Heimtückische Kreispolizei des Kreises Gütersloh, gewaltbereites Gesindel und die K-Frage seit 1914:

Der verlogene Rechtsanwalt, die Satanisten an der Arbeit und die gleiche Frage:

Der Krug geht so lange zu Wasser bis er bricht, oder: Es kann nur ein Land auf der

Welt geben, das solche Seilschaften (den Zustand gewisser Parteien) so lange erträgt.

(Artikel vom 4. April 2008)





Die Kriminalgeschichte aus dem Kreis Gütersloh und der Tatsachenroman aus dem Kreispolizeimilieu münden in ein Kapitel: Angriff auf die freie Meinungsäußerung. (Vgl. das Kapitel "Demokratische Grundrechte, NRW und ein Kulturfrühstück der FDP in Bielefeld")

Vorladung der Kreispolizeibehörde Gütersloh vom 30. Januar 2008







Dies Kapitel, in dem die Fäden also zusammenlaufen, hat eine Vorgeschichte und einen Zusammenhang. Bevor der genannte Angriff auf die freie Meinungsäußerung daher genauer zu betrachten ist (vgl. die am 9.10.2008 erfolgte Aktualisierung der vorstehenden Artikel, die Kreispolizei Gütersloh betreffend), gilt das Augenmerk der historischen Wahl in Spanien am 9. März 2008, der Wissenschaft und ihrer Gegner und der Entwicklung der deutschen Republiken.

Gegen Diktaturen und für Demokratie

Im Oktober 1969 werden zwei Mitglieder der Marienkantorei Lemgo - darunter der Verfasser dieses Artikels - vom Politischen Kommissariat der Polizei Bielefeld festgenommen und verhört. Was war geschehen? Drei Mitglieder der Marienkantorei Lemgo - die genannten zwei und als dritter ein Andreas Koderisch, der, nachdem seine Mutter die Namen der Polizei genannt hatte, feige nach Holland geflüchtet war, dem großen Vorbild (für manche) Wilhelm II. folgend - hatten gegen die Militärdiktatur in Griechenland (seit 1967) und gegen die faschistische Diktatur in Spanien (seit 1939) protestiert: "Espana si - Franco no" und "Freiheit für Griechenland". Die deutsche Polizei fackelt nicht lange, sie hat eine Tradition zu verteidigen (darunter an vorderer Stelle ihre eigene), kriecht vor den Diktaturen und Verbrechern und verfolgt die Demokraten.

Spanien 1936 bis 1939: Militärputsch unter alsbaldiger Führung des Generals Francisco Franco gegen die demokratisch gewählte Regierung der spanischen Republik. Grausamer Bürgerkrieg, in dem die Republik mit kriegsentscheidender Unterstützung der deutschen Luftwaffe, der Legion Condor, zerstört wird. Die Verteidiger der Demokratie zu Hunderttausenden gemordet und verfolgt, bis 1975, dem Tod des Diktators und dem allmählichen Verenden seiner Diktatur. Franco im Jahre 1941: "Als Adolf Hitler - das werde ich ihm nie vergessen - mit dem Einsatz der tapferen deutschen Flieger der Legion Condor unseren Anstrengungen gegen eine Bolschewisierung Spaniens zum Sieg verhalf, da erhob ihn das Schicksal gleichsam zum Schirmherrn der europäischen Zivilisation." Soll heißen: Der Regime nie dagewesener Verbrechen, der Gaskammern, des Niedermähens von Zivilisten mit Maschinengewehren aus Flugzeugen, der Massenerschießungen, der Garrotte etc. Noch im März 1974 werden Urteile gegen Gegner der Franco-Diktatur mit der Garrotte vollstreckt (Salvador Puig Antich, Barcelona, 1948 bis 1974, wäre heute 60 Jahre alt und könnte Bielefeld besuchen). Am 31.10.2007 stimmt das spanische Parlament dem Gesetz der Rehabilitierung von Opfern aus der Zeit des spanischen Bürgerkriegs zu, in welchem erstmals das faschistische Regime Francos offiziell verurteilt wird. 71 Jahre nach dem Beginn des Verbrechens siegt die Demokratie. Am 9. März 2008 gewinnt die PSOE, der Spanien das endlich beschlossene Gesetz und die Verurteilung der Diktatur Francos verdankt, mit für viele überraschend großer Mehrheit die Parlamentswahlen. Die Bevölkerung bestätigt den Sieg der Demokratie über das Verbrechen ausdrücklich und macht die Veränderung dauerhaft, unumkehrbar.

Spanien ist aus eigener Kraft mit der Diktatur fertig geworden, im Unterschied zu den Deutschen. Wenn es auch - wegen der Deutschen, der USA, des Vatikans etc. - und wegen der allgemein bekannten und gefürchteten Grausamkeit der Putschisten und militärischen Sieger im spanischen Bürgerkrieg sehr lange gedauert hat.

Die deutsche politische Polizei (politisches Kommissariat), bis 1945 unter dem Namen Gestapo, verfolgt 1969 Bürger, die sich gegen die neuen und alten faschistischen Regime Europas, Verbündete Hitlers, grausamste Verbrecher bis in die siebziger Jahre stellen. Die deutsche politische Polizei ist durch das spanische Parlament am 31.10.2007 mit verurteilt, unumkehrbar. Die örtliche bzw. regionale Presse Lemgos ("Lippische Rundschau" - Lothar Geißler als Schreiberling - und "Lippische Landeszeitung"), die den Protest gegen Franco etc. 1969 nutzt, um Bürger wegen ihres Eintretens für die Demokratie zu verleumden, zu verunglimpfen (in übelster Weise und Tradition) und zu verfolgen, ist durch das spanische Parlament am 31.10.2007 mit verurteilt. Warum hat keine deutsche Staatsanwaltschaft jemals Anklage gegen diese politische Polizei, aktiv im Interesse der Faschisten, erhoben? Wann werden deren Aktionen endlich im Land selbst verurteilt, nach so langer Zeit wenigstens im Rahmen einer Stellungnahme? Die Zeit hat nicht für die Unbelehrbaren gearbeitet, sondern gegen sie. Es wird nicht etwas besser dadurch, daß es statt gestern vor längerer Zeit geschehen ist. Fast 40 Jahre haben sie Zeit gehabt zur Umkehr, unfähig, unbelehrbar, mit neuen Taten, um die alten zu vertuschen. Nichts ist vergessen. Das Opfer hat überlebt.

Dem Druck, der vom 9. März 2008 in Spanien ausgeht, wird früher oder später auch im Land der Menschenvergaser, der NSDAP und des geschichtlich skrupellosesten Militarismus, der Himmlers, Görings, Globkes, Kiesingers, der Ludendorffs, Keitels, Wagners, Harlinghausens, Trettners etc. etc. nicht standzuhalten sein. Die EU ist der Unterpfand.

Zusammenhang von Nationalsozialismus und CDU-Staat: Schüsselstellung im Bundeskanzleramt des "Rasse"-Juristen Hans Globke



NSDAP-Kiesinger als Kanzler war kein Versehen. Er wurde nach einem Globke als Chef des Bundeskanzleramts, den Hitlergeneralen in der Bundeswehr etc. der Bundesrepublik, Europa und der Welt mit Bedacht und Absicht zugemutet. Er verstand seine Wahl und fuhr 1968 zum Staatsbesuch zu Franco. Dort ließ er sich vom faschistischen Diktator in aller Öffentlichkeit dekorieren: Verbunden durch gemeinsame Vergangenheit im Zeichen des "Schirmherrn der europäischen Zivilisation". Ein bundesdeutscher NSDAP-Kanzler empfängt gestanztes Blech aus Henkershand vor den Augen der Welt. Es kann nur eine Nation auf der Welt geben, die das mit sich machen läßt.

Nicht viele Jahre nach Ende des Weltkriegs wurden wieder Panzer und U-Boote gebaut. Bundesdeutsche U-Boote für die griechische Militärdiktatur? Mehr Demokratie wagen? War es falsch, diese Parole Willy Brandts - formuliert unter dem Eindruck einer bundesweiten und unüberhörbaren außerparlamentarischen Opposition gegen eine große Regierungskoalition - wörtlich und ernst zu nehmen?

Willy Brandt stand für den Widerstand gegen Hitler, zusammen mit den Ungebrochenen und Verfolgten der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung, er selbst in Skandinavien, auch in Spanien (als Journalist). Von ihm (von 1969-74 Nachfolger Kiesingers als Kanzler, zuvor in der großen Koalition unter Kiesinger Außenminister), hatte schon Adenauer doppelt diffamierend als von seinem Gegenkandidaten Frahm gesprochen. Der einzige Kanzler der Bundesrepublik, der im Widerstand gegen Hitler aktiv gewesen war, wird wegen seiner antifaschistischen, demokratischen Vergangenheit diffamiert, beschimpft, angegriffen, in übelster Weise von F.J. Strauß. Ausgerechnet die sog. DDR, deren Anerkennung im Interesse einer Entschärfung des 45-jährigen Ost-West-Konflikts, des "Kalten Krieges" Willy Brandt vorantreibt (Grundlagenvertrag 1972), bringt ihn 1974 zu Fall (Affäre G. Guillaume).

Schauen wir daher etwas weiter zurück, um diesen Vorgang zu begreifen.

Die bürgerliche Gesellschaft - die Wissenschaft und ihre Gegner

Seit 1867 - dem Erscheinungsjahr von "Das Kapital" - hat sich das Austragen sozialer Gegensätze verändert. Zunächst: Mit der ökonomischen Krise von 1825 tritt die große Industrie aus ihrem Kindheitsalter und eröffnet den periodischen Kreislauf ihres modernen Lebens. Mit der politischen Krise des Jahres 1830 erobern die bürgerlichen Klassen Frankreichs und Englands politische Macht. "Von da an gewann der Klassenkampf, praktisch und theoretisch, mehr und mehr ausgesprochne und drohende Formen. Er läutete die Totenglocke der wissenschaftlichen bürgerlichen Ökonomie. Es handelte sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ob dies oder jenes Theorem wahr sei, sondern ob es dem Kapital nützlich oder schädlich, bequem oder unbequem, ob polizeiwidrig oder nicht. ...an die Stelle unbefangener wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung trat das böse Gewissen und die schlechte Absicht der Apologetik." ( Karl Marx, Das Kapital, S.21)

Seit 1867 bewegt sich nicht nur wissenschaftliche Tätigkeit sondern alle Politik in dem Spannungsfeld, welches durch systematische theoretische Darstellung (und dadurch Kritik) des Gegenstandes auf eine neue Stufe gehoben ist. Das Naturgesetz läßt es ganz unberührt, ob über es nachgedacht wird oder nicht. Nicht so das Bewegungsgesetz der Gesellschaft. Die faschistischen Bewegungen und Regime haben zum Inhalt, was Hitler 1924 vor Gericht (nach gescheitertem Staatsstreichversuch mit Geiselnahmen, etlichen Toten etc.) als sein Programm der Vernichtung des Marxismus ausspricht. "Was mir vor Augen stand, das war vom ersten Tage an tausendmal mehr, als Minister zu werden. Ich wollte der Zerbrecher des Marxismus werden. Ich werde diese Aufgabe lösen ..." (Zitiert nach Alan Bullock, Hitler - Eine Studie über Tyrannei, 1953.) Unter dieser Parole versammelt er die Anhängerschaft keinesweg nur der NSDAP (bis hin zum "Opus Dei"), wird zunächst weiter protegiert, noch im selben Jahr 1924 nach einer Haft von kaum neun Monaten entlassen und kann die verbrecherische Politik, bald auch wieder mit den alten Organisationen, fortsetzen.

Vorausgegangen war in den Jahrzehnten bis 1914, basierend auf enormer ökonomischer, technischer etc. Entwicklung, der Entwicklung des kapitalistischen Weltmarkts in die Breite und Tiefe, ebenfalls ein Aufschwung sozialdemokratischer Organisationen und Parteien, auf internationaler Ebene. Diese Parteien, seit dem 100. Jahrestag der französischen Revolution von 1789, also seit 1889 in der Sozialistischen Internationale verbunden, hatten seit Gründung die menschliche Anwendung von Gewalt, insbesondere die Frage von Krieg und Frieden, thematisiert. Seit dem Stuttgarter Kongreß 1907 (bestätigt in Kopenhagen 1910 und Basel 1912) gehörten folgende Sätze zu den Beschlüssen der Sozialistischen Internationale: "Droht der Ausbruch eines Krieges, so sind die arbeitenden Klassen und deren parlamentarische Vertreter in den beteiligten Ländern verpflichtet, unterstützt durch die zusammenfassende Tätigkeit des Internationalen Sozialistischen Büros, alles aufzubieten, um durch die Anwendung der ihnen am wirksamsten erscheinenden Mittel den Ausbruch des Krieges zu verhindern, die sich je nach der Verschärfung des Klassenkampfes und der allgemeinen politischen Situation naturgemäß ändern. Falls der Krieg dennoch ausbrechen sollte, sind sie verpflichtet, für dessen rasche Beendigung einzutreten und mit allen Kräften dahin zu streben, die durch den Krieg herbeigeführte wirtschaftliche und politische Krise zur Aufrüttelung des Volkes auszunutzen und dadurch die Beseitigung der kapitalistischen Klassenherrschaft zu beschleunigen."

Die so eindeutig und einmütig seit dem Stuttgarter Kongreß 1907 beständig auf größter Bühne (selbstverständlich auch Berichterstattung in der Parteipresse etc.) erklärte Absicht und Politik, sich einem Krieg der entsprechenden Staaten mit vereinten Kräften zu widersetzen und ihn nach Möglichkeit schon im Entstehen (mittels Generalstreik etc.) zu verhindern, zerplatzte in den ersten Tagen der beginnenden Katastrophe im Juli/August 1914 wie eine Seifenblase (vgl. Rosa Luxemburg, Junius-Broschüre - "Junius" ist ihr Pseudonym aus dem Gefängnis). Konsequente Anwendung fanden die Beschlüsse nur bei den Sozialdemokraten Rußlands, der SDAPR (Bolschewiki). Kein Mensch auf unserer Welt, für alle Zukunft, wird bezweifeln können, daß die Bolschewiki richtig analysiert und gehandelt haben. Die Geschichte hat ihr Urteil gesprochen.

Der 4. August 1914 sieht eine SPD, die mit ihrer Zustimmung im Reichstag zu den geforderten Kriegskrediten ihren vollständigen intellektuellen und politischen Bankrott erklärt. Aus dem Angriffskrieg der Mittelmächte - die deutschen Heere sind bereits in Luxemburg und Belgien einmarschiert und die SPD weiß es - macht die Partei der Arbeiterbewegung einen Verteidigungskrieg gegen eine fremde Invasion, um die Existenz des Vaterlandes, um Kultur und einen Freiheitskrieg gegen den russischen Despotismus.

Die Tatsachen sind:

Am 6.07.1914 hat die deutsche Reichsregierung Österreich-Ungarn eine "Blankovollmacht" unbedingter Bündnistreue gegeben.

Am 23.07.1914 stellt Österreich-Ungarn Serbien ein - wegen geforderter Preisgabe serbischer Souveränitätsrechte - unannehmbares Ultimatum.

Am 28.07.1914 erklärt Österreich-Ungarn Serbien den Krieg, nach erfolglosen Vermittlungsversuchen (Vorschlag einer Botschafterkonferenz und direkter Verhandlungen zwischen Rußland und Österreich-Ungarn). Der deutsche Generalstab drängt Österreich-Ungarn zur Generalmobilmachung und rät seinerseits von Vermittlungsversuchen ab.

Am 1.08.1914 erklärt Deutschland Rußland den Krieg.

Am 3.08.1914 erklärt Deutschland Frankreich den Krieg.

Ab 3.08.1914 Einmarsch deutscher Truppen in Belgien und Luxemburg. Neutrale Länder (militärisch schwächer, weshalb man daher meint, das mit ihnen machen zu können) werden überfallen und das Verbrechen wird am 4.08.1914 - "Unrecht" ist seine Bezeichnung - vom Reichskanzler Bethmann Hollweg "offen" zugegeben: "Unsere Truppen haben Luxemburg besetzt, vielleicht schon belgisches Gebiet betreten. Meine Herren, das widerspricht den Geboten des Völkerrechts. Das Unrecht - ich spreche offen -, das Unrecht, das wir damit tun, werden wir wieder gutzumachen suchen, sobald unser militärisches Ziel erreicht ist." (Zitiert nach: Wikipedia, Die Kriegsschuldfrage - Causes of World War I)

Die SPD widerspricht dem kaiserlichen Kanzler. Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Was ein Deutsches Reich unter Wiedergutmachung versteht, zeigen folgende Vorgänge :

"Im ersten Weltkrieg wurde Stinnes, auch durch die umfangreiche Munitionsproduktion der Dortmunder Union, zu einem der wichtigsten Kriegslieferanten für das deutsche Heer. In Zusammenarbeit mit deutschen Militärstellen wie der Kriegsrohstoffabteilung expandierte er in der Energie- und Metallherstellung, sowie der chemischen und der Metall verarbeitenden Industrie, beispielsweise durch Gründung des Erftwerkes und durch Erschließung von Rohstoffvorkommen der befreundeten Mittelmächte Rumänien und der Türkei, aber auch durch die aggressive "Germanisierung" der belgischen Rohstoffvorkommen. Zusammen mit anderen deutschen Industriellen wie Walter Rathenau und Carl Duisberg forderte er schließlich die deutsche Regierung auf, nicht nur Rohstoffe und Maschinen gewaltsam aus Belgien zu beschaffen, sondern auch die dringend benötigten Arbeitskräfte. Dies führte zur Deportation zehntausender belgischer Zivilisten, die zur Zwangsarbeit in Industrie und Bergbau nach Deutschland verschleppt wurden." (zitiert nach: Wikipedia, Hugo Stinnes - Stand 23.03.2008)

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Wie oben schon bemerkt, waren Anfang August 1914 deutsche Truppen völkerrechtswidrig und ohne Kriegserklärung in das neutrale Belgien einmarschiert. Das Dorf Battice gelangte gleich zu Beginn dieser "Fortsetzung der Politik mit anderen Mitteln" traurige Berühmtheit, als die gesamte Siedlung von deutschen Truppen niedergebrannt wurde. Aus dem Dorf war gegen den Überfall und die deutsche Besetzung Gegenwehr gekommen. Nach der gewaltsamen Einnahme des Dorfes beschuldigte das deutsche Militär die Zivilbevölkerung, als Partisanen am Widerstand teilgenommen zu haben und machte als Strafe das gesamte Dorf dem Erdboden gleich, während ein Teil der Bevölkerung massakriert wurde.

"Auch in anderen Städten Belgiens und dem Norden Frankreichs wurden derartige Massaker verübt." (Wikipedia, German war crimes in Aarschot, Andenne, Dinant, Leuven, Liège, Tamines etc., 1. Weltkrieg) Wehe, wenn sich gegen deutsche Verbrechen gewehrt wird.

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Der "Courier", das Organ des Transportarbeiterverbandes (der Gewerkschaft der Transportarbeiter) schreibt nach der Einnahme Antwerpens 1914: "Heute weht die deutsche Flagge auf den Türmen Antwerpens, hoffentlich für immer." (Courier, 25. Oktober 1914)

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Den amtlich registrierten Zahlen von 670.000 toten und 1.641.000 verwundeten Soldaten in den ersten Kriegsmonaten 1914 bis Februar 1916 stehen Gewinnsteigerungen (im gleichen Zeitraum) des Krupp-Konzerns, der Vereinigten Köln-Rottweiler-Pulverfabriken, der AEG etc. nach eigenen Statistiken von z.T. mehreren hundert Prozent gegenüber. Deutsche Firmen verdienen auch an den Lieferungen von Rüstungsmaterial und Lizenzen für das Ausland. Über neutrale Länder wird während des Kriegs Zink an englische Rüstungskonzerne verkauft. Die Engländer revanchieren sich mit rüstungswichtigem Kupfer. Über die Schweiz liefern deutsche Stahlindustrielle Stabeisen und Grobbleche an französische Rüstungsfirmen. Der Krupp-Konzern hatte vor dem Krieg das Patent eines Handgranatenzünders an den englischen Konzern Vickers&Armstrong verkauft. Millionen von englischen Handgranaten mit dem Kruppschen Zünder brachten den Soldaten Tod und Verstümmelung, dem Krupp-Konzern und seinem englischen Lizenznehmer Riesengewinne.

