neo-Nazism in contemporary Austria: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria - Neo-Nazism in Austria
2015: 11 February 2015: Call to kill Jews is legal criticism of Israel, Austrian prosecutor says - 4 April 2015: Anti-Israel protesters call 'Kill the Jews' in Vienna as Bosnian soccer fans join pro-Palestinian rally
2016: 20 octobre 2016: Un policier autrichien a été condamné à neuf mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir crié 'Heil Hitler' à un automobiliste lors d'un contrôle routier
Corruption in Austria: 10 December 2010: Rampant corruption in Austria - 14 June 2013: Vienna prosecutors this week charged nine people, including the deputy governor of the Austrian National Bank, over suspected bribes and kickbacks for banknote contracts with Azerbaijan and Syria - 14. September 2013: Haftstrafen für verdeckte Parteienfinanzierung der Telekom Austria in der Höhe von 960.000 Euro an das von Haider gegründete 'Bündnis Zukunft Österreich' im Herbst 2006
Human trafficking in Austria: Human trafficking in Austria
Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria: Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria - Sexual abuse scandal in Vienna archdiocese
Political scandals in Austria: Political scandals in Austria
2011 cash for influence scandal - 9 August 2012: Former Austrian interior minister and Euro MP, Ernst Strasser, has been charged in Vienna with corruption
Law enforcement in Austria: Law enforcement in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria: Foreign relations of Austria
Wars involving Austria and military history of Austria: Wars involving Austria - Military history of Austria
Treaties of Austria: Treaties of Austria - United Nations Charter and since 1955 Austrian membership - Treaties entered into by the European Union
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government - 26 October 1955 Austria's Declaration of Neutrality - the Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed itself to declare its neutrality
Immigration to Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
Since 2014: Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - Austrian border barrier
Bilateral relations of Austria: Bilateral relations of Austria
Austria/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations:
1878-1914: Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 - Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878-1918 - Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 - Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Since 1908 Austro-Hungarian 'Schutzkorps' militia's persecution of Serbs the first large-scale persecution of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina because of their ethnicity
1914-1918: 28 June 1914 Assassination in Sarajevo - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo - July Crisis 1914 - Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign (World War I) 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War I casualties
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Brazil relations: Austria/Brazil relations
Since 1940, 1951-1967 Austrian protection of Nazi war criminal Stangl: 1 July 2017: Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka, since 1940 superintendent of the T-4 Euthansia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim, commandant of Sobibor from March 1942 until September 1942, when he was transferred to Treblinka, always dressed in white riding clothes, since 1951 in Brazil where he was given an engineering job, since 1959 working at a Volkswagen AG factory, for years his responsibility in the mass murder of men, women and children had been known to the Austrian authorities, but Austria did not issue a warrant for Stangl’s arrest until 1961, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested in Brazil
Austria/Czech Republic relations: Austria/Czech Republic relations - Austrian Empire
Austria/European Union relations: Austria/European Union relations - 1994 Austrian European Union membership referendum - Euroscepticism in Austria
Austria/Germany relations: Austria/Germany relations - History of the Holy Roman Empire 962–1806 - Military history of the Holy Roman Empire - Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 - Military history of Austria
1914-1945: July Crisis 1914 - 5/6 July 1914 Hoyos Mission and 'Blank cheque' in Berlin - World War I 1914-1918 - German occupation 1938: "Anschluss" - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2012-2013: 12 October 2012: Vienna will erect first monument to remember the thousands of people executed by the Nazis for deserting or refusing to serve in the military during World War II - 10 mars 2013: Des historiens exhument le passé nazi de l'orchestre philharmonique de Vienne - 12 mai 2013: Plus de 10.000 personnes venues de plus de 50 pays ont commémoré dimanche le 68e anniversaire de la libération du camp de concentration nazi de Mauthausen
2014: 24. Oktober 2014: Denkmal für die Verfolgten der NS-Militärjustiz als zentrale österreichische Gedenkstätte für Deserteure des NS-Regimes am Wiener Ballhausplatz von Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer der Öffentlichkeit übergeben
2015: 5. Mai 2015: Nach Berichten, daß der BND dem USA-Geheimdienst NSA beim Ausspionieren österreichischer Behörden geholfen habe, erstattet Österreich Strafanzeige
Austria/Hungary relations: Austria/Hungary relations - Hungarians in Austria - History of the Hungarians in Vienna
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary 1867-1918
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918
Austria/Israel relations: Austria/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Austria
1938-1945: The Holocaust in Austria - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2014: 24 July 2014: Israeli footballers assaulted by pro-Palestinians during match in Bischofshofen
Austria/Italy relations: Austria/Italy relations
1848/1849 First Italian War of Independence and first aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice: First Italian War of Independence 1848-1849 following Revolution of 1848 in the Italian states - Republic of San Marco 1848-1849 reconquered by Austrian troops following a long siege and an Austrian bombardment 1849 - 1849 First aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice
1914-1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary's and Germany's campaign against Italy in World War I 1914-1918 - Deutscher Giftgaseinsatz und Massenmord an Italiern entschied im Herbst 1917 die Schlacht bei Kobarid (19. Mai 1998)
2016: 2 avril 2016: L'Autriche envoie l'armée à la frontière italienne contre un afflux de migrants et de réfugiés cherchant à gagner le nord de l'Europe - 27 April 2016: Austria plans Italian border fence to control refugee and migrant flow, as Italy says Brenner Pass restrictions would be illogical and against EU rules
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy, as Brussels urged Europe to help Italian authorities manage an 'unprecedented' arrival of people from north Africa
Austria/Poland relations: Austria/Poland relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Austria/Russia relations: Austria/Russia relations
2016: 20 December 2016: Austrian Freedom Party's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Austrian party founded by former Nazis, signed a cooperation agreement with Russian Vladimir Putin's United Russia party and met with Michael Flynn, President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for national security adviser at Trump Tower in New York (USA)
Austria/Serbia relations: Austria/Serbia relations - Serbs in Austria
July 1914: 23 July 1914: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia - July 1914 preparations for the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, content and Serbian response - 28/29 July 1914: Austria has declared war upon Serbia and Austro-Hungarian troops reportedly invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz
1914-1918: 1914-1918 Serbian Campaign (World War I)
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Slovenia relations: Austria/Slovenia relations
Austria-Slovenia border: Austria–Slovenia border - Austrian border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia against refugees from Syrian and some other countries in the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 November 2015: Austria has put up barbed wire at a border crossing with Slovenia used by hundreds of refugees and migrants despite chancellor's pledge
Austria/Switzerland relations: Austria/Switzerland relations - Duchy of Austria 1156–1453 - House of Habsburg originally from Aargau - Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1516 - Swiss Confederacy, reformation, Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 and recognition of independence of Switzerland from the 'Holy Roman Empire' - The Congress of Vienna 1814/1815 re-established Swiss independence, European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality - During both World War I 1914-1918 and World War II 1939-1945 Switzerland's 'neutrality' allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry
Austria/Syria relations: Austria/Syria relations
2016: 15 January 2015: The Syrian community in Austria calls on the Austrian Government to cut off economic relations with the Assad regime and to expel its ambassador to Vienna
Austria/Turkey relations: Austria/Turkey relations - Turks in Austria
1529: 1529 Siege of Vienna, first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna
1683: Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months
1683-1699: Great Turkish War 1683-1699 between the Ottoman Empire and several contemporary European powers joined into 'Holy League'
1787–1791: Austro-Turkish War 1787–1791 - Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
1914-1918: Austrian and Ottoman empires allies during the First World War
2017: 5. März 2017: Bundeskanzler Christian Kern hat sich für ein EU-weites Verbot von Wahlkampfauftritten türkischer Politiker ausgesprochen und wirft Erdogans Regime vor, 'Menschenrechte und demokratische Grundrechte mit Füßen' zu treten
Austria/Ukraine relations: Austria/Ukraine relations - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918 - a big portion of West Ukraine (Galicia and Carpathia) were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today consisting of Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 - during the war Ukraine was occupied by the Central powers military force including the Austrian military that drove Bolsheviks out of the country
1918: Februar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine–Central Powers
2015: 1 May 2015: An Austrian court refuses to extradite Ukrainian tycoon in gas trading and chemicals Dmytro Firtash to the USA over corruption charges, indicted in 2013 along with a member of India's parliament and four others
Austria/United Nations relations: Austria/United Nations relations
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
Natural disasters in Austria: Natural disasters in Austria - May/June 2013 European floods

Belgium - Belgique - Geography of Belgium - History of Belgium - Demographics of Belgium
Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - Companies of Belgium - Companies of Belgium by industry
Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium
2016: 3 January 2016: Belgian ageing nuclear reactor Doel 1 shut down on Saturday again, just three days after it was restarted
Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders
Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium, dating back to 1831
Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium
Political parties and trade unions in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium - Trade unions in Belgium
Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium
2010: Belgien Parlamentswahlen 2010 - Belgiens designierter Premier Elio Di Rupo gibt im Juli 2011 auf - 8 October 2011: Belgian parties strike key reform deal to end political crisis - 27 November: Belgian leaders agree on federal budget - 13 juillet 2012: Le Parlement belge a adopté à 106 voix contre 42 le projet de loi 'scindant' l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
2012: Belgian provincial and municipal elections, 14 October 2012 - 14/15 October 2012: Local elections have resulted in widespread gains for the Flemish Nationalist Party, which wants to divide the country - 15 octobre 2012: Le chef des indépendantistes flamands, vainqueur des municipales à Anvers en Belgique, a lancé un appel au Premier ministre Elio Di Rupo pour qu'il négocie avec lui une réforme de l'État ouvrant la voie à une confédération
2014: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to 44
May 2014 Belgium Federal and regional elections: Belgian federal election 25 May 2014 - Belgian regional elections 25 May 2014 - 26 May 2014: First estimates give 33% of the vote in Flanders to the New Flemish Alliance
May 2014 Belgium European Parliament election: Belgium European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May-October 2014: 2014 Belgian government formation - 8 October: The Francophone liberal Charles Michel will become Belgium’s PM - 11 October: Belgium's new center-right government took office announcing to raise the retirement age and slash costs by about 8 billion euros
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium
2011: 2. Dezember 2011: In Brüssel gewerkschaftliche Großdemonstration von Zehntausenden gegen Sparpolitik
2012-2014: 30 January 2012: Strike set to bring Belgium to a halt - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 December 2014: Air, train links cut as national strike begins against the new government's austerity policies
2016: 17 avril 2016: Des milliers de personnes ont rendu hommage, dimanche à Bruxelles, aux 32 morts des attentats du 22 mars
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Belgium: Belgian society - Human rights in Belgium
Demographics of Belgium: Demographics of Belgium - Belgians - Belgian people by ethnic or national origin - Immigrants to Belgium
Flemish people: Flemish people
Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia
History of the Jews in Belgium: History of the Jews in Belgium - History of the Jews in Antwerp - Great Synagogue of Europe is the main synagogue in Brussels - 16 January 2015: Jewish schools in Belgium close amid terror threat
Afro Belgians: Afro Belgians are Belgian citizens and members of the Black African community in Belgium
Culture and languages of Belgium: Culture of Belgium - Languages of Belgium
Flemish culture
Walloon culture - Ars nova, music which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages until the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377
Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature
Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Education in Belgium: Education in Belgium
Science and technology in Belgium
Healthcare in Belgium: Healthcare in Belgium
Belgian media: Belgian media
2015: 15 January 2015: Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris
Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium
Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists
Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers
1995-1996 child and serial killer Marc Dutroux: Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux, convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls from 1995 to 1996
Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and 1998 Parliamentary investigation: Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - 1998 Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence
2004 Dutroux's trial: 2004 Dutroux's trial, some seven and a half years after his initial arrest - 23 June 2004: Marc Dutroux sentenced to life in prison for a series of child kidnappings, child rapes and murders that prompted sweeping police reforms and a crackdown on child sex crimes, Dutroux's ex-wife, Michelle Martin sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Racism and antisemitism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium - Antisemitism in Belgium
1940-1945: The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation of Belgium - German Nazi concentration camps in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May 2014: Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2,000 people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June 2014: The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack
July 2014: 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some 500 people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'
Terrorism and massacres in Belgium: Terrorism in Belgium - List of massacres in Belgium
1914-1918: German war crimes in World War I in Belgium
1940-1945: May 1940 at least 86 civilians killed by the German Wehrmacht known in Belgium as the Vinkt Massacre, the first of several German massacres in World War II in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
1985: 1985 kidnapping of the Belgian-French family Houtekins-Kets by Palestinian terrorists and the Libyan government from their yacht Silco in the Mediterranean, the Belgian part of the family was held for almost five years of captivity in Libya, but were freed after the liberation of Abu Nidal terrorist Said Al Nasr
Since 1988: Since 1988 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May 1996: List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July 1979, according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
2011: 14 décembre 2011: À Liège une fusillade d'un homme armé a fait au moins cinq morts et plus de 100 blessés
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 22 March 2016: Multiple casualties after airport and metro blasts in Brussels - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 24 March: Raising awkward questions for Belgium’s intelligence services, Turkey’s Erdogan says that Belgium ignored Turkey’s warnings that Ibrahim el-Bakraoui was a foreign fighter - 24 March: As names of victims of Tuesday’s suicide bombings emerge, and as survivors reveal the horror of the blasts and narrow escapes, investigations and search for suspects continue - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids - 26 March: Search for suspects in Belgium continues, as a series of raids and arrests reveal more links with the November Paris killings and a new French plot, and as reports reveal that suspects Ibrahim and Khaled El Bakraoui were on USA terror watch list as of last year - 28 March: Three men held as part of 13 raids in Brussels, Mechelen and Duffel at weekend charged with terrorist activity, as anti-immigrant demonstrators trample the memorial in Place de la Bourse in Brussels for victims of last week’s suicide bombings - 9 April: Belgian police detain two key suspects in the Islamic State attacks on Paris and Brussels
August 2016: 6 August 2016 Charleroi attack - 6 August 2016: Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack
June 2017: On 20 June 2017 a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June 2017: Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station
Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium
2015: January 2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium, including operation in Verviers against Islamist radicals and operations in Brussels, the nearby communes of Schaerbeek, Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Vilvoorde, and Zaventem - 15 January 2015 Belgian anti-terrorist operation against Islamists - 15 January 2015: Casualties in Belgium police anti-terror raid in Verviers
November 2015: Since 21 November 2015 the government imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to information about potential terrorist attacks in the wake of the series of coordinated attacks in Paris by Islamic State terrorists
2016: 16 March 2016: Police kill gunman during Brussels raid related to deadly Paris attacks in 2015 - 20 March 2016: Main suspect of November's Paris attacks Salah Abdeslam tells Belgian investigators he planned to blow himself up a day after he was shot in the leg and captured during a police raid in Brussels - 18 June: Belgium arrests 12 suspected of planning Euro soccer tournament attack
Prevention: 30 novembre 2015: La commune bruxelloise de Molenbeek a lancé des initiatives pour prévenir la radicalisation de jeunes en perdition susceptibles de suivre l'itinéraire meurtrier des frères Abdeslam, impliqués dans les attentats de Paris
Law and law enforcement in Belgium: Law of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium - Law enforcement in Belgium
Constitutional Court of Belgium: Constitutional Court of Belgium
