Heimtückische Kreispolizei des Kreises Gütersloh, gewaltbereites Gesindel und die K-Frage seit 1914:

Ein verlogener Rechtsanwalt, das Land des 'doppelten Spiels', zweier Weltkriege und die gleiche Frage:

Der Krug geht so lange zu Wasser bis er bricht, oder: Es kann nur ein Land auf der

Welt geben, das solche Seilschaften (den Zustand gewisser Parteien) so viele Jahre erträgt Kapitel 1, 4. April 2008





Die Kriminalgeschichte aus dem Kreis Gütersloh und der Tatsachenroman aus dem Kreispolizeimilieu münden in ein Kapitel: Angriff auf die freie Meinungsäußerung. (Vgl. das Kapitel 'Demokratische Grundrechte, NRW und ein Kulturfrühstück der FDP in Bielefeld')

Vorladung der Kreispolizeibehörde Gütersloh vom 30. Januar 2008





Dies Kapitel, in dem die Fäden also zusammenlaufen, hat eine Vorgeschichte und einen Zusammenhang. Bevor der genannte Angriff auf die freie Meinungsäußerung daher genauer zu betrachten ist (vgl. die am 9.10.2008 erfolgte Aktualisierung der vorstehenden Artikel, die Kreispolizei Gütersloh betreffend), gilt das Augenmerk der historischen Wahl in Spanien am 9. März 2008, der Wissenschaft und ihrer Gegner und der Entwicklung der deutschen Republiken.

Gegen Diktaturen und für Demokratie

Im Oktober 1969 werden zwei Mitglieder der Marienkantorei Lemgo - darunter der Verfasser dieses Artikels - vom Politischen Kommissariat der Polizei Bielefeld festgenommen und verhört. Was war geschehen? Drei Mitglieder der Marienkantorei Lemgo - die genannten zwei und als dritter ein Andreas Koderisch, der, nachdem seine Mutter die Namen der Polizei genannt hatte, feige nach Holland geflüchtet war, dem großen Vorbild (für manche) Wilhelm II. folgend - hatten gegen die Militärdiktatur in Griechenland (seit 1967) und gegen die faschistische Diktatur in Spanien (seit 1939) protestiert: "Espana si - Franco no" und "Freiheit für Griechenland". Die deutsche Polizei fackelt nicht lange, sie hat eine Tradition zu verteidigen (darunter an vorderer Stelle ihre eigene), kriecht vor den Diktaturen und Verbrechern und verfolgt die Demokraten.

Spanien 1936 bis 1939: Militärputsch unter alsbaldiger Führung des Generals Francisco Franco gegen die demokratisch gewählte Regierung der spanischen Republik. Grausamer Bürgerkrieg, in dem die Republik mit kriegsentscheidender Unterstützung der deutschen Luftwaffe, der Legion Condor, zerstört wird. Die Verteidiger der Demokratie zu Hunderttausenden gemordet und verfolgt, bis 1975, dem Tod des Diktators und dem allmählichen Verenden seiner Diktatur. Franco im Jahre 1941: "Als Adolf Hitler - das werde ich ihm nie vergessen - mit dem Einsatz der tapferen deutschen Flieger der Legion Condor unseren Anstrengungen gegen eine Bolschewisierung Spaniens zum Sieg verhalf, da erhob ihn das Schicksal gleichsam zum Schirmherrn der europäischen Zivilisation." Soll heißen: Der Regime nie dagewesener Verbrechen, der Gaskammern, des Niedermähens von Zivilisten mit Maschinengewehren aus Flugzeugen, der Massenerschießungen, der Garrotte etc. Noch im März 1974 werden Urteile gegen Gegner der Franco-Diktatur mit der Garrotte vollstreckt (Salvador Puig Antich, Barcelona, 1948 bis 1974, wäre heute 60 Jahre alt und könnte Bielefeld besuchen). Am 31.10.2007 stimmt das spanische Parlament dem Gesetz der Rehabilitierung von Opfern aus der Zeit des spanischen Bürgerkriegs zu, in welchem erstmals das faschistische Regime Francos offiziell verurteilt wird. 71 Jahre nach dem Beginn des Verbrechens siegt die Demokratie. Am 9. März 2008 gewinnt die PSOE, der Spanien das endlich beschlossene Gesetz und die Verurteilung der Diktatur Francos verdankt, mit für viele überraschend großer Mehrheit die Parlamentswahlen. Die Bevölkerung bestätigt den Sieg der Demokratie über das Verbrechen ausdrücklich und macht die Veränderung dauerhaft, unumkehrbar.

Spanien ist aus eigener Kraft mit der Diktatur fertig geworden, im Unterschied zu den Deutschen. Wenn es auch - wegen der Deutschen, der USA, des Vatikans etc. - und wegen der allgemein bekannten und gefürchteten Grausamkeit der Putschisten und militärischen Sieger im spanischen Bürgerkrieg sehr lange gedauert hat.

Die deutsche politische Polizei (politisches Kommissariat), bis 1945 unter dem Namen Gestapo, verfolgt 1969 Bürger, die sich gegen die neuen und alten faschistischen Regime Europas, Verbündete Hitlers, grausamste Verbrecher bis in die siebziger Jahre stellen. Die deutsche politische Polizei ist durch das spanische Parlament am 31.10.2007 mit verurteilt, unumkehrbar. Die örtliche bzw. regionale Presse Lemgos ("Lippische Rundschau" - Lothar Geißler als Schreiberling - und "Lippische Landeszeitung"), die den Protest gegen Franco etc. 1969 nutzt, um Bürger wegen ihres Eintretens für die Demokratie zu verleumden, zu verunglimpfen (in übelster Weise und Tradition) und zu verfolgen, ist durch das spanische Parlament am 31.10.2007 mit verurteilt. Warum hat keine deutsche Staatsanwaltschaft jemals Anklage gegen diese politische Polizei, aktiv im Interesse der Faschisten, erhoben? Wann werden deren Aktionen endlich im Land selbst verurteilt, nach so langer Zeit wenigstens im Rahmen einer Stellungnahme? Die Zeit hat nicht für die Unbelehrbaren gearbeitet, sondern gegen sie. Es wird nicht etwas besser dadurch, daß es statt gestern vor längerer Zeit geschehen ist. Fast 40 Jahre haben sie Zeit gehabt zur Umkehr, unfähig, unbelehrbar, mit neuen Taten, um die alten zu vertuschen. Nichts ist vergessen. Das Opfer hat überlebt.

Dem Druck, der vom 9. März 2008 in Spanien ausgeht, wird früher oder später auch im Land der Menschenvergaser, der NSDAP und des geschichtlich skrupellosesten Militarismus, der Himmlers, Görings, Globkes, Kiesingers, der Ludendorffs, Keitels, Wagners, Harlinghausens, Trettners etc. etc. nicht standzuhalten sein. Die EU ist der Unterpfand.

Zusammenhang von Nationalsozialismus und CDU-Staat: Schüsselstellung im Bundeskanzleramt des "Rasse"-Juristen Hans Globke



NSDAP-Kiesinger als Kanzler war kein Versehen. Er wurde nach einem Globke als Chef des Bundeskanzleramts, den Hitlergeneralen in der Bundeswehr etc. der Bundesrepublik, Europa und der Welt mit Bedacht und Absicht zugemutet. Er verstand seine Wahl und fuhr 1968 zum Staatsbesuch zu Franco. Dort ließ er sich vom faschistischen Diktator in aller Öffentlichkeit dekorieren: Verbunden durch gemeinsame Vergangenheit im Zeichen des "Schirmherrn der europäischen Zivilisation". Ein bundesdeutscher NSDAP-Kanzler empfängt gestanztes Blech aus Henkershand vor den Augen der Welt. Es kann nur eine Nation auf der Welt geben, die das mit sich machen läßt.

Nicht viele Jahre nach Ende des Weltkriegs wurden wieder Panzer und U-Boote gebaut. Bundesdeutsche U-Boote für die griechische Militärdiktatur? Mehr Demokratie wagen? War es falsch, diese Parole Willy Brandts - formuliert unter dem Eindruck einer bundesweiten und unüberhörbaren außerparlamentarischen Opposition gegen eine große Regierungskoalition - wörtlich und ernst zu nehmen?

Willy Brandt stand für den Widerstand gegen Hitler, zusammen mit den Ungebrochenen und Verfolgten der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung, er selbst in Skandinavien, auch in Spanien (als Journalist). Von ihm (von 1969-74 Nachfolger Kiesingers als Kanzler, zuvor in der großen Koalition unter Kiesinger Außenminister), hatte schon Adenauer doppelt diffamierend als von seinem Gegenkandidaten Frahm gesprochen. Der einzige Kanzler der Bundesrepublik, der im Widerstand gegen Hitler aktiv gewesen war, wird wegen seiner antifaschistischen, demokratischen Vergangenheit diffamiert, beschimpft, angegriffen, in übelster Weise von F.J. Strauß. Ausgerechnet die sog. DDR, deren Anerkennung im Interesse einer Entschärfung des 45-jährigen Ost-West-Konflikts, des "Kalten Krieges" Willy Brandt vorantreibt (Grundlagenvertrag 1972), bringt ihn 1974 zu Fall (Affäre G. Guillaume).

Schauen wir daher etwas weiter zurück, um diesen Vorgang zu begreifen.

Die bürgerliche Gesellschaft - die Wissenschaft und ihre Gegner

Seit 1867 - dem Erscheinungsjahr von "Das Kapital" - hat sich das Austragen sozialer Gegensätze verändert. Zunächst: Mit der ökonomischen Krise von 1825 tritt die große Industrie aus ihrem Kindheitsalter und eröffnet den periodischen Kreislauf ihres modernen Lebens. Mit der politischen Krise des Jahres 1830 erobern die bürgerlichen Klassen Frankreichs und Englands politische Macht. "Von da an gewann der Klassenkampf, praktisch und theoretisch, mehr und mehr ausgesprochne und drohende Formen. Er läutete die Totenglocke der wissenschaftlichen bürgerlichen Ökonomie. Es handelte sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ob dies oder jenes Theorem wahr sei, sondern ob es dem Kapital nützlich oder schädlich, bequem oder unbequem, ob polizeiwidrig oder nicht. ...an die Stelle unbefangener wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung trat das böse Gewissen und die schlechte Absicht der Apologetik." ( Karl Marx, Das Kapital, S.21)

Seit 1867 bewegt sich nicht nur wissenschaftliche Tätigkeit sondern alle Politik in dem Spannungsfeld, welches durch systematische theoretische Darstellung (und dadurch Kritik) des Gegenstandes auf eine neue Stufe gehoben ist. Das Naturgesetz läßt es ganz unberührt, ob über es nachgedacht wird oder nicht. Nicht so das Bewegungsgesetz der Gesellschaft. Die faschistischen Bewegungen und Regime haben zum Inhalt, was Hitler 1924 vor Gericht (nach gescheitertem Staatsstreichversuch mit Geiselnahmen, etlichen Toten etc.) als sein Programm der Vernichtung des Marxismus ausspricht. "Was mir vor Augen stand, das war vom ersten Tage an tausendmal mehr, als Minister zu werden. Ich wollte der Zerbrecher des Marxismus werden. Ich werde diese Aufgabe lösen ..." (Zitiert nach Alan Bullock, Hitler - Eine Studie über Tyrannei, 1953.) Unter dieser Parole versammelt er die Anhängerschaft keinesweg nur der NSDAP (bis hin zum "Opus Dei"), wird zunächst weiter protegiert, noch im selben Jahr 1924 nach einer Haft von kaum neun Monaten entlassen und kann die verbrecherische Politik, bald auch wieder mit den alten Organisationen, fortsetzen.

Vorausgegangen war in den Jahrzehnten bis 1914, basierend auf enormer ökonomischer, technischer etc. Entwicklung, der Entwicklung des kapitalistischen Weltmarkts in die Breite und Tiefe, ebenfalls ein Aufschwung sozialdemokratischer Organisationen und Parteien, auf internationaler Ebene. Diese Parteien, seit dem 100. Jahrestag der französischen Revolution von 1789, also seit 1889 in der Sozialistischen Internationale verbunden, hatten seit Gründung die menschliche Anwendung von Gewalt, insbesondere die Frage von Krieg und Frieden, thematisiert. Seit dem Stuttgarter Kongreß 1907 (bestätigt in Kopenhagen 1910 und Basel 1912) gehörten folgende Sätze zu den Beschlüssen der Sozialistischen Internationale: "Droht der Ausbruch eines Krieges, so sind die arbeitenden Klassen und deren parlamentarische Vertreter in den beteiligten Ländern verpflichtet, unterstützt durch die zusammenfassende Tätigkeit des Internationalen Sozialistischen Büros, alles aufzubieten, um durch die Anwendung der ihnen am wirksamsten erscheinenden Mittel den Ausbruch des Krieges zu verhindern, die sich je nach der Verschärfung des Klassenkampfes und der allgemeinen politischen Situation naturgemäß ändern. Falls der Krieg dennoch ausbrechen sollte, sind sie verpflichtet, für dessen rasche Beendigung einzutreten und mit allen Kräften dahin zu streben, die durch den Krieg herbeigeführte wirtschaftliche und politische Krise zur Aufrüttelung des Volkes auszunutzen und dadurch die Beseitigung der kapitalistischen Klassenherrschaft zu beschleunigen."

Die so eindeutig und einmütig seit dem Stuttgarter Kongreß 1907 beständig auf größter Bühne (selbstverständlich auch Berichterstattung in der Parteipresse etc.) erklärte Absicht und Politik, sich einem Krieg der entsprechenden Staaten mit vereinten Kräften zu widersetzen und ihn nach Möglichkeit schon im Entstehen (mittels Generalstreik etc.) zu verhindern, zerplatzte in den ersten Tagen der beginnenden Katastrophe im Juli/August 1914 wie eine Seifenblase (vgl. Rosa Luxemburg, Junius-Broschüre - "Junius" ist ihr Pseudonym aus dem Gefängnis). Konsequente Anwendung fanden die Beschlüsse nur bei den Sozialdemokraten Rußlands, der SDAPR (Bolschewiki). Kein Mensch auf unserer Welt, für alle Zukunft, wird bezweifeln können, daß die Bolschewiki richtig analysiert und gehandelt haben. Die Geschichte hat ihr Urteil gesprochen.

Der 4. August 1914 sieht eine SPD, die mit ihrer Zustimmung im Reichstag zu den geforderten Kriegskrediten ihren vollständigen intellektuellen und politischen Bankrott erklärt. Aus dem Angriffskrieg der Mittelmächte - die deutschen Heere sind bereits in Luxemburg und Belgien einmarschiert und die SPD weiß es - macht die Partei der Arbeiterbewegung einen Verteidigungskrieg gegen eine fremde Invasion, um die Existenz des Vaterlandes, um Kultur und einen Freiheitskrieg gegen den russischen Despotismus.

Die Tatsachen sind:

Am 6.07.1914 hat die deutsche Reichsregierung Österreich-Ungarn eine "Blankovollmacht" unbedingter Bündnistreue gegeben.

Am 23.07.1914 stellt Österreich-Ungarn Serbien ein - wegen geforderter Preisgabe serbischer Souveränitätsrechte - unannehmbares Ultimatum.

Am 28.07.1914 erklärt Österreich-Ungarn Serbien den Krieg, nach erfolglosen Vermittlungsversuchen (Vorschlag einer Botschafterkonferenz und direkter Verhandlungen zwischen Rußland und Österreich-Ungarn). Der deutsche Generalstab drängt Österreich-Ungarn zur Generalmobilmachung und rät seinerseits von Vermittlungsversuchen ab.

Am 1.08.1914 erklärt Deutschland Rußland den Krieg.

Am 3.08.1914 erklärt Deutschland Frankreich den Krieg.

Ab 3.08.1914 Einmarsch deutscher Truppen in Belgien und Luxemburg. Neutrale Länder (militärisch schwächer, weshalb man daher meint, das mit ihnen machen zu können) werden überfallen und das Verbrechen wird am 4.08.1914 - "Unrecht" ist seine Bezeichnung - vom Reichskanzler Bethmann Hollweg "offen" zugegeben: "Unsere Truppen haben Luxemburg besetzt, vielleicht schon belgisches Gebiet betreten. Meine Herren, das widerspricht den Geboten des Völkerrechts. Das Unrecht - ich spreche offen -, das Unrecht, das wir damit tun, werden wir wieder gutzumachen suchen, sobald unser militärisches Ziel erreicht ist." (Zitiert nach: Wikipedia, Die Kriegsschuldfrage - Causes of World War I)

Die SPD widerspricht dem kaiserlichen Kanzler. Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Was ein Deutsches Reich unter Wiedergutmachung versteht, zeigen folgende Vorgänge :

"Im ersten Weltkrieg wurde Stinnes, auch durch die umfangreiche Munitionsproduktion der Dortmunder Union, zu einem der wichtigsten Kriegslieferanten für das deutsche Heer. In Zusammenarbeit mit deutschen Militärstellen wie der Kriegsrohstoffabteilung expandierte er in der Energie- und Metallherstellung, sowie der chemischen und der Metall verarbeitenden Industrie, beispielsweise durch Gründung des Erftwerkes und durch Erschließung von Rohstoffvorkommen der befreundeten Mittelmächte Rumänien und der Türkei, aber auch durch die aggressive "Germanisierung" der belgischen Rohstoffvorkommen. Zusammen mit anderen deutschen Industriellen wie Walter Rathenau und Carl Duisberg forderte er schließlich die deutsche Regierung auf, nicht nur Rohstoffe und Maschinen gewaltsam aus Belgien zu beschaffen, sondern auch die dringend benötigten Arbeitskräfte. Dies führte zur Deportation zehntausender belgischer Zivilisten, die zur Zwangsarbeit in Industrie und Bergbau nach Deutschland verschleppt wurden." (zitiert nach: Wikipedia, Hugo Stinnes - Stand 23.03.2008)

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Wie oben schon bemerkt, waren Anfang August 1914 deutsche Truppen völkerrechtswidrig und ohne Kriegserklärung in das neutrale Belgien einmarschiert. Das Dorf Battice gelangte gleich zu Beginn dieser "Fortsetzung der Politik mit anderen Mitteln" traurige Berühmtheit, als die gesamte Siedlung von deutschen Truppen niedergebrannt wurde. Aus dem Dorf war gegen den Überfall und die deutsche Besetzung Gegenwehr gekommen. Nach der gewaltsamen Einnahme des Dorfes beschuldigte das deutsche Militär die Zivilbevölkerung, als Partisanen am Widerstand teilgenommen zu haben und machte als Strafe das gesamte Dorf dem Erdboden gleich, während ein Teil der Bevölkerung massakriert wurde.

"Auch in anderen Städten Belgiens und dem Norden Frankreichs wurden derartige Massaker verübt." (Wikipedia, German war crimes in Aarschot, Andenne, Dinant, Leuven, Liège, Tamines etc., 1. Weltkrieg) Wehe, wenn sich gegen deutsche Verbrechen gewehrt wird.

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Der "Courier", das Organ des Transportarbeiterverbandes (der Gewerkschaft der Transportarbeiter) schreibt nach der Einnahme Antwerpens 1914: "Heute weht die deutsche Flagge auf den Türmen Antwerpens, hoffentlich für immer." (Courier, 25. Oktober 1914)

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Den amtlich registrierten Zahlen von 670.000 toten und 1.641.000 verwundeten Soldaten in den ersten Kriegsmonaten 1914 bis Februar 1916 stehen Gewinnsteigerungen (im gleichen Zeitraum) des Krupp-Konzerns, der Vereinigten Köln-Rottweiler-Pulverfabriken, der AEG etc. nach eigenen Statistiken von z.T. mehreren hundert Prozent gegenüber. Deutsche Firmen verdienen auch an den Lieferungen von Rüstungsmaterial und Lizenzen für das Ausland. Über neutrale Länder wird während des Kriegs Zink an englische Rüstungskonzerne verkauft. Die Engländer revanchieren sich mit rüstungswichtigem Kupfer. Über die Schweiz liefern deutsche Stahlindustrielle Stabeisen und Grobbleche an französische Rüstungsfirmen. Der Krupp-Konzern hatte vor dem Krieg das Patent eines Handgranatenzünders an den englischen Konzern Vickers&Armstrong verkauft. Millionen von englischen Handgranaten mit dem Kruppschen Zünder brachten den Soldaten Tod und Verstümmelung, dem Krupp-Konzern und seinem englischen Lizenznehmer Riesengewinne.

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Über eine Unterredung sozialdemokratischer Fraktionskollegen (Gustav Bauer, Max Cohen, Paul Göhre, Philipp Scheidemann, Robert Schmidt, Georg Schöpflin) gibt es Aufzeichnungen des Abgeordneten Eduard David vom 15. August 1914: "Man vertritt die Auffassung, daß die deutsche Regierung den Krieg gewollt habe als Präventivkrieg. Scheidemann ist davon überzeugt und scheint besondere Anhaltspunkte dafür zu haben." Der Abgeordnete Albert Südekum hatte am 29. Juli 1914 den Reichskanzler vorab informiert, daß der SPD-Parteivorstand im Krieg (der gar nicht begonnen hatte, der erst am 1. August mit der Kriegserklärung Deutschlands an Rußland beginnen sollte) keinerlei Klassenkampfaktionen einleiten und sich auch "mißverständlicher" Äußerungen in der Presse enthalten werde. Der Abgeordnete Südekum blickte staunenswert zuversichtlich in die Zukunft der Arbeiterbewegung.

Kriegsgegner können ihre Einsichten und Überzeugungen ab Kriegsbeginn - Kriegsrecht, "Burgfrieden", Parteidisziplin (s. oben), Pressezensur - nur illegal verbreiten, riskieren hohe Strafen bis hin zur Todesstrafe. Die wissenschaftlich gebildeten, von denen schon seit der Jahrhundertwende klare Einsichten und Orientierung ausgegangen waren, werden ins Gefängnis oder ins Zuchthaus - wie z.B. Rosa Luxemburg - geworfen. Viele Kriegsgegner beugen sich lange der Fraktionsdisziplin. Es zeigt sich im Kriegsverlauf, wie die Ebert-Kriegsfraktion diese - im Interesse der Einigkeit der Partei mit großen Skrupeln geschehene - Selbstverleugnung honoriert.

Pazifistisch orientierte Kriegsgegner, die es können und auch wollen, emigrieren vor allem in die Schweiz. Dort kann während des Krieges die Debatte auf literarischer Bühne weitergeführt werden (z.B. von Ernst Bloch, Carl von Ossietzky etc.), die keineswegs weggedrängt und abgehoben bleibt, sondern seit dem 14-Punkte-Programm von Wilson (dem US-Präsidenten) mit dem Konzept eines Völkerbunds und den darauf folgenden Erörterungen und politischen Reaktionen eine epochemachend neue, tiefgreifende Diskussion vorzeichnet.

Für die Ebert-SPD gilt im Kriegsverlauf, die ungebrochenen, kritischen und auch zur wissenschaftlichen Diskussion fähigen Mitglieder aus der Partei herauszudrängen und dann auszuschließen, ihre Lüge vom Verteidigungskrieg, ihre Kriegsunterstützung und den Betrug an Partei und Bevölkerung mit Zwangsmaßnahmen zu zementieren. Der Weg der Gewalt hat sein eigenes Gesetz. Es gibt kein zurück vor den August 1914. Die Ebert-Fraktion ist Gefangene ihres Verrates und ihrer Lüge, weil der Weg der Gewalt für die Opfer keine Umkehr kennt. Und nun die Gewalt und die Opfer dieses Krieges, die nach Millionen gezählt werden, und eines nicht zu gewinnenden Krieges.

Der Verrat von 1914 - wenn schon der Angriffskrieg für einen Verteidigungskrieg ausgegeben wurde - enthielt wenigstens die Erwartung eines Sieges, des Erfolges. Die Realität straft die Mehrheits-SPD der Lüge, unerbittlich, unwiderruflich für alle Zeiten und vor aller Augen. Die Geschichte gibt ihr Urteil ab. Die Notwehr, die angebliche Verteidigung wird statt eines Erfolges die bitterste Niederlage, eben weil sie tatsächlich ein verbrecherischer Angriff ist. Auch für den Täter, den Mörder gibt es keine Umkehr. Er kann daher nicht im Dialog zur Einsicht und zur Änderung seines Verhaltens gebracht werden. Wenn die Tat, ihre Umstände und ihre Beweggründe nicht herausgefunden, schonungslos aufgedeckt werden und der Täter nicht zur Rechenschaft gezogen wird, droht der Rückfall in die Barbarei ein Fall ins Bodenlose, der dauerhafte Verlust aller menschlichen Errungenschaften zu werden. Es ist nach 1914 lebenswichtig, das wahre Ausmaß der Katastrophe zu erkennen. Es ist nicht weniger im Jahr 2008 lebenswichtig geblieben. 1914 hat es gegeben.

Die Vorgänge und Triebkräfte, die zum 1. August 1914 geführt hatten, waren kein Geheimnis. Die Entwicklung des Weltmarkts, die Konkurrenz und Expansion des Kapitals, die Kolonialpolitik waren kein Geheimnis. Die expansive Rüstungsindustrie (z.B. "Welt-Kriegs-Konzern Krupp", Klaus Tenfelde in seiner Chronik des Hauses Krupp) war kein Geheimnis. Die wilhelminische Innen- und Außenpolitik war kein Geheimnis. Die internationalen Krisen (Balkankrisen und -kriege, Marokkokrisen etc.) waren kein Geheimnis. Der Weltkrieg wurde seit Jahrzehnten vorbereitet, in breitester Öffentlichkeit und auch die sozialdemokratische Presse berichtete, zeigte Zusammenhänge und kommentierte. Die Rhetorik überdeckte das nationale Vorurteil. Wie wenig - seit 1867 - die neuen Gedanken und die Wissenschaft (die Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) in die Tiefe gedrungen waren, bewies im Juli/August 1914 die - im Ausland grandios überschätzte - SPD mit ihrer völligen Unterwerfung unter die Politik der kaiserlichen Regierung. (Schon 1913 war die Nachfolge im Parteivorsitz, Ebert statt Bebel, ein unübersehbares Signal gewesen. Die Bedenken, die Bebel gegen Ebert gehabt hatte, waren nur zu berechtigt.) Die internationale Aktion und Verhinderung der Katastrophe wurde durch die SPD zur puren Illusion, die Partei hatte ihr Herz für Tatsachen entdeckt, die chauvinistische Tat-Sache des Krieges.

Nach Beginn macht die Ebert-Fraktion aus dem Krieg eine vorgegebene Tatsache. (Genauso wie für Angela Merkel im Jahr 2003 der Irakkrieg der USA "nun" eine Realität ist, vgl. den Artikel zum Irakkrieg vom 6.04.2003 auf dieser Internetseite.) Ebert im Rückblick: "Der Krieg mit Rußland und Frankreich war zur Tatsache geworden. England lag auf der Lauer, um unter irgendeinem Vorwand (?) ebenfalls (?) loszuschlagen. Italien macht nicht mit (?), und Österreich ist eben Österreich (?). Die Gefahr ist groß, auch unsere Leute standen unter diesem Eindruck." (Zitiert nach Wikipedia, Ebert) Eberts Beschreibung, vom ersten bis zum letzten Wort falsch, ist absichtsvolle Fälschung der historischen Tatsachen. Der deutsche Überfall auf Belgien: alles andere als ein Vorwand. Das Ebenfallslosschlagen: Rußland und Frankreich haben nicht losgeschlagen. Daß die Gefahr groß ist wegen des Militarismus des eigenen Landes, des Angriffskrieges der Reichsregierung und der eigenen Unfähigkeit, nein zu sagen (in der Reihenfolge der Begründung), überfordert die Einsichtsfähigkeit eines SPD Parteivorsitzenden in der Nachfolge August Bebels. Derart sehen die analytischen Fähigkeiten eines Vorsitzenden aus in einer geschichtlichen Situation, in der es genauestens darauf ankommt. Daß der Krieg ein Produkt ist, an welchem die Partei selbst mitwirkt, überfordert bei näherem Hinsehen allerdings weniger den Scharfsinn als die Redlichkeit ihres Vorsitzenden. Das Ausweichen vor der Analyse, vor der Wahrheit geschieht nur teils aus Unvermögen. Es geschieht vor allem aus Feigheit resp. Korruptheit. Der ganz simple Beweis diesbezüglich (der in der begonnenen Krise bestätigt wird bis zum bittersten Ende): Das eigene Unvermögen wäre schon lange zu kompensieren gewesen durch die einfache Lektüre der Produkte anderer, gründlich und kontinuierlich arbeitender besserer Analysten (z.B. Rosa Luxemburg ab 1893 in der "Sprawa Robotnicza", in der "Sächsischen Arbeiterzeitung", in der "Leipziger Volkszeitung", in "Die Neue Zeit", im "Vorwärts" etc.).

Weil die Parteifunktionäre, auf Kosten der Parteimitglieder eingestellt, gut besoldet und sicher versorgt, nichts gründlicher gelernt und begriffen hatten als eben diesen Aufstieg, weil die allgemeine Korruption, Staatsparasitentum, Postenjagd im prosperierenden, expandierenden und doch angeblich zu kurz gekommenen wilhelminischen Reich ebensolche wilhelminischen Charakterdarsteller en masse erzeugt hatte (der 1. und 4. August 1914, die Kriegsbegeisterung großer Bevölkerungsteile zu Beginn waren hierfür der unbezweifelbare Beweis), wurden die gesellschaftlichen Klassen, die nicht von fremder Arbeit leben (sei es in Frankreich, sei es in Deutschland etc.), gegeneinander in die Schlacht, in das Blutbad, in die Giftgasschwaden gezwungen und getrieben. Weil Gier, deutsch-österreichischer Dünkel, Chauvinismus und Größenwahn Sieger waren und Kaiser, kaiserliche Regierung, Militär und Kapital tun konnten, was sie wollten. Ein Aufschrei hätte kommen müssen: Bis hierher und nicht weiter, niemals. Die SPD kroch, dankte ab und übertraf den kaiserlichen Kanzler noch mit dem Betrug und der frechsten Lüge, das deutsche Reich müsse sich gegen einen Überfall wehren.

Von diesem Zeitpunkt ab wäre einer doch so bitter notwendigen Einsicht der Kriegsfraktion, einer Selbstkritik und Umkehr eine alsbaldige Auswechslung des Führungspersonals gefolgt. Der SPD-Parteivorstand nutzt daher die Dunkelheit des Kriegsrechts und ersetzt 1916 die mehrheitlich links stehende Redaktion des "Vorwärts" durch eigene Leute. Am 16. März 1916 werden die Kriegsgegner aus der gemeinsamen Fraktion, im Januar 1917 auch aus der Partei ausgeschlossen. Das Handeln wider besseres Wissen, der Verrat und Betrug vom 4. August 1914 gegenüber der (internationalen) Arbeiterbewegung, der deutschen Bevölkerung, der Welt, gegenüber dem Gewissen und aller Zivilisation wird ergänzt mit skrupellosem Verrat an der eigenen Partei und den eigenen Gefolgsleuten, die sich (auch wider besseres Wissen aber mit Skrupeln) lange der Parteidisziplin gebeugt hatten. Die Ebert-SPD ist Gefangene ihrer Doktrin und ihrer Taten, die sie - nachdem der Weg der Gewalt und des Mordens beschritten ist - zu weiteren Taten zwingen.

Im Kriegsverlauf verändert sich diese Gefangenschaft des 4. August, es kommt ein verheißungsvoller Umstand hinzu. Dem Wissen um die eigene Lüge, die man in den ersten Tagen und vielleicht Wochen des Kriegs (bis zur Marneschlacht) noch am ehesten mit der Hoffnung auf einen Sieg, also mit Illusion und Selbsttäuschung beiseitedrängen oder herunterspielen konnte, muß Schritt für Schritt Rechnung getragen werden. Nur wie? Die zynische Kalkulation wird nun, den geschichtlichen Fehlgriff (alias Verbrechen) von Militär und Regierung, einen aussichtslosen Krieg dieses Ausmaßes begonnen zu haben, für die eigenen Zwecke skrupellos auszunutzen. Früher oder später wird die Entwicklung, die wachsende Überlegenheit der Entente und der entsprechende Kriegsverlauf Militär und Regierung dermaßen in die Enge treiben, daß das verratene, ausgeblutete, ausgehungerte und verelendete Volk ihren Sturz verlangt. Die SPD-Kriegsfraktion muß nur eng genug an der Seite der Regierung, in einer wohlerwogenen und -dosierten Nähe und Distanz zu Militär und Kaiser bleiben, damit diese abzusehende Entwicklung ihr selbst die desillusionierten Opfer zutreibt. Was sie dann diesen Teilen der Bevölkerung anbieten muß, um sie einzufangen, ist ihr ureigenes, professionelles, bestens bekanntes, langtrainiertes Betätigungsfeld. Der Krieg wurde vielversprechend, jetzt mehr und mehr für diese Fraktion der "Daheimkrieger".

Selten haben Parteiführer mehr Ekel und Abscheu erregt.

Die Lehrstätte des Grauens und der gegenseitigen Vernichtung, die elendigste Schule zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie: mit welchem Lernprozeß? 1918 sah ganz andere Menschen als die, die 1914 die Lehrstätte betreten hatten und betreten mußten. Keineswegs alle Überlebenden und Davongekommenen wurden zu Kriegsgegnern. Es gab offenbar Menschen, deren große Leidenschaft Stahlhelme - nach ihrer Einführung für die Frontsoldaten 1916, und auch hier war Deutschland technisch versiert - wurden, und deren Herz höher schlug, wenn sie z.B. als Meldegänger vor ihrem Leutnant stramm stehen durften, in der Todesmaschinerie gebraucht, mitunter vielleicht auch gelobt und mit gestanztem Blech vor der Herzregion kenntlich gemacht. Statt Hundemarke ein "Eisernes Kreuz".

Der Rückfall sprengte alle bisherigen Kenntnisse und Vorstellungen über Leben und Tod, über unzerbrechliche und zerbrechende menschliche Existenzen, über körperliche und seelische Krüppel. Das Kapital, Krupp, Stinnes etc. hatten gut vorgesorgt, mit Maschinengewehren, Kanonen, Panzerkreuzern, U-Booten, Flugzeugen und - Giftgas. Der Krieg dauerte, die Dividenden stiegen, die Proletarier fielen. Mit Hindenburg und Ludendorff ging es richtig nach oben, besonders für die Krupp AG (vgl. Norbert F. Pötzl, "Spiegel-Spezial" vom März 2004). Der verlorene Krieg, 1914 mit imperialen Zielen, Täuschung, Irreführung und sozialdemokratischem Betrug und Verrat begonnen und geführt, entließ Heerscharen von deklassierten, entwurzelten und demoralisierten Existenzen, für die es - obwohl nicht hingemordet - jedenfalls keine einfache Umkehr gab.

Die Revolutionen zum Ende der Katastrophe 1917/1918 waren gekennzeichnet vom Elend in umfassendster Weise, von schroffsten Gegensätzen (Kriegsgewinnler-Kriegsverlierer), Gegnerschaften, Leidenschaften, politischen Fraktionierungen, Kämpfen und Haß und von Hilflosigkeiten, Unzulänglichkeiten, Versäumnissen, Halbheiten, Irrtümern der Akteure auch auf der Seite der Klassen, die die Opfer geworden waren. Marx' Diagnose und Prognose von 1867, inwiefern die Wissenschaft Privatinteressen berührt, Leidenschaften hervorruft und welche Privatinteressen und mit welchen Mitteln überhaupt verfolgt werden, zeichnete noch idyllische Zustände vergangener Tage. Er konnte nicht wissen, wie die bürgerlichen Klassen und "Eliten" sich noch inspirieren und beflügeln ließen, weil die technische Entwicklung in schließlich produzierter Gestalt nicht Voraussehbares geschaffen hatte.

Als Stinnes 1924 starb, war sein Familienunternehmen mit über 600.000 Beschäftigten der größte "Arbeitgeber" der Welt. Das Familienunternehmen hatte eben auf todsichere Geschäfte gesetzt und gewonnen. Unter diesen Umständen kann auch einmal großzügig gehandelt werden und etwas abgegeben werden: Den Bedürftigen der Anti-bolschewistischen Liga des Eduard Stadtler (vgl. das Fortsetzungskapitel).

Die Fortsetzung des vorliegenden Kapitels wird die Darlegung des Zusammenhangs bis zur Gegenwart fortführen.