Für die SPD ist es ein Verteidigungskrieg.

Über eine Unterredung sozialdemokratischer Fraktionskollegen (Gustav Bauer, Max Cohen, Paul Göhre, Philipp Scheidemann, Robert Schmidt, Georg Schöpflin) gibt es Aufzeichnungen des Abgeordneten Eduard David vom 15. August 1914: "Man vertritt die Auffassung, daß die deutsche Regierung den Krieg gewollt habe als Präventivkrieg. Scheidemann ist davon überzeugt und scheint besondere Anhaltspunkte dafür zu haben." Der Abgeordnete Albert Südekum hatte am 29. Juli 1914 den Reichskanzler vorab informiert, daß der SPD-Parteivorstand im Krieg (der gar nicht begonnen hatte, der erst am 1. August mit der Kriegserklärung Deutschlands an Rußland beginnen sollte) keinerlei Klassenkampfaktionen einleiten und sich auch "mißverständlicher" Äußerungen in der Presse enthalten werde. Der Abgeordnete Südekum blickte staunenswert zuversichtlich in die Zukunft der Arbeiterbewegung.

Kriegsgegner können ihre Einsichten und Überzeugungen ab Kriegsbeginn - Kriegsrecht, "Burgfrieden", Parteidisziplin (s. oben), Pressezensur - nur illegal verbreiten, riskieren hohe Strafen bis hin zur Todesstrafe. Die wissenschaftlich gebildeten, von denen schon seit der Jahrhundertwende klare Einsichten und Orientierung ausgegangen waren, werden ins Gefängnis oder ins Zuchthaus - wie z.B. Rosa Luxemburg - geworfen. Viele Kriegsgegner beugen sich lange der Fraktionsdisziplin. Es zeigt sich im Kriegsverlauf, wie die Ebert-Kriegsfraktion diese - im Interesse der Einigkeit der Partei mit großen Skrupeln geschehene - Selbstverleugnung honoriert.

Pazifistisch orientierte Kriegsgegner, die es können und auch wollen, emigrieren vor allem in die Schweiz. Dort kann während des Krieges die Debatte auf literarischer Bühne weitergeführt werden (z.B. von Ernst Bloch, Carl von Ossietzky etc.), die keineswegs weggedrängt und abgehoben bleibt, sondern seit dem 14-Punkte-Programm von Wilson (dem US-Präsidenten) mit dem Konzept eines Völkerbunds und den darauf folgenden Erörterungen und politischen Reaktionen eine epochemachend neue, tiefgreifende Diskussion vorzeichnet.

Für die Ebert-SPD gilt im Kriegsverlauf, die ungebrochenen, kritischen und auch zur wissenschaftlichen Diskussion fähigen Mitglieder aus der Partei herauszudrängen und dann auszuschließen, ihre Lüge vom Verteidigungskrieg, ihre Kriegsunterstützung und den Betrug an Partei und Bevölkerung mit Zwangsmaßnahmen zu zementieren. Der Weg der Gewalt hat sein eigenes Gesetz. Es gibt kein zurück vor den August 1914. Die Ebert-Fraktion ist Gefangene ihres Verrates und ihrer Lüge, weil der Weg der Gewalt für die Opfer keine Umkehr kennt. Und nun die Gewalt und die Opfer dieses Krieges, die nach Millionen gezählt werden, und eines nicht zu gewinnenden Krieges.

Der Verrat von 1914 - wenn schon der Angriffskrieg für einen Verteidigungskrieg ausgegeben wurde - enthielt wenigstens die Erwartung eines Sieges, des Erfolges. Die Realität straft die Mehrheits-SPD der Lüge, unerbittlich, unwiderruflich für alle Zeiten und vor aller Augen. Die Geschichte gibt ihr Urteil ab. Die Notwehr, die angebliche Verteidigung wird statt eines Erfolges die bitterste Niederlage, eben weil sie tatsächlich ein verbrecherischer Angriff ist. Auch für den Täter, den Mörder gibt es keine Umkehr. Er kann daher nicht im Dialog zur Einsicht und zur Änderung seines Verhaltens gebracht werden. Wenn die Tat, ihre Umstände und ihre Beweggründe nicht herausgefunden, schonungslos aufgedeckt werden und der Täter nicht zur Rechenschaft gezogen wird, droht der Rückfall in die Barbarei ein Fall ins Bodenlose, der dauerhafte Verlust aller menschlichen Errungenschaften zu werden. Es ist nach 1914 lebenswichtig, das wahre Ausmaß der Katastrophe zu erkennen. Es ist nicht weniger im Jahr 2008 lebenswichtig geblieben. 1914 hat es gegeben.

Die Vorgänge und Triebkräfte, die zum 1. August 1914 geführt hatten, waren kein Geheimnis. Die Entwicklung des Weltmarkts, die Konkurrenz und Expansion des Kapitals, die Kolonialpolitik waren kein Geheimnis. Die expansive Rüstungsindustrie (z.B. "Welt-Kriegs-Konzern Krupp", Klaus Tenfelde in seiner Chronik des Hauses Krupp) war kein Geheimnis. Die wilhelminische Innen- und Außenpolitik war kein Geheimnis. Die internationalen Krisen (Balkankrisen und -kriege, Marokkokrisen etc.) waren kein Geheimnis. Der Weltkrieg wurde seit Jahrzehnten vorbereitet, in breitester Öffentlichkeit und auch die sozialdemokratische Presse berichtete, zeigte Zusammenhänge und kommentierte. Die Rhetorik überdeckte das nationale Vorurteil. Wie wenig - seit 1867 - die neuen Gedanken und die Wissenschaft (die Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) in die Tiefe gedrungen waren, bewies im Juli/August 1914 die - im Ausland grandios überschätzte - SPD mit ihrer völligen Unterwerfung unter die Politik der kaiserlichen Regierung. (Schon 1913 war die Nachfolge im Parteivorsitz, Ebert statt Bebel, ein unübersehbares Signal gewesen. Die Bedenken, die Bebel gegen Ebert gehabt hatte, waren nur zu berechtigt.) Die internationale Aktion und Verhinderung der Katastrophe wurde durch die SPD zur puren Illusion, die Partei hatte ihr Herz für Tatsachen entdeckt, die chauvinistische Tat-Sache des Krieges.

Nach Beginn macht die Ebert-Fraktion aus dem Krieg eine vorgegebene Tatsache. (Genauso wie für Angela Merkel im Jahr 2003 der Irakkrieg der USA "nun" eine Realität ist, vgl. den Artikel zum Irakkrieg vom 6.04.2003 auf dieser Internetseite.) Ebert im Rückblick: "Der Krieg mit Rußland und Frankreich war zur Tatsache geworden. England lag auf der Lauer, um unter irgendeinem Vorwand (?) ebenfalls (?) loszuschlagen. Italien macht nicht mit (?), und Österreich ist eben Österreich (?). Die Gefahr ist groß, auch unsere Leute standen unter diesem Eindruck." (Zitiert nach Wikipedia, Ebert) Eberts Beschreibung, vom ersten bis zum letzten Wort falsch, ist absichtsvolle Fälschung der historischen Tatsachen. Der deutsche Überfall auf Belgien: alles andere als ein Vorwand. Das Ebenfallslosschlagen: Rußland und Frankreich haben nicht losgeschlagen. Daß die Gefahr groß ist wegen des Militarismus des eigenen Landes, des Angriffskrieges der Reichsregierung und der eigenen Unfähigkeit, nein zu sagen (in der Reihenfolge der Begründung), überfordert die Einsichtsfähigkeit eines SPD Parteivorsitzenden in der Nachfolge August Bebels. Derart sehen die analytischen Fähigkeiten eines Vorsitzenden aus in einer geschichtlichen Situation, in der es genauestens darauf ankommt. Daß der Krieg ein Produkt ist, an welchem die Partei selbst mitwirkt, überfordert bei näherem Hinsehen allerdings weniger den Scharfsinn als die Redlichkeit ihres Vorsitzenden. Das Ausweichen vor der Analyse, vor der Wahrheit geschieht nur teils aus Unvermögen. Es geschieht vor allem aus Feigheit resp. Korruptheit. Der ganz simple Beweis diesbezüglich (der in der begonnenen Krise bestätigt wird bis zum bittersten Ende): Das eigene Unvermögen wäre schon lange zu kompensieren gewesen durch die einfache Lektüre der Produkte anderer, gründlich und kontinuierlich arbeitender besserer Analysten (z.B. Rosa Luxemburg ab 1893 in der "Sprawa Robotnicza", in der "Sächsischen Arbeiterzeitung", in der "Leipziger Volkszeitung", in "Die Neue Zeit", im "Vorwärts" etc.).

Weil die Parteifunktionäre, auf Kosten der Parteimitglieder eingestellt, gut besoldet und sicher versorgt, nichts gründlicher gelernt und begriffen hatten als eben diesen Aufstieg, weil die allgemeine Korruption, Staatsparasitentum, Postenjagd im prosperierenden, expandierenden und doch angeblich zu kurz gekommenen wilhelminischen Reich ebensolche wilhelminischen Charakterdarsteller en masse erzeugt hatte (der 1. und 4. August 1914, die Kriegsbegeisterung großer Bevölkerungsteile zu Beginn waren hierfür der unbezweifelbare Beweis), wurden die gesellschaftlichen Klassen, die nicht von fremder Arbeit leben (sei es in Frankreich, sei es in Deutschland etc.), gegeneinander in die Schlacht, in das Blutbad, in die Giftgasschwaden gezwungen und getrieben. Weil Gier, deutsch-österreichischer Dünkel, Chauvinismus und Größenwahn Sieger waren und Kaiser, kaiserliche Regierung, Militär und Kapital tun konnten, was sie wollten. Ein Aufschrei hätte kommen müssen: Bis hierher und nicht weiter, niemals. Die SPD kroch, dankte ab und übertraf den kaiserlichen Kanzler noch mit dem Betrug und der frechsten Lüge, das deutsche Reich müsse sich gegen einen Überfall wehren.

Von diesem Zeitpunkt ab wäre einer doch so bitter notwendigen Einsicht der Kriegsfraktion, einer Selbstkritik und Umkehr eine alsbaldige Auswechslung des Führungspersonals gefolgt. Der SPD-Parteivorstand nutzt daher die Dunkelheit des Kriegsrechts und ersetzt 1916 die mehrheitlich links stehende Redaktion des "Vorwärts" durch eigene Leute. Am 16. März 1916 werden die Kriegsgegner aus der gemeinsamen Fraktion, im Januar 1917 auch aus der Partei ausgeschlossen. Das Handeln wider besseres Wissen, der Verrat und Betrug vom 4. August 1914 gegenüber der (internationalen) Arbeiterbewegung, der deutschen Bevölkerung, der Welt, gegenüber dem Gewissen und aller Zivilisation wird ergänzt mit skrupellosem Verrat an der eigenen Partei und den eigenen Gefolgsleuten, die sich (auch wider besseres Wissen aber mit Skrupeln) lange der Parteidisziplin gebeugt hatten. Die Ebert-SPD ist Gefangene ihrer Doktrin und ihrer Taten, die sie - nachdem der Weg der Gewalt und des Mordens beschritten ist - zu weiteren Taten zwingen.

Im Kriegsverlauf verändert sich diese Gefangenschaft des 4. August, es kommt ein verheißungsvoller Umstand hinzu. Dem Wissen um die eigene Lüge, die man in den ersten Tagen und vielleicht Wochen des Kriegs (bis zur Marneschlacht) noch am ehesten mit der Hoffnung auf einen Sieg, also mit Illusion und Selbsttäuschung beiseitedrängen oder herunterspielen konnte, muß Schritt für Schritt Rechnung getragen werden. Nur wie? Die zynische Kalkulation wird nun, den geschichtlichen Fehlgriff (alias Verbrechen) von Militär und Regierung, einen aussichtslosen Krieg dieses Ausmaßes begonnen zu haben, für die eigenen Zwecke skrupellos auszunutzen. Früher oder später wird die Entwicklung, die wachsende Überlegenheit der Entente und der entsprechende Kriegsverlauf Militär und Regierung dermaßen in die Enge treiben, daß das verratene, ausgeblutete, ausgehungerte und verelendete Volk ihren Sturz verlangt. Die SPD-Kriegsfraktion muß nur eng genug an der Seite der Regierung, in einer wohlerwogenen und -dosierten Nähe und Distanz zu Militär und Kaiser bleiben, damit diese abzusehende Entwicklung ihr selbst die desillusionierten Opfer zutreibt. Was sie dann diesen Teilen der Bevölkerung anbieten muß, um sie einzufangen, ist ihr ureigenes, professionelles, bestens bekanntes, langtrainiertes Betätigungsfeld. Der Krieg wurde vielversprechend, jetzt mehr und mehr für diese Fraktion der "Daheimkrieger".

Selten haben Parteiführer mehr Ekel und Abscheu erregt.

Die Lehrstätte des Grauens und der gegenseitigen Vernichtung, die elendigste Schule zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie: mit welchem Lernprozeß? 1918 sah ganz andere Menschen als die, die 1914 die Lehrstätte betreten hatten und betreten mußten. Keineswegs alle Überlebenden und Davongekommenen wurden zu Kriegsgegnern. Es gab offenbar Menschen, deren große Leidenschaft Stahlhelme - nach ihrer Einführung für die Frontsoldaten 1916, und auch hier war Deutschland technisch versiert - wurden, und deren Herz höher schlug, wenn sie z.B. als Meldegänger vor ihrem Leutnant stramm stehen durften, in der Todesmaschinerie gebraucht, mitunter vielleicht auch gelobt und mit gestanztem Blech vor der Herzregion kenntlich gemacht. Statt Hundemarke ein "Eisernes Kreuz".

Der Rückfall sprengte alle bisherigen Kenntnisse und Vorstellungen über Leben und Tod, über unzerbrechliche und zerbrechende menschliche Existenzen, über körperliche und seelische Krüppel. Das Kapital, Krupp, Stinnes etc. hatten gut vorgesorgt, mit Maschinengewehren, Kanonen, Panzerkreuzern, U-Booten, Flugzeugen und - Giftgas. Der Krieg dauerte, die Dividenden stiegen, die Proletarier fielen. Mit Hindenburg und Ludendorff ging es richtig nach oben, besonders für die Krupp AG (vgl. Norbert F. Pötzl, "Spiegel-Spezial" vom März 2004). Der verlorene Krieg, 1914 mit imperialen Zielen, Täuschung, Irreführung und sozialdemokratischem Betrug und Verrat begonnen und geführt, entließ Heerscharen von deklassierten, entwurzelten und demoralisierten Existenzen, für die es - obwohl nicht hingemordet - jedenfalls keine einfache Umkehr gab.

Die Revolutionen zum Ende der Katastrophe 1917/1918 waren gekennzeichnet vom Elend in umfassendster Weise, von schroffsten Gegensätzen (Kriegsgewinnler-Kriegsverlierer), Gegnerschaften, Leidenschaften, politischen Fraktionierungen, Kämpfen und Haß und von Hilflosigkeiten, Unzulänglichkeiten, Versäumnissen, Halbheiten, Irrtümern der Akteure auch auf der Seite der Klassen, die die Opfer geworden waren. Marx' Diagnose und Prognose von 1867, inwiefern die Wissenschaft Privatinteressen berührt, Leidenschaften hervorruft und welche Privatinteressen und mit welchen Mitteln überhaupt verfolgt werden, zeichnete noch idyllische Zustände vergangener Tage. Er konnte nicht wissen, wie die bürgerlichen Klassen und "Eliten" sich noch inspirieren und beflügeln ließen, weil die technische Entwicklung in schließlich produzierter Gestalt nicht Voraussehbares geschaffen hatte.

Als Stinnes 1924 starb, war sein Familienunternehmen mit über 600.000 Beschäftigten der größte "Arbeitgeber" der Welt. Das Familienunternehmen hatte eben auf todsichere Geschäfte gesetzt und gewonnen. Unter diesen Umständen kann auch einmal großzügig gehandelt werden und etwas abgegeben werden: Den Bedürftigen der Anti-bolschewistischen Liga des Eduard Stadtler (vgl. das Fortsetzungskapitel).

Die Fortsetzung des vorliegenden Kapitels wird die Darlegung des Zusammenhangs bis zur Gegenwart fortführen.

- Oktoberrevolution 1917 in Rußland

- Novemberrevolution 1918 in Deutschland, der Untergang der Weimarer Republik und die Fortsetzung des Weltkrieges

- Das geteilte Deutschland, eine Geschichte verdrängter Geschichte:







Vgl. die Erinnerung an den Waffenstillstand am 11. November 1918 in Belgien, Frankreich, Polen, in Canada on 4 November 2015, vielen weiteren Ländern und in Deutschland

Vgl. die Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später 2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Commémoration de la Première Guerre mondiale en Belgique - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - l'agenda en France - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - Août 2014 - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale - Décembre 2016 - La sélection du Centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale Janvier 2014 - Décembre 2016 - The Great War Timeline - September 1917 - German war crimes World War I - 18 November 2016: The centenary of the end of one of the bloodiest episodes of the first world war, the 141 days of the Battle of the Somme in which more than a million men on both sides were killed or injured, is being marked with services in France and in the UK

Vgl. die Erinnerung an den 2. Weltkrieg 1939-1945 75 Jahre später 2014-2020: Aftermath of World War II - 75 years later the British website 'World War II Today' continues to follow the war through to August 1945





Und den Artikel: Krisen: Ökonomie, Politik, Kriege, Naturkatastrophen, darin "Germany":