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Local and Federal Police in Belgium: Local Police in Belgium - Federal Police
Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium
Belgium/Former colonies relations - Belgian colonial empire
Belgium/Burundi relations: Belgium/Burundi relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
Belgium/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations - Colonization of the Congo 1867-1885 - 'Congo Free State' 1885-1908 - Belgian Congo 1908-1960 - Congo Crisis 1960-1966
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
2015: 21 novembre 2015: L'alerte terroriste a été élevée au niveau maximum dans la capitale Bruxelles - 22 November: Belgium maintains maximum security for the capital Brussels on Sunday - 25 November: Brussels schools, metro reopen under tight security - 26 novembre: Après six jours, le niveau de menace terroriste à Bruxelles a été baissé d'un cran, à 3 sur une échelle de 4
2016: 22 March 2016: The public and European politicians respond to March 2016 Brussels attacks with show of solidarity
Belgium/France relations: Belgium/France relations - 10 October 2011: Belgian government will take full control of the Belgian arm of Franco-Belgian Dexia bank - 8 septembre 2012: Vive la Belgique! Le patron français de l'empire du luxe LVMH Bernard Arnault sollicite la nationalité belge - 3 mars 2013: Le Parquet de Bruxelles a pour la deuxième fois rejeté la demande de naturalisation de Bernard Arnault
Belgium/Germany relations: Belgium/Germany relations - From World War I to World War II - Buts de guerre des Empires centraux 1914-1918 - In August 1914, Ebert led the Social Democratic Party to vote almost unanimously in favour of war loans and mass murder - German war crimes World War I - Chemical weapons in World War I - April/May 1915 Second Battle of Ypres - Germany used the first time poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front - By 1916 the German Empire had become a military dictatorship under the control of Hindenburg and Ludendorff - German occupation of Belgium during World War II - German war crimes World War II - Belgian prisoners of war in World War II - The Holocaust in Belgium
Belgian Resistance
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 26 June 2014: European prime ministers and presidents attend first world war ceremony in Ypres - 3 August: Mons prepares to mark centenary at place where first and last British soldiers fell - 28 October 2014: Representatives from World War I enemies in Nieuwpoort to mark the centenary of the first big battle on Flanders Fields and four years of death of hundreds of thousands
Belgium/India relations: Belgium/India relations - 24 January 2013: Steel and mining company ArcelorMittal has announced it will close a coke plant and six production lines in Belgium, in a move that threatens 1.300 jobs - 26 January: ArcelorMittal workers and police clash outside Belgium PM's house - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 October 2013: Belgian steelworker suicide blames Lakshmi Mittal for job loss at a steel plant in the town of Liege
Belgium/Israel relations: Belgium/Israel relations - May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 25 May: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack
Belgium/Liberia relations: 10 January 2013: Overview of the bilateral trade relations between Liberia and Belgium - 26 January 2014: Belgium reestablishes ties with Liberia - 7 October 2014: Former Liberian NPFL rebel commander Martina Johnson called to account at a court in Belgium’s city of Ghent for actions during civil war, following years of work by campaigners
Belgium/Netherlands relations: Belgium/Netherlands relations - Burgundian Netherlands 1384-1482 - United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815-1839 - Belgian Revolution 1830-1831, secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands establishing an independent Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium/Rwanda relations: Belgium/Rwanda relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Rwandan Genocide 1994 - Role of Belgium in the Rwandan Genocide
Belgium/Spain relations: Belgium/Spain relations - Seventeen Provinces 1549-1581 of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century - Spanish Netherlands 1581-1714
Belgium/Syria relations: 19 June 2015: A hundred years since WW I 70 countries across the planet united in a letter, organized by Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, to express outrage over the Syrian regime's systematic use of barrel bombs and to demand an end to the deadly, indiscriminate attacks
Belgium/Ukraine relations: Belgium/Ukraine relations
2016: 22 March 2016: Ukrainians are laying flowers outside the Belgian Embassy in Kyiv to express condolences to the victims of March 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels
Belgium/United Kingdom relations: Belgium/United Kingdom relations
2015: 25 June 2015: Belgium warns talks on Cameron's EU renegotiation will be tough
Belgium/USA relations: Belgium/USA relations - 30 June 2013: US spied on EU diplomats in Washington, New York and Brussels, according to documents taken by Edward Snowden

Bulgaria - Geography of Bulgaria - History of Bulgaria - Demographics of Bulgaria
Economy of Bulgaria: Economy of Bulgaria - main industries include electricity, gas and water, food, beverages and tobacco, machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel - Companies of Bulgaria by industry
Agriculture in Bulgaria: Agriculture in Bulgaria - products include wheat, corn, and barley, sugar beets, sunflowers, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, apples, grapes and tobacco, livestock products
Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria
Rivers of Bulgaria: Rivers of Bulgaria - Danube, the longest river in the European Union region, located in Central and Eastern Europe, passing through or touching Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before emptying into the Black Sea - Since 1994 International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
2016: 13 November 2016: Looming pollution threats to the Danube, the world’s most international river
Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria
Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria: Foreign economic relations of Bulgaria - Since 2007Bulgarian economic development following EU membership
Banking and banks of Bulgaria: Banks of Bulgaria - Bulgarian National Bank
Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria
2008: 2008 Bulgarian energy crisis
Since 2009: Since 2009 economic downturn in Bulgaria following the international financial and economic crisis
Taxation in Bulgaria: Taxation in Bulgaria - taxes in Bulgaria are collected on both state and local levels, the most important taxes are collected on federal level, including an income tax, social security, corporate taxes and value added tax
Politics of Bulgaria: Politics of Bulgaria - Political parties in Bulgaria
2009: Bulgarian parliamentary election 2009 - European Parliament election, 2009
2011: Bulgarian presidential election 2011 - Stichwahl zwischen Kalfin und Plewneliew am 30. Oktober - 31 octobre: Le candidat conservateur Plevneliev élu président de la République
2013: Bulgarian nuclear power referendum January 2013 - 27 janvier 2013: Les bureaux de vote ont ouvert pour un référendum sur un projet bulgaro-russe d'une nouvelle centrale nucléaire à Béléné
February: 20 February 2013: Bulgaria's government resigned from office after nationwide protests against high electricity prices - 25 February: Tens of thousands of people have taken to the streets across Bulgaria to protest against corruption and the country's rising cost of living - 28 February: Bulgaria will hold an early election on May 12, Rosen Plevneliev says as the government seeks a way out of a political crisis
Bulgarian parliamentary election 12 May 2013 - 12 May: Bulgarians began voting Sunday in a tight and tense snap election - 13 mai: Les conservateurs en tête des législatives bulgares en recueillant entre 29,6 % et 32% des suffrages, le Parti socialiste entre 25,6 et 26,2%
May 2014 Bulgaria European Parliament election: Bulgaria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria - Ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria
History of the Jews in Bulgaria: History of the Jews in Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria
Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria
Organized crime in Bulgaria - Bulgarian mafia
Terrorism in Bulgaria - July 2012 Burgas bus bombing
Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations: Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations
Bulgaria/Romania relations: Bulgaria/Romania relations
Bulgaria/Turkey relations: Bulgaria/Turkey relations
Bulgaria/USA relations: Bulgaria/USA relations

Croatia - Geography of Croatia - History of Croatia - Croatian War of Independance
Demographics of Croatia
Agriculture in Croatia: Agriculture in Croatia
Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 16 September 2015: First refugees head for Croatia after Hungary's border crackdown - 18 September 2015: As Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia and police stand guard in front of refugees and migrants, Hungary builds border fence with Croatia - 18 September: Croatia fails to cope with refugee and migrant influx, as refugees wait for the trains that never come - 27 September 2015: Record migrant arrivals in Croatia as crisis deepens - 5 October: Refugees and migrants continue to cross from Serbia to Croatia in their thousands - 19 October: Thousands of refugees trying to make their way to western Europe have rushed over Serbia’s border to Croatia after they were stranded for days in dangerous and deteriorating conditions, 'the last person to go was a young boy without a leg, and we helped him cross in a wheelchair', UNHCR's Melita Sunjic reports, as UN's Ban Ki-moon says, refugees are fleeing difficult hardships they can't bear by themselves
Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia
Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia
Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Croatia/Serbia relations: Croatia/Serbia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence

Cyprus - Modern history of Cyprus - Northern Cyprus - Demographics of Cyprus
Cyprus dispute: - Cyprus dispute
Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus
Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus
Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus
May 2011 Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May 2011
24 February 2013: Cyprus president-elect Nicos Anastasiades pledged after his poll victory on Sunday to work for an early EU bailout accord to rescue the island from bankruptcy - 18 mars: Le Parlement chypriote se réunit pour examiner le plan de sauvetage européen qui a exigé que tous les dépôts bancaires soient taxés - 20 March: Emergency meeting after Cyprus MPs reject bank levy - 21 March: Cypriot president to present 'Plan B' rescue package - 23 March: Parliament, in a late-night session, backed the first three of eight measures advanced by the government - 25 mars: Le plan de sauvetage conclu entre le gouvernement chypriote et la troïka comprend une taxe sur les dépôts de plus de 100.000 euros et la fermeture de la deuxième banque du pays - 26 March: Closed since March 16 to avert run on deposits Cyprus banks to remain closed until Thursday - 28 March: Temporary limits on daily withdrawals will remain in place as Cyprus reopens banks amid protests - 29 March: Cypriot president rules out leaving eurozone
Social movements and protests in Cyprus:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cyprus: Cypriot society - Human rights in Cyprus
Demographics of Cyprus: Demographics of Cyprus
Women in Cyprus: Women in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus: Education in Cyprus
Healthcare in Cyprus: Healthcare in Cyprus
Internet in Cyprus: Internet in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus: Foreign relations of Cyprus
Cyprus/Egypt relations: Cyprus/Egypt relations
Cyprus/Germany relations: Cyprus/Germany relations
Cyprus/Greece relations: Cyprus/Greece relations
Cyprus/Israel relations: Cyprus/Israel relations
Cyprus/USA relations: Cyprus/USA relations

Czech Republic - Geography of the Czech Republic - History of the Czech lands - Demographics of the Czech lands
Agriculture in the Czech Republic: Agriculture in the Czech Republic
October 2017 Czech legislative election: 20/21 October 2017 Czech legislative election
2018 Czech presidential election: 2018 Czech presidential election
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Czech Republic: Czech society - Category:Human rights in the Czech Republic
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Czech Republic: Demographics of the Czech lands - Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic
Immigration to the Czech Republic: Immigrants to the Czech Republic
Education in the Czech Republic: Education in the Czech Republic
Healthcare in the Czech Republic: Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Czech media: Czech media
Crime in the Czech Republic: Crime in the Czech Republic
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic/France relations: Czech Republic/France relations
Czech Republic/Germany relations: Czech Republic/Germany relations
1938-1945 Czech resistance to Nazi occupation: Czech resistance to Nazi occupation 1938-1945
Czech Republic/Poland relations: Czech Republic/Poland relations
Czech Republic/Slovakia relations: Czech Republic/Slovakia relations
Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations: Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations

Denmark - Geography of Denmark - History of Denmark - Demographics of Denmark
Economy of Denmark: Economy of Denmark - main industries include, petroleum and gas, iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Agriculture in Denmark: Agriculture in Denmark
Taxation and budget in Denmark: Taxation in Denmark - Budgets of Danish government
Elections and politics in Denmark: Elections in Denmark - Danish EU membership referendum 2011
Constitution, social movements and protests in Denmark: Constitution of Denmark - Social and political movements in Denmark - Protests in Denmark
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Denmark: Danish society - Human rights in Denmark - Freedom of speech and freedom of the press in Denmark
Faroese Dane: Faroese Dane
Museums in Denmark: List of museums in Denmark
Economy, history and culture of Copenhagen: Economy of Copenhagen - History of Copenhagen - Culture in Copenhagen
Youth in Denmark: Youth in Denmark
Health care in Denmark: Health care in Denmark
Crime in Denmark: Crime in Denmark
Corruption in Denmark: Corruption in Denmark
Tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark: Elements of income tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark
Human trafficking in Denmark: Human trafficking in Denmark
Law enforcement in Denmark: Law enforcement in Denmark
Courts of Denmark: Courts of Denmark
Police of Denmark: Police of Denmark
Environment of Denmark: Environment of Denmark
Geography and Kingdom of Denmark: Geography of Denmark - Kingdom of Denmark
Faroe Islands: Faroe Islands
Greenland: Greenland
Economy of Greenland: Economy of Greenland
Education in Greenland: Education in Greenland
Health in Greenland: Health in Greenland
Foreign relations of Denmark: Foreign relations of Denmark
Denmark/Germany relations: Denmark/Germany relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Denmark/Norway relations: Denmark/Norway relations
Denmark/Poland relations: Denmark/Poland relations
Denmark/Sweden relations: Denmark/Sweden relations
Denmark/Syria relations: Denmark/Syria relations

Estonia - Geography of Estonia - History of Estonia - Demographics of Estonia
Agriculture in Estonia: Agriculture in Estonia
Forestry in Estonia: Forestry in Estonia
Taxation in Estonia: Taxation in Estonia
Society, demographics and culture of Estonia: Estonian society - Human rights in Estonia
Estonians: Estonians
History of the Jews in Estonia: History of the Jews in Estonia
Russians in Estonia: Russians in Estonia
Education in Estonia: Education in Estonia
Healthcare in Estonia: Healthcare in Estonia
Internet in Estonia: Internet in Estonia
Estonia/Germany relations: Estonia/Germany relations - German occupation of Estonia during World War II 1939-1945 - The Holocaust in Estonia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Estonia by Germany
Estonia/Latvia relations: Estonia/Latvia relations
Estonia/Russia relations: Estonia/Russia relations
Estonia/Ukraine relations: Estonia/Ukraine relations
Estonia/USA relations: Estonia/USA relations

Finland - Geography of Finland - History of Finland - Demographics of Finland
Mines in Finland: Mines in Finland
Manufacturing companies of Finland: Manufacturing companies of Finland
Electronics companies of Finland: Electronics companies of Finland
Nuclear power in Finland: Nuclear power in Finland
Coal and peat energy in Finland: Peat energy in Finland - Coal in Finland
Agriculture in Finland: Agriculture in Finland
Forestry in Finland: Forestry in Finland
Tourism in Finland: Tourism in Finland
Taxation in Finland: Taxation in Finland
Elections in Finland: Elections in Finland
October 1994 Finnish European Union membership referendum: Finnish European Union membership referendum 16 October 1994
October 2012 Finnish municipal elections: Finnish municipal elections October 2012
May 2014 European Parliament election in Finland: 25 May 2014 European Parliament election in Finland
Social movements and protests in Finland:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Finland: Finnish society - Human rights in Finland
Sami people: Sami people
History of the Jews in Finland: History of the Jews in Finland
Swedish-speaking population of Finland: Swedish-speaking population of Finland
Karelians: Karelians
Culture and languages of Finland: Culture of Finland - Languages of Finland
Education in Finland: Education in Finland
Healthcare in Finland: Healthcare in Finland
Finnish media: Finnish media
Internet in Finland: Internet in Finland
Crime in Finland: Crime in Finland
Guns and gun politics in Finland: Guns and gun politics in Finland
School shootings in Finland: School shootings in Finland
Spree shootings in Finland: Spree shootings in Finland
February 1999 Helsinki shooting club shooting: 21 February 1999 Helsinki shooting club shooting with a rented pistol
Terrorism in Finland: Terrorism in Finland
Racism in Finland: Racism in Finland
Corruption in Finland: Corruption in Finland
Sexual violence in Finland: Sexual violence in Finland
Law and legal history of Finland: Law of Finland - Legal history of Finland - Constitution of Finland
Judicial and court system of Finland: Judicial system of Finland - Court system in Finland
Supreme Court of Finland: Supreme Court of Finland
Since 1945 War-responsibility trials in Finland: War-responsibility trials in Finland since 1945
Law enforcement in Finland: Law enforcement in Finland
Foreign relations of Finland: Foreign relations of Finland
Treaties of Finland: Treaties of Finland
Bilateral relations of Finland: Bilateral relations of Finland
Finland/Denmark relations: Finland/Denmark relations
Finland/Estonia relations: Finland/Estonia relations
Finland/Germany relations: Finland/Germany relations
1939-1945 Finland's cooperation with Nazi Germany and military history of Finland during World War II: Finland sided with Nazi Germany - World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact - Military history of Finland during World War II 1939-1945
Finland/Norway relations: Finland/Norway relations
Finland/Russia relations: Finland/Russia relations
1939-1945 Finland's cooperation with Nazi Germany and military history of Finland during World War II: Finland sided with Nazi Germany - World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact - Military history of Finland during World War II 1939-1945 - Paris Peace Treaties 1947
Finland/Sweden relations: Finland/Sweden relations
Environment of Finland: Environment of Finland
Protected areas of Finland: Protected areas of Finland
Environmental issues in Finland: Environmental issues in Finland
Water in Finland: a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Water_in_Finland">Water in Finland

France - Geography of France - Gaul during the Iron Age inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, of the Netherlands and of Germany - Gallic Wars and expansion of the Roman Empire over the whole of Gaul 58–52 BC - Frankish Kingdom 481–843 during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages - History of France - Early modern France 1453–1789 - French colonial empire 1534-1980 - French Revolution 1789-1799 marking the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and replacing them with democracies and republics, and Napoleon until 1815 - France in the twentieth century, post World War II period 1945-present - Demographics of France