- Oktoberrevolution 1917 in Rußland

- Novemberrevolution 1918 in Deutschland, der Untergang der Weimarer Republik und die Fortsetzung des Weltkrieges

- Das geteilte Deutschland, eine Geschichte verdrängter Geschichte:







Vgl. die Erinnerung an den Waffenstillstand am 11. November 1918 in Belgien, Frankreich, Polen, in Canada on 4 November 2015, vielen weiteren Ländern und in Deutschland

Vgl. die Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später 2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Commémoration de la Première Guerre mondiale en Belgique - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - l'agenda en France - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - Août 2014 - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - Décembre 2016 - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale Janvier 2014 - Décembre 2016 - The Great War Timeline - November 1918 - German war crimes World War I - 18 November 2016: The centenary of the end of one of the bloodiest episodes of the first world war, the 141 days of the Battle of the Somme in which more than a million men on both sides were killed or injured, is being marked with services in France and in the UK - 11 November 2019: France marks Remembrance Day, 101 years since end of World War I

Vgl. die Erinnerung an den 2. Weltkrieg 1939-1945 75 Jahre später 2014-2020: 75 years later the British website 'World War II Today' continues to follow the war through to August 1945 - Aftermath of World War II - Aftermath of World War II by country - Aftermath of the Holocaust - Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe by country





Germany
History of Germany: History of 'Germany'
Geography of Germany: Geography of German territories
Rivers of Germany: Rivers of German speaking communities and territorial states, listed by draining into the Baltic Sea, by draining into the Black Sea, and by draining into the North Sea
Oder river: Oder river in Central Europe. It is Poland's second-longest river in total length and third-longest within its borders after the Vistula and Warta. The Oder rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742 kilometres through western Poland, later forming 187 kilometres of the border between Poland and Germany as part of the Oder–Neisse line. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches (the Dziwna, Swina and Peene) that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea
Uecker river: Uecker river in the northeastern states of Brandenburg, where it is known as the Ucker, and of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Its source lies in the Uckermark district, one kilometer north of Ringenwalde. It flows northward through several lakes. The first one is Großer Krinertsee. The next ones are rather small.
Warnow river: Warnow river in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It flows into the Baltic Sea near the town of Rostock, in its borough Warnemünde. The source of the Warnow is in Grebbin, a small village 10 kilometres north of Parchim, at the western end of the Mecklenburg Lake District. It flows north through Sternberg, Bützow and Schwaan before reaching Rostock.
Trave river: Trave river in Schleswig-Holstein. It is 124 kilometres long, running from its source near the village of Gießelrade in Ostholstein to Travemünde, where it flows into the Baltic Sea. It passes through Bad Segeberg, Bad Oldesloe, and Lübeck, where it is linked to the Elbe–Lübeck Canal. It is navigable for sea-going vessels from the Baltic to the Lübeck ports.
Rivers raining into the Black Sea: Rivers raining into the Black Sea
Danube river: Danube river, the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the river carries its name from its source confluence in Donaueschingen onwards. The Danube today is the river running through the largest number of countries in the world flowing southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, then also linking to Asian countries
Inn river: Inn river in Switzerland, Austria and Bavaria. It is a right tributary of the Danube and is 518 kilometres long. The highest point of its drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina, at 4,049 metres. The Engadine, the valley of the En, is the only Swiss valley whose waters end up in the Black Sea (via the Danube)
Salzach river: Salzach river in Austria and Germany. It is a right tributary of the Inn and is 227 kilometres in length, its flow eventually joins the Danube. Its drainage basin of 6,829 km2 comprises large parts of the Northern Limestone and Central Eastern Alps. 83% of its drainage basin lies in Austria, the remainder in Bavaria
Rivers draining into the North Sea: Rivers draining into the North Sea
Rhine river: Rhine river, one of the major European rivers connecting European countries and Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, and North Rhine-Westphalia. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows in a mostly northerly direction through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Neckar river: Neckar river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis near Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706m above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Plochingen, Esslingen, Stuttgart, Ludwigsburg, Marbach, Heilbronn and Heidelberg, before discharging into the Rhine at Mannheim, making the Neckar its 4th largest tributary
Main river: Main river connecting Bavaria, Hesse, and Rhineland-Palatinate, the longest tributary of the Rhine. It rises as the White Main in the Fichtel Mountains of northeastern Bavaria and flows west through central Germany for 525 kilometres to meet the Rhine below Rüsselsheim, Hesse. The cities of Mainz and Wiesbaden are close to the confluence, as the largest cities on the Main are Frankfurt am Main, Offenbach am Main and Würzburg. It is the longest river lying entirely in Germany (if the Weser-Werra are considered separate).
Nahe river: Nahe river in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, a left tributary to the Rhine. The Nahe separates the northern part of the Palatinate from the Hunsrück, and rises in the area of Nohfelden (Saarland), flowing through Rhineland-Palatinate and joining the Rhine in Bingen. Towns along the Nahe include Idar-Oberstein, Kirn, Bad Kreuznach and Bingen
Lahn river: Lahn river, an eastern tributary of the Rhine as its course passes through the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse (165.6 km), and Rhineland-Palatinate (57.0 km). It meets the Rhine at Lahnstein, near Koblenz. Important cities along the Lahn include Marburg, Gießen, Wetzlar, Limburg an der Lahn, Weilburg and Bad Ems. Tributaries to the Lahn include the Ohm, Dill, the Weil and the Aar
Saar river: Saar river in northeastern France and western Germany, and a right tributary of the Moselle. It rises in the Vosges mountains on the border of Alsace and Lorraine and flows northwards into the Moselle near Trier. It has two headstreams (the Sarre Rouge and Sarre Blanche, which join in Lorquin), that both start near Mont Donon, the highest peak of the northern Vosges. After 246 kilometres the Saar flows into the Moselle at Konz (Rhineland-Palatinate) between Trier and the Luxembourg border
Moselle river: Moselle river, rising in the French Vosges mountains and flowing from western Germany through Luxembourg,and north-eastern France. It is a left bank tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is in its basin as it includes the Sauer and the Our. Its lower course 'twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germany's most beautiful river valleys'. In this section the land to the north is the Eifel which stretches into Belgium, to the south lies the Hunsrück
Ruhr river: Ruhr river in North Rhine-Westphalia, a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine. The source of the Ruhr is near the town of Winterberg in the mountainous Sauerland region, and it flows into the lower Rhine in the municipal area of Duisburg. The river marks the southern limit of the Ruhr area, passing Hagen, Dortmund, Herdecke, Wetter, Witten, Bochum, Hattingen, Essen, Mülheim, and Duisburg, as the Ruhr area was Germany's primary industrial area during the early- to mid-20th century
Ems river: Ems river in northwestern Germany. It runs through the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony, and discharges into the Dollart Bay which is part of the Wadden Sea. Its total length is 362.4 kilometres. The state border between the Lower Saxon area of East Friesland and the province of Groningen (Netherlands), whose exact course was the subject of a border dispute between the countries settled in 2014, runs through the Ems estuary.
Weser river: Weser river of Lower Saxony. It begins at Hannoversch Münden through the confluence of the Werra and Fulda. It passes through the Hanseatic city of Bremen. Its mouth is 50 km further north against the ports of Bremerhaven and Nordenham. The latter is on the Butjadingen Peninsula. It then merges into the North Sea via two highly saline, estuarine mouths. It also connects to the canal network running east-west across the North German Plain, after the river combined with the Werra (a dialectal form of Weser). This makes up the longest river wholly in Germany. The Weser itself is 452 km long, as the Werra rises in Thuringia.
Elbe river: Elbe river, one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia (western half of the Czech Republic), then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 kilometres northwest of Hamburg. Its total length is 1,094 km. The Elbe's major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Saale, Havel (coming from Berlin and its northern countryside), Mulde, Schwarze Elster, and Ohre
25 April 1945 'Elbe Day': 25 April 1945 'Elbe Day', the day Soviet and USA troops met at the Elbe River near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe. This contact between the Soviet, advancing from the East and the USA soldiers advancing from the West, meant that the two powers had effectively cut Germany in two, as at the meeting of the Soviet and USA armies Lt. William Robertson and Lt. Alexander Silvashko stand facing one another with hands clasped and arms around each other's shoulders
Demographics of Germany: Demographics of Germany
Since 1648–1815 history of German speaking societies and territorial states: Since 1648–1815 history of German speaking societies and territorial states during the rise of Prussian kingdom ('enlightened absolutism or despotism'), during the French Revolution since 1789, 1815–1871 society, economy and German Confederation, including early industrialization, industrial revolution, corporate formation, economic fluctuations, social change and pauperism in a bourgeois society, emergence of workforce and labour movements - Compare 1830–1938 GNP per capita in USA dollars of different countries in Europe (including Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Russia/USSR, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, as Poland remained occupied by Prussian kingdom and German empire, by Austria-Hungary and the Russian empire and divided until 1918, the end of German and Austro-Hungarian empires' World War I)
German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945: German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War II 1939-1945
The division of Germany (and Europe) since 1914 and German obtuseness: Political movements in Germany - History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany 1863–1914 - 13 August 1913: August Bebel died in Passugg - Spirit of 1914 - German 'Burgfrieden' - 13 August 1961: Berlin Wall
Since 1914 crimes of two World Wars: World War I 1914-1918 - World War II 1939-1945 - Racial policy of Nazi Germany - Holocaust - Porajmos - The division of Germany since 1945 - Das geteilte Deutschland, eine Geschichte verdrängter Geschichte, erkannter und unerkannter Mörder, der Unbelehrbarkeit und Verlogenheit (fortdauernd)

Völkermord und ungesühnte Kriegsverbrechen Deutschlands: Bis heute kaum bundesdeutsche Strafverfolgung von Wehrmachtsverbrechen - Verschleppung, Verhinderung, Leugnung und Verharmlosung - Strafvereitelung für verurteilte Massenmörder durch Auslieferungsverweigerung
1952: CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
1953-1963: 1953-1963 CDU-member and racist Nazi-jurist Hans Globke director of the Federal Chancellory of West Germany, 1933-1945 high-profile Nazi-jurist in NSDAP-Germany, drafting the law for the 'Protection of the German Blood' and serving as chief legal advisor in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of Interior, the section headed by Adolf Eichmann that implemented the Holocaust bureaucratically, knowing 'that the Jews were being put to death en masse'
1958-1962: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' BND spy between 1958-1962
1965: In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach
2006: CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
2011: 7. Juli 2011: Neun ehemalige Wehrmachtssoldaten wegen Massaker in Italien 1944 im Juli 2011 in Verona zu lebenslanger Haft verurteilt - Sant'Anna di Stazzema - Die Täter, wie z.B. Gerhard Sommer, geschützt von der deutschen Justiz in Hamburg und Stuttgart - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 1 October 2012: Probe into Nazi massacre at Sant'Anna di Stazzema dropped by German prosecutors - 19 December 2012: At the presentation of a report by Italian and German historians on German war crimes against Italians, Italy presses Germany on conviction of former Nazis
2013: 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2014: 20 February 2014: Three suspected Auschwitz guards detained in Baden-Wuerttemberg - 19 June 2014: Suspected SS guard J. Breyer arrested in the USA for the alleged murders of hundreds of thousands of Jewish men, women and children during World War II - 2 December 2014: Nazi war criminal Brunner, the unrepentant 'right-hand man' of Adolf Eichmann and wanted for deporting tens of thousands of Jews to death camps, is 'almost certain' to have died in Syria, where he was protected by successive regimes, four years ago, Simon Wiesenthal Centre says
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir - 22 September 2015: 91-year-old German woman who worked at Auschwitz has been accused of complicity in the murders of at least 260,000 Jews during World War II - 2 November 2015: Former Auschwitz SS guard, charged with 170,000 counts of accessory to murder, declared fit for trial in Germany - 1 December 2015: German appeals court clears the way for the trial of 95-year-old SS sergeant at Auschwitz Hubert Z., accused of being an accessory to the murder of at least 3,681 people at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi death camp, as in Detmold Reinhold H. is accused of being an accessory to the murder of 170,000 people and in Kiel a 91-year-old woman is accused of the same charges in the case of 260,000 people
2016: 18 janvier 2016: L'ex-infirmier d'Auschwitz Hubert Zafke, en poste lorsqu'est arrivé le convoi d'Anne Frank en 1944, sera jugé à partir du 29 février en Allemagne - 29 January 2016: Authorities probe former SS soldiers accused of war crimes, including involvement in a 1944 civilian massacre in France - 10 February 2016: SS men Reinhold Hanning and Hubert Zafke will go on trial this month for their alleged complicity in the murder of thousands of people at Auschwitz, as Holocaust survivor Angela Orosz, born at Auschwitz, will take the witness stand in the Hanning trial - 11 February 2016: Auschwitz survivor Leon Schwarzbaum urges SS-guard on trial to reveal his role at death camp, asking him 'to tell the historical truth', 'the truth about what you and your colleagues did', but the SS-guard remains silent - 12 February 2016: Leon Schwarzbaum, Justin Sonder, Erna de Vries, three Auschwitz survivors describe horrors of Holocaust on the second day of the trial in Detmold - 26 February 2016: Angela Orosz Richt-Bein born inside the Auschwitz concentration camp in 1944 has accused former guard Hanning on trial for being an accessory to the murders of 170,000 Holocaust victims, saying 'You know what happened to all the people, you enabled their murder. Tell us! Tell us!' - 29 February 2016: The trial of former Nazi official Hubert Z., who is thought to have worked as a medic, over his suspected involvement in the deaths of 3,681 people at the Auschwitz concentration camp is set to begin in Germany on Monday - 5 March 2016: Born in Auschwitz in December 1944 and too weak to cry, the true understanding of her origins crept up on her slowly throughout her childhood in Hungary, Angela Orosz says in Detmold's courtroom - 12 March 2016: Canadian Jewish groups are calling on Canada to strip Canadian citizenship of Helmut Oberlander, who was a member of one of the most savage Nazi killing units, responsible for the murder of more than 90,000 Jewish men, women, and children during the Holocaust and who fraudulently gained Canadian citizenship in 1954 - 29 April 2016: Ex-SS Auschwitz guard Hanning tells court in Detmold, ‘I am truly sorry’ - 20 May: German prosecutors seeking six years' imprisonment for 94-year-old former SS guard Hanning on trial for complicity in 170,000 murders at Auschwitz - 17 June 2016: Germany jails ex-Auschwitz guard Hanning, found guilty on 170,000 counts of accessory to murder, for five years - 9 August 2016: Head of Germany’s central office for the investigation of Nazi crimes in Ludwigsburg has identified four men and four women suspected of having served at a concentration camp near Gdansk, and prosecutors will examine if they can be charged as accomplices to murder, as World Jewish Congress' Ronald Lauder says that 'given the vast system of concentration and extermination camps put in place by the Nazis, and the number of personnel needed to run and guard these sites, it comes as no surprise that a few of these perpetrators are still alive, even today' - 28 November 2016: German Federal Court of Justice upholds former Auschwitz guard Groening's conviction on accessory to murder charges, setting an important precedent for prosecutors' efforts to pursue others who were part of the 'machinery of death' even if there is no evidence of involvement in a specific killing
2016/2017: Nazi medic and SS-Unterscharführer Hubert Zafke - 29 February 2016: Trial of Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, charged with being an accomplice in the murder of at least 3,681 people and who served at Auschwitz when Anne Frank arrived, postponed in Germany - 7 March 2016: Auschwitz medic Zafke accused of gasing victims deemed unfit to stand trial - 16 October 2016: Trial of Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, repeatedly postponed after judges ruled he was unfit, now postponed over claim of biased judges, as prosecutors held up the trial by seeking the removal of several judges - 2 December 2016: Trial of Nazi medic and SS-Unterscharführer Hubert Zafke rescheduled after claim of biased judge dismissed - 14 February 2017: German court bars Jewish brothers Walter and William Plywask from joining the Zafke trial as co-plaintiffs, as allowed under German law for victims' relatives
2017: 25 January 2017: Researchers uncover vast numbers of unknown Nazi killing fields, as the 'Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos' set for completion in 2025, has now documented 42,500 sites of Nazi persecution, over eight times more than predicted - 25 January 2017: After changes in Germany's prosecution policy since 2011 have resulted in more investigations, in 2015/2016 Germany opened investigations against 42 individuals and convicted Oskar Groening, as seven decades after World War II there have been 103 convictions of Nazi war criminals, with Italy and the USA topping the list, according to the annual Simon Wiesenthal Center report, published since 2002 - 24 June 2017: Neubrandenburg state court appointed three new judges after the removing of three judges found to be biased in the often-delayed trial of a former SS medic Hubert Zafke who served at the Auschwitz death camp, as the International Auschwitz Committee has sharply attacked Germany’s handling of the case, saying the court was hurtling 'between sloppy ignorance and complete disinterest' in a resolution - 13 September 2017: Neubrandenburg state court dropped its case against 96-year-old former Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, after he was found unfit to stand trial for his role in the murder of more than 3,600 people at the Nazi death camp - 1 October 2017: Germany not prosecuting 8 members of SS death squad, despite knowing their names - 21 October 2017: German public prosecutors have charged a 96-year-old former Nazi death camp guard, accusing him of having guarded prisoners at the death camp in Lublin-Majdanek who were slated to be killed in 1943 and 1944
2018: 16 avril 2018: Un ex-garde SS du camp d'extermination d'Auschwitz, qui n'a pas été identifié, a été mis en accusation pour complicité de meurtres, a annoncé lundi le parquet allemand, ouvrant la voie à la tenue d'un procès - 7 June 2018: German prosecutors are investigating suspected former member of Hitler’s mobile killing squads and SS Rottenfuehrer Wilhelm Karl Friedrich Hoffmeister for involvement in World War II massacres carried out by the 'Einsatzgruppen' in Ukraine - 6 November 2018: Former Nazi SS camp guard Johann Rehbogen allegedly serving 1942-1944 at German concentration camp Stutthof near the Polish city of Gdansk, is to begin trial on Tuesday, facing 100 counts of accessory to murder
November 2018: 10 November 2018: Though up to a million people are believed to have actively participated in the extermination of millions of Jewish people during the Holocaust, only around 20,000 were ever found guilty of crimes, and fewer than 600 received heavy sentences, according to British Holocaust historian Mary Fulbrook, examining the German justice system’s prosecution of Nazi war crimes following World War II, saying that 'the total number of persons convicted under the Federal Republic for Nazi crimes was in itself fewer even than the number of people who had been employed at Auschwitz alone' and noting that West Germany’s post-war legal system was populated by many ex-Nazis
December 2018: 13 December 2018: Citing German legal regulations, Muenster state court ends proceedings against former SS guard Rehbogen at the Stutthof Nazi concentration camp, facing hundreds of counts of accessory to murder
April 2019: 18 April 2019: 92-year-old ex-SS guard Dey charged with 5,230 counts of accessory to murder at the Stutthof concentration camp, now in Poland, as 100 families to celebrate seder on eve of Passover in Warsaw Ghetto, for first time since 1943, when Nazi German troops stormed in, expecting the deportation process to last three days, but were ambushed by Jewish rebels
24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 juillet 2019: Suite à la plainte de familles de victimes du massacre de 86 civils à Ascq, commis dans la nuit du 1er au 2 avril 1944 par des SS y compris Karl Münter, ce l'ancien SS, qui a assuré que le chiffre de 6 millions de juifs assassinés par les nazis était exagéré lors d'un entretien à la chaîne publique ARD diffusé le 29 novembre 2018, qui a estimé que les victimes d'Ascq étaient aussi responsables de leur mort, est enfin mis en accusation maintenant pour incitation à la haine, après en mars 2018, le Parquet allemand avait en effet annoncé l'abandon des poursuites parce que le suspect avait déjà été condamné à mort par contumace par un tribunal militaire en France en 1949 et qu'il ne pouvait donc être jugé une seconde fois pour ces mêmes faits
August 2019: 8 August 2019: A Hamburg court ruled that 92-year-old former SS Bruno Dey will go on trial on 5,230 counts of accessory to murder on allegations that, in his role as a guard, he helped the Stutthof concentration camp function
16 October 2019 SS guard Bruno Dey case: 16 October 2019: Former SS guard Bruno Dey at Stutthof concentration camp will go on trial in Hamburg on Thursday, in what could be one of the last criminal cases of an individual charged over the Holocaust
20 January 2020 photos surface showing convicted Nazi criminal John Demjanjuk at Sobibor camp: 20 January 2020: Photos surface showing convicted Nazi criminal John Demjanjuk, who denied ever having been a guard at Sobibor and who was sentenced 2011 in Munich to five years in prison, at Sobibor camp
6 July 2020 three years in jail for former Nazi camp guard Bruno Dey demanded: 6 July 2020: German prosecutors demanded three years in jail for a 93-year-old former Nazi concentration camp guard Bruno Dey who they said was 'without a doubt' complicit in the murder of more than 5,000 people during World War II
22 July 2020 at Bruno Dey trial in Hamburg witness Marek Dunin-Wasowicz wants to be heard in Germany: 22 July 2020: Still haunted by the pyres of burning bodies, Marek Dunin-Wasowicz, who spent several months at Stutthof camp, initially built to imprison Polish leaders and intelligentsia in September 1939, where war crimes defendant Bruno Dey at trial in Hamburg served, wants to speak out for the more than 60,000 people killed at the camp and for the few survivors who are still alive, also wanting his testimony to be heard in Germany, the country where Nazism originated and at a time of rising neo-Nazism linked rhetoric, politics and crime in Halle, Hanau, Kassel, Frankfurt, Berlin etc. and in Europe, also reporting that Germans came up to his table in the courtroom to meet him, 'to ask forgiveness in the name of their grandfathers, their fathers', 'I was shocked', and also calling Germany’s long delay in bringing Nazi personnel like Dey to justice 'inexcusable'
23 July 2020 Nazi concentration camp guard Dey convicted over 5,232 murders: 23 July 2020: Nazi concentration camp guard convicted over 5,232 murders of mostly Jewish prisoners, as Bruno Dey found guilty of accessory to murders in final months of second world war, as now about 40 survivors or their descendants were co-plaintiffs in the trial, appearing mostly via a video link, and as Investigation of National Socialist Crimes' office says it is investigating a further 14 individuals over crimes committed in concentration camps
5 February 2021 German prosecutors charged former secretary at Nazi concentration camp with complicity in murders: 5 February 2021: German prosecutors have charged a former secretary, identified only as Irmgard F, at the Stutthof Nazi concentration camp with complicity in the murders of 10,000 people, in the first such case in recent years against a woman, as the suspect 'is accused of having assisted those responsible at the camp in the systematic killing of Jewish prisoners, Polish partisans and Soviet Russian prisoners of war in her function as a stenographer and secretary to the camp commander' between June 1943 and April 1945, the prosecutors said in a statement
8 February 2021 Nazi concentration camp guard charged: 8 février 2021: Un ex-gardien de camp nazi inculpé qui aurait aidé et encouragé le meurtre plus de 3’500 détenus dans un camp de concentration au nord de Berlin, entre 1942 et 1945
20 February 2021 Nazi concentration camp guard Friedrich Karl Berger charged: 20 février 2021: Les États-Unis ont extradé samedi vers l’Allemagne un ancien gardien de camp de concentration Friedrich Karl Berger, aujourd’hui âgé de 95 ans, accusé de 'complicité de meurtres', a indiqué samedi la justice allemande
19 October 2021 WWII camp secretary facing charges of abetting thousands of murders remained silent: 19 October 2021: WWII camp secretary facing charges of abetting thousands of murders while working as secretary to concentration camp's commandant remained silent at the start of her trial in Itzehoe near Hamburg on Tuesday, as the defendant named under German law only as Irmgard F stands accused of aiding and abetting murder in more than 11,000 cases at the Nazi-run Stutthof camp, located near Danzig now the Polish port city of Gdansk

Bundesdeutsches 'Auswärtiges Amt': Schon 2005-2010 Historikerkommission zur NS-Vergangenheit des Auswärtigen Amts

Bundesdeutsche Fortsetzung der Nazijustiz, ungesühnte Nazijustiz und deren Tradition: Ungesühnte Nazijustiz - Furchtbare Juristen - Justiz und NS-Verbrechen - 1945-2016 German trial judgments concerning national socialist homicidal crimes
1956: 16. Februar 2016: Das Grundsatzurteil des Bundesgerichtshofes zur Ablehnung der Entschädigung von NS-verfolgten Sinti und Roma vom 7. Januar 1956, in dem der BGH feststellte, dass die 'Zigeuner' von den Nationalsozialisten zu Recht als 'artfremd' behandelt worden seien, prägte über viele Jahre das gesamte Entschädigungsrecht für die Überlebenden der Sinti und Roma und wurde zur Niederschlagung von Strafverfahren gegen die Organisatoren des Holocausts herangezogen
1995: NS-Justizverbrechen ohne Verurteilungen - Die Aufarbeitung der NS-Justizverbrechen durch die bundesdeutsche Justiz gilt als gescheitert, der Bundesgerichtshof bedauerte in einem Urteil aus dem Jahr 1995 selbst, daß auf Grund von 'folgenschweren Versagens der bundesdeutschen Justiz' NS-Richter nicht strafrechtlich zur Verantwortung gezogen worden sind
2013: 27 June 2013: German court dismisses bid to release full Eichmann files - 22. Oktober 2013: Schon 2012/2013 beginnt eine 'Unabhängige Wissenschaftliche Kommission beim Bundesministerium der Justiz zur Aufarbeitung der NS-Vergangenheit' ihre Arbeit
2015: 10. August 2015: Journalisten bekommen mehr Einblicke in ein Gutachten zur NS-Vergangenheit des deutschen Bundeslandwirtschaftsministeriums, entscheidet das Oberverwaltungsgericht Münster und hebt vorausgehende Beschlüsse auf - 7 October 2015: 70 years after the end of World War II, Germany’s justice ministry is embarked on a wide-ranging effort to examine the influence that the Nazis had on the country’s legal system, including the role some German officials played in preventing former Nazis from being prosecuted after the war
2016: 16. Februar 2016: Das Grundsatzurteil des Bundesgerichtshofes zur Ablehnung der Entschädigung von NS-verfolgten Sinti und Roma vom 7. Januar 1956, in dem der BGH feststellte, dass die 'Zigeuner' von den Nationalsozialisten zu Recht als 'artfremd' behandelt worden seien, prägte über viele Jahre das gesamte Entschädigungsrecht für die Überlebenden der Sinti und Roma und wurde zur Niederschlagung von Strafverfahren gegen die Organisatoren des Holocausts herangezogen
Oktober 2016: 10 October 2016: 'Rosenburg Project' study, covering the period from 1950 to 1973 and conducted by independent experts, highlights how thousands of Germans who committed crimes during Hitler's dictatorship were protected by former NDSAP members holding key positions in the legal system, finding that more than half of all senior officials in Germany's Justice Ministry in the 1950s and 1960s were ex-Nazis who, through inaction or intentional sabotage, systematically protected fellow former members of Hitler's National Socialist party from prosecution and shaped West Germany's legal code for decades
November 2016: 26 November 2016: The German government will launch an investigation into NSDAP influence on the country's post-war central government, also seeking to clarify what continuity there was in the staff of the Chancellory and to look at the role of Hans Globke who served as chief of staff and a trusted confidant to chancellor Konrad Adenauer between 1953 and 1963, despite he was a senior civil servant in the Nazi-era interior ministry and was involved in the drafting of the Nuremberg race laws
November 2018: 10 November 2018: Though up to a million people are believed to have actively participated in the extermination of millions of Jewish people during the Holocaust, only around 20,000 were ever found guilty of crimes, and fewer than 600 received heavy sentences, according to British Holocaust historian Mary Fulbrook, examining the German justice system’s prosecution of Nazi war crimes following World War II, saying that 'the total number of persons convicted under the Federal Republic for Nazi crimes was in itself fewer even than the number of people who had been employed at Auschwitz alone' and noting that West Germany’s post-war legal system was populated by many ex-Nazis

Society, demographics, languages, human rights, religion, racism and antisemitism in Germany: German society
Human rights in Germany: Human rights in Germany
Since October December 2000/2009 'Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union': Since October December 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, enshrining certain political, social, and economic rights for EU citizens and residents into EU law
Text of the 'Charter of Fundamental Rights': The text of the 'Charter of Fundamental Rights' contains some 54 articles divided into seven titles, as the first six titles deal with substantive rights under the headings dignity, freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens' rights and justice, while the last title deals with the interpretation and application of the Charter
Title 'Freedoms': Title 'Freedoms', contain articles 6-19 including 'Right to liberty and security', 'Respect for private and family life' saying everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications, 'Protection of personal data', 'Right to marry and right to found a family', 'Freedom of thought, conscience and religion', 'Freedom of expression and information' saying everyone has the right to freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers, the freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected, 'Freedom of assembly and of association', 'Freedom of the arts and sciences', 'Right to education' saying everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training, 'Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work', saying everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation, and nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union, 'Freedom to conduct a business', 'Right to property', 'Right to asylum', 'Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition', saying collective expulsions are prohibited, and no one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
Title 'Solidarity': Title 'Solidarity' - title IV of the charter - contains 11 articles including 'Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking', 'Right of collective bargaining and action', 'Right of access to placement services', 'Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal', 'Fair and just working conditions', 'Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work', 'Family and professional life', 'Social security and social assistance', 'Health care' saying everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment, 'Access to services of general economic interest', 'Environmental protection', 'Consumer protection'
2015/2016 United Nations OHCHR monitoring Germany: United Nations OHCHR monitoring Germany's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties


Demographics and ethnic groups in Germany: Demographics of Germany - Ethnic groups in Germany - Immigrants to Germany
Since early 1990s history of immigration to and migration in Germany: Since early 1990s history of immigration to and migration in Germany
21st century immigrant population in Germany by country of birth: According to the 'Federal Statistical Office of Germany' in 2012, 92% of residents (73.9 million) in Germany had German citizenship, with 80% of the population being Germans (64.7 million) having no immigrant background, as of the 20% (16.3 million) people with immigrant background, 3.0 million (3.7%) had Turkish, 1.5 million (1.9%) Polish, 1.2 million (1.5%) Russian and 0.85 million (0.9%) Italian background, as in 2014, most people without German citizenship were Turkish (1.52 million), followed by Polish (0.67 million), Italian (0.57 million), Romanians (0.36 million) and Greek citizens (0.32 million), and as of 2020, the most common groups of resident foreign nationals in Germany are listed and ranked by number
List of groups of resident foreign nationals in Germany ranked by number: List of groups of resident foreign nationals in Germany ranked by number, including - and beginning with a group of five - Turkey (12.8%), EU's Poland (7.6%), Syria (7.2%), EU's Romania (7.0%), and EU's Italy (5,7%)
21st century UN's OHCHR monitoring Germany's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties: United Nations OHCHR monitoring Germany's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties
History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages: History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages
Jewish German history and antisemitism in Germany: Jewish German history - Antisemitism in Germany
1914-1918 German and Austrian empires' World War I and Jews: 1914-1918 World War I was the first war Jews fought in large numbers, and in a great spirit of volunteerism, on both sides, as in some countries, mainly Germany and Austro-Hungary, assimilation and civic equality for Jews were motivating factors to fight - An estimated 100,000 German Jewish military personnel served in the German Army during World War I, of whom 12,000 were killed in action
1933-1945 Antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust: Antisemitism and Holocaust (the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany 1939-1945) in Germany and Europe
Since 1990/1991 Jewish people in the reunited Germany: The end of the Cold War 1990/91 contributed to a growth in the Jewish people of Germany with a population of more than 100,000 registered citizens - May 2005: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe - sixty years after the end of World War II
2014/2015: 14 September 2014: 'Stand Up Against Anti-Semitism: No More Jew-Hatred' Rally at the Brandenburg Gate on Sunday afternoon in the middle of Berlin attended by 5,000 people and following a surge of abuse against Jews and spreading anti-Israeli sentiment in the last months - 20 February 2015: Berlin's Jewish community removes its logo on envelopes containing its monthly magazine to protect members from anti-Semitic attacks
2016: 2 September 2016: Rise of populist AfD 'frightening', Josef Schuster, the president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, says
2018: 29 April 2018: Germany’s newly appointed official in charge of fighting anti-Semitism says he is not surprised that Jews are considering leaving the country following a series of high profile hate crimes recently in the country, also saying that roughly 20% of Germans hold anti-Semitic views
8 June 2018: The Jewish community of Mainz reacted with shock and grief Thursday after a 14-year-old girl was found dead, as police launched a manhunt for an Iraqi refugee suspected of killing her
8 October 2018: While some Jews and fewer than 20 people in the neo-Nazi linked German AfD party gathered and celebrated in muted fashion in Wiesbaden on Sunday, some 400 demonstrators attended a counterrally and all major Jewish-German groups united to criticize the new faction
9/10 November 2018: 9 November 2018: In one of numerous events in the capital and across the country students and rabbis in German capital read names of victims, light candles and pray at memorials 80 years after ‘Night of Broken Glass’ with more recent anti-Jewish violence in the USA and elsewhere prevalent in people’s minds - 10 November 2018: In rare move, the Central Council rallied other mainstream Jewish organizations in a statement of opposition to the neo-Nazi linked AfD party and to a new small group calling itself Jews for the AfD - 10 November 2018: Following Germany's 'Kristallnacht' rescued Kindertransport children 80 years on remain determined to resist the resurgence of inhuman movements and the 'hostile environment' towards displaced people, also reporting that a father, who had been German medical officer in World War I, 'for the rest of his life' 'had terrible nightmares that the Gestapo were coming for him'
January 2019: 24 January 2019: Charlotte Knobloch, Jewish community leader in the Bavarian city of Munich, said she had been targeted with threats and hate mail 'almost by the minute' since calling the AfD party a threat to democracy in a speech about Holocaust victims
May 2019: 28 May 2019: Following a warning that Jews should refrain from wearing skullcaps in public German chancellor expressed concerns over the country's rise in anti-Semitism saying every Jewish institution in Germany needs police protection
July 2019: 15 July 2019: Central Council of Jews in Germany slams ‘irresponsible and dangerous’ Spiegel piece criticizing Jewish groups for ‘aggressive lobbying’ against BDS
Romani people in Germany since the Late Middle Ages: Romani (Roma and Sinti) people in Germany since the Late Middle Ages - History of the Romani people during World War II - Romani genocide (Porajmos) was the effort during World War II by Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani people of Europe - Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma
October 2012 memorial in Berlin to Roma and Sinti victims: 24 October 2012: Long-delayed memorial in Berlin to Roma and Sinti victims of the Nazis
February 2018: 26 February 2018: As Monday marks 75 years since the Nazi genocide against Sinti and Roma started, these communities struggling for decades for official recognition of that crime still live with daily prejudice
2 August 2019 genocide of Sinti and Roma remembered: 2 August 2019: After on 2 August 1944 more than 4,000 people were gassed to death in Auschwitz, the Nazi genocide of Sinti and Roma in Europe still affects many lives today, historian says
October 2019 'Forgotten Victims' exhibition in London: 27 October 2019: Nazi directives and accounts of Roma genocide go on display, as 'Forgotten Victims' exhibition in London documents fate of 500,000 Roma and Sinti
Afro-Germans: Afro-Germans - List of former German colonies in the 19th and 20th century - Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany - Afro-Germans in Germany since 1945
2017: 28 February 2017: As there are as many as one million people with African roots in Germany, and although the constitution guarantees equality, bans racial discrimination and enshrines the inviolability of human dignity, widespread discrimination against black people persists in Germany, UN experts say
Arabs in Germany: Arabs in Germany
Armenians in Germany: Armenians in Germany, like much of the Armenian diaspora, most Armenians immigrated to Germany after the Armenian Genocide of 1915, others came later, fleeing conflicts in places like Iran, Azerbaijan and Lebanon, another influx came fleeing nationalist persecution in Turkey
Asians in Germany: Asians in Germany - Pakistanis in Germany - Vietnamese people in Germany
2016: 29 December 2016: Pakistani Naveed Baloch wrongly arrested over Berlin Christmas attack says he fears for his life also saying he was tied up, blindfolded and slapped by police after being held ‘because he ran across road’
Assyrians (or Arameans) in Germany: Assyrians in Germany, also known as Arameans and estimated at around 135,000 people with German citizenship, mainly coming from Azerbaijan, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Iran, as local communities exist in several cities such as Munich, Augsburg and Gütersloh with 13,000 Assyrian citizens
Italians in Germany: Italians in Germany
Kurds in Germany: Kurds in Germany
October 2019 Kurdish activists occupied CDU office in Chemnitz: 25 October 2019: Kurdish activists have occupied a CDU office in the Saxon Chemnitz, protesting against the military offensive of Turkey in northern Syria
20 February 2020 Kurds and other immigrants shocked after German gunman killed 9 people in Hanau: 20 February 2020: Germany's immigrant community in Hanau reeling after shootings, as for decades Turks, ethnic Kurds and other immigrants have coexisted in the town, leaving residents shocked after German gunman, who posted a hate-filled manifesto, killed nine people of foreign background
Polish minority in Germany: The Polish minority in Germany is the second largest Polish minority in the world and the biggest in Europe
20 October 2015: Twelve people were injured after a fire broke out on Monday at a building in Gudensberg housing mostly migrant workers from Bulgaria and Poland
Romanians in Germany: Romanians in Germany are one of the sizable communities of the Romanian diaspora in Western Europe, as according to German statistics from 2015/2016 the number of Romanian nationals in Germany was 452,718, which was up from 94,326 in 2008 (after the entry of Romania in the European Union in 2007), as by the end of 2019, the number had increased to 748,225, and as - if descent is actually taken into account as the main criterion of immigration - the total number of individuals living in Germany who stem from Romania (both Romanian-German and Romanian) may amount to as much as 2,000,000 residents, therefore putting the Romanian diaspora living in this country the largest of all Romanian ones living within the European Union
Russians in Germany: Russians in Germany
2016 Russian regime's FM meddling in fabricated story: 29 January 2016: Russian FM Sergei Lavrov calls for 'truth and justice' in a Russian teen's fabricated rape claim by alleged Middle East migrants in Berlin, as Russian regime is murdering hundreds of civilians including children in Syria since months - 31 January 2016: 13-year-old Russian-German girl has admitted making up a story about being kidnapped and raped by migrants, exacerbated by a report on Russian state TV, in which the girl’s relatives claimed her allegations were not being investigated, and that triggered outrage among Berlin’s Russian-German community, staging protests supported by the Pegida-related Bärgida movement, the Neonazi National Democratic party, and joint by Russian FM Sergei Lavrov, who criticised the Berlin authorities
Spaniards in Germany: Spaniards in Germany
Syrians in Germany: Syrians in Germany - December 2015: Syrian asylum applications in Europe from April 2011 to December 2015 according to UN - 7 December 2015: Germany is on pace to take in one million asylum-seekers in 2015, in the last 11 months the country has taken in 964,574 new migrants, including more than 200,000 just in November
October 2016 Syrians in Germany tied up bomb suspect: 11 October 2016: Syrians in Germany who tied up bomb suspect in Leipzig hailed as heroes
November 2016: 23 November 2016: High Administrative Court ruling to leave 1000s of Syrians divided from families, as UNHCR indicates that there is a pattern whereby returning Syrians are imprisoned and disappear
October 2018 North Rhine-Westphalia 'apologizing' for jailing Syrian man who then died in his cell: 5 October 2018: Authorities in western Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia are 'apologizing' for mistakenly jailing a Syrian man who died following a fire in his cell after more than two months in custody
12 December 2020 Anwar al-Bunni now in exile in Germany part of first prosecution for war crimes against Assad’s regime: 12 December 2020: Human rights lawyer Anwar al-Bunni, who devoted his life to human rights in Syria, now in exile in Germany and part of a landmark first prosecution for war crimes against Assad’s regime after spending several years inside its jails, has also met Anwar Raslan, who became a police officer before transferring to Assad's intelligence services and helped detain Bunni, now both buying groceries in a Turkish shop near the gates of Marienfelde, the Berlin refugee camp they now called home
Turks in Germany: Turks in Germany
1993-2011 Solingen arson attack and NSU: Solingen arson attack of 1993 - Since 1990th to 2011 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group's serial murders

Immigration and refugees in Germany: Immigration to Germany
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'

Languages and culture in Germany: Culture in Germany
Music in Germany and history: Music in Germany - History of music in Germany


Religion and history of religion in Germany: History of religion in Germany - Religion in Germany
Christianity and antisemitism: Christianity and antisemitism - Medieval antisemitism
Antisemitism in Germany and Europe: Antisemitism in Germany - Antisemitism in Europe
Religious disaffiliation (Kirchenaustritte): Kirchenaustritte in Deutschland


Women and women's rights in Germany: Women in Germany - Women's rights in Germany
2016: 5 janvier 2016: Entre 200 et 300 personnes se sont rassemblées devant la cathédrale de Cologne pour appeler à plus de respect envers les femmes - 2016 New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robbery in Germany - 8 January 2016: German police have identified 18 asylum-seekers among 31 suspects in connection with crimes committed in Cologne at New Year, as government spokesman tells reporters that there are 9 Algerians, 8 Moroccans, 5 Iranians, 4 Syrians, 2 Germans and one person each from Iraq, Serbia and the USA among the suspects - 11 May 2016: Women's rights activists say that while government plans to allow women to compare their salaries against peers were a good start, more still needs to be done - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
Children, childhood and children's rights in Germany: Children in Germany - Childhood in Germany - Children's rights in Germany
German childhood in Nazi Germany and World War II: German childhood in Nazi Germany and World War II
Murdered children in Germany: Murdered children in Germany
Child abuse in Germany: Child abuse in Germany
Since January 2020 impact of covid-19 pandemic on children: Since January 2020 impact of the covid-19 pandemic on children in Germany and on education


History of Native Americans in North America and the USA: History of Native Americans in the USA
History museums in Germany: History museums in Germany
Since 1997 Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma: Since 1997 Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma was established in Heidelberg


Health in Germany: Health in Germany
Medical outbreaks and health disasters in Germany: Medical outbreaks in Germany - Health disasters in Germany - Man-made disasters in Germany
2009 flu pandemic: 2009 flu pandemic in Germany
2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak: 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak
Since January 2020 timeline of German government reactions to covid-19: Timeline of German government reactions to the 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic spreading in the country
Since 25 February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in North Rhine-Westphalia: Since 25 February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in North Rhine-Westphalia
Since May/June 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Gütersloh district: Juni 2020 covid-19-Ausbruch in Tönnies-Stammwerk in Rheda-Wiedenbrück im Kreis Gütersloh
1933-1945 Nazi healthcare and medical experiments: Health and healthcare in NDSAP-Germany
Drugs in Germany: Drugs in Germany