Völkermord und ungesühnte Kriegsverbrechen Deutschlands: Bis heute kaum bundesdeutsche Strafverfolgung von Wehrmachtsverbrechen - Verschleppung, Verhinderung, Leugnung und Verharmlosung - Strafvereitelung für verurteilte Massenmörder durch Auslieferungsverweigerung
1952: CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
1953-1963: 1953-1963 CDU-member and racist Nazi-jurist Hans Globke director of the Federal Chancellory of West Germany, 1933-1945 high-profile Nazi-jurist in NSDAP-Germany, drafting the law for the 'Protection of the German Blood' and serving as chief legal advisor in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of Interior, the section headed by Adolf Eichmann that implemented the Holocaust bureaucratically, knowing 'that the Jews were being put to death en masse'
1958-1962: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' BND spy between 1958-1962
1965: In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach
2006: CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
2011: 7. Juli 2011: Neun ehemalige Wehrmachtssoldaten wegen Massaker in Italien 1944 im Juli 2011 in Verona zu lebenslanger Haft verurteilt - Sant'Anna di Stazzema - Die Täter, wie z.B. Gerhard Sommer, geschützt von der deutschen Justiz in Hamburg und Stuttgart - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 1 October 2012: Probe into Nazi massacre at Sant'Anna di Stazzema dropped by German prosecutors - 19 December 2012: At the presentation of a report by Italian and German historians on German war crimes against Italians, Italy presses Germany on conviction of former Nazis
2013: 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2014: 20 February 2014: Three suspected Auschwitz guards detained in Baden-Wuerttemberg - 19 June 2014: Suspected SS guard J. Breyer arrested in the USA for the alleged murders of hundreds of thousands of Jewish men, women and children during World War II - 2 December 2014: Nazi war criminal Brunner, the unrepentant 'right-hand man' of Adolf Eichmann and wanted for deporting tens of thousands of Jews to death camps, is 'almost certain' to have died in Syria, where he was protected by successive regimes, four years ago, Simon Wiesenthal Centre says
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir - 22 September 2015: 91-year-old German woman who worked at Auschwitz has been accused of complicity in the murders of at least 260,000 Jews during World War II - 2 November 2015: Former Auschwitz SS guard, charged with 170,000 counts of accessory to murder, declared fit for trial in Germany - 1 December 2015: German appeals court clears the way for the trial of 95-year-old SS sergeant at Auschwitz Hubert Z., accused of being an accessory to the murder of at least 3,681 people at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi death camp, as in Detmold Reinhold H. is accused of being an accessory to the murder of 170,000 people and in Kiel a 91-year-old woman is accused of the same charges in the case of 260,000 people
2016: 18 janvier 2016: L'ex-infirmier d'Auschwitz Hubert Zafke, en poste lorsqu'est arrivé le convoi d'Anne Frank en 1944, sera jugé à partir du 29 février en Allemagne - 29 January 2016: Authorities probe former SS soldiers accused of war crimes, including involvement in a 1944 civilian massacre in France - 10 February 2016: SS men Reinhold Hanning and Hubert Zafke will go on trial this month for their alleged complicity in the murder of thousands of people at Auschwitz, as Holocaust survivor Angela Orosz, born at Auschwitz, will take the witness stand in the Hanning trial - 11 February 2016: Auschwitz survivor Leon Schwarzbaum urges SS-guard on trial to reveal his role at death camp, asking him 'to tell the historical truth', 'the truth about what you and your colleagues did', but the SS-guard remains silent - 12 February 2016: Leon Schwarzbaum, Justin Sonder, Erna de Vries, three Auschwitz survivors describe horrors of Holocaust on the second day of the trial in Detmold - 26 February 2016: Angela Orosz Richt-Bein born inside the Auschwitz concentration camp in 1944 has accused former guard Hanning on trial for being an accessory to the murders of 170,000 Holocaust victims, saying 'You know what happened to all the people, you enabled their murder. Tell us! Tell us!' - 29 February 2016: The trial of former Nazi official Hubert Z., who is thought to have worked as a medic, over his suspected involvement in the deaths of 3,681 people at the Auschwitz concentration camp is set to begin in Germany on Monday - 5 March 2016: Born in Auschwitz in December 1944 and too weak to cry, the true understanding of her origins crept up on her slowly throughout her childhood in Hungary, Angela Orosz says in Detmold's courtroom - 12 March 2016: Canadian Jewish groups are calling on Canada to strip Canadian citizenship of Helmut Oberlander, who was a member of one of the most savage Nazi killing units, responsible for the murder of more than 90,000 Jewish men, women, and children during the Holocaust and who fraudulently gained Canadian citizenship in 1954 - 29 April 2016: Ex-SS Auschwitz guard Hanning tells court in Detmold, ‘I am truly sorry’ - 20 May: German prosecutors seeking six years' imprisonment for 94-year-old former SS guard Hanning on trial for complicity in 170,000 murders at Auschwitz - 17 June 2016: Germany jails ex-Auschwitz guard Hanning, found guilty on 170,000 counts of accessory to murder, for five years - 9 August 2016: Head of Germany’s central office for the investigation of Nazi crimes in Ludwigsburg has identified four men and four women suspected of having served at a concentration camp near Gdansk, and prosecutors will examine if they can be charged as accomplices to murder, as World Jewish Congress' Ronald Lauder says that 'given the vast system of concentration and extermination camps put in place by the Nazis, and the number of personnel needed to run and guard these sites, it comes as no surprise that a few of these perpetrators are still alive, even today' - 28 November 2016: German Federal Court of Justice upholds former Auschwitz guard Groening's conviction on accessory to murder charges, setting an important precedent for prosecutors' efforts to pursue others who were part of the 'machinery of death' even if there is no evidence of involvement in a specific killing
2016/2017: Nazi medic and SS-Unterscharführer Hubert Zafke - 29 February 2016: Trial of Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, charged with being an accomplice in the murder of at least 3,681 people and who served at Auschwitz when Anne Frank arrived, postponed in Germany - 7 March 2016: Auschwitz medic Zafke accused of gasing victims deemed unfit to stand trial - 16 October 2016: Trial of Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, repeatedly postponed after judges ruled he was unfit, now postponed over claim of biased judges, as prosecutors held up the trial by seeking the removal of several judges - 2 December 2016: Trial of Nazi medic and SS-Unterscharführer Hubert Zafke rescheduled after claim of biased judge dismissed - 14 February 2017: German court bars Jewish brothers Walter and William Plywask from joining the Zafke trial as co-plaintiffs, as allowed under German law for victims' relatives
2017: 25 January 2017: Researchers uncover vast numbers of unknown Nazi killing fields, as the 'Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos' set for completion in 2025, has now documented 42,500 sites of Nazi persecution, over eight times more than predicted - 25 January 2017: After changes in Germany's prosecution policy since 2011 have resulted in more investigations, in 2015/2016 Germany opened investigations against 42 individuals and convicted Oskar Groening, as seven decades after World War II there have been 103 convictions of Nazi war criminals, with Italy and the USA topping the list, according to the annual Simon Wiesenthal Center report, published since 2002 - 24 June 2017: Neubrandenburg state court appointed three new judges after the removing of three judges found to be biased in the often-delayed trial of a former SS medic Hubert Zafke who served at the Auschwitz death camp, as the International Auschwitz Committee has sharply attacked Germany’s handling of the case, saying the court was hurtling 'between sloppy ignorance and complete disinterest' in a resolution - 13 September 2017: Neubrandenburg state court dropped its case against 96-year-old former Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke, after he was found unfit to stand trial for his role in the murder of more than 3,600 people at the Nazi death camp

Bundesdeutsches 'Auswärtiges Amt': Schon 2005-2010 Historikerkommission zur NS-Vergangenheit des Auswärtigen Amts

Bundesdeutsche Fortsetzung der Nazijustiz, ungesühnte Nazijustiz und deren Tradition: Ungesühnte Nazijustiz - Furchtbare Juristen - Justiz und NS-Verbrechen
1956: 16. Februar 2016: Das Grundsatzurteil des Bundesgerichtshofes zur Ablehnung der Entschädigung von NS-verfolgten Sinti und Roma vom 7. Januar 1956, in dem der BGH feststellte, dass die 'Zigeuner' von den Nationalsozialisten zu Recht als 'artfremd' behandelt worden seien, prägte über viele Jahre das gesamte Entschädigungsrecht für die Überlebenden der Sinti und Roma und wurde zur Niederschlagung von Strafverfahren gegen die Organisatoren des Holocausts herangezogen
1995: NS-Justizverbrechen ohne Verurteilungen - Die Aufarbeitung der NS-Justizverbrechen durch die bundesdeutsche Justiz gilt als gescheitert, der Bundesgerichtshof bedauerte in einem Urteil aus dem Jahr 1995 selbst, daß auf Grund von 'folgenschweren Versagens der bundesdeutschen Justiz' NS-Richter nicht strafrechtlich zur Verantwortung gezogen worden sind
2013: 27 June 2013: German court dismisses bid to release full Eichmann files - 22. Oktober 2013: Schon 2012/2013 beginnt eine 'Unabhängige Wissenschaftliche Kommission beim Bundesministerium der Justiz zur Aufarbeitung der NS-Vergangenheit' ihre Arbeit
2015: 10. August 2015: Journalisten bekommen mehr Einblicke in ein Gutachten zur NS-Vergangenheit des deutschen Bundeslandwirtschaftsministeriums, entscheidet das Oberverwaltungsgericht Münster und hebt vorausgehende Beschlüsse auf - 7 October 2015: 70 years after the end of World War II, Germany’s justice ministry is embarked on a wide-ranging effort to examine the influence that the Nazis had on the country’s legal system, including the role some German officials played in preventing former Nazis from being prosecuted after the war
2016: 16. Februar 2016: Das Grundsatzurteil des Bundesgerichtshofes zur Ablehnung der Entschädigung von NS-verfolgten Sinti und Roma vom 7. Januar 1956, in dem der BGH feststellte, dass die 'Zigeuner' von den Nationalsozialisten zu Recht als 'artfremd' behandelt worden seien, prägte über viele Jahre das gesamte Entschädigungsrecht für die Überlebenden der Sinti und Roma und wurde zur Niederschlagung von Strafverfahren gegen die Organisatoren des Holocausts herangezogen
Oktober 2016: 10 October 2016: 'Rosenburg Project' study, covering the period from 1950 to 1973 and conducted by independent experts, highlights how thousands of Germans who committed crimes during Hitler's dictatorship were protected by former NDSAP members holding key positions in the legal system, finding that more than half of all senior officials in Germany's Justice Ministry in the 1950s and 1960s were ex-Nazis who, through inaction or intentional sabotage, systematically protected fellow former members of Hitler's National Socialist party from prosecution and shaped West Germany's legal code for decades
November 2016: 26 November 2016: The German government will launch an investigation into NSDAP influence on the country's post-war central government, also seeking to clarify what continuity there was in the staff of the Chancellory and to look at the role of Hans Globke who served as chief of staff and a trusted confidant to chancellor Konrad Adenauer between 1953 and 1963, despite he was a senior civil servant in the Nazi-era interior ministry and was involved in the drafting of the Nuremberg race laws

Society, demographics, languages, human rights, religion, racism and antisemitism in Germany: German society
Human rights in Germany: Human rights in Germany
2015/2016: United Nations OHCHR monitoring Germany's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties
Demographics and ethnic groups in Germany: Demographics of Germany - Ethnic groups in Germany - Immigrants to Germany
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages - Category: Jewish German history - Antisemitism and Holocaust (the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany 1939-1945) in Germany and Europe
Since 1990/1991: The end of the Cold War 1990/91 contributed to a growth in the Jewish people of Germany with a population of more than 100,000 registered citizens - May 2005: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe - sixty years after the end of World War II
2014/2015: 14 September 2014: 'Stand Up Against Anti-Semitism: No More Jew-Hatred' Rally at the Brandenburg Gate on Sunday afternoon in the middle of Berlin attended by 5,000 people and following a surge of abuse against Jews and spreading anti-Israeli sentiment in the last months - 20 February 2015: Berlin's Jewish community removes its logo on envelopes containing its monthly magazine to protect members from anti-Semitic attacks
2016: 2 September 2016: Rise of populist AfD 'frightening', Josef Schuster, the president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, says
Romani people in Germany: Romani (Roma and Sinti) people in Germany - History of the Romani people during World War II - Romani genocide (Porajmos) was the effort during World War II by Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani people of Europe - Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma - 24 October 2012: Long-delayed memorial in Berlin to Roma and Sinti victims of the Nazis
Afro-Germans: Afro-Germans - List of former German colonies in the 19th and 20th century - Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany - Afro-Germans in Germany since 1945
2017: 28 February 2017: As there are as many as one million people with African roots in Germany, and although the constitution guarantees equality, bans racial discrimination and enshrines the inviolability of human dignity, widespread discrimination against black people persists in Germany, UN experts say
Arabs in Germany: Arabs in Germany
Armenians in Germany: Armenians in Germany, like much of the Armenian diaspora, most Armenians immigrated to Germany after the Armenian Genocide of 1915, others came later, fleeing conflicts in places like Iran, Azerbaijan and Lebanon, another influx came fleeing nationalist persecution in Turkey
Asians in Germany: Asians in Germany - Pakistanis in Germany - Vietnamese people in Germany
2016: 29 December 2016: Pakistani Naveed Baloch wrongly arrested over Berlin Christmas attack says he fears for his life also saying he was tied up, blindfolded and slapped by police after being held ‘because he ran across road’
Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany: Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany
Italians in Germany: Italians in Germany
Kurds in Germany: Kurds in Germany
Polish minority in Germany: The Polish minority in Germany is the second largest Polish minority in the world and the biggest in Europe
20 October 2015: Twelve people were injured after a fire broke out on Monday at a building in Gudensberg housing mostly migrant workers from Bulgaria and Poland
Russians in Germany: Russians in Germany
2016: 29 January 2016: Russian FM Sergei Lavrov calls for 'truth and justice' in a Russian teen's fabricated rape claim by alleged Middle East migrants in Berlin, as Russian regime is murdering hundreds of civilians including children in Syria since months - 31 January 2016: 13-year-old Russian-German girl has admitted making up a story about being kidnapped and raped by migrants, exacerbated by a report on Russian state TV, in which the girl’s relatives claimed her allegations were not being investigated, and that triggered outrage among Berlin’s Russian-German community, staging protests supported by the Pegida-related Bärgida movement, the Neonazi National Democratic party, and joint by Russian FM Sergei Lavrov, who criticised the Berlin authorities
Spaniards in Germany: Spaniards in Germany
Syrians in Germany: Syrians in Germany - December 2015: Syrian asylum applications in Europe from April 2011 to December 2015 according to UN - 7 December 2015: Germany is on pace to take in one million asylum-seekers in 2015, in the last 11 months the country has taken in 964,574 new migrants, including more than 200,000 just in November
11 October 2016: Syrians in Germany who tied up bomb suspect in Leipzig hailed as heroes
23 November 2016: High Administrative Court ruling to leave 1000s of Syrians divided from families, as UNHCR indicates that there is a pattern whereby returning Syrians are imprisoned and disappear
Turks in Germany: Turks in Germany
Solingen arson attack of 1993 - Since 1990th to 2011 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist group's serial murders - 1 December 2014: Thousands pay tribute Sunday to young woman Tugce Albayrak who was beaten to death trying to stop a group of men harassing two teenage girls in a McDonald's restroom - 17 June 2015: 18-year-old man convicted and sentenced under juvenile law to three years in prison over the death of German-Turkish student Tugce Albayrak following an altercation at a fast-food restaurant - 14. Juli 2015: Mutter von Sanel M. spuckte nach der Urteilsverkündung im Prozess gegen ihren Sohn auf ein Gedenkfoto der getöteten Tugce

Immigration and refugees in Germany: Immigration to Germany
2013/2014: 17 octobre 2013: De Lampedusa aux rues de Berlin, l'odyssée d'un migrant ghanéen - 29/30 September 2014: Asylum-seekers reportedly abused in German refugee centres
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 August 2015: Number of immigrants living in Germany rose by 3.7% last year to a record high of 11 million, as many of the immigrants came from other European Union countries - 6 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees and migrants arrive in Munich, as Germany expects to receive thousands - 7 September: 10,000 more refugees expected to arrive by train on Monday - 13 September: Germany reinstates controls at Austrian border - 5 November 2015: Government will establish up to five reception centres inside Germany for the swifter processing of asylum claims and the prompt deportation of those with little chance of obtaining refugee status, mainly people from the Balkans
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'

Languages and culture in Germany: Culture in Germany
Languages in Germany - main immigrant languages are Turkish, Polish, Italian, Kurdish, Arabic, Romanian, Greek, Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, Ukrainian, French, Vietnamese - Anglicismes en allemand
Religion in Germany - Freedom of religion in Germany - 20 February 1963 - 20 February 2015: 'The Deputy', play about Vatican’s silence during Holocaust, opens in Berlin - 14 March 2015: German high court overturns headscarf ban for teachers - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
Women and women's rights in Germany: Women in Germany - Women's rights in Germany
2014/2015: 26 November 2014: Agreement for law demanding at least 30% women in top boardrooms - 30 November 2014: Thousands of citizens pay tribute to 23-year-old student Tugçe Albayrak who was murdered after rushing to the aid of two teenage girls who were being harassed by a group of men in Offenbach - 17 June 2015: 18-year-old man convicted and sentenced under juvenile law to three years in prison over the death of German-Turkish student Tugce Albayrak following an altercation at a fast-food restaurant - 14. Juli 2015: Mutter von Sanel M. spuckte nach der Urteilsverkündung im Prozess gegen ihren Sohn auf ein Gedenkfoto der getöteten Tugce
2016: 5 janvier 2016: Entre 200 et 300 personnes se sont rassemblées devant la cathédrale de Cologne pour appeler à plus de respect envers les femmes - 2016 New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robbery in Germany - 8 January 2016: German police have identified 18 asylum-seekers among 31 suspects in connection with crimes committed in Cologne at New Year, as government spokesman tells reporters that there are 9 Algerians, 8 Moroccans, 5 Iranians, 4 Syrians, 2 Germans and one person each from Iraq, Serbia and the USA among the suspects - 11 May 2016: Women's rights activists say that while government plans to allow women to compare their salaries against peers were a good start, more still needs to be done - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
Children's rights in Germany: Children's rights in Germany
Education in Germany: Education in Germany
Schools in Germany: Schools in Germany
Health and healthcare in Germany: Health in Germany - Healthcare in Germany - Medical and health organisations based in Germany - Health Care System of Elderly in Germany
1939-1945: Health and healthcare in NDSAP-Germany
2016: 26 January 2016: Newly discovered testimony provides brutal new details about Nazi medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners
2016: 17 April 2016: Germany's healthcare system is losing as much as €1 billion euros a year to scammers, some of whom are linked to the Russian mafia, according to a media report
Health disasters in Germany: Health disasters in Germany
Seit 1954 Contergan-Skandal: Seit 1954 Contergan-Skandal - das millionenfach verkaufte Beruhigungsmedikament Contergan, das den Wirkstoff Thalidomid enthielt, konnte bei der Einnahme in der frühen Schwangerschaft Schädigungen in der Wachstumsentwicklung der Föten hervorrufen
Seit Beginn der 1980er Jahre: Seit Beginn der 1980er Jahre Infektionen durch HIV-kontaminierte Blutprodukte
2009: 2009 flu pandemic in Germany
2011: 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak
2011/2012: 8 November 2011: Drug thalidomide blamed for a broader range of harmful effects, revealed in German 'Contergan-Skandal' - 1 September 2012: German company Grunenthal Group issued its first apology in a half-century saying it regretted the consequences of the drug Thalidomide, that led to the births of children without limbs or with shortened limbs during the 1950s and 1960s, as a British charity representing families hurt by thalidomide in the 1950s and 1960s said the company apology was not enough
2017: Juni, Juli und August 2017 Fipronil Lebensmittelskandal, in Hühnereiern, Hühnerfleisch und Hühnerkot aus den Niederlanden, Belgien und Deutschland Fipronil wurde Fipronil nachgewiesen, obwohl die Verwendung bei Tieren, die der Lebensmittelerzeugung dienen, verboten ist
Drugs in Germany: Drugs in Germany

Catholic church sexual abuse cases in Germany: Catholic church sexual abuse cases in Germany - Catholic sexual abuse in the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising - Protected child abuser catholic priest Peter Hullermann - Parish transfers of abusive priests
2013: 9. Januar 2013: Deutsche katholische Kirche beendet auf Betreiben der Diözese München die Untersuchung ihres Missbrauchsskandals und diffamiert die Wissenschaftler - 9 January 2013: Prof Pfeiffer accuses the catholic church of obstructing his team's work by seeking to control the investigation into sexual abuse by clergy - 7. März 2013: Missbrauch im Kloster Ettal war systematisch
2016: 8 January 2016: At least 231 children at Regensburger Domspatzen boys’ choir run by Pope Benedict’s elder brother Georg Ratzinger from 1964 to 1994, were victims of physical abuse ranging from sexual assault to rape, severe beatings and food deprivation for decades, according to lawyer U. Weber
2017: 18 July 2017: Five-hundred-and-forty-seven pupils at one of Germany’s most famous Roman Catholic choir schools in Regensburg were physically or sexually abused between 1945 and 2015, an independent report has found, with some boys likening the institution to hell
Religious disaffiliation (Kirchenaustritte): Kirchenaustritte in Deutschland
2013/2014 Tebartz-van Elst's expenses scandal: Tebartz-van Elst's expenses scandal since 2007 - 27 March 2014: Pope Francis accepts resignation of German 'Bishop of Bling' Tebartz-van Elst

Ökonomie - Klassengegensätze, Rüstungsindustrien und -exporte: Economy of Germany - main industries include production machinery, vehicles, trains, shipbuilding, space and aircraft, machine tools, electronics, information technology, optical and medical apparatus, iron and steel, coal, cement, mineral fuels, chemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, textiles - Economic history of Germany - List of companies in Germany
Industry in Germany: Industry in Germany - Companies of Germany by industry
Engineering companies of Germany: Engineering companies of Germany
Automotive industry in Germany: Automotive industry in Germany - 2 July 2015: Robot kills worker at Volkswagen plant in Germany
2015 Volkswagen defeat device and emissions scandal: Volkswagen emissions scandal - in September 2015 Volkswagen admitted to illegally using installed software to change emissions test results for 11 million of its diesel engine cars sold between 2009 and 2015 - 20 September 2015: Volkswagen orders external investigation after USA regulators found cars gave inaccurate data on toxic emissions - 22 September 2015: Calling for a 'Europe-wide' investigation in the Volkswagen emissions scandal, France’s finance minister Sapin says, 'what we are dealing with is making sure people avoid being poisoned by pollution' - 2 October: Volkswagen emissions testing scandal is deepening, with the Paris prosecutor announcing a preliminary inquiry - 9 October: Carmaker VW says half of models involved in emissions scandal may need complex, costly repairs such as a new fuel tank - 15 October: Volkswagen is to recall 8.5m diesel cars across the EU after German authorities rejected its proposals for a voluntary scheme in the emissions scandal - 3 November 2015: VW reveals CO2 emissions problem in 800,000 vehicles - 5 November: The deepening crisis at Volkswagen has hit sales hard, with the first signs emerging that the emissions-rigging scandal is putting customers off
2016 carmakers Audi, Mercedes, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen emissions scandal: 22 April 2016: Diesel crisis deepens as German carmakers Audi, Mercedes, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen recall 630,000 cars as part of a clampdown on nitrogen oxide emissions
9 September 2016: Volkswagen engineer James Liang pleads guilty to conspiracy in the company’s emissions cheating scandal and has agreed to cooperate in the widening criminal investigation
2017 Daimler emissions scandal: 13 July 2017: German automaker Daimler manipulated the engines of around one million diesel vehicles to make them appear less polluting, local media report
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Since 1911: Since 1911 Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, during World War I and World War II the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs - Since 1911 later war criminal Fritz Haber played a major role in the development of chemical warfare in World War I, in spite of the Hague Convention of 1907, to which Germany was a signatory - October 1914 'Manifesto of the Ninety-Three' proclamation endorsed by 93 prominent German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions in the early period of World War I, elsewhere called the 'Rape of Belgium', and galvanizing support for the war throughout German schools and universities
Since 1953: Since 1953 Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry since 1911), research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics, colloid chemistry, atomic physics, spectroscopy, surface chemistry and surface physics, chemical physics and molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and materials science
2016: 17. Oktober 2016 Unfall bei der BASF in Ludwigshafen mit einem mehr als zehn Stunden andauernden Brand und zwei Explosionen, durch die vier Menschen starben und weitere sieben schwer verletzt wurden - 30 October 2016: BASF chemical giant on Saturday said a firefighter injured in an explosion at its plant in western Germany earlier this month had died, pushing the death toll up to four
Arms industry in Germany and arms export: Arms industry and companies in Germany - Deutschland aktuell drittgrößter Waffenexporteur der Welt
2011: 1 July 2011: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July 2011: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought
14. Juli 2011: Kanzlerin (und Kopf-ab-Komplizin) Merkel - 'Als Waffenhändlerin durch Afrika' im Juli 2011
7. Dezember 2011: Empörung über stark steigende deutsche Rüstungsexporte nach Vorliegen des Rüstungsexportberichts - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen der weltweiten Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA entfällt mehr als die Hälfte - auf Platz drei folgt Deutschland mit neun Prozent
2012: 17 June 2012: Saudi Arabia wants to buy 600-800 Leopard battle tanks from Germany, more than twice as many as originally envisaged - 30 December 2012: The German government is close to completing another 100 million-euro arms deal with Saudi Arabia to sell 30 armoured vehicles, and Berlin's national security council has already signaled its backing
2013: 23 February 2013: German government heavily criticised for allowing its sales of arms and military hardware to Middle Eastern Gulf states to more than double over the past year
2014: 11 January 2014: Political pressure and bribery allegations are unlikely to hurt Germany’s exporters of military equipment, exporting more weapons than Britain, France or any other country besides America and Russia - 11 March: German Heckler&Koch increases small arms exports to conflict regions - 10 August 2014: German Economy Minister Gabriel wants the authorities to be much more watchful when awarding weapons export licences, particularly with regard to human rights
2015: 5. März 2015: Laut Anfragebeantwortung zu vom Bundessicherheitsrat erteilten Waffenexportgenehmigungen werden pro Jahr werden etwa 10.000 Rüstungsexporte genehmigt und fast ein Drittel der Exporte der letzten 12 Jahre ging nach Saudi-Arabien - 2 June 2015: Selling death - an investigation into Germany’s weapons exports, one of the world’s biggest
2016: 3 July 2016: German arms exports almost doubled in 2015 to their highest level since the beginning of this century, according to an Economy Ministry's report - 25 October 2016: In the first six months of 2016, the CDU/SPD-government approved German arms sales totaling €4.029 billion, an increase of half a billion euros on the first half of the previous year, after 2015 was a record-breaking year for weapons exports, despite assurances from Economy Minister SPD-Gabriel that he wanted to cut down on arms exports
Banking in Germany: Banking in Germany - List of banks in Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
1933-1945: 1933-1945 Deutsche Bank took part in the aryanization of Jewish-owned businesses, was involved in 363 such confiscations by November 1938, incorporated other banks that fell into German hands during the occupation of Eastern Europe, provided banking facilities for the Gestapo and loaned the funds used to build the Auschwitz camp and the nearby IG Farben facilities
2001-2007: 2001-2007 Deutsche Bank bank engaged in covert espionage on its critics
2004-2008: 2004-2008 Deutsche Bank was one of the major drivers of the collateralized debt obligation market during the housing credit bubble
2015: 23 April 2015: Deutsche Bank hit by record $2.5bn Libor-rigging fine, also accused of being obstructive towards regulators in their investigations into the global manipulation
2017: 31 January 2017: Deutsche Bank fined $630m over Russia money laundering claims, following five previous fines of £1.7bn for rigging Libor in 2015, of £200m for breaching USA sanctions with Iran and Syria in 2015, of £5.9bn for toxic bond mis-selling scandal in 2016 and of £75m to resolve a USA government lawsuit over hiding tax liabilities to the Internal Revenue Service in 2017 - 21 March 2017: The German bank that loaned $300m to USA's Trump played a prominent role in a money laundering scandal run by Russian criminals with ties to the Kremlin, the Guardian can reveal - 30 May 2017: Federal Reserve fined Deutsche Bank AG $41 million after it found that the German bank had faulty systems to detect suspicious transactions between 2011 and 2015
HSBC Trinkaus Düsseldorf: HSBC Trinkaus Düsseldorf - HSBC Group London - HSBC Private Bank Geneva, together with the private banking business of HSBC Trinkaus known collectively as Global Private Banking - HSBC and money laundering - 8 February 2015: Swiss Leaks, leaked HSBC files offer a rare glimpse inside one of the world’s most private banking systems - 8 February 2015: HSBC files show how Swiss bank helped clients dodge taxes and hide millions
Berenberg Bank: Berenberg Bank, Hamburg-based multinational investment banking and private banking company
2016: 16 April 2016: Public prosecutor and tax authorities are examining claims following leaked 'Panama Papers', that leading German private bank Berenberg helped clients to evade tax - 'Panama Papers' and Germany, Berenberg Bank, Deutsche Bank, Mercedes-Benz, Siemens AG etc.
Labor in Germany: Labor in Germany
Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Economic cycle in Germany: Economic cycles - late 2000s recession in Germany - European sovereign debt crisis (ongoing) - Economies of EU member states - GDP, growth, deficit and unemployment 2005-2013 - List of German states by GDP 2008-2013
16 August 2011: German economy grew by just 0,1% in second quarter 2011 - 29. September 2011: Schuldenberg von Bund, Ländern und Gemeinden Ende Juni 2011 auf 2,072 Billionen Euro angewachsen (allein beim Bund auf 1,338 Bio.) - 15 February 2012: German economy shrinks 0.2% in fourth quarter 2011 - 15 November: Germany's economy grew by 0.2% between July and September - 10 December 2012: General Motors to close Opel plant in Bochum
Poverty in Germany: Poverty in Germany - 23 September 2012: The gap between rich and poor is continuing to widen, according to a new four-yearly poverty report drawn up by the German labor ministry - 6 March 2013: Poverty critics slam Merkel cabinet's social report - 23 October 2014: Wealth inequality in Germany likely to be higher than previously thought
2017: 3 March 2017: With 15.7% of Germans in poverty, the country has reached a high point since reunification, according to the Equal Welfare Association, based on statistics from the Federal Statistical Office

German military 'Bundeswehr': German military 'Bundeswehr' - German rearmament during the interwar period 1918-1939 in violation of the Treaty of Versailles - Rearmament and 'Bundeswehr' since 1955 - Cold War military history of Germany - Barracks of German 'Bundeswehr'
Since 1937 'Nordlager', since 1961 Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' in Augustdorf: 'Nordlager' in Augustdorf since 1937, Hitler-General 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' since 1961 - Seit 1965 Rommel-Kaserne der Bundeswehr südlich der baden-württembergischen Gemeinde Dornstadt und eine der Kasernen die den Namen des Hitler-Generals Erwin Rommel tragen - 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen) - 15 May 2017: The head of the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Israel office Efraim Zuroff told 'Newsweek' in a telephone interview that the announced still insufficient move to remove Nazi-era military names from German army barracks 'should have happened years ago', as it 'has to be clear that the Wehrmacht also played a role in crimes against humanity and waging a war against peace, people who were part of that shouldn't be the heroes of the new Germany'
1936-1945 war crimes of the Wehrmacht: Crímenes de guerra de la 'Wehrmacht' - Válecné zlociny Nemecka behem druhé svetové války - Zbrodnie oddzialów Wehrmachtu - Crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - War crimes of the Wehrmacht - Russian language - Verbrechen der Wehrmacht
Since 1949 illegal clandestine army tolerated by the government: Since 1949 'Schnez-Truppe', an illegal clandestine army put together in Germany from 1949 by veterans of the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS having with around 2,000 officers and a total strength of up to 40,000 members under the leadership of Hitler-officer Albert Schnez (1911–2007) with his accomplices Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel
Since 1951: By 1951 CDU-chancellor Konrad Adenauer had learned of the existence of the secret Schnez-army and its military personnel, but evidently declined to act against them
Since 1955 list of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers: List of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers - 1940-1945 Adolf Heusinger devient chef de la section des opérations ('Operationsabteilung') à l’OKH et participe aux décisions opérationnelles et stratégiques, les crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - Heinrich Trettner 1907-2006, rejoint la Légion Condor et sert comme adjudant et officier d'opérations du Generalmajor Hugo Sperrle et Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen durant la Guerre civile d'Espagne, ensuite un Generalleutnant allemand qui a servi au sein de la Heer dans la Wehrmacht pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de 1964 à 1966 Inspecteur général de la Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr)
German military personnel: German military personnel
1976 Rudel-Affäre: Nazi-Offizier Rudel, der sich nach Kriegsende als NS-Fluchthelfer ('Kameradenwerk' Hilfseinrichtung für NS-Kriegsverbrecher in Argentinien und Europa wie Rudolf Heß, Karl Dönitz, Josef Mengele), Neonazi, Waffenhändler, Siemens Auslandsvertreter und Unterstützer von Diktatoren betätigte, nahm im Oktober 1976 auf Einladung ranghoher Bundeswehroffiziere mit öffentlichen Rechtfertigungsversuchen der NS-Vergangenheit an einem Traditionstreffen ehemaliger Angehöriger des Aufklärungsgeschwaders 2 Immelmann der Wehrmacht auf dem Fliegerhorst Bremgarten teil, der Parlamentarische Staatssekretär im Bundesverteidigungsministerium, Hermann Schmidt von der SPD, hatte die Veranstaltung genehmigt
2006: In 2006 German troops in Afghanistan were in the centre of an international scandal during the War in Afghanistan since 2001, including German soldiers taking photographs of each other posed with skulls, including kissing the skulls
2009: 2009 operation Oqab was the first German ground force offensive since the creation of the Bundeswehr, the commander of the QRF, Hans-Christoph Grohmann, introduced one of his officers as 'the first Oberleutnant to lead an Infantry Company in to battle since 1945' to the press
2009: 2009 Kunduz airstrike on Friday 4 September 2009 southwest of Kunduz City in northern Afghanistan, as, responding to a call by German forces, an USA F-15E fighter jet struck two fuel tankers captured by some Taliban insurgents, killing over 90 civilians in the attack
2011-2017: 11 May 2017: Since Germany ended obligatory military service in 2011, the armed forces have examined more than 2,500 cases of suspected right-wing extremists in their ranks
2014: 31 December 2014: Involvement of German Bundeswehr in targeted Taliban killings in Afghanistan
2016/2017: 9 April 2017: German army probing 275 cases of right-wing extremism, including anti-Semitism, of those, 143 cases date back to 2016, with 53 new cases recorded this year
2017: 27 avril 2017: Après la révélation de plusieurs affaires embarrassantes, le général allemand Spindler chargé de la formation a été démis de ses fonctions
Since April/May 2017: Ab 27. April 2017 Terrorermittlungen gegen Bundeswehr-Oberleutnant Franco Albrecht - 27 April 2017: German lieutenant stationed in Hammelburg, who led a 'double life' pretending to be a Syrian refugee has been arrested on suspicion he planned a gun attack with racist motives, prosecutors say - 3 May 2017: Far right military scandals put German defence minister under pressure - 7 May 2017: German military has ordered an inspection of all of its barracks after discovering Nazi-era memorabilia at two of them, ministry says - 9 May 2017: Police arrested a second soldier Maximilian T. in planned far-right terror plot to kill politicians and blame the attack on Muslim asylum seekers

Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany (see also 'crime in Germany', explained further below): List of intelligence agencies of Germany
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis
2011: 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2015: 24 April 2015: German BND helped NSA spy on EU politicians and companies, lied and withheld information for years
2017: 8 March 2017: The case against the NSU, the neo-Nazi terrorist organization National Socialist Underground that committed ten murders, three bomb attacks, and 15 bank robberies in the years between 1998 and 2011, is an unprecedented example of the close connection between the German secret services and the neo-Nazi movement as well as the structural racism within the German law enforcement authorities, NSU-Watch says

Military budget of Germany: Military budget of Germany
1997: 8 May 1997: More than 50 years after Germany's World War II documentary reveals that among more than 1 million people now getting wartime pensions of up to $600 per month are still members and widows of SS units branded as criminal by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal
2015: 15. Mai 2015: Luftabwehrsystem Meads für Bundeswehr, eines der teuersten Rüstungsvorhaben
2017: 1 March 2017: How much German military spending has grown over time and between the years 2000 and 2015
Taxation in Germany: Taxation in Germany
Federal budget of Germany: Federal budget of Germany

Social movements, criticism and protests: Protests in Germany
Since 1947 peace movement: Since 1947 the West German peace movement concentrated on the abolition of nuclear technology, particularly weapons, from West Germany and Europe, most activists stridently attacked both the USA and Soviet Union
16–17 June 1953 uprising in East Germany Uprising of June 1953 in East Germany
1955 peace movement 'Paulskirchenbewegung': 1955 Paulskirchenbewegung, eine außerparlamentarische Bewegung, die sich in den 1950er Jahren kritisch zur Westintegration äußerte und sich gegen die Wiederbewaffnung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland aussprach
The late 1960s student movement: Student movement during the late 1960s - Protests of 1968 worldwide
Since the early 1970s anti-nuclear movement: Anti-nuclear movement in Germany since the early 1970s - International reaction to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster 2011
1989/1990 Monday demonstrations for political reforms in East Germany: Monday demonstrations in East Germany 1989/1990 - Alexanderplatz demonstration for political reforms in East Berlin on 4 November 1989
2010/2015: 5 October 2010: After police deployed water cannon, batons, teargas and pepper spray against thousands of protesters in Stuttgart on 30 September 2010, images of bloodied protesters and reports of police beating schoolchildren have transformed 'Stuttgart 21' from a central station project into a political disaster for Angela Merkel's CDU - 18 November 2015: Stuttgart police found guilty of brutality when they broke up a protest against Stuttgart's planned train station five years ago, injuring 100 people
2011: 7. Dezember 2011: Empörung über stark steigende deutsche Rüstungsexporte nach Vorliegen des Rüstungsexportberichts
Since 2011: Since 2011 'We are fed up!' series of demonstrations against industrial livestock production and for more sustainable farming, organized and sustained by around 120 different groups which represent farmers, companies, environmental rights and animal rights activists
2012: 15. August 2012: Mitarbeiterinnen des insolventen Schleckerkonzerns gründen Genossenschaft um geschlossene Filialen als Mini-Supermärkte in Eigenregie weiterführen
2013: 23 February 2013: German government heavily criticised for allowing its sales of arms and military hardware to Middle Eastern Gulf states to more than double over the past year - 22 April 2013: Lufthansa cancels almost all flights due to a warning strike after three rounds of pay talks without any agreement - 1 June 2013: Thousands of people take part in a series of anti-capitalist demonstrations in Frankfurt on May 31, 2013, targeting primarily the European Central Bank and banking giant Deutsche Bank - StopWatchingUs 2013 - 7 September 2013: Thousands took to the streets in Berlin in protests against Internet surveillance activities by intelligence agencies and the NSA, and the German government's perceived lax reaction to them
2014: 4 February 2014: Around 30,000 people from several associations representing farmers, beekeepers and consumers, as well as environmental, development and food organizations, gathered in Berlin to demonstrate against large-scale agribusiness
27 March: Hundreds of flights have been cancelled after public-sector workers walked off the jobs at airports in German cities in a strike for higher wages for some 2.1 million federal and municipal employees
May-December 2014: 20 May 2014: Holocaust survivors call on Germany to take in more Syrian refugees - 12 October 2014: In the city of Duesseldorf more than 20,000 mainly Kurdish people protested against attacks by Islamic State terrorists on Kurdish towns in Syria, particularly the besiegement of the town of Kobane - 30 November 2014: Thousands of citizens pay tribute to 23-year-old student Tugçe Albayrak who was murdered after rushing to the aid of two teenage girls who were being harassed by a group of men in Offenbach - 23 December 2014: Protesters hold up banner reading 'Together against Neo Nazis and racism' during a demonstration under the slogan 'Dresden Nazi-free' against the latest 'anti-Islamisation' Pegida rally in Dresden
2015: 5 January 2015: Thousands take to the streets in Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden to oppose racism and xenophobia - 10 January: Tens of thousands of people rally in Dresden against racism and xenophobia - 12 January: 'Anti-Islamisation' Pegida marchers were outnumbered by tens of thousands counterdemonstrators across the country, with 30,000 people in Leipzig, 20,000 in Munich, in Dresden and other cities - 13 January: Rally to condemn the Paris jihadist attacks and take a stand against Islamophobia draws 10,000 people in Berlin - 19 April: Thousands in Germany protest against Europe-USA trade deal that they fear will erode food, labour and environmental standards - 30 August: Thousands of people took to the streets of Dresden to welcome refugees, following a string of violent anti-refugee protests in the region - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria
2016: 16 January 2016: Thousands of protesters in Berlin call for organic farming, which is done without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, without the use of antibiotics for livestock and GMO feed, also protesting against corporate agriculture as well as the pending TTIP free trade agreement between the EU and the USA - 11 avril 2016: Environ 45'000 salariés de la sidérurgie ont manifesté pour dire leurs inquiétudes quant à leur avenir, dans un secteur soumis à la concurrence féroce des acteurs chinois - 24 April 2016: Tens of thousands of opponents of a proposed transatlantic trade deal poured onto German streets Saturday on the eve of a visit by USA's Obama - 29 avril 2016: Plusieurs débrayages ont eu lieu dans toute l'Allemagne pour réclamer de meilleures conditions de travail et une augmentation de salaires pour une vaste branche fourre-tout qui recouvre l'automobile, les industries électriques, la métallurgie, et emploie 3,4 millions de personnes - 30 April 2016: German riot police arrested around 400 protesters in Stuttgart trying to block access to the congress of the right-wing populist AfD political party, as clashes broke out between party members and left-wing activists
June 2016: 11 June 2016: Thousands of peace activists and demonstrators have formed a human chain near USA Ramstein air base in western Germany, used to control USA's aircraft operating in Middle East, to protest against lethal drone strikes, as critics also state that drones often miss their intended targets, can only partly relay what is happening on the ground and encourage warfare with impunity, waged by people at computer screens far from danger - 20 June 2016: Tens of thousands of people joined weekend rallies in Germany to condemn racism and right-wing populist groups who have been railing against a record influx of migrants
September 2016: 3 septembre 2016: Plusieurs dizaines de milliers de Kurdes ont manifesté à Cologne après l'offensive lancée contre les milices kurdes en Syrie - 17 September: Tens of thousands of demonstrators in seven major cities across Germany in protest over transatlantic trade deal TTIP
November 2016: 5 November 2016: Several thousand Kurds marched against Erdogan in the western Germany city of Cologne on Saturday in support of pro-Kurdish politicians jailed in Turkey the previous day by Erdogan's regime - 25 November 2016: Hundreds gather in Hamelin to attend vigil for an attack on a woman who was dragged through the streets of a north German town behind a car with a rope tied around her neck
December 2016: 8 December 2016: Hundreds of German and Arab nationals gathered in front of the Russian Embassy in Berlin to denounce the ongoing Russian aerial bombardment of Aleppo in response to initiative by the International Festival of Literature in Berlin as well as 250 writers from 60 countries - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where after all hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy
January 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Berlin, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Heidelberg and Munich, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 21 January 2017: Thousands protest over far-right conference in Koblenz
March 2017: 9 March 2017: Several thousand protesters gathered in Berlin and other German cities to march on International Women's Day on Wednesday, with Donald Trump's presidency being a recurring theme - 19 March 2017: Tens of thousands voiced their opposition to next months Turkish referendum on greater presidential powers, as German Kurds took to the streets of Frankfurt to protest against Turkish president Erdogan
April 2017: 22 April 2017: About 50,000 protesters have tried to disrupt a gathering of the anti-asylum and anti-EU xenophobic AfD party in Cologne, already riven by internal rivalries five months before the country’s general election
June/July 2017: 27 June 2017: Greenpeace, Oxfam and other organizations, preparing protests against the G20 summit in July, demand solutions and cooperation to combat famines, inequality, climate change, wars and displacements, not provided by present G20 policy, and call for developing democracy, strengthening parliaments, creating transparency, enabling effective public participation in important decisions, also in Germany and Hamburg, that will host Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in July - Proteste und Gegenveranstaltungen gegen den G20-Gipfel in Hamburg am 7./8. Juli 2017 - zahlreiche Bündnisse und Initiativen organisieren Veranstaltungen um Alternativen zum beim G20 vertretenen Wirtschaftssystem aufzuzeigen
August 2017: 19 August 2017: Counter-protesters block neo-Nazi march in Berlin's Spandau district, coming from all over Germany and neighboring European countries, and attempting to march to the site of the prison where Nazi officer Rudolf Hess died, after police have told organizers they can march