French bicycle industry: French bicycle industry
Shipbuilding companies of France: Shipbuilding companies of France
Tractor manufacturers of France: Tractor manufacturers of France
Chemical companies of France: Chemical companies of France
Clothing companies of France: Clothing companies of France
Energy and energy companies of France: Energy in France - Energy companies of France
Fossil fuels and oil companies of France: Fossil fuels in France - Oil companies of France
French wine: French wine
Water in France: Water in France
Transport in France by city: Transport in France by city - Transport in Paris
Foreign trade of France: Foreign trade of France
Since 2010 Bank of France controversy: Since 2010 Bank of France controversy
Since 2010 BNP Paribas controversies: BNP Paribas controversies since 2010
Since 2006 Crédit Agricole controversies: Crédit Agricole controversies since 2006
Since the early 1990s Société Générale controversies: Société Générale controversies since the early 1990s
Since 2010 Groupe BPCE controversy: Groupe BPCE controversy since 2010
Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy: Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy
Chômage en France: Chômage en France
Inégalités de revenu en France: Inégalités de revenu en France
Poverty in France: Poverty in France
Budget and taxation in France: Budget of France - Taxation in France
Political parties and trade unions in France: Political parties of France - Trade unions in France
Parliament of France: French Parliament
Government of France: Government of France
Elections and politics in France: Elections in France
Élections cantonales mars 2011: Élections cantonales mars 2011
Élection présidentielle francaise 22 avril/6 mai 2012: Élection présidentielle francaise avril/mai 2012 - Juin 2011: Martine Aubry annonce sa candidature pour la présidentielle 2012 - History of the 'Left' in France: Affaire Dominique Strauss-Kahn - 29. August 2011: Frankreich Sozialisten im Zeichen verschärfter Rivalität - vgl. Artikel dieser Website und darin den Abschnitt über die aktuelle Krise der europäischen Sozialdemokratie 2009 - 10 October: French Socialists face presidential primary run-off - 17. Oktober 2011: Frankreichs Sozialisten mit Kandidatur Hollandes ohne Zeichen der Erneuerung - 23 April: Nicolas Sarkozy won only 27.1% of the vote, while his socialist rival Francois Hollande took 28.6% - 3. Mai: François Bayrou nennt Sarkozy's Politik in Einwanderungsfragen 'obsessiv' und spricht sich für Hollande aus - 7 May: François Hollande wins France’s presidential election claiming around 51.67% of the runoff vote - 17 May: Cabinet Ayrault takes power in France - 17 May: New French government to hand itself a pay cut
January-May 2016: 27 January 2016: French minister Christiane Taubira resigns after fallout over controversial plan to strip people convicted of terrorism of their French citizenship - 1 février 2016: Christiane Taubira n'a pas abandonné le débat sur la déchéance de nationalité pour autant et va publier un livre-réquisitoire - 10 February 2016: French MPs vote in favour of in 2012 elected president Hollande’s heavily contested package of measures to change the French constitution enshrining 'emergency powers' - 10/11 February: French FM Fabius steps down questioning the USA’s commitment to resolving the crisis in Syria, saying its 'ambiguous' policy was contributing to the problem, as Hollande brings Greens and former PM Ayrault to government in cabinet reshuffle - 4 mai 2016: François Hollande à son plus bas niveau historique
June 2017 French legislative election: 11 and 18 June 2017 French legislative election - 12 June 2017: Amid concerns over low turnout of just 48.71%, 'La République En Marche' party and its allies take 32,32% of vote in first round, ahead of 'Les Républicains' and its allies on 21.56%, the anti-EU 'Front National' on 13.20%, followed by 'La France Insoumise' and its allies on 11,02%, the 'Socialist party', that took just 9.51% of the vote with its allies, and 'Europe Écologie Les Verts' on 4.3% - 18/19 June 2017: Tempered by a record low turnout of 42.64% and as abstention particularly high in low-income areas reopens the debate about France’s social divide, the French voting system and legitimacy, Macron’s party and its ally has won a large majority in the French parliament, taking 350 out of 577 seats, handing him a relatively free rein to implement his plans to change French labour law and overhaul unemployment benefits and pensions
Social movements and protests in France: Protests in France - Political movements in France
2013: 5 janvier 2013: Lors d'une rencontre avec une délégation des salariés de Petroplus à Val-de-Reuil (Eure), Hollande a exclu une reprise du site par les pouvoirs publics - 25 March 2013: Paris police used tear gas and batons to fight hundreds of thousands of people protesting against a draft law allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children - 5 mai: Grande manifestation anti-austérité du Parti de Gauche à Paris - 6 June: Protests held in France after left-wing student Clement Meric beaten to death by a group of far-right militants - 10 septembre: Entre 155 000 et 360 000 personnes ont participé aux quelque 180 rassemblements organisés en France pour protester contre la première réforme des retraites - 17 October: Paris students protest against the deportation of foreign pupils following the high-profile eviction of a 15-year-old Roma girl - 1 décembre: Face aux récentes attaques contre la ministre Christiane Taubira, plusieurs milliers de personnes se sont rassemblées à Paris pour dire non à toutes formes de discrimination - 3 décembre: Soirée contre la haine au Théâtre du Rond-Point à Paris
2015: 9 January: Thousands of people took to the streets in France and other countries again Thursday to condemn the killing of 12 people by terrorists at Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 11 January: As police hunt suspected accomplice more than 700,000 people took to the streets of France in solidarity with terror victims ahead of Paris march - 11 January: An estimated 3.7 million people across France march in solidarity with terror victims, all ages, nations and religions showing their support for the Republic's 'liberté, égalité, fraternité' - 2 March: As Russians march in mourning for murdered opposition leader Nemtsov in Moscow, in Paris about 100 people gathered to remember Nemtsov, asking for an international investigation to be opened and carrying posters reading 'I am Boris' - 24 May 2015: About 3,000 protesters gathered in Paris to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 5 septembre: Plus de 10000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans toute la France, et notamment à Paris, pour l’accueil des réfugiés - 19 October 2015: Thousands of people demonstrated in the capitals of France, Spain and Italy on Sunday in solidarity with Israel, as the wave of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories continued unabated - 22 novembre 2015: Plus de 10.000 manifestants 'contre la barbarie' à Toulouse, une semaine après les attentats de Paris - 2 December 2015: A court in Paris fines a woman €1,000 for refusing to have her fingerprints taken at a rally where clashes erupted between protesters and security forces ahead of 2015 UN climate summit
2016: 26 January 2016: Day of protest as taxi drivers, teachers, farmers and air traffic controllers among employees taking industrial action across France - 27 February: Angry French farmers heckle Hollande at agricultural fair amid rising tensions in agricultural sphere over competition from big industry and neighbouring countries in Europe's single market - 9 March 2016: French students take to the streets to protest far-reaching labour-law reforms as labour unions pledge to hold about 150 marches and protests nationwide - 24 mars 2016: Les manifestations contre le projet de loi travail, présenté en Conseil des ministres, ont rassemblé jeudi plusieurs milliers de jeunes et salariés à Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Grenoble ou encore Besançon, à l'appel de sept syndicats et organisations de jeunes, une vidéo montrant un policier frappant un jeune fait le buzz - 31 March 2016: Hundreds of thousands of workers and high-school students joined protest marches across France to challenge plans to loosen the country's protective labour laws that unions say favour businesses
January/February 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Bordeaux, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 18 février 2017: 4000 à 5000 personnes selon les organisateurs, se sont réunies samedi à Paris à l'appel notamment d'associations antiracistes et de syndicats, pour protester contre les violences policières après le viol à la matraque présumé d'un jeune noir, Théo, au cours d'une interpellation - 19 février 2017: Des manifestations contre la 'corruption' en politique se sont déroulées dimanche à Paris et ailleurs en France, une première depuis les accusations d'emplois fictifs visant le candidat de droite à la présidentielle François Fillon et la candidate d'extrême droite Marine Le Pen
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in France: French society
Human rights in France: Human rights in France
African immigration to France: African immigration to France
2016: 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 13 février 2016: Le Premier ministre français Valls ne veut pas aller plus loin que le quota de 30'000 réfugiés en France et a d'ailleurs rencontré CSU Horst Seehofer, l'une de ces voix critiques parmi les alliés de la chancelière allemande - 13 February 2016: French PM Valls rejects permanent quota system for refugees, saying 'We won't take any more' - 28 February 2016: The first purpose-built camp in France to provide proper, humanitarian-standard shelter to refugees who are currently sleeping rough is to open near the port of Dunkirk next month, after the local Green mayor Damien Carême approached Médecins sans Frontières and asked the organisation to construct temporary shelters, saying he was exasperated by what he deemed to be the inaction of the French Socialist government
Île-de-France, Paris Metropolitan Area and Paris city: Île-de-France - Paris Metropolitan Area - Paris, capital and most populous city of France - Timeline of Paris - History of Paris - Economy of Paris
Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France: Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France
Language policy in France: Language policy in France
Architecture, arts and literature in France: Architecture in France - Arts in France - French literature
Music of France: Music of France
Music history of France: French music history
Protection de l'enfance en France: Protection de l'enfance en France
Athletics, swimming, water sports, skiing and gymnastics in France: Athletics in France - Swimming in France - Water sports in France - Sailing in France - Skiing in France - Gymnastics in France
Handball, basketball, ice hockey and tennis in France: Handball in France - Basketball in France - Volleyball in France - Ice hockey in France - Tennis in France
2016: 9-11 June 2016 Marseille riots before and after UEFA Euro 2016 football match between England and Russia - 11/12 June 2016: Reports from Marseille suggest an England supporter is fighting for his life after an attack from Russian fans ahead of their Euro 2016 match on Saturday evening - 12 June 2016: Violence in Nice as Northern Ireland and Poland fans attacked by local hooligans - 12 June 2016: Russian hooligans reportedly approached the violence, which occurred before and after England’s opening Euro 2016 game in Marseille, with 'military organisation', well equipped and disguised, as Uefa opens disciplinary proceedings against Russia’s football union - 13 June 2016: German hooligans attack Ukraine fans in Lille also showing fascist symbolism at UEFA Euro 2016 - 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 14 June: Russia handed suspended '2016 UEFA European Football Championship' disqualification, confirmed by UEFA - 16 June: Dozens arrested in Lille after England and Russia foot supporters clash and more people are hospitalised - 18 June: Senior UK government officials fear the violence unleashed by Russian hooligans at Euro 2016 was sanctioned by Vladimir Putin’s regime and are investigating links with his regime as a significant number of those involved in savage and highly coordinated attacks on England fans and others in Marseille and Lille have been identified as being in the 'uniformed services' in Russia
Cycling and cycle racing in France: Cycling in France - Cycle racing in France
Internet in France: Internet in France
Newspapers in France: Newspapers in France
Crime in France: Crime in France
Antisemitism in France: Antisemitism in France
Holocaust denial in France: Holocaust denial in France
France's 'National Front': France's 'National Front'
Racism and Antisemitism in 21st-century France: Antisemitism in 21st-century France
2015: 7 January 2015: Unidentified individuals started a fire inside a synagogue in Garges near Paris and drew a swastika on its wall - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - 3 February 2015: Anti-terror patrol soldiers stabbed outside Jewish cultural center in Nice - 15 February 2015: Several hundred tombs desecrated with Nazi swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans at the Jewish cemetery of Sarre-Union near the German border a day after a deadly shooting at Copenhagen synagogue - 19 February 2015: The French are becoming more racist and intolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities including both Muslims and Jews, according to a Council of Europe report this week - 28 February 2015: Paris killer asked victims if they were Jewish before firing, transcript shows - 10 April: After defending Petain's cooperation with Nazi Germany and his past comment that Nazi gas chambers were a 'detail of history', France's National Front founder Le Pen rebuffs daughter's call to quit - 27 April 2015: Front National founder Jean-Marie Le Pen allegedly kept €2.2m in hidden Swiss bank account - 2 May 2015: Two Jewish residents of Paris were assaulted on the street Friday by a gang of about 40 people - 25 November 2015: A Belgian court finds French Dieudonne guilty of hate speech, incitement to hatred and Holocaust denial
2017: 2 February 2017: French journalist Paul Larrouturou with a crew from the TF1 news programme Quotidien violently forced out of Marine Le Pen press conference after trying to question Front National presidential candidate over allegations that she used European parliament funds to pay staff of her political party - 13 February 2017: Founder of France’s National Front party Jean-Marie Le Pen charged with inciting hatred for anti-Semitic statements after he said in a video posted on the party website in 2014 that 'next time we will put him in an oven' when asked about French singer Patrick Bruel’s criticisms of the party - L'affaire Sarah Halimi concerne le meurtre du 4 avril 2017 d'une femme juive âgée de soixante-cinq ans et le traitement policier, judiciaire et médiatique de l'enquête qui s'est ensuivie
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - Worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 7 January: Worldwide vigils as French authorities seek terrorists who stormed the Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people - 8 January: Arrests made as police hunt for suspects of Charlie Hebdo shooting - 9 January: France to host international 'anti-terrorism' meeting in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris - 9 January: Search for terrorists continues as Charlie Hebdo announces to print 1 million copies next week - 10 January: Two hostage standoffs end with four hostages killed in Paris kosher grocery, three terrorists dead and four more hostages badly hurt - 9 March: Four people including a policewoman arrested over suspected links to Paris kosher market terrorist
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 14 Novemer 2015: Gunmen kill at least 120 people in terror attacks in Paris, injuring some 200 people - 15 November: French national suicide bomber Ismael Omar Mostefai in Paris attacks identified, who had been flagged as a possible security threat in 2010, as investigation spreads across Europe - 16 November: French police carry out raids as investigations across borders continue - 17 November: France calls for EU help following Paris attacks - 18 November: Police in St-Denis arresting suspects, two suspects dead in ongoing raid, including a woman who detonated an explosive device - 19 November: Raids in Brussels linked to Stade de France suicide bomber as latest evidence points to wider conspiracy of primarily young Europeans - 20 November: Three people died during the Wednesday night raid in St-Denis, where the alleged ringleader of the Paris attacks Abaaoud was killed, prosecutor says - 21 November: Raids and Paris attacks investigations across borders continue as three suspects arrested in Turkey - 23 November: UK's Cameron visits Paris offering support, also offering French use of RAF Cyprus base for attacks against IS terrorists - 24 November: 'Belt of explosives' found south of Paris in town of Montrouge - 27 novembre 2015: Un quotidien allemand affirme vendredi que les fusils d'assaut qui ont servi dans la capitale proviendraient du Bade-Wurtemberg - 27 November: Survivors and victims' families of Paris terror attacks attend memorial ceremony
July 2016: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when a suspected armed French-Tunisian man drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 15 July 2016: After attack in Nice France mourns and investigates again - International reactions to the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 17 juillet: Un feu d'artifice tiré dans la nuit depuis le Grand hôtel de Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat 48 heures après l'attentat commis sur la Promenade des Anglais, a suscité une vague d'indignation sur Twitter - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples - 22 July 2016: Five suspects formally charged over Bastille day's truck attack in Nice that killed 84 people - 22 July: Authorities in Nice refuse a request from French anti-terror police to delete surveillance camera images of Bastille day's deadly truck attack, amid growing questions over the scale of the police presence at the time and after interior minister Cazeneuve acknowledged that only lightly armed local police were guarding the entrance to the pedestrian zone on the Nice beachfront - 24 juillet: La policière responsable de la vidéosurveillance à Nice affirme avoir subi des pressions du ministère de l'Intérieur lors de la rédaction d'un rapport sur le 14-juillet, on lui aurait demandé de mentionner la présence de policiers nationaux sur les lieux de l'attaque - 25 juillet 2016: La policière municipale Sandra Bertin qui a accusé dans le Journal du dimanche le ministère de l'Intérieur de lui avoir fait subir des pressions pour qu'elle modifie un rapport sur le dispositif de sécurité après l'attentat du 14 juillet à Nice a maintenu dimanche soir ses accusations
Accusation d’emplois fictifs au MoDem, le Mouvement démocrate de François Bayrou - 8 juin 2017: L'affaire des collaborateurs de députés du Parlement européen contamine de plus en plus les alliés centristes de l'entourage de Macron - 9 juin 2017: Une dizaine de salariés du MoDem ont également été employés par des eurodéputés MoDem et rémunérés comme assistants parlementaires, dont deux ministres en exercice, selon Franceinfo - 20 June 2017: French defence minister Sylvie Goulard, who is second minister to go in 24 hours, steps down over allegations her MoDem party misused European funds - 21 June 2017: Two more ministers quit Macron administration amid funding inquiry, bringing the number of ministers to leave to four - François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez, Richard Ferrand and Sylvie Goulard - in just 48 hours
Judiciary of France: Judiciary of France
Wars involving France: Wars involving France
Resistance to the French colonial empire: Resistance to the French colonial empire
French Polynesia: French Polynesia
Réunion: Réunion
Treaties of France: Treaties of France
French membership in international organisations: French membership in international organisations