Ökonomie - Klassengegensätze, Rüstungsindustrien und -exporte: Economy of Germany - main industries include production machinery, vehicles, trains, shipbuilding, space and aircraft, machine tools, electronics, information technology, optical and medical apparatus, iron and steel, coal, cement, mineral fuels, chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, textiles - Economic history of Germany - List of companies in Germany
Industry in Germany: Industry in Germany - Companies of Germany by industry
Engineering companies of Germany: Engineering companies of Germany
Automotive industry in Germany: Automotive industry in Germany
Since 1951 'Mercedes Benz' in Argentina: Since 1951 'Mercedes Benz' in Argentina, founded by Jorge Antonio employing German Nazis, himself linked with stories of 'Nazi Gold', money brought to Argentina, the USA, and other safe havens by Nazis fleeing Germany, and who later admitted that he knew Eichmann's real identity - Jorge Antonios Verwicklung in Nazigeschäfte und Geldwäsche, recherchiert von Gaby Weber - Nazis in South America, Nazis who lived in Argentina included Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele, Aribert Heim, Eduard Roschmann and Ludolf von Alvensleben - Since World War II 'Organisation of Former SS Members' international Nazi network to establish and facilitate secret escape routes
1948-1960 Holocaust organiser Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and 'Mercedes-Benz' department head in Buenos Aires: 1948-1960 Adolf Eichmann's, one of the major organisers of the Holocaust, escape to Argentina, finding employment at 'Mercedes-Benz Argentina' founded in 1951, where he rose to department head in Buenos Aires
Since 2008 worldwide 'Volkswagen' defeat device and emissions scandal: Volkswagen emissions scandal - in September 2015 'Volkswagen' admitted to illegally using installed software to change emissions test results for 11 million of its diesel engine cars sold between 2009 and 2015 - 20 September 2015: Volkswagen orders external investigation after USA regulators found cars gave inaccurate data on toxic emissions - 22 September 2015: Calling for a 'Europe-wide' investigation in the Volkswagen emissions scandal, France’s finance minister Sapin says, 'what we are dealing with is making sure people avoid being poisoned by pollution' - 2 October: Volkswagen emissions testing scandal is deepening, with the Paris prosecutor announcing a preliminary inquiry - 9 October: Carmaker VW says half of models involved in emissions scandal may need complex, costly repairs such as a new fuel tank - 15 October: Volkswagen is to recall 8.5m diesel cars across the EU after German authorities rejected its proposals for a voluntary scheme in the emissions scandal - 3 November 2015: VW reveals CO2 emissions problem in 800,000 vehicles - 5 November: The deepening crisis at Volkswagen has hit sales hard, with the first signs emerging that the emissions-rigging scandal is putting customers off
2015 robot kills worker at Volkswagen plant: 2 July 2015: Robot kills worker at Volkswagen plant in Germany
2016 carmakers Audi, Mercedes, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen emissions scandal: 22 April 2016: Diesel crisis deepens as German carmakers Audi, Mercedes, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen recall 630,000 cars as part of a clampdown on nitrogen oxide emissions
9 September 2016: Volkswagen engineer James Liang pleads guilty to conspiracy in the company’s emissions cheating scandal and has agreed to cooperate in the widening criminal investigation
2017 Daimler emissions scandal: 13 July 2017: German automaker Daimler manipulated the engines of around one million diesel vehicles to make them appear less polluting, local media report
2013/2018 Humans and monkeys exposed to pollutants in experiments: 29 January 2018: Founded by Daimler, Bosch, BMW and VW, EUGT association financed by several car companies supported experiments not only with monkeys, but also with humans, reportedly sponsoring a study in which also humans were exposed to nitrogen dioxide - 29 January 2018: Volkswagen is under fire globally from politicians and environmentalists following revelations it helped to fund experiments in which monkeys and humans breathed in car fumes for hours at a time
May 2018: Former Chairman of the Vorstand Volkswagen AG Winterkorn was charged in a USA indictment with fraud and conspiracy in the case on 3 May 2018, increasing the likelihood that Winterkorn would face similar actions in his native Germany and impact an existing shareholders lawsuit against Volkswagen
9 September 2019 call for SUV ban in city: 9 September 2019: Berliners call for SUV ban after a driver reportedly lost control of his car and hit a group of pedestrians in the German capital, killing four people
10 September 2019: 10 September 2019: Emissions from diesel cars, even newer and supposedly cleaner models, increase on hot days, a new study has found, raising questions over how cities suffering from air pollution can deal with urban heat islands and the climate crisis
November 2019 Mercedes-Benz to axe more than 1,000 jobs in cost-cutting drive: 14 November 2019: Mercedes-Benz plans to save €1.65bn by cutting more than 1,000 jobs in the latest sign German carmakers are struggling to make big investments in electric car technology
February 2020 automobile industry facing weaker demand from abroad, stricter emission rules and electrification: 22 February 2020: Problems in Germany’s mighty automobile industry, caused by weaker demand from abroad, stricter emission rules and electrification, is starting to leave a wider mark on Europe’s largest economy by pushing up unemployment, eroding job security and hitting pay
May 2020 German court rules against Volkswagen in 'dieselgate' scandal: 25 May 2020: After years Volkswagen has lost a landmark legal battle in Germany’s highest civil court in 'dieselgate' scandal, in which Volkswagen and fellow German carmaker Daimler have paid more than €30bn, as VW was found to have installed software that artificially lowered emissions of nitrogen oxides when the vehicles were being tested, meaning the output of the harmful pollutants were much higher in real-life conditions, and showing that 'a large corporation is not above the law'
German car parts makers:
August 2020 Germany’s Continental says it used slave labor to supply Nazis: 28 August 2020: German car parts maker Continental, founded in 1871 in Hanover and developed from a consumer and leisure focused company into an armaments business, revealed Thursday that it played a key role in the Nazi war effort and used thousands of slave laborers during World War II, as company was the world’s biggest producer of rubber materials at the time, supplying the Nazi war machine as the horrors of the Holocaust unfolded
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Since 1911 development of chemical warfare: Since 1911 Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, during World War I and World War II the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs - Since 1911 later war criminal Fritz Haber played a major role in the development of chemical warfare in World War I, in spite of the Hague Convention of 1907, to which Germany was a signatory - October 1914 'Manifesto of the Ninety-Three' proclamation endorsed by 93 prominent German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions in the early period of World War I, elsewhere called the 'Rape of Belgium', and galvanizing support for the war throughout German schools and universities
Since 1925 IG Farben including BASF, Bayer and Hoechst: In December 1925 IG Farben as a merger of the six companies BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler Ter Meer, having a workforce of 100,000-218,000 people, of which 2.6% were university educated, 18.2% were salaried professionals and 79.2% were workers, IG Farben ended up being the 'largest single contribution' to the successful Nazi election campaign of 1933
1933-1945 concentration camp system and killing centers: The German state established killing centers for efficient mass murder as part of the 1933-1945 concentration camp system under National Socialism
German companies involved in the Holocaust: German companies involved in the Holocaust - List of companies involved in the Holocaust, including Allianz, Audi, BASF, Bayer, BMW, Degesch, DEST, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe (holding company for more than 25 SS industries), Dresdner Bank, Ford Germany, IG-Farben, Krupp, Mercedes-Benz, Opel, Porsche, Thyssen AG, Volkswagen
Since 1919 until today 'Degesch' and 'Zyklon B': In 1938-1943 Degesch, founded in 1919 as a subsidiary of Degussa with its first director Fritz Haber, hold in 1936 by Degussa and IG Farben and having the patent of the infamous Zyklon, a pesticide whose 'Zyklon B' variant (without odor or irritant) was used to execute people in gas chambers of German extermination camps during the Holocaust, became extremely profitable - Nach Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges führte die Degesch ihr Geschäft fort mit Beteiligung der Bayer AG, der Degussa AG sowie der Th. Goldschmidt AG, seit 1986 als Detia-Degesch GmbH mit Tochtergesellschaften in den USA und Chile
Since 1942 use of'Zyklon B' in the Holocaust: In early 1942, Zyklon B emerged as the preferred killing tool of Nazi Germany for use in extermination camps during the Holocaust
Since 1953 Fritz Haber Institute: Since 1953 Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry since 1911), research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics, colloid chemistry, atomic physics, spectroscopy, surface chemistry and surface physics, chemical physics and molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and materials science
In the 1960s West Germany planned to deploy chemical weapons, unteachable since 1914: 22 April/2 May 2018: After 'the father of chemical warfare' Fritz Haber personally oversaw the first use of chlorine gas at the front lines at Ypres in 1915 and set out for the eastern front to deploy gas against the Russian army West Germany planned to procure and even deploy chemical weapons in the 1960s, according to recently disclosed and evaluated USA and German military files, contrary to longstanding government denials
2016 BASF fire: 17. Oktober 2016 Unfall bei der BASF in Ludwigshafen mit einem mehr als zehn Stunden andauernden Brand und zwei Explosionen, durch die vier Menschen starben und weitere sieben schwer verletzt wurden - 30 October 2016: BASF chemical giant on Saturday said a firefighter injured in an explosion at its plant in western Germany earlier this month had died, pushing the death toll up to four
Since 2018 Bayer and glyphosate: 8 juin 2018: Le syndicat apicole de l'Aisne en France a porté plainte mercredi contre Bayer, qui vient de boucler le rachat de Monsanto, après la découverte de glyphosate dans le miel d'un de ses adhérents
August 2018 Monsanto’s Roundup verdict: 11 August 2018: Monsanto, now a unit of Bayer AG, suffered a major blow with a San Francisco jury ruling that the company was liable for terminally ill Dewayne Johnson’s cancer, awarding him $289m in damages, after Monsanto’s Roundup weedkiller caused his cancer without warning him of the health hazards from exposure, and after the jury further found that Monsanto 'acted with malice or oppression' and 'fought science' for years, targeting academics who spoke up about possible health risks of the herbicide product - 10 July 2018: Monsanto faces 5,000 lawsuits nationwide alleging Roundup caused cancer, mainly in USA state courts
Monsanto legal cases: Monsanto legal cases
April-July 2019: 30 juillet 2019: Environ 5000 procédures supplémentaires à l'encontre du groupe pharmaceutique et de sa filiale Monsanto sont venues s'ajouter aux quelque 13 000 relevées en avril
Arms industry in Germany and arms export: Arms industry and companies in Germany - Deutschland aktuell drittgrößter Waffenexporteur der Welt
Since 1914 Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history: Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history - Since 1914 Chemical weapons in World War I
Since 1983 German exports to Iraq to produce poison gases: Since 1983 West German companies have exported to Iraq huge quantities of raw materials, equipment, and small industrial factories to produce poison gases, participating directly in building the Sa'd Project, the Iraqi chemical project, and the construction of the military complex in Al-Taji, engaged in chemical warfare during the Iran–Iraq War 1980-1988 - 1986-1989 Anfal genocide and chemical attacks
2011: 1 July 2011: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July 2011: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought
14. Juli 2011: Kanzlerin (und Kopf-ab-Komplizin) Merkel - 'Als Waffenhändlerin durch Afrika' im Juli 2011
7. Dezember 2011: Empörung über stark steigende deutsche Rüstungsexporte nach Vorliegen des Rüstungsexportberichts - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen der weltweiten Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA entfällt mehr als die Hälfte - auf Platz drei folgt Deutschland mit neun Prozent
2012: 17 June 2012: Saudi Arabia wants to buy 600-800 Leopard battle tanks from Germany, more than twice as many as originally envisaged - 30 December 2012: The German government is close to completing another 100 million-euro arms deal with Saudi Arabia to sell 30 armoured vehicles, and Berlin's national security council has already signaled its backing
2013: 23 February 2013: German government heavily criticised for allowing its sales of arms and military hardware to Middle Eastern Gulf states to more than double over the past year
Renewable energy in Germany: Renewable energy in Germany


Food industry in Germany: Food industry in Germany
Dairy farming in Germany: Dairy farming in Germany
Poultry farming: Poultry farming
Animal diseases in Germany: Animal diseases in Germany
Wolf attacks on livestock and people in Germany:


Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
7 July 2020 New York state penalizes Deutsche Bank $150M for Epstein dealings: 7 July 2020: New York state penalizes Deutsche Bank $150M for dealings with the late sex offender Jeffrey Epstein
Labor in Germany: Labor in Germany
Economic history and economic cycles in Germany: Economic history of Germany since 1945
1932-1939 unemployment rate in Germany: 1932-1939 unemployment rate in Germany
29 April 2020 Germany expects record recession in 2020 due to covid-19 pandemic: 29 April 2020: Germany expects record recession in 2020 due to covid-19 pandemic


Labor and labor relations in Germany: Labor in Germany - German labour law - Trade unions in Germany

German military 'Bundeswehr': German military 'Bundeswehr' - German rearmament during the interwar period 1918-1939 in violation of the Treaty of Versailles - Rearmament and 'Bundeswehr' since 1955 - Cold War military history of Germany - Barracks of German 'Bundeswehr'
Since 1937 'Nordlager', since 1961 Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' in Augustdorf: 'Nordlager' in Augustdorf since 1937, Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' since 1961 - Seit 1965 Rommel-Kaserne der Bundeswehr südlich der baden-württembergischen Gemeinde Dornstadt und eine der Kasernen die den Namen des Hitler-Generals Erwin Rommel tragen - 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen) - 15 May 2017: The head of the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Israel office Efraim Zuroff told 'Newsweek' in a telephone interview that the announced still insufficient move to remove Nazi-era military names from German army barracks 'should have happened years ago', as it 'has to be clear that the Wehrmacht also played a role in crimes against humanity and waging a war against peace, people who were part of that shouldn't be the heroes of the new Germany'
1936-1945 war crimes of the Wehrmacht: Crímenes de guerra de la 'Wehrmacht' - Válecné zlociny Nemecka behem druhé svetové války - Zbrodnie oddzialów Wehrmachtu - Crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - Russian language - Verbrechen der Wehrmacht
Since 1949 illegal clandestine army tolerated by the government: Since 1949 'Schnez-Truppe', an illegal clandestine army put together in Germany from 1949 by veterans of the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS having with around 2,000 officers and a total strength of up to 40,000 members under the leadership of Hitler-officer Albert Schnez (1911–2007) with his accomplices Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel
Since 1951: By 1951 CDU-chancellor Konrad Adenauer had learned of the existence of the secret Schnez-army and its military personnel, but evidently declined to act against them
Since 1955 list of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers: List of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers - 1940-1945 Adolf Heusinger devient chef de la section des opérations ('Operationsabteilung') à l’OKH et participe aux décisions opérationnelles et stratégiques, les crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - Heinrich Trettner 1907-2006, rejoint la Légion Condor et sert comme adjudant et officier d'opérations du Generalmajor Hugo Sperrle et Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen durant la Guerre civile d'Espagne, ensuite un Generalleutnant allemand qui a servi au sein de la Heer dans la Wehrmacht pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de 1964 à 1966 Inspecteur général de la Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr)
German military personnel: German military personnel
1976 Rudel-Affäre: Nazi-Offizier Rudel, der sich nach Kriegsende als NS-Fluchthelfer ('Kameradenwerk' Hilfseinrichtung für NS-Kriegsverbrecher in Argentinien und Europa wie Rudolf Heß, Karl Dönitz, Josef Mengele), Neonazi, Waffenhändler, Siemens Auslandsvertreter und Unterstützer von Diktatoren betätigte, nahm im Oktober 1976 auf Einladung ranghoher Bundeswehroffiziere mit öffentlichen Rechtfertigungsversuchen der NS-Vergangenheit an einem Traditionstreffen ehemaliger Angehöriger des Aufklärungsgeschwaders 2 Immelmann der Wehrmacht auf dem Fliegerhorst Bremgarten teil, der Parlamentarische Staatssekretär im Bundesverteidigungsministerium, Hermann Schmidt von der SPD, hatte die Veranstaltung genehmigt
2006: In 2006 German troops in Afghanistan were in the centre of an international scandal during the War in Afghanistan since 2001, including German soldiers taking photographs of each other posed with skulls, including kissing the skulls
2009: 2009 operation Oqab was the first German ground force offensive since the creation of the Bundeswehr, the commander of the QRF, Hans-Christoph Grohmann, introduced one of his officers as 'the first Oberleutnant to lead an Infantry Company in to battle since 1945' to the press
2009: 2009 Kunduz airstrike on Friday 4 September 2009 southwest of Kunduz City in northern Afghanistan, as, responding to a call by German forces, an USA F-15E fighter jet struck two fuel tankers captured by some Taliban insurgents, killing over 90 civilians in the attack
2011-2017: 11 May 2017: Since Germany ended obligatory military service in 2011, the armed forces have examined more than 2,500 cases of suspected right-wing extremists in their ranks
2014: 31 December 2014: Involvement of German Bundeswehr in targeted Taliban killings in Afghanistan
2016/2017: 9 April 2017: German army probing 275 cases of right-wing extremism, including anti-Semitism, of those, 143 cases date back to 2016, with 53 new cases recorded this year
2017: 27 avril 2017: Après la révélation de plusieurs affaires embarrassantes, le général allemand Spindler chargé de la formation a été démis de ses fonctions
Since April/May 2017: Ab 27. April 2017 Terrorermittlungen gegen Bundeswehr-Oberleutnant Franco Albrecht - 27 April 2017: German lieutenant stationed in Hammelburg, who led a 'double life' pretending to be a Syrian refugee has been arrested on suspicion he planned a gun attack with racist motives, prosecutors say - 3 May 2017: Far right military scandals put German defence minister under pressure - 7 May 2017: German military has ordered an inspection of all of its barracks after discovering Nazi-era memorabilia at two of them, ministry says - 9 May 2017: Police arrested a second soldier Maximilian T. in planned far-right terror plot to kill politicians and blame the attack on Muslim asylum seekers

Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany (see also 'crime in Germany', explained further below): List of intelligence agencies of Germany
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis
2011: 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2015: 24 April 2015: German BND helped NSA spy on EU politicians and companies, lied and withheld information for years
2017: 8 March 2017: The case against the NSU, the neo-Nazi terrorist organization National Socialist Underground that committed ten murders, three bomb attacks, and 15 bank robberies in the years between 1998 and 2011, is an unprecedented example of the close connection between the German secret services and the neo-Nazi movement as well as the structural racism within the German law enforcement authorities, NSU-Watch says

Military budget of Germany: Military budget of Germany
1997: 8 May 1997: More than 50 years after Germany's World War II documentary reveals that among more than 1 million people now getting wartime pensions of up to $600 per month are still members and widows of SS units branded as criminal by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal
2015: 15. Mai 2015: Luftabwehrsystem Meads für Bundeswehr, eines der teuersten Rüstungsvorhaben
2017: 1 March 2017: How much German military spending has grown over time and between the years 2000 and 2015
August 2019 taxpayers pay millions for questionable 'extra tuition': 8 August 2019: Between January and June 2019, the German Defense Ministry and its affiliated institutions spent €155 million on external consultants and support services, almost as much as all 13 other ministries put together, as ministry has long faced scrutiny over equipment deficiencies and why it resorts to consultancy despite having a staff of over 20,000 under CDU's Ursula von der Leyen, now designated president of the European Commission
Taxation in Germany: Taxation in Germany
Federal budget of Germany: Federal budget of Germany

Social movements, criticism and protests: Protests in Germany
Since 1947 peace movement: Since 1947 the West German peace movement concentrated on the abolition of nuclear technology, particularly weapons, from West Germany and Europe, most activists stridently attacked both the USA and Soviet Union
16–17 June 1953 uprising in East Germany Uprising of June 1953 in East Germany
1955 peace movement 'Paulskirchenbewegung': 1955 Paulskirchenbewegung, eine außerparlamentarische Bewegung, die sich in den 1950er Jahren kritisch zur Westintegration äußerte und sich gegen die Wiederbewaffnung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland aussprach
The late 1960s student movement: Student movement during the late 1960s - Protests of 1968 worldwide
Since the early 1970s anti-nuclear movement: Anti-nuclear movement in Germany since the early 1970s - International reaction to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster 2011
1989/1990 Monday demonstrations for political reforms in East Germany: Monday demonstrations in East Germany 1989/1990 - Alexanderplatz demonstration for political reforms in East Berlin on 4 November 1989
2010/2015: 5 October 2010: After police deployed water cannon, batons, teargas and pepper spray against thousands of protesters in Stuttgart on 30 September 2010, images of bloodied protesters and reports of police beating schoolchildren have transformed 'Stuttgart 21' from a central station project into a political disaster for Angela Merkel's CDU - 18 November 2015: Stuttgart police found guilty of brutality when they broke up a protest against Stuttgart's planned train station five years ago, injuring 100 people
2011: 7. Dezember 2011: Empörung über stark steigende deutsche Rüstungsexporte nach Vorliegen des Rüstungsexportberichts
Since 2011: Since 2011 'We are fed up!' series of demonstrations against industrial livestock production and for more sustainable farming, organized and sustained by around 120 different groups which represent farmers, companies, environmental rights and animal rights activists
2012: 15. August 2012: Mitarbeiterinnen des insolventen Schleckerkonzerns gründen Genossenschaft um geschlossene Filialen als Mini-Supermärkte in Eigenregie weiterführen
2013: 23 February 2013: German government heavily criticised for allowing its sales of arms and military hardware to Middle Eastern Gulf states to more than double over the past year - 22 April 2013: Lufthansa cancels almost all flights due to a warning strike after three rounds of pay talks without any agreement - 1 June 2013: Thousands of people take part in a series of anti-capitalist demonstrations in Frankfurt on May 31, 2013, targeting primarily the European Central Bank and banking giant Deutsche Bank - StopWatchingUs 2013 - 7 September 2013: Thousands took to the streets in Berlin in protests against Internet surveillance activities by intelligence agencies and the NSA, and the German government's perceived lax reaction to them
2014: 4 February 2014: Around 30,000 people from several associations representing farmers, beekeepers and consumers, as well as environmental, development and food organizations, gathered in Berlin to demonstrate against large-scale agribusiness
27 March: Hundreds of flights have been cancelled after public-sector workers walked off the jobs at airports in German cities in a strike for higher wages for some 2.1 million federal and municipal employees
May-December 2014: 20 May 2014: Holocaust survivors call on Germany to take in more Syrian refugees - 12 October 2014: In the city of Duesseldorf more than 20,000 mainly Kurdish people protested against attacks by Islamic State terrorists on Kurdish towns in Syria, particularly the besiegement of the town of Kobane - 30 November 2014: Thousands of citizens pay tribute to 23-year-old student Tugçe Albayrak who was murdered after rushing to the aid of two teenage girls who were being harassed by a group of men in Offenbach - 23 December 2014: Protesters hold up banner reading 'Together against Neo Nazis and racism' during a demonstration under the slogan 'Dresden Nazi-free' against the latest 'anti-Islamisation' Pegida rally in Dresden
2015: 5 January 2015: Thousands take to the streets in Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden to oppose racism and xenophobia - 10 January: Tens of thousands of people rally in Dresden against racism and xenophobia - 12 January: 'Anti-Islamisation' Pegida marchers were outnumbered by tens of thousands counterdemonstrators across the country, with 30,000 people in Leipzig, 20,000 in Munich, in Dresden and other cities - 13 January: Rally to condemn the Paris jihadist attacks and take a stand against Islamophobia draws 10,000 people in Berlin - 19 April: Thousands in Germany protest against Europe-USA trade deal that they fear will erode food, labour and environmental standards - 30 August: Thousands of people took to the streets of Dresden to welcome refugees, following a string of violent anti-refugee protests in the region - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria
2016: 16 January 2016: Thousands of protesters in Berlin call for organic farming, which is done without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, without the use of antibiotics for livestock and GMO feed, also protesting against corporate agriculture as well as the pending TTIP free trade agreement between the EU and the USA - 11 avril 2016: Environ 45'000 salariés de la sidérurgie ont manifesté pour dire leurs inquiétudes quant à leur avenir, dans un secteur soumis à la concurrence féroce des acteurs chinois - 24 April 2016: Tens of thousands of opponents of a proposed transatlantic trade deal poured onto German streets Saturday on the eve of a visit by USA's Obama - 29 avril 2016: Plusieurs débrayages ont eu lieu dans toute l'Allemagne pour réclamer de meilleures conditions de travail et une augmentation de salaires pour une vaste branche fourre-tout qui recouvre l'automobile, les industries électriques, la métallurgie, et emploie 3,4 millions de personnes - 30 April 2016: German riot police arrested around 400 protesters in Stuttgart trying to block access to the congress of the right-wing populist AfD political party, as clashes broke out between party members and left-wing activists
June 2016: 11 June 2016: Thousands of peace activists and demonstrators have formed a human chain near USA Ramstein air base in western Germany, used to control USA's aircraft operating in Middle East, to protest against lethal drone strikes, as critics also state that drones often miss their intended targets, can only partly relay what is happening on the ground and encourage warfare with impunity, waged by people at computer screens far from danger - 20 June 2016: Tens of thousands of people joined weekend rallies in Germany to condemn racism and right-wing populist groups who have been railing against a record influx of migrants
September 2016: 3 septembre 2016: Plusieurs dizaines de milliers de Kurdes ont manifesté à Cologne après l'offensive lancée contre les milices kurdes en Syrie - 17 September: Tens of thousands of demonstrators in seven major cities across Germany in protest over transatlantic trade deal TTIP
November 2016: 5 November 2016: Several thousand Kurds marched against Erdogan in the western Germany city of Cologne on Saturday in support of pro-Kurdish politicians jailed in Turkey the previous day by Erdogan's regime - 25 November 2016: Hundreds gather in Hamelin to attend vigil for an attack on a woman who was dragged through the streets of a north German town behind a car with a rope tied around her neck
December 2016: 8 December 2016: Hundreds of German and Arab nationals gathered in front of the Russian Embassy in Berlin to denounce the ongoing Russian aerial bombardment of Aleppo in response to initiative by the International Festival of Literature in Berlin as well as 250 writers from 60 countries - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where after all hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy
January 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Berlin, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Heidelberg and Munich, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 21 January 2017: Thousands protest over far-right conference in Koblenz
March 2017: 9 March 2017: Several thousand protesters gathered in Berlin and other German cities to march on International Women's Day on Wednesday, with Donald Trump's presidency being a recurring theme - 19 March 2017: Tens of thousands voiced their opposition to next months Turkish referendum on greater presidential powers, as German Kurds took to the streets of Frankfurt to protest against Turkish president Erdogan
April 2017: 22 April 2017: About 50,000 protesters have tried to disrupt a gathering of the anti-asylum and anti-EU xenophobic AfD party in Cologne, already riven by internal rivalries five months before the country’s general election
June/July 2017: 27 June 2017: Greenpeace, Oxfam and other organizations, preparing protests against the G20 summit in July, demand solutions and cooperation to combat famines, inequality, climate change, wars and displacements, not provided by present G20 policy, and call for developing democracy, strengthening parliaments, creating transparency, enabling effective public participation in important decisions, also in Germany and Hamburg, that will host Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in July - Proteste und Gegenveranstaltungen gegen den G20-Gipfel in Hamburg am 7./8. Juli 2017 - zahlreiche Bündnisse und Initiativen organisieren Veranstaltungen um Alternativen zum beim G20 vertretenen Wirtschaftssystem aufzuzeigen
August 2017: 19 August 2017: Counter-protesters block neo-Nazi march in Berlin's Spandau district, coming from all over Germany and neighboring European countries, and attempting to march to the site of the prison where Nazi officer Rudolf Hess died, after police have told organizers they can march
September/October 2017: 25 September 2017: Hundreds of protesters gathered in Berlin and other cities in Germany to protest the surge of the neo-Nazi linked Alternative for Germany party, which captured around 13% of the vote in the German elections Sunday, catapulting it to become the country’s third biggest political force - 22 October 2017: Two days before the new parliament convenes and AfD will join this assembly that is obligated to the constitution, thousands protest racism in Berlin
November 2017: 4 novembre 2017: Des milliers de personnes manifestaient samedi à Bonn pour réclamer des actions plus fortes contre le réchauffement mondial, à commencer par la fin du charbon
December 2017: 2 December 2017: Protests delay German neo-Nazi linked AfD party congress, as police use water cannons to disperse hundreds of protesters, and as later in the day, about 6,500 protesters marched through Hannover chanting slogans against the party and carrying placards reading 'Hanover against Nazis' and 'Stand up to racism'
January 2018: 8 January 2018: Workers have downed tools at more than 80 companies across Germany as the country’s biggest union IG Metall stepped up its campaign for a 28-hour working week to allow employees to improve their work-life balance
March 2018: 4 March 2018: Thousands in Berlin protest against the attack of the Turkish military on the Kurdish region of Afrin in northwestern Syria, which has been largely trouble-free throughout Assad's war against the Syrian people
April 2018: 25 April 2018: Non-Jewish Germans joined with Jews wearing kippahs at several protests across Germany in a sign of solidarity following shocking anti-Semitic incidents, as one small Berlin-Neukoelln rally was called off by its members when angry counter-protesters shouted 'terrorists', spat at participants and snatched away an Israeli flag, and after Jewish leader warned against wearing religious symbols on streets for fear of attack, raising pointed questions about German government’s ability to protect its burgeoning Jewish community seven decades after the Holocaust
May 2018: 5 May 2018: Germans and Kurds take to the streets against arms trade and German weapons manufacturer Rheinmetall - 28 May 2018: 25,000 activists rally in German capital shout 'Nazis out' to eclipse nationalist AFD party's 5,000-strong march
July 2018: 8 July 2018: Thousands of people marched through German cities on Saturday to protest against EU policy on refugees and support NGOs helping rescue migrants in the Mediterranean
July 2018: 19 July 2018: Hundreds took to the streets of Bonn to protest anti-Semitism after an assault on an Israeli professor ended in embarrassment for police when they apprehended the victim instead of the attacker - 23 July 2018: Thousands rally in Munich to protest 'politics of fear', as members of Seehofer's CSU party tried to stop employees of theaters in Munich from attending the protest
15 September 2018: 15 September 2018: Thousands demonstrate against too high rental prices in Munich
17 September 2018: 17. September 2018: Proteste gegen die Räumung des Hambacher Waldes und bevorstehende Rodung dauern an
6 October 2018: 6 October 2018: Thousands of anti-coal demonstrators descended on Germany’s Hambach forest to celebrate an unexpected court victory that suspended an energy company’s planned razing of the woodland to expand a giant opencast mine
13/14 October 2018 tens of thousands, organizers said at least 242,000 people marched in Berlin in a protest against racism: 14 October 2018: Tens of thousands, organizers said at least 242,000 people marched in Berlin Saturday in a protest against racism amid growing concern over xenophobic incidents in the east of the country - 13. Oktober 2018 bundesweites Aktionsbündnis #unteilbar solidarisch – gerade jetzt! Demonstration in Berlin mit zehntausenden Teilnehmern, nachdem am gleichen Tag das neue Bündnis von hunderten bundesweiten und lokalen Organisationen und Gruppen mit der programmatischen Erklärung seiner Zielsetzung - eine solidarische und gerechte Gesellschaft - handlungsfähig geworden war
December 2018: 2 December 2018: Thousands of demonstrators took to streets Saturday in Berlin and Cologne to protest the government's climate policy ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference
January 2019 remembrance of the 100th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: In January 2019 German democrats commemorated the 100th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht - 13 January 2019: Jewish-born anti-war and anti-racism activist and scientist Rosa Luxemburg, who was killed in 1919 amid renewed repression following WWI, commemorated Sunday two days before the 100th anniversary of her murder in Berlin, as a whole week of events is planned for the commemoration, although neo-Nazi linked politicians have tried to ban demonstrations honoring 'enemies of democracy and free society' - 13 janvier 2019: Karl Liebknecht, autre personnage majeur contre la guerre 1914-1918, assassiné lui aussi en janvier 1919, a attiré plusieurs milliers de sympathisants dimanche dans le centre de la capitale
March 2019: 24 mars 2019: Des dizaines de milliers de manifestants ont défilé ce samedi à Berlin contre le projet de réforme du droit d'auteur
April 2019 protests against rising rent prices: 6 April 2019: Thousands of people have taken to the streets of Berlin to protest against rising rent prices, as estimates say housing costs in the German capital have doubled over the past 10 years, as protesters are calling for the local government to seize properties owned by private landlords, and as similar protests also took place in Munich and Cologne
June 2019: 1 June 2019: Hundreds of counter-protesters, showing solidarity with Israel, and anti-Israel protesters face off in Berlin, Germany's capital since 1871, as numbers at 'al-Quds Day' rally reportedly lower than expected
7 July 2019: 7 July 2019: Protesters support humanitarian aid work to rescue refugees and save lives in the Mediterranean
15 July 2019: 15 juillet 2019: Des salariés de sept sites allemands d'Amazon étaient en grève lundi à l'appel de leur principal syndicat, pour réclamer une amélioration de leurs conditions de travail à l'occasion des journées de super promotions 'Prime Day' 'sur le dos des salaires'
20 July 2019 protest against neo-Nazi party: 20 July 2019: Thousands of people have staged a counterprotest against a planned demonstration by a neo-Nazi party in Kassel, several weeks after the murder of Walter Lübcke, one of the city's prominent pro-migrant politicians
September 2019 transport policy protest: 14 September 2019: Tens of thousands of climate demonstrators turned up to protest at Germany's biggest car show in Frankfurt, using the event as a platform to demand the car industry address its role in damaging the environment
October 2019 Kurdish protests against Turkish aggression: 11 October 2019: Kurdish people took the streets in many German cities, as Turkish state's occupation attacks against northern and eastern Syria have been protested in tens of cities in Germany and were joined by tens of thousands of people
13 October 2019 German protests against anti-Semitism: 13 October 2019: Starting where Nazis burned books, 10,000 march in Berlin against anti-Semitism, as thousands more rally elsewhere in Germany four days after neo-Nazi attempted to massacre Jews in Halle on Yom Kippur, but failed to enter synagogue and killed 2 bystanders
20 October 2019 Dresden protest against xenophobic 'Pegida': 20. Oktober 2019: Unter dem Motto 'Herz statt Hetze' sind in Dresden Tausende Menschen gegen die ausländerfeindliche Pegida-Bewegung auf die Straße gegangen
23 November 2019 protest against encouraged neo-Nazis in Hannover, supported by court decision: 23 November 2019: Over 5,000 people demonstrate against 100 German neo-Nazi protesters and their NPD, which marches to intimidate journalists who have reported critically on the nationalist party, after police had tried to ban the NPD from protesting, but a court decided late Friday that the neo-Nazi action could go ahead
21 February 2020 thousands in vigils across Germany chanting 'Nazis out' after terrorist attack: 21 February 2020: Thousands of people have taken part in vigils across Germany chanting 'Nazis out' at vigils after gunman Rathjen with racist beliefs killed nine people with so-called 'migrant background' at restaurants in Hanau
11 April 2020 Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald quietly marks 75 years since liberation: 11 avril 2020: 75 ans après la libération de Buchenwald, le mémorial du camp de concentration, contraint d'annuler ses commémorations en raison de l'épidémie de Covid-19, a rendu hommage virtuellement samedi aux victimes du nazisme, racisme et l'antisémitisme
4 September 2021 many thousands demonstrate in Berlin for a solidarity society: 4. September 2021: Viele tausend Menschen demonstrieren in Berlin für eine solidarische Gesellschaft und Zusammenhalt, aufgerufen von dem Aktionsbündnis 'Unteilbar'


State elections and subdivisions of Germany: State elections by state and by year in the Federal Republic of Germany - Subdivisions of Germany - History of Germany by state - Former German states and territories by current state


History of Baden-Württemberg: History of Baden-Württemberg
Economy,agriculture and environment in Baden-Württemberg: Economy,agriculture and environment in Baden-Württemberg
Geography of Baden-Württemberg: Geography of Baden-Württemberg
Demographics, cities and towns in Baden-Württemberg: List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population - Demographics of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 10,486,660 citizens in 2014
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region: Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan region in Germany consisting of the cities of Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Tübingen/Reutlingen
Stuttgart city: Stuttgart city, the capital and largest city of Baden-Württemberg, located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley with a population of 635,911 citizens in 2020 - History of Stuttgart
Economy of Stuttgart: Economy of Stuttgart area, known for its high-tech industry, as some of its most prominent companies include Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Celesio, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sika
Timeline of Stuttgart: Timeline of Stuttgart
20th century Stuttgart: 20th century Stuttgart
Heidelberg city: Heidelberg city, a university town in Baden-Württemberg, situated 78 km south of Frankfurt on the river Neckar with a population 159,914 citizens in 2016, of which roughly a quarter consisted of students, as Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region
Karlsruhe city: Karlsruhe city, the second-largest city of the federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, with 313,092 inhabitants on the right bank of the Rhine
Mannheim city: Mannheim city, the third-largest city in Baden-Württemberg with a population of approximately 309,119 inhabitants in 2020, as the city is at the centre of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region
Göppingen town: Göppingen town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg, and the capital of the district Göppingen, as the city is also home to the toy company Märklin, as Göppingen is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils, with the districts of Bartenbach, Bezgenriet, Faurndau, Göppingen, Hohenstaufen, Holzheim, Jebenhausen and Maitis
History and economy of Göppingen: History and economy of Göppingen, as - following the August 1782 destruction of the town by a fire - industrialisation during the 19th century made the area into a centre of industry
Weikersheim town: Weikersheim town in the Main-Tauber district of Baden-Württemberg, im fränkisch geprägten Nordosten des heutigen Bundeslandes
Weikersheim history: Weikersheim in der Geschichte, frühe Neuzeit, 2. 'Reich', Nationalsozialisms, nach zwei Weltkriegen Bundesland mit Gebietsreformen und Einwohnerentwicklung bis 2020 und 7439 'citizen' - Die Jüdische Gemeinde in Weikersheim bestand bereits im Mittelalter (mit Unterbrechungen durch Judenverfolgungen) und in der Neuzeit ab dem 17. Jahrhundert bis zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, Jews numbered 82 in Wekersheim in 1900, just 16 in 1933, and in the 1930s/40s ten managed to emigrate, according to Yad Vashem
Economy, schools, politics and culture in Weikersheim: Wirtschaft, Ausbildung, Politik, Gemeinderat, Kultur und Kulturdenkmale in Weikersheim
Politics and state elections in Baden-Württemberg: State elections in Baden-Württemberg
1848–1849: Baden in the German revolutions of 1848–1849 - 1848/1849 Baden Revolution
1933-1945 subcamps of the Natzweiler-Struthof complex of Nazi concentration camps: List of subcamps of the Natzweiler-Struthof complex of Nazi concentration camps, located on both sides of the German-French border, in Alsace and Lorraine as well as in the adjacent German provinces of Baden and Württemberg
Since 1942 World War II Axis advance stalls: Since January 1942 and the German defeat in Stalingrad the Allied Forces of WWII, including the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the USA and 22 smaller or exiled governments including Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Free France, Poland etc., issued the Declaration by United Nations, affirming the Atlantic Charter, and agreeing not to sign a separate peace with the Axis powers and that defeating Germany was the primary objective - By 30 April 1945, German empire's army in Southwest Germany were defeated and all of Baden, Württemberg and Hohenzollern were completely occupied
1958-1978 Baden-Württemberg governed by former NSDAP members: Since the creation of the state of Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the state's Minister-presidents included 1958-1960 former NSDAP's Kurt Georg Kiesinger and 1966-1978 former NSDAP's Hans Filbinger
Since 1962 Nazigeneral 'Rommel-Kaserne' in Dornstadt: Since 1962 'Rommel-Kaserne' in Dornstadt, named to honour Nazigeneral Rommel
March 2011 Baden-Württemberg state election: March 2011 Baden-Württemberg state election - 11. Juli 2012: Staatsanwaltliches Ermittlungsverfahren gegen früheren CDU-Ministerpräsidenten Mappus wegen Untreue beim Kauf von EnBW-Aktien - 14. Juli 2012: CDU distanziert sich von Stefan Mappus
March 2016: 13. März 2016 Landtagswahl in Baden-Württemberg - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
13/14 July 2020 police searching for threatening armed man in combat gear: 13 July 2020: Police in Baden-Württemberg are searching for a man in combat gear armed with a bow and arrow, a knife and a handgun who held up four police officers and stole their weapons, as schools, nurseries and lidos in Oppenau stay closed - 14 July 2020: Police are looking for armed man with a large contingent
March 2021 Baden-Württemberg state election: 14 March 2021 Baden-Württemberg state election - Opinion polling reported by 'Wikipedia' (english)