Subdivisions of Germany: Subdivisions of Germany
Municipalities, cities and towns in Germany: Municipalities of Germany - List of cities and towns in Germany
History of Germany by state: History of Germany by state - Former German states and territories by current state
History of Baden-Württemberg: History of Baden-Württemberg
1848–1849: Baden in the German revolutions of 1848–1849 - 1848/1849 Baden Revolution
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region: Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan region in Germany consisting of the cities of Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Tübingen/Reutlingen
History of Bavaria: History of Bavaria
1848-1849: Bavaria in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
Since 1871 and 1933: Since 1871 Bavaria in the German Empire, since 1918 in the Weimar Republic and during the 1933-1945 Nazi period
Munich Metropolitan Region: Munich Metropolitan Region
Since November 2012: Federal prosecutors charge neo-Nazis with murders of 10 people, mostly immigrants and a police officer
March 2013: 27 March 2013: Munich court sparked angry criticism for failing to guarantee the Turkish media access to cover the upcoming neo-Nazi murder trial in which most of the victims were Turkish
May 2013: 4. Mai 2013: 79 Landtagsabgeordnete haben Verwandte ersten Grades, also Ehepartner, Eltern oder Kinder, angestellt und dafür Gelder vom Landtag kassiert
Since 6 May 2013: Since 6 May 2013 'NSU Trial' against several people in connection with the National Socialist Underground terrorist organization in Germany and the NSU murders in Munich - 'National Socialist Underground' far-right German terrorist group which was uncovered in November 2011
July 2013: 30 juillet 2013: Le président du club de football Bayern Munich, Uli Hoeness, qui avait reconnu avoir caché de l'argent en Suisse, accusé de fraude fiscale
August 2013: Gustl Mollath's persecution and HypoVereinsbank black money scandal since 2003 - 6 August 2013: The OLG Nuremberg orders the reopening of Mollath's case and his immediate release
June 2015: 6./7. Juni 2015: G7-Gipfel auf Schloss Elmau 2015 kostet Bundesrepublik und das Land Bayern über 200 Millionen Euro
2017: 17 May 2017: Six alleged perpetrators all from Munich and Ebersberg ranging in age from 18 to 33 charged with incitement to hate after spewing anti-Semitic abuse at passengers on a Munich city bus packed with some 40 passengers, but only an unmarried couple from Munich attempted to intervene, as Bavaria has seen a rise in anti-Semitic criminality with 176 anti-Jewish crimes reported in the state in 2016
History of Hamburg: History of Hamburg - Timeline of Hamburg
1938-1945: 1938-1945 Neuengamme concentration camp near the village of Neuengamme in the Bergedorf district of Hamburg, operated by the SS an estimated 106,000 prisoners were held at Neuengamme and at its subcamps, the verified death toll is 42,900
Since 1945 Hamburg after the Second World War: Hamburg after the Second World War 1939-1945
1946-1948 Hamburg Ravensbrück trials: 1946-1948 Hamburg Ravensbrück trials, a series of seven trials for war crimes against camp officials from the Ravensbrück concentration camp that the British authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Hamburg after the end of World War II
June/July 2017: G20 Hamburg summit protests June-July 2017 - 7–8 July 2017 G20 Hamburg summit in the city of Hamburg - 7 July 2017: Protesters reportedly clashed with police, torched patrol cars and blocked roads in the German city of Hamburg on Friday in fresh violence just before the start of the G20 summit - 7 July 2017: New York city mayor Bill De Blasio, one of Trump's sharpest critics, will take part in protests against the G20 summit in Hamburg and will be a keynote speaker on Saturday at a rally for human rights and democracy - 9 July 2017: Two nights of rioting, looting and transport chaos left many residents in Hamburg asking why their government had decided to hold the annual G20 summit with Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in a densely populated city with such a strong tradition of counter-cultural protest
History of Hesse: History of Hesse
1848-1849 National Assembly:National Assembly in Frankfurt in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region and Frankfurt/Main: Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region - Frankfurt/Main - Geography of Frankfurt/Main, history of Frankfurt/Main and, economy of Frankfurt/Main - Cityscape, 20th-century architecture and 21st-century architecture of Frankfurt/Main
History of North Rhine-Westphalia: History of North Rhine-Westphalia
1848-1849: Rhineland in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region: Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, the largest metropolitan region with over 11 million inhabitants and the only megacity in Germany
History of Rhineland-Palatinate: History of Rhineland-Palatinate
1848-1849: Palatinate in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
History of Prussia, Brandenburg and Berlin: History of Prussia - History of Brandenburg - History of Berlin
1848-1849: Prussia in the German revolutions of 1848–1849, backlash in Prussia and repression
Since 1871, since 1918 and 1933-1945: Since 1871 Prussia in the German Empire - Since 1918 Prussia in the Weimar Republic, during the 1933-1945 Nazi period and end of Prussia
History of Saxony: History of Saxony
1848-1849: Saxony in the German revolutions of 1848–1849
State elections 2011-2019: List of German state elections 2012-2019

Parteienstaat mit alten Seilschaften: Politics of Germany
2009-2014: German federal election 2009 - 25. Juli 2012: Von der CDU/FDP-Regierung durchgesetzte Reform des Bundestagswahlrechts wegen Verletzung der Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Unmittelbarkeit der Wahl verfassungswidrig - 10. August 2012: Koalition gegen die Ratifizierung der Uno-Anti-Korruptions-Konvention - German federal election 22 September 2013 - 22 septembre 2013: Les Allemands ont voté en masse dimanche matin pour les élections législatives qui devraient confirmer Angela Merkel - 23 September: Germany's CDU/CSU wins by a landslide but faces tough coalition choices - 23/24 September: 'This morning I stood in front of my wardrobe and I thought red is no good, bright green is no good, blue was yesterday, what are you going to do?' CDU chancellor Merkel said - 17 octobre 2013: Merkel tente un rapprochement avec les sociaux-démocrates - 27 November: CDU/CSU and SPD reach deal on forming a coalition - 14 décembre 2013: Feu vert des sociaux-démocrates à la 'grande coalition' dans un référendum interne - 18 December: Angela Merkel elected to a third term as chancellor in a vote in the German lower house of parliament - 14 February 2014: German minister Friedrich quits over Edathy's suspected involvement in child pornography - 17 February 2014: German grand coalition dispute over SPD lawmaker's child porn probe as commentators are asking whether Merkel's third government can rule in its current state
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - 13 October 2015: Anti-refugee protesters create a gallows for Angela Merkel over her open-door refugee policies as housing for those who have fled the Middle East are daubed in racist graffiti - 17 October 2015: Henriette Reker, running for the office of the Mayor of Cologne, was seriously wounded by an assailant with a knife while shouting against refugees - 19 October 2015: Henriette Reker who was stabbed in the neck in an attack over her work with refugees elected the first female mayor of the western city of Cologne - 7 November 2015: Just two days after resolving a coalition row over how to handle the record influx of refugees, row over their status reopened by the CDU/CSU interior minister saying Syrian refugees would receive a modified status and be barred from having family members join them
2016: 13 March 2016: Legislatures in the prosperous southwestern state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, neighboring Rhineland-Palatinate and relatively poor Saxony-Anhalt in the east entered by right-wing AfD with strong gains, that took around a quarter of the vote in Saxony-Anhalt - Since 2015 German automobile industry emissions scandal - 27 August 2016: Viele Autokonzerne haben manipuliert, die Politik hat in der Abgas-Affäre versagt - 1 December 2016: The first time German government admits that Ramstein military base in Rhineland-Palatinate plays a central role in the USA’s illegal drone war missions around the world, killing almost 5,000 people in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia as well as more than 13,000 in the war in Afghanistan, as the large majority of the victims are innocents such as women, children, and old people according to Ramstein campaign - 2 December 2016: Opposition parties accuse the coalition government of overstepping its authority in order to block USA whistleblower Edward Snowden's trip to Germany after the Federal Court of Justice ruled in November that the government must allow a parliamentary committee in Berlin to question Snowden, who in 2013 leaked details of the USA National Security Agency's global surveillance practises
June 2017: 18 June 2017: NSU victims' families sue German government over investigation errors, as families of two men murdered by a neo-Nazi group are suing for damages due to mistakes made in the probe argueing that authorities could have arrested the trio earlier, preventing further murders - 23 June 2017: German lawmakers voted Thursday to cut off public financing for extremist parties, a measure targeting the neo-Nazi NPD party after two failed attempts by parliament to ban it
August 2017: 21 August 2017: German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Monday she doesn't intend to seek a business post after life in politics and criticised her predecessor Schröder for joining the board of Russian oil giant Rosneft
September 2017 German federal election: 24 September 2017 German federal election

Political parties in Germany - Political corruption - List of political scandals in Germany
Since the early 1980s Flick Affair: Since the early 1980s Flick Affair, German political scandal relating to donations by the Flick company, a major German conglomerate, to various political parties, Otto Graf Lambsdorff, then federal minister for economic affairs, was forced to resign in 1984 after being accused of accepting bribes from CEO Friedrich Karl Flick
Since 1990s: CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen - Vgl. 'Das "wunderbare Land" und die K-Frage 2009: Kläffende Köter, Carstensens Kieler Karren und nicht nur ein hervorragender "Kopp"' - CDU/CSU Korruptionsaffäre: Ludwig-Holger Pfahls (nicht abgeschlossen) - 9 November 2011: Former junior defence minister Pfahls (CDU/CSU-Kohl government) once more sentenced to 4 1/2 years for fraud - CDU/CSU Korruptionsaffäre: Karlheinz Schreiber (nicht abgeschlossen) - 14 November 2013: Arms lobbyist Karlheinz Schreiber convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to six-and-a-half years in prison
Since 1990: Leuna-Affäre (seit 1990, nicht abgeschlossen)
Since 1990: Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom (seit 1999)
2010/2011: 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre seit 2010 - 10. Oktober 2011: Chaos-Computerclub erhebt schwere Vorwürfe wegen illegaler staatlicher Überwachungsprogramme mit sog. 'Trojanern' - 10. Oktober 2011: Affäre um 'Staatstrojaner' weitet sich aus - Einsatz in Bayern
2013: 9 October 2013: After the federal 'Verfassungsschutz' had observed German politician Bodo Ramelow for many years, the German Bundesverfassungsgericht rules: 'Die Beobachtung stellt demnach einen Eingriff in das freie Mandat dar.'
2013: 15 October 2013: Germany blocked the introduction of tougher EU emissions rules for cars shortly after CDU-chancellor Angela Merkel's party received a large donation from three major BMW shareholders

Christian Democratic Union of Germany and Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Since 1949: 2016 'Rosenburg Project' study, covering the period from 1950 to 1973 and conducted by independent experts, highlights how thousands of Germans who committed crimes during Hitler's dictatorship were protected by former NDSAP members holding key positions in the legal system, finding that more than half of all senior officials in Germany's Justice Ministry in the 1950s and 1960s were ex-Nazis who, through inaction or intentional sabotage, systematically protected fellow former members of Hitler's National Socialist party from prosecution and shaped West Germany's legal code for decades
1952 Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem CDU-Adenauerschen BND bekannt: CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem CDU-Adenauerschen BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt
1953-1963 Nazi-jurist CDU-Globke director of the Federal Chancellory of West Germany: 1953-1963 CDU-member and racist Nazi-jurist Hans Globke director of the Federal Chancellory of West Germany, 1933-1945 high-profile Nazi-jurist in NSDAP-Germany, drafting the law for the 'Protection of the German Blood' and serving as chief legal advisor in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of Interior, the section headed by Adolf Eichmann that implemented the Holocaust bureaucratically, knowing 'that the Jews were being put to death en masse' - March 1963: Dr. Hans Maria Globke - facts and documents presented by the association of democratic lawyers Berlin
1958-1962: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' BND spy between 1958-1962
1965: In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach
1966-1969 NSDAP/CDU-Kiesinger Kanzler: NSDAP/CDU-Kiesinger Kanzler der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Große Koalition von CDU/CSU und SPD 1966-1969, u.a. mit SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Schiller als Minister)
1979-1984 SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Carstens Präsident: SA- und NSDAP-Mitglied Karl Carstens Präsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1979-1984
1945-2007 NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger Affäre (nicht abgeschlossen): NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger-Affäre (1945 bis 2007) - Justizmorde als NS-Richter - 'Furchtbare Juristen' (mit dem Untertitel 'Die unbewältigte Vergangenheit unserer Justiz') behandelt die Verbrechen der deutschen Justiz in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und die durch Übernahme von NS-vorbelasteten Juristen in den Staatsdienst der Bundesrepublik Deutschland verhinderte gerichtliche Aufarbeitung ebendieser Verbrechen - 1. September 2009: Österreichs Nationalratspräsidentin Prammer fordert eine 'lückenlose Rehabilitation' der Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz - Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz sind Personen, die von Militärgerichten (einschließlich Feldgerichten und Ersatzgerichten) in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus verurteilt wurden, während des Zweiten Weltkrieges haben Militärrichter etwa 30.000 Todesurteile gefällt
Seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen) Flick-Parteispenden-Affäre: Flick-Affäre seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen)
Seit 1989 (nicht abgeschlossen) CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre: CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen
1996: 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen)
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official - ministry led by CDU's Ursula von der Leyen - tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - Hitler's general Erwin Rommel, commander of Hitler's 'Führerbegleithauptquartier' during the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939, commander during the Nazi invasion of France, Belgium 1940 and North Africa, war crimes in Italy 1943 - since 1961 the biggest West-German military barracks named 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne', ongoing - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun - En juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 27. Juli 2009: Der Historiker Raffael Scheck beschreibt anhand von Dokumenten, wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940, kurz nach der Kapitulation Frankreichs, mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - The_Holocaust in North Africa's 'Italian Libya', prepared since 1938, in Tunisia under Vichy-France rule etc. - Hitler's general Heinz Guderian, commander during the invasion of Poland 1939, commander during the invasion of France and Belgium 1940, commander during the invasion of the Soviet Union since 1941, Chief of Staff of the Army in 1944, after 1945 Nazi general Heinz Guderian advised on the re-establishment of military forces in West-Germany - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the German Nazis in World War II

Social Democratic Party of Germany
Seite 1 des 'Vorwärts', Zentralorgan der SPD, vom 25. Juli 1914: "Eine ernste Stunde ist gekommen, ernster als irgend eine der letzten Jahrzehnte. Gefahr ist im Verzuge! Der Weltkrieg droht! Die herrschenden Klassen, die Euch im Frieden knebeln, verachten, ausnutzen, wollen Euch als Kanonenfutter mißbrauchen. Ueberall muß den Gewalthabern in die Ohren klingen: Wir wollen keinen Krieg! Nieder mit dem Kriege! Hoch die internationale Völkerverbrüderung! Berlin, den 25. Juli 1914. Der Parteivorstand."
25. Juli 1914: Friedenskundgebungen in den folgenden Tagen in großer Zahl, mit zehntausenden Teilnehmern.
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
August 1914 German massacres of hundreds of unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant: On 21/22 August 1914 German infantry and pioneers advanced into Dinant, killing seven civilians and burning 15–20 houses, on 23 August 1914 the Germans massacred 674 unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant, civilians were lined up against a wall and shot, including men over 70, women or girls, children under 14 and even babies, 1,200 houses were burned down and 400 people were deported to Germany as an area of Dinant was systematically looted and burned down by the Germans, also destroying public and historic buildings, including the collegial church and the town hall - 1914/1915 official report of massacres of peaceable citizens, women and children by the German army and testimony of eye-witnesses - 1915/1917 'Le sac de Dinant et le légendes du livre blanc allemand du 10 mai 1915', par M. Tschoffen, procureur du roi de l'arrondissement de Dinant - 12 May 1915 Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium
2013 Peitschen- und Kavallerie-Steinbrück will für die SPD als Kanzlerkandidat (an)treten: SPD-Steinbrück aus der Wilhelmstraße lädt im Mai 2009 nach Berlin ein: "Selbstverständlich werde ich sie zur Nachfolgekonferenz im Juni in Berlin einladen - Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, Schweiz, Österreich, Ouagadougou" - 29. September 2012: Der 2005 gescheiterte nordrhein-westfälische Ministerpräsident Steinbrück will 2013 als Kanzlerkandidat für die SPD (an)treten und verlangt von der SPD 'Beinfreiheit', nach seinen rassistischen Beleidigungen 2009 von Indianern (Beleidigung der Havasupai) und Afrikanern (Burkina Faso und Ouagadougou) - 3. Oktober 2012: Steinbrücks Nebeneinkünfte in der Kritik - z.B. bezahlter Vortrag 2011 bei der Kanzlei Freshfields und deren Finanzmarktstabilisierungsgesetz für das Finanzministerium unter Peer Steinbrück - 11. November 2012: 2010 zahlte der Züricher Medienkonzern Ringier für ein Referat von Steinbrück 1.500 Euro, die dieser nicht als Nebenverdienst deklarierte
2014-2018 Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Erinnerung an die Opfer und den Widerstand in vielen Ländern weltweit und in Deutschland
September-December 2016 Unterstützung von Massakern russischer, iranischer und Assad-Terroristen durch die SPD: 21. September 2016: In Syrien und in Aleppo fallen teils geächtete russische Bomben, töten wahllos Kinder, Zivilisten und gezielt Krankenhäuser, Rettungsdienste und einen UN-Hilfskonvoi, der SPD-Vorsitzende Gabriel besucht den Terroristen, Massenmörder und Kriegsverbrecher Putin in Moskau, der wie alle seine Vorbilder wie z.B. Lawr G. Kornilow der Illusion erliegt, er könne durch Mordaktionen anderen und sogar anderen Ländern dauerhaft seinen Willen aufzwingen und Gefolgschaften aufbauen - 2 October 2016: Iran rejects German demand that it recognize Israel, as German Vice Chancellor and Economy Minister SPD Sigmar Gabriel is due to visit Tehran on Sunday as part of Germany’s efforts to renew business ties with the Islamic regime following the last year’s nuclear deal, again encouraging Iranian, Russian and Assad regime to commit more war crimes, as Syrian opposition and democracy fights desperately against annihilation - 18/19 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime, and that 'it is unacceptable that some member nations of the European Union continue to defend Russia against credible action and lighten pressure on it despite their ability to immediately stop the disaster occurring in eastern Aleppo' - 14 December 2016: As tens of thousands of desperate civilians trapped without food, water or medicine under a hail of artillery and airstrikes found themselves once again pawns in a geopolitical struggle, with Iranian-backed militia spearheading the ground assault on eastern Aleppo and carrying out execution-style shootings of civilians, residents say 'we will always remember and never forget how the criminals of the world forced Aleppo’s people to choose between two options, collective death or collective forced displacement', while Iranian regime claims military victory, and Iran’s Rouhani phones Bashar Assad to congratulate him
July 2017: 27 July 2017: Germany's SPD economy minister Brigitte Zypries sides with war criminal Putin, saying that new sanctions against Russian regime being proposed by USA lawmakers could harm German companies and add another difficulty to Germany's relationship with the USA, after SPD's candidate for Chancellor Martin Schulz earlier in this year warned against lifting sanctions imposed against Russia over its role in the Ukraine crisis - 31 July 2017: Remembering the third Battle of Ypres 1917 and the German use of Mustard Gas, killing over 275,000 Commonwealth soldiers in 100 days, Germany's SPD foreign minister Gabriel says that 'failure of diplomacy' bears blame for the horrors of war, in no way the German Empire and real persons, its military, politicians, war profiteers and Gabriel's own political party SPD

Free Democratic Party of Germany
17. März 2011: Deutsche Stimmenthaltung bei UN Libyen-Resolution. "The United Nations Security Council has voted on a resolution authorising a no-fly zone over Libya and 'all necessary measures' to protect citizens. Ten of the council's 15 members voted in favour of the resolution, with Russia, China and Germany the five that abstained. The resolution comes just a few hours after Gaddafi warned residents of Benghazi, that his forces would show 'no mercy' in an impending assault on the city." Zitiert nach: Al Jazeera - Africa News
4 September 2011: German spies worked with Gaddafi
2014-2018 Erinnerung an den 1. Weltkrieg 1914-1918 hundert Jahre später: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - Erinnerung an die Opfer und den Widerstand in vielen Ländern weltweit und in Deutschland

The Greens (foundation 1980), Party on 7 April 1973 - Fun party 'Alliance '90/The Greens' Party of Germany

Left Party of Germany

Media of Germany: German media - Newspapers in Germany - Television in Germany - Television history in Germany began in Berlin March 1935 - Censorship in Germany
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany

Crime in Germany: Crime in Germany

Racism in Germany: Racism in Germany
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
Since 1850: Richard Wagner's 'Das Judenthum in der Musik', first published in 1850, attacking Jews in general and some composers in particular - 5 May 2009: In his notorious and poisonous essay 'Jewishness in Music' Wagner said that Mendelssohn 'has shown us that a Jew can possess the richest measure of specific talents, the most refined and varied culture ... without even once through all these advantages being able to bring forth in us that profound, heart-and-soul searching effect we expect from music' - 7 May 2017: Wagner, who had earlier enjoyed support from Giacomo Meyerbeer, denounced him in the anti-Semitic essay 'Judaism in Music' as uncreative and cravenly following popular taste - 1882 premiere of Wagner's 'Parsifal' in Bayreuth - Houston Stewart Chamberlain's best-selling work 'The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century' (1899) is a main work of modern antisemitism - H.St. Chamberlain (1855-1927), seeing his ideas begin to bear fruit particularly in Germany, visited NSDAP's Adolf Hitler several times (1926 together with Joseph Goebbels) at the Wagner family's property in Bayreuth
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, main campaigns include, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, and the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918
2014: 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March
2015: 5 January 2015: A 26-year-old Israeli was beaten by a group of seven men on a Berlin subway car after he filmed them singing an anti-Semitic song and refused to delete the video - 27 January 2015: Auschwitz survivors gather for memorial 70 years after liberation - 17 February: Jewish cemetery in the northern German city of Oldenburg vandalized, targeted over the past few years by right-wing extremists - 28 June 2015: Berlin’s philharmonic’s new conductor met by anti-Semitism in German press, as NDR website calls Russian-born Kirill Petrenko, philharmonic’s first Jewish conductor, 'the tiny gnome, the Jewish caricature' - 16 November 2015: Ursula Haverbeck after calling the Holocaust in a statement broadcast on television outside of the trial of former SS guard Oskar Groening 'the biggest and most sustainable lie in history', sentenced to 10 months in jail

Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany: List of intelligence agencies of Germany
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - NZZ 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt

Neo-Nazism: Far right in Germany - Category:Neo-Nazism
Nazi terrorism since 1945 and Nazi party 'NPD' in German parliaments (ongoing): Todesopfer rechtsextremer Gewalt in Deutschland nach 1945
2011: 12. November 2011: Mordserie an Ausländern und Polizistin von seit 90er Jahren bekannten Neonazis - 13 November: Police made a second arrest after the discovery of evidence linking a Nazi group to 10 murders - November 2011: Rolle des 'Verfassungsschutzes' und der Polizei bei der vieljährigen neonazistischen Mordserie - 20 November: The German government agrees 'to compensate' families of victims of neo-Nazi group questioning itself how the organization could have slipped under the radar when it was known to the authorities since 15 years - 24. November: Haftbefehl gegen weiteren Neonazi und Produzenten eines Propagandavideos - 29 November: Police - now investigating neo-Nazi organization - arrest another suspect accomplice and former official in the extreme-right NPD party - 30. November: Mehr als 800 Waffenfunde bei Neonazis - Verbindungen auch in die Schweiz - 1 December: German authorities seek public help in neo-Nazi investigation - 9 December: German interior ministers now seek ban on neo-Nazi NPD - 18. Dezember 2011: Gelder des thüringischen 'Verfassungsschutzes' für Neo-Nazi Terrororganisation
2012: 1. Januar 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' hatte schon 1999 Informationen über den Aufenthaltsort und die Verbrechen der Neonazi-Terroristen, hat aber nicht zugegriffen - Untersuchungsausschuss zur Terrorgruppe Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund seit Januar 2012 - 26. Januar 2012: Offenbarungseid eines verlogenen Staates - deutscher Bundestag setzt Neonazi-Untersuchungsausschuß ein - 27. Januar: Neonazis werden auch in Bayern aggressiver - 1. Februar: Weiterer mutmasslicher Neonazi-Helfer in Düsseldorf festgenommen - 13. März 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei polizeilicher Aktion gegen die kriminelle Vereinigung 'Aktionsbüro Mittelrhein' und deren 'Braunes Haus' - 27 March 2012: 'Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose a threat', British TV report says - 30. Mai: Von fünf mutmasslichen Helfern der Rechtsterroristen sind nur noch zwei in Haft - 15. Juni: Bundesgerichtshof hebt Haftbefehl gegen weiteren mutmaßlichen Helfer der rechtsterroristischen NSU auf - 28. Juni: 'Verfassungsschutz' vernichtete im November 2011 Akten über seine Verbindung zu Naziterroristen nach Aufforderung zu deren Übermittlung - 2 July: German domestic intelligence agency chief H. Fromm quits over murders - 4. Juli: Hinterbliebene von Opfern der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle haben Strafanzeige gegen Mitarbeiter des 'Verfassungsschutzes' eingereicht - 11 Juli: Die sogenannten Ermittlungspannen bei der Mordserie der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle kosten nach H. Fromm, Th. Sippel ('Verfassungsschutz'-Chef in Thüringen) einen dritten 'Verfassungsschutz'-Chef (R. Boos in Sachsen) den Posten - 15. Juli: Staatlicher Offenbarungseid auf Raten - weitere Einzelheiten zum 'Verfassungsschutz' - 23. Juli: Verhaftung nach Hausdurchsuchung wegen Betriebs eines rechtsextremen Internetradios - 23. August: NRW verbietet drei Neonazi-'Kameradschaften' in Dortmund, Hamm und Aachen - Beschlagnahme von Waffen, Datenträgern und Propagandamaterial auch der NPD - 11 September: Military intelligence agency MAD says it knew of the murder suspect’s Mundlos far-right links years before he joined the neo-Nazi terror cell - 14. September 2012: Polizei im Zwielicht - Nazimord-Helfer und Sprengstoffbeschaffer als 'Informant' und 'Vertrauensperson' von 2000-2011 in Diensten des Berliner Landeskriminalamts - der Name des Amts verpflichtet - 23. September: Der langjährige V-Mann der Berliner Polizei Thomas S. gibt Sprengstoffbeschaffung für die Neonazi-Terrorzelle zu - 17. Oktober: Im Bundesamt für 'Verfassungsschutz' sind nach Enttarnung der Neonazi-Terrorzelle NSU neben den bereits publik gewordenen Fällen weitere 284 Akten vernichtet worden - 22. Oktober: Edathy legt dem BDK-Vorsitzenden Schulz wegen dessen Beleidigung des parlamentarischen Ausschusses Rücktritt nahe - 1. November: Kenan Kolat fordert eine Debatte darüber, wie es zu der Mordserie der Naziterroristen kommen konnte - 8 November: Federal prosecutors charge neo-Nazis with murders of 10 people, mostly immigrants and a police officer - 14. November 2012: Beim Berliner 'Verfassungsschutz' schon 2010 rechtswidrige Vernichtung von Akten zum Rechtsextremismus - weiterer Rücktritt, diesmal einer 'Verfassungsschutz'-Chefin in der zuvorkommenden Hauptstadt - 22. November 2012: NRW-Innenminister SPD-Behrens schließt 2004 entgegen den Ermittlungen rechtsterroristische Täterschaft aus - 23. November 2012: Bundespräsident Gauck lehnt Treffen mit den Opferfamilien der NSU-Morde ab und schlägt Bitte der Türkischen Gemeinde für ein persönliches Treffen zum Jahrestag der Aufdeckung der NSU-Mordserie aus
April 2013: 2. April 2013: 50 'Verfassungsschutz' V-Leute im NSU-Umfeld identifiziert, schwerste Straftaten, hohe Honorare des Staates (fünf- bis sechsstellig) und oftmals ohne Strafverfolgung - 2. April: Celal Özcan erklärt. daß 'Hürriyet' immer wieder beim OLG München angerufen und um eine Vorabinformation gebeten habe, wann die Akkreditierungsfrist beginnen würde - 'die Verfahrensweise ist ungerecht und nicht akzeptabel' - 2. April: Statt das Anliegen, die Teilnahme türkischer Medien und der Botschaft am NSU-Prozeß vor dem Münchner OLG zu gewährleisten, als Vorsitzender des Auswärtigen Ausschusses nach Kräften zu unterstützen, maßt sich CDU-Polenz von der Kiesinger/Filbinger/Globke-CDU an, die 'türkische Politik' 'dringend zu warnen' - vor dem Zustand eines Landes, dessen Behörden den Naziterror sogar finanziell gefördert haben (ein Grund, sich zu schämen, zu entschuldigen und aufzuräumen), und welchen auch dieser CDU/CSU-Politiker mit herbeigeführt hat und nun selbst offenbart - 4 April: A Turkish newspaper complains to Germany's highest court over German neo-Nazi trial access - 12 avril: La Cour constitutionnelle allemande a ordonné au tribunal de Munich d'accorder des places supplémentaires aux médias étrangers pour couvrir le procès de néonazis jugés à partir de mercredi pour des meurtres racistes - 14 April: Neo-Nazi trial forces to confront painful truths of a country that believed it had learned the lessons of its past - 15 avril: Le procès de néo-nazis allemands accusés de meurtres racistes est reporté au 6 mai - 25 April: The German lower house, the Bundestag, refuses to back a ban of the neo-nazi party NPD
May 2013: NSU-Prozess vor dem 6. Strafsenat des Oberlandesgerichts München - Kontroverse um Journalisten-Akkreditierung (Platzvergabe, Prozeßverschiebung) beim NSU-Prozess 2013 - 21. Mai 2013: Mit Schreiben vom 28.04.2000 des Präsidenten des Landesamts für Verfassungsschutz an den damaligen sächsischen CDU-Innenminister Klaus Hardraht und mehrere Verantwortliche wurden diese darüber unterrichtet, daß es Zweck der Nazi-Terrorgruppe NSU sei, 'schwere Straftaten gegen die freiheitlich demokratische Grundordnung zu begehen' und daß bei der NSU 'eine deutliche Steigerung der Intensität bis hin zu schwersten Straftaten feststellbar' sei
2015: 21 January 2015: The leader of far-right and anti-Muslim movement Pegida resigned after a photo of him posing as Hitler and reports that he called refugees 'scumbags' - 11 February 2015: German refugee centres face drastic rise in extremist attacks - 23 Februar 2015: Bachmann wieder im Pegida-Vorstand - 9 March 2015: Village of Tröglitz mayor Markus Nierth quits over neo-Nazi protest after neo-Nazis were given permission to demonstrate outside his home over his support of asylum seekers - 29. März 2015: Zeugin und Ex-Freundin von Florian H. tot, der im Herbst 2013 im Auto verbrannte bevor er im NSU-Ausschuß aussagen konnte - 4 April 2015: Asylum seekers' accommodation set on fire in suspected far-right arson attack in village of Tröglitz - 22 April 2015: Germany grapples with attitudes to asylum seekers - 6 May 2015: Police detained four people suspected of setting up a right-wing extremist group that was planning bomb attacks on Muslims and refugees, as a separate investigation began into arsonists who damaged a shelter for asylum-seekers - 30 July 2015: A worrying rise of fire bombings and violent attacks on asylum-seekers has marred German attempts to integrate desperate refugees from Syria, Eritrea and also people from the Balkans, as in the past 25 years in Germany 75 people have been murdered in rightwing extremist attacks - 13 August 2015: In northern German village Jamel a barn belonging to opponents of local neo-Nazis has burned down in a supposed case of arson - 23 August 2015: The outbreak of violence by right-wing radicals against refugees followed a demonstration of some 1,000 people in Heidenau, near Dresden against the roughly 250 refugees - 26 August: Two new attacks hit refugee centres in Leipzig and Parchim - 17 October 2015: Mayoral candidate Henriette Reker, responsible for taking charge of refugees in her city, stabbed in Cologne in a racist attack wounding four other people and linked to migrants policy - 19 October 2015: At the anniversary of the Pegida rallies in Dresden on 19 October 2015 keynote speaker Pirinçci tries to stir up hatred against refugees in Europe and Germany saying 'KZs sind ja leider derzeit außer Betrieb' - 22 October 2015: In the first three quarters of 2015 there were a total of 461 attacks across Germany against asylum seekers’ homes believed to have been driven by xenophobic motives, including scores of arson attacks - 7 December: Germany's constitutional court to hear case on banning neo-Nazi NPD in March 2016 - 22 December 2015: A German town council member of the National Democratic party has been given only a suspended sentence over a tattoo bearing a notorious Nazi concentration camp slogan and a rendering of Auschwitz
2016: 11 January 2016: Two Pakistanis and a Syrian man were injured in attacks by gangs of people in Cologne, German police said late on Sunday - 11 January 2016: Gangs attacked groups of foreigners in four separate incidents on Sunday in Cologne, after attackers reportedly arranged via Facebook to go on 'manhunt' of foreigners after assaults on women on New Year’s Eve - 12 January: Over 200 masked anti-refugee supporters, carrying placards with racist overtones, went on a rampage in the German city of Leipzig on Monday night, throwing fireworks, breaking windows and vandalising buildings, police says - 20 February 2016: A video showing a mob of people in Saxony chanting hate slogans at a bus full of visibly shaken refugees has sparked outrage among German social media users - 20 février: Tollé après la diffusion de vidéos montrant en Saxe des policiers évacuant brutalement un bus de demandeurs d'asile qui refusent de gagner leur foyer, effrayés par des manifestants anti-réfugié - 21 February: A fire that destroyed a hotel being converted into a shelter for refugees in Saxony's city of Bautzen was cheered and celebrated by onlookers, police say treating the incident as suspected arson - 8 March 2016: Congo-born priest Ndjimbi-Tshiende in Germany's Bavaria quits over death threats he received since speaking out in defence of refugees and after he was fed up with xenophobic utterances from prominent CSU local politicians Sylvia Boher and Johann Haindi - 19 avril 2016: Déjà condamné pour braquages, violences et trafic de cocaïne, la justice se penchait mardi sur le sort de Lutz Bachmann, le fondateur de Pegida, qui avait traité les réfugiés de 'bétail' - 19 April 2016: In diesem Jahr sind in Deutschland bereits mehr als 300 Straftaten gegen Asylunterkünfte verübt worden - 11. Mai 2016: Mobiltelefon des mittlerweile toten Neonazis 'Corelli', V-Mann des sogenannten 'Verfassungsschutzes', aufgetaucht, welches 2012 (!) bei der Aufnahme in ein 'Zeugenschutzprogramm' der NSU-Untersuchung übergeben wurde und auf dem sich zahlreiche Bild-Dateien und Kontakte befinden - 6 July 2016: Anti-immigration party AfD plunged into a leadership crisis over Holocaust denial and antisemitic views expressed by one of its MPs - 13 July 2016: A group of young men left a black man bloodied and unconscious after he tried to stop them harassing some Somalis in Munich - 16 August 2016: Berlin authorities must cancel contracts with Pewobe company that runs nine homes for asylum seekers after leaked emails showed managers including a former DVU member joking about executing refugees, suggesting to invest a €5,000 donation from BMW in 'a small guillotine for children' and joking that disposing of the bodies would require a 'large-volume crematorium' - 27 September 2016: Police suspect a 'xenophobic motive’ after two improvised explosive devices detonated outside a mosque and congress centre in Dresden on Monday - 7 October: A group of young people in eastern Germany's Sebnitz threatened three Syrian refugee children with a knife and hit them before chanting right-wing slogans, police said - 19 octobre 2016: Quatre policiers ont été blessés, certains gravement, près de Nuremberg par un membre des 'citoyens du Reich', un mouvement antirépublicain lié à l'extrême droite, qui a ouvert le feu lors d'une perquisition - 20 October 2016: Police officer dies from injuries after being shot by Neo-Nazi 'Reichsbürger' extremist - 23 October 2016: As police and fire officers tried to persuade a Somali boy not to jump, onlookers were spending a long time, watching and calling on the migrant teen to leap from an apartment block in German town of Schmoelln and to suffer fatal injuries - 31 October 2016: Two weeks after a 'Reichsbürger' Neo-Nazi killed an officer during a police raid, German police are investigating within their own ranks for links to the extremist movement with the largest number of cases in Bavaria and Saxony-Anhalt - 15 December 2016: As German ministry of the interior counted around 14,000 far-right-related crimes in 2015, about 30% more than in the previous year, as German police by April 2016 counted three attacks per day against housing facilities for asylum seekers, as the savage anti-immigrant climate of the 1990s is making a return, new pressure from Merkel’s government would be necessary to force BfV operatives to cooperate as witnesses in the NSU murder trial in Munich