Since 1945 France and the United Nations: France and the United Nations
Foreign relations of France by continent and country: Foreign relations of France by continent - Bilateral relations of France
France/Africa relations: France/Africa relations
France/Algeria relations: France/Algeria relations
1830-1962 rule in Algeria: 1830-1962 French rule in Algeria
Since 1960 French nuclear test site Reggane: France and weapons of mass destruction - France and nuclear weapons
France/Americas relations: France/Americas relations
From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade: From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery: Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery
France/Angola relations: France/Angola relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
France/Asia relations: France/Asia relations
1887-1954 'French Indochina': 1887-1954 'French Indochina'
France/Burkina Faso relations: Burkina Faso/France relations
France/Chad relations: France/Chad relations
France/Republic of the Congo relations: France/Republic of the Congo relations
2014-2018: First World War 1914-1918 centenary 2014-2018 - 12 octobre 2013: Les commémorations du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale, qui devraient se prolonger sur cinq ans, ont été partiellement dévoilées à Blois - 12 November 2013: French police detained about 70 people at an Armistice Day memorial ceremony on Monday after protesters whom the government said were linked to the far right booed President Hollande - 29 mai 2016: Les africains, qui se sont battus dans les tranchées, et le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun de la première guerre mondiale déclarée par l'Allemagne - 29 mai 2016: Bayeux a commémoré le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, conçue par le commandant en chef de l'Armée allemande général Erich von Falkenhayn comme une bataille d'attrition pour 'saigner à blanc l'Armée française' sous un déluge d'obus - 29 mai 2016: Cannes commémore le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, la plus terrible bataille que l'humanité ait connue - 29 mai 2016: Cent ans après l'enfer de Verdun, François Hollande et Angela Merkel commémoraient la bataille de Verdun, une journée placée sous le signe de l'Europe dans un contexte difficile
France/Greece relations: France/Greece relations
France/Iran relations: France/Iran relations
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
France/Iraq relations: France/Iraq relations
France/Jordan relations: France/Jordan relations
France/Laos relations: France/Laos relations
1893–1945, 1946–1953 French 'Protectorate' of Laos: French Protectorate of Laos 1893–1945, 1946–1953
France/Lebanon relations: France/Lebanon relations
France/Norway relations: France/Norway relations
France/Russia relations: France/Russia relations
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
Since May 2017: 29 May 2017: As USA senator calls Russian Putin the biggest threat to global security, French Macron welcomes and hosts war criminal Putin at the former royal palace of Versailles outside Paris, exchanging cordial handshakes and smiles, kneeling down in ridiculous posture before Putin and the absolute monarchy, betraying the French revolution since 1789 and the Syrian people and democracy attacked since 2011 by Assad, Putin and Ali Khamenei, after France's president and government still called in October 2016 for war crimes investigation against Russia over Syria - 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says, calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
France/Senegal relations: France/Senegal relations
1659 French conquest of Senegal: French conquest of Senegal 1659 - Ndar (Saint-Louis)
1895-1958 French West Africa: French West Africa 1895-1958
1960 Independence of Senegal: 1960 Independence of Senegal
France/Syria relations: France/Syria relations
August/September 2013: 27 August: President Hollande says that France was 'ready to punish' those behind last week's deadly chemical attack in Syria - 30 August: President François Hollande says that the UK parliamentary vote against taking military action in Syria would not affect France’s will to act alongside the United States in 'punishing' Assad regime for a chemical weapons attack - 2 September: Assad forces carried out a 'massive and coordinated' chemical attack on August 21 near Damascus posing a major threat to national and global security, according to a declassified French intelligence report - 7 September 2013: International support is growing for a strong response to the chemical weapons attack by the Syrian regime, France's foreign minister Fabius said during a joint press conference with USA counterpart Kerry - 20 September 2013: France suggests it is ready to give weapons to Syria's opposition in a 'controlled framework' - 29 septembre 2013: Appel de parlementaires PS et EELV à une aide militaire aux forces de l'opposition en Syrie
2014/2015: 13 May: France calls on United Nations to refer Syrian War to International Criminal Court - 27 February 2015: France and Britain dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition - 5 March: French President Hollande receives Syrian Coalition delegation in Paris - 23 May 2015: A majority of 55% of French people are in favour of a military intervention by France in Syria, poll says - 27 September 2015: France launches first airstrikes against Islamic State terrorists in Syria, as French president says 'civilian populations must be protected against all forms of violence, ... also against the murderous bombings of Bashar al-Assad' - 29 September: In New York, Syrian Coalition's Khoja and France's Hollande agree on Syria without Assad, as Khoja explains the regime’s brutal practices against civilians, most notably using barrel bombs which account for nearly 95% of the overall civilian deaths in Syria, and as France will discuss with its partners in the coming days a proposal by Turkey and the Syrian opposition for a no-fly zone in northern Syria - 30 September: France is investigating Bashar al-Assad over alleged crimes against humanity, also examining claims of torture and kidnapping by Assad's forces and opened 'on the basis of indications received from the foreign ministry' on 10 September - 8 October: France will support establishing safe zones in Syria - 24 October 2015: France's FM Fabius announced that Paris will host foreign-minister level talks on Syria on 27 October, adding that Russia's foreign minister Lavrov will not be part of the talks and reiterating that Bashar al-Assad could not be part of any solution in Syria
2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 1 April 2016: France accuses Syrian Assad regime of violating ceasefire, saying that airstrikes in south-east Damascus were intended to terrorise people and undermine international peace efforts - 11 June 2016: Photos of 1,000 Syrian detainees out of hundreds of thousands of detainees currently in Assad’s prisons will be raised by Syrian and French activists at the 'Place de la Bastille' in Paris - 10 October 2016: Saying that France is 'committed as never before to saving the population of Aleppo’ and that he will ask the international court of justice to investigate possible war crimes in Syria French FM Ayrault also says that President Hollande will take into account the situation in Syria's Aleppo when deciding whether to see Russia's Putin when he visits Paris on 19 October - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria - 21 November 2016: At a meeting with French FM Jean-Marc Ayrault Syrian Coalition's Hijab stresses that the brutal onslaught on Aleppo by Assad and its Russian and Iranian allies are war crimes and crimes against humanity, calling upon the international community to assume its duty to stop Assad and Russia’s massacres in Syria - 2 December 2016: The Syrian civil defense was awarded the Franco-German Prize for Human Rights and the Rule of Law a few days after receiving the Alternative Nobel Prize honoring their humanitarian role in relief work, as French FM Ayrault condemns the attacks that target civilians and hospitals in Aleppo, adding that systematic war crimes are being committed in the war-torn city and that the international community often ignores these crimes, as Syrian Coalition's Abdah calls for urgent action to save the people of Aleppo from the ongoing genocide, warning of an unprecedented humanitarian disaster that will have serious political, humanitarian consequences for the Syrian people and the peoples of the region
2017: 9 January 2017: Syria's war criminal al-Assad on Sunday received a number of members of the French National Assembly, headed by Thierry Mariani - 22 June 2017: France's Macron breaks with previous French policy in support of the struggle for freedom and democracy also in Syria, saying that 'nobody has shown me a legitimate successor' to Syria's dictators Hafez al-Assad 1970-2000 and Bashar al-Assad since 2000 - 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses - 3 juillet 2017: Des intellectuels et spécialistes français et syriens reprochent au président français son revirement à propos de Bachar el-Assad, qu'ils qualifient d'erreur d'analyse majeure
France/Tunisia relations: France/Tunisia relations
1881-1956 French conquest and 'protectorate' of Tunisia: French conquest of Tunisia 1881 - French 'protectorate' of Tunisia 1881-1956
France/Turkey relations: France/Turkey relations - 24 December: Turkey responds to French genocide allegations accusing France of committing genocide during its colonial occupation in Algeria - 24 janvier: La Turquie a "condamné fermement" le vote par le Sénat français d'une proposition de loi pénalisant la négation du génocide arménien - 25 January: Armenians applaud new French 'genocide' law - 28 February: French law on Armenian killings struck down - what about freedom of expression in Turkey? - 10/11 January 2013: Three Kurdish activists Fidan Dogan, Sakine Cansiz and Leyla Soylemez found dead in Paris, as Turkish government and PKK leader conduct negotiations - 12 January: Turkish PM Erdogan queries French President Francois Hollande links with dead Kurd, after Hollande had said the murder of Sakine Cansiz, Fidan Dogan and Leyla Soylemez was 'terrible' - 13 January: Thousands of Kurds rally in Paris, demanding justice for three activists shot dead in the French capital - 21 January: Preliminary murder and terrorism charges filed against Turkish Kurd who worked as a driver for one of three killed Kurdish activists - 26 July 2015: Hundreds of Kurds gathered in Paris to denounce Turkey's operations targeting Kurdish militants in northern Iraq, and the suspected Islamic State terror attack in Suruc
France/United Kingdom relations: France/United Kingdom relations
1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars: 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars tragedy
2015: 18 February 2015: United Kingdom's Chelsea soccer fans prompt outcry with racist behavior in Paris - 18 February 2015: British Chelsea soccer fans prompt outcry with racist behavior in Paris - 1 August 2015: As part of a long-running dispute over 600 job losses, striking French ferry workers block Calais port route with huge fire, causing gridlock amid attempts by dozens of migrants to cross Channel to UK - 21 August 2015: Britain and France announced a new 'command and control centre' to tackle smuggling gangs in Calais, as Europe grapples with its biggest migration crisis since World War II - 2 November 2015: Refugees in northern France face hard conditions as winter nears - 2 décembre 2015: De nouveau affrontements ont eu lieu sur la rocade portuaire de Calais dans la crise migratoire en Europe
2016: 1 March 2016: Calais camp is razed by French authorities with nowhere for most refugees to go - 20 June 2016: France’s first Shakespearean-style theatre near Condette in northern France built as tribute to Anglo-French friendship vandalised - 26 juillet 2016: Un migrant éthiopien a été tué aux abords de la 'Jungle' de Calais lors de rixes, qui ont également fait six blessés, et ont éclaté 'à proximité du camp opposant des migrants africains (Soudanais, Erythréens, Ethiopiens) et afghans' - 24 September 2016: Up to 1,000 unaccompanied minors will be left to fend for themselves when the bulldozers move in Calais refugee camp and French authorities hope Britain will honour pledges and rescue minors - 1 October: Child refugees at Calais plunged into despair by plan to close camp - 23 October 2016: Despite concerns about the safety of thousands of children and vulnerable adults living there, French officials are expected to press ahead with plans to start dismantling the Calais refugee camp on Monday - 27 October 2016: Charities fear for safety of unregistered minors as French officials try to declare camp's clearout complete and fires ravage camp - 5 November 2016: Nearly all of the children who stayed in the now demolished Calais camp for refugees have a mental health condition such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression, according to 'Citizens UK', which is supporting scores of children dispersed around France - 19 November 2016: Child refugees sent from the demolished Calais 'jungle' to supposedly safe welcome centres across France claim they have been pressed into forced labour
France/USA relations: France/USA relations - French American

Germany - Geography of Germany - Demographics of Germany
History of Germany: History of Germany
German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945: German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945
Crimes of two World Wars: World War I 1914-1918 - World War II 1939-1945
Second 'careers', protection of Nazi murderers (ongoing):
2011: 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012/2013: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 2 September: Germany tries 92-year-old member of the Nazi Waffen SS Siert Bruins for Nazi war crime - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
Economic history and economic cycles in Germany: Economic history of Germany since 1945
Labor in Germany: Labor in Germany
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1996: 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen)
Since 1955 list of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers: List of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers - 1940-1945 Adolf Heusinger devient chef de la section des opérations ('Operationsabteilung') à l’OKH et participe aux décisions opérationnelles et stratégiques, les crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - Heinrich Trettner 1907-2006, rejoint la Légion Condor et sert comme adjudant et officier d'opérations du Generalmajor Hugo Sperrle et Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen durant la Guerre civile d'Espagne, ensuite un Generalleutnant allemand qui a servi au sein de la Heer dans la Wehrmacht pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de 1964 à 1966 Inspecteur général de la Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr)
German military personnel: German military personnel
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany (see also 'crime in Germany', explained further below): List of intelligence agencies of Germany
Military budget of Germany: Military budget of Germany
Taxation in Germany: Taxation in Germany
Federal budget of Germany: Federal budget of Germany
Politics of Germany: Politics of Germany
Elections and politics in Germany: Elections in Germany
Federal election 2013: German federal election 22 September 2013 - 22 septembre 2013: Les Allemands ont voté en masse dimanche matin pour les élections législatives qui devraient confirmer Angela Merkel - 23 September: Germany's CDU/CSU wins by a landslide but faces tough coalition choices - 23/24 September: 'This morning I stood in front of my wardrobe and I thought red is no good, bright green is no good, blue was yesterday, what are you going to do?' CDU chancellor Merkel said - 17 octobre 2013: Merkel tente un rapprochement avec les sociaux-démocrates - 20 octobre: La convention du parti social-démocrate a donné son feu vert aux négociations pour former une coalition avec la CDU - 27 November: CDU/CSU and SPD reach deal on forming a coalition - 14 décembre 2013: Feu vert des sociaux-démocrates à la 'grande coalition' dans un référendum interne - 18 December: Angela Merkel elected to a third term as chancellor in a vote in the German lower house of parliament
May 2014 German European Parliament election: German European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - 13 October 2015: Anti-refugee protesters create a gallows for Angela Merkel over her open-door refugee policies as housing for those who have fled the Middle East are daubed in racist graffiti - 17 October 2015: Henriette Reker, running for the office of the Mayor of Cologne, was seriously wounded by an assailant with a knife while shouting against refugees - 7 November 2015: Just two days after resolving a coalition row over how to handle the record influx of refugees, row over their status reopened by the CDU/CSU interior minister saying Syrian refugees would receive a modified status and be barred from having family members join them
September 2017 German federal election: 24 September 2017 German federal election
Subdivisions of Germany: Subdivisions of Germany
Municipalities, cities and towns in Germany: Municipalities of Germany - List of cities and towns in Germany
History of Baden-Württemberg: History of Baden-Württemberg
History of Bavaria: History of Bavaria
Munich Metropolitan Region: Munich Metropolitan Region
History of Hesse: History of Hesse
History of North Rhine-Westphalia: History of North Rhine-Westphalia
History of Rhineland-Palatinate: History of Rhineland-Palatinate
History of Prussia, Brandenburg and Berlin: History of Prussia - History of Brandenburg - History of Berlin
History of Saxony: History of Saxony
State elections 2011-2019: List of German state elections 2012-2019
Social movements and protests: Protests in Germany
2015: 5 January 2015: Thousands take to the streets in Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden to oppose racism and xenophobia - 10 January: Tens of thousands of people rally in Dresden against racism and xenophobia - 12 January: 'Anti-Islamisation' Pegida marchers were outnumbered by tens of thousands counterdemonstrators across the country, with 30,000 people in Leipzig, 20,000 in Munich, in Dresden and other cities - 13 January: Rally to condemn the Paris jihadist attacks and take a stand against Islamophobia draws 10,000 people in Berlin - 19 April: Thousands in Germany protest against Europe-USA trade deal that they fear will erode food, labour and environmental standards - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria
2016: 16 January 2016: Thousands of protesters in Berlin call for organic farming, which is done without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, without the use of antibiotics for livestock and GMO feed, also protesting against corporate agriculture as well as the pending TTIP free trade agreement between the EU and the USA - 11 avril 2016: Environ 45'000 salariés de la sidérurgie ont manifesté pour dire leurs inquiétudes quant à leur avenir, dans un secteur soumis à la concurrence féroce des acteurs chinois - 24 April 2016: Tens of thousands of opponents of a proposed transatlantic trade deal poured onto German streets Saturday on the eve of a visit by USA's Obama - 29 avril 2016: Plusieurs débrayages ont eu lieu dans toute l'Allemagne pour réclamer de meilleures conditions de travail et une augmentation de salaires pour une vaste branche fourre-tout qui recouvre l'automobile, les industries électriques, la métallurgie, et emploie 3,4 millions de personnes
June/July 2017: 27 June 2017: Greenpeace, Oxfam and other organizations, preparing protests against the G20 summit in July, demand solutions and cooperation to combat famines, inequality, climate change, wars and displacements, not provided by present G20 policy, and call for developing democracy, strengthening parliaments, creating transparency, enabling effective public participation in important decisions, also in Germany and Hamburg, that will host Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in July - Proteste und Gegenveranstaltungen gegen den G20-Gipfel in Hamburg am 7./8. Juli 2017 - zahlreiche Bündnisse und Initiativen organisieren Veranstaltungen um Alternativen zum beim G20 vertretenen Wirtschaftssystem aufzuzeigen - 7 July 2017: New York city mayor Bill De Blasio, one of Trump's sharpest critics, will take part in protests against the G20 summit in Hamburg and will be a keynote speaker on Saturday at a rally for human rights and democracy