History of Bavaria: History of Bavaria
Cities in Bavaria: Cities in Bavaria
Munich Metropolitan Region: Munich Metropolitan Region
Munich city: Munich city, the capital and most populous city of Bavaria with a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants in 2020, as city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people, located at the banks of the River Isar - a tributary of the Danube - north of the Bavarian Alps - History of Munich since Middle Ages
Timeline of Munich since 1158: Timeline of Munich since 1158
Nuremberg city: Nuremberg city, the second-largest city of Bavaria with 518,370 inhabitants in 2019, situated on the Pegnitz River (from its confluence with the Rednitz in Fürth onwards Regnitz, a tributary of the River Main) and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, and located in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, as Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach
Economy and economic history of Nuremberg: Economy and economic history of Nuremberg, as the 1797-1801 sample was early industrial, then the economic structure of the region around Nuremberg was dominated by metal and glass manufacturing, reflected by a share of nearly 50% handicrafts and workers, as in the 19th century Nuremberg became the 'industrial heart' of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city during the rise of the 2nd Germany empire leading to WWI and II, as Nuremberg after WWII is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe, as items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products and printed materials, and as in 21st century the city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology, and around a third of German market research agencies are located in the city in an area of growing aggressive advertising especially in some parts of our planet
Since 1949/50 Nuremberg International Toy Fair (Spielwarenmesse): Since 1949/50 Nuremberg International Toy Fair (Spielwarenmesse) and annually held, the largest international trade fair for toys and games as only trade visitors associated with the toy business, journalists and invited guests are admitted when during about 2,800 exhibitors from about 60 countries present their products, in 2017 73,000 trade visitors and purchasers from 123 countries, and as the fair is organized by 'Spielwarenmesse eG' - 'Global Toy Conference' on the last day of the fair dealing with issues concerning the future of the toy trade and industry, e.g. sustainability, toy safety, but today also online marketing and successful selling on the Internet - 20 categories of modelling in the USA and UK - Les différentes formes de modélisme en France au 21ème siècle - Depuis 1902 Meccano, un jeu de construction à base d'éléments à l'origine entièrement métalliques, d'abord produit par Meccano Ltd. à Liverpool, ensuite par la filiale française Meccano SA à Paris et à Calais - Seit Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts in verschiedenen europäischen Ländern eine Vielzahl von Herstellern von Metallbaukästen - März 2021 Auflistung von Marken und Kompatibilität durch 'Wikipedia' Autoren
Timeline of Nuremberg since Middle Ages: Timeline of Nuremberg since Middle Ages
1219-1806 Free Imperial City of Nuremberg's prosperity, target of wars: 1219-1806 Free Imperial City of Nuremberg — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire, after Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg in the High Middle Ages, leading to the economic and cultural flowering of the city and surrounding areas in the 15th and 16th centuries, making it the center of the German Renaissance also with increased trade routes and therefore becoming a target for in the coming periods of war, as the ravages of the major European wars of the 17th and 18th centuries caused the city to decline and incur sizeable debts, resulting in the city's absorption into the new Kingdom of Bavaria on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, becoming one of the many territorial casualties of the Napoleonic Wars
Organization of medieval 'Free imperial city' states: Organization and development of medieval 'Free imperial city' states in Europe
Since 15th century development of medieval 'Free imperial city' states in central Europe including later Switerland: 16th and 17th century, a number of Imperial Cities separated from the Empire, including cities connected to the 'Old Swiss Confederacy', gaining its formal independence from the Empire in 1648 after de facto independence since 1499, as also tthe independence of the Imperial Cities of Basel, Bern, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Schaffhausen, Solothurn, and Zürich was formally recognized by the empire - Territorial growth of Bern, the largest free imperial city until 1798
Territory of independent city-state Nuremberg, and after city of Bern left to join the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1353: Territory of independent city-state Nuremberg, comprising some 1,200 square kilometres, making it one of the largest imperial cities territories, after the Imperial City of Bern left to join the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1353, only the Imperial Cities of Ulm and Strasbourg had anything like the same amount of land
July-September 1632 Siege of Nuremberg: July-September 1632 Siege of Nuremberg, a battle campaign that took place in 1632 about the Imperial City of Nuremberg during the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War
1668 Simplicissimus novel published: Simplicius Simplicissimus, written in 1668 by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen and probably published the same year, inspired by the events and horrors of the 'Thirty Years' War' which devastated Germany from 1618 to 1648, and regarded as the first adventure novel in the German language and the first German novel masterpiece
1695 Pachelbel becomes organist of St. Sebaldus Church: 1653-- 1706 Johann Pachelbel German composer, organist, and teacher, who brought the south German organ schools to their peak as his contributions to the development of the chorale prelude and fugue have earned him a place among the most important composers of the European Baroque era
1806 Nuremberg becomes part of the Kingdom of Bavaria: 1806 Nuremberg City becomes part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, per Treaty of Confederation of the Rhine
Since 1834 Bavarian Ludwig Railway: Since 1834 Bavarian Ludwig Railway, the first steam-hauled railway opened in German territories after the Ludwigs-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft) received a concession to build a railway from Nuremberg to Fürth
Since 1844 Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof: 1844 Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof opens
20th century Nuremberg: 20th century Nuremberg
1923-1938 Nuremberg rallies including 1933 'Rally of Victory' and Leni Riefenstahl's film 'Der Sieg des Glaubens': 1923-1938 Nuremberg rallies, including 5th NSDAP party congress August-September 1933, called the 'Rally of Victory' as Leni Riefenstahl's film 'Der Sieg des Glaubens' was made at this rally
April 1945 Battle of Nuremberg, a five-day battle between USA forces and NSDAP-ruled Germany's forces (including somes foreign traitors even now), as the battle saw some of the fiercest urban combat during the war and it took four days for the defenders of human rights and democracy to capture the city
November 1945 - October 1946 Nuremberg trials: November 1945 - October 1946 Nuremberg trials, a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war
Seit 1914/1032 Landgericht Nürnberg-Fürth: Landgericht Nürnberg-Fürth, eines von 22 Landgerichten im Freistaat Bayern, das 1914 durch Zusammenlegung der Landgerichte Fürth und Nürnberg enstand, zum Bau des Nürnberger Justizpalastes führte (1932 abgeschlossen), und das besonders bekannt wurde insbesondere der Schwurgerichtssaal des Justizpalastes, in dem die internationalen Nürnberger Prozesse nach 1945 gegen NS-Kriegsverbrecher und Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit und die Nachfolgeprozesse stattfanden
Seit 1945 SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei Bach-Zelewski für Beteiligung an Kriegsverbrechen nie zur Rechenschaft gezogen: Seit August 1945 wurde SS-Obergruppenführer, General der Waffen-SS und General der Polizei Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski für seine Beteiligung am Holocaust und der 'Bandenbekämpfung' in der Sowjetunion nie zur Rechenschaft gezogen, nachdem die Staatsanwaltschaft des Landgerichts Nürnberg-Fürth zwar ab 1951 ermittelte, das Verfahren edoch im Dezember 1954 einstellte und Bach-Zelewski außer Verfolgung setzte obwohl auch für die Staatsanwaltschaft des Gerichts ein Tatverdacht für seine Teilnahme an den Ermordungen von Juden und Russen vorlag
Since 1945 SS-commander Bach-Zelewski never faced trial for any war crimes: Since August 1945 SS commander of NSDAP-ruled Germany Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski - who in 1944 led the brutal suppression of the Warsaw Uprising, as since 1941 the forces under von dem Bach numbered 14,953 Germans, mostly officers and unteroffiziere, and 238,105 local 'volunteers', as war crime victims were also executed by local collaborators under Nazi command - never faced trial for any war crimes, in reported exchange for his testimony against his former superiors at the Nuremberg trials, and similarly, he never faced extradition to Poland or to the USSR, as of the sentences against the war criminal referred to his role in Poland, in the Soviet Union, or his participation in the Holocaust, although he openly denounced himself as a mass murderer, and as his evidence for the defence at the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Israel in May 1961 was to the effect that operations in the Soviet-Union and Poland were conducted by 'Operations Units of the Security Police' and were not subject to the orders of Adolf Eichmann's office, nor was Eichmann able to give orders to the officers in charge of these units, who were responsible for the murder of Jews and Gypsies
1. August - 2. Oktober 1944 Warschauer Aufstand: 1. August - 2. Oktober 1944 Warschauer Aufstand, die militärische Erhebung der Polnischen Heimatarmee gegen die deutsche Besatzungsmacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg
Seit August 1944 'Rzez Woli' und von der deutschen Besatzungsmacht begangener Massenmord an polnischen Zivilisten: August 1944 'Rzez Woli', der von der deutschen Besatzungsmacht begangene Massenmord an polnischen Zivilisten des Warschauer Stadtteiles Wola während des Zweiten Weltkrieges, später wurde von Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski der Massenmord aus taktischen Gründen variiert, wobei Frauen, Alte und Kinder wurden vom Erschießungsbefehl ausgeschlossen und die Durchführung des Massenmords von den eigentlichen Kampfeinheiten auf speziell gebildete Einsatzgruppen hinter der Front verlagert wurde, um den Fortgang der Morde vor der Zivilbevölkerung zu verschleiern
6 November 2021 multiple people wounded in knife attack on German train between Regensburg and Nuremberg: 6 November 2021: Multiple people wounded in knife attack on German train near Seubersdorf station, as man arrested in connection with attack on a high-speed train travelling between the cities of Regensburg and Nuremberg
Since settlement by Celtic peoples history of Bavaria: History of Bavaria - originally settled by Celtic peoples such as the Boii, then eventually conquered and incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Raetia and Noricum, after the decline of the slave holding empire a stem duchy of Bavaria in the 6th century, later in the Holy Roman Empire to its status as an independent kingdom and finally as a large Bundesland (state) of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1945/1949, as the second German empire since 1871 was defeated, abolished and devided in two pieces amid the emerging so called 'Cold War'
1848-1849 European, German revolutions and Bavaria: Bavaria in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
Since 1871 and 1933: Since 1871 Bavaria in the German Empire, since 1918 in the Weimar Republic and during the 1933-1945 Nazi period - 30 October 2017: Adolf Hitler only joined the Nazis after being rejected by the 1919 newly formed German Socialist party, telling him that it did not want him in the party, historian Thomas Weber has learned
Since 1932 von Stauffenberg agreed with the Nazi party's racist and nationalistic aspects, later supporting and committing war crimes: Since 1932 during the German presidential election leutnant Claus von Stauffenberg agreed with the Nazi Party's racist and nationalistic aspects, had supported the German colonization of Poland and made extremist remarks regarding Polish Jews, and voiced support for Hitler, saying 'the idea of the Führer principle bound together with a Volksgemeinschaft .., the racial thought (Rassengedanke), and the will towards a new German-formed legal order appears to us healthy', later his regiment took part in the attack on Poland, and he supported the occupation of Poland, its handling by the Nazi regime, the use of Poles as slave workers, later Stauffenberg's unit was reorganized into a Panzer Division, and he served as an officer on the General Staff in the Battle of France, for which he was awarded the Iron Cross First Class, then in 1943, Stauffenberg was promoted to Oberstleutnant of the general staff, was sent to Africa to join GFM Rommel launching his offensive against British, USA and French forces in Tunisia, later receiving multiple severe wounds in an airstrike, then beginning to change some of his views towards Hitler
8/9 November 1923 'Beer Hall Putsch' coup d'état attempt by the NSDAP: 8/9 November 1923 'Beer Hall Putsch' (Munich Putsch), a failed coup d'état by the NSDAP, by leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders in Munich, as approximately 2,000 Nazis marched on the Feldherrnhalle in the city centre, were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the deaths of 16 NSDAP members and four police officers, as Hitler, who was wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside
February-April 1924 'Beer Hall Putsch' trial: February-April 1924 'Beer Hall Putsch' trial at Bavarian 'People's Court' ('Volksgericht') - Alan Bullock (1914-2004), a British historian known for his 1952 book 'Hitler - A Study in Tyranny', second edition 1962, the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler as Bullock's later writings show the dictator as much more of an ideologue, who pursued the ideas expressed in 'Mein Kampf' and elsewhere, important to understand Hitler's way to the Holocaust, expressed in his trial February-April 1924 in Munich with the words 'ich wollte der Zerbrecher des Marxismus werden. Ich werde diese Aufgabe lösen ... Als ich zum erstenmal vor Wagners Grab stand, da quoll mir das Herz über ...' - Alan Bullock's 'Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1952)'
2009, 'the (1924 Munich) trial was the decisive boost to Hitler's political career': 2009 Oxford University Press New York, Bernhard Fulda: 'The verdct of 1 April was spectacularly lenient, as the lay judges had only be prepared ot accept a 'guilty' verdict on condition that Hitler receivec the lightest possible sentence, with the prospect of of early release after six months' (p 69), and as 'the trial was the decisive boost to Hitler's political career' (p 70)
1923-1925 Heinrich Himmler, involved in the 'Beer Hall Putsch', became SS-leader, rise in the SS: Heinrich Luitpold Himmler, born in Munich in 1900 into a teacher's (Gebhard Himmler) Roman Catholic family and as Heinrich's name was that of his godfather Prince Heinrich of Bavaria, who had been tutored by Gebhard Himmler, as Himmler later admired Röhm because he was a decorated combat soldier, and at his suggestion Himmler joined his antisemitic nationalist group 'Bund Reichskriegsflagge', becoming in 1922 more interested in the 'Jewish question', as after the murder of FM Walther Rathenau on 24 June Himmler took part in demonstrations against the treaty of Versailles and joined the NSDAP in August 1923, and then - as a member of German military officer Röhm's paramilitary unit 'Sturmabteilung SA' - Himmler was involved in the 'Beer Hall Putsch', then - sfter NSDAP party was re-founded in February 1925 - Himmler joined the 'Schutzstaffel SS' as an SS-leader
Since 23 March 1933 'Enabling Act' and more: 'Enabling Act of 1933', passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on 23 March 1933, as on 30 January 1934 the policy of Gleichschaltung brought an end to the Reichsrat, transferring the states' powers to the Reich, as it can be argued that this violated the 'Enabling Act' - 'Gleichschaltung' and 'legal basis', the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society and societies occupied by Nazi Germany 'from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education' - June/July 1934 'Night of the Long Knives'. after chancellor Adolf Hitler, urged on by Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler, ordered a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate his power and alleviate the concerns of the German military about the role of Ernst Röhm and the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazis' paramilitary organization
Since 1933 Munich's 'Academy for German Law' on the initiative of Hans Frank, Adolf Hitler's personal legal adviser: Academy for German Law (Akademie für deutsches Recht) was an institute founded in 1933 in Nazi Germany on the initiative of Hans Frank, born in 1900 to the lawyer Karl Frank and his wife Magdalena, later graduated from high school at the renowned Maximilians gymnasium in Munich, then joined the German empire's army in WWI, studied law and economics from 1919 at the University of Munich (also at the University of Kiel, again 1922-1923 at Munich obtaining his Dr. jur. degree in 1924, in 1919-1920 as a member of the Thule Völkisch society, serving also in the Freikorps under Franz Ritter von Epp's command and taking part in the crackdown of the Münchner Räterepublik. in 1919, then joined the German Workers' Party DAP at its beginning, evolving quite soon into NSDAP as Frank in 1923 became a member of the Sturmabteilung SA, joined the NSDAP in October and in November took part in the 8/9 November 1923 'Beer Hall Putsch', the failed coup attempt intended to parallel Mussolini's March on Rome, fled to Austria, returning in Munich only in 1924, after the pending legal proceedings were stayed, then Frank rose to become Adolf Hitler's personal legal adviser
Since 1919 Heinrich Müller became head of the Munich Political Police, since 1933/1939 chief of the 'Gestapo': Heinrich Müller - born in Munich in April 1900 to Catholic parents as his father had been a rural police official - was a high-ranking German Schutzstaffel SS and police official after World War I, who joined the Bavarian Police in 1919, was involved in the suppressions in the early post-war years, became head of the Munich Political Police Department, having risen quickly through the ranks, then in May 1933 was promoted to Polizeiobersekretär and again to Criminal Inspector in November 1933, then in April 1934 'Geheimen Staatspolizeiamtes in Berlin, then in September 1939 during military's invasion of Poland - when the Gestapo and other police organizations were consolidated under Heydrich into the 'Reich Security Main Office RSHA' - Müller was made chief of the RSHA 'Amt IV' (Office or Dept. 4) Gestapo, remaining for the majority of World War II in Europe the chief of the secret state police of NSDAP ruled Germany, as Müller was central in the planning and execution of the Holocaust and attended the January 1942 Wannsee Conference, which formalised plans for deportation and genocide of all Jews in German-occupied Europe, named by the NSDASP party the 'Final Solution to the Jewish Question' - Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich's career in the SS, born in 1904 in Halle an der Saale to composer and opera singer Richard Bruno Heydrich and his wife Elisabeth, as his father was protestant and his mother was Roman Catholic, as his forenames were patriotic musical tributes with 'Reinhard' referring to his father's opera 'Amen', and with 'Tristan' stems from Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, then in the 1920th naval career, then since August 1931 in the SS, Gestapo and SD, since 1936 consolidating the police forces and leaving the Catholic Church in favour of the 'Gottgläubig movement'
8 November 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler by German resistance fighter: 8. November 1939 Bomben-Attentat auf Adolf Hitler und nahezu die gesamte nationalsozialistische Führungsspitze im Münchner Bürgerbräukeller durch den Widerstandskämpfer gegen den Nationalsozialismus Georg Elser, das nur knapp scheiterte - Memorials of the 8 November 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler
Since November 2012 neo-Nazis charged with murders of 11 people mostly immigrants: November 2012: Federal prosecutors charge neo-Nazis with murders of 10 people, mostly immigrants and a police officer
March 2013: 27 March 2013: Munich court sparked angry criticism for failing to guarantee the Turkish media access to cover the upcoming neo-Nazi murder trial in which most of the victims were Turkish
May 2013: 4. Mai 2013: 79 Landtagsabgeordnete haben Verwandte ersten Grades, also Ehepartner, Eltern oder Kinder, angestellt und dafür Gelder vom Landtag kassiert
Since 6 May 2013: Since 6 May 2013 'NSU Trial' against several people in connection with the National Socialist Underground terrorist organization in Germany and the NSU murders in Munich - 'National Socialist Underground' far-right German terrorist group which was uncovered in November 2011
July 2013: 30 juillet 2013: Le président du club de football Bayern Munich, Uli Hoeness, qui avait reconnu avoir caché de l'argent en Suisse, accusé de fraude fiscale
August 2013: Gustl Mollath's persecution and HypoVereinsbank black money scandal since 2003 - 6 August 2013: The OLG Nuremberg orders the reopening of Mollath's case and his immediate release
September/October 2013 Bavaria state election: September/October 2013 Bavaria state election - 16 September 2013: Christian Social Union wins in Bavaria
June 2015: 6./7. Juni 2015: G7-Gipfel auf Schloss Elmau 2015 kostet Bundesrepublik und das Land Bayern über 200 Millionen Euro
2017: 17 May 2017: Six alleged perpetrators all from Munich and Ebersberg ranging in age from 18 to 33 charged with incitement to hate after spewing anti-Semitic abuse at passengers on a Munich city bus packed with some 40 passengers, but only an unmarried couple from Munich attempted to intervene, as Bavaria has seen a rise in anti-Semitic criminality with 176 anti-Jewish crimes reported in the state in 2016
April 2018: 25 April 2018: Bavaria's ruling Christian Social Union CSU has ordered Christian crosses, that are already compulsory in public school classrooms and courtrooms, to be placed in all state buildings, saying that 'the cross is a fundamental symbol of our Bavarian identity and way of life' and a cultural rather than religious symbol, without explicitly mentioning that crucifixion was the capital punishment in the Roman Empire meted out specifically to slaves predominantly acquired through warfare, succeeded by kingdoms and empires, including Francia (Kingdom of the Franks 481–843), the Carolingian Empire, and the 'Holy Roman Empire' 800/962–1806
April 2018 Bavarian Muehldorfer Hart concentration camp memorial: 28 April 2018: Germany inaugurated a memorial at the long-forgotten site of World War II Nazi Muehldorfer Hart concentration camp where forced laborers built an aircraft factory deep inside a Bavarian forest and where at least 2,200 prisoners, many of them Hungarian Jews, died in the miserable conditions at the camp and were buried on-site in a mass grave, after more than 70 years later the state of Bavaria has finally put up a memorial of standing concrete slabs with photographs and text on the site’s grim history, according to the association 'For Remembrance' that fought for 20 years for the memorial to be built
October 2018 Bavarian state election: 14 October 2018 Bavarian state election - 15 October 2018: After voters delivered the Christian Social Union CSU its worst showing since 1954, Germany’s ruling parties attempt to ride out the fallout from a disastrous regional election, as Green Party ends CSU’s 61-year political dominance in Bavaria
October 2019 Oktoberfest methane emissions: 27 October 2019: Oktoberfest 'produces 10 times as much methane as Boston', as first analysis of environmental impact of Munich festival reveals extent of emissions
3 November 2019 neo-Nazi linked AfD target Indian-German 'Christ Child': 3 November 2019: Benigna Munsi, the daughter of Indian-German parents selected by the city of Nuremberg to play the 'Christ Child' and open its world-famous Christmas market, will speak to the press, days after she was targeted by a racist comment by the neo-Nazi linked AfD
28/29 April 2020 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp: 29 April 2020: Israel Defense Forces and USA Navy bands surprised Israeli Holocaust survivor Abba Naor this week to mark both Israel’s 72nd Independence Day and the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp where at the start of Nazi dictatorship Eichmann's battalion of the Deutschland Regiment was quartered in 1934, playing for him a rendition of Israel’s national anthem, Hatikva
May 2020 Thailand's king living in the Bavarian Alps in luxury while his country suffers: 1 May 2020: The king of Thailand is enjoying life at a luxury hotel in the Bavarian Alps in Germany, while his subjects back home are suffering under covid-19, but criticizing the monarchy is outlawed, despite the king's 'embarrassing' behavior, enjoying special permission to reside at Garmisch-Partenkirchen's Hotel Sonnenbichl not open for normal accommodation, as his entourage of 100 includes a harem of at least 20 women and the king jet-setting around Germany in a private Boeing 737, after he reportedly didn't even disembark and took off again directly after landing
June 2020 Munich bans display of yellow stars at covid-19 lockdown protests: 2 June 2020: Munich bans display of yellow stars at covid-19 lockdown protests, after German Jewish groups raised concerns over using symbol meant to resemble the ones that Nazis forced Jews to wear during Holocaust
25 June 2021 several people killed and injured in a knife attack in Wuerzburg: 25 June 2021 a mass stabbing in Würzburg in Bavaria - 25 June 2021: Several people were killed and others injured in a knife attack in the southern German city of Wuerzburg, as 'the attacker was overpowered ... and there are several injured as well as fatalities' police said on Twitter
July/August 2020 Thailand struggles to cope with crises as king squanders people's product in Germany: 29 July 2020: Thailand struggles to cope with covid-19 crisis, as king is gallivanting miles away in Germany and Thai protesters call for end of monarchy on king's birthday, as Thai PM promises 'we will follow in His Majesty's footsteps' - 31 August 2020: Thai king 'releases his concubine from jail and flies her to Germany to join his harem' a year after she was stripped of royal titles
25 June 2021 several people killed and injured in a knife attack in Wuerzburg: 25 June 2021 a mass stabbing in Würzburg in Bavaria - 25 June 2021: Several people were killed and others injured in a knife attack in the southern German city of Wuerzburg, as 'the attacker was overpowered ... and there are several injured as well as fatalities' police said on Twitter
30 July 2021 suspected NSU allied Susanne G. sentenced: 30. Juli 2021: Das Oberlandesgericht München hat Susanne G. wegen Vorbereitung einer schweren staatsgefährdenden Gewalttat, wegen Bedrohung, wegen Verstoßes gegen das Waffengesetz und wegen Störung des öffentlichen Friedens durch die Ankündigung von Straftaten zu einer Gesamtfreiheitsstrafe von 6 Jahren verurteilt, allerdings ohne ihre Verbindung zur Terrorgruppe NSU in die Urteilsfindung einzubeziehen
1 December 2021 4 people have been injured, one seriously, after WWII bomb exploded in Munich: 1 December 2021: Four people have been injured, one seriously, after a second world war bomb exploded at a bridge near Munich‘s busy main train station, as more than 2,000 tonnes of live bombs and munitions are discovered each year in Germany - and now more than 70 years after the end of NSDAP's war - and had been cases of several deadly blasts in the past
Politics and elections of Bavaria: Politics of Bavaria - State elections in Bavaria


Berlin city, region, economy and history: Berlin city, the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population with 3,769,495 inhabitants in 2019 - Elections in Berlin
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region since 1990: Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region since 1990
Geography of Brandenburg including Potsdam, Cottbus, Frankfurt/O., region including Berlin: Geography of Brandenburg state in the northeast of Germany with an area of 29,478 square kilometres and - without Berlin - a population of 2.5 million residents, the fifth-largest German state by area and the tenth-most populous, Potsdam is the state capital and largest city, while other major towns include Cottbus, Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt (Oder), and as Brandenburg 'surrounds' the national capital and city-state of Berlin, together forming the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany
History of Brandenburg, former Prussia and Berlin: History of Prussia - History of Brandenburg state
1848-1849 Prussia in the German revolutions: Prussia in the German revolutions of 1848–1849, backlash in Prussia and repression
Since 1871, since 1918 and 1933-1945: Since 1871 Prussia in the German Empire - Since 1918 Prussia in the Weimar Republic, during the 1933-1945 Nazi period and end of Prussia
Economy of Brandenburg state: Economy of Brandenburg state, as its Gross domestic product GDP was 72.9 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 2.2% of German economic output, as GDP per capita was the third lowest of all states in Germany, as unemployment rate stood at 5.8% in October 2018, higher than the German average but lower than the average of Eastern Germany
Subdivisions of Brandenburg state with 14 rural districts (Landkreise) and 4 urban districts: Subdivisions of Brandenburg state, divided into 14 rural districts (Landkreise) and four urban districts (kreisfreie Städte)
Cities in Brandenburg by population: List of cities in Brandenburg by population
Potsdam city: Potsdam city, the capital and largest city of Brandenburg, bordering the federal capital Berlin as parts of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, like Berlin situated on the River Havel some 25 kilometres southwest of Berlin's city centre, as Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the 'German Kaiser' until 1918, as Potsdam also today - over 1000 years old - is widely known for its palaces, its lakes, and a certain historical and cultural significance
Education in Potsdam: Education and research in Potsdam
Cottbus city: Cottbus city, a university city and the second-largest city in Brandenburg, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the River Spree, as Cottbus is also a major railway junction with extensive sidings/depots, and as - although only a small Sorbian minority lives in Cottbus itself - the city is considered as the political and cultural center of the Sorbs in Lower Lusatia
Frankfurt (Oder) town: Frankfurt (Oder) (also known as Frankfurt an der Oder) town located on the west side of the Oder River, on the Germany-Poland border, as the town's recorded history began in the 13th century as a West Slavic settlement, the in its history successively part of the Kingdom of Poland, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Bohemian Crown, Prussia and Germany, as after World War II the eastern part of Frankfurt became part of Poland under the terms of the Potsdam Agreement (renamed to Slubice), while the western part became a border town of the GDR in 1949
Demographics of Frankfurt (Oder): Demographics of Frankfurt (Oder)
Education in Frankfurt (Oder): European university in Frankfurt, as university was refounded in 1991 with a European emphasis, in close cooperation with the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, jointly also running the Collegium Polonicum in Slubice, as the Viadrina European University, Viadrina European University
Oranienburg town in Brandenburg, the capital of the district of Oberhavel, located on the banks of the Havel river, 35 km north of the centre of Berlin
History of Oranienburg and WWII 'Auergesellschaft Oranienburg Plant': History of Oranienburg, originally named Bötzow, dating back to the 12th century and was first mentioned in 1216, as in the 20th century Oranienburg became the center of NSDAP ruled Germany's nuclear-energy project because it was the location of the 'Auergesellschaft Oranienburg Plant', Germany's uranium production facility, as the town also had an armaments hub, aircraft plant, and railway junction, all of military importance
Since 1933 Oranienburg concentration camp: Oranienburg was an early German concentration camp, one of the first detention facilities established by the Nazis in the state of Prussia when they gained power in 1933. It held the political opponents of Nazi Party from the Berlin region
Since 1936 Sachsenhausen concentration camp, gaa chamber, medical experimentation area: Since 1936 Sachsenhausen concentration camp - outfitted with several subcamps, a gas chamber, and a medical experimentation area, a prisoners were treated harshly, fed sparingly, and killed openly - used from 1936 to the end of NSDAP rule in May 1945, mainly holding political prisoners includinge Francisco Largo Caballero, PM of the Second Spanish Republic attacked by Spanish, German and Italian war criminals, Yakov Dzhugashvili, Paul Reynaud the penultimate PM of France, the wife and children of the Crown Prince of Bavaria, Ukrainian nationalist leader Stepan Bandera, several enemy soldiers and political dissidents
Zossen (Upper Sorbian Sosny) town: Zossen (Upper Sorbian Sosny) town in the district of Teltow-Fläming about 30 km south of Berlin, as Zossen before the 21st century consisted of several smaller municipalities, which were grouped together in 2003 to form the city
20th century history of Zossen, preparation of WW I and II and German empire's war crimes: Zossen im 20. Jahrhundert, Vorbereitung von Weltkrieg I und II, und Bunkeranlagen 'Maybach I' für den Großteil des Oberkommandos des Heeres OKH, direkt neben dem Bunker 'Maybach II', und dem Bunker 'Zeppelin' der militärischen Nachrichtenzentrale mit dem postalischen Decknamen 'Amt 500', wobei die Bunkeranlagen Maybach I un II leider nur zu Gräbern für andere führten, die Opfer der deutschen brutalen Angriffskriege, und nicht für die Ratten, die zum Teil ab Sommer 1944 versuchten das - übrigens ab 1941/42 deutlich erkennbar - sinkende Schiff zu verlassen um sich zu retten
Since 1914 prisoner of war camp for French, British, Indian, Russian, Tartars, Bashkirs and then cemetry 'Zehrendorf': Im Ersten Weltkrieg entstanden auf dem Truppenübungsplatz zwei Kriegsgefangenenlager (später Halbmondlager und Weinberglager genannt) für Franzosen, Briten, Russen, Tataren, Baschkiren sowie indische Angehörige der Streitkräfte des Britischen Empire, die an der Westfront in deutsche Gefangenschaft geraten waren, dann wurden gestorbene Kriegsgefangene auf dem Zehrensdorfer Friedhof bestattete
20th century Zehrensdorf Indian Cemetery: Zehrensdorf Indian Cemetery ist ein deutscher Soldatenfriedhof für indische kriegsgefangene Soldaten des Ersten Weltkriegs, die letzte Ruhestätte für 206 indische Soldaten, die in der rassistischen deutshen Kriegsgefangenschaft verstarben
Since 1933 development of NSDAP's German Luftwaffe, then in Spanish fascists' war: 30 April 2020: James S. Corum explains how Germany's Luftwaffe and 'Legion Condor 1936–39' develop Blitzkrieg in Franco's war, showing 1936 - 1939 development of NSDAP's German Luftwaffe in Spanish fascists' war against the Republic, to hone and develop their tactics, train their officers, and to become the most practised air force in the world at conducting close support of ground troops, as in effect this proved to be the training ground for the 'Blitzkrieg' which would be unleashed across Europe in the years that followed - In July 1936 'Reich Air Travel Ministry' used Ju 52s, flown by 'Deutsche Luft Hansa' pilots to carry the Franco's army of Africa from Spanish Morocco to Spain, as this mission became known as 'Operation Magic Fire', and as since October 1936 the 'Kriegsmarine' provided various surface ships, coordinated the movement of German supplies to Spain, dispatched German U-boats to Spanish waters - Since 17 July 1936 history of NSDAP's military aid to Spain
Since 1935 'Oberkommando des Heeres' building systems for new wars of aggression in Zossen's 'Wünsdorf': Since 1935 'Oberkommando des Heeres', the High Command of the German Army during NSDAP ruled German empire, founded as a part of Hitler's re-militarisation of Germany contrary to all international treaties and obligations since 1914-1918 WWI, as from 1938 OKH was, together with OKL (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, High Command of the Air Force) and OKM (Oberkommando der Marine, High Command of the Navy), formally subordinated to the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, High Command of the Armed Forces), with the exception of the Waffen-SS, located in Zossen town's - about 30 kilometres south of Berlin - 'Wünsdorf', hosting the underground headquarters of the German Wehrmacht (OKW) and Army's High Command (OKH), where since 1933 independent armored penetrations were trained and executed by the Germans, a technique later called 'Blitzkrieg', using innovative combined arms tactics and also radios in all of the tanks to provide a new level of tactical flexibility and power, and where since 1937 bunker systems were built - Since 1938 'Oberkommando der Wehrmacht', the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of NSDAP ruled Germany and replacing the 'Reich War Ministry', having nominal oversight over the 'Heer' (army), the 'Kriegsmarine' (navy), and the 'Luftwaffe' (air force)
21th century Zossen Holocaust denial and neo-Nazi violence: 2008-2011 Zossen, wo im Zentrum der Stadt Stolpersteine zum Gedenken an die während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus ermordeten Bewohner verlegt werden, und wobei ein städtischer Mitarbeiter von einem Holocaustleugner tätlich angegriffen witd. woraufhin der Holocaustleugner in der Folgezeit in diesem Haus ein Geschäft betreibt
January 2010 neo-Nazi arson attack in Zossen, and 2011 second trial: 20. Januar 2010: Plötzlich stand das Gebäude einer brandenburgischen Bürgerinitiative in Zossen in Flammen, wo sich im Inneren eine Ausstellung über das jüdische Leben im Ort befand, und nun hat ein Rechtsextremer zugegeben, das Feuer gelegt zu haben - Im Januar 2010 brannte das von dem gegen rechtsextreme Umtriebe in der Stadt engagierten Verein 'Zossen zeigt Gesicht' genutzte Haus der Demokratie nach Brandstiftung durch einen jugendlichen neo-Nazi ab, Reste wurden wenige Wochen später abgerissen, dann wurde der Täter wurde aufgrund mangelnder Reife freigesprochen, aber später wurde Daniel T., der den Jugendlichen angestiftet hatte, am 1. Dezember 2011 u. a. wegen Anstiftung zur Brandstiftung und Volksverhetzung zu 3 Jahren und 8 Monaten Haft verurteilt
30 Mai 2019 Brandenburgs 'tax haven Zossen': 30 Mai 2019: Brandenburgs 'tax haven Zossen', der märkischen 17.000-Einwohner-Kleinstadt, wo mittlerweile unzählige Immobilien- und andere Unternehmen registriert sind, denn Zossen erhebt den niedrigstmöglichen Gewerbesteuersatz von gerade einmal gesetzlich vorgeschriebenen 200%
Prignitz district: Prignitz district, neighboring the district Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the district Ostprignitz-Ruppin in Brandenburg, the district Stendal in Saxony-Anhalt and the district Lüchow-Dannenberg in Lower Saxony
Perleberg´town: Perleberg´town located at Stepenitz tributary river of the Elbe, the capital of the district of Prignitz, today also located in the northwest of the German state of Brandenburg, and today with about 12,000 inhabitants in a mostly agricultural area, having a long history of troops being stationed here (most notably Prussian), but since Middle Ages first an administrative center for local government situated halfway between the two largest German cities Berlin and Hamburg and surrounded by the municipalities Karstädt to the north-west, Gross Pankow (Prignitz) to the north-east, Plattenburg to the south-east, the Ämter Bad Wilsnack/Weisen in the south, Lenzen-Elbtalaue in the west, and the town of Wittenberge to the south-west
Hanseatic League member Perleberg's history, 1618-1648 'Thirty Years' War, Prussian garrison town, world wars, and aftermath: History of Perleberg, as in the 14th century the town was at its height as part of the Hanseatic League, as in 1523 after the 1517 beginning of the Protestant Reformation movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, Perleberg was the muster point for an army assembled by Elector Joachim I in support of his brother-in-law Christian II of Denmark's attempt to recover his throne, and then 1618-1648 'Thirty Years' War' caused serious damage to the town of 3,500 inhabitants, only 300 survived - In 1860 wird Perleberg preußische Garnisonsstadt, 1904-1909 Neubau der kaiserlichen Kasernen, 1992 letzte Militäreinheiten der ehemaligen Gruppe der sowjetischen Streitkräfte in Deutschland verlassen den Garnisonsstandort
Brandenburg elections: Elections in Brandenburg
September 2014 Brandenburg state election: 14 September 2014 Brandenburg state election - 14/15. September: Vorläufiges amtliches Ergebnis der Landtagswahl 2014 in Brandenburg
September 2019 Brandenburg state election: 1 September 2019 Brandenburg state election
Timeline and politics of Berlin: History and timeline of Berlin since foundation in 1163
18 January 1871 Berlin becomes capital of the German Empire: Since 18 January 1871 Berlin becomes capital of the newly unified German Empire
1892 'German Peace Society' in Berlin: 1892 'German Peace Society', founded in 1892 in Berlin, still existing and known as the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft - Vereinigte KriegsdienstgegnerInnen (DFG-VK, German Peace Society - United War Resisters)
Since 1918 Stab-in-the-back myth: Die Metapher vom 'Dolchstoß von hinten' wurde in einem Artikel der Neuen Zürcher Zeitung vom 17. Dezember 1918 einer größeren Öffentlichkeit weitergeben, tatsächlich lange zuvor von Paul von Hindenburg, tatsächlich eine Lebenslüge - seit Monaten zuvor) von Paul von Hindenburg und vor allem von Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff (Stellvertreter Paul von Hindenburgs als Chef der dritten Obersten Heeresleitung) mit in der letzten Kriegsperiode bestimmendem Einfluss auf die deutsche Kriegführung und Politik, maßgeblich verantwortete für die gescheiterte deutsche Frühjahrsoffensive 1918 und weitere Fehlschläge angesicht der Überlegenheit der Alllierten seit Kriegseintritt 1917 der Nordamerikaner nach Neuauflage des deutschen unbeschränktem U-Boot Kriegs - und daher einer der Väter der Dolchstoßlegende, zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik in der völkischen Bewegung, Beteiligung 1920 am Kapp-Putsch und 1923 am Hitler-Putsch
15 January 1919 war resisters Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht assassinated: 15 January 1919 war resisters Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht assassinated in Berlin by 'Freikorps' used by SPD leaders
8 October 1919 USPD's Hugo Haase assassinated: On 8 October 1919 USPD's Hugo Haase (29.9.1863-7.11.1919), who was walking into the Reichstag but was shot by Johann Voss as he entered the building and died on 7 November - Hugo Haases, verheiratet mit Thea Lichtenstein (1869-1937) aus Szczytno, gemeinsamer Sohn, der Neurologe Ernst Haase arbeitete im Krankenhaus Moabit und Tiergarten, gab 1929 einige Schriften aus dem Nachlass des Vaters heraus, bis ihm 1938 die Nationalsozialisten die Approbation entzogen und er über England in die USA emigrierte unter Verlust des größten Teil von Hugo Haases Nachlass, während die beiden Enkeltöchter infolge der nationalsozialistischen Machtübernahme nach Palästina auswanderten und sich einem sozialistischen Kibbuz anschlossen
Since 1931 Reinhard Heydrich's career in the SS: Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich's career in the SS, born in 1904 in Halle an der Saale to composer and opera singer Richard Bruno Heydrich and his wife Elisabeth, as his father was protestant and his mother was Roman Catholic, as his forenames were patriotic musical tributes with 'Reinhard' referring to his father's opera 'Amen', and with 'Tristan' stems from Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, then in the 1920th naval career, then since August 1931 in the SS, Gestapo and SD, since 1936 consolidating the police forces and leaving the Catholic Church in favour of the 'Gottgläubig movement'
February 1933 Reichstag fire: 27 February 1933 Reichstag fire, an arson attack on the Reichstag building, home of the German parliament in Berlin, precisely four weeks after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany - 1955 Testimony of SA-member Hans-Martin Lennings, published in July 2019, more than 80 years after the event
1933/1955/2019: 26/27 July 2019: When witness Hans-Martin Lennings and his colleagues of the Nazis' SA arrived with van der Lubbe at the Reichstag, he noticed 'a strange smell of burning and there were clouds of smoke billowing through the rooms', saying 1955 in an account confirmed by a Hanover court 'we were convinced that van der Lubbe could not possibly have been the arsonist, because according to our observation, the Reichstag had already been burning when we dropped him off there', as Reichstag blaze in Germany was used by Adolf Hitler used to claim a Communist plot and consolidate his influence with a crackdown
Since April 1933 NSDAP Germany's 'Gestapo' in Berlin: 26 April 1933 Nazi 'Gestapo' (secret police) headquartered in Berlin on Prinz-Albrecht-Straße, preceded by the 'Prussian Secret Police' since 1851
Since 1930s Gestapo Heinrich Müller in Berlin: Heinrich Müller - born in Munich in April 1900 to Catholic parents as his father had been a rural police official - was a high-ranking German Schutzstaffel SS and police official after World War I, who joined the Bavarian Police in 1919, was involved in the suppressions in the early post-war years, became head of the Munich Political Police Department, having risen quickly through the ranks, then in May 1933 was promoted to Polizeiobersekretär and again to Criminal Inspector in November 1933, then in April 1934 'Geheimen Staatspolizeiamtes in Berlin, then in September 1939 during military's invasion of Poland - when the Gestapo and other police organizations were consolidated under Heydrich into the 'Reich Security Main Office RSHA' - Müller was made chief of the RSHA 'Amt IV' (Office or Dept. 4) Gestapo, remaining for the majority of World War II in Europe the chief of the secret state police of NSDAP ruled Germany, as Müller was central in the planning and execution of the Holocaust and attended the January 1942 Wannsee Conference, which formalised plans for deportation and genocide of all Jews in German-occupied Europe, named by the NSDASP party the 'Final Solution to the Jewish Question'
Since 1930s Gestapo personnel and some known operations: Gestapo personnel and some operations
Since 1933 development of NSDAP's German Luftwaffe, then in Spanish fascists' war: 30 April 2020: James S. Corum explains how Germany's Luftwaffe and 'Legion Condor 1936–39' develop Blitzkrieg in Franco's war, showing 1936 - 1939 development of NSDAP's German Luftwaffe in Spanish fascists' war against the Republic, to hone and develop their tactics, train their officers, and to become the most practised air force in the world at conducting close support of ground troops, as in effect this proved to be the training ground for the 'Blitzkrieg' which would be unleashed across Europe in the years that followed - In July 1936 'Reich Air Travel Ministry' used Ju 52s, flown by 'Deutsche Luft Hansa' pilots to carry the Franco's army of Africa from Spanish Morocco to Spain, as this mission became known as 'Operation Magic Fire', and as since October 1936 the 'Kriegsmarine' provided various surface ships, coordinated the movement of German supplies to Spain, dispatched German U-boats to Spanish waters - Since 17 July 1936 history of NSDAP's military aid to Spain
Since 1935 'Oberkommando des Heeres' building systems for wars of aggression, near Berlin: Since 1935 'Oberkommando des Heeres', the High Command of the German Army during NSDAP ruled German empire, founded as a part of Hitler's re-militarisation of Germany contrary to all international treaties and obligations since 1914-1918 WWI, as from 1938 OKH was, together with OKL (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, High Command of the Air Force) and OKM (Oberkommando der Marine, High Command of the Navy), formally subordinated to the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, High Command of the Armed Forces), with the exception of the Waffen-SS, located in Zossen town's - about 30 kilometres south of Berlin - 'Wünsdorf', hosting the underground headquarters of the German Wehrmacht (OKW) and Army's High Command (OKH), where since 1933 independent armored penetrations were trained and executed by the Germans, a technique later called 'Blitzkrieg', using innovative combined arms tactics and also radios in all of the tanks to provide a new level of tactical flexibility and power, and where since 1937 bunker systems were built - Since 1938 'Oberkommando der Wehrmacht', the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of NSDAP ruled Germany and replacing the 'Reich War Ministry', having nominal oversight over the 'Heer' (army), the 'Kriegsmarine' (navy), and the 'Luftwaffe' (air force)
1945-1990 Berlin divided into four sectors: Greater Berlin was divided into four sectors by the Allies under the London Protocol of 1944, including the American sector, consisting of the boroughs of Neukölln, Kreuzberg, Tempelhof, Schöneberg, Steglitz, and Zehlendorf, the British sector, consisting of the boroughs of Tiergarten, Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf, and Spandau, the French sector, consisting of the boroughs of Wedding and Reinickendorf, the Soviet sector, consisting of the boroughs of Mitte, Prenzlauer Berg, Pankow, Weißensee, Friedrichshain, Lichtenberg, Treptow, and Köpenick, as first the Soviet victors of the Battle of Berlin immediately occupied all of Berlin, handing the American, British and French sectors to the American and British Forces in July 1945, as the French occupied their sector later, and as Berlin remained divided until reunification in 1990
1948 deterioration in inter-Allied cooperation within the council and breakdown: 1948 deterioration in inter-Allied cooperation within the council and breakdown
Since 1949 Berliner Ensemble after Brechts exile in the USA: Since 1949 'Berliner Ensemble', a German theatre company established by actress Helene Weigel and her husband playwright Bertolt Brecht in East Berlin, as in the time after Brecht's exile in the USA the company first worked at 'Deutsches Theater' and in 1954 moved to the 'Theater am Schiffbauerdamm', that was open for the 1928 premiere of 'The Threepenny Opera', since 1949 premiering with 'Mother Courage and Her Children' written in 1939, followed by 'The Caucasian Chalk Circle' written in 1944, 'Life of Galileo' written in 1938 and receiving its first theatrical production in German at the Zurich Schauspielhaus since September 1943, 'The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui' written in 1941, and 'Schweyk in the Second World War' written by Brecht in 1943 while in exile in California - Seit 1933 verließen Verfolgte und Entrechtete das NSDAP beherrschte Deutsche Reich zu Hunderttausenden (500.000 Menschen, einschließlich Lehrer und Erzieher, Publizisten, Schriftsteller, Wissenschaftler etc.), 360.000 der Exilanten stammten aus Deutschland, nach dem Anschluss Österreichs 1938 kamen ungefähr 140.000 Österreicher hinzu, wobei der weitaus größte Teil von ihnen (zwischen 80 und 90 %) jüdischer Abstammung war, und wobei mit dem Schritt in das Exil die Menschen versuchten, einer drohenden Inhaftierung, Verbringung in ein Konzentrationslager und Tötung zu entgehen - daß dies trotzdem geschehen konnte, zeigt z.B. das Schicksal von Anne Frank azs Frankfurt in Holland, Felix Nussbaum aus Osnabrück in Belgien im Juni 1944 von der Wehrmacht inhaftiert und nach Auschwitz-Birkenau gebracht -, und am 23. Oktober 1941 das 'Reichssicherheitshauptamt' unter Heinrich Himmler ein generelles Ausreiseverbot für Juden erlassen hatte, seitdem das NS-Regime seit 1938 in der Tschechoslowakei und seit 1939 in Polen und dann weiter den Massenmord begonnen hatte - Beteiligung von Exilanten an der militärischen Bekämpfung des NSDAP-Regimes und der Achsenmächte, so als Deserteure (wie z.B. das Opfer Walter Gröger vom NSDAP Militärricher Hans Filbinger) in der Résistance in Frankreich oder der Sowjetunion, als Soldaten oder in Hilfskorps der Briten und Amerikaner, Künstler beteiligten sich an der Propaganda gegen NSDAP und SS-Deutschland, im Nachkriegsdeutschland wurden Oppositionelle gegen das NSDAP Regime, wenn sie nach Deutschland zurückkehrten, dafür zum Teil massiv kritisiert, wie auch der von der CDU/CSU als 'Frahm' diffamierte Willy Brandt (K. Adenauer's Rede am 14. August und am 16. August 1961, der seinem Gegenkandidaten 'Brandt alias Frahm' nennt, und Franz Josef Strauß' Anspielung auf Brandts Exiljahre 'Eines wird man Herrn Brandt doch fragen dürfen: Was haben Sie zwölf Jahre lang draußen gemacht? Wir wissen, was wir drinnen gemacht haben'
June–November 1961 Berlin Crisis: June–November 1961 Berlin Crisis, the last major politic-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the former German capital city Berlin and of post–World War II Germany, as the crisis started when the USSR launched an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of all armed forces from Berlin including the Western armed forces in West Berlin and as the crisis culminated in the city's de facto partition with the East German erection of the Berlin Wall, and as the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union — the last to be attended by the Communist Party of China — was held in Moscow during the crisis - June 1961 Vienna Summit and the Berlin question, following the 1960 USA election and the January 1961 inauguration of John F. Kennedy, until the summer 1963 political crisis in the USA and his 22 November 1963 assassination in Texas, with an enormous impact on USA's public contributing to a growing distrust of governmental institutions, as the suspected perpetrator Lee Harvey Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby on 24 November, and as Kennedy was succeeded as president by Lyndon Johnson until January 1969
In and since the 1960s social and new political movements in Berlin and also in Germany: In and since the 1960s social and new political movements, grewing as younger people became disillusioned with the political 'establishment', worrying it was reminiscent of German empire's NSDAP rule past, as West Berlin became a center for these movements since many pensive and critical, 'left' leaning people would take residence in West Berlin to avoid the military draft that was in effect in the rest of West Germany - 1960s-1970s 'Außerparlamentarische Opposition' (German for extra-parliamentary opposition, commonly known as the APO), a political protest movement in West Germany forming a central part of the German student movement, as its membership consisted mostly of young people disillusioned with the grand coalition (Große Koalition) of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and as - since the coalition controlled 95% of the Bundestag, the APO provided a more effective outlet for student (and more) dissent
Seit Oktober 1965: Seit Oktober 1965 Oratorium in 11 Gesängen 'Die Ermittlung, ein Theaterstück des Dramatikers Peter Weiss, das den ersten Frankfurter Auschwitzprozess von 1963 bis 1965 mit den Mitteln des dokumentarischen Theaters thematisiert, mit Uraufführung in 15 Theatern in West- und Ostdeutschland auch an der 'Freien Volksbühne' in Berlin ab 14. Oktober 1965 - 'Eichmann in Jerusalem. Ein Bericht von der Banalität des Bösen', ein Buch von Hannah Arendt, das sie anlässlich des 1961 vor dem Bezirksgericht Jerusalem geführten Prozesses gegen den SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann verfasste, erstmals 1963 erschienen, nachdem in den 50iger Jahren die CDU Adenauer/Globke Regierung in Bonn in Zusammenarbeit mit der CIA aus den USA die Aufdeckung von Eichmanns Aufenthaltsort - Mercedes-Benz Mitarbeiter in Buenos Aires - und seine eventuelle Auslieferung an Israel zu verhindern suchte, dann ebenfalls noch die argentische Regierung und schließlich sogar mit Unterstützung der UN
Since 1970s/1980s reconstruction of the system of political economy: 1977/78 Krise und Auflösung der 'Projektgruppe Entwicklung des Marxschen Systems' (Das Kapitel vom Geld 1973, Theorien über den Mehrwert 1975, Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie 1978) infolge politischer Intrige seitens des Projektleiters seit Sommer 1977 nach verletzter Eitelkeit, Gegenangriff mithilfe eines WG-Miglieds und Psychologiestudenten mit doppeltem Spiel, außerdem zu der Zeit unzureichender Quellenlage zur Geschichte Israels, des Militärstaats 'Imperium Romanum', dann - nach dessen Selbstauflösung trotz von seinen Ideologen ausgedachter christlicher Staatsreligion, ausgehend von nicht verstandener jüdischer Geschichte und Kultur - des 'Sacrum Imperium Romanum' bis 1806 und der Nationalstaaten bis 2021, und damit vor allem zur Geschichte der Privateigentumsformen, die heute den globalen Kapitalismus, den Weltmarkt und das Verhältnis reicher Länder zu Ländern mit Gemeinwesen, die die europäische Entwicklung mit seinen Privateigentumsformen (und entsprechenden Kriegen) nicht mitgemacht sondern nur darunter gelitten haben und leiden
Since 1970s non-governmental environmental organization 'Greenpeace' and 'Greens' in West Germany: After in 1972 non-governmental environmental organization 'Greenpeace', then in over 55 countries and and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, in the 1970s and 1980s in West Germany a 'Green Party' was formed to organize and accommodate the anti-nuclear movement in Germany, and after peace movement activists and other new social movements had previously been active in the 'APO', as later in 1983, the 'German Green Party' was elected into the Bundestag still in Bonn, where it stood for the concept of movement and change - until today seen in new social movements - and as within only a few years, the 'Greens' gained political influence amid growing knowledge of natural foundations and the unity of man and nature
Since October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital: 3 October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital of the 'Federal Republic of Germany'
Since 1990 German reunification and Berlin's urban renewal: 1990 Wiedervereinigung in Berlin und Stadterneuerungsprogramm
Jews and Judaism in Berlin: Jews and Judaism in Berlin