Terrorism in Germany: Terrorism in Germany
1972 Munich massacre: 1972 Munich massacre
May 1993 Solingen arson attack: 28 May 1993 Solingen arson attack
22 July 2016 Munich shooting: 22 July 2016 Munich shooting - 22 July 2016: Munich police warned people to avoid public places as they hunted for the shooter who opened fire at a shopping mall, killing at least eight people and wounding others - 23 July: 18-year-old German-Iranian from Munich kills 9 people then himself in Munich terror rampage - 23 July: Munich attack reports, live updated by British newspaper - 24 July: 18-year-old Ali Sonboly from Munich, who killed nine people mostly teenagers including three children from Turkey, three ethnic Albanians from Kosovo and at least one Greek teenager, was reportedly obsessed with mass killings, played computer shooting games and was interested in the Neo-Nazi terrorist Anders Breivik, who murdered 77 mostly young people on 22 July 2011 targeting an AUF camp, and whose face was used by Sonboly as his profile picture on the WhatsApp messaging service - 24 July: Police arrest a 16-year-old Afghan youth on suspicion of a connection to the killing of nine people by Sonboly, as authorities confirmed that the gunman had written a manifesto before the attack without revealing any details about its content, and that he spent more than a year planning the attack and was able to buy a handgun on the dark web - 27. Juli 2016: Der Münchner Todesschütze Sonboly hat es Presseberichten zufolge als 'Auszeichnung' empfunden, am einem 20. April wie Adolf Hitler geboren worden zu sein, war als Deutsch-Iraner stolz darauf Arier zu sein, habe Araber und Türken gehasst und ihnen gegenüber 'Höherwertigkeitsgefühle' gehegt - 27 July: Police investigate Sonboly's targeting of people of foreign origin, saying the gunman was racist and a rightwing extremist
Political violence in Germany: Political violence in Germany
Human trafficking in Germany: Human trafficking in Germany
Murder victims in Germany and crime in Germany by year: Murder victims in Germany - Crime in Germany by year - Crime in Germany by state

Corruption in Germany: Corruption in Germany
Political corruption and crimes:
Since 1975 Flick corruption scandal: Flick-Affäre seit 1975 (nicht abgeschlossen)
Since 1990 'CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre' (not finished): - CDU/CSU-Korruptions-, Spenden- und Schwarzgeldaffäre seit den 90iger Jahren, nicht abgeschlossen
Since 1999 Telekom Überwachungsaffäre: Überwachungsaffäre der Deutschen Telekom (seit 1999)
2007 Polizistenmord von Heilbronn: Polizistenmord von Heilbronn 25. April 2007
Since 2010 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre: 'Staatstrojaner'-Affäre seit 2010
Computer crime, cyber spying and industrial espionage: Computer crime - Cyber spying - Industrial espionage - Cyber-attacks - Computer security
White collar crime and scandals in Germany: Wirtschaftskriminalität

Law in Germany: Law of Germany - Legal history of Germany
Since 1945 Holocaust trials: Since 1945 Holocaust trials
1942 - April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online - 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria
Law enforcement in Germany: Law enforcement in Germany
Federal Constitutional Court: Federal Constitutional Court

Law enforcement agencies in Germany: Law enforcement agencies in Germany
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies:
1946: Gehlen Organization established in June 1946 by USA occupation authorities consisted of members of the 12th Department of the former 'Foreign Armies East', numerous former SS, SD and Wehrmacht officers and carried the name of Wehrmacht Major general Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence in the Eastern Front during World War II - Agency 114 of the Bundesnachrichtendienst BND was a main entrance for former Nazis - 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - In 1965 'Butcher of Lyon' SS-Hauptsturmführer Klaus Barbie was recruited by the BND, his initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco in the USA, which recruited him in 1947 as an agent for the USA Army Counter Intelligence Corps CIC, and he made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach - NZZ 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt

Natural disasters in Germany: Natural disasters in Germany
2002 European floods: 2002 European floods


Foreign relations of Germany: Foreign relations of Germany

Immigration to Germany: Immigration to Germany
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'

Colonial empire until 1918: German colonial empire until 1918 - Scramble for Africa
German West Africa
German New Guinea
German Samoa
Jiaozhou Bay concession (China)

Foreign relations of Germany by continent and bilateral relations: Foreign relations of Germany by continent and countries - Bilateral relations of Germany
Germany/Afghanistan relations: Germany/Afghanistan relations
Germany/Albania relations: Germany/Albania relations
Germany/Algeria relations: Germany/Algeria relations
Germany/Argentina relations: Germany/Argentina relations
Germany/Armenia relations: Germany/Armenia relations
April 2015: 15 April 2015: Armenian genocide should be called what it was and the German government has a special responsibility, because German officers were among the accessories and accomplices, the Central Council of Jews in Germany says - 17 April 2015: Turkey has never accepted the term genocide for its war crime against Armenians, even though historians have demolished its denial of responsibility for up to 1.5 million deaths - 17 April 2015: SPD-Steinmeier avoids to say 'genocide' for genocide of Armenians, because his party supported World War I from German beginning to end and as a result the war crimes - 17 April 2015: SPD-Schulz disassociates himself from European Parliament's resolution recognizing the Armenan Genocide, because his party supported World War I from German beginning to end and hence the war crimes
Germany/Austria relations: Germany/Austria relations
Germany/Bangladesh relations: Germany/Bangladesh relations
Germany/Belarus relations: Germany/Belarus relations
Belarusian resistance during World War II: Belarusian resistance during World War II
Germany/Belgium relations: Germany/Belgium relations
5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège: 5–16 August 1914 Battle of Liège, the opening German aggression in its invasion of Belgium and the first battle of World War I, the length of the siege of Liège may have delayed the German invasion of France by 4–5 days, railways needed by the German armies in eastern Belgium were closed for the duration of the siege and German murderous troops did not appear in strength before Namur until 20 August - On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians, followed by night raids on Antwerp on 25 August and 2 September - Super-heavy howitzer developed by the German armaments manufacturer Krupp were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, applauded by the German press and declared a 'Wunderwaffe' (wonder weapon)
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 9 May 2014: Children to mark WWI's 'Christmas Truce' mainly in Flanders 1914, commemorating in UK's schools fraternisation between British, French and German troops in no man's land, seeing weapons set aside, greetings, gifts exchanged and even football matches played - In 1914/1915 events of 'Christmas Truce' were friendly reported in British papers but strongly criticized in Germany - 3 August: Mons prepares to mark centenary at place where first and last British soldiers fell - 4 August 2014: Government leaders will gather in Liege on Monday August 4 to mark the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I with the German invasion of neutral Belgium in August 1914 - 28 October 2014: Representatives from World War I enemies in Nieuwpoort to mark the centenary of the first big battle on Flanders Fields and four years of death of hundreds of thousands
Germany/Brazil relations: Germany/Brazil relations
Germany/Burundi relations: Germany/Burundi relations
1939-1945 Burundi and German empire's World War II: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972 and 1993 Burundi genocide: Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Germany/Canada relations: Germany/Canada relations
Germany/Chile relations: Germany/Chile relations
Germany/Czech Republic relations: Germany/Czech Republic relations
1938-1945 German occupation of Czechoslovakia: German occupation of Czechoslovakia 1938-1945 - Lidice - Theresienstadt concentration camp - Theresienstadt use as propaganda tool - Hodonin concentration camp - Lety concentration camp - 'Aryanization' - History of the Jews in Czechoslovakia - History of the Jews in Prague
Germany/Denmark relations: Germany/Denmark relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Germany/Egypt relations: Germany/Egypt relations
Germany and the European Union: Germany and the European Union
Germany/France relations: Germany/France relations
Februar-December 1916: The Battle of Verdun from 21 February – 18 December 1916 was one of the largest battles of World War I, after the German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Région Fortifiée de Verdun and those of the Second Army garrisons on the right bank of the Meuse, intending to rapidly capture the Côtes de Meuse - In 1916 the German strategy was to inflict mass casualties on the French, to weaken the French Army to the point of collapse, therefore the Germans planned to use a large number of heavy and super-heavy guns to inflict a greater number of casualties than French artillery - In 1980, J. Terraine gave 750,000 Franco-German casualties in 299 days of Verdun battle, E.R. Dupuy and T.N. Dupuy gave 542,000 French casualties in 1993, H. Heer and K. Naumann calculated 377,231 French and 337,000 German casualties
1939-1945: German invasion of France May/June 1940 during World War II - Hitler's general Erwin Rommel and Nazi invasion of France and Belgium 1940, in 1961 the biggest German military barracks named 'Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne' - Hitler's general Heinz Guderian and Nazi invasion of France and Belgium 1940, after 1945 he advised on the re-establishment of military forces in West Germany - Hitler's quartermaster general of the German 'Wehrmacht' 1939-1944 - Allied casualties of the second German assault and war crime within 26 years include 85,310 French soldiers murdered (including 5,400 Maghrebis), 12,000 missing, 120,000 wounded and 1,540,000 prisoners (including 67,400 Maghrebis) - German Military Administration in France 1940-1944 - Vichy France 1940-1944 - German war crimes World War II - Oradour-sur-Glane in Nazi occupied France was destroyed on 10 June 1944, when 642 of its inhabitants, including women and children, were massacred by a German Waffen-SS company - French World War II casualties
2014: 8 janvier 2014: La justice allemande a inculpé un octogénaire pour meurtres lors du massacre d'Oradour-sur-Glane en 1944 - 14 April 2014: Senior French and German officials have warned that the surge in nationalism fueling the crisis in Ukraine, where separatists in the East are seeking to join Russia, echoes the ideas that led to World War I - 12 May 2014: 100 years on mine-clearers are still tackling the deadly WWI legacy in France - 5 December 2014: France to pay $60 million for Holocaust victims deported by state rail company to Nazi death camps
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 12 octobre 2013: Les commémorations du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale, qui devraient se prolonger sur cinq ans, ont été partiellement dévoilées à Blois - 17 octobre 2013: A moins de huit mois du 70e anniversaire de la Libération, en Normandie un bunker allemand 'au coeur du Débarquement' 1944 s'ouvre au public - 3 November 2013: From fertiliser to Zyklon B - 100 years of the scientific discovery of Fritz Haber - 7 novembre 2013: Le 7 novembre les commémorations du centenaire de la Grande Guerre seront placées sous le signe des 430 000 soldats des colonies françaises 'qui ont pris part à une guerre qui avait pu ne pas être la leur' - 11 November 2013: France remembers the Armistice that marked the end of World War I in 1918 after four years of bloody conflict that cost millions of lives - 12 November 2013: French police detained about 70 people at an Armistice Day memorial ceremony on Monday after protesters whom the government said were linked to the far right booed President Hollande - 9 May 2014: Children to mark WWI's 'Christmas Truce' mainly in Flanders 1914, commemorating in UK's schools fraternisation between British, French and German troops in no man's land, seeing weapons set aside, greetings, gifts exchanged and even football matches played - In 1914/1915 events of 'Christmas Truce' were friendly reported in British papers but strongly criticized in Germany - 29 mai 2016: Les africains, qui se sont battus dans les tranchées, et le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun de la première guerre mondiale déclarée par l'Allemagne - 29 mai 2016: Bayeux a commémoré le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, conçue par le commandant en chef de l'Armée allemande général Erich von Falkenhayn comme une bataille d'attrition pour 'saigner à blanc l'Armée française' sous un déluge d'obus - 29 mai 2016: Cannes commémore le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, la plus terrible bataille que l'humanité ait connue - 29 mai 2016: Cent ans après l'enfer de Verdun, François Hollande et Angela Merkel commémoraient la bataille de Verdun, une journée placée sous le signe de l'Europe dans un contexte difficile - 1 July 2016: Battle of the Somme centenary commemorations in France and in the United Kingdom - 1 juillet 2016: Près de 600 enfants - 300 Britanniques et 300 Français - doivent participer à la célébration à Thiepval pour célébrer le centenaire de la bataille de la Somme, la plus meurtrière de la Grande Guerre
Germany/Gabon relations: Germany/Gabon relations
June 1940: Le 7 juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun - 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen
Germany/Georgia relations: Germany/Georgia relations
2014: 4. Januar 2014: Griechische Waffenkäufer bei Firmen aus Deutschland, Russland, den USA und anderen Ländern legen Schmiergeld in der Schweiz an - 11 April 2014: Under azure blue skies Greek governmemt welcomes A. Merkel while protesters demand 'Merkel go home'
Germany/Honduras relations: Relaciones Alemania-Honduras
2016: 23 February 2016: As 'Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras' COPINH struggles against privatization of rivers and privatized hydro-electric dam projects with international investors including German companies Siemens and Voith Hydro, Netherland’s Development Fund, Finnish Fund for Industrial Cooperation Ltd., Central American Bank for Economic Integration, Government of the USA, through USAID-MARKET Project, Honduran government continues to allow and is an accomplice to the violation of the human rights of the Lenca People in Río Blanco and northern Intibucá, supporting DESA’s second attempt to construct Agua Zarca Hydroelectric Project on the Gualcarque River which is a natural, cultural and economic heritage, as well as the habitat of the Lenca People, COPINH says
Germany/Iraq relations: Germany/Iraq relations
Germany/Israel relations: Germany/Israel relations
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany
Since 1882 Aliyah (immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel): Aliyah - immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel since 1882
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, main campaigns include, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, and the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918
2014: 28 March 2014: Palestinian students visit Auschwitz in first organized visit in a program, that aims to teach Israeli and Palestinian students about the other side's suffering in effort to study how empathy could facilitate reconciliation - Yom HaShoah 28 April 2014 - 13 July: About 1,000 demonstrators, most of them Palestinian, hold unregistered march protesting Israel's Operation Protective Edge - 16 July: Following its German sister company’s lead, the Dutch branch of Europe’s TUI travel giant has called off all tours of Israel due to the rocket fire there - 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March - 24 July: As death toll in the Gaza/Israel conflict rises, officials indicate that ceasefire may take time - 24 July 2014: Parents in Gaza and Israel do not want their children to grow up to kill or be killed in a senseless war that has no end - 30 July: In Israel, 79-year-old Holocaust survivor worries about her Gazan daughter - 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict in video games
2015: 27 January: Holocaust survivors from around the world and visitors marking the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland - 24 March 2015 Germanwings Airbus 320 Flight 9525 crashed in the French Alps - 30 March: Along with helping local search teams at Germanwings crash site, Israeli volunteers will be tasked with recovering and returning for a Jewish burial in Israel the remains of Israeli passenger Eyal Baum - 13 April: At Yad Vashem, 'Stars Without A Heaven' exhibition highlights the lives of the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered during World War II - 10 May 2015: Veterans living in Israel march through Jerusalem to mark World War II victory - 7 June 2015: Israel's PM Netanyahu chides world over silence after new Gaza rocket attacks in 2015, saying 'I have not heard a single international figure condemn the violence, not even at the United Nations' - 28 June 2015: The world’s Jewish population has grown to be nearly as large (16.5 million) as it was on the eve of the second world war before the Holocaust, Jewish People Policy Institute says in its annual report
2017: 18 February 2017: After Israel’s defense minister said he was relishing the chance to denounce Iran’s aggression in the presence of its foreign minister, organizers of the Munich Security Conference cancel joint session - 19 February 2017: Speaking after Iranian foreign minister at the Munich conference, Israeli defense minister Liberman called for 'moderate' states, including Saudi Arabia, to stand together with Israel in opposing Tehran, and warned of Iran’s threat to the Middle East, saying that Iran violates the nuclear agreement with ballistic missile tests, smuggles weapons, gives funding to terror groups around the world, fights proxy wars in Yemen and Syria that destabilize the region, is committed to destroying the Jewish people, trumpeting Holocaust denial and writing 'Israel must be wiped out' on its ballistic missiles
2017: 25 April 2017: Visiting Israel German FM Sigmar Gabriel says that it would be 'regrettable' if PM Benjamin Netanyahu were to refuse to meet him due to his planned meeting with groups critical of the Israeli army, but insists that he will not change his plans - 26 April 2017: German FM Gabriel met with groups after defying to cancel the meeting, shortly after the meeting one of the groups, B’Tselem co-funded by the FordFoundation, called on the international community to punish Israel for the continued occupation of the West Bank - 10 July 2017: Six people including a number of former senior public officials, suspected of corruption in the potentially fraudulent purchase of naval vessels, questioned as part of the ongoing investigation into the 'submarine affair', in which PM Netanyahu’s personal lawyer David Shimron is suspected of attempting to sway multi-billion-shekel deals in favor of the German shipbuilder ThyssenKrupp, which he represented in Israel
Germany/Italy relations: Germany/Italy relations
1936/1937 Anti-Comintern Pact and 1939-1945 World War II: 1936/1937 Anti-Comintern Pact and 1939-1945 World War II
29 June 1944 Civitella massacre of 244 civilians by german soldiers of the 'Wehrmacht', never charged in Germany: 29 June 1944 massacre of 244 civilians in Civitella was done by german soldiers of the 'Wehrmacht', never charged in Germany
Since 1945 'Schrank der Schande', 'Armadio della vergogna', 'LA MEMORIA': - LA MEMORIA - Armadio della vergogna - Schrank der Schande (staatlich versteckte Akten über deutsche Kriegsverbrechen)
2012/2013: 19 December 2012: At the presentation of a report by Italian and German historians on German war crimes against Italians, Italy presses Germany on conviction of former Nazis - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy - 16 octobre: Les funérailles du criminel de guerre nazi Erich Priebke annulées - 16 October: Italy marked the 70th anniversary of the round-up and deportation of Jews from Rome's ghetto on Wednesday, amid turmoil over the burial of Nazi war criminal Erich Priebke and his Holocaust-denying final statement - 18 October 2013: 90-year-old former Nazi soldier Alfred Stork sentenced in absentia by a military court in Rome which found him guilty of taking part in the execution of at least 117 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia - 19 October: Nazi war criminal Priebke to be buried in 'secret location' in Italy - 7 novembre 2013: Le criminel de guerre nazi Priebke finalement enterré dans le cimetière d'une prison italienne
Germany/Japan relations: Germany/Japan relations
Germany/Libya relations: Germany/Libya relations
1936-1945 and German invasion of North Africa 1941: World War II North African campaign 1940-1943 and German invasion
Germany/Lithuania relations: Germany/Lithuania relations
Resistance in Lithuania during World War II: Resistance in Lithuania during World War II
The Holocaust in Lithuania: The Holocaust in Lithuania - Vilna Ghetto
Germany/Luxembourg relations: Germany/Luxembourg relations
Germany/Namibia relations: Germany/Namibia relations
Germany/Netherlands relations: Germany/Netherlands relations
1918 Wilhelm's flight, 1920-1941 exile for war criminal Wilhelm II in the Netherland against the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, expressly providing in article 227 for the prosecution of Wilhelm for war crimes: 10 November 1918 flight and 1920-1941 exile and asylum for last German emperor and war criminal Wilhelm II in the Netherlands' 'Huis Doorn' was based on monarchist and family ties with Netherlands' Queen Wilhelmina, in return Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, committing war crimes not yet seen and Wilhelm went undisturbed by the German 'Wehrmacht' - 1919 Peace Treaty of Versailles, Articles 227-230: 'The Allied and Associated Powers publicly arraign William II of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties. A special tribunal will be constituted to try the accused, thereby assuring him the guarantees essential to the right of defence.'
Germany/Norway relations: Germany/Norway relations
German occupation and the Holocaust in Norway: Jewish deportees from Norway during World War II - The Holocaust in Norway
1945-2007 NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger scandal: NSDAP/CDU-Filbinger-Affäre (1945 bis 2007) - Justizmorde als NS-Richter - 'Furchtbare Juristen' (mit dem Untertitel 'Die unbewältigte Vergangenheit unserer Justiz') behandelt die Verbrechen der deutschen Justiz in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und die durch Übernahme von NS-vorbelasteten Juristen in den Staatsdienst der Bundesrepublik Deutschland verhinderte gerichtliche Aufarbeitung ebendieser Verbrechen - 1. September 2009: Österreichs Nationalratspräsidentin Prammer fordert eine 'lückenlose Rehabilitation' der Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz - Opfer der NS-Militärjustiz sind Personen, die von Militärgerichten (einschließlich Feldgerichten und Ersatzgerichten) in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus verurteilt wurden, während des Zweiten Weltkrieges haben Militärrichter etwa 30.000 Todesurteile gefällt
Germany/Palestinian territories relations: World War I 1914-1918 started by the German and Austrian empires - Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922 - World War II 1939-1945 - The Holocaust, from 1941 to 1945, Jews were targeted and methodically murdered in a genocide by the German Empire
Germany/Poland relations: Germany/Poland relations
Since 1772 Prussian Partition: Since 1772 Prussian Partition
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2015: 18 January: Seventy years after Auschwitz’s guards fled and the last survivors will gather, a new exhibition will focus not just on the victims but the perpetrators - 27 January: Holocaust survivors from around the world and visitors marking the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland - 20 April 2015: Hundreds gather by monument to heroes outside Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw marking 72nd anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto uprising - 7/8 May 2015: Amid deep divisions over Russian regime's aggession against Ukraine, Poland's president is leading international commemorations in Gdansk marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, Ukraine's Poroshenko pays tribute to those killed in World War II and UN's Ban Ki-moon demands to protect future generations from war and conflict - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the German Nazis in World War II - 3 August 2015: Warsaw residents observe minute of silence for those who stood up against German occupiers in 1944
Germany/Romania relations: Germany/Romania relations
History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust in Romania - June 1941 Iasi pogrom
Germany/Russia relations: Germany/Russia relations
Resistance movement against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II: Soviet partisans, resistance movement that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II
2014: 14 March: Germany warns Putin regime of further EU sanctions if it doesn't step back in its intervention in Ukraine - 14 April 2014: Senior French and German officials have warned that the surge in nationalism fueling the crisis in Ukraine, where separatists in the East are seeking to join Russia, echoes the ideas that led to World War I - 27 April: A German-led eight-member group of OSCE military observers accused of being NATO spies by Ponomarev, the self-proclaimed 'people's mayor' of Slovyansk, remains in captivity - 28 April 2014: Violating international law, Russian television shows three captured Ukrainian security guards bloodied, blindfolded, stripped of their trousers and shoes, their arms bound with packing tape in Slovyansk, where OSCE observers are also being held - 29 April: The German government has sought to distance itself from the country's former chancellor Gerhard Schroeder after he was reported to have partied with Russia's Putin despite tension over the crisis in Ukraine - 13 October 2014: Chancellor Merkel refuses to meet with Putin 'given the escalation of the crisis in Ukraine', after a number of non-governmental organizations called on the German government to give up its participation in consultations with Putin
2015: 9 May 2015: The international boycott of the parade on 9 May in Russia has occurred due to the world support of Ukraine, against which Russia started an undeclared war, Ukraine's Poroshenko says, as Russian regime shows its military equipment in Moscow - 11/12 May 2015: 'We need to seek to secure Ukraine's territorial integrity', German PM Angela Merkel says in Moscow, adding that local elections in Donbas should help Kyiv restore control over border, urging Russian regime and Russian-backed separatists to let Ukrainian aid in Donbas, and explaining that 'due to the criminal and illegal, under international law, annexation of Crimea and the military conflicts in eastern Ukraine' cooperation between NATO and Russia has suffered a serious setback - 12 May: German PM Merkel's remark on Russian 'criminal' annexation of Crimea omitted in Russian translation in Moscow
2016: 27 March 2016: Regarding how Putin's aggression in eastern Ukraine is portrayed in the media around the world, German journalist and former Moscow bureau chief of Focus magazine shares his thoughts in Ukrainian TV-interview on the impact of Russian influnce in the German media - 24 April: Nearly half of Germans in favour of sanctions against Russia and 64% of respondents of a survey say 'Putin's Russia is no longer a 'trusted partner' - 16 June 2016: Mob of Russian 'ultras' put Spanish football fan in hospital in Germany, punching and kicking two tourists and their friends in an 'extremely aggressive and brutal' way - 22/23 June 2016: 75 years after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Ukraine's intelligence reports dozens of flights of Russian assault and reconnaissance drones, as Russian-backed separatist forces launched 46 attacks on Ukrainian troops in eastern Ukraine killing one Ukrainian soldier and injuring eleven overnight - 30 August 2016: As Russian regime's brutality in Syria and Ukraine continues and escalates, Germany's Merkel says 'I'm interested in lifting sanctions from Russia' - 20 October 2016: As French president Hollande uses the phrase 'war crimes', France and Germany allege to press Russian Putin regime to extend a pause in air strikes in Syria and halt the 'criminal' bombardment of civilians, Reuters reports
Germany/Saudi-Arabie relations: Germany/Saudi-Arabie relations - 1 July 2011: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July 2011: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought - 17 June 2012: Saudi Arabia wants to buy 600-800 Leopard battle tanks from Germany, more than twice as many as originally envisaged - 30 December: The German government is close to completing another 100 million-euro arms deal with Saudi Arabia to sell 30 armoured vehicles, and Berlin's national security council has already signaled its backing - NZZ 10. Februar 2013: Saudi-Arabien will deutsche Patrouillenboote im Wert von 1,5 Milliarden Euro kaufen, Voranfrage der Bremer Lürssen Werft vom Bundessicherheitsrat positiv beschieden - 25 January 2015: German government reportedly to stop arms exports to Saudi Arabia - 4 February 2015: German governmnt has approved the delivery of military equipment to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Egypt - 7 June 2015: Germany accused of paying off Saudi Arabia with weapons to host 2006 World Cup
Germany/Senegal relations: Germany/Senegal relations
June 1940: Le 7 juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 27. Juli 2009: Der Historiker Raffael Scheck beschreibt anhand von Dokumenten, wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940, kurz nach der Kapitulation Frankreichs, mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun
Since 1940: On 20 June 1940 Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist Léopold Sédar Senghor was taken prisoner by the Germans in la Charité-sur-Loire and finally interned at Front Stalag 230 reserved for colonial troops, German soldiers wanted to execute him and the others the same day they were captured, but they escaped this fate by yelling Vive la France, vive l'Afrique noire!, and after French officer told the soldiers that executing the African prisoners would dishonour the Aryan race - 16 juin 2011: Le poète sénégalais Léopold Sédar Senghor raconte dans un rapport son internement au sein des camps de troupes coloniales de 1940 à 1942 - 21 juin 2011: Le sort des tirailleurs sénégalais pendant la campagne de France en mai-juin 1940, et leur massacre par l'armée régulière allemande
Germany/Slovakia relations: Germany/Slovakia relations
1939-1945 Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia: Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia
History of the Jews in Slovakia, the Slovak Republic 1939-1945 and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Slovakia - The Slovak Republic and the Holocaust
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe: Anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe 1944–46
August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising: August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising
Germany/Somalia relations:
Germany/Spain relations: Germany/Spain relations
1936-1939: 1936-1939 German involvement in the Spanish Civil War following the military coup of July 1936 against the Spanish democracy, with German dictator Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Franco and fascist Spain
1915: 13 March 1915: First neutral ship Swedish S.S. 'Hanna' torpedoed without warning and sunk by German submarine
Humanitarian efforts during World War II: Sweden's humanitarian efforts during World War II
2011/2012 tax evasion amnesty: 22. September 2011: Amnestie für Steuerbetrüger - neu ausgehandeltes Steuerabkommen mit der Schweiz auf anonymer Grundlage - 30. März 2012: SPD-geführte Bundesländer verweigern die Zustimmung zum Steuerabkommen zwischen Deutschland und der Schweiz - 31 March: Swiss authorities issue arrest warrants for 3 German tax inspectors doing their duty to chase German tax cheats - 1. April: Scharfe Kritik an Schweizer Justizbehörde und ihrer Haftbefehle gegen bundesdeutsche Steuerfahnder wegen deren Einsatz gegen Wirtschaftskriminalität - auch CDU-Finanzminister Schäuble in der Kritik - 11 July: France, Germany tax evasion inquiries target Swiss bank (Credit Suisse and UBS) clients - 11 August: Accusations that Swiss banks (UBS etc.) are helping German citizens dodge taxes grow - 12. August: Vorwurf organisierter Kriminalität Schweizer Banken - 25 September: Efforts by German inspectors to trace tax evader's money in Switzerland are causing tensions between the two nations - 23 November 2012: Germany's upper house rejects deal with Switzerland to tax German assets held in Swiss bank accounts - 12 December 2012: The Swiss-German tax deal designed to regularise the estimated €200bn of undeclared German assets hidden in Swiss bank accounts has finally collapsed
Germany/Syria relations: Germany/Syria relations - Chemical warfare since World War I - Nerve agent 'Sarin' discovered 1938 in Germany by IG Farben
2013: 24 August 2013: Initial Western intelligence finds Assad forces used chemical weapons - 4/5 September: A Hezbollah official has said Bashar al-Assad ordered poison gas attack near Damascus on August 21, according to German spy agency - 17 September: The UN has confirmed that the chemical used in Damascus last month was sarin, one of the most murderous weapons in modern warfare with a deadly history - 18 September 2013: Germany exported 111 tons of chemicals to Syria between 2002 and 2006 that could be used in the production of sarin gas, according to a government document - 1 October: Germany delivered 350 tons of "dual-use" chemicals until 2011 to Syria - 27 December: Three months after the sarin chemical attack on al-Ghouta, in which some 1,500 people died, Dr Ali Abu Emad recalls the day
2015: 23 January: German companies reportedly helped the Syrian Assad regime (father and son Bashar) and Iraqi Saddam regime produce chemical weapons programs - 10 March 2015: A delegation of Syrian women attended the World Conference for Women held in Berlin and organized by the Iranian opposition - 8 June 2015: Despite Western sanctions, Assad's military forces and militias in possession of munitions from Germany, China, Egypt, Russia and USA (including cluster munitions used against many Syrian cities), leaked report claims - 19 June 2015: A hundred years since WW I 70 countries across the planet united in a letter, organized by Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, to express outrage over the Syrian regime's systematic use of barrel bombs and to demand an end to the deadly, indiscriminate attacks - 20 August 2015: Syrian Coalition calls for sit-in in Berlin on 2nd anniversary of Ghouta chemical massacre, to show solidarity with August 2015 Douma massacre victims, to pay homage to the victims of the 2013 Ghouta massacre and to all victims of Assad’s war on the Syrian people, and to decry the international silence and passiveness - 14 September: First Syrians halted minutes after German checks begin enforcing again asylum rules, that had been relaxed for those fleeing brutal civil war - 10 October: Syrian Coalition and the Syrian community in Germany call to join the demonstration in Berlin on 17 October to protest against the Russian invasion of Syria and Putin’s support for the dictator Assad - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria - 3 December 2015: Evidence of oil and food transactions, including items imported from Russia, between the Assad regime and Islamic State terrorists reported by German Foreign Ministry and Syrian officer - 4 December: German parliament backs plan to join USA-led anti-Isis military campaign and to provide support staff and reconnaissance jets, but Germans will not actively engage in combat
2016: 8 February 2016: Germany's Angela Merkel 'horrified' by suffering under Russian airstrikes, deploring casualties as Russia-backed regime advances on Aleppo in what Turkey PM calls 'inhumane attack’ - 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 23 February 2016: About 4,500 people including 366 civilians were killed over 17 months since the beginning of USA-led coalition airstrikes on Syria - 2 April 2016: Syrian Coalition’s representative to Germany Bassam al-Abdullah calls upon the Friends of the Syrian People Group and sponsors of the political process to deter the Assad regime’s repeated breaches of the ceasefire agreement, especially after the horrible massacre regime forces committed in Deir al-Assafir - 19 April 2016: 'Children of Syria’ traces family from war-torn Aleppo to refuge in Germany
Germany/Tanzania relations: Germany/Tanzania relations
1914-1918 German East African Campaign in World War I: 1914-1918 German East African Campaign in World War I
Germany/Tunisia relations: Tunisia/Germany relations
Germany/Turkey relations: Germany/Turkey relations
1914-1918: 2 August 1914 Ottoman German Alliance in World War I - On 14 November 1914 Ottoman Empire declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I - 1914-1918 German military commanders to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were Otto Liman von Sanders, Goltz, Kress von Kressenstein, and more, compare the 'League of German Asian Warriors' affiliated to the NSDAP after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 - 1914-1918 World War I Middle East's combatants were on the one hand the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds, Persians and some Arab tribes), and on the other hand, the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and the majority of the Arabs), the Russians and the French from the Allies of World War I, there were five main campaigns, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918, the Mesopotamian Campaign 6 November 1914 – 14 November 1918, the Caucasus Campaign 24 October 1914 – 30 October 1918, the Persian Campaign December 1914 – October 1918, and the Gallipoli Campaign 25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916
Germany/Ukraine relations: Germany/Ukraine relations
Ukrainian resistance movement, Soviet partisans and Insurgent Army: Soviet partisans in Ukraine - Ukrainian Insurgent Army
2015: 21 March 2015: At least 100 Germans reported fighting alonside Russian-backed militants in east Ukraine - 9 April 2015: Ukrainian Parliament declares May 8 as Remembrance and Reconciliation Day, passing the law on perpetuation of victory over fascism in the WWII of 1939-1945 - 27 April 2015: German government reportedly knew Ukraine flight dangers before MH17 crash in July 2014 - 8 May 2015: Ukrainian PM Arseniy Yatseniuk reminded aggressors about a lesson of the World War II, which ended with Hitler's regime brought before a military tribunal - 8 May 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon and Ukraine's Poroshenko lay flowers at World War II memorial in Kyiv - 11 May 2015: 'We need to seek to secure Ukraine's territorial integrity', German PM Angela Merkel says in Moscow, adding that local elections in Donbas should help Kyiv restore control over border and urging Russian-backed separatists to let Ukrainian aid in Donbas - 22 June 2015: Ukrainian President Poroshenko lays wreath in Kyiv to mark anniversary of Nazi invasion and in memory of World War II victims - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir - 12 August 2015: Researchers open 'neglected chapter' of Ukraine's Holocaust history, as investigation led by Patrick Desbois reveals that killings in western Ukraine were not carried out using the industrialised methods of Auschwitz and other death camps, but instead Jews were rounded up and shot, one by one, sometimes kicked or beaten to death, and no records were kept - 29 September 2015: Ukraine Babyn Yar massacre anniversary ceremony held near Kyiv, remembering over 100,000 Jews, Roma, Ukrainians and Soviet prisoners of war massacred by German Nazi invaders - 28 October 2015: War veterans and officials mark the expulsion of German Nazi-occupiers on October 28 1944
Germany/United Kingdom relations: Germany/United Kingdom relations
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 14 January 2014: Diaries from British soldiers describing life on the frontline during World War I are being published online by the British National Archives - 9 May 2014: Children to mark WWI's 'Christmas Truce' mainly in Flanders 1914, commemorating in UK's schools fraternisation between British, French and German troops in no man's land, seeing weapons set aside, greetings, gifts exchanged and even football matches played - In 1914/1915 events of 'Christmas Truce' were friendly reported in British papers but strongly criticized in Germany - 4 August 2014: Lights across the UK will be extinguished Monday to mark the centenary of the first world war at the end of a day of commemorations for the millions who fell during four years of warfare in Europe
Germany/United Nations relations: Germany and the United Nations
Germany/USA relations: Germany/USA relations
1933/1998/2007: From 1931 to 1945 in the Brown House in Munich, funds for renovation of this NSDAP party headquarters provided by industrialist Fritz Thyssen, Hitler kept a life-size portrait of Henry Ford next to his desk, since Ford and Adolf Hitler admired each other's achievements - In July 1938 Henry Ford received the highest medal Nazi Germany could bestow on a foreigner, and James D. Mooney, vice-president of overseas operations for General Motors, received a similar medal - 30 November 1998: Major USA car companies Ford and General Motors scrutinized for alleged Nazi collaboration over their business dealings with Nazi Germany, embroiled in a debate that 'GM was an integral part of the German war effort' - 30 November 2006: How General Motors helped jump-start the Third Reich’s military machine - 5 May 2007: Hitler’s carmaker - the inside story of how General Motors helped mobilize the Third Reich
2013: 19 June 2013: Obama's arrival in Berlin, calling in his speech at Brandenburg Gate for a one-third reduction of the United States' and Russia's nuclear stockpiles - 17 July 2013: German military reportedly knew about US surveillance programme - 21 July: Germany's two main intelligence services reportedly used NSA programme to spy on citizens - 3 August: German intelligence agency BND providing the National Security Agency of the USA with vast amounts of data about the telecommunications information it has obtained - 17 October: The US Federal Reserve orders German Commerzbank to fix money-laundering measures - 23 October: Obama tells Merkel US is not monitoring her communications but did not deny reports that US intelligence in the past have listened to calls of Angela Merkel - 25 October 2013: Action wanted from US President Barack Obama, not just apologetic words, Angela Merkel says after EU talks dominated by allegations that the NSA had accessed tens of thousands of French phone records and monitored Angela Merkel's mobile phone - 27 October 2013: Since 2002 War-Merkel's phone reportedly tracked by US - 31 October: German MP Hans-Christian Stroebele meets Edward Snowden in Moscow and says, he is willing to come to Germany to assist investigations into US surveillance
2014: 19 June 2014: Suspected SS guard J. Breyer arrested in the USA for the alleged murders of hundreds of thousands of Jewish men, women and children during World War II - 4 July: An employee of Germany's BND arrested on suspicion of spying for the USA - 4 July: Germany summons USA ambassador over spy allegations - 6 July: Former NSA employee Thomas Drake described the German spy agency BND as an 'appendage' of the NSA - 10 July: Germany told the CIA station chief in Berlin to leave country - 16 August: German BND spied on John Kerry and Hillary Clinton - 3. Oktober: BND leitete jahrelang Daten auch deutscher Staatsbürger an NSA weiter, nach Unterlagen zwischen 2004-2008
2015: 3 May 2015: German PM Merkel joins Holocaust survivors to mark the liberation of Nazi concentration camp in Dachau by USA soldiers 70 years ago, thanking the camp's survivors for their work in telling their eyewitness stories of the horrors they experienced - 27. Januar 2012: Um als Zeitzeuge bei Schulbesuchen über seine persönliche Erinnerung an die NS-Zeit zu berichten, reist Abba Naor jedes Jahr nach Deutschland, da er - nachdem er in München auf der Polizeiwache in der Ettstraße einen deutschen Polizisten wiedererkannt hatte, der als Wachmann im Ghetto Kaunas Juden Flaschen auf die Köpfe gestellt hatte, um sie herunterzuschießen - heute in Israel lebt - 4 May 2015: German PM Merkel defends German intelligence cooperation with USA spy agency, also claiming once more that it is not acceptable for friendly nations to spy on each other and promising that her office will provide 'full details' about intelligence cooperation - 7 May 2015: German secret service BND reduces cooperation with NSA after NSA fails to provide clear reasons for each request for surveillance of individuals or organisations - 27 May 2015: Hundreds attend interfaith service at pork-desecrated Holocaust memorial in Boston - 31 May 2015: Nazis collected over $20m in social security benefits from USA, official report says - 2 July: Germany summons USA ambassador after WikiLeaks publishes what it says is evidence of NSA eavesdropping on ministers - 8. Juli 2015: NSA hörte laut Wiki-Leaks Regierungsumfeld von Kohl bis Merkel schon seit den 1990er-Jahren ab - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above
Germany/Vietnam relations: Germany/Vietnam relations






Vgl. Revolutionen (und Befreiungsbewegungen) von 1917, 1918 und folgende u.a. in: Spanien, Cuba, Chile, in China, Korea, Vietnam etc.

In der sog. DDR mit ihrer Gründung im "Kalten Krieg" (und 1953), in Ungarn (und 1956), in der Tschechoslowakei (und 1968), in Polen etc.





Weiter zum Kapitel: Oktoberrevolution 1917 in Rußland, Novemberrevolution 1918 in Deutschland



Weiter zum Artikel: Krisen - Ökonomie, Politik, Kriege, Naturkatastrophen - Darstellung nach Kontinenten und Ländern

Weiter zum Artikel: Der Gazakrieg 2008/2009 ist eine Krise Europas und Deutschlands

Weiter zum Artikel: Europäische Union - Mitgliedstaaten, Beitrittskandidaten, Wahlen



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