Society, demographics, languages, human rights, religion, racism and antisemitism in Germany: German society - Demographics of Germany - Human rights in Germany - Ethnic groups in Germany - Immigrants to Germany
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages - Category: Jewish German history - Antisemitism and Holocaust (the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany) in Germany and Europe - The end of the Cold War 1990/91 contributed to a growth in the Jewish people of Germany with a population of more than 100,000 registered citizens - May 2005: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe - sixty years after the end of World War II - 14 September 2014: 'Stand Up Against Anti-Semitism: No More Jew-Hatred' Rally at the Brandenburg Gate on Sunday afternoon in the middle of Berlin, attended by 5,000 people - 20 February 2015: Berlin's Jewish community removes its logo on envelopes containing its monthly magazine to protect members from anti-Semitic attacks
Arabs in Germany: Arabs in Germany
Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany: Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany
Kurds in Germany: Kurds in Germany
Russians in Germany: Russians in Germany
Spaniards in Germany: Spaniards in Germany
Turks in Germany: Turks in Germany
Immigration and refugees in Germany: Immigration to Germany
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'
Women and women's rights in Germany: Women in Germany - Women's rights in Germany
2016: 5 janvier 2016: Entre 200 et 300 personnes se sont rassemblées devant la cathédrale de Cologne pour appeler à plus de respect envers les femmes - 2016 New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robbery in Germany - 8 January 2016: German police have identified 18 asylum-seekers among 31 suspects in connection with crimes committed in Cologne at New Year, as government spokesman tells reporters that there are 9 Algerians, 8 Moroccans, 5 Iranians, 4 Syrians, 2 Germans and one person each from Iraq, Serbia and the USA among the suspects - 11 May 2016: Women's rights activists say that while government plans to allow women to compare their salaries against peers were a good start, more still needs to be done - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
Children's rights in Germany: Children's rights in Germany
Education in Germany: Education in Germany
Schools in Germany: Schools in Germany
Health disasters in Germany: Health disasters in Germany
Drugs in Germany: Drugs in Germany
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany
Religious disaffiliation (Kirchenaustritte): Kirchenaustritte in Deutschland
Crime in Germany: Crime in Germany
Racism in Germany: Racism in Germany
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
2014: 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March
2015: 5 January 2015: A 26-year-old Israeli was beaten by a group of seven men on a Berlin subway car after he filmed them singing an anti-Semitic song and refused to delete the video - 27 January 2015: Auschwitz survivors gather for memorial 70 years after liberation - 17 February: Jewish cemetery in the northern German city of Oldenburg vandalized, targeted over the past few years by right-wing extremists - 28 June 2015: Berlin’s philharmonic’s new conductor met by anti-Semitism in German press, as NDR website calls Russian-born Kirill Petrenko, philharmonic’s first Jewish conductor, 'the tiny gnome, the Jewish caricature' - 16 November 2015: Ursula Haverbeck after calling the Holocaust in a statement broadcast on television outside of the trial of former SS guard Oskar Groening 'the biggest and most sustainable lie in history', sentenced to 10 months in jail
Nazi terrorism since 1945 and Nazi party 'NPD' in German parliaments (ongoing): Todesopfer rechtsextremer Gewalt in Deutschland nach 1945
2011/2012: 12. November 2011: Mordserie an Ausländern und Polizistin von seit 90er Jahren bekannten Neonazis - 13 November 2011: Police made a second arrest after the discovery of evidence linking a Nazi group to 10 murders - Untersuchungsausschuss zur Terrorgruppe Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund seit Januar 2012 - 13. März 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei polizeilicher Aktion gegen die kriminelle Vereinigung 'Aktionsbüro Mittelrhein' und deren 'Braunes Haus' - 27 March 2012: 'Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose a threat', British TV report says - 30. Mai 2012: Von fünf mutmasslichen Helfern der Rechtsterroristen sind nur noch zwei in Haft - 15. Juni 2012: Bundesgerichtshof hebt Haftbefehl gegen weiteren mutmaßlichen Helfer der rechtsterroristischen NSU auf - 28. Juni 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' vernichtete im November 2011 Akten über seine Verbindung zu Naziterroristen nach Aufforderung zu deren Übermittlung - 23. November 2012: Bundespräsident Gauck lehnt Treffen mit den Opferfamilien der NSU-Morde ab und schlägt Bitte der Türkischen Gemeinde für ein persönliches Treffen zum Jahrestag der Aufdeckung der NSU-Mordserie aus
2013: 26 Mart 2013: Almanya’da sekizi Türk 10 kisiyi öldüren neonazi terör örgütü NSU’nun yargilanacagi davada Münih Yüksek Eyalet Mahkemesi - 2. April 2013: 50 'Verfassungsschutz' V-Leute im NSU-Umfeld identifiziert, schwerste Straftaten, hohe Honorare des Staates (fünf- bis sechsstellig) und oftmals ohne Strafverfolgung - 2. April: Celal Özcan erklärt. daß 'Hürriyet' immer wieder beim OLG München angerufen und um eine Vorabinformation gebeten habe, wann die Akkreditierungsfrist beginnen würde - 'die Verfahrensweise ist ungerecht und nicht akzeptabel' - 2. April: Statt das Anliegen, die Teilnahme türkischer Medien und der Botschaft am NSU-Prozeß vor dem Münchner OLG zu gewährleisten, als Vorsitzender des Auswärtigen Ausschusses nach Kräften zu unterstützen, maßt sich CDU-Polenz von der Kiesinger/Filbinger/Globke-CDU an, die 'türkische Politik' 'dringend zu warnen' - vor dem Zustand eines Landes, dessen Behörden den Naziterror sogar finanziell gefördert haben (ein Grund, sich zu schämen und zu entschuldigen), und welchen auch dieser CDU/CSU-Politiker mit herbeigeführt hat und nun selbst offenbart - 4 April: A Turkish newspaper complains to Germany's highest court over German neo-Nazi trial access - 12 avril: La Cour constitutionnelle allemande a ordonné au tribunal de Munich d'accorder des places supplémentaires aux médias étrangers pour couvrir le procès de néonazis jugés à partir de mercredi pour des meurtres racistes - 15 avril: Le procès de néo-nazis allemands accusés de meurtres racistes est reporté au 6 mai - 25 April: The German lower house, the Bundestag, refuses to back a ban of the neo-nazi party NPD
2015: 21 January 2015: The leader of far-right and anti-Muslim movement Pegida resigned after a photo of him posing as Hitler and reports that he called refugees 'scumbags' - 11 February 2015: German refugee centres face drastic rise in extremist attacks - 23 Februar 2015: Bachmann wieder im Pegida-Vorstand - 9 March 2015: Village of Tröglitz mayor Markus Nierth quits over neo-Nazi protest after neo-Nazis were given permission to demonstrate outside his home over his support of asylum seekers - 29. März 2015: Zeugin und Ex-Freundin von Florian H. tot, der im Herbst 2013 im Auto verbrannte bevor er im NSU-Ausschuß aussagen konnte - 4 April 2015: Asylum seekers' accommodation set on fire in suspected far-right arson attack in village of Tröglitz - 22 April 2015: Germany grapples with attitudes to asylum seekers - 6 May 2015: Police detained four people suspected of setting up a right-wing extremist group that was planning bomb attacks on Muslims and refugees, as a separate investigation began into arsonists who damaged a shelter for asylum-seekers - 30 July 2015: A worrying rise of fire bombings and violent attacks on asylum-seekers has marred German attempts to integrate desperate refugees from Syria, Eritrea and also people from the Balkans, as in the past 25 years in Germany 75 people have been murdered in rightwing extremist attacks - 23 August 2015: The outbreak of violence by right-wing radicals against refugees followed a demonstration of some 1,000 people in Heidenau, near Dresden against the roughly 250 refugees - 26 August: Two new attacks hit refugee centres in Leipzig and Parchim - 17 October 2015: Mayoral candidate Henriette Reker, responsible for taking charge of refugees in her city, stabbed in Cologne in a racist attack wounding four other people and linked to migrants policy - 19 October 2015: At the anniversary of the Pegida rallies in Dresden on 19 October 2015 keynote speaker Pirinçci tries to stir up hatred against refugees in Europe and Germany saying 'KZs sind ja leider derzeit außer Betrieb' - 22 October 2015: In the first three quarters of 2015 there were a total of 461 attacks across Germany against asylum seekers’ homes believed to have been driven by xenophobic motives, including scores of arson attacks - 7 December: Germany's constitutional court to hear case on banning neo-Nazi NPD in March 2016 - 22 December 2015: A German town council member of the National Democratic party has been given only a suspended sentence over a tattoo bearing a notorious Nazi concentration camp slogan and a rendering of Auschwitz
2016: 11 January 2016: Two Pakistanis and a Syrian man were injured in attacks by gangs of people in Cologne, German police said late on Sunday - 11 January 2016: Gangs attacked groups of foreigners in four separate incidents on Sunday in Cologne, after attackers reportedly arranged via Facebook to go on 'manhunt' of foreigners after assaults on women on New Year’s Eve - 12 January: Over 200 masked anti-refugee supporters, carrying placards with racist overtones, went on a rampage in the German city of Leipzig on Monday night, throwing fireworks, breaking windows and vandalising buildings, police says - 20 February 2016: A video showing a mob of people in Saxony chanting hate slogans at a bus full of visibly shaken refugees has sparked outrage among German social media users - 20 février: Tollé après la diffusion de vidéos montrant en Saxe des policiers évacuant brutalement un bus de demandeurs d'asile qui refusent de gagner leur foyer, effrayés par des manifestants anti-réfugié - 21 February: A fire that destroyed a hotel being converted into a shelter for refugees in Saxony's city of Bautzen was cheered and celebrated by onlookers, police say treating the incident as suspected arson - 8 March 2016: Congo-born priest Ndjimbi-Tshiende in Germany's Bavaria quits over death threats he received since speaking out in defence of refugees and after he was fed up with xenophobic utterances from prominent CSU local politicians Sylvia Boher and Johann Haindi - 19 April 2016: In diesem Jahr sind in Deutschland bereits mehr als 300 Straftaten gegen Asylunterkünfte verübt worden - 11. Mai 2016: Mobiltelefon des mittlerweile toten Neonazis 'Corelli', V-Mann des sogenannten 'Verfassungsschutzes', aufgetaucht, welches 2012 (!) bei der Aufnahme in ein 'Zeugenschutzprogramm' der NSU-Untersuchung übergeben wurde und auf dem sich zahlreiche Bild-Dateien und Kontakte befinden - 6 July 2016: Anti-immigration party AfD plunged into a leadership crisis over Holocaust denial and antisemitic views expressed by one of its MPs - 13 July 2016: A group of young men left a black man bloodied and unconscious after he tried to stop them harassing some Somalis in Munich - 16 August 2016: Berlin authorities must cancel contracts with Pewobe company that runs nine homes for asylum seekers after leaked emails showed managers including a former DVU member joking about executing refugees, suggesting to invest a €5,000 donation from BMW in 'a small guillotine for children' and joking that disposing of the bodies would require a 'large-volume crematorium' - 27 September 2016: Police suspect a 'xenophobic motive’ after two improvised explosive devices detonated outside a mosque and congress centre in Dresden on Monday - 7 October: A group of young people in eastern Germany's Sebnitz threatened three Syrian refugee children with a knife and hit them before chanting right-wing slogans, police said - 20 October 2016: Police officer dies from injuries after being shot by Neo-Nazi 'Reichsbürger' extremist - 23 October 2016: As police and fire officers tried to persuade a Somali boy not to jump, onlookers were spending a long time, watching and calling on the migrant teen to leap from an apartment block in German town of Schmoelln and to suffer fatal injuries - 31 October 2016: Two weeks after a 'Reichsbürger' Neo-Nazi killed an officer during a police raid, German police are investigating within their own ranks for links to the extremist movement with the largest number of cases in Bavaria and Saxony-Anhalt
Terrorism in Germany: Terrorism in Germany
1972 Munich massacre: 1972 Munich massacre
May 1993 Solingen arson attack: 28 May 1993 Solingen arson attack
22 July 2016 Munich shooting: 22 July 2016 Munich shooting - 22 July 2016: Munich police warned people to avoid public places as they hunted for the shooter who opened fire at a shopping mall, killing at least eight people and wounding others - 23 July: 18-year-old German-Iranian from Munich kills 9 people then himself in Munich terror rampage - 23 July: Munich attack reports, live updated by British newspaper - 24 July: 18-year-old Ali Sonboly from Munich, who killed nine people mostly teenagers including three children from Turkey, three ethnic Albanians from Kosovo and at least one Greek teenager, was reportedly obsessed with mass killings, played computer shooting games and was interested in the Neo-Nazi terrorist Anders Breivik, who murdered 77 mostly young people on 22 July 2011 targeting an AUF camp, and whose face was used by Sonboly as his profile picture on the WhatsApp messaging service - 24 July: Police arrest a 16-year-old Afghan youth on suspicion of a connection to the killing of nine people by Sonboly, as authorities confirmed that the gunman had written a manifesto before the attack without revealing any details about its content, and that he spent more than a year planning the attack and was able to buy a handgun on the dark web - 27. Juli 2016: Der Münchner Todesschütze Sonboly hat es Presseberichten zufolge als 'Auszeichnung' empfunden, am einem 20. April wie Adolf Hitler geboren worden zu sein, war als Deutsch-Iraner stolz darauf Arier zu sein, habe Araber und Türken gehasst und ihnen gegenüber 'Höherwertigkeitsgefühle' gehegt - 27 July: Police investigate Sonboly's targeting of people of foreign origin, saying the gunman was racist and a rightwing extremist
Political violence in Germany: Political violence in Germany
Human trafficking in Germany: Human trafficking in Germany
Murder victims in Germany and crime in Germany by year: Murder victims in Germany - Crime in Germany by year - Crime in Germany by state
Political corruption and crimes:
Since 1975 'Flick-Affäre' (not finished): Flick-Affäre seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen)
Since 1999 Telekom Überwachungsaffäre: Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom (seit 1999)
2007 Polizistenmord von Heilbronn: Polizistenmord von Heilbronn 25. April 2007
Since 2010 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre: 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre seit 2010
Since 1999 'Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom': Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom (seit 1999)
Computer crime, cyber spying and industrial espionage: Computer crime - Cyber spying - Industrial espionage - Cyber-attacks - Computer security
Corruption, white collar crime and scandals in Germany: Corruption in Germany
Since 1945 Holocaust trials: Since 1945 Holocaust trials
1942 - April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online - 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria
Law enforcement in Germany: Law enforcement in Germany
Judiciary and courts in Germany: Judiciary of Germany - Courts in Germany
Federal Constitutional Court: Federal Constitutional Court
Law enforcement agencies in Germany: Law enforcement agencies in Germany
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies:
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach - NZZ 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
Foreign relations of Germany: Foreign relations of Germany
German membership of international organisations: German membership of international organisations
Since 1957 Germany and the European Union: Germany and the European Union
Foreign relations of Germany by continent and bilateral relations: Foreign relations of Germany by continent and countries - Bilateral relations of Germany
Germany/Afghanistan relations: Germany/Afghanistan relations
Germany/Albania relations: Germany/Albania relations
Germany/Algeria relations: Germany/Algeria relations
Germany/Angola relations: Germany/Angola relations - German campaign in Angola 1914-1915 during World War I
Germany/Argentina relations: Germany/Argentina relations
Germany/Armenia relations: Germany/Armenia relations
April 2015: 15 April 2015: Armenian genocide should be called what it was and the German government has a special responsibility, because German officers were among the accessories and accomplices, the Central Council of Jews in Germany says - 17 April 2015: Turkey has never accepted the term genocide for its war crime against Armenians, even though historians have demolished its denial of responsibility for up to 1.5 million deaths - 17 April 2015: SPD-Steinmeier avoids to say 'genocide' for genocide of Armenians, because his party supported World War I from German beginning to end and as a result the war crimes - 17 April 2015: SPD-Schulz disassociates himself from European Parliament's resolution recognizing the Armenan Genocide, because his party supported World War I from German beginning to end and hence the war crimes
Germany/Austria relations: Germany/Austria relations
Germany/Bangladesh relations: Germany/Bangladesh relations
Germany/Belarus relations: Germany/Belarus relations
Germany/Belgium relations: Germany/Belgium relations
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
1914-1918: In August 1914, Ebert led the Social Democratic Party to vote almost unanimously in favour of war loans - German war crimes World War I - Chemical weapons in World War I - April/May 1915 Second Battle of Ypres - Germany used the first time poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front - By 1916 the German Empire had become a military dictatorship under the control of Hindenburg and Ludendorff - The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 38 million, over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, including about 11 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians, the Allies lost about 6 million military personnel while the so-called Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey) lost about 4 million, at least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead
Germany/Brazil relations: Germany/Brazil relations
Germany/Burundi relations: Germany/Burundi relations
1939-1945 Burundi and German empire's World War II: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972 and 1993 Burundi genocide: Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Germany/Canada relations: Germany/Canada relations
Germany/Chile relations: Germany/Chile relations
Germany/Czech Republic relations: Germany/Czech Republic relations
Germany/Denmark relations: Germany/Denmark relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Germany/Egypt relations: Germany/Egypt relations
Germany and the European Union: Germany and the European Union
Germany/France relations: Germany/France relations
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 First Battle of the Marne September 1914 - The Battle of Verdun from 21 February – 18 December 1916 was one of the largest battles of World War I, after the German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Région Fortifiée de Verdun and those of the Second Army garrisons on the right bank of the Meuse, intending to rapidly capture the Côtes de Meuse - In 1916 the German strategy was to inflict mass casualties on the French, to weaken the French Army to the point of collapse, therefore the Germans planned to use a large number of heavy and super-heavy guns to inflict a greater number of casualties than French artillery - In 1980, J. Terraine gave 750,000 Franco-German casualties in 299 days of Verdun battle, E.R. Dupuy and T.N. Dupuy gave 542,000 French casualties in 1993, H. Heer and K. Naumann calculated 377,231 French and 337,000 German casualties - German war crimes World War I - Chemical weapons in World War I - List of French villages destroyed in World War I - French World War I casualties
1939-1945: German invasion of France 1940 during World War II - Hitler's general Erwin Rommel and Nazi invasion of France and Belgium 1940, in 1961 the biggest German military barracks named 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' - Hitler's general Heinz Guderian and Nazi invasion of France and Belgium 1940, after 1945 he advised on the re-establishment of military forces in West Germany - Hitler's quartermaster general of the German 'Wehrmacht' 1939-1944 - Allied casualties of the second German assault and war crime within 26 years include 85,310 French soldiers murdered (including 5,400 Maghrebis), 12,000 missing, 120,000 wounded and 1,540,000 prisoners (including 67,400 Maghrebis) - German Military Administration in France 1940-1944 - Vichy France 1940-1944 - German war crimes World War II - Oradour-sur-Glane in Nazi occupied France was destroyed on 10 June 1944, when 642 of its inhabitants, including women and children, were massacred by a German Waffen-SS company - French World War II casualties
2014-2018: First World War 1914-1918 centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 12 octobre 2013: Les commémorations du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale, qui devraient se prolonger sur cinq ans, ont été partiellement dévoilées à Blois - 17 octobre 2013: A moins de huit mois du 70e anniversaire de la Libération, en Normandie un bunker allemand 'au coeur du Débarquement' 1944 s'ouvre au public - 29 mai 2016: Les africains, qui se sont battus dans les tranchées, et le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun de la première guerre mondiale déclarée par l'Allemagne - 29 mai 2016: Bayeux a commémoré le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, conçue par le commandant en chef de l'Armée allemande général Erich von Falkenhayn comme une bataille d'attrition pour 'saigner à blanc l'Armée française' sous un déluge d'obus - 29 mai 2016: Cannes commémore le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, la plus terrible bataille que l'humanité ait connue - 29 mai 2016: Cent ans après l'enfer de Verdun, François Hollande et Angela Merkel commémoraient la bataille de Verdun, une journée placée sous le signe de l'Europe dans un contexte difficile - 1 July 2016: Battle of the Somme centenary commemorations in France and in the United Kingdom - 1 juillet 2016: Près de 600 enfants - 300 Britanniques et 300 Français - doivent participer à la célébration à Thiepval pour célébrer le centenaire de la bataille de la Somme, la plus meurtrière de la Grande Guerre
Germany/Gabon relations: Germany/Gabon relations
June 1940: Le 7 juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun - 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen
Germany/Georgia relations: Germany/Georgia relations
Germany/Iraq relations: Germany/Iraq relations
Germany/Israel relations: Germany/Israel relations
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany
Since 1882 Aliyah (immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel): Aliyah - immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel since 1882
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, main campaigns include, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, and the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918
2013: 8 April 2013: Thousands from across the globe marched solemnly at the former Nazi Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp to honour the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust during World War II - 18 avril 2013: Condamnés à mourir dans des chambres à gaz, les derniers jeunes juifs du ghetto de Varsovie 1943, ont au moins voulu choisir leur mort et mourir au combat, l'arme à la main, se souvient Simcha Rotem - 14 June 2013: Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu, visiting the former Nazi death camp at Auschwitz, says the Jewish state would act - alone if necessary - to prevent a repetition of the Holocaust - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court dismisses bid to release full Eichmann files - 8 November: Anti-Semitism on rise in Europe, says European Fundamental Rights Agency survey - 9 November 2013: Holocaust survivors, citizens and politicians will marks Nazi pogrom of November 1938 with vigils and tributes to the victims
2014: 28 March 2014: Palestinian students visit Auschwitz in first organized visit in a program, that aims to teach Israeli and Palestinian students about the other side's suffering in effort to study how empathy could facilitate reconciliation - Yom HaShoah 28 April 2014 - 13 July: About 1,000 demonstrators, most of them Palestinian, hold unregistered march protesting Israel's Operation Protective Edge - 16 July: Following its German sister company’s lead, the Dutch branch of Europe’s TUI travel giant has called off all tours of Israel due to the rocket fire there - 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March - 24 July: As death toll in the Gaza/Israel conflict rises, officials indicate that ceasefire may take time - 24 July 2014: Parents in Gaza and Israel do not want their children to grow up to kill or be killed in a senseless war that has no end - 30 July: In Israel, 79-year-old Holocaust survivor worries about her Gazan daughter
2017: 25 April 2017: Visiting Israel German FM Sigmar Gabriel says that it would be 'regrettable' if PM Benjamin Netanyahu were to refuse to meet him due to his planned meeting with groups critical of the Israeli army, but insists that he will not change his plans - 26 April 2017: German FM Gabriel met with groups after defying to cancel the meeting, shortly after the meeting one of the groups, B’Tselem co-funded by the FordFoundation, called on the international community to punish Israel for the continued occupation of the West Bank - 10 July 2017: Six people including a number of former senior public officials, suspected of corruption in the potentially fraudulent purchase of naval vessels, questioned as part of the ongoing investigation into the 'submarine affair', in which PM Netanyahu’s personal lawyer David Shimron is suspected of attempting to sway multi-billion-shekel deals in favor of the German shipbuilder ThyssenKrupp, which he represented in Israel
Germany/Italy relations: Germany/Italy relations
1936/1937 Anti-Comintern Pact and 1939-1945 World War II: 1936/1937 Anti-Comintern Pact and 1939-1945 World War II
29 June 1944 Civitella massacre of 244 civilians by german soldiers of the 'Wehrmacht', never charged in Germany: 29 June 1944 massacre of 244 civilians in Civitella was done by german soldiers of the 'Wehrmacht', never charged in Germany
Since 1945 'Schrank der Schande', 'Armadio della vergogna', 'LA MEMORIA': - LA MEMORIA - Armadio della vergogna - Schrank der Schande (staatlich versteckte Akten über deutsche Kriegsverbrechen)
2012/2013: 19 December 2012: At the presentation of a report by Italian and German historians on German war crimes against Italians, Italy presses Germany on conviction of former Nazis - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy - 16 October: Italy marked the 70th anniversary of the round-up and deportation of Jews from Rome's ghetto on Wednesday, amid turmoil over the burial of Nazi war criminal Erich Priebke and his Holocaust-denying final statement - 18 October: 90-year-old former Nazi soldier Alfred Stork sentenced in absentia by a military court in Rome which found him guilty of taking part in the execution of at least 117 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia - 7 novembre 2013: Le criminel de guerre nazi Priebke finalement enterré dans le cimetière d'une prison italienne
Germany/Japan relations: Germany/Japan relations
Germany/Libya relations: Germany/Libya relations
1936-1945 and German invasion of North Africa 1941: World War II North African campaign 1940-1943 and German invasion
Germany/Lithuania relations: Germany/Lithuania relations
Resistance in Lithuania during World War II: Resistance in Lithuania during World War II
The Holocaust in Lithuania: The Holocaust in Lithuania - Vilna Ghetto
Germany/Luxembourg relations: Germany/Luxembourg relations
Germany/Namibia relations: Germany/Namibia relations
Germany/Netherlands relations: Germany/Netherlands relations
Germany/Norway relations: Germany/Norway relations
German occupation and the Holocaust in Norway: Jewish deportees from Norway during World War II - The Holocaust in Norway
1945-2007 NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger scandal: NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger-Affäre (1945 bis 2007) - Justizmorde als NS-Richter - 'Furchtbare Juristen' (mit dem Untertitel 'Die unbewältigte Vergangenheit unserer Justiz') behandelt die Verbrechen der deutschen Justiz in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und die durch Übernahme von NS-vorbelasteten Juristen in den Staatsdienst der Bundesrepublik Deutschland verhinderte gerichtliche Aufarbeitung ebendieser Verbrechen - 1. September 2009: Österreichs Nationalratspräsidentin Prammer fordert eine 'lückenlose Rehabilitation' der Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz - Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz sind Personen, die von Militärgerichten (einschließlich Feldgerichten und Ersatzgerichten) in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus verurteilt wurden, während des Zweiten Weltkrieges haben Militärrichter etwa 30.000 Todesurteile gefällt
Germany/Palestinian territories relations: World War I 1914-1918 started by the German and Austrian empires - Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922 - World War II 1939-1945 - The Holocaust, from 1941 to 1945, Jews were targeted and methodically murdered in a genocide by the German Empire
Germany/Poland relations: Germany/Poland relations
Since 1772 Prussian Partition: Since 1772 Prussian Partition
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2015: 18 January: Seventy years after Auschwitz’s guards fled and the last survivors will gather, a new exhibition will focus not just on the victims but the perpetrators - 27 January: Holocaust survivors from around the world and visitors marking the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland - 7/8 May 2015: Amid deep divisions over Russian regime's aggession against Ukraine, Poland's president is leading international commemorations in Gdansk marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, Ukraine's Poroshenko pays tribute to those killed in World War II and UN's Ban Ki-moon demands to protect future generations from war and conflict - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the German Nazis in World War II
Germany/Romania relations: Germany/Romania relations
History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust in Romania - June 1941 Iasi pogrom
Germany/Russia relations: Germany/Russia relations
2014: 14 March: Germany warns Putin regime of further EU sanctions if it doesn't step back in its intervention in Ukraine - 14 April 2014: Senior French and German officials have warned that the surge in nationalism fueling the crisis in Ukraine, where separatists in the East are seeking to join Russia, echoes the ideas that led to World War I - 27 April: A German-led eight-member group of OSCE military observers accused of being NATO spies by Ponomarev, the self-proclaimed 'people's mayor' of Slovyansk, remains in captivity - 27 April: Seriously violating international law, Russian TV shows Ukrainian captives blindfolded, stripped of their pants and shoes and bound with packing tape in Slovyansk, where OSCE observers are also being held - 29 April: The German government has sought to distance itself from the country's former chancellor Gerhard Schroeder after he was reported to have partied with Russia's Putin despite tension over the crisis in Ukraine - 4 August: Germany suspends military exports of Rheinmetall to Russia
2016: 27 March 2016: Regarding how Putin's aggression in eastern Ukraine is portrayed in the media around the world, German journalist and former Moscow bureau chief of Focus magazine shares his thoughts in Ukrainian TV-interview on the impact of Russian influnce in the German media - 22/23 June 2016: 75 years after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Ukraine's intelligence reports dozens of flights of Russian assault and reconnaissance drones, as Russian-backed separatist forces launched 46 attacks on Ukrainian troops in eastern Ukraine killing one Ukrainian soldier and injuring eleven overnight - 30 August 2016: As Russian regime's brutality in Syria and Ukraine continues and escalates, Germany's Merkel says 'I'm interested in lifting sanctions from Russia' - 20 October 2016: As French president Hollande uses the phrase 'war crimes', France and Germany allege to press Russian Putin regime to extend a pause in air strikes in Syria and halt the 'criminal' bombardment of civilians, Reuters reports
Germany/Saudi-Arabia relations: Germany/Saudi-Arabia relations - 1 July 2011: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July 2011: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought - 17 June 2012: Saudi Arabia wants to buy 600-800 Leopard battle tanks from Germany, more than twice as many as originally envisaged - 30 December: The German government is close to completing another 100 million-euro arms deal with Saudi Arabia to sell 30 armoured vehicles, and Berlin's national security council has already signaled its backing - 25 January 2015: German government reportedly to stop arms exports to Saudi Arabia - 4 February 2015: German governmnt has approved the delivery of military equipment to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Egypt - 7 June 2015: Germany accused of paying off Saudi Arabia with weapons to host 2006 World Cup
Germany/Senegal relations: Germany/Senegal relations
June 1940: Le 7 juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 27. Juli 2009: Der Historiker Raffael Scheck beschreibt anhand von Dokumenten, wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940, kurz nach der Kapitulation Frankreichs, mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun
Since 1940: On 20 June 1940 Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist Léopold Sédar Senghor was taken prisoner by the Germans in la Charité-sur-Loire and finally interned at Front Stalag 230 reserved for colonial troops, German soldiers wanted to execute him and the others the same day they were captured, but they escaped this fate by yelling Vive la France, vive l'Afrique noire!, and after French officer told the soldiers that executing the African prisoners would dishonour the Aryan race - 16 juin 2011: Le poète sénégalais Léopold Sédar Senghor raconte dans un rapport son internement au sein des camps de troupes coloniales de 1940 à 1942 - 21 juin 2011: Le sort des tirailleurs sénégalais pendant la campagne de France en mai-juin 1940, et leur massacre par l'armée régulière allemande
Germany/Slovakia relations: Germany/Slovakia relations
1939-1945 Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia: Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia
History of the Jews in Slovakia, the Slovak Republic 1939-1945 and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Slovakia - The Slovak Republic and the Holocaust
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe: Anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe 1944–46
August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising: August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising
Germany/Somalia relations:
Germany/Spain relations: Germany/Spain relations
1936-1939: 1936-1939 German involvement in the Spanish Civil War following the military coup of July 1936 against the Spanish democracy, with German dictator Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Franco and fascist Spain
Humanitarian efforts during World War II: Sweden's humanitarian efforts during World War II
Since the 1990s CDU/CSU donations scandal: CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre
2011/2012 tax evasion and money-laundering: 1. April 2012: Scharfe Kritik an Schweizer Justizbehörde und ihrer Haftbefehle gegen bundesdeutsche Steuerfahnder wegen deren Einsatz gegen Wirtschaftskriminalität - auch CDU-Finanzminister Schäuble in der Kritik - 11 July 2012: France, Germany tax evasion inquiries target Swiss bank (Credit Suisse and UBS) clients - 11 August 2012: Accusations that Swiss banks (UBS etc.) are helping German citizens dodge taxes grow - 12. August 2012: Vorwurf organisierter Kriminalität Schweizer Banken - 23 November: Germany's upper house rejects deal with Switzerland to tax German assets held in Swiss bank accounts - 21 April 2013: The president of German's 'Bayern Munich' Hoeness may have hidden more than 10 million euros from tax authorities - November 2013: Stock transactions reportedly damaged German tax authorities by EUR 124 million, HypoVereinsbank involved
2015: 23 January: German companies reportedly helped the Syrian Assad regime (father and son Bashar) and Iraqi Saddam regime produce chemical weapons programs - 10 March 2015: A delegation of Syrian women attended the World Conference for Women held in Berlin and organized by the Iranian opposition - 8 June 2015: Despite Western sanctions, Assad's military forces and militias in possession of munitions from Germany, China, Egypt, Russia and USA (including cluster munitions used against many Syrian cities), leaked report claims - 20 August 2015: Syrian Coalition calls for sit-in in Berlin on 2nd anniversary of Ghouta chemical massacre, to show solidarity with August 2015 Douma massacre victims, to pay homage to the victims of the 2013 Ghouta massacre and to all victims of Assad’s war on the Syrian people, and to decry the international silence and passiveness - 14 September: First Syrians halted minutes after German checks begin enforcing again asylum rules, that had been relaxed for those fleeing brutal civil war - 10 October: Syrian Coalition and the Syrian community in Germany call to join the demonstration in Berlin on 17 October to protest against the Russian invasion of Syria and Putin’s support for the dictator Assad - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria - 3 December 2015: Evidence of oil and food transactions, including items imported from Russia, between the Assad regime and Islamic State terrorists reported by German Foreign Ministry and Syrian officer - 4 December: German parliament backs plan to join USA-led anti-Isis military campaign and to provide support staff and reconnaissance jets, but Germans will not actively engage in combat
Germany/Tanzania relations: Germany/Tanzania relations
1914-1918 German East African Campaign in World War I: 1914-1918 German East African Campaign in World War I
Germany/Tunisia relations: Tunisia/Germany relations
Germany/Turkey relations: Germany/Turkey relations
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, there were five main campaigns, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, the Caucasus Campaign 24 October 1914 – 30 October 1918, the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918, and the Gallipoli Campaign 25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916
2015: 27 April 2015: German government reportedly knew Ukraine flight dangers before MH17 crash in July 2014 - 8 May 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon and Ukraine's Poroshenko lay flowers at World War II memorial in Kyiv - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir - 12 August 2015: Researchers open 'neglected chapter' of Ukraine's Holocaust history, as investigation led by Patrick Desbois reveals that killings in western Ukraine were not carried out using the industrialised methods of Auschwitz and other death camps, but instead Jews were rounded up and shot, one by one, sometimes kicked or beaten to death, and no records were kept
Germany/United Kingdom relations: Germany/United Kingdom relations
Germany/USA relations: Germany/USA relations
1933/1998/2007: From 1931 to 1945 in the Brown House in Munich, funds for renovation of this NSDAP party headquarters provided by industrialist Fritz Thyssen, Hitler kept a life-size portrait of Henry Ford next to his desk, since Ford and Adolf Hitler admired each other's achievements - In July 1938 Henry Ford received the highest medal Nazi Germany could bestow on a foreigner, and James D. Mooney, vice-president of overseas operations for General Motors, received a similar medal - 30 November 1998: Major USA car companies Ford and General Motors scrutinized for alleged Nazi collaboration over their business dealings with Nazi Germany, embroiled in a debate that 'GM was an integral part of the German war effort' - 30 November 2006: How General Motors helped jump-start the Third Reich’s military machine - 5 May 2007: Hitler’s carmaker - the inside story of how General Motors helped mobilize the Third Reich
2013: 19 June 2013: Obama's arrival in Berlin, calling in his speech at Brandenburg Gate for a one-third reduction of the United States' and Russia's nuclear stockpiles - 17 July 2013: German military reportedly knew about US surveillance programme - 21 July: Germany's two main intelligence services reportedly used NSA programme to spy on citizens - 3 August: German intelligence agency BND providing the National Security Agency of the USA with vast amounts of data about the telecommunications information it has obtained - 13. September: Verfassungsschutz spionierte für US-Geheimdienste - Maaßen stimmte zu - 17 October: The US Federal Reserve orders German Commerzbank to fix money-laundering measures - 23 October: Obama tells Merkel US is not monitoring her communications but did not deny reports that US intelligence in the past have listened to calls of Angela Merkel - 25 October 2013: Action wanted from US President Barack Obama, not just apologetic words, Angela Merkel says after EU talks dominated by allegations that the NSA had accessed tens of thousands of French phone records, monitored Angela Merkel's mobile phone and after Germany and France demanded 'no-spy' agreement with US - 27 October 2013: Since 2002 War-Merkel's phone reportedly tracked by US - 27 October: Obama was personally informed of mobile phone tapping against Merkel since 2010, according to US intelligence sources - 31 October: German MP Hans-Christian Stroebele meets Edward Snowden in Moscow and says, he is willing to come to Germany to assist investigations into US surveillance
2015: 3 May 2015: German PM Merkel joins Holocaust survivors to mark the liberation of Nazi concentration camp in Dachau by USA soldiers 70 years ago, thanking the camp's survivors for their work in telling their eyewitness stories of the horrors they experienced - 27. Januar 2012: Um als Zeitzeuge bei Schulbesuchen über seine persönliche Erinnerung an die NS-Zeit zu berichten, reist Abba Naor jedes Jahr nach Deutschland, da er - nachdem er in München auf der Polizeiwache in der Ettstraße einen deutschen Polizisten wiedererkannt hatte, der als Wachmann im Ghetto Kaunas Juden Flaschen auf die Köpfe gestellt hatte, um sie herunterzuschießen - heute in Israel lebt - 4 May 2015: German PM Merkel defends German intelligence cooperation with USA spy agency, also claiming once more that it is not acceptable for friendly nations to spy on each other and promising that her office will provide 'full details' about intelligence cooperation - 7 May 2015: German secret service BND reduces cooperation with NSA after NSA fails to provide clear reasons for each request for surveillance of individuals or organisations - 2 July: Germany summons USA ambassador after WikiLeaks publishes what it says is evidence of NSA eavesdropping on ministers - 8. Juli 2015: NSA hörte laut Wiki-Leaks Regierungsumfeld von Kohl bis Merkel schon seit den 1990er-Jahren ab - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above
Germany/Vietnam relations: Germany/Vietnam relations

Greece - Geography of Greece - History of Greece - Demographics of Greece
Shipbuilding companies of Greece: Shipbuilding companies of Greece
Mining in Greece: Mining in Greece - Mines in Greece
Water in Greece: Water in Greece
Since 2009 Greek economic and political crisis: Since 2009 Greek government-debt crisis - European debt crisis 2010-present
2015: 11 June: Unemployment has started climbing again in Greece, as it gained half a percentage point to reach 26.6% in the first quarter of the year, from 26.1% in the last quarter of 2014 - 30 June: The bank shutdown in Greece and the imposition of capital controls have led to a halt in trade across the country - 1 July 2015: Consumption apparently down 70%, tourism drying up and companies face struggle to pay for wholesale food ahead of 5 July referendum, as bank closures take their toll on businesses across Greece - 6 July: The number of business start-ups in Greece declined by 20% in the first half of 2015 on an annual basis, as 68% of new enterprises were one-person companies - 6 July: Local lenders are now just a step away from serious solvency problems after the ECB decided to increase the haircut on the collateral they use to draw liquidity - 23 July 2015: Greek economy will sink back into recession at a rate of 2.5% this year, with unemployment starting to rise again, IOBE says - 3 August 2015: Bank and finance shares collapse by as much as 30% as bourse reopens after five-week shutdown - 3/4 August: Manufacturing data reveals economy in shock, as Greek stocks fall for 2nd day - 10 August: Capital controls blamed for a new 15-year high in dismissals for July 2015 - 18 August: Unemployed increased by 2% in July 2015 - 28 August: Greece’s GDP shows 1.6% growth for the second quarter of 2015
2015: 6 June 2015: State debts have increased by 1.1 billion euros in the first four months of the year 2015, tax rebates, increasing revenue shortfalls (1 billion euros in May), and exhaustion of the state’s cash reserves illustrate the crumbling of the 2015 budget - 29 June: The imposition of measures restricting financial transactions accompanied by a total freeze in the payments of citizens’ obligations to the state, while there was also an impact on the payment of pensions and private sector salaries - 6 August 2015: As talks continue over proposed €86bn third bailout, Greek treasury says tax revenues fell 8.5% in a year, and public spending fell 12.3% - 21 August: Unpaid taxes grow at a slower pace in July 2015 - 9 October 2015: 'Tax evasion and smuggling are worth between 15 and 20 billion euros a year', Alternate Finance Minister Alexiadis says, as the SDOE is currently investigating 38,000 cases involving 1.3 million people and businesses - 25 November: In an effort to help the country raise tax revenues Germany gives Greece the names of more than 10,000 citizens suspected of dodging taxes with holdings in Swiss banks - 23 December: Following the delivery to authorities of a detailed list of thousands of individuals with suspect deposits by a HSBC whistleblower, large-scale tax evaders will be given one last chance to pay their dues to the state, Greek PM Tsipras says
June/July 2015: 3 June: Greece receives a bailout proposal and PM Tsipras heads to Brussels for crucial talks with EC - 4 June: Greece says it will bundle together €1.6bn of debt payments due to IMF and settle up on 30 June - 11/12 June: IMF walks out of Greece bailout talks due to a lack of progress in narrowing key differences with Tsipras government - 14 June: Greece's latest reform package, ignoring latitudes, dismissed as incomplete, differences in fiscal terms amount to €2bn a year in permanent budget savings, EU's Sunday talks halted after less than an hour in Brussels - 17 June: Bank of Greece warns of 'uncontrollable crisis' without bailout deal - 19 June 2015: Several thousand demonstrators chanting 'Europe! Europe!' rallied in front of parliament in Athens calling for Greece to keep the euro, as the country edged nearer to a default - 26 June 2015: Greek PM Alexis Tsipras calls referendum in July on bailout terms to settle before July - 28 June: With deputies from the far-right Golden Dawn voting with the Tspipras government and pro-European opposition parties voting against Greek Parliament approves referendum on 5 July - 28 June: EU executive publishes offer that Greek PM Tsipras rejected - 30 June: EU's Juncker makes last-minute offer to Greece but Tsipras unmoved - 30 June: Hopes of last-minute deal on decision day for Greek PM Tsipras, as Greece faces deadline for reaching deal with creditors and making €1.6bn IMF payment, otherwise it will lose €7.2bn bailout funds - 1 July: PM Tsipras reportedly concedes ground to get new deal with EU and ECB - 2 July: Greek government and creditors hunker down before Sunday referendum - 3 July: Thousands on the streets of Athens to support Communist Party, which staged an anti-government rally in front of the Greek parliament, saying Sunday referendum will not change things for the better - 3 July: Latest poll shows narrow lead for 'Yes' vote ahead of Sunday referendum decision, after finance minister said he will resign if Greek referendum votes yes to accept troika’s debt-bailout terms - 3 July: PM Tsipras urges people to vote no in Sunday’s referendum as capital controls bite and vital tourism industry sees tens of thousands cancel holidays in Greece
July 2015 Greek economy referendum: 5 July 2015 Greek economy referendum - 1 July 2015: Greece's July 5 referendum does not meet guidelines drawn up by the Council of Europe, notably one recommending that voters have at least two weeks to make their minds up, the human rights watchdog says - 5 July: Split Greece teeters on the brink with referendum, facing fincance minister Varoufakis' so-called terrorists - 6 July: Finance minister Varoufakis resigns, after Greece has delivered a resounding 'No' to its creditors and European participants expressed 'preference' for his absence throughout negotiations ahead of an emergency eurozone summit on Tuesday - 8 July: Unless Greek government presents convincing details entailing more austerity as the basis for its third bailout in five years, all 28 national EU leaders are to gather in Brussels on Sunday in emergency session to discuss how to contain the fallout from Greece’s financial collapse - 8 July: After months of Greek government's second-rate theatre Europe has five days to find a shift - 10 July: Tsipras' government urges MPs to back bailout plan after it has submitted a package of tough austerity measures in an attempt to reach a €53.5bn bailout and avoid Grexit - 11 July: After PM Tsipras received backing from his MPs, Eurozone creditors meet to discuss latest Greek proposals and to decide - 13 July: After Eurozone agreed that Greece should receive a new aid programme, several national parliaments must give their approval, including the Greek parliament - 14 July: Greek PM Tsipras meets mutinous MPs as bailout vote looms, and eurozone is battling to find a way to provide 'bridge financing' to help Greece meet its short-term funding demands - 14 July: Parliament to vote as IMF warns Greece needs extra debt relief above bailout - 16 July: ECB and Eurogroup consider next steps after Greek parliament's 'Yes' vote - 17 July: Greek PM Tsipras has sought to rid his government of leftists who oppose further austerity, reshuffling his cabinet barely 48 hours after dissidents said 'No' - 18 July: Greek banks to re-open Monday - 20 July: Greece’s bank branches are open for the first time in three weeks, but capital controls are still in place - 21 July: Chances of Greek bailout rest on MPs' vote on Wednesday on two laws, a banking reform law and an overhaul of Greece’s civil code - 23 July: Greek parliament approves next phase in bailout reforms and measures required to qualify for €86bn in loans - 23 July: As creditors return to Athens, Tsipras grapples with domestic challenges - 25 July: Greece edges closer to third bailout as it formally requests IMF help - 29 July: EU's Moscovici optimistic on third Greek bailout talks - 29 July: Former finance minister Varoufakis may face criminal charges over secret currency plan to establish an alternative currency in the event of the country leaving the eurozone - 31 July: Following talks on reforming the tax system and labour market regulations, negotiatons with EU and IMF continue in Athens to thrash out details of €86bn bailout
August 2015: 3 August: Greece and its lenders agree that pension reforms will affect only those who retired after the end of June - 5 August: Syriza' Nikos Filis urges to unite behind new funding agreement, saying the country wants a full bailout immediately rather than a bridge loan - 10 August: Greece reportedly closes in on third bailout deal after significant concessions made concerning spending cuts, public sector reforms and privatisations - 11 August: Following an agreement between Greece and lenders overnight, Greece closer to clinching €86bn bailout deal - 11 August: As bailout deal reached with creditors PM Tsipras calls emergency sessions of parliament to vote on measures, which will see further spending cuts imposed - 14 August: Greek parliament approves bailout deal despite government rebellion in all-night session, as figures from Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands suggest growth in the eurozone will miss 0.4% in 2015 and as Eurozone finance ministers will soon be heading for a eurogroup meeting to sign off the €85bn Greek bailout deal - 17 August: PASOK refuses to back Tsipras in any confidence vote - 20 August: Greek PM resigns to trigger snap elections likely on 20 September
2016: 15 January 2016: Thousands take to the streets of the Greek capital to protest against planned pension reforms, as lawyers, doctors and others in professional attire joined the protest - 4 February 2016: Greece grinds to a halt in general strike over pension reforms - 12 February: Angry Greek farmers clash with riot police in Athens then paraded their tractors outside parliament, in their first big protest in the capital against pension reform plans after weeks of road blockades - 7 April: Greek public sector workers strike over pension reforms - 6 mai: Les Grecs sont en grève générale avant le vote de réformes visant à augmenter les rentrées fiscales et réduire les dépenses consacrées aux retraites - 9 May: With the backing of its 153 MPS Greece’s leftist-led coalition approves toughest measures yet worth €5.4bn in budget savings amid rioting - 22 May: Supported by 152 deputies Greek parliament approves a fresh round of austerity incorporating €1.8bn in tax increases, amid hopes the move will lead to much-needed debt relief when eurozone finance ministers meet this week - 3 October 2016: Greek police fire teargas at pensioners during Athens protest against Tsipras's austerity policy
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Greece: Greek society - Human rights in Greece
Demographics, ethnic groups and minorities in Greece: Demographics of Greece - Ethnic groups in Greece - Minorities in Greece
African immigrants to Greece: African immigrants to Greece
Arabs in Greece: Arabs in Greece
Armenians in Greece: Armenians in Greece
Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia: Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia
2014: 1 April 2014: Migrants and asylum-seekers detained in Greece forced to endure deplorable conditions, often with devastating effects on their health, MSF says
2015: Rhodes Shipwreck 20 April 2015 - 5 June 2015: The numbers of migrants arriving on Greece's islands has increased sixfold since last year, piling more pressure on the cash-strapped government's services, UN says - 7 July: 19 people feared dead after people smuggler's boat capsizes off Greek islands of Agathonisi and Farmakonisi, as more than 68,000 migrants – mainly Syrian, Afghan and Iraqi refugees – have risked the short trip from Turkey to the Greek islands in the first half of 2015 - 27 July: As the people arriving in their thousands on Greek shores are refugees, not migrants and as Europe turns its back, the compassionate crisis response of local Greek volunteers, despite harsh austerity, puts the international community to shame - 11 August 2015: Greek police use fire extinguishers and batons to disperse desperate refugees, including young children, to Kos who were protesting about the length of time it was taking to process their paperwork, as large parts of the humanitarian response in Greece have been carried out by volunteers rather than the Putin-bootlicker government, unable to deal with the unprecedented influx, the majority of whom are from Syria and Afghanistan - 16 August: Hundreds of Syrian migrants on the Greek island of Kos begin boarding a passenger ship that is to house and process them, in a bid to ease sometimes chaotic conditions onshore - 17 August: Almost 500 Syrian refugees board floating reception center at Kos - 19 August: The unprecedented spike in refugee arrivals on Greek shores is pushing the resort island of Lesbos to 'breaking point', with some 2,000 people landing there every day, as Greece has seen around 160,000 migrants land on its shores since January - 24 August: One dead, six missing after refugee boat capsizes off Lesvos and as some 2,500 refugees, mostly from Syria, are expected to disembark from the Eleftherios Venizelos at Piraeus - 30 August: A 17-year-old migrant was killed during a shootout at sea between Greek port police and human smugglers - 6 September: A newborn baby boy found dead on Greek island of Kos after his parents reached the shores in a boat, as Greece is struggling to cope with a wave of refugees from the war in Syria, as refugees and migrants clash with police on another Greek island, and as the mayor of Lesbos' main town warns the island would boycott 20 September general election if the government does not address the situation immediately - 8 September: More clashes on Greek island of Lesbos, transformed by the sudden influx of 20,000 refugees and migrants, mostly from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan in the escalating international crisis - 15 September: At least 22 refugees, including four children, died Tuesday morning when their boat sank off the coast of Turkey as they were trying to reach the Greek island of Kos - 24 September: More than 2,500 mainly Syrian and Afghan refugees, soaked and exhausted, reached the Greek island of Lesbos within hours on Wednesday - 30 September 2015: More refugees arrive in Greece from Syria, as a refugee reports that 'Assad's army are dropping missiles and bombs on us and on civilians, so I have to escape from Syria' - 2 October 2015: In the paupers’ section of Lesbos cemetery, volunteers, strangers, Israeli and Palestinian activists attend funerals for unidentified migrant victims, including kids, who drowned in the Aegean Sea - 16 October: Seven people have drowned including a baby and three children after their wooden boat and a coast guard vessel crashed during a migrant rescue operation off the island of Lesbos - 18 October: 12 refugees including children drown off Turkish coast, twenty-three people rescued as they try to reach Greek island of Lesbos - 24 October 2015: As Russian airstrikes push more migrants to flee to EU before borders shut and sea gets rougher, more Syrians risk deadly crossings to Greece after more than 502,000 refugees and migrants have entered Greece since the beginning of this year - 30 October 2015: Greece's Tsipras says he feels 'ashamed' amid migrant border chaos and deaths at sea - 1 November 2015: Eleven refugees, including six children, drowned on Sunday off the Greek island of Samos, adding to a string of migrant boat tragedies since Monday off the Greek islands of Lesbos, Kalymnos and Rhodes in which more than 60 people have drowned, at least 28 of them children, the vast majority Syrian refugees, women and children braving winter storms in a bid to meet men who made the journey earlier - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 20 November: Video released by the Turkish Institute of Public Diplomacy appears to show a man on board a Greek coastguard vessel attempting to sink an inflatable raft, carrying Syrian refugees and migrants in Aegean sea with a lance, slowly taking water before it is rescued by the Turkish vessel - 22 November: Concerns are mounting in Greece that the country could have to deal with thousands of trapped refugees and migrants, after border crossings to Balkan nations to the north were abruptly closed, newly imposed restrictions in the Balkans criticised by UNHCR and UNICEF - 6 December: As thousands of people continue to arrive at the Greece-Macedonia border daily, small numbers of refugees and migrants who had been denied entry into Macedonia have opted to go back to Athens
2016: 12 March 2016: Despite six years of economic hardship in Greece, ordinary people have shown astonishing generosity in helping the 42,000 refugees and migrants stranded in their country, on the islands of Lesbos, of Kos, in Athens, in Idomeni and elsewhere - 28 May 2016: Protests grow as Greece's Tsipras administration moves refugees to derelict warehouses 'not fit for animals', as missing refugees after the closure of Idomeni including an undefined number of unaccompanied minors are thought to be living on the streets of Greek cities, hiding in forests or to have been taken by smugglers and as refugees heading for Europe are continuing to make the journey fraught with danger from north Africa across the Mediterranean - 19 September 2016: Thousands of refugees detained at Moria camp, one of Greece’s biggest refugee camps, on the island of Lesbos, have fled the facility amid scenes of mayhem after fires rapidly swept through the facility - 18 November 2016: Dozens of people have been driven out of a refugee camp on the Greek island of Chios after two successive nights of attacks by a far-right group
Central Greece Region: Central Greece Region
Art in Greece: Greek art - Modern Greek art
Science in Ancient Greece: Ancient Greek science - Ancient Greek medicine -
Ancient Greek architecture and sculpture: Ancient Greek architecture - Ancient Greek sculpture
Education in Greece: Education in Greece
Newspapers in Greece: Newspapers in Greece
Internet in Greece: Internet in Greece
EPT - Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation - 12 June 2013: Greek state TV and radio were gradually pulled off the air late Tuesday, hours after the government said it would temporarily close all state-run broadcasts and lay off about 2,500 workers as part of a cost-cutting drive - 12 June: Journalists fired from Greece's state TV and radio have refused to leave the broadcaster's headquarters, continuing Internet programming - 13 juin: Grève générale de 24 heures après la fermeture de la radiotélévision - 17 June: Greek top administrative court overturns closure of state broadcaster EPT, saying EPT could resume transmission until a new national media body is set up - 21 June: The Democratic Left party quits government in protest against the closure of state broadcaster EPT - 30 June: The EPT TV complex has turned into a unique experiment in self-rule where staff are working for free but with more passion than ever - 7. November: Frühere staatliche TV und Rundfunkanstalt EPT, nach Entlassung im Juni aller 2500 Mitarbeiter in eigener Regie weitergeführt, wurde von der Polizei geräumt - 9 November: Greek police, protesters scuffle at shut public broadcaster
Ancient Greek religion and mythology: Ancient Greek religion - Ancient Greek religion and mythology
Christianity in Greece: Christianity in Greece
Crime in Greece: Crime in Greece
18 September 2013 Pavlos Fyssas stabbed to death: Death of Pavlos Fyssas 18 September 2013 - 18 September 2013: Greek Golden Dawn member arrested over murder of leftwing musician and anti-fascist activist Pavlos Fyssas - 23 septembre: La Grèce fait la chasse aux policiers soupçonnés de collusion avec Aube dorée - 25 September: Thousands of Greeks on the streets to denounce the murder of a musician stabbed to death by a member of the far-right Golden Dawn, as a government inquiry presented evidence of widespread infiltration of security forces by Golden Dawn - 26 septembre: Attaque contre un journal accusé de soutenir des néonazis, ne causant que des dégâts matériels - 28 September: Greek police arrested several members of Golden Dawn, including its leader Mihaloliakos, on charges of founding a criminal organisation - 30 septembre: Des témoignages d'ex-militants d'Aube dorée et un rapport judiciaire mettent au jour de nombreuses 'actions criminelles' du parti néonazi grec - 1 octobre: Des responsables du parti néonazi Aube dorée devant la justice pour 'participation à une organisation criminelle' - 30 septembre: Des témoignages d'ex-militants d'Aube dorée et un rapport judiciaire mettent au jour de nombreuses "actions criminelles" du parti néonazi grec - 3 octobre: Le chef du parti néonazi placé en détention provisoire - 3 octobre: Le chef du parti néonazi placé en détention provisoire - 3 octobre: Un 3e député du parti Aube dorée en détention provisoire
Racism in Greece: Racism in Greece
Judiciary and judicial system of Greece: Judiciary of Greece - Judicial system of Greece
Since 1834 Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece: Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece since 1834
Law enforcement and police force of Greece: Law enforcement in Greece - Police force of Greece
Police misconduct and brutality in Greece: Police misconduct and brutality in Greece
Foreign relations of Greece: Foreign relations of Greece
Treaties of Greece: Treaties of Greece
1967-1974 foreign support for the Greek military dictatorship: Foreign support for the Greek military dictatorship 1967-1974
Greece/European Union relations: Greece/European Union relations
2015: 16 February 2015: Greece bailout talks in Brussels break down after Athens rejects 'unacceptable' eurozone demands - 17 February: Pressure mounting to break the deadlock over Greece's loan programme, after Monday night’s talks collapsed - 19 February: Greece submits request to extend its bailout deal for another six months, triggering an emergency meeting of eurozone finance ministers - 20 February: Eurozone ministers gather for crucial Greece talks - 21 February: Greece and eurozone creditors reach deal on loan as Greek government commits to unspecified reforms over the coming months, winning time to tackle tax fraud, corruption and other crimes against the Greek people - 24 February: Greek government submits economic reform plan to European Commission, reportedly outlining plans to raise billions of euros by tackling tax evasion, corruption, and smuggling - 24 February: Prosposed Greek reforms win conditional approval in Brussels for four months extension of rescue package - 28 May 2015: Greek bailout talks loom over G7 meeting - 11 June: Hollande, Merkel and Tsipras agree that negotiations between Greece and its creditors must be intensified to reach a deal to avert a Greek default - 19 June 2015: ECB staves off collapse of Greek banking system with emergency funding, as Greece's PM Tsipras sides with Putin regime in Moscow for financial support, saying 'we are ready to go to new seas to reach new safe ports' - 20 June 2015: Russian pipeline project through Greek territory - 23 June: Eurozone politicians in Brussels cautiously welcome new reform proposals by Greece as a possible basis for an agreement, saying that there is still a lot of work to be done to reach deal this week - 27 June: Greeces in the eurozone looks increasingly shaky on Saturday after Greece's PM calls for a risky popular vote on eurozone proposals and ministers then reject a monthlong extension to bailout program - 30 June: EU's Juncker makes last-minute offer to Greece but Tsipras unmoved - 4 July 2015: Tsipras government's fincance minister Varoufakis accuses creditors of terrorism ahead of controversial Greek economic referendum - 9 July: Greek government seeks new EU loan to avert 'Grexit' and economic collapse, urged to deliver a detailed economic package - 12 July: Greece is being pushed by Eurozone to accept and implemen austerity measures and reforms, or get a 'time-out' from the euro - 10 August: Due to tax woes Piraeus Port Authority facing problems also concerning a 112-million-euro investment project, 95%-funded by the EU - 10 August 2015: EU approved the release of 474 million euros for Greece to boost its efforts to deal with undocumented immigration and asylum applications, but the funds cannot be disbursed as Greek authorities have yet to set up a service for the management of EU subsidies for immigration - 20 August: Greece made a crucial 3.2 billion euro debt repayment to the European Central Bank using newly released bailout funds, after the program cleared its final hurdles on Wednesday also by the ESM
Greece/United Nations relations, UN Security Council resolutions concerning Greece (UN member state since October 1945): United Nations Security Council resolutions concerning Greece
Bilateral relations of Greece: Bilateral relations of Greece
Greece/Canada relations: Greece/Canada relations
Since 2010: German Ferrostal/HDW submarines for Greece - PASOK-Tsochatzopoulos corruption scandal 2010 (ongoing) - 11. April 2012: Der frühere PASOK-Verteidigungsminister Tsochatzopoulos ist wegen Korruptionsverdachts (Kauf deutscher U-Boote) verhaftet worden - 18 October 2013: 90-year-old former Nazi soldier Alfred Stork sentenced in absentia by a military court in Rome which found him guilty of taking part in the execution of at least 117 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia - 24 August 2013: EADS, ThyssenKrupp venture raided over suspected bribes in Greek order - 11 April 2014: Under azure blue skies Greek governmemt welcomes A. Merkel while protesters demand 'Merkel go home' - 23 March 2015: Greek leader to face scepticism, criticism on first Berlin visit - 6 April 2015: Greece says that Germany owes it nearly €279bn in reparations for World War's occupation and damages, officially quantifying sum which includes repayment of forced loan and return of archaeological treasures
Greece/Hungary relations: Greece/Hungary relations
Greece/Latvia relations: Greece/Latvia relations
Greece/Lithuania relations: Greece/Lithuania relations
Greece/Netherlands relations: Greece/Netherlands relations
Greece/Serbia relations: Greece/Serbia relations
Greece/Turkey relations: Greece/Turkey relations
Since 1952 Greece's and Turkey's NATO membership: Greece's and Turkey's NATO membership since February 1952
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Greece/United Kingdom relations: Greece/United Kingdom relations
Environmental issues in Greece: Environmental issues in Greece
Natural disasters in Greece: Natural disasters in Greece
Earthquakes in Greece: Earthquakes in Greece

Hungary - Geography of Hungary - History of Hungary - Demographics of Hungary
Companies of Hungary by industry: Companies of Hungary by industry
Agriculture in Hungary: Agriculture in Hungary
2012 Hungarian presidential election: Hungarian presidential election 2 May 2012
May 2014 Hungarian European Parliament election: Hungarian European Parliament election 25 May 2014
Social movements and protests: Protests in Hungary - 2006 protests in Hungary
2014: 27 April: Hungary's annual 'March of Life' commemorating the Holocaust drew a record 25,000 people as part of events marking 70 years since the start of mass deportations of Hungarian Jews in World War II
2015: 3 January 2015: Thousands of Hungarians protested at what they see as the country's move towards Russian regime in the latest demonstration against the government of controversial PM Orban - 1 February: Thousands of protesters demand ouster of government, complain about premier's dealings with Putin - 17 February: Several thousand people marched in central Budapest to protest Putin's visit to Hungary - 13 April: A day after several thousand people rallied in Budapest to commemorate the hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews killed during the Holocaust, far-right Jobbik party wins first seat amid anti-Semitism rise - 29 August 2015: Residents of Budapest and migrants camping around the Eastern railway station lit candles in memory of those migrants or refugees who died in a truck discovered in Austria near the Hungarian border - 14 December: Several hundred people including a USA envoy joined a protest organized by Jewish groups in Hungary against a planned statue of World War II-era politician Homan, who helped legislate against Jews and called for their deportation during Holocaust
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Hungary: Hungarian society -
Demographics and ethnic groups in Hungary: Demographics of Hungary - Ethnic groups in Hungary
Roma in Hungary: Roma in Hungary
Immigration and refugees in Hungary: Immigration to Hungary
2015: 31 July 2015: Hundreds of migrants fleeing war, poverty and upheaval in the Middle East and Africa, have been setting up camp in Budapest's metro stations as they continue their journey for survival in Europe - 27 August 2015: Budapest's main station is filling up with migrants and refugees as they attempt to continue their journey into western Europe - 2 September: Migrants and refugees stage a demonstration outside Budapest's main international train station as police blocked some 2,000 people from boarding trains to Austria and Germany - 3 September: People rush into Budapest Keleti railway station and try to board trains following the blocking and a re-opening of the station and an ongoing confusion in deeply divided EU, now waiting for a special meeting of EU ministers on September 14 - 4 September: Standoff between refugees and the authorities in Hungary continues - 4 September: Hundreds of Syrian refugees start sit-in at the main train station in the Hungarian capital - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 6 September: Ongoing divergent reactions of Hungarians in the refugee and migrant crisis show deep rift within a nation which itself has been torn apart several times by war and revolution - 8 September: Hundreds of refugees and migrants have broken through police lines on Hungary’s border with Serbia and are walking towards Budapest - 11 September: Refugees forced to scramble for food as policemen throw sandwiches towards desperate refugees at centre in Röszke - 12 September: Refugees rush to enter Austria, Germany before Hungary crackdown, as Hungarian PM says any 'rebellious' migrants would be arrested - 14 September: A record number of refugees and migrants surge into Hungary on Sunday ahead of the introduction of harsh new immigration laws - 14 September 2015: Syrian refugees endure horrific conditions in Hungarian camps, living in Kiskunhalas camp outside of Budapest without food or blankets inside a fenced forest surrounded by police and army forces, with recent rains turning the forest into a pool of mud - 15 September: Hungary imposes strict new border controls in crackdown on refugees, as laws to criminalise refugees and migrants come into force - 17 September: Refugees and migrants accumulate at Hungarian border with Serbia after Hungarian regime brings in tough new measures, using use tear gas and water cannons and detaining dozens - 17 September: Thousands of refugees enter Croatia after Hungary's crackdown - 18 September: Hungary builds border fence with Croatia as Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia - 19 September: More than 4,400 refugees and migrants cross from Croatia to Hungary in 24 hours - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria
Human rights in Hungary: Human rights in Hungary
Political scandals in Hungary: Political scandals in Hungary
Culture of Hungary: Culture of Hungary
Education in Hungary: Education in Hungary
Healthcare in Hungary: Healthcare in Hungary
Internet in Hungary: Internet in Hungary
Crime in Hungary: Crime in Hungary
Human trafficking in Hungary: Human trafficking in Hungary
Law and law enforcement in Hungary: Hungarian law - Legal history of Hungary - Law enforcement in Hungary
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Hungary
Immigration to Hungary: Immigration to Hungary
Hungary/China relations: Hungary/China relations
Hungary/European Union relations: Hungary/European Union relations
Hungary/Serbia relations: Hungary/Serbia relations - Serbs in Hungary
Hungary/United Nations relations: Hungary/United Nations relations

Éire (Republic of Ireland) - History of Ireland - Geography of Ireland - Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Referendum on 4 October 2013 to abolish Seanad Éireann - Referendum on 4 October 2013 to establish a Court of Appeal - 4 October 2013: Ireland set to vote on abolishing upper house of parliament - 5 October: Final results revealed 51.7% in favour of keeping the Seanad Éireann, while 48.3% backed PM Kenny's plan to scrap upper house
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ireland: Irish society - Human rights in Ireland
Demographics and ethnic groups in Ireland: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland - Ethnic groups in Ireland
History of the Jews in Ireland: History of the Jews in Ireland
Immigration to the Republic of Ireland: Immigration to the Republic of Ireland
Women and women's rights in Ireland: Women in Ireland - Women's rights in Ireland
Children's rights in Ireland: Children's rights in Ireland
Healthcare of the Republic of Ireland: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland
Media of the Republic of Ireland: Media of the Republic of Ireland
Internet in the Republic of Ireland: Internet in the Republic of Ireland
Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies: Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies
Crime in the Republic of Ireland: Crime in the Republic of Ireland
Corruption in Ireland: Corruption in Ireland
Foreign relations of Ireland: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland/Australia relations: Ireland/Australia relations - Irish Australian
List of uprisings by Irish people against English and British claims of sovereignty in Ireland since 1534 (ongoing) - Irish republicanism based on the conviction that all of Ireland should be an independent republic - Irish Rebellion of 1798 against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798 influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions - 1848 Young Irelander Rebellion led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider democratic revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe - Easter Rising during Easter Week 1916 was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I - Irish War of Independence between the Irish Republican Army and the British Government and its forces 1919-1921 - Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 - Irish Free State 1922-1937 - Gaelic revival
Ireland/United States relations: Ireland/United States relations - Irish Americans

Italy - Geography of Italy - History of Italy - Italian Renaissance 14th - 16th century - Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946 - Demographics of Italy
Economic sectors and companies of by industry in Italy: Economic sectors - Companies of Italy by industry
Agriculture in Italy: Agriculture in Italy
Elections and politics in Italy: Elections in Italy
February 2013 Lombard regional election: Lombard regional election 10/11 February 2013
February 2013 General election and political gridlock: General election 2013 - Italian general election 24/25 February 2013 - 24 February 2013: Italians began voting on Sunday in a closely watched election whether a new government can pull Italy out of recession and help resolve the euro zone debt crisis - 26 February 2013: After Italy missed sending Berlusconi to jail and not to parliament again with more than 29% of the votes, the country thrown into political gridlock - (2012 Silvio Berlusconi was convicted of tax fraud in an Italian court, sentenced to four years' imprisonment and also banned from running for public office for a five-year term) - 26 February: Hopes of economic recovery and stability dashed as election results show no coalition strong enough to form government - 26 February: Italy seeks path out of election impasse - 16 Marzo 2013: Con 327 voti è stata eletta la presidente della Camera Laura Boldrini, con 137 voti il nuovo presidente del Senato Pietro Grasso - 23 March: Italy's Bersani looking for parliament support - 29 March: Weeks after winning a slim majority in the February polls, Pier Luigi Bersani failed to form a new government and to overcome uncertainty - 18 April: Italy's parliament has failed to elect a new president during a first round of voting - 20 April: Democratic party leader Bersani quits after both candidates he backed for presidency fail to garner enough votes in secret ballots - 20 April: Calling on Italian parties too to show 'collective responsibility' for the country, re-elected 87-year-old President Giorgio Napolitano agreed to stand for an unprecedented second term - 25 April: Moderate leftist Enrico Letta begins complex talks on forming a new coalition government - 27 April: Enrico Letta said he had won support of other parties to form a coalition government that will include PDL secretary Alfano as deputy PM and interior minister
May 2014 Italian European Parliament election: Italian European Parliament election 25 May 2014
November 2017 Sicilian regional election: 5 November 2017 Sicilian regional election
Social movements, trade unions, criticism and protests in Italy: Protests in Italy - Trade unions in Italy - Trade unions in Italy
Demographics and ethnic groups in Italy: Demographics of Italy - Ethnic groups in Italy
Romani in Italy: Romani in Italy
Italian people by ethnic or national origin: Italian people by ethnic or national origin
Culture of Italy: Culture of Italy
Italian cultural history: Italian cultural history
Schools in Italy: Schools in Italy
Healthcare in Italy: Healthcare in Italy
Football in Italy: Football in Italy
Newspapers in Italy: List of newspapers in Italy
Internet in Italy: Internet in Italy
Crime in Italy: Crime in Italy
Corruption, white-collar crime and scandals in Italy: Corruption in Italy - Scandals in Italy - Political scandals in Italy