Bremen state elections: State elections in Bremen
May 2019 Bremen state election: 26 May 2019 Bremen state election


History of Hamburg: History of Hamburg
Economy and media of Hamburg: Economy of Hamburg - Medien in Hamburg, 2020/21 mit einem Gesamtumsatz von 25 Mrd. Euro, wobei rund 70.000 Beschäftigte in 14.063 Unternehmen aus den Bereichen Werbung (51% der Unternehmen), Verlag (16%), Musik (9%), Filmwirtschaft (8%), Druck (4%), Rundfunk (1%) und in der Kulturwirtschaft (11%) tätig sind, zusätzlich rund 2000 Multimediaunternehmen, während Hamuburg außerdem ein wichtiger Standort ist für die Medienausbildung mit diversen Journalistenschulen und Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten im Bereich Medien - Nachdem seit 1945 das sozialdemokratische Verlagswesen neu organisiert worden war, mußten während der 1960er und 1970er Jahre viele der sozialdemokratischen Zeitungen ihr Erscheinen einstellen und es entstanden zahlreiche Minderheitsbeteiligungen an Verlagshäusern, die ab 1971 in der DDVG gebündelt wurden, so auch das Druck- und Verlagshaus Frankfurt am Main (Verlag der Frankfurter Rundschau)
Education in Hamburg:Education in Hamburg
Elections in Hamburg: Elections in Hamburg
Timeline of Hamburg: Timeline of Hamburg
Since 1669 St. Michael's Church: Since 1669 St. Michael's Church, one of Hamburg's five Lutheran main churches (Hauptkirchen) and one of the most famous churches in the city, as St. Michaelis is a landmark of the city and it is considered to be one of the finest Hanseatic Protestant baroque churches, accommodating five organs including a Marcussen organ, a large Steinmeyer organ with its 85 registers, 5 manuals and 6674 pipes, as in October 2008 St. Michael's received a new crypt organ, named after Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy - 1768–1788 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788) at the Michaeliskirche in Hamburg, who - following his father Johann Sebastian Bach - produced his most ambitious work, the oratorio 'Die Israeliten in der Wüste' (The Israelites in the Desert), a composition remarkable not only for its great beauty but for the resemblance of its plan to that of Felix Mendelssohn's 'Elijah'
Prior to WWI Hapag's chief tried to acted as mediator: Prior to World War I HAPAG's (Hamburg-America Line) general director Albert Ballin, which for that time was the world's largest shipping company, acted as mediator between the United Kingdom and the German Empire in the tense years prior to German empire's assault upon European countries, terrified that the company would lose its ships in the event of naval hostilities, and attempting to broker a deal whereby the United Kingdom and Germany would continue to race one another in passenger liners but desist in their attempts to best one another's naval fleets, as consequently the beginning of World War I deeply disillusioned him and he committed suicide in 1918 - Since August 1914 during World War I - as 'The Imperator' and the 'Vaterland' were briefly in service before the war - in 1914 the 'Vaterland' was caught in port at Hoboken in New Jersey at the beginning of German empire's aggression and interned by the USA, then seized and later renamed 'Leviathan' after the declaration of war on Germany following its restarted unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917, then served for the duration and beyond as a troopship, as in 1917 Hapag's liner 'Allemannia' was torpedoed by German submarine near Alicante and two people were lost
Since 1919 University of Hamburg: Since 1919 University of Hamburg
Since 1945 Hamburg after the Second World War: Hamburg after the Second World War 1939-1945
June and December 1982 Hamburg state election, Greens win 7,7%: 6 June 1982 Hamburg state election, Greens party wins 7,7% - 19 December 1982 Hamburg state election
June/July 2017 protests G20 against summit in Hamburg: G20 Hamburg summit protests June-July 2017 - 7–8 July 2017 G20 Hamburg summit in the city of Hamburg - 7 July 2017: Protesters reportedly clashed with police, torched patrol cars and blocked roads in the German city of Hamburg on Friday in fresh violence just before the start of the G20 summit - 7 July 2017: New York city mayor Bill De Blasio, one of Trump's sharpest critics, will take part in protests against the G20 summit in Hamburg and will be a keynote speaker on Saturday at a rally for human rights and democracy - 9 July 2017: Two nights of rioting, looting and transport chaos left many residents in Hamburg asking why their government had decided to hold the annual G20 summit with Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in a densely populated city with such a strong tradition of counter-cultural protest


Monasteries in Hesse and 'Lorsch Codex': Monasteries in Hesse and 'Lorsch Codex' - Since 764 Lorsch Abbey (the Imperial Abbey of Lorsch), about 10 km east of Worms, later one of the most renowned monasteries of the Carolingian Empire - About 1175-1195 'Lorsch Codex' consisting of 460 pages in large format containing more than 3800 entries, and important because it details the gifts given to the monastery and the possessions belonging to it, giving some of the first mention of cities of the Middle Ages in central Germany, and in particular in the Rhein-Neckar region, as over one thousand places are named - Since 736 Hersfeld Abbey, an important Benedictine imperial abbey in the town of Bad Hersfeld, founded by a disciple of Saint Boniface, as the clerics - because its location rendered it vulnerable to attacks from the Saxons - transferred it to Fulda, and some years later, in or about 769 after the defeat of the Saxons by the Franks, the archbishop of Mainz re-founded the monastery at Hersfeld - List of Carolingian (and earlier) monasteries
1524-1525 'German Peasants War' popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe: 1524-1525 German Peasants' War, a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe (the largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution since 1789), that failed because of intense opposition from the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers, as the survivors were fined and achieved few, if any, of their goals, and as - like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, the war consisted of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants and farmers, often supported by Anabaptist clergy, took the lead - 1525 Odenwälder Bauernheer während des Deutschen Bauernkrieges - List of peasant revolts, as their history spans over a period of over two thousand years, and as a variety of reasons fueled the emergence of the peasant revolt phenomenon, including tax resistance, social inequality, religious war, national liberation, resistance against serfdom, redistribution of land, and also more or less external factors such as plague and famine
1567-1806 Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt: 1567-1806 Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt
1567 founding of Hesse-Darmstadt and European war in Germany 1618-1648: Gründungsphase von Hessen-Darmstadt 1567–1596, Dreißigjähriger Krieg, Pest und Hungersnöte 1597–1661
1848-1849 National Assembly in Frankfurt in the German revolutions: National Assembly in Frankfurt in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
Elections and mayors of Frankfurt-am-Main since 19th century: Elections and mayors of Frankfurt-am-Main since 19th century
1349 second Judenschlacht: The second Judenschlacht of 1349
1721 Ghetto Fire: The Ghetto Fire of 1721
1914 University Frankfurt and 1923 Frankfurt School and critical theory: 18 October 1914 University Frankfurt
9/10 November 1938 Kristallnacht and Holocaust: 9/10 November 1938 Kristallnacht, as most of the synagogues in Frankfurt were severely damaged or destroyed by the NSDAP mob on Kristallnacht,including the synagogues at Alt Heddernheim 33, Börneplatz, Börnestraße, Conrad-Weil-Gasse, Freiherr-vom-Stein-Straße, Friedberger Anlage 5-6, Hermesweg 5-7, Inselgasse 9, Marktplatz Höchst, Obermainanlage 8, Ostendstraße 18,] Niederhofheim'sche Synagoge, Schloßstraße 5, and Unterlindau 21, and as the deportation of the Jewish residents to their deaths in the East quickened in pace after Kristallnacht, as their property and valuables were taken by the Gestapo before deportation, and as they were subjected to extreme violence during transport to the stations for the cattle wagons which carried them east, as most ended up in new ghettoes established by the Nazis such as the Warsaw Ghetto before their murder in camps such as Sobibor, Belzec and Treblinka
Since 1942 Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II: Since 1942 Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II
20th century journalist and resistance fighter Emil Carlebach, opposing NSDAP dictatorship since early 1934: 1914-2001 Emil Carlebach a Hessian Landtag member, a writer, and a journalist, who was sentenced to 3 years in prison for spreading anti-fascist union publications, then in 1937 sent to Dachau concentration camp, then imprisoned at Buchenwald in 1938, where he was active in the illegal resistance organization, then was to have been shot by the SS on 6 April 1945 for his efforts in the camp revolt but was hidden by other prisoners and survived till liberation, then after the liberation of the concentration camp, the prisoners from Buchenwald chose him as their spokesman, later becoming the vice-president of the International Buchenwald Committee, as in 1947, without explanation, the USA Military Government (general Clay) in Germany revoked Carlebach's publisher's license despite he was also a co-founder of the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime VVN (Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes) - Publikationen von Emil Carlebach
1977 'Röderberg-Reformschule' becomes 'Friedrich-Ebert-Schule Frankfurt/Main': 1977 'Röderberg-Reformschule' wird 'Friedrich-Ebert-Schule Frankfurt/Main', politisch gewollt u.a. von SPD Mitgliedern die aus deutscher Geschichte, der Entwicklung zum 1. Weltkrieg und Ebert-SPD unterstützten Kriegsverbrechen - angefangen Juli/August 1914 in Luxemburg, Belgien und Frankreich (German 'Schrecklichkeit'), dann barbarischem 'Stellungskrieg' mit hunderttausenden von Opfern, geächtetem und unmenschlichen Chemiewaffeneinsatz seit 1915 in Belgien bis 1917/18 gegen und in Italien durch den späteren GFM Erwin Rommel, weltweiter 'unrestricted submarine warfare' - und dann den Verfolgungen von Kriegsgegnern (um sie mit allen Mitteln zum Schweigen zu bringen) bis hin zu den Morden von Friedenskämpfern wie Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht, Hugo Haase und vielen anderen - Verbrechen die der NSDAP den Weg ebneten und den NSDAP-Organisationen die Orientierung boten - kaum etwas gelernt haben
History and timeline of Wiesbaden: History of Wiesbaden
Education and research in Darmstadt: Education in Darmstadt
Since 1971 Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences: Since 1971 Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences
Economy of Darmstadt: Economy of Darmstadt
Timeline and history of Darmstadt: Geschichte der Stadt Darmstadt
After WWII 'Schule in Klein-Auheim' in Hanau becomes 'Friedrich-Ebert-Schule': In der Folge von WWII wird aus der 'Schule in Klein-Auheim' eine 'Friedrich-Ebert-Schule', gewollt von Politikern die aus deutscher Geschichte, der Entwicklung zum 1. Weltkrieg und Ebert-SPD unterstützten Kriegsverbrechen - angefangen Juli/August 1914 in Luxemburg, Belgien und Frankreich (German 'Schrecklichkeit'), dann barbarischem 'Stellungskrieg' mit hunderttausenden von Opfern, geächtetem und unmenschlichen Chemiewaffeneinsatz seit 1915 in Belgien bis 1917/18 gegen und in Italien durch den späteren GFM Erwin Rommel, weltweiter 'unrestricted submarine warfare' - und dann den Verfolgungen von Kriegsgegnern (um sie mit allen Mitteln zum Schweigen zu bringen) bis hin zu den Morden von Friedenskämpfern wie Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht, Hugo Haase und vielen anderen - Verbrechen die der NSDAP den Weg ebneten und den NSDAP-Organisationen die Orientierung boten - kaum etwas gelernt haben
Since 12th century history and timeline of Giessen: History of Giessen since 12th century and todays international relations
Timeline of Kassel: Timeline of Kassel
In 1935 Henschel&Son began manufacturing Panzer I tanks and Tiger tanks for its 'Blitzkkrieg* war crimes: In the 20th century, early in 1935, Henschel&Son German company began manufacturing Panzer I tanks, during World War II responsible for license production of the Dornier Do 17Z medium bomber, and since 1939 for large-scale production of the Panzer III, as Henschel became the sole manufacturer of the Tiger I and alongside Porsche the Tiger II, as in 1945, the company had 8,000 workers working in two shifts each of 12 hours, and forced labour was used extensively, as the company's factories, which also manufactured narrow-gauge locomotives, were among the most important Allied bomber targets and were nearly completely destroyed during German empire's brutal World War, including the Holocaust - Panzerkampfwagen VI, ein schwerer deutscher Panzer der vom Alleinhersteller Henschel in Kassel von 1942 bis 1944 gefertigt und von der 'Wehrmacht' ab Spätsommer 1942 eingesetzt wurde - Jagdpanzer VI Jagdtiger, schwere Jagdpanzer, die als Abwandlung des Tiger II entstanden und während des Zweiten Weltkriegs des Deutschen Reiches seit Februar 1943 von den Firmen Krupp sowie Henschel & Sohn in Kassel, vom Oberkommando des Heeres bestellt, gebaut wurden
Seit 1933 Wegmann&Co.'s Ausbeutung von Zwangsarbeitern, Kriegsgefangenen und politischen Gefangenen, dann Zulieferer für Kampfpanzer Leopard: Das Unternehmen Wegmann & Co. spezialisierte sich in den 30er Jahren des 19. Jh. auf Reisezugwagen und militärische Fahrzeuge, und während der Zeit der nationalsozialistischen Diktatur war die Ausbeutung von Zwangsarbeitern, Kriegsgefangenen und politischen Gefangenen Teil der Unternehmenspolitik von August Bode, des späteren Wehrwirtschaftsführers, und dann - während der Wiederbewaffnung nach kaum beendeter Katastrope des 2. Weltkriegs - übernahm das Unternehmen in den 1960er Jahren die Entwicklung und den Bau von Turmsystemen für Gerätschaften der neu gegründeten Bundeswehr, darunter der Kampfpanzer Leopard 1 und 2, auch exportiert an mindestens 19 Staaten und Regime


Economy and agriculture of Lower Saxony: Ecnomy of Lower Saxony, as the GDP of the state was 229.5 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 8.7% of German economic output, as agriculture, strongly weighted towards the livestock sector, has always been a very important economic factor in the state, as the north and northwest of Lower Saxony are mainly made up of coarse sandy soil that makes crop farming difficult and therefore grassland and cattle farming are more prevalent in those areas, as Lower Saxony is home to one in five of Germany's cattle, one in three of the country's pigs, and 50% of its hens, as wheat, potatoes, rye, and oats are among the state's present-day arable crops, as towards the south and southeast, extensive loess layers in the soil left behind by the last ice age allow high-yield crop farming, as one of the principal crops there is sugar beet, and consequently, the Land has a big food industry, mainly organized in small and medium-sized enterprises
Economy and manufacturing of Lower Saxony: Economy of Lower Saxony, as manufacturing is another large part of the regional economy, as the car maker Volkswagen with its five production plants within the state's borders still remains the single biggest private-sector employer, as due to the Volkswagen Law, which has recently been ruled illegal by the European Union's high court, the state of Lower Saxony is still the second largest shareholder, owning 20.3% of the company, and as thanks to the importance of car manufacturing in Lower Saxony, a thriving supply industry is centred around its regional focal points, as other mainstays of the Lower Saxon industrial sector include aviation, shipbuilding (such as Meyer Werft), biotechnology, and steel, as medicine plays a major role, as Hanover and Göttingen have two large University Medical Schools and hospitals and Otto Bock in Duderstadt is the word leader in prosthetics
List of regions of Lower Saxony: List of regions of Lower Saxony
Cities in Lower Saxony: Cities in Lower Saxony
Since October 1946 results of local elections in Lower Saxony: Seit 13. Oktober 1946 Ergebnisse der Kommunalwahlen in Niedersachsen
2011 local elections in Lower Saxony: 11. September 2011 Kommunalwahlen Niedersachsen
September 2016 local elections in Lower Saxony: 16. September 2016 Kommunalwahlen in Niedersachsen
September 2021 local elections in Lower Saxony: 12. September - 26. September 2021 Kommunalwahlen in Niedersachsen
Economy of Hanover: Economy of Hanover
Since 1333 Timeline of Hanover: Since 1333 Timeline of Hanover
1866 Hanover becomes part of Prussia: 1866 Hanover becomes part of Prussia
Since 1937 NDSAP mayors in Hanover, NSDAP's war since 1939 and the Holocaust in Hanover, Europe and northern Africa: After 1937 the lord mayor and the state commissioners of Hanover were members of the NSDAP, as a large Jewish population then existed in Hanover, as in October 1938 484 Hanoverian Jews of Polish origin were expelled to Poland, including the Grynszpan family with the Grynszpans' son Herschel in Paris at the time, learning of what was happening and driving to the German embassy in Paris and shootng the German diplomat Eduard Ernst vom Rath, as the the Nazis took this act as a pretext to stage a nationwide pogrom known as Kristallnacht, the synagogue of Hanover, designed in 1870 by Edwin Oppler in neo-romantic style, was burnt by the Nazis, and in September 1941 a ghettoisation of the remaining Hanoverian Jewish families began, and even before the Wannsee Conference Jews from Hanover were deported first to Riga, and fewer than 100 were still in the city when troops of the USA arrived on 10 April 1945 to occupy Hanover at the end of the war, as after the war a large group of Orthodox Jewish survivors of the nearby Bergen-Belsen concentration camp settled in Hanover


Economy and transport in Osnabrück: Economy and transport in Osnabrück
History and timeline of Osnabrück: History of Osnabrück, as the city initially developed as a marketplace with its name referring to a bridge in the northwestern 'Osning' region, the name of the Teutoburg Forest until the 19th century, as the city later became a member of the 'Hanseatic League', as at the end of the Thirty Years' War 1618–1648, the Peace of Westphalia was negotiated in Osnabrück and the nearby city of Münster, as the city is also known as the birthplace of anti-war novelist Erich-Maria Remarque and German-Jewish painter Felix Nussbaum, whose work gives a rare glimpse into the essence of one person among the victims of the Holocaust, who was born in Osnabrück in 1904, was arrested in Belgium after German forces including Nazi-general Erwin Rommel attacked in 1940, was subsequently taken to the Saint-Cyprien camp in France, managed to escape, later again arrested in 1944 by German armed forces, sent to the Mechelen transit camp, sent to Auschwitz and was murdered at the age of 39, as in 1998, the 'Felix Nussbaum Haus' designed by architect Daniel Libeskind opened its doors to exhibit the artworks of Felix Nussbaum
Timeline of Osnabrück since 8th century: : Timeline of Osnabrück since 8th century
1618/28-1648 catholic Imperial alliance's 'Petersburg' castle against Osnabrück's citizens: Seit 1618/28 'Petersburg', eine Zitadelle im Südosten der Stadt Osnabrück, die in der ersten Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges 1618-48 bestand und helfen sollte, die Gegenreformation in der Stadt durchzusetzen. Die Bevölkerung von Osnabrück und der evangelische Rat der Stadt empfanden die Petersburg als Bedrohung und nicht als Bauwerk zum eigenen Schutz. Denn trotz des Protests der Bevölkerung wurde ein Teil der Stadtmauer gegenüber der Burg abgerissen, dadurch ließen sich von ihr neben Feinden von außen ebenso die Einwohner unter Kontrolle halten. Am Ende des Dreißigjährigen Krieges ebneten die Osnabrücker die Wälle der ihnen verhassten Petersburg ein. Die letzten Überreste verschwanden, als die Stadt im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert erweitert wurde. An die Festung erinnern heute die Straßennamen 'An der Petersburg' und 'Petersburger Wall'
1976–2000 timeline of Osnabrück: 1976–2000 Chronik der Stadt Osnabrück


Since July 1998 'Felix Nussbaum Haus' by architect Daniel Libeskind to exhibit the artworks of Felix Nussbaum: Seit Juli 1998 Felix-Nussbaum-Haus Osnabrück, ein Museum im niedersächsischen Osnabrück. Es beherbergt mit mehr als 200 Werken die weltweit größte Sammlung seiner Bilder Felix Nussbaum, die in wechselnden Auszügen gezeigt werden. Das Gebäude wurde nach den Plänen des amerikanisch-jüdischen Architekten Daniel Libeskind errichtet, wobei das Felix-Nussbaum-Haus das erste Gebäude war, das von ihm erbaut und eröffnet wurde, gebaut mit wohl überlegter 'Architektursprache' und Nussbaum-Brücke (Nussbaum-Bridge) vom Altbau zum Neubau - 4. Dezember 2017: Die Architektur des Libeskind-Baus erzählt deutsch-jüdische Geschichte - 3. august 2020: Der Museumspreis der Niedersächsischen Sparkassenstiftung geht an das Museumsquartier in Osnabrück mit dem gelungenen Zusammenschluss des Felix-Nussbaum-Hauses, des Kulturgeschichtlichen Museums, der Villa Schlikker und des Akzisehauses unter dem Leitthema Frieden
21st century timeline of Osnabrück: Seit 2001 Chronik der Stadt Osnabrück


Geography of Osnabrück: Geography of Osnabrück
Bramsche/Kalkriese archeaological museum: Museum und Park Kalkriese, ein archäologisches Museum mit angeschlossenem Freilichtmuseum im Bramscher Ortsteil Kalkriese am Wiehengebirge im Osnabrücker Land. Die Anlage wurde gegründet, da die Fundregion Kalkriese darauf hinweist, dass hier im Jahr 9 n. Chr. einer der Schauplätze der Varusschlacht zwischen Arminius und Varus gewesen sein könnte - Fundregion Kalkriese, ein Areal in der Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke in Bramsche im Osnabrücker Land, in dem größere Mengen römischer Funde gemacht wurden. Es handelt sich neben dem Römerlager Hedemünden, dem Fundplatz Bentumersiel, dem Römischen Marschlager von Wilkenburg und dem Harzhorn um eine der wenigen größeren römischen Fundstellen in der Nordhälfte Deutschlands. Die Funde sind im Museum und Park Kalkriese ausgestellt - Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald), described as the Varian Disaster by Roman historians, took place in the 'Teutoburg Forest' in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic peoples ambushed Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus, as the alliance was led by Arminius, a Germanic officer of Varus's auxilia, who had acquired Roman citizenship and had received a Roman military education, which enabled him to deceive the Roman commander methodically and anticipate the Roman army's tactical responses


Economy of Lüneburg: Economy of Lüneburg
History and timeline of Lüneburg: History and timeline of Lüneburg
Since 956 Lüneburg in the Middle Ages and Hanseatic period: Since 956 Lüneburg in the Middle Ages and Hanseatic period
Lüneburg in the modern period to the end of the Second World War: Lüneburg in the modern period to the end of the Second World War
Institute of Ecology: Institute of Ecology
Sustainable Use of Natural Resources: Sustainable Use of Natural Resources - Leuphana Institute


Transport of Rügen: Transport of Rügen - Rügen Airport
Towns, municipalities and villages of Rügen island: Towns, municipalities and villages of Rügen island
Economy and education in Bergen: Wirtschaft, Infrastruktur und Schulen in Bergen
Economy of Rostock: Economy of Rostock
Timeline of Rostock: Timeline of Rostock since 1218
Timeline of Rostock in the 20th and 21st century: Timeline of Rostock in the 20th and 21st century
History and timeline of Schwerin: History and timeline of Schwerin
Stralsund city: Stralsund city, officially the Hanseatic City of Stralsund, in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern located at the southern coast of the Strelasund sound of the Baltic Sea separating Rügen from the mainland, as the Western Pomeranian city has been the capital of the Vorpommern-Rügen district since the 2011 district reforms, today the fourth-largest city of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and, together with Greifswald, Stralsund forms an Oberzentrum, one of four high-level urban centres of the region, as Stralsund in the Medival ages was granted city rights in 1234 becoming one of the most prosperous members of the Hanseatic League until in 1628, during the 'Thirty Years' War', the city came under Swedish rule and remained so until the upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars, as from 1815 to 1945 Stralsund became part of Prussian kingdom (dutch since 1526, kingdom since 1701, after knocked down 1848/49 revolution violently establishing a second German empire since 1870/71 to wage WW1 and WW2), as Stralsund city's main industries today are shipbuilding, fishing, mechanical engineering, tourism, life sciences, services and high tech industries, especially information technology and biotechnology
Education and transport in Stralsund: Education and transport in Stralsund
History and timeline of Stralsund: History and timeline of Stralsund


History of North Rhine-Westphalia: History of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
1848-1849 Rhineland in the German revolutions of 1848–1849: Rhineland in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
September 2020 local elections in North Rhine-Westphalia: 13. September 2020 Kommunalwahlen in Nordrhein-Westfalen
25 January 2021 NRW government explains its policy neither speaking Latin nor Kauderwelsch or Gibberish: 25. Januar 2021: Am 19. Januar 2021 haben sich 'Bundeskanzlerin und die Ministerpräsidentinnen und -präsidenten der Länder auf eine Verlängerung der bisherigen Corona-Maßnahmen bis zum 14. Februar 2021 verständigt', und NRW informiert die Menschen des Bundeslandes mit einer 'Verordnung zum Schutz vor Neuinfizierungen mit dem Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Coronaschutzverordnung – CoronaSchVO) vom 7. Januar 2021 in der ab dem 25. Januar 2021 gültigen Fassung: Auf Grund von § 32 in Verbindung mit § 28 Absatz 1, § 28a Absatz 1, 3 bis 6, § 73 Absatz 1a Nummer 6 und 24 des Infektionsschutzgesetzes vom 20. Juli 2000 (BGBl. I S. 1045), von denen § 28 Absatz 1 zuletzt durch Artikel 1 Nummer 16 des Gesetzes vom 18. November 2020 (BGBl. I S. 2397) geändert, § 28a durch Artikel 1 Nummer 17 des Gesetzes vom 18. November 2020 (BGBl. I S. 2397) eingefügt, § 73 Absatz 1a Nummer 6 zuletzt durch Artikel 1 Nummer 26 des Gesetzes vom 19. Mai 2020 (BGBl. I S. 1010) und § 73 Absatz 1a Nummer 24 zuletzt durch Artikel 1 Nummer 23 des Gesetzes vom 18. November 2020 (BGBl. I S. 2397) geändert worden sind, sowie von § 10 des Infektionsschutz- und Befugnisgesetzes vom 14. April 2020 (GV. NRW. S. 218b) verordnet das Ministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales: § 1 Allgemeine Grundsätze (1) Zur Fortsetzung der Bekämpfung der SARS-CoV-2-Pandemie und insbesondere zur Gewährleistung ausreichender medizinischer Versorgungskapazitäten werden mit dieser Verordnung Maßnahmen angeordnet, die die Infektionsgefahren wirksam und zielgerichtet begrenzen und Infektionswege nachvollziehbar machen. (2) Jede in die Grundregeln des Infektionsschutzes einsichtsfähige Person ist verpflichtet, sich so zu verhalten, dass sie sich und andere keinen vermeidbaren Infektionsgefahren aussetzt
Economy of North Rhine-Westphalia: Economy of North Rhine-Westphalia
History and timeline of North Rhine-Westphalia: History of North Rhine-Westphalia
History of districts, cities and towns in North Rhine-Westphalia: History of cities in North Rhine-Westphalia - Towns in North Rhine-Westphalia
Aachen city: Aachen city, with around 249,000 inhabitants in 2020, the 13th-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, the westernmost city in Germany bordering Belgium and the Netherlands to the west, located between Maastricht in the Netherlands and Liège in Belgium in the west, as the Wurm River flows through the city, and as - together with Mönchengladbach - Aachen is the only larger German city in the drainage basin of the Meuse, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea - History of Aachen, as Flint quarries on the Lousberg, Schneeberg, and Königshügel, first used during Neolithic times 3000–2500 BC, attest to the long occupation of the site of Aachen, as do recent finds under the modern city's Elisengarten pointing to a former settlement from the same period
Timeline of Aachen: Timeline of Aachen
History, economy and timeline of Stolberg: Stolberg, first mentioned in documents from the 12th century, became an important centre of brass production when Protestant brass producers resettled to Stolberg from Aachen around 1600 to escape religious persecution and economic restrictions, as in the 20th century after two German empire's world wars Stolberg hosted the headquarter of German Neo-Nazi organization Wiking-Jugend ('Viking youth') - Im der ersten Zeit des 21. Jahrhunderts ist schließt die Wirtschaft und das produzierende Gewerbe Stolbergs große Industrieunternehmen ein wie die Schwermetall Halbzeugwerk GmbH&Co. KG, die größte Vorwalzbandproduzentin der Welt, weitere metallverbeitende Industrien wie u.a. die Bleihütte BBH, Glas und Pharmaprodukte herstellende Firmen, wobei wegen der beengten Tallage Stolbergs auch viele Unternehmen im Vichttal vor große Probleme gestellt waren und sind - 2021 Hochwasser im Vichttal - Seit Juli 2021 Hochwasser in West- und Mitteleuropa mit schweren Sturzfluten bzw. Überschwemmungen in mehreren Flußgebieten, besonders in Teilen Belgiens, der Niederlande, Österreichs, der Schweiz, in etlichen deutschen Bundesländern wie NRW, und weiterer angrenzender Länder, vor allem der European Union
About 313 Catholic diocese of Cologne established: About 313 (year of the first known Bishop of the diocese according to the chronology of ecclesial jurisdictions of Germany) Catholic Diocese of Cologne, followed by Mainz, Trier (Moselle), Strasbourg in the Rhine valley - In February 313 Roman emperor Constantine I met with Licinius in Milan to develop the Edict of Milan, which stated that Christians should be allowed to follow their faith without oppression - 285-315 Maternus of Cologne, first known bishop of Cologne, founder of the diocese of Tongeren, active during the period of the Donatist controversy, as in 313 Maternus and other bishops were summoned to Rome by Emperor Constantine to consult regarding the status of Bishop Caecilianus of Carthage, also taking part in the Synod of Arles in 314 while a legend grew in Trier concerning Maternus and a popular cult developed in Cologne - May-August 325 First Council of Nicaea of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now Iznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325, as this ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly, and as its main accomplishments were 'settlement' of the divine nature of 'God the Son' and his relationship to 'God the Father'
716 Battle of Cologne during the battles of the Frankish War 715-718: 716 Battle of Cologne during the battles of the Frankish War 715-718
1824 unfinished 'Kölner Dom': 1824 der unfertige Kölner Dom zur Zeit Heinrich Heines - 1843/1844 Heinrich Heine reist durch den Teutoburger Wald, spendet in Detmold Geld für den gerade begonnenen Bau des Hermannsdenkmals, und denkt - bei zu der Zeit noch unzulänglicher Quellenlage - auch darüber nach, was wohl geschehen wäre, wenn der Cherusker Arminius das Römische Sklavenhalterreich in einem Verteidigungskampf der Region zu Beginn des 1. Jhs. nicht besiegt hätte, bemerkt allerdings spöttisch 'Sie stelzen noch immer so steif herum, so kerzengrade geschniegelt, als hätten sie verschluckt den Stock, womit man sie einst geprügelt', reist nach einem Besuch des Geburtshauses seines Großvaters - der nicht Willy hieß - in Bückeburg weiter nach Hannover, um am Ziel seiner Reise in Hamburg sich bei seiner Mutter einzuquartieren, die - eine dortige Heinrich-Heine-Buchhandlung, eine 'Lange Reihe' mit manchen Fahrradfahrern glücklicherweise - einen Bahnhof leider noch nicht kennenlernen konnte, leider auch nicht die 'Rounds Mountain' (mit schöner Rundsicht), weil die 'Hamburg-American Line transatlantic shipping enterprise' erst in 1847 in Hamburg gegründet wurde
1942-1945 German city of Cologne bombed by the Allies during Nazi Germany's World War II: May 1942 - March 1945 German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during Nazi Germany's World War II
Government and mayors of Düsseldorf: Government and mayors of Düsseldorf
Timeline of Düsseldorf since 8th century: Timeline of Düsseldorf since 8th/12th century
Since Roman and 'Holy Roman Empire' Jews pushed into roles considered socially inferior such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending: Since the formation of the 'Holy Roman Empire' and Christian territorial states, restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities, as local rulers and church officials closed many professions to Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending, occupations only tolerated as a 'necessary evil', as catholic doctrine held that lending money for interest was a sin, according to Jesus Christus and the so-called 'New Testament', and it was an occupation forbidden to Christians, amid constantly growing financial needs of the feudal lords, their wars, conquests and then gobal and colonial conquests including Portuguese and Spanish conquests, when catholics developped the 'Holy Inquisition' to detect 'conversos'
Since Roman empire's colonial conquests antisemitic laws in Europe and Germany: Since Roman empire's colonial conquests 'Antisemitisches Recht' (antisemitic laws) in Europe and Germany
Since 1285 St. Sebastianus 'Bruderschaft Kaiserswerth' militia: 1285 St. Sebastianus 'Bruderschaft Kaiserswerth' militia formed
1500-1808 expensive protection letters ('Schutzbriefe') for Jews to fill up sovereign's coffers: In den Jahren von 1500–1808 mussten die Düsseldorfer Juden - wie überall in Jülich und Berg - einen so genannten Schutzbrief vorweisen, um sesshaft werden zu können, wobei das Schutzgeld über die Landjudenschaft eingeholt und an die landesherrliche Kasse entrichtet wurde, und die meisten der erstmaligen urkundlichen Beweise kommunaler oder landesherrlicher Provenienz, die jüdische Familien in den bergischen, Düsseldorf benachbarten Städten belegen, fallen überwiegend in die Zeit nach 1500, wie beispielsweise für Mülheim an der Ruhr (1508), Solingen (1568), Ratingen (1592), (Düsseldorf-)Kaiserswerth (1611) oder für die Herrschaft Hardenberg (1678), ein großer Teil dann aber erst ins späte 17. und frühe 18. Jahrhundert
Since 1792 'Alte Synagoge' in Düsseldorf: Die Alte Synagoge in Düsseldorf, erbaut nach dem Vorbild der ältesten Synagoge Englands von 1699/1701, wurde am 24. März 1792 eingeweiht und später durch die Große Synagoge, etwas entfernt, ersetzt - Die Geschichte der Düsseldorfer Juden reicht in ihren Anfängen bis in das späte Mittelalter zurück, doch erst seit dem ausgehenden 17. Jahrhundert war eine dauerhafte Ansiedlung von Juden möglich, deren Gemeinde während der Industrialisierung stark anwuchs mit einen Anteil von rund 1% der Gesamtbevölkerung, in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus zerstört wurde als ein Großteil der Düsseldorfer Juden emigrieren mußte oder ermordet wurde, und ist mit ca. 7087 Personen als Jüdische Gemeinde Düsseldorf zu Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts die größte Gemeinde in NRW sowie nach der Jüdischen Gemeinde zu Berlin und München und Oberbayern die drittgrößte Gemeinde in Deutschland
Since Middle Ages dates of Jewish emancipation, worldwide and in Germany 1812-1933: Dates of Jewish emancipation, since 1264 in Poland, since 1790 in the USA and in Prussia and the German empire 1812-1933
Since 1815 Prussians in power, crushed European revolutions and German empire: Kingdom of Prussia until 1918, a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 - German Confederation ('Deutscher Bund'), an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806, as the German revolutions of 1848–49, motivated by liberal, democratic, socialist and nationalist sentiments, attempted to transform the Confederation into a unified German federal state with a liberal constitution, but the ruling body of the Confederation, dissolved on 12 July 1848, was re-established in 1850 after the revolution was crushed by Austria, Prussia and other states
1875 Düsseldorf premiere of the Missa Solemnis of L. v. Beethoven: 1875 Düsseldorf premiere of the Missa Solemnis of L. v. Beethoven
1903-1938 the 'Große Synagoge' in Düsseldorf, Leo Baeck and 'Galileo Galilei und das Ende des Mittelalters': 1903-1938 die Große Synagoge an der Kasernenstraße in Düsseldorf wurde im Jahre 1903 nach den Entwürfen des Architekten Josef Kleesattel im Stil der Neoromanik erbaut, am 10. November 1938 in Brand gesteckt und die Ruine wurde am 29. November desselben Jahres abgebrochen - Von 1907 bis 1912 amtierte Rabbiner Leo Baeck aus Leszno (Lissa) in Polen in Düsseldorf, wurde 1912 Gemeinderabbiner in Berlin, wo er ab 1913 auch als Dozent an der Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums wirkte, war Feldrabbiner im 1. Weltkrieg des Deutschen Reiches, wurde 1943 in das Konzentrationslager Theresienstadt verschleppt, wo er als 'Prominenter mit besonderen Rechten' lebte (während die 'Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland“ von der Gestapo geschlossen wurde), hielt, soweit bekannt, im Dezember 1944 im Ghetto seinen letzten Vortrag mit dem Titel 'Galileo Galilei und das Ende des Mittelalters', und starb 1956 in London
1898-1973 career of German lawyer Hans Josef Maria Globke and the Holocaust: Since early 20th century career of German lawyer Hans Josef Maria Globke (1898-1973) from Düsseldorf, who served as a judge in the police court of Aachen, then became vice police-chief of Aachen in 1925, then in December 1929 entered the Higher Civil Service in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior, then in November 1932 wrote a set of rules to make it harder for Germans of Jewish ancestry in Prussia to change their last names to less obviously Jewish names followed by guidelines for their implementation, then helped to formulate the 'Enabling Act' of 1933, which effectively gave Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers, then co-authored the official legal commentary on the new Reich Citizenship Law, one of the Nuremberg Laws introduced at the Nazi Party Congress in September 1935 which revoked the citizenship of German Jews, wrote a legal annotation on the antisemitic Nuremberg Race Laws that placed the NSDAP on a firmer legal ground, setting the path to the Holocaust, Globke designed the 'J' imprinted in the passports of Jews, had a leading role preparing the Law for the Defense of German Blood and Honor in 1938, then in 1940 asked for NSDAP membership, then Globke served as chief legal adviser to the Office for Jewish Affairs since 1941 headed by Adolf Eichmann and that performed the bureaucratic implementation of the Holocaust the Civil Status Act November 1937, Globke also served as chief legal adviser to the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of Interior, headed by Adolf Eichmann, that performed the bureaucratic implementation of the Holocaust, then since 1949 in West Germany as CDU member second career becoming a high-ranking civil servant and politician as Secretary of State and Chief of Staff of the West German Chancellery from 28 October 1953 to 15 October 1963, responsible for running the Chancellery, recommending the people who were appointed to roles in the government, coordinating the government's work, and for the establishment and oversight of the West German intelligence service and for all matters of national 'security'
1933–1945 National Socialism and the Holocaust in Düsseldorf: Seit 11. April 1933 in Düsseldorf Verbrennung 'unerwünschter Literatur' durch die Deutsche Studentenschaft, unter anderem von Büchern Heinrich Heines, am 10. November 1938 wurden in der Pogromnacht die Synagogen auf der Kasernenstraße und in Benrath niedergebrannt, die jüdische Bevölkerung der Stadt wurde verfolgt und mindestens 18 Personen wurden ermordet, die Deportation von fast 6000 Juden aus dem gesamten Regierungsbezirk lag in den Händen des 'Judenreferats' der Staatspolizeileitstelle Düsseldorf, am 27. Oktober 1941 fuhr der erste Zug mit insgesamt 1003 Düsseldorfer und niederrheinischen Juden in die deutschen Konzentrationslager im besetzten Polen, über 2200 Düsseldorfer Juden wurden ermordet - 1933–1945 Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust in Düsseldorf, Globkes Heimatort und eine der Wirkungsstätten eines deutschen Juristen, der NSDAP und der SS
21st century Düsseldorf: 21st century Düsseldorf
Economy and transport in Wuppertal: Economy and transport in Wuppertal
Solingen city: Solingen city
2013 CDU's Helmut Kohl discussed secret plan with UK's Thatcher in 1982 to reduce number of Turks living in West Germany by 50%: 1 August 2013: Former Chancellor Helmut Kohl (CDU) discussed a secret plan with Margaret Thatcher in 1982 to reduce the number of Turks living in West Germany by 50%
Demographics of Duisburg: Demographics of Duisburg
Education in Duisburg: Bildung und Schulen in Duisburg
Harbours in Duisburg: Hafen in Duisburg - Schiffahrt Duisburg
Politics of Duisburg: Politik in Duisburg
Timeline of Duisburg: Timeline of Duisburg since 1290
Since 1845/46 Cologne–Duisburg railway: Since 1845/46 Cologne–Duisburg railway
1941-1945 Bombing of Duisburg in World War II: 1941-1945 Bombing of Duisburg in World War II
Since 1964/1987 Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum - Center for International Sculpture: Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum - Center for International Sculpture - in Duisburg with a a substantial number of works by other 20th-century sculptors, including Ernst Barlach, Käthe Kollwitz, Ludwig Kasper, Hermann Blumenthal, Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Henri Laurens, Jacques Lipchitz, Alexander Rodtschenko, Laszlo Péri, Naum Gabo, Antoine Pevsner, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Max Ernst, complemented by a considerable number of paintings by 19th- and 20th-century German artists, as the museum circulates its substantial collection by re-installing works on an annual basis, and as its history since 1964/1987 - following World War II - is connected with museum directors Gerhard Händler, Siegfried Salzmann, Christoph Brockhaus, Raimund Stecker, and Söke Dinkla since 2013 - 23. August 2019: Am 24. August wird Christoph Brockhaus, von Lübeck über Bielefeld mit 2 kleineren Brüdern im Herbst 1958 nach Lemgo (und Detmold, Jugendorchester DJO) gekommen, dann zum Studium nach Hamburg, Wien, Austin (Texas) und Heidelberg, Jahre alt, der als langjähriger Direktor das Lehmbruck Museum mit seiner von demokratischen 68-Idealen geprägten Art mitgeprägt hat
Education and schools in Oberhausen: Liste der Schulen in Oberhausen
Timeline of Oberhausen: History and timeline of Oberhausen
1543 Bonn's printing press in operation, 1597 Bonn becomes capital of the Electorate of Cologne: 1543 Bonn's printing press in operation, 1597 Bonn becomes capital of the Electorate of Cologne
Since 1818/1822 19th century Bonn as town becomes part of the Rhine Province in 1822:
1841-1843 (1848/1849) mouthpiece of the democratic movement in Germany 'Rhenish Newspaper': 1841-1843 'Rhenish Newspaper', a 19th-century German newspaper edited most famously by Karl Marx. The paper was launched in January 1842 and terminated by Prussian state censorship in March 1843 - Unter Marxens Chefredaktion formulierte die RZ schnell radikale, revolutionäre demokratische Ideen. Sie wurde eines der wichtigsten Sprachrohre der demokratischen Bewegung in Deutschland. - 1848/1849 'New Rhenish Newspaper. Organ of Democracy', but soon suppressed by Prussian state censorship - Am 19. Mai 1849 stellte die Neue Rheinische Zeitung nach 301 Ausgaben ihr Erscheinen ein, nachdem die letzten Aufstände der Märzrevolution von Preußen im Rheinland niedergeschlagen worden waren. Marx ging erneut ins Exil, diesmal nach London
Since 1992/1994 'UN Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat' headquartered in Bonn: Since 1992/1994 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change - secretariat headquartered in Bonn - established an international environmental treaty to combat 'dangerous human interference with the climate system', in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. It was signed by 154 states at the UN Conference on Environment and Development, informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. It entered into force on 21 March 1994. The treaty called for ongoing scientific research and regular meetings, negotiations, and future policy agreements designed to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner
21st century city of Bonn timeline: 21st century city of Bonn timeline
Economy of Hagen: Economy of Hagen
History and timeline of Hagen: History and timeline of Hagen
Solingen city: Solingen city
2013 CDU's Helmut Kohl discussed secret plan with UK's Thatcher in 1982 to reduce number of Turks living in West Germany by 50%: 1 August 2013: Former Chancellor Helmut Kohl (CDU) discussed a secret plan with Margaret Thatcher in 1982 to reduce the number of Turks living in West Germany by 50%
'Armadio della vergogna', un'espressione del giornalismo relativo a crimini di guerra commessi sul territorio italiano durante la campagna d'Italia (1943-1945) dalle truppe nazifasciste - Depuis 16 août 1875 monument d'Hermann ('Hermannsdenkmal' - 'sapere aude'), un monument situé en Rhénanie-du-Nord-Westphalie en Allemagne dans le sud de la forêt de Teutberg, qui se trouve au sud-ouest de Detmold dans le district de Lippe. Il se dresse sur le mont densément boisé de Teutberg qui s'élève à 386 mètres, au centre de la fortification circulaire de Grotenburg, mais c'est vers l'ouest et non vers le sud que la statue - inaugurée en présence de l'empereur Guillaume - est tournée - 9 CE 'Battle of the Teutoburg Forest' in the northern countryside of Osnabrück, when an alliance of Germanic peoples ambushed Roman legions and their auxiliaries, as the alliance was led by Germanic officer of Varus's auxilia 'Arminius', who had acquired Roman citizenship and had received a Roman military education, which enabled him to deceive the Roman commander methodically and anticipate the Roman army's tactical responses. The very cruel battle reportedly (by contemporary historians) for many days is commonly seen as one of the most important defeats in Roman history, bringing the triumphant period of expansion under Augustus to an abrupt end. The outcome of this battle dissuaded the Romans from their ambition of conquering Germania - List of ancient Germanic peoples
Since 1961 Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' in Augustdorf: Since 1961 Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne'
Education in Lemgo today including research: Education and research in Lemgo
Timeline and history of Lemgo since 12th century: Timeline and history of Lemgo since 12th century when the city was founded at the crossroad of two merchant routes, as Lemgo then was a member of the medieval trading association 'Hanseatic League' of free or autonomous cities in several northern European countries such as the Netherlands, Germany and Poland, as during the Reformation the city of Lemgo adopted Lutheranism in 1522, whereas otherwise in Lippe, its spread was hampered until 1533 by the opposition of the then Catholic ruling Counts of Lippe, as in 1605 Count of Lippe Simon VI adopted Calvinism and demanded the conversion of Lemgo's citizens too using his monarchic privilege of 'cuius regio, eius religio' leading to a dispute with Lemgo, as the city defied the edict to convert to Calvinism, leading to the Revolt of Lemgo followed by the Peace of Röhrentrup in 1617, granting Lemgo the right to determine its faith independently, but during the 30 Years War on 15 October 1638 Lemgo was put under siege by a powerful combined army of Palatine and Swedish troops followed by the Battle of Vlotho near Lemgo - October 1636 Battle of Vlotho, a victory for the Imperial Army under the command of Field Marshal Melchior von Hatzfeldt, that ended the attempt by Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, to recapture the Electoral Palatinate - Oktober 1638 Schlacht bei Vlotho, Folgen für die europäischen Mächte die den Kieg in Mitteleuropa 30 Jahre lang führten und katastrophale Folgen für die Zivilbevölkerung, die Bauern, Handwerker, Kaufleute, also die Bürger mit ihren Familien - 1618-1648 Dreißigjähriger Krieg, ein Konflikt um die Hegemonie im Heiligen Römischen Reich und in Europa, der als Religionskrieg begann und als Territorialkrieg endete, wobei sich in diesem Krieg auf europäischer Ebene der habsburgisch-französische Gegensatz und auf Reichsebene der Gegensatz zwischen dem Kaiser und der Katholischen Liga einerseits und der Protestantischen Union andererseits entluden, während - gemeinsam mit ihren jeweiligen Verbündeten - die habsburgischen Mächte Österreich und Spanien neben ihren territorialen auch ihre dynastischen Interessenkonflikte mit Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Dänemark und Schweden vorwiegend auf dem Boden des Reiches austrugen, und wobei infolgedessen eine Reihe von weiteren Konflikten mit dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg eng verbunden waren - 1939-1941 'Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder' von Bertolt Brecht im schwedischen Exil verfasst und 1941 in Zürich uraufgeführt, das im Dreißigjährigen Krieg zwischen 1624 und 1636 spielt und die Geschichte der Marketenderin Mutter Courage erzählt, die versucht, ihr Geschäft mit dem Krieg zu machen, und dabei ihre drei Kinder verliert, wobei Brecht Abscheu vor dem Krieg vermitteln will und - im 20. Jahrhundert - vor der kapitalistischen Gesellschaft, die - d.h. deren herrschende Klassen mit einem von ihnen dominierten, beherrschten Staat, Regime und Militär - ihn hervorbringt
Since 799/1281 'Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn': History of the 'Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn' of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802, after the 'Diocese of Paderborn' was founded in 799 by Pope Leo III (in the early years it was subordinated to the bishop of Würzburg), as since 855 the clergy had the right to elect the bishop, as the diocese included the larger part of Lippe, Waldeck, and nearly half of the County of Ravensberg, as in 1180 (when the Duchy of Saxony ceased to exist) the rights which the old dukedom had exercised over Paderborn were transferred to the Archbishopric-Electorate of Cologne, as under Bernhard II Bishop of Paderborn 1188–1203 the bailiwick over the diocese, which since the middle of the 11th century had been held as a fief by the Counts of Arnsberg, returned to the bishops, an important advance in the development of the bishops' position as a secular ruler in his temporalities, forming a Hochstift of imperial immediacy since 1281, 1807-1813 ceded to Kgdm Westphalia, then succeeded by the Kingdom of Prussia and Prussian province of Westphalia, since 1848-49 and 1870/71 establishing the second German empire, dominated by Prussia's military and political tradition, later waging World War I and II
Since 1851 'Sennelager' camp of the Prussian Army: Since 1851 'Sennelager' (camp on the Senne), when the Prussian Army used the area as a training camp for their cavalry, later expanding into a full training facility for the armed forces, most notably during the 1888–1918 reign of emperor Wilhelm II, as during World War I a POW camp here housed British and French soldiers as well as, in a distinct section, various civilians, merchant seamen, including many British trawlermen taken prisoner after German raiders sank their ships in the North Sea, as many of the fishermen came from Boston or from Grimsby in Lincolnshire, and as many were later transferred to Ruhleben internment camp near Berlin, remaining there for the duration of the war, as later during the German empire's World War II the 'Wehrmacht' used the village as a military loading station, and the village's railway station, as nearby
Since 19th century Sennelager Training Area, 'Truppenübungsplatz Senne': Sennelager Training Area and 'Truppenübungsplatz Senne' - also a military training area in Germany under the control of British Forces based in Paderborn Garrison - north of Paderborn, on the western edge of the Teutoburg Forest in the middle of the Senne, as the Stapel Exercise Area in Lage, north of Augustdorf, also belongs to the Sennelager Training Area within the boundaries of the following towns and villages Augustdorf, Detmold, Schlangen (Lippe), Bad Lippspringe, Paderborn, Hövelhof (Paderborn district) and Schloß Holte-Stukenbrock (Gütersloh district) and belonging to the German Government which discharges its responsibility through the Institute for Federal Real Estate, as the area was first used for military purposes at the end of the 19th century, and as Germany's 'Field Marshal Rommel Barracks' Augustdorf is located nearby - Ab 1936 entstand nördlich von Augustdorf zusätzlich der Übungsplatz Stapel, und 1941 entstand am Nordwestrand des Truppenübungsplatzes in Stukenbrock-Senne das Kriegsgefangenenlager Stalag 326, in dem bis zur Befreiung 1945 etwa 65.000 überwiegend sowjetische Kriegsgefangene ums Leben kamen, während auch im dazugehörenden 'Lager Staumühle' ab 1941 vorwiegend sowjetische Kriegsgefangene untergebracht waren - Ehrenfriedhof für die etwa 65.000 sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, die im Stalag 326/VI K Senne umgekommen sind, Schloß Holte-Stukenbrock Senner Straße
1941-1945 über 5 Millionen sowjetische Soldaten in deutsche Kriegsgefangenschaft und Massenmord: Zwischen 1941 und 1945 gerieten weit über 5 Millionen sowjetische Soldaten in deutsche Kriegsgefangenschaft, 3,3 Millionen sowjetische Kriegsgefangene kamen dabei um, annähernd 80.000 jüdische kriegsgefangene Angehörige der Roten Armee wurden ermordet, wobei Arbeitseinsätze sowjetischer Gefangener schon vor dem Führerbefehl vom 31. Oktober 1941 stattfanden, und - obwohl das Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW schon im März 1941 für die Wochen nach dem Überfall, den Sommer und Herbst 1941, mit zwei bis drei Millionen sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen gerechnet hatte - keine wenigstens einigermaßen ausreichenden Vorbereitungen für deren existenzsichernde Unterkunft und Versorgung getroffen worden waren, d.h. die Gefangenen kampierten überwiegend unter desaströsesten Bedingungen im Freien, mit absolut unzureichender Ernährung, schlechter Hygiene und kaum medizinischer Versorgung, so dass viele an Krankheiten wie Ruhr- und Fleckfieberepidemien umkamen, und wobei der Aggressor schon vor Kriegsbeginn im sogenannten Hungerplan den Hungertod so vieler sowjetischer Soldaten einkalkuliert hatte (Sterbelager), wobei Sowjetische Kriegsgefangene wurden auch in deutschen Konzentrationslagern inhaftiert wurden, etwa im KZ Sachsenhausen, und auf zahlreiche Arten ermordet wurden, wie z. B. mittels Genickschussanlage, Hängen, tödlicher Injektionen verschiedener Substanzen und Massenerschießungen (KZ Dachau, KZ Buchenwald), und wobei Menschenversuche mit sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen für das KZ Neuengamme (Tuberkulose) und für das KZ Auschwitz (Vergiftungsversuch an 600 Gefangenen mit Zyklon B) belegt sind, und wobei hunderttausende von ihnen heute – ebenso wie gefallene Soldaten der Roten Armee und sowjetische Zwangsarbeiter der NS-Zeit – auf sowjetischen Kriegsgräberstätten in Deutschland liegen z.B. in Schloß-Holte Stukenbrock, unzählige in Massengräbern verscharrt wurden und ihre Leichname teilweise nach und nach zum Vorschein kamen - 1941-1945 les crimes nazis contre les prisonniers de guerre soviétiques furent perpétrés par le 'Troisième Reich' pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, en raison d'une véritable politique d'extermination, et ces exactions se situent à la suite de l'opération 'Barbarossa' sur le front de l'Est
September 2020 local elections in North Rhine-Westphalia: 13. September 2020 Kommunalwahlen in Nordrhein-Westfalen


2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election: March 2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election
14 March 2021: 2021 Rhineland-Palatinate state election: 14 March 2021: 2021 Rhineland-Palatinate state election
Cities and municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate: Cities in Rhineland-Palatinate - Municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate
Mainz city: Mainz city, the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate as most of the city is upstream of the Rhine before it flows west. The north of the city faces Wiesbaden, the capital of the neighbouring state Hesse, and the east the confluence of the Main. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 218,578 citizens in 2019 and today forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st century BC as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the empire and provincial capital of 'Germania Superior'. Mainz became an important city in the 8th century AD as part of the 'Holy Roman Empire', capital of the Electorate of Mainz and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the Primate of Germany. Mainz is famous as the birthplace of Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the movable-type printing press, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Mainz was heavily damaged in NSDAP ruled German empire's World War II 1939-1945, as more than 30 air raids by earlier attacked and ambushed democracies, now in defense destroying also important cities to protect their citizens. Mainz is notable as a transport hub, for wine production, and for its many rebuilt historic buildings
Timeline of Mainz since 13 BCE: Timeline of Mainz since 13 BCE
20th century timeline of Mainz: Timeline of Mainz in the 20th century
19th century closed university refounded in 1946 by the French military government after World Wars I and II: In 18th/19th century and since the 1790s after capture and recapture by the Prussians, Mainz university activity came to a gradual standstill. Lectures in the department of medicine took place until 1823. Only the faculty of theology continued teaching during the 19th century, albeit as a theological Seminary (since 1877 'College of Philosophy and Theology'. The current Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz was founded in 1946 by the French occupying power. In a decree on 1 March the French military government implied that the University of Mainz would continue to exist: the University shall be 'enabled to resume its function'. The remains of warfare barracks erected in 1938 after the remilitarization of the Rhineland during the NSDAP ruled German empire served as the university's first buildings and are still in use today
21st century timeline of Mainz: Timeline of Mainz in the 21st century
Education in Trier: Education in Trier
Economy and transportation in Trier: Economy and transportation in Trier
History and timeline of Trier: Timeline and history of Trier
Trier in the modern age, 1848 revolution, repression and 1871 second German Empire: Trier in the modern age, as during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, Trier's city council sent a letter to the king of Prussia, demanding more civic liberties, as the lawyer Ludwig Simon was elected to represent Trier in the first German parliament in Frankfurt, as Prussian soldiers killed one citizen and wounded others escalating the situation, as the people of Trier hoisted black-red-gold flags as democratic symbols, rang the church bells, organized a militia and took away the signs of Prussian rule, as a second melée between demonstrators and soldiers, which left two citizens dead, led to a collective outburst of fury with people building barricades and waving the red flag, as there were even reports that a statue of the Prussian king was smashed into pieces and Trier was on the eve of a civil war, when the commander of the VIII Prussian army corps arrived and threatened to shell Trier, as - after being confronted with superior Prussian military power - the citizens gave up and removed the barricades, as some citizens were jailed for their democratic intentins, as Ludwig Simon emigrated like many others and died in Switzerland, and as Trier became part of the German Empire during the Prussian-led unification of Germany in 1871
1843 Karl Marx' frühe Texte: 1843 in Karl Marx' Kritik der 'Deutschen Ideogie' - in der 'Vormärz' Periode der deutscher Länder zwischen der Julirevolution 1830 und der Märzrevolution von 1848 (und andere im Europa der Jahre 1848-1851) - schreibt er in seiner Kritik zu Bruno Bauers Schrift 'Die Judenfrage' von 1843 - in der es heißt, daß die deutschen Juden 'die staatsbürgerliche, die politische Emanzipation' begehren -, daß 'erst in den nordamerikanischen Freistaaten - wenigstens in einem Teil derselben - die Judenfrage ihre theologische Bedeutung verliert und zu einer wirklich weltlichen Frage' wird. 'Mit der lebensfrische(n ... Existenz der Religion (sei) der Beweis geführt, daß das Dasein der Religion der Vollendung des Staats nicht widerspricht.' 'Die Religion gilt uns nicht mehr als der Grund, sondern nur noch als das Phänomen der weltlichen Beschränktheit'. Marx arbeitet sich gleichermaßen in seiner Kriik an der fast 2000-jährigen Geschichte und Tradition der Juden in Europa ab, die ihn als Sohn einer angesehenen jüdischen Rechtsanwaltsfamilie in Trier, der in der Folge der großen französichen Revolution 1789-1792 und der Judenemanzipation zum Christentum konvertiert war. Wie anderswo in Europa zuvor und insbesondere auf der iberischen Halbinsel, während und in Folge der 'Reconquista' der spanischen 'conquistadores'. Mit von ihnen besonders konsequent, brutal und bis ins 19./20. Jahrhundert praktizierter 'Inquisition', die vor allem auf konvertierte Juden zielte (und diese zu einem sehr kleinen Teil auch wohlhabend, weil sie ab Etablierung der christlichen Religion nach der Zerstörung Israels in 2 Jahrhunderten etwas später als Doktrin, als Staatsreligion des römischen und dann des Heiligen Römischen Reiches deutscher Nation' von 'ehrbaren' Berufen ausgeschlossen wurden, daher u.a. von Jesus als Christus nach seiner Kreuzigung durch das 'Imperium Romanum' verächtlich gemachte Tätigkeiten in Verbindung mit der Geldzirkulation ausübten und wohl gut verstanden hatten. Dieser Kontext wird in der August-Dezember 1843 Schrift von Marx, der im Juni 1843 Jenny von Westphalen in Bad Kreuznach standesamtlich heiratete, nur bruchstückhaft sichtbar, u.a. wegen der damaligen Quellenlage, wegen anderer Schwerpunkte der publizistischen Arbeit des jungen Wissenschaftlers, der bedeutend später in Bemerkungen über anstehende Arbeiten ausdrücklich den individuellen Reproduktionsprozeß der gesellschaftlichen Individuen anspricht (im Unterschied zum gesellschaftlichen Reproduktionspozeß und den er wegen des enormen Aufwands für die Formulierung seines Hauptwerks vernachlässigen mußte), wie auch ethnologische Studien auflistet
1845/1846 'Kommunismus' die wirkliche Bewegung, welche den jetzigen Zustand aufhebt: Der Kommunismus ist für uns nicht ein Zustand, der hergestellt werden soll, ein Ideal, wonach die Wirklichkeit sich zu richten haben [wird]. Wir - Marx, Engels and colleagues - nennen Kommunismus die wirkliche Bewegung, welche den jetzigen Zustand aufhebt, 'Die deutsche Ideologie' 1845/46 unveröffentlicht - According to some scientiests in the 20th and 21st centuries programmatic terms of a classless society first emerged in Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome has also been discussed, among them thinkers such as Aristotele, Cicero, Demosthenes, Plato, Tacitus, as the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as communistic for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, criticizing the institution of private property, and striving to create an egalitarian society, as in the Medieval Christian Church communities shared their land and their other property, and as an economic system 'communism' was attractive to many of the peasants who supported social revolution in 16th century central Europe (among others highlighted in one of Karl Marx's early writing), as in the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership (including Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana in 1825, and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the USA), in its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe, and as the 'Industrial Revolution' advanced socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions (including Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working at the mill owned by his father in Manchester as an office clerk, working his way up to become a partner of the firm in 1864, tied together with Mary Burns, a fierce young Irish woman who worked in the Engels factory, while Engels regarded stable monogamy as a virtue, and Burns guided Engels through Manchester and Salford, showing him the worst districts for his research)
1849-1883 Karl and Jenny Marx' family in London: 1849-1883 Karl and Jenny Marx' family in London
London 1867 Karl Marx - Ware und Geld und der Produktionsprozeß des Kapitals: 1867 Karl Marx: Der Produktionsprozeß des Kapitals, Erster Abschnitt Ware und Geld, Dietz Verlag 1968 - 'Die Bourgeoisie hatte in Frankreich und England politische Macht erobert. Von da an gewann der Klassenkampf, praktisch und theoretisch, mehr und mehr ausgesprochne und drohende Formen. Er läutete die Totenglocke der wissenschaftlichen bürgerlichen Ökonomie. Es handelte sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ob dies oder jenes Theorem wahr sei, sondern ob es dem Kapital nützlich oder schädlich, bequem oder unbequem, ob polizeiwidrig oder nicht. An die Stelle uneigennütziger Forschung trat bezahlte Klopffechterei, an die Stelle unbefangner wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung das böse Gewissen und die schlechte Absicht der Apologetik'
Ab 1875 studierte Marx weitere, darunter neuere, Literatur zur Entwicklung der Menschheit und von Elementen der Produktivkraft ihrer Arbeit im umfassenderen Sinne. Dieser große Themenkreis einer wissenschaftlichen Grundlagenforschung entsprach auch Engels’ Plan, ein Werk über die Dialektik der Natur schreiben zu wollen. Probleme zum Zusammenhang des Physischen und des Psychischen, der physischen, chemischen und biotischen Hauptformen der Materie, der Existenz, Umwandlung und Nutzung von Stoffen und Energien sowie der Herausbildung und Entwicklung der Menschheit fanden Marx’ wissenschaftliches Interesse. Es ging dabei auch um die von Thomas Malthus 1815 wiederholt in die öffentliche Diskussion gebrachte wichtige Frage, wie viel Menschen auf der Erde ernährt werden können. So studierte Marx zwischen Januar 1875 und Februar 1876 die sozialökonomische und politische Entwicklung Russlands nach den Reformen der 1860er und Anfang der 1870er Jahre, von März bis Juni 1876 Probleme der Physiologie und der Geschichte der Technik und von Mai bis Dezember 1876 die Geschichte des Grundeigentums sowie Probleme der europäischen und außereuropäischen Rechts- und Verfassungsgeschichte
Die gedankliche Fassung und Darstellung der Probleme des Zirkulationsprozesses des Kapitals im zweiten Buch des „Kapitals” hingegen scheint Marx sehr schwer gefallen zu sein, wie die 8 Manuskripte bezeugen, die er dazu bis Anfang 1880 erarbeitet hat (Manuskripte V-VIII davon seit April 1877 entstanden) – und zwar noch keineswegs druckreif. Es ging darum, welche inneren, wesentlichen und allgemeinen Zusammenhänge entstehen, wenn der nach Abschluss des unmittelbaren Produktionsprozesses der in den hergestellten Waren verkörperte Wert (einschließlich Mehrwert) in möglichst kurzer Zeit erfolgreich realisiert, d.h. die Warenform des Kapitals in die Geldform verwandelt werden soll, um reproduzieren, also ununterbrochen produzieren zu können. Die Orte des wirtschaftlichen Geschehens sind in diesem Zusammenhang vor allem das Kontor (Büro, Buchhaltung, Verwaltung, Management bzw. Werkleitung) des Unternehmens und die Märkte.
June 1870 until May 1871 in London 'Adresse(n) des Generalrats der IAA', and first 'an das Romanische Föderalkomitee in Genf': 29. Juni 1870 in London Adresse des Generalrats der Internationalen Arbeiterassoziation IAA an das Romanische Föderalkomitee in Genf, und 1870 weitere Adresss der IAA die Schweiz betreffend, einschließlich 5. Juli 1870 'Die Aussperrung der Bauarbeiter in Genf' (also cocerning UK/Switzerland relations and achievements of the english labor movement) avant la guerre juillet 1870 - janvier 1871 guerre franco-allemande, la défaite de Napoléon III, la chute du Second Empire, 1871 siège de Paris, l'achèvement de l'unité italienne après la prise de Rome en septembre 1870, 'l'unité' allemande et 'Second Empire', l'insurrection de la Commune de Paris combattue puis écrasée avec l'accord des Prussiens lors de la 'Semaine sanglante' (21-28 mai) par le gouvernement investi par l'Assemblée nationale, qui était replié à Versailles depuis le 18 mars
Von Januar 1875 bis Februar 1876 studierte Marx die sozialökonomische und politische Entwicklung Russlands nach den Reformen der 1860er und Anfang der 1870er Jahre, von März bis Juni 1876 Probleme der Physiologie und der Geschichte der Technik und von Mai bis Dezember 1876 die Geschichte des Grundeigentums sowie Probleme der europäischen und außereuropäischen Rechts- und Verfassungsgeschichte
10. April 1979 Karl Marx' Brief an Nikolai F. Danielson, der die 3 Bände des Kapital ins Russische übersetzte: Marx-Engels-Werke Band 34: Briefe Januar 1875 - Dezember 1880, mit 10. April 1979 Karl Marx' Brief an Nikolai F. Danielson, der die 3 Bände des Kapital ins Russische übersetzte: 'Ich hätte unter keinen Umständen den zweiten Band (MEW 24 Der Zirkulationsprozeß des Kapital) veröffentlicht, ehe die augenblickliche industrielle Krise in England ihren Höhepunkt erreicht hat. Die Phänomene sind diesmal ganz eigenartig, sie unterscheiden sich in vieler Beziehung von den früheren, und dies - ganz abgesehen von anderen modifizierenden Umständen - erklärt sich leicht durch die Tatsache, daß niemals zuvor der englischen Krise ungeheuere und jetzt fast schon fünf Jahre andauernde Krisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Südamerika, Deutschland, Osterreich usw. vorausgingen. Man muß also den gegenwärtigen Verlauf beobachten, bis die Dinge ausgereift sind, dann erst kann man sie 'produktiv konsumieren', das heißt 'theoretisch'. Eine der Besonderheiten des augenblicklichen Zustandes ist diese: Es fanden, wie Sie wissen, Bankkrachs in Schottland und in einigen englischen Grafschaften, hauptsächlich in den westlichen (Cornwall und Wales) statt. Doch das wirkliche Zentrum des Geldmarkts - nicht nur des Vereinigten Königreiches, sondern der Welt -, London, ist bis jetzt nur wenig berührt worden. Im Gegenteil, von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen, haben die großen Aktienbanken, wie die Bank von England, bisher von der allgemeinen Flaute nur profitiert. Und was diese Flaute edeutet, können Sie schließen aus der völligen Hoffnungslosigkeit des englischen kommerziellen und industriellen Philisters, jemals wieder bessere Zeiten zu sehen. Ich habe so etwas noch nicht erlebt, bin noch nie Zeuge einer ähnlichen Kopflosigkeit gewesen, obwohl ich 1857 und 1866 in London war.'
Novewmber 1887 'Bloody Sunday' in London and brutal treatment of women activists: 13 Novewmber 1887 'Bloody Sunday' in London and brutal treatment of women activists, when marchers protesting about unemployment and coercion in Ireland, as well as demanding the release of MP William O'Brien, clashed with the Metropolitan Police and the British Army, as the period from 1885 to 1906 was one of Tory dominance and 'coercion Acts' against rural unrest in Ireland, involving various degrees of suspension of civil rights in the wider context of 'Long Depression', starting in 1873 and lasting almost to the end of the century, a worldwide price and economic recession and the most severe in Europe and the USA, which had been experiencing strong economic growth fueled by the Second Industrial Revolution in the decade following USA's abolishment of slavery by A. Lincoln, southern states rebellion and war, as the episode was labeled the 'Great Depression' at the time - Along with many other leading Socialists, Karl Marx's daughter Eleanor Marx took an active role in organizing the London demonstration of 13 November 1887, as several other demonstrations followed in the aftermath, and Eleanor Marx wrote a report on the brutal treatment of women activists and protestors at the hands of police, decrying their actions of targeting women
1893 Independent Labour Party ILP and Marx/Aveling's goal of shifting the ILP's positions towards 'system of criticism of political economy': In 1893 the Independent Labour Party ILP was founded. Eleanor Marx attended the conference as an observer, while her husband Aveling was a delegate, but their goal of shifting the ILP's positions towards 'system of criticism of political economy' failed, with the party remaining under a strong Christian socialist influence, as in 1897, Marx and Aveling re-joined the Social Democratic Federation, like most former members of the Socialist League - Wie der amerikanische Unabhängigkeitskrieg des 18. Jahrhunderts die Sturmglocke für die europäische Mittelklasse läutete, so der amerikanische Bürgerkrieg des 19. Jahrhunderts für die europäische Arbeiterklasse. In England ist der Umwälzungsprozeß mit Händen greifbar. Auf einem gewissen Höhepunkt muß er auf den Kontinent rückschlagen. Dort wird er sich in brutaleren oder humaneren Formen bewegen, je nach dem Entwicklungsgrad der Arbeiterklasse selbst. Von höheren Motiven abgesehn, gebietet also den jetzt herrschenden Klassen ihr eigenstes Interesse die Wegräumung aller gesetzlich kontrollierbaren Hindernisse, welche die Entwicklung der Arbeiterklasse hemmen. Ich habe deswegen u.a. der Geschichte, dem Inhalt und den Resultaten der englischen Fabrikgesetzgebung einen so ausführlichen Platz in diesem Bande eingeräumt. Eine Nation soll und kann von der andern lernen. Auch wenn eine Gesellschaft dem Naturgesetz ihrer Bewegung auf die Spur gekommen ist - und es ist der letzte Endzweck dieses Werks, das ökonomische Bewegungsgesetz der modernen Gesellschaft zu enthüllen -, kann sie naturgemäße Entwicklungsphasen weder überspringen noch wegdekretieren. Aber sie kann die Geburtswehen abkürzen und mildern. - Seit 1830 und den gescheiterten europäischen Revolutionen 1848-51 hatte die 'Bourgeoisie ... in Frankreich und England politische Macht erobert. Von da an gewann der Klassenkampf, praktisch und theoretisch, mehr und mehr ausgesprochne und drohende Formen. Er läutete die Totenglocke der wissenschaftlichen bürgerlichen Ökonomie. Es handelte sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ob dies oder jenes Theorem wahr sei, sondern ob es dem Kapital nützlich oder schädlich, bequem oder unbequem, ob polizeiwidrig oder nicht. An die Stelle uneigennütziger Forschung trat bezahlte Klopffechterei, an die Stelle unbefangner wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung das böse Gewissen und die schlechte Absicht der Apologetik. Indes selbst die zudringlichen Traktätchen, welche die Anti-Corn-Law League, mit den Fabrikanten Cobden und Bright an der Spitze, in die Welt schleuderte, boten, wenn kein wissenschaftliches, doch ein historisches Interesse durch ihre Polemik gegen die grundeigentümliche Aristokratie. Auch diesen letzten Stachel zog die Freihandelsgesetzgebung seit Sir Robert Peel der Vulgärökonomie aus
History of Ahrweiler district since ancient times and in the 21st century: History of Ahrweiler district, as the region was conquered by the Romans under military leader Julius Caesar about 50 BC. Some hundred years later the Roman fort of Rigomagus (Gaulish for 'king's field') was founded, later to become the city of Remagen. The Vinxtbach, a narrow brook and an affluent of the Rhine, was defined as the borderline between the Roman provinces of 'Germania superior' and 'Germania inferior', as later during the middle ages towns were first mentioned in the 9th century, among them Sinzig and the eponymous village of Ahrweiler, first noted in the Land Register of the Abbey of Prüm in the 9th century - Jewish history in Ahrweiler town, as from the 13th century and on, there was a considerable Jewish community in Ahrweiler. In the 14th century, the Jews of the town traded in salt and wine, but the Jewish community - after the NSDAP came to power - were all taken away and relocated, some to concentration camps after 1933. No member of this community ever returned to Ahrweiler, and today, the town's old synagogue that was desecrated during 1938 Kristallnacht, is used for art displays - 21. Jahrhundert Geschichte des Landkreises Ahrweiler (history of Ahrweiler district in the 21st century)
Remagen town in the district of Ahrweiler: Remagen town in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in the district of Ahrweiler. It is about a one-hour drive from Cologne, just south of Bonn, the former West German capital. It is situated on the left (western) bank of the river Rhine. There is a ferry across the Rhine from Remagen every 10–15 minutes in the summer. Remagen has many notable and well-maintained buildings, churches, castles and monuments - Remagen, eine verbandsfreie Stadt im Landkreis Ahrweiler in Rheinland-Pfalz, am linken Ufer des Mittelrheins gelegen. Sie grenzt im Norden an den Stadtbezirk Bad Godesberg der Bundesstadt Bonn. Remagen ist Standort des RheinAhrCampus. Bekannt wurde Remagen durch die am 7. März 1945 von der US-Army eingenommene Ludendorff-Brücke (Brücke von Remagen)
Summer and July 2021 European and German flooding: 17 July 2021: During the summer 2021 European and German flooding, images before and after the precipitation show a never seen extent of flood damage from the Ahr and Eifel regions, as quaint villages of half-timbered houses scattered across narrow valleys have now been destroyed. - 17 July 2021: DW's Kate Martyr reports from the region and from Sinzig town, as residents say there was little warning - 22 September 2021: Heavy rains swept across western Germany in the summer 2021, as the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia were particularly hard hit, as were the neighboring countries of the Netherlands and Belgium in one of the region's worst natural catastrophes in recent generations, as many people died and many more lost their homes and belongings


History and timeline of Saarbrücken: History and timeline of Saarbrücken


1848-1849 Saxony in the German revolutions: Saxony in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
September 2019 Saxony state election: 1 September 2019 Saxony state election
Economy of Dresden: Economy of Dresden
Timeline of Dresden: Timeline of Dresden
1206 first documentation of Dresden: 1206 first documentation of Dresden
Economy of Leipzig: Economy of Leipzig
Since 1082 timeline of Leipzig: Timeline of Leipzig since 1082
Since the 12th century (at least) Thomaskirche: At the current site of the 'Thomaskirche' (from the Aramaic ta'am, from Hebrew t'óm, meaning 'twin') there has been a church at least since the 12th century, as foundations of a Romanesque building have been discovered in the choir and crossing of the current church - 1st century 'Didache' ('Teaching'), also known as 'The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles' to the Nations, a brief anonymous early Christian treatise written in Koine Greek, dated by modern scholars to the first century - Likely prior to the Diocletian reform in AD 293, Roman Gaul Gallican Rite, a historical version of Christian liturgy and other ritual practices in Western Christianity, as rites first developed in the early centuries as the Syriac-Greek rites of Jerusalem and Antioch and were first translated into Latin in various parts of the Western Roman Empire Praetorian prefecture of Gaul - Ambrosian chant (also known as Milanese chant), the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Ambrosian rite (Ambrosius c. 340 – 397) of the Roman Catholic Church, introducing hymnody from the Eastern Church to the West, distinct from Gregorian chant - Mozarabic Rite developed before and during the Visigothic period 418-721, officially called the Hispano-Mozarabic Rite, a liturgical rite of the Latin Church once used generally in the Iberian Peninsula, in what is now Spain and Portugal - Dissemination and hegemony of Gregorian chant, that appeared in a remarkably uniform state across Europe within a short time, after Charlemagne, once elevated to Holy Roman Emperor, aggressively spread Gregorian chant throughout his empire to consolidate religious and secular power, requiring the clergy to use the new repertory on pain of death - Augustinians, Christian religious orders following the Rule of Saint Augustine, who developped a conception of 'original sin', emerging in the 3rd century and fully formed with the writings of Augustine of Hippo, becoming the first author to use the phrase 'original sin', as there are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic religious orders in the Middle Ages - Since 592 Benedictines, a monastic religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Benedict - Seit der Mitte des 9. Jahrhunderts entwickelte sich in europäischen Klöstern eine neue Art der Musikschrift für den gregorianischen Choral mit Neumen, welche man über den Text notierte zur Verbildlichung der Winkbewegungen des Chorleiters oder des Sängers (griechisch 'neuma'), wobei die älteste Quelle dieser Notation sich in der Musica disciplina von Aurelian von Réôme um 850 findet, unter Verweis auf die 'Musica Albini' (vor 800), diese unter Berufung auf die alten griechischen Autoren (graeca lingua auctorem) mit Darstellung von acht Tonarten, vier Grundtonarten ('authenticum'), und aus den vorherigen abgeleitet ('Plagi'), identisch mit der später zunächst aus acht Kirchentonarten bestehenden Tonordnung mit I. Dorisch, II. Hypodorisch, III. Phrygisch etc. - Der linienlosen adiastematischen Neumennotation wurden allmählich Linien hinzugefügt, zunächst zwei farbige Notenlinien für die Töne f und c, um die Halbtonschritte e–f und h–c zu markieren, dann, um auch die Tonschritte zwischen den Linien genau zu erfassen, fügte der Benediktinermönch, Musiktheoretiker und Lehrer Guido von Arezzo (992 in der Gegend von Paris - Mai 1050 in Avellana) zu Beginn des 11. Jahrhunderts zwischen die f- und die c-Linie eine dritte Linie ein, und das Terzliniensystem, mit dem sich jeder diatonische Schritt genau bezeichnen lässt, war erfunden, ergänzt durch den Rat über oder unter die drei Linien eine vierte Linie zu setzen, dann verwendete Guido statt der Farben Buchstaben (c oder f) am Beginn eines Systems, um eine der Halbtonpositionen zu markieren, der Notenschlüssel war erfunden, und im praktischen Unterricht erfand Guido ergänzend die relative Solmisation, in der sowohl der Halbtonschritt mi-fa (oder e–f) als auch der Halbtonschritt si-do (h–c) mit den immer gleichen Tonsilben 'mi–fa' gesungen wird - Since 1123 celibacy was first required of some clerics of the Catholic Church at the First Lateran Council, as - because clerics resisted it - the celibacy mandate was restated at the Second Lateran Council in 1139 and the Council of Trent 1545–64, as Judaism - the religion of Jesus from Nazareth and reportedly the son of Maria and Joseph - strongly opposes celibacy - Seit dem 11. Jahrhundert und seit 1170 eröffnet die Notation komponierter Musik den Weg zur 'Ars antiqua', franko-flämischen Schule etc., indem es nun gelingt, diese Kunst, welche keine Gegenständlichkeit kennt und in der die Menschen sich und ihre sozialen Beziehungen - in der Herausbildung der christlichen Religion zum Abstraktum einer Trinität entwickelt - wiederfinden können gerade weil diese Kunst in ihrer lebendigen Gestalt keine Ware werden und wie die gesprochene(n) Sprache(n) nur in Gegenwart lebendiger Menschen (auch Nonnen und Mönche) existieren kann
Since 1409 Leipzig University and alumni: Since 1409 Leipzig University - List of Leipzig University people, including scientists, poets, musicians, and politicians - Since 1990 South African politician Jeffrey Thamsanqa 'Jeff' Radebe, born in August 1953, who studied at the University of Zululand and finished in International Law at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig in 1981, and was arrested in 1986 after returning to South Africa, and sentenced to a 10-year imprisonment on Robben Island, but released from prison in 1990 after a successful hunger strike and served as minister first under Nelson Mandela after the 1994 democratic elections and later - CDU's Angela Merkel, born 1954 and Chancellor of Germany since 2005, was educated at Karl Marx University in Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978, and then studied and worked at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990 - Student finance of Leipzig University people
1723-1750 Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig: Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) - a German composer and musician known for instrumental compositions such as concertos, for instance for violin, for harpsichord including 'The Well-Tempered Clavier', suites, chamber music as well as for orchestra, as many of his works employ the genres of canon and fugue, extensively for organ, for vocal music, such as the St John Passion, cantatas, the Mass in B minor, as since the 19th-century (Mendelssohn) Bach Revival regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time - since 1723 employed as Thomaskantor at St. Thomas) in Leipzig, now composing music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for festivities (e.g. Peasant Cantata, Coffee Cantata) in Leipzig and the region, for invitations by territorial lords, and for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum, including 'The Art of the Fugue' (which he continued to prepare for publication until shortly before his death) and 'The Musical Offering'
Since 1837-1839 Leipzig–Dresden railway: Since 1837-1839 Leipzig–Dresden railway
Since 1843 University of Music and Theatre 'Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Leipzig', 1850 anti-Semitism promoted by Wagner following failed revolutions: Since 1843 University of Music and Theatre 'Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Leipzig', a public university in Leipzig, founded in 1843 by Felix Mendelssohn as Conservatory of Music, the oldest university school of music in Germany - 1835-1847 Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy in Leipzig, concentrated on developing the town's musical life by working with the orchestra, the opera house, the Thomanerchor, the city's other choral and musical institutions, and founded the Leipzig Conservatory in 1843 - 1850 anti-Semitic composer Richard Wagner, who fled from Dresden, holds that Jews are unable to speak European languages properly and that Jewish speech took the character of an 'intolerably jumbled blabber', a 'creaking, squeaking, buzzing snuffle', incapable of expressing true passion, that debars them from any possibility of creating song or music, stating that Mendelssohn, whom Wagner damns with faint praise, is 'sweet and tinkling without depth', citing 'the redemption of Ahasuerus — Going under'
Since 1933 history of Leipzig during Nazi regime: Since 1933 history of Leipzig during Nazi regime
April 1945 Allied ground advance arrives, July 1945 Leipzig city under Soviet control: April 1945 Allied ground advance arrives, July 1945 Leipzig city under Soviet control
2020 Archiv Bürgerbewegung Leipzig e.V. Chronik zu den Friedensgebeten und zu den politisch-alternativen Gruppen in Leipzig: Chronik zu den Friedensgebeten und zu den politisch-alternativen Gruppen in Leipzig, Archiv Bürgerbewegung Leipzig e.V.
Since 1136 timeline of Chemnitz: Timeline of Chemnitz since 1136
Since 1836 Königliche Gewerbeschule (later Chemnitz University of Technology): Since 1836 Königliche Gewerbeschule and later Chemnitz University of Technology
Since 1852 Chemnitz Hauptbahnhof: Since 1852 Chemnitz Hauptbahnhof


2011 Saxony-Anhalt state election: March 2011 Saxony-Anhalt state election
March 2016 Saxony-Anhalt state election: 13. März 2016 Landtagswahl in Sachsen-Anhalt
October 2019 Halle synagogue neo-Nazi shooting: 9 October 2019 Halle synagogue shooting in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt


History of Schleswig-Holstein: History of Schleswig-Holstein
Economy of Schleswig-Holstein: Economy of Schleswig-Holstein
Elections in Schleswig-Holstein: Elections in Schleswig-Holstein
Spring 2022 Schleswig-Holstein state election: Spring 2022 Schleswig-Holstein state election - 2022 election opinion polling
History of Amrum: History of Amrum
20th century Heligoland, naval base during World War I and II: 20th century Heligoland and and German empire's naval base during World War I and II
History and timeline of Kiel: History and timeline of Kiel
Jüdische Gemeinde und Synagoge in Lübeck: Jüdische Gemeinde und Synagoge in Lübeck
History and timeline of Lübeck: History and timeline of Lübeck
12th century timeline of Lübeck: Timeline of Lübeck the 12th century
Spring 1942 bombing of Lübeck and 'Baedeker Blitz' series of attacks by German empire's Luftwaffe on English cities: March 1942 during German empire's World War II, the city of Lübeck was the first German city to be attacked in substantial numbers by the Royal Air Force, as the attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm that caused severe damage to the historic centre, with bombs destroying three of the main churches and large parts of the built-up area, and led to the retaliatory 'Baedeker' raids on historic British cities - April–May 1942 'Baedeker Blitz' series of attacks by German empire's Luftwaffe on English cities including Bath, Canterbury, Exeter. Norwich, and York, as the name derives from Baedeker, a series of German tourist guidebooks, including detailed maps, which were used to generate targets for bombing, as the raids were planned in response to a devastating increase in the effectiveness of the Royal Air Force's bombing offensive, and - to increase the effect on civilian life - targets were chosen for their cultural and historical significance, rather than for any military value, following the lost battle against Soviet Union's Moscow, the 20 January 1942 Wannsee conference deciding and organizing the Holocaust, as German empire forces and allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia, marked by fierce close-quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, and one of the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare, with an estimated 2 million total casualties, as by 1942 the authority of the German military's Army High Command OKH was limited to the Eastern Front, and as some military personal having insight decided to marry
Economy of Flensburg: Economy of Flensburg
History and economy of St. Peter-Ording: History and economy of St. Peter-Ording, as its importance as a beach resort dates from 1877, when the first hotel was built, then 1913 the first sanatorium was built, as in 1953 a strong iodine spring was found and more curative facilities were built, also for children, and as in 1958 the state recognized St.Peter-Ording as a North Sea spa and sulphur spring - Wirtschaft und Gesundheitswesen von St. Peter Ording: Die Gemeinde war im Jahr 2017 eines der wichtigsten Zentren für den Tourismus in Schleswig-Holstein wobei die Gemeinde 2017 mit einer Übernachtungszahl von 1,361 Mio. auf Platz 2 der Orte an der Nordseeküste Schleswig-Holsteins lag, sowie Platz 3 bezogen auf ganz Schleswig-Holstein, und wobei zahlreiche Erkrankungen ambulant oder stationär behandelt werden können, auch in Rehabilitationskliniken


Economy of Thuringia: Economy of Thuringia
List of cities, towns and municipalities in Thuringia: Cities, towns and municipalities in Thuringia
Timeline of Erfurt since the 8th century: Timeline of Erfurt since the 8th century
Since 742 Erfurt in the Middle Age: Since 742 Erfurt in the Middle Age
Early modern age and for nearly two hundred years Thuringia's Bach family: Thuringia's Bach family for nearly two hundred years, with over 50 known musicians and several notable composers, as a family genealogy was drawn up by Johann Sebastian Bach himself in 1735 and completed by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel. after the Bach family never left Thuringia until the sons of J.S. Bach went in some European towns and counties, after all the misery of the peasantry and citizens in towns at the period of the Thirty Years' War - 1615-1692 Heinrich Bach, a German organist, composer and a member of the great Bach family. was Ratsmusikant in the Erfurt Ratsmusikanten-Compagnie, as from 1641 he became organist in Arnstadt's St. Mary's Church and the Upper Church. as also three of his sons, Johann Christoph Bach, Johann Michael Bach and Johann Günther Bach, were musicians
Since 1878 J.A. Topf and Sons engineering company later building crematoria ovens for concentration and extermination camps: Since 1878 J.A. Topf and Sons, an engineering company in Erfurt, originally making heating systems and brewing and malting equipment, as the company later diversified into silos, chimneys, incinerators for burning municipal waste, and crematoria, as during World War I it made weapons shells, limbers (carts for carrying artillery) and other military vehicles, and as in and before World War II it made weapons shells and aircraft parts for the Luftwaffe, and as it is now infamous as the largest of 12 companies that designed and built crematoria ovens for concentration and extermination camps during the Holocaust, planned and carried out by the NSDAP regime from 1935 to 1945. as the company 1939 with 1,150 employees - and at least 620 foreigners were forced to work for the company - not only made crematoria ovens, even also made ventilation systems for the gas chambers at Auschwitz II–Birkenau - WWII Use of forced labour by J.A. Topf and Sons
April 2002 Erfurt massacre and aftermath: April 2002 Erfurt massacre, a school shooting that occurred on 26 April 2002 at the Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, as 19-year-old expelled student Robert Steinhäuser shot and killed 16 people, including 13 staff members, two students, and one police officer, before committing suicide - 'Post-traumatic stress disorder', a mental and behavioral disorder that can develop because of exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, domestic violence or other threats on a person's life - 20. April 2017: Der 26. April 2002 war nicht nur der Tag, an dem Robert Steinhäuser 16 Menschen tötete, er löste auch eine politische Debatte aus, incl. Debatte um Killerspiele und Waffenbesitz, wie auch in anderen Staaten
Politics and elections in Thuringia: Elections in Thuringia
5 February 2020 President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany Josef Schuster condemns alliance of FDP, AfD and CDU to elect FDP's Thomas Kemmerich: 5. Februar 2020: Der Präsident des Zentralrats der Juden, Josef Schuster verurteilt das Bündnis von FDP, AfD und CDU bei der Wahl Thomas Kemmerichs zum thüringischen Ministerpräsidenten und erklärt 'damit verlässt die FDP den Konsens der demokratischen Parteien, nicht mit der AfD zusammenzuarbeiten oder auf die Unterstützung der Rechtspopulisten zu zählen' - Josef Schuster was born in Haifa in 1954, after his paternal family had lived in Franconia since at least the middle of the 16th century, and as his father David Schuster was a merchant who was forced to emigrate to Palestine in 1938, as both parents of his mother died at the Auschwitz concentration camp, as his family returned to Germany in 1956 where Schuster later studied medicine becoming a specialist in internal medicine, today also a volunteer as an emergency physician for the Bavarian section of the Red Cross
July 2021 continuation of Thuringia political crisis caused by AfD, FDP and CDU: July 2021 continuation of Thuringia political crisis caused by AfD, FDP and CDU

Parteienstaat mit alten Seilschaften: Politics of Germany
August 1949 West German federal election: 14 August 1949 West German federal election
September 1953 West German federal election: 6 September 1953 West German federal election
September 1957 West German federal election: 15 September 1957 West German federal election
In and since the 1960s social and new political movements: In and since the 1960s social and new political movements, grewing as younger people became disillusioned with the political 'establishment', worrying it was reminiscent of German empire's NSDAP rule past, as West Berlin became a center for these movements since many pensive and critical, 'left' leaning people would take residence in West Berlin to avoid the military draft that was in effect in the rest of West Germany - 1960s-1970s 'Außerparlamentarische Opposition' (German for extra-parliamentary opposition, commonly known as the APO), a political protest movement in West Germany forming a central part of the German student movement, as its membership consisted mostly of young people disillusioned with the grand coalition (Große Koalition) of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and as - since the coalition controlled 95% of the Bundestag, the APO provided a more effective outlet for student (and more) dissent
1977/78 Krise und Auflösung der 'Projektgruppe Entwicklung des Marxschen Systems' (Das Kapitel vom Geld 1973, Theorien über den Mehrwert 1975, Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie 1978) infolge politischer Intrige seitens des Projektleiters nach verletzter Eitelkeit, außerdem zu der Zeit unzureichender Quellenlage zur Geschichte Israels, des Militärstaats 'Imperium Romanum', dann - nach dessen Selbstauflösung trotz von seinen Ideologen ausgedachter christlicher Staatsreligion, ausgehend von nicht verstandener jüdischer Geschichte und Kultur - des 'Sacrum Imperium Romanum' bis 1806 und der Nationalstaaten bis 2021, und damit vor allem zur Geschichte der Privateigentumsformen, die heute den globalen Kapitalismus, den Weltmarkt und das Verhältnis reicher Länder zu Ländern mit Gemeinwesen, die die europäische Entwicklung mit seinen Privateigentumsformen (und entsprechenden Kriegen) nicht mitgemacht sondern nur darunter gelitten haben und leiden
September 1969 West German federal election: 28 September 1969 West German federal election
Since 1972 non-governmental environmental organization 'Greenpeace' and 'Greens' in West Germany: After in 1972 non-governmental environmental organization 'Greenpeace', then in over 55 countries and and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, in the 1970s and 1980s in West Germany a 'Green Party' was formed to organize and accommodate the anti-nuclear movement in Germany, and after peace movement activists and other new social movements had previously been active in the 'APO', as later in 1983, the 'German Green Party' was elected into the Bundestag still in Bonn, where it stood for the concept of movement and change - until today seen in new social movements - and as within only a few years, the 'Greens' gained political influence amid growing knowledge of natural foundations and the unity of man and nature
April/May 1974 a chancellor's personal assistant exposed as Stasi spy and Brandt's resignation: In 1973 West German security organizations received information that one of Brandt's personal assistants, Günter Guillaume, was a spy for the East German state, Guillaume was arrested on 24 April 1974 and had indeed been a spy for East Germany, supervised by Markus Wolf, head of the Main Intelligence Administration of the East German Ministry for State Security 'Stasi', followed by Brandt's resignation as Chancellor on 6 May 1974 (although he remained the Chairman of the Social Democrats and led the party until 1987 - May 1974 Brandt was succeeded as Chancellor by Helmut Schmidt, who unlike Brandt belonged to an opposite wing of the SPD party, as pioneer Guillaume was eventually released and sent to East Germany in 1981 in exchange for Western intelligence agents caught by the Eastern Bloc, as back in East Germany, Guillaume was celebrated as a hero, worked in the training of spies - 22. Oktober 2012: Der bundesdeutsche Strafverteidiger des Kanzleramtsspions Guillaume, der seit den 70er Jahren enttarnten KGB- oder Stasi-Agenten (beispielsweise den womöglich dienstältesten KGB-Agenten in Westdeutschland Manfred Rotsch, der fast 30 Jahre lang für Putins KGB-Mannschaft als Ingenieur beim Münchner Rüstungskonzern Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm MBB, auch über das Nato-Kampfflugzeug Tornado und den Jäger 90 berichtete) juristischen Beistand anbot, dann gelobt von seinen Schützlingen wie dem Stasi-Offizier Guillaume, der seinen Anwalt in höchsten Tönen pries, er sei ihm 'nicht nur rechtlich, sondern auch moralisch zu einer Stütze' geworden, eine Ansicht die von vielen Menschen z.B. in Syrien, in der Ukraine, auch in Sachsen, Thüringen etc. mit Sicherheit nicht geteilt wird
Since October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital: 3 October 1990 German reunification, unified Berlin designated capital of the 'Federal Republic of Germany'
December 1990 German federal election: 2 December 1990 German federal election, the first all-German election since the NSDAP show election in April 1938, the first multi-party all-German election since that of March 1933, which was held after the NSDAP seizure of power and was subject to widespread suppression, and the first free and fair all-German election since November 1932, as the 1990 result was a comprehensive victory - following the Monday demonstrations since 1982/1989 in East Germany, the 1989 Alexanderplatz demonstration for political reforms, events in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the November 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall - for the governing coalition of the CDU/CSU and the FDP, which was reelected to a third term - Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of one party ruled regimes in several countries, ongoing in the 21st century and then also including Islamic countries
2009-2014: German federal election 2009 - 25. Juli 2012: Von der CDU/FDP-Regierung durchgesetzte Reform des Bundestagswahlrechts wegen Verletzung der Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Unmittelbarkeit der Wahl verfassungswidrig - 10. August 2012: Koalition gegen die Ratifizierung der Uno-Anti-Korruptions-Konvention - German federal election 22 September 2013 - 22 septembre 2013: Les Allemands ont voté en masse dimanche matin pour les élections législatives qui devraient confirmer Angela Merkel - 23 September: Germany's CDU/CSU wins by a landslide but faces tough coalition choices - 23/24 September: 'This morning I stood in front of my wardrobe and I thought red is no good, bright green is no good, blue was yesterday, what are you going to do?' CDU chancellor Merkel said - 17 octobre 2013: Merkel tente un rapprochement avec les sociaux-démocrates - 27 November: CDU/CSU and SPD reach deal on forming a coalition - 14 décembre 2013: Feu vert des sociaux-démocrates à la 'grande coalition' dans un référendum interne - 18 December: Angela Merkel elected to a third term as chancellor in a vote in the German lower house of parliament - 14 February 2014: German minister Friedrich quits over Edathy's suspected involvement in child pornography - 17 February 2014: German grand coalition dispute over SPD lawmaker's child porn probe as commentators are asking whether Merkel's third government can rule in its current state
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - 13 October 2015: Anti-refugee protesters create a gallows for Angela Merkel over her open-door refugee policies as housing for those who have fled the Middle East are daubed in racist graffiti - 17 October 2015: Henriette Reker, running for the office of the Mayor of Cologne, was seriously wounded by an assailant with a knife while shouting against refugees - 19 October 2015: Henriette Reker who was stabbed in the neck in an attack over her work with refugees elected the first female mayor of the western city of Cologne - 7 November 2015: Just two days after resolving a coalition row over how to handle the record influx of refugees, row over their status reopened by the CDU/CSU interior minister saying Syrian refugees would receive a modified status and be barred from having family members join them
2016: 13 March 2016: Legislatures in the prosperous southwestern state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, neighboring Rhineland-Palatinate and relatively poor Saxony-Anhalt in the east entered by right-wing AfD with strong gains, that took around a quarter of the vote in Saxony-Anhalt - Since 2015 German automobile industry emissions scandal - 27 August 2016: Viele Autokonzerne haben manipuliert, die Politik hat in der Abgas-Affäre versagt - 1 December 2016: The first time German government admits that Ramstein military base in Rhineland-Palatinate plays a central role in the USA’s illegal drone war missions around the world, killing almost 5,000 people in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia as well as more than 13,000 in the war in Afghanistan, as the large majority of the victims are innocents such as women, children, and old people according to Ramstein campaign - 2 December 2016: Opposition parties accuse the coalition government of overstepping its authority in order to block USA whistleblower Edward Snowden's trip to Germany after the Federal Court of Justice ruled in November that the government must allow a parliamentary committee in Berlin to question Snowden, who in 2013 leaked details of the USA National Security Agency's global surveillance practises
May 2019 European Parliament election in Germany: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Germany
7 September 2020: German Greens well placed for share of power despite covid-19 setback: 7 September 2020: German Greens well placed for share of power despite covid-19 setback
24 September 2020 German CDU/CSU party's and Europe's memory: , 24 September 2020: Nazi general Rommel admiring Ursula von der Leyen continues to promote war criminal Rommel, assigned as commander of the 'Führerbegleitbatallion' during the invasion of Poland, since 1940 a military commander in Nazi Germany's conquest of western Europe, describing the Rommel Barracks as one of the most important installations of the German military - 24 September 2020: As site in Amsterdam’s Jewish Quarter will feature names of more than 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who were murdered in or on their way to Nazi concentration camps, a school friend of World War II Jewish diarist Anne Frank laid the first stone Wednesday at a new memorial under construction in Amsterdam to honor all Dutch victims of the Holocaust, after Dutch court cleared the way last year for the memorial to be constructed
18 July 2021 CDU, chancellor Merkel and German election campaign involving parties and media: July 2021 CDU and chancellor Merkel and election campaign - 23. Mai 2021: Die Opfer des Krieges des Hamas-Regimes in Gaza im Mai 2021 gegen Israel
Since 1932 22 assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler ending with the failed 20 July 1944 plot following successful Normandy landing by Allied forces: Since 1932 list of 22 assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler ending with the failed 20 July 1944 plot following successful Normandy landing by Allied forces - 20 July 1944 NSDAP ruled German empire's army officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler inside his 'Wolf's Lair' field headquarters near Rastenburg in east Prussia, an action called 'Operation Valkyrie', following NSDAP empire's offensives since 1939, including invasion and occupation of Poland, battle of the Atlantic, invasions of Denmark, of Norway, of Iceland, battle of the Netherlands, invasion of Luxembourg, Battle of Belgium, Battle of France 'Case Yellow', Battle of Britain, invasion of Yugoslavia (NSDAP rulw Germany and Axis allies via Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Albania), Battle of the Mediterranean, Battle of Greece, Battle of Crete, and 'Operation Barbarossa', including several barbaric sieges of large cities until the military initiative was won by the Soviet Union in summer 1943 - June - August/September 1944 'Battle of Normandy', the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II, launched on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings
1935-1945 Oberkommando des Heeres, Generalquartiermeister und Qu Gruppen: 1935-1945 Oberkommando des Heeres, 6. Abteilung Generalquartiermeister und nachgeordneter Bereich, bei Mobilmachung 1939 gebildet aus der Quartiermeisterabteilung des Generalstabes des Heeres (der 6. Abteilung), nach dem Frankreichfeldzug 1940 umgebildet mit 1. Chefgruppe, 2. Abteilung Heeresversorgung mit Gruppe Qu 1 für Aufmarschbearbeitung hinsichtlich Heeresversorgung, Studien und Erfahrungen, Gruppe Qu 2 für die rückwärtigen Dienste, Gruppe Qu 3 für Munition, Kraftfahrzeugwesen, Betriebsstoff, Waffen und Gerät, Gruppe Technik, Gruppe 'Feldgendarmerie', 3. Abteilung 'Kriegsverwaltung' mit Gruppe Qu 4 für Organisation der Militärverwaltung, 'vollziehende Gewalt' und Operationsgebiet, Gruppe Qu 5 für 'Abwehr' im Rahmen der vollziehenden Gewalt, Grenzübertritt und Grenzkontrolle sowie 'Sonderkommandos', Gruppe 'Geheime Feldpolizei', Gruppe Verwaltung, Gruppe Wirtschaft - wobei dem Generalquartiermeister als selbstständige Fachgebiete direkt unterstellt waren Heeresnachschubführer, Heeresfeldpostmeister, Außenstellen des Generalquartiermeisters für die einzelnen Versorgungsbezirke der Ostfront, und - nachdem der Chef der 6. Abteilung Eduard Wagner des Generalstabs des Heeres auch zuständig geworden war alle rückwärtigen Dienste des Feldheeres - in Verbindung mit der Operationsabteilung des Generalstabs auch zuständig für die Befehle und Weisungen für die Versorgungsführung, Leitung der militärische Verwaltung in den besetzten Gebieten in Kooperation mit den Oberquartiermeistern der Armeen (später auch der Heeresgruppen) in allen der Versorgungsangelegenheiten, d.h. dann absichtlich herbeigeführte Hungerkrisen und -katastrophen - Wehrmacht und Besatzungsherrschaft im Russischen Nordwesten 1941-1944, Jürgen Kilian, Januar 2012
Since 27 September talks to form another governing coalition watched by 'Wikipedia': Since 27 September talks to form another governing coalition as meetings and negotiations of formation watched by 'Wikipedia'

Political parties in Germany - Political corruption - List of political scandals in Germany
Since 1990s: CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen - Vgl. 'Das "wunderbare Land" und die K-Frage 2009: Kläffende Köter, Carstensens Kieler Karren und nicht nur ein hervorragender "Kopp"' - CDU/CSU Korruptionsaffäre: Ludwig-Holger Pfahls (nicht abgeschlossen) - 9 November 2011: Former junior defence minister Pfahls (CDU/CSU-Kohl government) once more sentenced to 4 1/2 years for fraud - CDU/CSU Korruptionsaffäre: Karlheinz Schreiber (nicht abgeschlossen) - 14 November 2013: Arms lobbyist Karlheinz Schreiber convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to six-and-a-half years in prison

Christian Democratic Union of Germany and Christian Social Union in Bavaria
1966-1969 NSDAP/CDU-Kiesinger Kanzler: NSDAP/CDU-Kiesinger Kanzler der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Große Koalition von CDU/CSU und SPD 1966-1969, u.a. mit SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Schiller als Minister)
1979-1984 SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Carstens Präsident: SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Carstens Präsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1979-1984
1945-2007 NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger Affäre (nicht abgeschlossen): NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger-Affäre (1945 bis 2007) - Justizmorde als NS-Richter - 'Furchtbare Juristen' (mit dem Untertitel 'Die unbewältigte Vergangenheit unserer Justiz') behandelt die Verbrechen der deutschen Justiz in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und die durch Übernahme von NS-vorbelasteten Juristen in den Staatsdienst der Bundesrepublik Deutschland verhinderte gerichtliche Aufarbeitung ebendieser Verbrechen - 1. September 2009: Österreichs Nationalratspräsidentin Prammer fordert eine 'lückenlose Rehabilitation' der Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz - Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz sind Personen, die von Militärgerichten (einschließlich Feldgerichten und Ersatzgerichten) in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus verurteilt wurden, während des Zweiten Weltkrieges haben Militärrichter etwa 30.000 Todesurteile gefällt
Seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen) Flick-Parteispenden-Affäre: Flick-Affäre seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen)
Seit 1989 (nicht abgeschlossen) CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre: CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen
1996: 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen)
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official - ministry led by CDU's Ursula von der Leyen - tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - Hitler's general Erwin Rommel, commander of Hitler's 'Führerbegleithauptquartier' during the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939, commander during the Nazi invasion of France, Belgium 1940 and North Africa, war crimes in Italy 1943 - since 1961 the biggest West-German military barracks named 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne', ongoing - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun - En juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 27. Juli 2009: Der Historiker Raffael Scheck beschreibt anhand von Dokumenten, wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940, kurz nach der Kapitulation Frankreichs, mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - The_Holocaust in North Africa's 'Italian Libya', prepared since 1938, in Tunisia under Vichy-France rule etc. - Hitler's general Heinz Guderian, commander during the invasion of Poland 1939, commander during the invasion of France and Belgium 1940, commander during the invasion of the Soviet Union since 1941, Chief of Staff of the Army in 1944, after 1945 Nazi general Heinz Guderian advised on the re-establishment of military forces in West-Germany - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the German Nazis in World War II
July 2019 von der Leyen, EU, arms exports and parliamentary investigative commission: 3 July 2019: Lawmakers in the European Parliament and from across Germany's political spectrum slammed a proposal to make German Defense Minister CDU Ursula von der Leyen the next European Commission president, saying her nomination failed to meet pre-electoral promises to respect the lead candidate process and the results of the European elections, calling the nomination a 'classic victory of backroom politics over democracy' and a 'farce' - Since April 2018 von der Leyen promoted CDU-led German government's decisions on arms exports to Saudi Arabia and Turkey - In 2019 a parliamentary investigative commission was installed after the Federal Court of Auditors complained that rules of government procurement had been ignored when giving external consultancies in von Leyen's ministry from 2015 to 2016 and it turned out documents were destroyed to cover this up - 3 July 2019: Von der Leyen faces an investigation into suspected wrongdoing surrounding the use of outside consultants, including accusations that von der Leyen’s office circumvented public procurement rules in granting contracts worth millions of euros to the firms, as testimony from key witnesses appear to confirm suspicions of systematic corruption at the ministry
February 2020 CDU supports neo-Nazi linked AfD and Secretary General denies solution of crisis: 5 February 2020: CDU and FDP politicians 'break taboo' voting with racist AfD and its state leader Björn Höcke, legally termed a fascist, to oust Thuringia premier Bodo Ramelow, defying the national party’s refusal to work with neo-Nazi linked parties - 23 February 2020: After lawmakers in Thuringia agreed on a way to vote in a new state government without the support of neo-Nazi party, avoiding a repeat of a decision earlier this month that caused a political uproar, CDU Secretary General Paul Ziemiak criticized party lawmakers for the way out of the crisis caused by the CDU (the party of NSDAP members Globke, Kiesinger Filbinger etc.), saying 'this is about the credibility of the CDU in general', adding that the party 'rejects all coalitions and similar forms of cooperation'
2 March 2020 CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals: 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
From 1990s to 2021 CDU Angela Merkel's friendly relationship with Vladimir Putin: In 2006 - after in November 2005 chairperson of the CDU Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD - CDU chancellor Angela Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin, but in June 2017, Merkel criticized the draft of new USA sanctions against Russia that target Russia-Germany energy projects, including Nord Stream 2 pipeline project to pump Russian natural gas via the Baltic Sea to Germany, which involves Russia's Gazprom and goods buyer customer energy firms including Germany's Wintershall and Austria's ÖMV, as EU'S Baltic states oppose Nord Stream 2 pipeline
21 September 2021 Russia responsible for the 2006 killing of Alexander Litvinenko, ECHR has found: In September 2021, the European Court of Human Rights ECHR found that Russia was responsible for the killing of Alexander Litvinenko (a violation of Article 2). The Court ruled that there was a 'strong' case that Andrey Lugovoy and Dmitry Kovtun had been acting as agents of the Russian State, and that Russia had not carried out an 'effective domestic investigation', nor 'identifi[ed] and punish[ed] ... those responsible for the murder', as following the poisoning Lugovoy - a former KGB employee like Vladimir Putin - became a member of Russia's lower house of parliament Duma for the nationalist party LDPR - 21 September 2021 Judgment Carter v. Russia 'Russia was responsible for assassination of Aleksandr Litvinenko in the UK', ECHR's judgement document in PDF format

Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD
Seite 1 des 'Vorwärts', Zentralorgan der SPD, vom 25. Juli 1914: "Eine ernste Stunde ist gekommen, ernster als irgend eine der letzten Jahrzehnte. Gefahr ist im Verzuge! Der Weltkrieg droht! Die herrschenden Klassen, die Euch im Frieden knebeln, verachten, ausnutzen, wollen Euch als Kanonenfutter mißbrauchen. Ueberall muß den Gewalthabern in die Ohren klingen: Wir wollen keinen Krieg! Nieder mit dem Kriege! Hoch die internationale Völkerverbrüderung! Berlin, den 25. Juli 1914. Der Parteivorstand."
25. Juli 1914: Friedenskundgebungen in den folgenden Tagen in großer Zahl, mit zehntausenden Teilnehmern.
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
August 1914 German massacres of hundreds of unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant: On 21/22 August 1914 German infantry and pioneers advanced into Dinant, killing seven civilians and burning 15–20 houses, on 23 August 1914 the Germans massacred 674 unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant, civilians were lined up against a wall and shot, including men over 70, women or girls, children under 14 and even babies, 1,200 houses were burned down and 400 people were deported to Germany as an area of Dinant was systematically looted and burned down by the Germans, also destroying public and historic buildings, including the collegial church and the town hall - 1914/1915 official report of massacres of peaceable citizens, women and children by the German army and testimony of eye-witnesses - 1915/1917 'Le sac de Dinant et le légendes du livre blanc allemand du 10 mai 1915', par M. Tschoffen, procureur du roi de l'arrondissement de Dinant - 12 May 1915 Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
2013 Peitschen- und Kavallerie-Steinbrück will für die SPD als Kanzlerkandidat (an)treten: SPD-Steinbrück aus der Wilhelmstraße lädt im Mai 2009 nach Berlin ein: "Selbstverständlich werde ich sie zur Nachfolgekonferenz im Juni in Berlin einladen - Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, Schweiz, Österreich, Ouagadougou" - 29. September 2012: Der 2005 gescheiterte nordrhein-westfälische Ministerpräsident Steinbrück will 2013 als Kanzlerkandidat für die SPD (an)treten und verlangt von der SPD 'Beinfreiheit', nach seinen rassistischen Beleidigungen 2009 von Indianern (Beleidigung der Havasupai) und Afrikanern (Burkina Faso und Ouagadougou) - 3. Oktober 2012: Steinbrücks Nebeneinkünfte in der Kritik - z.B. bezahlter Vortrag 2011 bei der Kanzlei Freshfields und deren Finanzmarktstabilisierungsgesetz für das Finanzministerium unter Peer Steinbrück - 11. November 2012: 2010 zahlte der Züricher Medienkonzern Ringier für ein Referat von Steinbrück 1.500 Euro, die dieser nicht als Nebenverdienst deklarierte
2014-2018 Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Erinnerung an die Opfer und den Widerstand in vielen Ländern weltweit und in Deutschland
September-December 2016 Unterstützung von Massakern russischer, iranischer und Assad-Terroristen durch die SPD: 21. September 2016: In Syrien und in Aleppo fallen teils geächtete russische Bomben, töten wahllos Kinder, Zivilisten und gezielt Krankenhäuser, Rettungsdienste und einen UN-Hilfskonvoi, der SPD-Vorsitzende Gabriel besucht den Terroristen, Massenmörder und Kriegsverbrecher Putin in Moskau, der wie alle seine Vorbilder wie z.B. Lawr G. Kornilow der Illusion erliegt, er könne durch Mordaktionen anderen und sogar anderen Ländern dauerhaft seinen Willen aufzwingen und Gefolgschaften aufbauen - 2 October 2016: Iran rejects German demand that it recognize Israel, as German Vice Chancellor and Economy Minister SPD Sigmar Gabriel is due to visit Tehran on Sunday as part of Germany’s efforts to renew business ties with the Islamic regime following the last year’s nuclear deal, again encouraging Iranian, Russian and Assad regime to commit more war crimes, as Syrian opposition and democracy fights desperately against annihilation - 18/19 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime, and that 'it is unacceptable that some member nations of the European Union continue to defend Russia against credible action and lighten pressure on it despite their ability to immediately stop the disaster occurring in eastern Aleppo' - 14 December 2016: As tens of thousands of desperate civilians trapped without food, water or medicine under a hail of artillery and airstrikes found themselves once again pawns in a geopolitical struggle, with Iranian-backed militia spearheading the ground assault on eastern Aleppo and carrying out execution-style shootings of civilians, residents say 'we will always remember and never forget how the criminals of the world forced Aleppo’s people to choose between two options, collective death or collective forced displacement', while Iranian regime claims military victory, and Iran’s Rouhani phones Bashar Assad to congratulate him
July 2017: 27 July 2017: Germany's SPD economy minister Brigitte Zypries sides with war criminal Putin, saying that new sanctions against Russian regime being proposed by USA lawmakers could harm German companies and add another difficulty to Germany's relationship with the USA, after SPD's candidate for Chancellor Martin Schulz earlier in this year warned against lifting sanctions imposed against Russia over its role in the Ukraine crisis - 31 July 2017: Remembering the third Battle of Ypres 1917 and the German use of Mustard Gas, killing over 275,000 Commonwealth soldiers in 100 days, Germany's SPD foreign minister Gabriel says that 'failure of diplomacy' bears blame for the horrors of war, in no way the German Empire and real persons, its military, politicians, war profiteers and Gabriel's own political party SPD
August 1914 - November 1918, November 2018: Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD's war opponents against World War I since August 1914 were expelled from the party by its Ebert/Scheidemann (since 1913/1917) leadership - Ab 4. Oktober 1918 Sozialdemokraten in der Regierung des deutschen Kaiserreiches - 11 November 1918/2018: Canadian Pvt. George Price was killed by a German sniper in Belgium's Mons just two minutes before the ceasefire on 11 November 1918, highlighting the folly of a Germam made war, supported by the unteachable SPD from start to finish, claiming some 14 million lives, including 9 million soldiers, sailors and airmen from 28 countries, settling into hellish trench warfare with battles having up to a million casualties, with poison gas coming to epitomize the cruel ruthlessness of a war the likes of which history had never seen - In the November 1918 German revolution, Ebert/Scheidemann SPD leadership sided with the Imperial Army command against war opponents - Since 1925 Friedrich Ebert Foundation, a German political foundation associated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD, the political 'legacy' of Friedrich Ebert, today financed mainly through grants from the federal budget and the budgets of the various Bundesländer - 11 November 2018: As ceremonies in New Zealand, Australia, India, Hong Kong and Myanmar marked the start of the memorial events worldwide for a conflict that involved millions of troops from colonized countries in Asia and Africa, Israeli PM Netanyahu one of around 70 leaders attending French commemoration to mark 100 years since the end of World War I at a time of growing nationalism, diplomatic tensions and brutal wars
January 2019 'ideologischer Giftmüll' in Germany: 100 Jahre nach Rosa Luxemburgs Ermordung am 15. Januar 1919 als einer Folge des von der SPD unterstützten Angriffs- und Weltkriegs, zeigt sich die SPD Parteizeitung unfähig, die Bedeutung der Wissenschaftlerin, Kriegsgegnerin und Demokratin Luxemburg zu erkennen - 'ihr Verhältnis zur SPD war ambivalent', 'Karl Liebknecht war lange vergessen, auch Rosa Luxemburg war nicht deutlich in der historischen Erinnerung verankert', 'Der Romantizismus der 68er Bewegung erweckte den Luxemburg-Kult zu neuem Leben', '... doch wer ist legitimiert, über von Gewalt bestimmte Zeiten zu richten?' - aber die Ermordung der bedeutendsten Sozialdemokratin und die Verantwortung von Noske, Ebert und Scheidemann für diese Ermordung betreffend ist sich die Parteizeitung sicher - 'Die Erklärungen des verantwortlichen Offiziers aus den 1960er Jahren sind jedenfalls keine seriöse Quelle' - und außerdem 'ist nicht anzunehmen, dass Rosa Luxemburg gegen den Anspruch der Leninisten gewonnen und in deren System die „Freiheit der Andersdenkenden“ gegolten hätte'
February/March 2019 SPD congratulations to the Iranian regime: 21 February 2019: Congratulations to the Iranian regime, that seeks the destruction of the Jewish state, by SPD politicians including Germany's social democratic FM Heiko Maas, who appeared in a photograph shaking hands with Iran's FM Javad Zarif at the weekend Munich Security conference, Germany's deputy FM SPD-Annen, who celebrated Iranian regime's seizure of power in its embassy in Berlin, and German president SPD-Steinmeier, who sends 'congratulations to the most dangerous regime in the world', condemned by Simon Wiesenthal Center's Abraham Cooper according to 'The Jerusalem Post' - 26 February 2019: Germany’s Central Council of Jews joins criticism of German president over Iran telegram, as Josef Schuster says that 'routine diplomacy appears to have overtaken critical thinking', also rejected as 'shocking' by Human Rights Watch’s Wenzel Michalski - 2 March 2019: OPCW investigators say 'toxic chemical’ used in deadly attack on Syrian rebel town of Douma blamed on Assad regime in long-awaited final report by its fact finding mission that investigated the 7 April 2018 attack, as medical workers said at the time that the attack killed more than 40 people and opposition gave up the town days after the attack
15 January 2020 murderous alliance of SPD, German TV and Iranian Mullah regime: 15 January 1919 SPD-supported murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in Berlin, 13 January 2020 German TV and SPD support for Iranian regime's denial of its brutal shootdown of a Ukrainian jetliner, as Iranian regime's Rohani warned on 15 January that European soldiers in the Mideast 'could be in danger', as regime's FM acknowledged that Iranians 'were lied to' for days following its brutal shootdown of a Ukrainian jetliner that killed 176 people, and as the state of Israel, founded following the Holocaust committed by Germany, is continuously forced to defend itself against terrorists also in Syria, where Assad is allied with the Russian, the Iranian Mullah regime and Hezbollah terrorists - 15 January 2020: Russian Jew David Dushman, one of the last surviving soldiers to have taken part in the liberation of the Auschwitz camp in January 1945, since 1996 living in southern Germany and still struggling to explain how such a catastrophe could happen, joined the Red Army in 1941 after Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union, today saying 'they were standing there, all of them in (prisoner) uniforms, only eyes, only eyes, very narrow - that was very terrible, very terrible'
Since 26 September 2021 change in German politics and the Social Democratic Party: 2021 élections fédérales allemandes ont lieu le 26 septembre 2021 afin de renouveler les membres du Bundestag. À l'issue de ces élections fédérales débutera la vingtième législature de la République fédérale d'Allemagne. Le Parti social-démocrate arrive en tête du scrutin, devançant les Unions chrétiennes qui réalisent leur plus mauvais résultat historique. Le système politique allemand - dessiné après la Seconde Guerre mondiale autour de deux partis majeurs s'appuyant sur de plus petites formations pour gouverner - repose désormais sur six mouvements politiques, ce qui oblige à envisager un gouvernement regroupant trois partis, une première depuis les années 1950. - Politische Positionen der Bundesvorsitzenden der SPD Saskia Esken - 8. November 2021: Saskia Esken, die aktuelle Parteivorsitzende, und Lars Klingbeil wollen die SPD künftig gemeinsam führen, das Präsidium stimmte einstimmig zu, das Personal wurde dem Parteivorstand vorgeschlagen, und am 10.-12. Dezember wird auf einem Parteitag auch die SPD-Führung gewählt

Left Party of Germany
Before 1989 and 20th century's leftovers Oskar Lafontaine and his Wagenknecht until 2017: 17 January 2017: Appointed by the Left party, Andrej Holm, an academic who had hidden the fact he served in the notorious East German secret police Stasi before the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, resigned as Berlin's deputy housing minister - 9 June 2017: Russia's Alexei Navalny claims, if he is elected president, he is ready to withdraw Russian troops from the occupied areas of eastern Ukraine and hold a fair referendum in the Russian-annexed Crimea - 10. Juni 2017: 'Die Linke' hat auf ihrem Parteitag russlandkritische Anträge abgelehnt, eine Kritik 'der völkerrechtswidrigen Annexion der Krim durch Russland' und des Krieges in der Ostukraine schaffte es am Samstag ebenso wenig ins Wahlprogramm wie eine ausdrückliche Verurteilung von Menschenverletzungen in Russland und China durch die Partei mit Zuordnungsproblem entsprechend der Kartografie und bei aufrechter Position hiesiger Betrachter - 8 August 2017: Drive to side with Russian war criminal Putin by Germany’s Federal Democratic Party's Christian Lindner was praised by so-called 'The Left' party's candidate for the Chancellor post Sahra Wagenknecht

Since 2007/8 Great Recession also in Europe, Arab spring, ongoing global crises, wars and since 2020 impacts of the covid-19 pandemic: Since 2007/8 Great Recession in Europe - Great Recession worldwide following the financial crisis since 2007 - European debt crisis and causes - Ongoing 'Arab Spring' Middle East and North Africa protests and revolutions since 2010/2011 - Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Europe, as the pandemic caused the largest global recession in history - 30 July 2020: The German economy collapsed at a record pace over the second quarter of this year as covid-19 crisis took hold, as GDP fell by 10.1% from April to June compared to the previous quarter - January-December 2021 in the environment, environmental issues and sciences, listing global environmental disasters in 2021

19./20. Juni 2021 Wahlprogrammparteitag der Partei 'Die Linke' für die Bundestagswahl am 26. September: Reden auf dem Wahlprogrammparteitag der Partei 'Die Linke' am 19./20. Juni für die Bundestagswahl am 26. September 2021 mit der Rede der Parteivorsitzenden Janine Wissler 'Für eine starke Linke und einen Politikwechsel', mit der Rede der Vorsitzenden der Bundestagsfraktion Amira Mohamed Ali 'Wir legen uns jeden Tag mit den Reichen und Mächtigen an'

The Greens (foundation 1980 emerging from the European peace and social movements in the 1980s, leading to the 1990 European revolutions (since 1989 in Poland), following 1960s,1979s APO in Westberlin and Germany), Party on 7 April 1973 - Fun party 'Alliance '90/The Greens' Party of Germany
Since August 2018 popularity of the Greens amid climate crisis, natural disasters, global economic crises, escalating concurrence, tensions and wars: 2018–present rising popularity of the Greens, as the party saw a major surge in support during the October 2018 Bavarian and Hessian state elections, becoming the second largest party in both, as they subsequently rose to second place behind the CDU/CSU in national polling, averaging between 17% and 20% over the next six months, and now in August 2021 ahead of German federal election on 26 September, competing with 'Christian democracy' that promised 2005/2006 to 'gestalten' (create something) and now want to leave the land to NRW's party fraction known since the 1950s, the 'Social democracy' that just delivered Scholz' new 'Wumms' economic policy with predictible 'Bums' following the polls amid ongoing covid-19 crisis and impacts, as Green's politic for a long time remained too one-sided centered on ecology, neglecting economics
Since April/Juni 2021 Annalena Baerbock candidate for Chancellor for the 2021 federal election: Im April 2021 schlug der Bundesvorstand der Grünen Annalena Baerbock als Kanzlerkandidatin für die Bundestagswahl 2021 vor. Der Parteitag stimmte dem Vorschlag am 12. Juni 2021 mit 98,6 % der abgegebenen Delegiertenstimmen zu - 8. Juli 2021: Böll-Stiftung finanzierte Grünen-Kanzlerkandidatin Baerbocks Promotionsversuch zum Thema 'Naturkatastrophen und humanitäre Hilfe im Völkerrecht' mit mehr als 40.000 Euro von April 2009 bis Dezember 2012 mit monatlich 1050 Euro, wobei die Regelförderzeit der Böll-Stiftung zwei Jahre sei mit der Option auf eine maximal zweimalige Verlängerung um jeweils ein halbes Jahr, also maximal 36 und nicht 39 Monate, und wobei sich auch die Böll-Stiftung überwiegend aus Bundesmitteln finanziert. Im März 2021 meldete Baerbock der Bundestagsverwaltung Nebeneinkünfte von mehr als 25.000 Euro aus ihrer Funktion als Co-Parteivorsitzende nach. Als dies im Mai 2021 bekannt wurde und auch im Zusammenhang mit der Forderung der Grünen, die Nebeneinkünfte von Abgeordneten 'auf Euro und Cent' offenzulegen, kritisch kommentiert wurde, bezeichnete sie den verspäteten Vorgang als 'Fehler' und 'blödes Versäumnis'. Am 17. Juni 2021 präsentierte Baerbock ihr Buch 'Jetzt. Wie wir unser Land erneuern'. Am 28. Juni 2021 veröffentlichte Stefan Weber eine Liste mit Textstellen, die er als Plagiate bzw. Urheberrechtsverletzungen bezeichnete. Später räumte Baerbock es als Versäumnis und Fehler ein, kein Quellenverzeichnis erstellt zu haben, und kündigte eine entsprechende Überarbeitung an.

Free Democratic Party of Germany
17. März 2011: Deutsche Stimmenthaltung bei UN Libyen-Resolution. "The United Nations Security Council has voted on a resolution authorising a no-fly zone over Libya and 'all necessary measures' to protect citizens. Ten of the council's 15 members voted in favour of the resolution, with Russia, China and Germany the five that abstained. The resolution comes just a few hours after Gaddafi warned residents of Benghazi, that his forces would show 'no mercy' in an impending assault on the city." Zitiert nach: Al Jazeera - Africa News
2011 German spies worked with Gaddafi: 4 September 2011: German spies worked with Gaddafi
2014-2018 Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Erinnerung an die Opfer und den Widerstand in vielen Ländern weltweit und in Deutschland

Media of Germany: German media - German media by state - Media in Germany by city
Freedom of press and censorship in Germany: Freedom of press in Germany - Censorship in Germany
March 1914 German newspapers beat the war drums: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany


'Professional' sports in Germany and 'Bundesliga': 'Professional' sports in Germany and 'Bundesliga'
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany
Football hooliganism, riots and racism in Germany: Football hooliganism and riots in Germany
July 2020 Germany’s soccer captain Neuer filmed singing song by pro-Nazi Croatian singer: 13 July 2020: Germany’s soccer captain Neuer filmed singing song by pro-Nazi Croatian singer

Crime in Germany: Crime in Germany

Racism in Germany: Racism in Germany
Since 17th century German colonialism in Africa and worldwide since 19th century: Since 1680 German colonization of Africa - Since 1884 German colonial empire -
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany

Antisemitism in Germany: Antisemitism in Germany - History of the Jews in Germany - Timeline of antisemitism - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
Since 1850: Richard Wagner's 'Das Judenthum in der Musik', first published in 1850, attacking Jews in general and some composers in particular - 5 May 2009: In his notorious and poisonous essay 'Jewishness in Music' Wagner said that Mendelssohn 'has shown us that a Jew can possess the richest measure of specific talents, the most refined and varied culture ... without even once through all these advantages being able to bring forth in us that profound, heart-and-soul searching effect we expect from music' - 7 May 2017: Wagner, who had earlier enjoyed support from Giacomo Meyerbeer, denounced him in the anti-Semitic essay 'Judaism in Music' as uncreative and cravenly following popular taste - 1882 premiere of Wagner's 'Parsifal' in Bayreuth - Houston Stewart Chamberlain's best-selling work 'The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century' (1899) is a main work of modern antisemitism - H.St. Chamberlain (1855-1927), seeing his ideas begin to bear fruit particularly in Germany, visited NSDAP's Adolf Hitler several times (1926 together with Joseph Goebbels) at the Wagner family's property in Bayreuth
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, main campaigns include, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, and the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918
April 1943 - 2013/2018: 21 April 2013: Speaking at 70th anniversary of historic rebellion in Warsaw, one of last three survivors of Ghetto uprising Simcha Rotem says 'we wanted to choose the kind of death we would die' - 18 April 2018: Krystyna Budnicka, the last remaining member of her family, said this week on the 75th anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising that she 'lost all six brothers, my sister, my parents, as well as four sisters-in-law', making it her mission to recount how she survived the Warsaw ghetto in order to keep her loved ones’ memory alive - April 2018: Jews who fought Nazis recall the struggle - 23 December 2018: Simcha Rotem, an Israeli Holocaust survivor who was among the last-known Jewish fighters from the 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising against the Nazis, has died at 94
July 2014: 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March
2015: 5 January 2015: A 26-year-old Israeli was beaten by a group of seven men on a Berlin subway car after he filmed them singing an anti-Semitic song and refused to delete the video - 27 January 2015: Auschwitz survivors gather for memorial 70 years after liberation - 17 February: Jewish cemetery in the northern German city of Oldenburg vandalized, targeted over the past few years by right-wing extremists - 28 June 2015: Berlin’s philharmonic’s new conductor met by anti-Semitism in German press, as NDR website calls Russian-born Kirill Petrenko, philharmonic’s first Jewish conductor, 'the tiny gnome, the Jewish caricature' - 16 November 2015: Ursula Haverbeck after calling the Holocaust in a statement broadcast on television outside of the trial of former SS guard Oskar Groening 'the biggest and most sustainable lie in history', sentenced to 10 months in jail

Since 19th century timeline of Nazism and since 1919 NSDAP's rise to power: Since 19th century timeline of Nazism in Germany - Since 1919 Adolf Hitler's rise to power
1914-1918 World War I and German Empire since 1871: World War I 1914-1918 and German Empire since 1871 - German war crimes in World War I
15 January 1919 SPD-linked ordered assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: 15 January 1919 ordered assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht - German army officer Pabst, who ordered the executions of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in 1919 as well as summary executions of many other Communist Party of Germany members, was never brought to justice even in the later Federal Republic of Germany, became an industrialist and eventually Director of Rheinmetall Borsig in Berlin, later settled in Switzerland, where he took a post with the arms manufacturer Oerlikon and following World War II, Pabst took some involvement in the activities of the neo-Nazi Bruderschaften, small groups that existed across Europe and which attempted to co-ordinate their political activism, later returned to Germany in 1955, settling in Düsseldorf, and there became involved with neo-Nazis - In 1962 in an interview and in his memoirs, Pabst maintained that he had talked in 1919 on the phone with SPD-Noske in the Chancellery, and that SPD-Noske and SPD-Ebert had approved of his assassination actions, never challenged, especially since neither the Reichstag, the Bundestag nor the courts in Germany until today ever examined the case
1918-1933 Political violence in Germany: 1918-1933 Political violence in Germany
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
German war crimes in World War II, crimes of the Wehrmacht and the Holocaust: German war crimes in World War II - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - The Holocaust

Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany: List of intelligence agencies of Germany - Bundesnachrichtendienst BND's Nazi tradition
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt

Since 1945 neo-Nazism in Germany: Chauvinism, fascism and neo-Nazism in Germany - Neo-Nazism
Nazi terrorism since 1945, Nazi party 'NPD' and neo-Nazi linked AfD in German parliaments: Todesopfer rechtsextremer Gewalt in Deutschland nach 1945
11. April 1968 Attentat auf Rudi Dutschke: 11. April 1968 Attentat auf Rudi Dutschke in West-Berlin
September 1991 Riot of Hoyerswerda: Riot of Hoyerswerda September 1991
August 1992 Riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen: Riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen August 1992
1992 Mordanschlag von Mölln: Mordanschlag von Mölln 1992
1999 Hetzjagd in Guben: Hetzjagd in Guben 1999
Since 1990th to 2011 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group: 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group's serial murders - Neonazi-Mordserie bis 2011
November/December 2011: 12. November 2011: Mordserie an Ausländern und Polizistin von seit 90er Jahren bekannten Neonazis - 13 November: Police made a second arrest after the discovery of evidence linking a Nazi group to 10 murders - November 2011: Rolle des 'Verfassungsschutzes' und der Polizei bei der vieljährigen neonazistischen Mordserie - 20 November: The German government agrees 'to compensate' families of victims of neo-Nazi group questioning itself how the organization could have slipped under the radar when it was known to the authorities since 15 years - 24. November: Haftbefehl gegen weiteren Neonazi und Produzenten eines Propagandavideos - 29 November: Police - now investigating neo-Nazi organization - arrest another suspect accomplice and former official in the extreme-right NPD party - 30. November: Mehr als 800 Waffenfunde bei Neonazis - Verbindungen auch in die Schweiz - 1 December: German authorities seek public help in neo-Nazi investigation - 9 December: German interior ministers now seek ban on neo-Nazi NPD - 18. Dezember 2011: Gelder des thüringischen 'Verfassungsschutzes' für Neo-Nazi Terrororganisation
2012: 1. Januar 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' hatte schon 1999 Informationen über den Aufenthaltsort und die Verbrechen der Neonazi-Terroristen, hat aber nicht zugegriffen - Untersuchungsausschuss zur Terrorgruppe Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund seit Januar 2012 - 26. Januar 2012: Offenbarungseid eines verlogenen Staates - deutscher Bundestag setzt Neonazi-Untersuchungsausschuß ein - 27. Januar: Neonazis werden auch in Bayern aggressiver - 1. Februar: Weiterer mutmasslicher Neonazi-Helfer in Düsseldorf festgenommen - 13. März 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei polizeilicher Aktion gegen die kriminelle Vereinigung 'Aktionsbüro Mittelrhein' und deren 'Braunes Haus' - 27 March 2012: 'Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose a threat', British TV report says - 30. Mai: Von fünf mutmasslichen Helfern der Rechtsterroristen sind nur noch zwei in Haft - 15. Juni: Bundesgerichtshof hebt Haftbefehl gegen weiteren mutmaßlichen Helfer der rechtsterroristischen NSU auf - 28. Juni: 'Verfassungsschutz' vernichtete im November 2011 Akten über seine Verbindung zu Naziterroristen nach Aufforderung zu deren Übermittlung - 2 July: German domestic intelligence agency chief H. Fromm quits over murders - 4. Juli: Hinterbliebene von Opfern der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle haben Strafanzeige gegen Mitarbeiter des 'Verfassungsschutzes' eingereicht - 11 Juli: Die sogenannten Ermittlungspannen bei der Mordserie der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle kosten nach H. Fromm, Th. Sippel ('Verfassungsschutz'-Chef in Thüringen) einen dritten 'Verfassungsschutz'-Chef (R. Boos in Sachsen) den Posten - 15. Juli: Staatlicher Offenbarungseid auf Raten - weitere Einzelheiten zum 'Verfassungsschutz' - 23. Juli: Verhaftung nach Hausdurchsuchung wegen Betriebs eines rechtsextremen Internetradios - 23. August: NRW verbietet drei Neonazi-'Kameradschaften' in Dortmund, Hamm und Aachen - Beschlagnahme von Waffen, Datenträgern und Propagandamaterial auch der NPD - 11 September: Military intelligence agency MAD says it knew of the murder suspect’s Mundlos far-right links years before he joined the neo-Nazi terror cell - 14. September 2012: Polizei im Zwielicht - Nazimord-Helfer und Sprengstoffbeschaffer als 'Informant' und 'Vertrauensperson' von 2000-2011 in Diensten des Berliner Landeskriminalamts - der Name des Amts verpflichtet - 23. September: Der langjährige V-Mann der Berliner Polizei Thomas S. gibt Sprengstoffbeschaffung für die Neonazi-Terrorzelle zu - 17. Oktober: Im Bundesamt für 'Verfassungsschutz' sind nach Enttarnung der Neonazi-Terrorzelle NSU neben den bereits publik gewordenen Fällen weitere 284 Akten vernichtet worden - 22. Oktober: Edathy legt dem BDK-Vorsitzenden Schulz wegen dessen Beleidigung des parlamentarischen Ausschusses Rücktritt nahe - 1. November: Kenan Kolat fordert eine Debatte darüber, wie es zu der Mordserie der Naziterroristen kommen konnte - 8 November: Federal prosecutors charge neo-Nazis with murders of 10 people, mostly immigrants and a police officer - 14. November 2012: Beim Berliner 'Verfassungsschutz' schon 2010 rechtswidrige Vernichtung von Akten zum Rechtsextremismus - weiterer Rücktritt, diesmal einer 'Verfassungsschutz'-Chefin in der zuvorkommenden Hauptstadt - 22. November 2012: NRW-Innenminister SPD-Behrens schließt 2004 entgegen den Ermittlungen rechtsterroristische Täterschaft aus - 23. November 2012: Bundespräsident Gauck lehnt Treffen mit den Opferfamilien der NSU-Morde ab und schlägt Bitte der Türkischen Gemeinde für ein persönliches Treffen zum Jahrestag der Aufdeckung der NSU-Mordserie aus
April 2013: 2. April 2013: 50 'Verfassungsschutz' V-Leute im NSU-Umfeld identifiziert, schwerste Straftaten, hohe Honorare des Staates (fünf- bis sechsstellig) und oftmals ohne Strafverfolgung - 2. April: Celal Özcan erklärt. daß 'Hürriyet' immer wieder beim OLG München angerufen und um eine Vorabinformation gebeten habe, wann die Akkreditierungsfrist beginnen würde - 'die Verfahrensweise ist ungerecht und nicht akzeptabel' - 2. April: Statt das Anliegen, die Teilnahme türkischer Medien und der Botschaft am NSU-Prozeß vor dem Münchner OLG zu gewährleisten, als Vorsitzender des Auswärtigen Ausschusses nach Kräften zu unterstützen, maßt sich CDU-Polenz von der Kiesinger/Filbinger/Globke-CDU an, die 'türkische Politik' 'dringend zu warnen' - vor dem Zustand eines Landes, dessen Behörden den Naziterror sogar finanziell gefördert haben (ein Grund, sich zu schämen, zu entschuldigen und aufzuräumen), und welchen auch dieser CDU/CSU-Politiker mit herbeigeführt hat und nun selbst offenbart - 4 April: A Turkish newspaper complains to Germany's highest court over German neo-Nazi trial access - 12 avril: La Cour constitutionnelle allemande a ordonné au tribunal de Munich d'accorder des places supplémentaires aux médias étrangers pour couvrir le procès de néonazis jugés à partir de mercredi pour des meurtres racistes - 14 April: Neo-Nazi trial forces to confront painful truths of a country that believed it had learned the lessons of its past - 15 avril: Le procès de néo-nazis allemands accusés de meurtres racistes est reporté au 6 mai - 25 April: The German lower house, the Bundestag, refuses to back a ban of the neo-nazi party NPD
May 2013: NSU-Prozess vor dem 6. Strafsenat des Oberlandesgerichts München - Kontroverse um Journalisten-Akkreditierung (Platzvergabe, Prozeßverschiebung) beim NSU-Prozess 2013 - 21. Mai 2013: Mit Schreiben vom 28.04.2000 des Präsidenten des Landesamts für Verfassungsschutz an den damaligen sächsischen CDU-Innenminister Klaus Hardraht und mehrere Verantwortliche wurden diese darüber unterrichtet, daß es Zweck der Nazi-Terrorgruppe NSU sei, 'schwere Straftaten gegen die freiheitlich demokratische Grundordnung zu begehen' und daß bei der NSU 'eine deutliche Steigerung der Intensität bis hin zu schwersten Straftaten feststellbar' sei
2015: 21 January 2015: The leader of far-right and anti-Muslim movement Pegida resigned after a photo of him posing as Hitler and reports that he called refugees 'scumbags' - 11 February 2015: German refugee centres face drastic rise in extremist attacks - 23 Februar 2015: Bachmann wieder im Pegida-Vorstand - 9 March 2015: Village of Tröglitz mayor Markus Nierth quits over neo-Nazi protest after neo-Nazis were given permission to demonstrate outside his home over his support of asylum seekers - 29. März 2015: Zeugin und Ex-Freundin von Florian H. tot, der im Herbst 2013 im Auto verbrannte bevor er im NSU-Ausschuß aussagen konnte - 4 April 2015: Asylum seekers' accommodation set on fire in suspected far-right arson attack in village of Tröglitz - 22 April 2015: Germany grapples with attitudes to asylum seekers - 6 May 2015: Police detained four people suspected of setting up a right-wing extremist group that was planning bomb attacks on Muslims and refugees, as a separate investigation began into arsonists who damaged a shelter for asylum-seekers - 30 July 2015: A worrying rise of fire bombings and violent attacks on asylum-seekers has marred German attempts to integrate desperate refugees from Syria, Eritrea and also people from the Balkans, as in the past 25 years in Germany 75 people have been murdered in rightwing extremist attacks - 13 August 2015: In northern German village Jamel a barn belonging to opponents of local neo-Nazis has burned down in a supposed case of arson - 23 August 2015: The outbreak of violence by right-wing radicals against refugees followed a demonstration of some 1,000 people in Heidenau, near Dresden against the roughly 250 refugees - 26 August: Two new attacks hit refugee centres in Leipzig and Parchim - 17 October 2015: Mayoral candidate Henriette Reker, responsible for taking charge of refugees in her city, stabbed in Cologne in a racist attack wounding four other people and linked to migrants policy - 19 October 2015: At the anniversary of the Pegida rallies in Dresden on 19 October 2015 keynote speaker Pirinçci tries to stir up hatred against refugees in Europe and Germany saying 'KZs sind ja leider derzeit außer Betrieb' - 22 October 2015: In the first three quarters of 2015 there were a total of 461 attacks across Germany against asylum seekers’ homes believed to have been driven by xenophobic motives, including scores of arson attacks - 7 December: Germany's constitutional court to hear case on banning neo-Nazi NPD in March 2016 - 22 December 2015: A German town council member of the National Democratic party has been given only a suspended sentence over a tattoo bearing a notorious Nazi concentration camp slogan and a rendering of Auschwitz
2016: 11 January 2016: Two Pakistanis and a Syrian man were injured in attacks by gangs of people in Cologne, German police said late on Sunday - 11 January 2016: Gangs attacked groups of foreigners in four separate incidents on Sunday in Cologne, after attackers reportedly arranged via Facebook to go on 'manhunt' of foreigners after assaults on women on New Year’s Eve - 12 January: Over 200 masked anti-refugee supporters, carrying placards with racist overtones, went on a rampage in the German city of Leipzig on Monday night, throwing fireworks, breaking windows and vandalising buildings, police says - 20 February 2016: A video showing a mob of people in Saxony chanting hate slogans at a bus full of visibly shaken refugees has sparked outrage among German social media users - 20 février: Tollé après la diffusion de vidéos montrant en Saxe des policiers évacuant brutalement un bus de demandeurs d'asile qui refusent de gagner leur foyer, effrayés par des manifestants anti-réfugié - 21 February: A fire that destroyed a hotel being converted into a shelter for refugees in Saxony's city of Bautzen was cheered and celebrated by onlookers, police say treating the incident as suspected arson - 8 March 2016: Congo-born priest Ndjimbi-Tshiende in Germany's Bavaria quits over death threats he received since speaking out in defence of refugees and after he was fed up with xenophobic utterances from prominent CSU local politicians Sylvia Boher and Johann Haindi - 19 avril 2016: Déjà condamné pour braquages, violences et trafic de cocaïne, la justice se penchait mardi sur le sort de Lutz Bachmann, le fondateur de Pegida, qui avait traité les réfugiés de 'bétail' - 19 April 2016: In diesem Jahr sind in Deutschland bereits mehr als 300 Straftaten gegen Asylunterkünfte verübt worden - 11. Mai 2016: Mobiltelefon des mittlerweile toten Neonazis 'Corelli', V-Mann des sogenannten 'Verfassungsschutzes', aufgetaucht, welches 2012 (!) bei der Aufnahme in ein 'Zeugenschutzprogramm' der NSU-Untersuchung übergeben wurde und auf dem sich zahlreiche Bild-Dateien und Kontakte befinden - 6 July 2016: Anti-immigration party AfD plunged into a leadership crisis over Holocaust denial and antisemitic views expressed by one of its MPs - 13 July 2016: A group of young men left a black man bloodied and unconscious after he tried to stop them harassing some Somalis in Munich - 16 August 2016: Berlin authorities must cancel contracts with Pewobe company that runs nine homes for asylum seekers after leaked emails showed managers including a former DVU member joking about executing refugees, suggesting to invest a €5,000 donation from BMW in 'a small guillotine for children' and joking that disposing of the bodies would require a 'large-volume crematorium' - 27 September 2016: Police suspect a 'xenophobic motive’ after two improvised explosive devices detonated outside a mosque and congress centre in Dresden on Monday - 7 October: A group of young people in eastern Germany's Sebnitz threatened three Syrian refugee children with a knife and hit them before chanting right-wing slogans, police said - 19 octobre 2016: Quatre policiers ont été blessés, certains gravement, près de Nuremberg par un membre des 'citoyens du Reich', un mouvement antirépublicain lié à l'extrême droite, qui a ouvert le feu lors d'une perquisition - 20 October 2016: Police officer dies from injuries after being shot by Neo-Nazi 'Reichsbürger' extremist - 23 October 2016: As police and fire officers tried to persuade a Somali boy not to jump, onlookers were spending a long time, watching and calling on the migrant teen to leap from an apartment block in German town of Schmoelln and to suffer fatal injuries - 31 October 2016: Two weeks after a 'Reichsbürger' Neo-Nazi killed an officer during a police raid, German police are investigating within their own ranks for links to the extremist movement with the largest number of cases in Bavaria and Saxony-Anhalt - 15 December 2016: As German ministry of the interior counted around 14,000 far-right-related crimes in 2015, about 30% more than in the previous year, as German police by April 2016 counted three attacks per day against housing facilities for asylum seekers, as the savage anti-immigrant climate of the 1990s is making a return, new pressure from Merkel’s government would be necessary to force BfV operatives to cooperate as witnesses in the NSU murder trial in Munich
January/February 2018: 2 janvier 2018: La responsable du parti Alternative pour l'Allemagne a vu son tweet retiré des réseaux sociaux après avoir comparé les réfugiés à des 'hordes de barbares' - 22 February 2018: Germany's AfD set to embrace anti-Islam and neonazi-linked Pegida, as latest INSA poll this week showed the AfD on 16%, overtaking the SPD for the first time - 22 February 2018: A German-Russian dual national has been arrested and accused of 'politically motivated' attempted murder after he attacked three asylum seekers with a knife in Heilbronn - 27 February 2018: In a vote on Monday night, the local council in southwestern Germany's Herxheim near Heidelberg decided by 10 votes to 3 that a Nazi-era bell, complete with the inscription 'Everything for the Fatherland - Adolf Hitler', should continue to hang in the local church, as councilors said the bell, which also bears a swastika, should serve as a force for reconciliation and a memorial against violence and injustice
June 2019 murder of pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke: 2. Juni 2019 gewaltsamer Tod des Regierungspräsidenten des Regierungsbezirks Kassel Walter Lübcke - 9 June 2019: After neo-Nazi linked accounts on social media celebrated Lübcke’s death, drawing condemnation from across the political spectrum, detectives investigating the death of German politician Walter Lübcke have questioned a man in connection to the suspected murder - 17 June 2019: Identified only as Stephan E, with links to neo-Nazi groups, who once planted a pipe bomb outside a home for asylum seekers, is a suspect in the murder of German politician Lübcke, according to security sources - 26 June 2019: Stephan Ernst, a 45-year-old German man with a string of convictions for violent anti-migrant crime, has confessed to murdering a pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke
5 August 2020 German neo-Nazi Stephan Ernst admits to murdering pro-refugee politician Walter Luebcke: 5 August 2020: German neo-Nazi Stephan Ernst on trial admits to murdering pro-refugee politician Walter Luebcke, implicates co-defendant in killing

Terrorism in Germany: Terrorism in Germany
In the wake of the hostage-taking, public criticism of the Olympic Committee's decision to continue the games, but about 80,000 people who filled Munich's Olympic Stadium for a West German football match carried noisemakers, waved flags, and when several spectators unfurled a banner reading '17 dead, already forgotten?' security officers removed the sign and expelled those responsible from the grounds, the remaining members of the Israeli team withdrew from the Games and left Munich after a memorial service with the notorious Brundage - Accusation of German foreknowledge of the attack, revealed since 2012 - 1 December 2015: In 1992 the lawyer Mr. Zeltzer and Ms. Spitzer, the widow of the fencing coach Andre Spitzer, pressured the German government into releasing the file, which included the photographs 1972 Munich Olympic massacre's victims - 2 December 2015: Horrific new details emerge about the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre, as Israeli athletes were beaten until their bones snapped and one man was castrated by Palestinian terrorists
May 1993 Solingen arson attack: 28 May 1993 Solingen arson attack
22 July 2016 Munich shooting: 22 July 2016 Munich shooting - 22 July 2016: Munich police warned people to avoid public places as they hunted for the shooter who opened fire at a shopping mall, killing at least eight people and wounding others - 23 July: 18-year-old German-Iranian from Munich kills 9 people then himself in Munich terror rampage - 23 July: Munich attack reports, live updated by British newspaper - 24 July: 18-year-old Ali Sonboly from Munich, who killed nine people mostly teenagers including three children from Turkey, three ethnic Albanians from Kosovo and at least one Greek teenager, was reportedly obsessed with mass killings, played computer shooting games and was interested in the Neo-Nazi terrorist Anders Breivik, who murdered 77 mostly young people on 22 July 2011 targeting an AUF camp, and whose face was used by Sonboly as his profile picture on the WhatsApp messaging service - 24 July: Police arrest a 16-year-old Afghan youth on suspicion of a connection to the killing of nine people by Sonboly, as authorities confirmed that the gunman had written a manifesto before the attack without revealing any details about its content, and that he spent more than a year planning the attack and was able to buy a handgun on the dark web - 27. Juli 2016: Der Münchner Todesschütze Sonboly hat es Presseberichten zufolge als 'Auszeichnung' empfunden, am einem 20. April wie Adolf Hitler geboren worden zu sein, war als Deutsch-Iraner stolz darauf Arier zu sein, habe Araber und Türken gehasst und ihnen gegenüber 'Höherwertigkeitsgefühle' gehegt - 27 July: Police investigate Sonboly's targeting of people of foreign origin, saying the gunman was racist and a rightwing extremist
23 January 2020 neo-Nazi group Combat 18 banned: 23 January 2020: Germany bans neo-Nazi group Combat 18 Deutschland


Political violence in Germany: Political violence in Germany
June 2019 murder of pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke: 2. Juni 2019 gewaltsamer Tod des Regierungspräsidenten des Regierungsbezirks Kassel Walter Lübcke - 9 June 2019: After neo-Nazi linked accounts on social media celebrated Lübcke’s death, drawing condemnation from across the political spectrum, detectives investigating the death of German politician Walter Lübcke have questioned a man in connection to the suspected murder - 17 June 2019: Identified only as Stephan E, with links to neo-Nazi groups, who once planted a pipe bomb outside a home for asylum seekers, is a suspect in the murder of German politician Lübcke, according to security sources - 26 June 2019: Stephan Ernst, a 45-year-old German man with a string of convictions for violent anti-migrant crime, has confessed to murdering a pro-refugee German politician Walter Lübcke




Murder victims in Germany: Murder victims in Germany


Violence against women in Germany: Violence against women in Germany
Rape in Germany: Rape in/a> Germany
October 2018 Freiburg gang rape, aftermath and trial: Oktober 2018 Gruppenvergewaltigung in Freiburg
Human trafficking in Germany: Human trafficking in Germany


Catholic Church sexual abuse scandals in Germany: Catholic Church sexual abuse scandals in Germany


Theft in Germany: Theft in Germany
1933-1945 stealing of art and other items, organized looting in European countries during NSDAP rule: 'Nazi plunder', stealing of art and other items as a result of the organized looting of European countries during the time of the Third Reich, as looting of Jewish property was a key part of the Holocaust, and as plundering occurred from 1933, beginning with the seizure of property of German Jews, until the end of World War II, particularly by military units and also soldiers - NS-Raubkunst (kurz Raubkunst) werden Kunstwerke bezeichnet, die während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus geraubt beziehungsweise 'NS-verfolgungsbedingt entzogen' wurden, wobei die Opfer des Raubs vor allem Juden und als Juden Verfolgte waren, sowohl innerhalb des deutschen Reichs von 1933 bis 1945, wie in allen von den Deutschen während des Zweiten Weltkriegs besetzten Gebieten auf der Grundlage einer Vielzahl von gesetzlichen Regelungen und unter Beteiligung diverser Behörden und eigens dafür eingerichteten Institutionen, nach der London Charter of the International Military Tribunal von 1945 als Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit eingestuft

Corruption in Germany: Corruption in Germany

Political corruption and crimes:
Since 1975 Flick corruption scandal: Flick-Affäre seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen)
Since 1990 'CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre' (not finished): - CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen
Since 1999 Telekom Überwachungsaffäre: Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom (seit 1999)
2007 Polizistenmord von Heilbronn: Polizistenmord von Heilbronn 25. April 2007
Since 2010 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre: 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre seit 2010


Computer crime, cyber spying and industrial espionage: Computer crime - Cyber spying - Industrial espionage - Cyber-attacks - Computer security


White collar crime and scandals in Germany: Wirtschaftskriminalität


Arson in Germany: Arson in Germany

Law in Germany: Law of Germany - Legal history of Germany
Since 1945 Holocaust trials: Since 1945 Holocaust trials
1942 - April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online - 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria


Judiciary and courts in Germany: Judiciary of Germany
Courts in Germany: Courts in Germany
16 June 2020 Frankfurt court hearing against two neo-Nazis in Walter Luebcke murder case: