European countries

Geography of Europe: Geography of Europe, the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or the larger Afro-Eurasia - Geology of Europe - Geological history of Europe
List of European countries by population and by area: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, including 50 generally recognised sovereign states - List of European countries by population, including 51 countries and 6 territories and dependencies located in Europe, broadly defined, as transcontinental countries are included if they are members of the Council of Europe - List of European countries by area, as some states are only partially located in Europe and are ranked according to the size of their European part only - Lists of countries in Europe by other - more or less distinguishing - features

Albania - Geography of Albania - History of Albania - Battle of Kosovo 1389 - Albanian resistance during World War II - People's Socialist Republic of Albania 1944-1992 - History of post-Communist Albania - Demographics of Albania
Economy of Albania: Economy of Albania - main industries are perfumes and cosmetic products, food and tobacco products, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower - Companies of Albania by industry
Mines in Albania: Mines in Albania
List of oil and gas fields in Albania: List of oil and gas fields in Albania - Patos-Marinza Oil Field
Energy and infrastructure in Albania: Energy in Albania - Infrastructure in Albania
Agriculture in Albania: Agriculture in Albania - main agricultural products are tobacco, figs, olives, wheat, maize, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, honey, dairy products, and traditional medicine plants
Transport in Albania: Transport in Albania
Tourism in Albania: Tourism in Albania - Visitor attractions in Albania - World Heritage Sites in Albania
Economic history of Albania and economic cycles: Economic history of Albania and macroeconomic trends 2016-2020
June 2016 Chinese companies are replacing traditional European investing partners: 13 June 2016: Chinese companies are replacing traditional European investing partners, namely Italy and Turkey, and helping to develop a country in dire need of modernization
Labor in Albania: Labor in Albania
Taxation in Albania: Taxation in Albania
Politics of Albania: Politics of Albania - Constitution of Albania 1998
Political parties and trade unions in Albania: Political parties in Albania - Socialist Party of Albania - Socialist Movement for Integration - Trade unions in Albania
Elections, government and politics in Albania: Elections in Albania
June 2013 Albanian parliamentary election: Albanian parliamentary election 23 June 2013 - 23 June 2013: After shooting in the northwestern Lac region, in which an opposition activist was killed and a Democrat candidate wounded, the main opposition PS and the ruling coalition claim victory in the deeply polarised country - 26 June: Rama's left-of-centre coalition captured 84 seats in the 140-member parliament to 56 for Democratic party's coalition
December 2013: 29 December 2013: The Albanian parliament adopted 2014 budget of 3.25 billion euros, with a public deficit estimated at 6.6% of GDP
June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election: 25 June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election - 25 June 2017: Albania’s Socialist Party looked set to win Sunday’s parliamentary vote, an exit poll showed, which would give the ruling party a mandate to push judicial reforms vital for membership of the EU
June 2019 Albanian local elections: 30 June 2019 Albanian local elections, a set of highly contested elections in Albania as voters were asked to elect mayors, municipal council members, municipal unit mayors and municipal unit members, the second local elections in Albania since substantial administrative reforms legislated in 2014 reduced the number of municipalities in the country to 61, and as the opposition parties refused to participate in the election accusing the government and the PM of vote buying, voters intimidation and links with criminal organizations that led to a Socialist Party majority in the previous elections
Social movements and protests in Albania: Protests in Albania
2011 opposition demonstrations: 2011 Albanian opposition demonstrations
2015 opposition protest against corruption: 18 December 2015: Thousands of opposition protesters have gathered in front of Albania's parliament demanding the resignation of the government as rampant corruption allegedly driving Albanians to seek asylum in Western Europe
2018 anti-government protests: 27 January 2018: Thousands take part in anti-government protests, accuse PM Edi Rama's administration of corruption and links to organised crime
March 2019 anti-government demonstrations: 17 March 2019: Albanian police used tear gas to disperse a crowd trying to break into the parliament on a day of anti-government demonstrations across the Balkans
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Albania: Albanian society
Counties and municipalities of Albania: 12 counties of Albania are first-level administrative divisions in the Republic of Albania - 61 municipalities of Albania, the second-level administrative divisions of the country
Cities in Albania: List of cities in Albania
Tirana: Tirana, the capital and largest city by area and population of the Republic of Albania
Economy of Tirana: Economy of Tirana, the heart of the economy of Albania and the most industrialised and economically fastest growing region in Albania, as the tertiary sector is the most important for the economy of Tirana and employs more than 68% of work force
Timeline of Tirana: Timeline of Tirana since 1572
Durrës: Durrës, the second most populous city in the Republic of Albaniam and the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, located on the Adriatic Sea, and the country's most ancient economic and historic center
History of Durrës: History of Durrës
Demographics and ethnic groups in Albania: Demographics of Albania - Ethnic groups in Albania
Albanians: Albanians
Aromanians in Albania: Aromanians, Latin ethnic group native to the southern Balkans
Greeks in Albania: Greeks in Albania
Jews in Albania: History of the Jews in Albania dates back about 2,000 years - The Holocaust in Albania consisted of murders, deportations and crimes against humanity committed against Jews, Slavs, Roma and other minorities in Albania by German, Italian and Albanian collaborationist forces while the country was under Italian and German occupation during World War II
Romani people in Albania: Romani people in Albania
Serb minority in Albania: Serb minority in Albania
Human rights and freedom of religion in Albania: Human rights in Albania - Freedom of religion in Albania
Languages and culture of Albania: Culture of Albania - Languages of Albania
Education in Albania: Education in Albania
Health in Albania: Health in Albania
Albanian media: Albanian media
Crime in Albania: Crime in Albania
Corruption in Albania: Corruption in Albania - Political scandals of Albania
Organised crime in Albania: Organised crime in Albania
Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997: Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997
List of massacres in Albania since 1943: List of massacres in Albania since 1943 - 9 July 1943 Massacre of Borovë
Albanian law: Albanian law - Constitution of Albania - Legal history of Albania
Judiciary of Albania: Judiciary of Albania
Courts in Albania
Law enforcement in Albania: Law enforcement in Albania
Foreign relations of Albania: Foreign relations of Albania
Treaties of Albania: Treaties of Albania
Albania/Bulgaria relations: Albania/Bulgaria relations
Albania/PR of China relations: Albania/PR of China relations - Albania in the Chinese Sphere 1958-1978 - Sino-Albanian split 1978
Albania/EU relations: Albanian EU accession bid 2009
Albania/Germany relations: Albania/Germany relations - Albania during World War I 1914-1918 - Principality of Albania 1914-1917, 1920-1925 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Italy relations: Albania/Italy relations - Italian protectorate over Albania 1917–1920 - Italian invasion of Albania 1939 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Kosovo relations: Albania/Kosovo relations
Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations: Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations - Demographic history of Macedonia and Albania - Ideology of 'Greater Albania' - Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 2001 - 2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence - Smilkovci lake killings 2012
Albania/Serbia relations: Albania/Serbia relations
Albania/Turkey relations: Albania/Turkey relations - Albanian Declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire on 28 November 1912
Albania/USA relations: Albania/USA relations
Environment of Albania: Environment of Albania - Climate of Albania - Biodiversity of Albania
Environmental issues in Albania: Environmental issues in Albania, includung air and water pollution, waste and deforestation
Conservation in Albania: Conservation in Albania - Protected areas of Albania - Institute for Environmental Policy in Albania
Water in Albania: Water in Albania - Rivers of Albania
Natural disasters in Albania: Natural disasters in Albania
Floods in Albania: Floods in Albania
2009–2010 Albania floods: 2009–2010 Albania floods refer to several periods of major flooding in the northern regions of Albania around Shkodra, Lezhë and Durrës
November 2019 Albania earthquake: 26 November 2019 Albania earthquake - 26 November 2019: A strong earthquake shook Albania early Tuesday, killing at least six people, injuring 300 and collapsing buildings, with an epicenter 30 kilometers northwest of the capital Tirana

Austria - Geography of Austria - History of Austria - Demographics of Austria
Economy of Austria: Economy of Austria - main industries include construction, machinery, metals, vehicles and parts, food, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, chemicals, tourism - List of companies of Austria
Mining in Austria: Mining in Austria
Energy in Austria: Energy in Austria
Fossil fuels in Austria: Fossil fuels in Austria - Petroleum in Austria - Oil and gas companies of Austria
Electricity in Austria: Electricity in Austria, in 2010 28.5% came from fossil fuels, 68.6% from hydropower and the remainder from other sources
Hydroelectric power stations in Austria: Hydroelectric power stations in Austria
Solar and wind power in Austria: Solar power in Austria - Wind power in Austria
Agriculture in Austria: Agriculture in Austria, agricultural and forestry output is heavily concentrated in field crops, meat, and dairy products, with most of it coming from animal husbandry
Water in Austria: Water in Austria
Rivers and lakes of Austria: Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - List of lakes of Austria - List of dams and reservoirs in Austria
Danube: Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe
Water transport in Austria: Water transport in Austria
Tourism in Austria: Tourism in Austria - Tourist attractions in Austria - Austria–Slovenia border
September 2019: 6 September 2019: German tourist sued for complaints about hotel's Nazi portraits in the Tyrolean Alps last August
Banking in Austria: Banking in Austria - Banks of Austria - Hypo Group Alpe Adria - bank scandal - 14 December 2009: Austria nationalises ailing Hypo Group Alpe Adria
April 2013 banking secrecy: 8. April 2013: Nach Luxemburg beginnt auch in Österreich das Bankgeheimnis zu bröckeln
Economic history of Austria and economic cycles: Economic history of Austria
Labor in Austria: Labor in Austria - Labour disputes in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Taxation in Austria: Taxation in Austria
Politics of Austria: Politics of Austria - Political parties in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Elections and politics in Austria: Elections in Austria
2008: 28 September 2008 Austrian legislative election
2010: 25 April 2010 Austrian presidential election - 10 October 2010 Viennese state election
2013: 3 March 2013 Carinthian state election - 3 mars 2013: En Carinthie les différents instituts de sondages donnent autour de 32% (contre 28,8% en 2009) au candidat social-démocrate Peter Kaiser contre seulement autour de 21% au gouverneur sortant de l'Etat régional - Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 2013
September 2013 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2013 Austrian legislative election - 29 septembre: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour 6,4 millions d'électeurs qui doivent renouveler les 183 députés de leur Conseil national - 29 septembre: La coalition sortante des sociaux-démocrates et conservateurs remporte la majorité absolue, forte poussée de l'extrême droite
2014 European Parliament election: Austria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015 Styrian and Vienna election: 31 May 2015 Styrian state election, Social Democrats win Styrian state election, securing 29.29% of the vote despite Freedom party gains - 11 October 2015: Social Democrats win Vienna election, securing 39.5% of Sunday’s vote, ahead of the Freedom party on 31%
24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election: 24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election - 25 April 2016: Far-right and anti-immigration 'Freedom' party's Norbert Hofer takes 36% of the vote as candidates from the two governing parties fail to make runoff
April 2016: 28 April 2016: Austrian MPs to bring in some of Europe’s most stringent asylum legislation, days after a far-right politician won the first round of the country’s presidential elections
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Faymann quits as Austrian chancellor - 21 May 2016: Far-right Austrian presidential candidate Hofer accused of lying over Jerusalem terror incident
22 May Austrian presidential election second round - 23 mai 2016: Alexander Van der Bellen, former Green party leader, elected president in Austria in narrow defeat for far right
July 2016: 1 juillet 2016: Après un coup de théâtre sans précédent de l'invalidation du résultat de l'élection présidentielle par la Cour constitutionnelle les Autrichiens vont retourner aux urnes pour élire un président
December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election: 4 December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election - 5 December 2016: Austria’s voters have resoundingly rejected anti-immigration and eurosceptic Hofer’s bid to become EU’s first far-right president, instead electing former leader of the Green party Van der Bellen who said he would be an 'open-minded, liberal-minded and above all a pro-European president', a result greeted with relief
January 2017: 30. Januar 2017: SPÖ und ÖVP stimmen neuem Regierungspakt zu
October 2017 Austrian legislative election: 15 October 2017 Austrian legislative election - 16 October 2017: Stoking concerns about a record influx of migrants into Europe following the failure of the international community to tackle crises in the Middle East and Africa, Austria's 'People’s Party' got 31.4% of the vote, the 'Freedom Party' came in second with 27.4% and the 'Social Democratic Party of Austria', which now governs in coalition with 'People’s Party', got 26.7% - 24 October 2017: Austria’s Sebastian Kurz on Tuesday agreed to hold coalition talks with the FPÖ, potentially rekindling an alliance previously dubbed a 'pact with the devil' by the media
December 2017: 15/16 December 2017: Having Nazi roots and campaigning on an anti-immigrant platform Austria’s anti-immigration FPOe and the OeVP agreed a coalition deal - 20 December 2017: Rise of 'Freedom Party' founded in 1956 by a former SS officer raises fears Austria hasn’t learned from Nazi past
January/February 2018: 11 January 2018: The Jewish Community of Vienna, which represents most Jews in Austria, continues long-standing policy of boycotting the 'Freedom Party' with its Nazi roots, as Israel also rejects meetings with party ministers - 24 January 2018: FPÖ candidate for state office Udo Landbauer was a member of student fraternity whose songbook contains Nazi lyrics - 21 Februar 2018: Austrian Jewish students disrupted cabinet minister Fassmann’s speech at a conference on anti-Semitism over the fact that Kurz government includes politicians from the 'Freedom Party' known for anti-Semitic and racist incidents involving its members and leaders
Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair: Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair, an ongoing political scandal in Austria involving FPÖ's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Vice-Chancellor of Austria, FPÖ's Johann Gudenus and the Austrian 'Freedom Party' FPÖ in general, causing the collapse of the Austrian governing coalition - 20 May 2019: Austria’s Jewish community's Oskar Deutsch said that the downfall of far-right party leader and Vice Chancellor Heinz-Christian Strache validated his community’s policy of avoiding the faction, due to the party’s alleged failure to distance itself from its neo-Nazi past, and as official Israel had also avoided contact with party members
26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Austria: 26 mai 2019 élections européennes en Autriche
27-31 May 2019: 27 mai 2019: Le chancelier autrichien Sebastian Kurz a été renversé par une motion de censure adoptée par les principaux partis d'opposition, dix jours après le scandale de l'Ibizagate qui a fait exploser la coalition qu'il avait formée avec l'extrême droite - 31 May 2019: Austria gets its first female chancellor, for now as constitutional court president Brigitte Bierlein named as interim premier
September 2019 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2019 Austrian legislative election in the second half of the year, called as a result of 2019 Ibiza affair and the breakup of the ruling ÖVP–FPÖ coalition in May 2019 - Opinion polling for the 2019 Austrian legislative election
November 2019 three people arrested in connection with FPÖ-Strache video: 20 November 2019: Austrian prosecutors say three people have been arrested in connection with a video that triggered the collapse of the government earlier this year
2 January 2020 Greens enter government with conservatives: 2 janvier 2020: L'Autriche va être dirigée par une coalition inédite entre les conservateurs et les écologistes, deux partis aux orientations politiques si éloignées que leur programme commun dévoilé jeudi sera déterminant pour la pérennité de leur alliance
5 January 2020 foreign country behind cyberattack on information systems: 5 January 2020: Austria suspects a foreign country is behind a serious cyberattack on information systems at its Foreign Ministry that continued on Sunday, the ministry said
Social movements, criticism and protests in Austria: Protests in Austria
2009: 2009 student protests in Austria
2013: 2 February 2013: Nine protesters have been arrested for civil disorder in demonstrations against a right-wing ball in Vienna's imperial Hofburg Palace - 20 April 2013: Austrians disagree with their government over the need to maintain the country's banking secrecy, according to polls which showed a majority in favour of lifting the controversial measure
2015: 31 January 2015: Austrian police hold 38 people as thousands protest outside controversial palace ball in Vienna
September 2015: 1 September 2015: About 20,000 people took to the streets of Vienna on the eve of 1 September to demonstrate against ill-treatment of refugees, after the bodies of 71 people were found on Austria’s A4 motorway in an abandoned truck last week and as the European refugee and migrant crisis escalates - 1 September 2015: Along with several hundred citizens wanting to pay respect to refugees, Vienna and Austrian officials hold memorial for 71 refugees found dead in an abandoned lorry
2016: 1 May 2016: Around 80,000 people on May Day in Vienna greeted SPÖ's Faymann with loud boos and calls to step down, following the ruling coalition’s handling of the refugee and migrant crisis, rising unemployment and disastrous defeat in presidential ballot
December 2017 protest against ÖVP/Freedom party deal: 18 December 2017: Thousands protest as natioalist ministers enter government in Austria, following a deal of ÖVP with the 'Freedom party' founded after the second world war by former members of the Nazi party
January 2018 'Never Again' protest: 13/14 January 2018: Thousands of Austrians gathered to protest against the new coalition government, which includes the FPO founded by former Nazis, with a march in Vienna, carrying placards reading 'Never Again' and chanting slogans such as 'Don't Let Nazis Govern'
June 2018: 30 juin 2018: Plus de 80'000 personnes ont manifesté samedi face à la volonté du gouvernement d'étendre à 12 heures par jour et à 60 par semaine la durée maximale autorisée de travail
October 2018: 4 octobre 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Vienne pour ressusciter les 'manifestations du jeudi' de l'année 2000 contre le premier gouvernement de coalition entre ÖVP et FPÖ
December 2018: 16 December 2018: Thousands of protesters in Vienna braved snow and icy temperatures Saturday to protest Austria’s ruling coalition between the conservatives and xenophobic FPOe a year after they came to power
Austrian society, demographics, culture and human rights: Austrian society - Human rights in Austria - Legal history of Austria
Demographics of Austria: Demographics of Austria - Austrians - Ethnic groups in Austria - Ethnic groups in Vienna
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria begins with exodus of Jews from Palestine under Roman occupation - History of the Jews in Vienna - History of the Jews in Salzburg
Romani people in Austria: Romani people in Austria
Arabs in Austria: Arabs in Austria, the people from Arab countries, particularly Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Jordan
Filipinos in Austria: Filipinos in Austria
Hungarians in Austria: Hungarians in Austria
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria
Turks in Austria: Turks in Austria
Immigration and refugees in Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
2014-2016: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Since 2015 Austrian border barrier: Austrian border barrier is a border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia, as a 'response' to the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 15 mai 2015: La Croix-Rouge a vivement critiqué la création de camps de tentes pour les demandeurs d'asile en Autriche, annoncé par le gouvernement - 28 August 2015: More than 70 migrants were found dead in an abandoned lorry on Austria’s A4 motorway between Neusiedl and Parndorf, registered to a Romanian citizen from the Hungarian city of Kecskemét - 29 August 2015: Three young children are recovering in hospital in Braunau from severe dehydration after police in Austria stopped a truck with 26 refugees and migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Bangladesh inside - 31 August: Austria toughens border controls in trafficking clampdown - 1 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees arrive from Hungary in Vienna and ran towards the next trains heading for Germany - 5 September: A first bus carrying refugees who have been stranded in the Hungarian capital reached the Austrian border early Saturday, after Austria and Germany agreed to take in refugees - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 7 September: As Thousands of refugees arrive by foot, buses, and trains to Vienna, Austrians offer food and water to arriving refugees - 10 September: Thousands more migrants stream into Austria from Hungary - 20 September 2015: Around 13,000 people entered Austria on Saturday, according to the Red Cross, after being shunted through Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia and forced away from these EU members - 23 October: As thousands more refugees and migrants have crossed from Slovenia to Austria, travelling for days from the Serbian border with Croatia, Austrian officials ask EU for more assistance to tackle refugee crisis
2016: 18 February 2016: Austria's announcement to limit the number of refugees allowed to enter its territory receives a sharp rebuke from the European commission which branded the move 'plainly incompatible' with international law
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy
2018: 2 mars 2018: Cinq migrants, quatre Iraniens et un Pakistanais, abandonnés dans le froid par des passeurs ont été secourus vendredi sur une autoroute du sud-est de l'Autriche où ils marchaient pour certains pieds nus
Culture and languages of Austria: Culture of Austria - Languages of Austria - Austrian German - Vienna culture
Music in Austria: Music in Austria
Viennese classical period of music: Viennese classical period of music in the 18th and 19th century - Musical development - 1732-1809 Joseph Haydn, born in Rohrau - 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg - 1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, born in Bonn - 1797-1828 Franz Schubert, born in Vienna
Education in Austria: Education in Austria - Education in Austria by state
Schools in Austria: Schools in Austria
Universities and colleges in Austria: Universities and colleges in Austria
Museums in Austria: Museums in Austria - Museums in Austria by state - Museums in Austria by city
History museums in Austria: History museums in Austria - Archives in Austria
Since 3 May 1975 Mauthausen Museum: Since 3 May 1975 Mauthausen Museum, 30 years after the Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp's liberation by the USA army - Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp east of Linz, plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany
Since 1991 Jewish Museum Hohenems: Since 1991 Jewish Museum Hohenems, a regional museum in Austria that deals with the Jewish presence Hohenems, surrounding regions, and elsewhere in Europe, also covering - since there is no longer a Jewish community in Hohenems and it is no Jewish life left there - the Diaspora and Israel and with questions of the future of the European immigration society
2 May 2019: 2 May 2019: A majority of Austrians are unaware of the magnitude of the Holocaust and the number of Jews murdered, while concurrently downplaying their country’s role in the genocide, according to a study released on Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, as Holocaust survivors before March of the Living warn amid surge of anti-Semitic incidents around the world
Health in Austria: Health in Austria
Healthcare in Austria: Healthcare in Austria
Hospitals in Austria: Hospitals in Austria - List of hospitals in Austria by city
'Steinhof' and 'Am Spiegelgrund' hospitals and Nazi regime's euthanasia programme: 'Steinhof' hospital in Vienna - during the Second World War, some 700 children were tortured and murdered in the hospital - Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO) became the head prison doctor in 'Am Steinhof' hospital in 1955, ill-famed for his proven involvement in the killing of at least nine children with physical, mental and/or emotional/behavioral characteristics considered 'unclean' by the Nazi regime under its Euthanasia Program as Gross was head of the Spiegelgrund children's psychiatric clinic for two years during World War II, and as his role in hundreds of other cases of infanticide remained unclear - Am Spiegelgrund clinic - Action T4 euthanasia centres
April 2002: 29 April 2002: The remains of the last two of almost 800 children and babies killed in Vienna in the Nazi regime's euthanasia programme, who had been kept ntil recently in the cellar of the Spiegelgrund children's clinic in Vienna, where they died and where, until the early 90s, they remained under the supervision of Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO), who is alleged to have murdered them were laid to rest during a joint funeral and memorial service at Vienna central cemetery yesterday
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Austrian Dr Hans Asperger, after whom Asperger syndrome is named, was an active participant in the regime of National Socialism, assisting in the Third Reich’s euthanasia programme and supporting the concept of racial hygiene by deeming certain children unworthy to live, according to a study by medical historian Herwig Czech, following eight years of research
Media of Austria: Media of Austria
Newspapers in Austria: Newspapers in Austria
Broadcasting in Austria: Radio in Austria - TV in Austria
Internet in Austria: Internet in Austria
Crime in Austria: Crime in Austria
Austrian National Socialism: Austrian National Socialism, formed at the beginning of the 20th century taking a concrete form on 15 November 1903 when the German Worker's Party DAP was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic, its political organization DNSAP banned in early 1933 revived and made part of the German NSDAP after the German annexation of Austria in 1938
Antisemitism in Austria: Antisemitism in Austria - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria - März 1945 Massaker von Rechnitz - 13 July 2017: 'My aunt had a dinner party, and then she took her guests to kill 180 Jews' in March 1945, journalist Sacha Batthyany reveals more than 60 years later
Antisemitism and Neo-Nazism in contemporary Austria: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria - Neo-Nazism in Austria
2015: 11 February 2015: Call to kill Jews is legal criticism of Israel, Austrian prosecutor says - 4 April 2015: Anti-Israel protesters call 'Kill the Jews' in Vienna as Bosnian soccer fans join pro-Palestinian rally
2016: 20 octobre 2016: Un policier autrichien a été condamné à neuf mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir crié 'Heil Hitler' à un automobiliste lors d'un contrôle routier
2018 anti-Semitic hate speech incidents: 16 February 2018: Anti-Semitic hate speech incidents in Austria at all-time high, according to watchdog Forum Against Anti-Semitism, saying expression of hatred towards Jews has become more 'socially acceptable'
May 2019: 27 May 2019: Photos of Holocaust survivors on exhibit in Vienna vandalized for 3rd time
Corruption in Austria: Corruption in Austria
December 2010 Rampant corruption in Austria<: 10 December 2010: Rampant corruption in Austria
June-September 2013: 14 June 2013: Vienna prosecutors this week charged nine people, including the deputy governor of the Austrian National Bank, over suspected bribes and kickbacks for banknote contracts with Azerbaijan and Syria - 14. September 2013: Haftstrafen für verdeckte Parteienfinanzierung der Telekom Austria in der Höhe von 960.000 Euro an das von Haider gegründete 'Bündnis Zukunft Österreich' im Herbst 2006
Since 17 May 2019 FPÖ's Ibiza affair: Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair, an ongoing political scandal in Austria involving FPÖ's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Vice-Chancellor of Austria, FPÖ's Johann Gudenus and the Austrian 'Freedom Party' FPÖ in general, causing the collapse of the Austrian governing coalition - 27 mai 2019: Dans une vidéo tournée en caméra cachée, l'on peut voir le dirigeant nationaliste Heinz-Christian Strache se montrait disposé à se compromettre avec un intermédiaire russe en échange de financements
Human trafficking in Austria: Human trafficking in Austria
Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria: Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria - Sexual abuse scandal in Vienna archdiocese
Political scandals in Austria: Political scandals in Austria
2011 cash for influence scandal - 9 August 2012: Former Austrian interior minister and Euro MP, Ernst Strasser, has been charged in Vienna with corruption
Law and legal history of Austria: Austrian law - Legal history of Austria - Constitutional history of Austria - Constitution of Austria - Federal Constitutional Law is the centerpiece of the constitution of the Republic of Austria
Courts in Austria: Courts in Austria
September/December 2019 Innsbruck court and Nazi photo in guesthouse: 7 September 2019: An Austrian court in Innsbruck has ruled that a German tourist who took exception to a World War II portrait showing a soldier and NSDAP member in Wehrmacht uniform wearing insignia with a swastika in a guesthouse, had no right to complain about it on travel sites, saying there had been 'a photo of a Nazi grandpa hanging in the hall' - 16 December 2019: After researching the identity of the two men in the photographs at the German National Archives in Berlin in May 2019, guest found proof that both of the men had in fact joined the Nazi party, in 1941 and 1943 respectively, forcing the ignorant Innsbruck court to decide to lift the gagging order, now saying the two men’s party membership and the clearly visible swastika amounted to sufficient proof to back up the guest’s complaint that the hotel had 'uncritically venerated a former Nazi family member'
Law enforcement in Austria: Law enforcement in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria: Foreign relations of Austria
Wars involving Austria and military history of Austria: Wars involving the Habsburg Monarchy - Wars involving Austria - Military history of Austria
Treaties of Austria: Treaties of Austria - United Nations Charter and since 1955 Austrian membership - Treaties entered into by the European Union
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government - 26 October 1955 Austria's Declaration of Neutrality - the Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed itself to declare its neutrality
Austia's membership in international organisations: Austia's membership in international organisations
Austria/European Union relations: Austria/European Union relations - Euroscepticism in Austria
1994 EU membership referendum: 1994 Austrian European Union membership referendum
Austria/United Nations relations: Austria/United Nations relations
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
Immigration to Austria and border barrier: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - Austrian border barrier
Bilateral relations of Austria: Bilateral relations of Austria
Austria/Belgium relations: Austria/Belgium relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Austria/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations:
1878-1914: Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 - Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878-1918 - Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 - Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Since 1908 Austro-Hungarian 'Schutzkorps' militia's persecution of Serbs the first large-scale persecution of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina because of their ethnicity
1914-1918: 28 June 1914 Assassination in Sarajevo - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo - July Crisis 1914 - Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign (World War I) 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War I casualties
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Brazil relations: Austria/Brazil relations
Since 1940, 1951-1967 Austrian protection of Nazi war criminal Stangl: 1 July 2017: Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka, since 1940 superintendent of the T-4 Euthansia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim, commandant of Sobibor from March 1942 until September 1942, when he was transferred to Treblinka, always dressed in white riding clothes, since 1951 in Brazil where he was given an engineering job, since 1959 working at a Volkswagen AG factory, for years his responsibility in the mass murder of men, women and children had been known to the Austrian authorities, but Austria did not issue a warrant for Stangl’s arrest until 1961, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested in Brazil
Austria/Czech Republic relations: Austria/Czech Republic relations - Austrian Empire
Austria/France relations: Austria/France relations
1792-1797 War of the First Coalition against the French Revolution: 1792-1797 War of the First Coalition, the wars that several European powers fought against the French First Republic founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government
Austria/Germany relations: Austria/Germany relations - History of the Holy Roman Empire 962–1806 - Military history of the Holy Roman Empire - Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 - Military history of Austria
1914-1945: July Crisis 1914 - 5/6 July 1914 Hoyos Mission and 'Blank cheque' in Berlin - World War I 1914-1918 - German occupation 1938: "Anschluss" - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2012-2013: 12 October 2012: Vienna will erect first monument to remember the thousands of people executed by the Nazis for deserting or refusing to serve in the military during World War II - 10 mars 2013: Des historiens exhument le passé nazi de l'orchestre philharmonique de Vienne - 12 mai 2013: Plus de 10.000 personnes venues de plus de 50 pays ont commémoré dimanche le 68e anniversaire de la libération du camp de concentration nazi de Mauthausen
2014: 24. Oktober 2014: Denkmal für die Verfolgten der NS-Militärjustiz als zentrale österreichische Gedenkstätte für Deserteure des NS-Regimes am Wiener Ballhausplatz von Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer der Öffentlichkeit übergeben
2015: 5. Mai 2015: Nach Berichten, daß der BND dem USA-Geheimdienst NSA beim Ausspionieren österreichischer Behörden geholfen habe, erstattet Österreich Strafanzeige
June 2018: 16 juin 2018: L'exécutif autrichien a demandé à l'Allemagne des explications après de nouvelles allégations visant les services secrets allemands, accusés d'avoir espionné un grand nombre d'institutions et d'entreprises en Autriche, dont des ambassades et organisations internationales
Austria/Hungary relations: Austria/Hungary relations - Hungarians in Austria - History of the Hungarians in Vienna
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary 1867-1918
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918
Austria/Israel relations: Austria/Israel relations
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria
1938-1945: The Holocaust in Austria - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2014: 24 July 2014: Israeli footballers assaulted by pro-Palestinians during match in Bischofshofen
Austria/Italy relations: Austria/Italy relations
1848/1849 First Italian War of Independence and first aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice: First Italian War of Independence 1848-1849 following Revolution of 1848 in the Italian states - Republic of San Marco 1848-1849 reconquered by Austrian troops following a long siege and an Austrian bombardment 1849 - 1849 First aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice
1914-1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary's and Germany's campaign against Italy in World War I 1914-1918 - Deutscher Giftgaseinsatz und Massenmord an Italiern entschied im Herbst 1917 die Schlacht bei Kobarid (19. Mai 1998)
2016: 2 avril 2016: L'Autriche envoie l'armée à la frontière italienne contre un afflux de migrants et de réfugiés cherchant à gagner le nord de l'Europe - 27 April 2016: Austria plans Italian border fence to control refugee and migrant flow, as Italy says Brenner Pass restrictions would be illogical and against EU rules
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy, as Brussels urged Europe to help Italian authorities manage an 'unprecedented' arrival of people from north Africa
Austria/Poland relations: Austria/Poland relations
Since 1772 partitions of Poland conducted by Austria, Prussia and Russia: Since 1772 partitions of Poland conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria
1938-1945 relationship between Austria and Poland and Axis powers' war crimes: Relationship between Austria and Poland, that started at 1920 disappeared at 1938, following the Anschluss which Nazi Germany, and until 1945 relationship went tense due to German invasion of Poland, thus sparked the World War II, and Austria participated in the occupation of Poland and had committed many crimes against Polish people under the banner of Nazi Germany
Nazi war crimes in Poland and convicted Austrian Nazis: Nazi war crimes in Poland - Austrian Nazis convicted of war crimes - Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
25 January 2020 Poland pushes for Nazi Gusen camp in Austria to be remembered: 25 January 2020: Poland pushes for Nazi camp in Austria to be remembered, charging that Gusen camp, a satellite of Mauthausen complex, is neglected by Austrian authorities, where some 35,800 detainees, many Polish, died
Austria/Russia relations: Austria/Russia relations
2016: 20 December 2016: Austrian Freedom Party's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Austrian party founded by former Nazis, signed a cooperation agreement with Russian Vladimir Putin's United Russia party and met with Michael Flynn, President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for national security adviser at Trump Tower in New York (USA)
Austria/Serbia relations: Austria/Serbia relations
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria, there are between 200,000 and 300,000 people of Serbian descent living in Austria
1788–1792 Habsburg-occupied Serbia: 1788–1792 Habsburg-occupied Serbia
1908-1909 Bosnian crisis (Annexation crisis): 1908-1909 Bosnian crisis, also known as the Annexation crisis, when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formerly within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, sparking protestations from all the Great Powers and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours, Serbia and Montenegro
July 1914: 23 July 1914: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia - July 1914 preparations for the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, content and Serbian response - 28/29 July 1914: Austria has declared war upon Serbia and Austro-Hungarian troops reportedly invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz
28 July 1914 - 1918 Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign: 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 Serbian Campaign of World War I, from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia until the war's conclusion in November 1918, after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary, Allied and Serbian victory, and Serbian troops re-entering Belgrade on 1 November 1918
October 1914 trials of the Sarajevo assassins in Sarajevo and punishment: Arrest, prosecution, October 1914 trials of the Sarajevo assassins in Sarajevo and punishment, following the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
April 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers: April 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia, a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II
April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade: 'Operation Retribution', the April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade, the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in retaliation for the coup d'état that overthrew the government that had signed the Tripartite Pact
1941-1945 occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers, war crimes and resistance: 1941-1945 occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers, resistance and Allied victory - Axis war crimes in Yugoslavia - Nazi war crimes in Serbia
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Slovenia relations: Austria/Slovenia relations
Austria-Slovenia border: Austria–Slovenia border - Austrian border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia against refugees from Syrian and some other countries in the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 November 2015: Austria has put up barbed wire at a border crossing with Slovenia used by hundreds of refugees and migrants despite chancellor's pledge
Austria/Switzerland relations: Austria/Switzerland relations - Duchy of Austria 1156–1453 - House of Habsburg originally from Aargau - Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1516 - Swiss Confederacy, reformation, Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 and recognition of independence of Switzerland from the 'Holy Roman Empire' - The Congress of Vienna 1814/1815 re-established Swiss independence, European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality - During both World War I 1914-1918 and World War II 1939-1945 Switzerland's 'neutrality' allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry
Austria/Syria relations: Austria/Syria relations
2016: 15 January 2015: The Syrian community in Austria calls on the Austrian Government to cut off economic relations with the Assad regime and to expel its ambassador to Vienna
Austria/Turkey relations: Austria/Turkey relations - Turks in Austria
1529: 1529 Siege of Vienna, first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna
1683: Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months
1683-1699: Great Turkish War 1683-1699 between the Ottoman Empire and several contemporary European powers joined into 'Holy League'
1787–1791: Austro-Turkish War 1787–1791 - Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
1914-1918: Austrian and Ottoman empires allies during the First World War
2017: 5. März 2017: Bundeskanzler Christian Kern hat sich für ein EU-weites Verbot von Wahlkampfauftritten türkischer Politiker ausgesprochen und wirft Erdogans Regime vor, 'Menschenrechte und demokratische Grundrechte mit Füßen' zu treten
Austria/Ukraine relations: Austria/Ukraine relations - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918 - a big portion of West Ukraine (Galicia and Carpathia) were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today consisting of Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 - during the war Ukraine was occupied by the Central powers military force including the Austrian military that drove Bolsheviks out of the country
1918: Februar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine–Central Powers
2015: 1 May 2015: An Austrian court refuses to extradite Ukrainian tycoon in gas trading and chemicals Dmytro Firtash to the USA over corruption charges, indicted in 2013 along with a member of India's parliament and four others
Austria/United Kingdom relations: Austria/United Kingdom relations
Environment of Austria: Environment of Austria - Natural history of Austria
Protected areas of Austria: Protected areas of Austria
Environmental issues in Austria: Environmental issues in Austria, including waste disposal, pollution, noise, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels, as well as emissions by the iron, steel, and ceramics industries
Water in Austria: Water in Austria - Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe - List of lakes of Austria
Natural disasters in Austria: Natural disasters in Austria
Floods in Austria: Floods in Austria
June 2009 European floods: June 2009 European floods
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods
Avalanches in Austria: Avalanches in Austria

Belarus - Geography of Belarus - History of Belarus - Demographics of Belarus
Economy of Belarus: Economy of Belarus - main industries include petrochemicals, potash, foodstuffs, timber, metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, textiles, radios, refrigerators - List of companies of Belarus - Companies of Belarus by industry ?risis of 2011 - 4. Juni 2011: Putin hilft Lukaschenko mit 3 Mrd. $ - 5. August: Weißrussischer Staatsbetrieb 'Belaruskali' erhält 2 Mrd. Dollar Kredit von 'Deutscher Bank' und russischer 'Sberbank'
Energy in Belarus: Energy in Belarus
2016: 9 August 2016: 30 years after world’s worst nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Belarus, which saw a quarter of its territory contaminated in the disaster, is building its first energy plant powered by the atom, as neighbouring countries denounce 'Soviet-style secrecy’ over accidents during energy site’s construction
Agriculture in Belarus: Agriculture in Belarus - products include grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax, beef, milk
Banking in Belarus: Banking in Belarus
Economic history of Belarus and economic cycles: Economic history of Belarus
Labor and trade unioms in Belarus: Labor in Belarus - Trade unions in Belarus
Politics of Belarus: Politics of Belarus
2010 Presidential election: Presidential election 2010
2012 Parliamentary election: Parliamentary election 23 September 2012 - 23 September: Belarus is holding parliamentary elections without the country's main opposition parties, after a boycott was called on the grounds of election irregularities and illegal detentions - 24. September 2012: Nach 'Parlamentswahl' Opposition voraussichtlich ohne Mandat - 24 September 2012: Western observers of parliamentary election say the election was 'not competitive from the start'
2015: 16 April 2015: Belarus imposes ‘social parasite’ law to fine unemployed, now facing an unemployment tax from the government - 29 August 2015: Belarusian opposition call on their supporters to boycott October's presidential poll, saying it has already been rigged - 24 September: At a rally in the Belarusian capital Minsk opposition leader Statkevich calls for presidential election boycott since opposition figures were barred from running
October 2015 Belarusian presidential election: 11 October 2015 Belarusian presidential election - 12 October: Lukashenko wins fifth term - 13 October: Belarusian presidential election fell short of democratic standards, international monitors say
September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election: 11 September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election - 12 September 2016: Anna Konopatskaya of the United Civil Party became the first opposition parliamentarian in Belarus in 20 years
November 2019 Belarusian parliamentary election: 17 November 2019 Belarusian parliamentary election - 17 November 2019: Belarus’ authoritarian president has disdainfully brushed off concerns that Sunday’s parliament election, from which many opposition figures have been excluded, would be regarded as neither free nor fair
Social movements and protests in Belarus: Belarusian democracy movement
2010 election crackdown and protests: December 2010 election crackdown
2011/2012 Belarusian protests and regime's violence: 2011 Belarusian protests - 14. Mai 2011: Andrej Sannikow zu 5 Jahren Straflager verurteilt - 20. Mai: Weitere Haftstrafen für Opposition - EU-Sanktionen? - 30. Juni 2011: Erneut Festnahmen von zahlreichen Demonstranten und Reportern - 3 July 2011: Violence and arrests in a crackdown on anti-government protests - 7. Juli 2011: Wieder Festnahmen bei Protesten in Minsk und anderen Städten - 13. Juli 2011: Polizei in Minsk prügelt Demonstranten - 20. Juli 2011: Klatschen gegen das Regime in Weißrußland - 8. Oktober 2011: Angesichts der Wirtschaftskrise fordern Demonstranten Neuwahlen von Präsident und Parlament - 13 March 2012: Belarus added to web censorship blacklist - 25. März 2012: Tausende bei regierungskritischer Kundgebung - Freilassung politischer Gefangener und demokratische Reformen gefordert - 23. Juni 2012: Der Journalist Andrzej Poczobut wegen angeblicher Präsidentenbeleidigung verhaftet
2015 opposition protest: 11 October 2015: Hundreds of opposition protesters marched in the capital Minsk on the eve of a presidential election, as opposition leaders say Belarusian presidential election is a sham
2016 opposition protest: 12 September 2016: Several hundred people have gathered in Minsk in protest of the parliamentary elections on Sunday, saying new vote must be held and demanding that the resignation of Lukashenko
Since February 2017 Belarusian protests: Since February 2017 Belarusian protests - 17 March 2017: 'Basta' and 'we are not slaves', these are the most popular slogans brandished at the Belarusian protests, which have seen thousands take to the streets and more than 100 people detained in a government crackdown - 23 March 2017: Human rights organisations have called on Belarusian authorities to drop all charges immediately against writers, publishers and journalists who have been arrested following a wave of nationwide protests, demanding the cancellation of the newly introduced Presidential Decree No. 3, which imposes a tax on the unemployed
March 2018 opposition protesters arrested: 25 March 2018: Scores of protesters were arrested Sunday in the capital of Belarus as supporters of the country’s repressed opposition tried to hold a march to mark the 100th anniversary of the short-lived Belarusian People’s Republic of 1918-19, seen by the opposition as the foundation of an independent Belarus
7 December 2019 protesters rally against closer Russia ties: 7 December 2019: More than 1,000 people took to the streets of Belarus to protest against closer ties with Russian regime as Putin hosted Belarusian Alexander Lukashenko in the Russian city of Sochi
Society, demographics, languages, culture and human rights in Belarus: Belarusian society
Human rights in Belarus: Human rights in Belarus
Persecution of political dissidents and extrajudicial use of judiciary: Government-sponsored hostage-taking in Belarus - Persecution of political dissidents, Extrajudicial use of judiciary, Harassment and censorship of independent media, Authorities interfere in trade-union elections and independent trade-union leaders have been dismissed from their positions
2013 HRW report: 29 November 2016: As Belarus remains highly repressive, with the authorities suppressing virtually all dissent and severely impeding freedoms of association and assembly, the EU has good reason to maintain its sanctions and press for an end to abuses, Human Rights Watch says
2016 Belarus executions: 12 October 2016: Belarus resumes executions after EU sanctions dropped, as human rights report details abuse used to extract confessions in only European country to use death penalty
Regions and districts of Belarus: 6 regions of Belarus and the city of Minsk - Geography of Belarus by region - Districts of Belarus
Brest Region: Brest Region and administrative center Brest city
Minsk Region: Minsk Region with its administrative center Minsk
Vitebsk Region: Vitebsk Region, located near the border with Russia
Cities and towns in Belarus: List of cities and towns in Belarus by region
Minsk: Minsk, situated on the Svislac and the Nyamiha Rivers, has a special administrative status as the capital of Belarus and is also the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblasc) and Minsk District (rajon), with a population of 1,982,444 inhabitants in January 2018 - History of Minsk - Economy of Minsk, the economic capital of Belarus with industrial and services sectors which serve the needs not only of the city, but of the entire nation, as Minsk's contributions form nearly 46% of Belarusian budget
Timeline of Minsk: Timeline of Minsk since the Middle Ages
1793 Russian annexation: Since 1793, following partitions and partial annexations by the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia annexed the Minsk Voivodeship, ending a semi-independent duchy at least since 1067
1898 Russian Social Democratic Labour Party founded in Minsk: 1 March 1898 Russian Social Democratic Labour Party founded in Minsk, illegal for most of its existence as at the end of the 1st Party Congress all nine delegates were arrested by the Imperial Russian Police, the 2nd Congress was held in Brussels and London in 1903
Early 20th century Minsk a centre for the worker's movement: In the early years of the 20th century, Minsk was a major centre for the worker's movement within Belarus, and also one of the major centres of Belarusian national revival, along with Vilnia
June 1914 Minsk teachers institute founded: Minsk teachers institute (Minsk State Pedagogical University) founded in Minsk on 22 June 1914, opening in November 1914
1915 Minsk battle-front city of German empire's World War I: By 1915, Minsk became a battle-front city of German empire's World War I and its eastern front
February 1918 German empire's occupation of Minsk and military rule: February 1918 German imperial forces occupied Minsk and Belarus remained under German military rule during 1918 until the defeat of the aggressor
June 1941 German empire's bombing of Minsk in World War II: June 1941 German empire's bombing of Minsk in World War II, as much as 85% of the city's buildings and the entire infrastructure was destroyed, more than 1,000 people were killed
1941-1945 Nazi Germany's 'Reichskommissariat Ostland': 1941-1945 Nazi Germany's 'Reichskommissariat Ostland' occupation regime
Since July 1941 Minsk Ghetto: Since July 1941 Minsk Ghetto, created soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, one of the largest in Belorussian SSR, and the largest in the German-occupied territory of the Soviet Union, housing close to 100,000 Jews, most of whom perished in The Holocaust - 1942-1943 Maly Trostinets extermination camp on the outskirts of Minsk in 'Reichskommissariat Ostland'
Since 1944 Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum in Minsk: Since October 1944 Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum in Minsk after the liberation of Minsk from the Nazi invaders, making it the first World War II museum to open during the course of the war
Since 1946 Minsk Tractor Works: Since 1946 Minsk Tractor Works
Since 1948 Minsk State Linguistic University: Since 1948 Minsk State Linguistic University, specializing in 18 foreign languages
Since 1991 Minsk Belarusian capital: 1991 city of Minsk becomes capital of Republic of Belarus
Gomel: Gomel, the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants in 2015 the second-most populous city of Belarus
History of Gomel: History of Gomel
Grodno: Grodno city in western Belarus, located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania, with 365,610 inhabitants in 2016
History of Grodno: History of Grodno
Since November 1941 Grodno Ghetto: Grodno Ghetto, a World War II ghetto established in November 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Grodno for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Jews in Western Belarus
Brest: Brest (formerly Brest-Litowsk), a city with a population 347,576 inhabitants in 2018 at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet
History of Brest: History of Brest
March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Since 1941 Brzesc Ghetto: Brzesc Ghetto (Ghetto in Brest), a World War II Jewish ghetto created by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland in December 1941, six months after the German troops had overrun the Soviet-occupied zone of the Second Polish Republic under the codename Operation Barbarossa, less than a year after the creation of the Ghetto most of approximately 20,000 Jewish inhabitants of Brzesc were murdered, over 5,000 were executed locally at the Brest Fortress
Vitebsk: Vitebsk, the capital of the Viciebsk Region, with 342,381 inhabitants in 2004
History of Vitebsk: History of Vitebsk
Since July 1941 Vitebsk Ghetto and Ghetto massacre of October 1941: Since July 1941 Vitebsk Ghetto, created soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union and immediately after the Nazis took control of the town on 11 July 1941
Demographics and ethnic groups in Belarus: Demographics of Belarus - Ethnic groups in Belarus
History of the Jews in Belarus: History of the Jews in Belarus
Since 1941 The Holocaust in Belarus, Nazi Germany crimes in Belarus: Since 1941 The Holocaust in Belarus, the Nazi Germany crimes committed during World War II on the territory of Belarus against Jews
Culture of Belarus: Culture of Belarus
Jewish culture in Belarus: Jewish culture in Belarus
Languages of Belarus: Languages of Belarus - Belarusian language
Women in Belarus: Belarusian women
1926-1944 Belarusian resistance fighter Zinaida Martynovna Portnova tortured and murdered on 15 January 1944: 1926-1944 Zinaida Martynovna Portnova, a Belarusian teenager and partisan, who joined the Belarusian resistance movement after invading Nazi troops hit her grandmother while they were confiscating the cattle, was tortured and murdered on 15 January 1944, 25 years after the murder of Rosa Luxemburg - List of female Heroes of the Soviet Union
1872-1946 Belarusian-Israeli pathologist and scientist Sophia Getzowa: 1872-1946 Sophia Getzowa, a Belarusian-Israeli pathologist and scientist, who carried out widely cited research on the thyroid, identifying solid cell nests in 1907, later worked as a pathologist in Jerusalem, where she would become the first female professor in 1927, collaborating with a wide range of European scientists
1910-2001 politician Nadezhda Grekova: 1910-2001 Nadezhda Grekova, a Soviet Belarusian politician and the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Belorussian SSR 1938-1947
'Tell the Truth' member Tatsiana Karatkevich: Tatsiana Karatkevich, born 1977 in Minsk, is a Belarusian politician and member of the civic campaign 'Tell the Truth'
Children in Belarus: Belarusian children
1926-1944 Belarusian resistance fighter Zinaida Martynovna Portnova tortured and murdered on 15 January 1944: 1926-1944 Zinaida Martynovna Portnova, a Belarusian teenager and partisan, who joined the Belarusian resistance movement after invading Nazi troops hit her grandmother while they were confiscating the cattle, was tortured and murdered on 15 January 1944, 25 years after the murder of Rosa Luxemburg
Education in Belarus: Education in Belarus
Schools in Belarus: Schools in Belarus
Colleges and universities in Belarus: Universities and colleges in Belarus
Health in Belarus: Health in Belarus
Healthcare in Belarus: Healthcare in Belarus
Belarusian media: Belarusian media - Media in Belarus by city - Propaganda in Belarus
Censorship and harassment of media in Belarus: Censorship in Belarus - Harassment and censorship of independent media
2010 Reporters Without Borders report: Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 154th in 'Press Freedom Index 2010'
October 2015: 9 October 2015: Journalists in Belarus face fines and arrest as they attempt to provide an alternative to pro-Lukashenko state channels
Newspapers in Belarus: Newspapers in Belarus
Broadcasting in Belarus: Radio in Belarus - TV in Belarus - Sports broadcasting contracts in Belarus
Internet in Belarus: Internet in Belarus
Crime in Belarus: Crime in Belarus
Corruption in Belarus: Corruption in Belarus
Antisemitism in Belarus, German occupations since 1915 and 1941 and German crimes against humanity: Antisemitism in Belarus - Nazi war crimes in Belarus - Since 1941 The Holocaust in Belarus, Nazi Germany's genocide committed during World War II on the territory of Belarus against Jews
February 2019 WWII mass grave: 22 February 2019: A mass grave containing bones from hundreds of bodies with gunshot wounds to their skulls, human remains belonging to men, women and children as well as clothes, shoes and other personal items, were discovered during construction atop what used to be the ghetto of Brest in present-day Belarus, as Nazi Germany forces killed three million civilians in Belarus, of whom 800,000 were Jewish
Capital punishment in Belarus: Capital punishment in Belarus
Human trafficking in Belarus: Human trafficking in Belarus
Law and legal history of Belarus: Belarusian law - Legal history of Belarus - Constitution of 3 May 1791 - 20th century Constitutions of Belarus - Amendments of the Constitution of Belarus and 1996 and 2004 Belarusian referendums
Courts and Supreme Court of Belarus: Court System of Belarus - Supreme Court of Belarus
2017: 27 August 2017: Belarus court clears way for luxury apartments to be built on top of Jewish cemeteries
Law enforcement in Belarus: Law enforcement in Belarus
Foreign relations of Belarus: Foreign relations of Belarus
Treaties of Belarus: Treaties of Belarus
Belarusian membership in international organisations: Belarusian membership in international organisations
2012: 6. Juli 2012: UN-Menschenrechtsrat ernennt Sonderberichterstatter zur Prüfung der Menschenrechtslage in Weissrussland
Bilateral relations of Belarus: Bilateral relations of Belarus
Belarus/European Union relations: Belarus/European Union relations - 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row - 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
Belarus/Germany relations: Belarus/Germany relations - Belarus in World War II - Military history of Belarus during World War II - Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany - Nazi war crimes in Belarus - The Holocaust in Belarus - Minsk Ghetto - Maly Trostenets extermination camp
Belarusian resistance during World War II: Belarusian resistance during World War II
2012 German support against opposition in Belarus: 24. August 2012: Von 2008-2011 Schulung von Polizei und Miliz des Innenministeriums Weißrußlands in Deutschland für Einsätze gegen Demonstranten, sog. 'Rädelsführer' etc., auf Veranlassung der Regierung Merkel
February 2019 WWII mass grave: 22 February 2019: A mass grave containing bones from hundreds of bodies with gunshot wounds to their skulls, human remains belonging to men, women and children as well as clothes, shoes and other personal items, were discovered during construction atop what used to be the ghetto of Brest in present-day Belarus, as Nazi Germany forces killed three million civilians in Belarus, of whom 800,000 were Jewish
Belarus/Lithuania relations: Belarus/Lithuania relations
Belarus/Russia relations: Belarus/Russia relations
Pipelines, gas and engery disputes: Yamal–Europe pipeline - 2004 Russia–Belarus gas dispute - 2007 Russia–Belarus energy dispute
2009 Russian ban of Belarusian dairy products: 2009 Russian ban of Belarusian dairy products
2014 Russia and 'Eurasian Economic Union': Eurasian Economic Union will go into effect on 1 January 2015 if treaty is approved by each country - Eurasia - continental landmass of Europe and Asia - 29 May 2014: Ex-Soviet trade bloc treaty 'Eurasian Economic Union', uniting Russian, Kazakh, Belarusian economies into market, signed in Moscow
April 2015 Lukashenko refuses to attend 'Victory Day Parade in Mocow' with Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend
October 2015 Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base: 7 October 2015: Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base, Lukashenko says following protests against his rule and reported Russian plans to beef up military presence
24 December 2019 Belarus' Lukashenko warns Putin against forceful merger: 24 décembre 2019: Le président bélarusse Loukachenko a mis en garde mardi les autorités russes contre une union sous la contrainte entre son pays et la Russie, qui discutent depuis des années d'une hypothétique fusion en un seul Etat
Belarus/Sweden relations: Belarus/Sweden relations - 3. August 2012: Weissrussland verweist den schwedischen Botschafter, der sich mit Oppositionspolitikern getroffen haben soll, des Landes - 8 October 2015: Svetlana Alexievich wins 2015 Nobel prize in literature
Belarus/Syria relations: Belarus/Syria relations
2017: 15 September 2017: Belarus seen quietly helping Assad boost missile program, as analyst Ronen Solomon links Belarusian regime to Syrian Assad regime's military facility allegedly bombed by Israel this month
Belarus/Ukraine relations: Belarus/Ukraine relations - Belarus–Ukraine border - 1991 Belavezha Accords
2016: 26 August 2016: Independence of Ukraine and Belarus is only way to develop bilateral relations, Belarus FM during the opening ceremony of a residential complex of the Belarusian Embassy to Ukraine
Environment of Belarus: Environment of Belarus
Protected areas of Belarus: Protected areas of Belarus - Forests of Belarus
Environmental issues in Belarus: Environmental concerns and current issues in Belarus
Since 1986 legacy of Chernobyl Disaster: Since 1986 legacy of pollution the Chernobyl Disaster
Water in Belarus: Water in Belarus

Belgium - Belgique - Geography of Belgium - History of Belgium - Demographics of Belgium
Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - main industries include engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum - Companies of Belgium - Companies of Belgium by industry
Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium
2016: 3 January 2016: Belgian ageing nuclear reactor Doel 1 shut down on Saturday again, just three days after it was restarted
Banking and Financial Services and Markets Authority of Belgium: Financial Services and Markets Authority - Banks in Belgium
2011/2012: 10 October 2011: Belgian government will take full control of the Belgian arm of Franco-Belgian Dexia bank - 9 November 2012: France and Belgium agree to pump a further 5.5bn euros into bank Dexia, after it reported another large loss
Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders - the 5 most important agricultural products in 2013 are pork (1.46 billion euros), dairy products (844 million euros), beef (712 million euros), vegetables (602 million euros) and ornamental horticulture products (512 million euros)
Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium, dating back to 1831
Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium
Political parties and trade unions in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium - Trade unions in Belgium
Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium
2010: Belgian general election 13 June 2010 - 2010–2011 Belgian government formation
2010-2013: 8. Juli 2011: Belgiens designierter Premier Elio Di Rupo gibt im Juli 2011 auf - 8 October: Belgian parties strike key reform deal to end political crisis - 21 novembre: Le socialiste Elio di Rupo, Premier ministre pressenti, a presenté sa démission - 27 November: Belgian leaders agree on federal budget - 13 juillet 2012: Le Parlement belge a adopté à 106 voix contre 42 le projet de loi 'scindant' l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
Belgian provincial and municipal elections, 14 October 2012 - 14/15 October: Local elections have resulted in widespread gains for the Flemish Nationalist Party, which wants to divide the country - 15 octobre: Le chef des indépendantistes flamands, vainqueur des municipales à Anvers en Belgique, a lancé un appel au Premier ministre Elio Di Rupo pour qu'il négocie avec lui une réforme de l'État ouvrant la voie à une confédération
2014: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to 44
May 2014 Belgium Federal and regional elections: Belgian federal election 25 May 2014 - Belgian regional elections 25 May 2014 - 26 May 2014: First estimates give 33% of the vote in Flanders to the New Flemish Alliance
May 2014 Belgium European Parliament election: Belgium European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May-October 2014: 2014 Belgian government formation - 8 October: The Francophone liberal Charles Michel will become Belgium’s PM
December 2018: 19 December 2018: Belgian PM Michel resigns after he lost support of key coalition partner, the nationalist New Flemish Alliance, when backing UN bid to improve coordination on migrants, and after the parliament rejected Michel's appeal for its support for a minority administration, now bracing for a snap election in January
May 2019 Belgian federal election: 26 May 2019 Belgian federal election
May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium
May 2019 Belgian federal election: 26 May 2019 Belgian federal election
October 2019 Sophie Wilmès new PM: 28 October 2019: Sophie Wilmès was appointed as the new PM of Belgium, becoming the first female premier in the country's history
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium
2011: 2. Dezember 2011: In Brüssel gewerkschaftliche Großdemonstration von Zehntausenden gegen Sparpolitik
2012-2014: 30 January 2012: Strike set to bring Belgium to a halt - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 December 2014: Air, train links cut as national strike begins against the new government's austerity policies
2016: 17 avril 2016: Des milliers de personnes ont rendu hommage, dimanche à Bruxelles, aux 32 morts des attentats du 22 mars
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Nearly 50,000 people marched through the European quarter of Brussels on Thursday night in support of Catalan independence and the region’s ousted president Carles Puigdemont, who has avoided arrest in Spain by taking refuge in Belgium
2018: 26 février 2018: Quelque 10'000 personnes ont manifesté dimanche à Bruxelles dans le froid pour témoigner leur solidarité avec les migrants et exiger du gouvernement belge une politique migratoire 'plus humaine'
7 June 2020 protesters reject racism: 7 June 2020: UK protesters topple statue of slave trader Colston as George Floyd rallies sweep Europe and thousands take to streets in support of 'Black Lives Matter' movement, condemn racism and police violence, and as in Brussels, protesters clambered onto the statue of former King Leopold II and chanted 'reparations', also writing the word 'shame' on the monument, reference perhaps to the fact that Leopold is said to have reigned over the mass death of 10 million Congolese, as racism must be rejected 'all around the world', according to protesters
Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Belgium: Belgian society
Human rights in Belgium: Human rights in Belgium
Minority and employees' rights in Belgium: Minority and employees' rights in Belgium
Demographics of Belgium: Demographics of Belgium - Belgians - Belgian people by ethnic or national origin - Immigrants to Belgium
Flemish people: Flemish people
Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia
History of the Jews in Belgium: History of the Jews in Belgium - History of the Jews in Antwerp - Great Synagogue of Europe is the main synagogue in Brussels - 16 January 2015: Jewish schools in Belgium close amid terror threat
Afro Belgians: Afro Belgians are Belgian citizens and members of the Black African community in Belgium
Culture and languages of Belgium: Culture of Belgium - Languages of Belgium
Flemish culture
Walloon culture - Ars nova, music which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages until the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377
Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature
Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Education in Belgium: Education in Belgium - Education in Belgium by city
Schools in Belgium: Schools in Belgium - Lists of schools in Belgium
Universities in Belgium: Universities in Belgium - List of universities in Belgium
Science and technology in Belgium: Science and technology in Belgium
Health in Belgium: Health in Belgium
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Belgium: Medical outbreaks in Belgium - Disasters and man-made disasters in Belgium
Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Belgium: Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Belgium - Covid-19 cases in Belgium by province, by location and day
Timeline of covid-19 since February 2020 in Belgium: Since February 2020 timeline of covid-19 in Belgium
19 April 2020 'I thought I would never wake up' and Belgium reports cases: 19 April 2020: As Belgium reports 38,496 confirmed cases of covid-19 with 5,683 deaths, Belgian doctor Sassine at Brussels' Delta Chirec hospital says 'I thought I would never wake up', after he and his team were all diagnosed at the hospital and after surviving following intensive care and 3 weeks in a coma
Healthcare in Belgium: Healthcare in Belgium - Medical and health organisations based in Belgium
Hospitals in Belgium: Hospitals in Belgium - List of hospitals in Belgium - Hospitals in Brussels-Capital Region
Belgian media: Belgian media
January 2015 threats against distribution of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo: 15 January 2015: Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris
Newspapers in Belgium: Newspapers published in Belgium - List of newspapers in Belgium
Broadcasting in Belgium: Broadcasting in Belgium - Radio in Belgium - Belgian television-related lists
Internet in Belgium: Internet in Belgium
Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium
Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists
Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers
1995-1996 child and serial killer Marc Dutroux: Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux, convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls from 1995 to 1996
Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and 1998 Parliamentary investigation: Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - 1998 Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence
2004 Dutroux's trial: 2004 Dutroux's trial, some seven and a half years after his initial arrest - 23 June 2004: Marc Dutroux sentenced to life in prison for a series of child kidnappings, child rapes and murders that prompted sweeping police reforms and a crackdown on child sex crimes, Dutroux's ex-wife, Michelle Martin sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Racism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium
2002: 18 July 2002: Belgium confronts its colonial demons
2017: 15 August 2017: Decades after Belgium ended its colonial rule in Congo, and a century after the atrocities committed in Congo Free State, Belgians are slowly beginning to reconcile with this troubled history - 17 October 2017: As Belgium confronts the identity crisis of its disillusioned minorities and homegrown terrorism, its genocidal colonial legacy remains tucked away from the public discourse, confined to art, culture and religion
Antisemitism in Belgium: Antisemitism in Belgium
1940-1945 The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation: The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation of Belgium - German Nazi concentration camps in Belgium
Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium: Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium
July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack: July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack on a group of 40 Jewish children - Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May 2014: Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May 2014: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2,000 people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June 2014: The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack
July 2014: 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some 500 people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'
August 2016: 25 August 2016: Belgian government-funded Catholic Sint-Jozefs Institute secondary school stated pride in and support for retired teacher Descheemaeker who had published anti-Semitic caricatures, and who recently won a cash prize at Iran’s Holocaust mockery cartoon competition
February 2018: 12 February 2018: Belgian police detain refugee for anti-Semitic hate crimes, filmed destroying at least 20 mezuzahs and vandalizing Jewish institutions in Antwerp
August 2018: 9 August 2018: Jewish couple in Belgium targeted with death threats
December 2018: 21 December 2018: Belgian soccer fans sing chant about burning Jews
March 2019: 7 March 2019: Aalst's Vismooil’n group behind anti-Semitic carnival float at Belgium’s most celebrated carnival, added in 2010 to UNESCO’s list of events, and mayor Christoph D’Haese are not sorry, as Pascal Soleme calls the float, which featured anti-Semitic depictions of Jews with money bags and rats, a 'celebration of humor', saying 'people who got offended live in the past'
30 June 2020 Muslims chant in Brussels 'Jews, remember Khaybar, the army of Muhammad is returning': 30 June 2020: Pro-Palestinian demonstrators in Brussels chanted the name of Saudi locale where Muslims massacred Jews in the seventh century, as Arabic chants about Khaybar, located in modern-day Saudi Arabia, were filmed at a rally Sunday in the Belgian capital, saying 'Jews, remember Khaybar, the army of Muhammad is returning'
Terrorism and massacres in Belgium: Terrorism in Belgium - List of massacres in Belgium
1914-1918: German war crimes in World War I in Belgium
1940-1945: May 1940 at least 86 civilians killed by the German Wehrmacht known in Belgium as the Vinkt Massacre, the first of several German massacres in World War II in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
1985: 1985 kidnapping of the Belgian-French family Houtekins-Kets by Palestinian terrorists and the Libyan government from their yacht Silco in the Mediterranean, the Belgian part of the family was held for almost five years of captivity in Libya, but were freed after the liberation of Abu Nidal terrorist Said Al Nasr
Since 1988: Since 1988 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May 1996: List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July 1979, according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
2011: 14 décembre 2011: À Liège une fusillade d'un homme armé a fait au moins cinq morts et plus de 100 blessés
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 22 March 2016: Multiple casualties after airport and metro blasts in Brussels - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 24 March: Raising awkward questions for Belgium’s intelligence services, Turkey’s Erdogan says that Belgium ignored Turkey’s warnings that Ibrahim el-Bakraoui was a foreign fighter - 24 March: As names of victims of Tuesday’s suicide bombings emerge, and as survivors reveal the horror of the blasts and narrow escapes, investigations and search for suspects continue - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids - 26 March: Search for suspects in Belgium continues, as a series of raids and arrests reveal more links with the November Paris killings and a new French plot, and as reports reveal that suspects Ibrahim and Khaled El Bakraoui were on USA terror watch list as of last year - 28 March: Three men held as part of 13 raids in Brussels, Mechelen and Duffel at weekend charged with terrorist activity, as anti-immigrant demonstrators trample the memorial in Place de la Bourse in Brussels for victims of last week’s suicide bombings - 9 April: Belgian police detain two key suspects in the Islamic State attacks on Paris and Brussels
August 2016: 6 August 2016 Charleroi attack - 6 August 2016: Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack
June 2017: On 20 June 2017 a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June 2017: Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station
August 2017: 25 August 2017 Brussels attack - 25 August 2017: A man who attacked and injured two soldiers with a knife in Brussels reportedly shouting 'Allahu Akbar' shot dead by the army - 27 August 2017: Islamic State terrorists says Brussels attacker belonged to group
May 2018: 29 May 2018 Liège attack - 29 May 2018: A gunman has killed two police officers and a passerby before being shot dead in the centre of the Belgian city of Liège, as the anti-terrorist crisis centre says terrorism could not be excluded
Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium
2015: January 2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium, including operation in Verviers against Islamist radicals and operations in Brussels, the nearby communes of Schaerbeek, Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Vilvoorde, and Zaventem - 15 January 2015 Belgian anti-terrorist operation against Islamists - 15 January 2015: Casualties in Belgium police anti-terror raid in Verviers
Judiciary and court system in Belgium: Judiciary and court system in Belgium
Constitutional Court of Belgium: Constitutional Court of Belgium
Law enforcement in Belgium: Law enforcement in Belgium
Local and Federal Police in Belgium: Local Police in Belgium - Federal Police
Police brutality in Belgium: Police brutality in Belgium
Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium
Belgian colonial empire and relations with former colonies: Belgian colonial empire - Belgium/Former colonies relations
Treaties of Belgium: Treaties of Belgium
Belgian membership in international organisations: Belgian membership in international organisations
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
Belgium/United Nations relations: Belgium/United Nations relations
Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba: Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba in January 1961
Bilateral relations of Belgium: Bilateral relations of Belgium
Belgium/Austria relations: Belgium/Austria relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations: Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations
Since 1885 Belgian atrocities, Red Rubber system and forced labour in the 'Congo Free State': 1885-1908 Atrocities in the 'Congo Free State' - Red Rubber system and forced labour
Belgium/Ecuador relations: Relaciones Bélgica/Ecuador
Belgium/France relations: Belgium/France relations - 8 septembre 2012: Vive la Belgique! Le patron français de l'empire du luxe LVMH Bernard Arnault sollicite la nationalité belge
Belgium/Germany relations: Belgium/Germany relations
Belgium/Israel relations: Belgium/Israel relations
Belgium/Palestinian territories relations:
Belgium/Syria relations: Belgium/Syria relations
Belgium/Ukraine relations: Belgium/Ukraine relations
Belgium/United Kingdom relations: Belgium/United Kingdom relations
1814-1918 Congress of Vienna, World War I, German invasion of Belgium, British reaction and allied forces: 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna - Since August 1914 German invasion of Belgium - 1914-1918 World War I
Environment of Belgium: Environment of Belgium - Climate of Belgium
Global warming in Belgium: Global warming in Belgium
Natural disasters in Belgium: Natural disasters in Belgium
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Politics and elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Social movements and protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina society - Human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina media: Bosnia and Herzegovina media
Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian Police
Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian Mafia: Bosnian Mafia
Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian War 1992-1995, war crimes, prosecutions and legal proceedings (ongoing): Bosnian War, prosecutions and legal proceedings - War crimes in the Bosnian War
Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina/European Union relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria - Geography of Bulgaria - History of Bulgaria - Demographics of Bulgaria
Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria
Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria
Banking and banks of Bulgaria: Banks of Bulgaria - Bulgarian National Bank
Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria
May 2014 Bulgaria European Parliament election: Bulgaria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May 2019 European Parliament election in Bulgaria: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Bulgaria
Protests in Bulgaria: Protests in Bulgaria
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria - Ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria
History of the Jews in Bulgaria: History of the Jews in Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria
Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria
Crime in Bulgaria: Crime in Bulgaria
Corruption in Bulgaria: Corruption in Bulgaria
Human trafficking in Bulgaria: Human trafficking in Bulgaria
Organized crime in Bulgaria: Organized crime in Bulgaria - Bulgarian mafia
Terrorism in Bulgaria: Terrorism in Bulgaria
July 2012 Burgas bus bombing: July 2012 Burgas bus bombing
Judiciary of Bulgaria: Judiciary of Bulgaria
Law enforcement in Bulgaria: Law enforcement in Bulgaria
Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Treaties of Bulgaria: Treaties of Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Since 2014 international and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Bulgaria's membership in international organisationsBulgaria's membership in international organisations
Bulgaria and the European Union: Bulgaria and the European Union - Bulgaria and the euro
Bilateral relations of Bulgaria: Bilateral relations of Bulgaria
Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations: Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations
Bulgaria/Germany relations: Bulgaria/Germany relations
1939-1945 World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact: World War II and Anti-Comintern Pact
Bulgaria/Lebanon relations: Bulgaria/Lebanon relations
Bulgaria/Romania relations: Bulgaria/Romania relations
Bulgaria/United Kingdom relations: Bulgaria/United Kingdom relations
19 October 2019 Bulgaria soccer coach quits after racist chants Nazi: 19 October 2019: Bulgaria soccer coach quits after racist chants Nazi salutes at England match
Bulgaria/USA relations: Bulgaria/USA relations
Environment and environmental issues in Bulgaria: Environment of Bulgaria - Environmental issues in Bulgaria
Protected areas of Bulgaria: Protected areas of Bulgaria
Natural disasters in Bulgaria: Natural disasters in Bulgaria
Floods in Bulgaria: Floods in Bulgaria
2014 Bulgarian floods: June 2014 Bulgarian floods

Croatia - Geography of Croatia - History of Croatia - Croatian War of Independance
Demographics of Croatia
Industry of Croatia: Industry of Croatia
Water transport in Croatia: Water transport in Croatia
Economic history of Croatia and economic cycles: Economic history of Croatia
2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Croatia: Economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Croatia
Labor and trade unions in Croatia: Labor and trade unions in Croatia
Taxation in Croatia: Taxation in Croatia
May 2019 European Parliament election in Croatia: 23-26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Croatia
Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Croatia: Croatian society
Regions and cunties of Croatia: Regions of Croatia - 20 Counties of Croatia
Cities and towns in Croatia: Cities and towns in Croatia
Demographics of Croatia: Demographics of Croatia
Ethnic groups in Croatia: Ethnic groups in Croatia
Immigration to Croatia: Immigration to Croatia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 16 September 2015: First refugees head for Croatia after Hungary's border crackdown - 18 September 2015: As Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia and police stand guard in front of refugees and migrants, Hungary builds border fence with Croatia - 18 September: Croatia fails to cope with refugee and migrant influx, as refugees wait for the trains that never come - 27 September 2015: Record migrant arrivals in Croatia as crisis deepens - 5 October: Refugees and migrants continue to cross from Serbia to Croatia in their thousands - 19 October 2015: Thousands of refugees trying to make their way to western Europe have rushed over Serbia’s border to Croatia after they were stranded for days in dangerous and deteriorating conditions, 'the last person to go was a young boy without a leg, and we helped him cross in a wheelchair', UNHCR's Melita Sunjic reports, as UN's Ban Ki-moon says, refugees are fleeing difficult hardships they can't bear by themselves
December 2019 brutal policing persists at Croatia’s borders: 22 December 2019: ‘Blood on the ground’ at Croatia’s borders as brutal policing persists
Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia
Health in Croatia: Health in Croatia
Medical outbreaks in Croatia: Medical outbreaks in Croatia
Since February 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Croatia: Since February 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Croatia
Healthcare in Croatia: Healthcare in Croatia
Sport in Croatia by sport: Sport in Croatia by sport
Media of Croatia: Media of Croatia
Newspapers in Croatia: List of newspapers in Croatia
Internet in Croatia: Internet in Croatia
Law and legal history of Croatia: Law of Croatia - Legal history of Croatia
Judiciary of Croatia: Judiciary of Croatia
Law enforcement in Croatia: Law enforcement in Croatia
Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia
Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Croatia/Israel relations: Croatia/Israel relations -
Croatia/Serbia relations: Croatia/Serbia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence
Environmentalism in Croatia: Environmentalism in Croatia
Water supply and sanitation in Croatia: Water supply and sanitation in Croatia
Natural disasters in Croatia: Natural disasters in Croatia
May 2014 Southeast Europe floods: May 2014 Southeast Europe floods
Earthquakes in Croatia: Earthquakes in Croatia

Cyprus - Modern history of Cyprus - Northern Cyprus - Demographics of Cyprus
Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus
Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus
Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus
May 2011 Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May 2011
24 February 2013: Cyprus president-elect Nicos Anastasiades pledged after his poll victory on Sunday to work for an early EU bailout accord to rescue the island from bankruptcy - 18 mars: Le Parlement chypriote se réunit pour examiner le plan de sauvetage européen qui a exigé que tous les dépôts bancaires soient taxés - 20 March: Emergency meeting after Cyprus MPs reject bank levy - 21 March: Cypriot president to present 'Plan B' rescue package - 21 March: European Central Bank issues ultimatum to Cyprus - 22 March 2013: Finance Minister Sarris back from Russia without reaching an agreement - 23 March: Parliament, in a late-night session, backed the first three of eight measures advanced by the government - 25 mars: Le plan de sauvetage conclu entre le gouvernement chypriote et la troïka comprend une taxe sur les dépôts de plus de 100.000 euros et la fermeture de la deuxième banque du pays - 26 March: Closed since March 16 to avert run on deposits Cyprus banks to remain closed until Thursday - 28 March: Temporary limits on daily withdrawals will remain in place as Cyprus reopens banks amid protests - 29 March: Cypriot president rules out leaving eurozone
May 2019 European Parliament election in Cyprus: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Cyprus
Social movements and protests in Cyprus:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cyprus: Cypriot society - Human rights in Cyprus
Demographics of Cyprus: Demographics of Cyprus
Women in Cyprus: Women in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus: Education in Cyprus
Healthcare in Cyprus: Healthcare in Cyprus
Internet in Cyprus: Internet in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus: Foreign relations of Cyprus
Treaties of Cyprus: Treaties of Cyprus
Membership of Cyprus in international organisations: Membership of Cyprus in international organisations
Bilateral relations of Cyprus: Bilateral relations of Cyprus
Cyprus/Egypt relations: Cyprus/Egypt relations
Cyprus/Germany relations: Cyprus/Germany relations
Cyprus/Greece relations: Cyprus/Greece relations
Cyprus/Israel relations: Cyprus/Israel relations
Cyprus/Russia relations: Cyprus/Russia relations
Cyprus/Turkey relations: Cyprus/Turkey relations
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus: 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute: Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute
Cyprus/United Kingdom relations: Cyprus/United Kingdom relations
1914–1960 British Cyprus: British Cyprus 1914–1960
Cyprus/USA relations: Cyprus/USA relations
Environment of Cyprus: Environment of Cyprus - Climate of Cyprus
Protected areas of Cyprus and Paphos Forest: Protected areas of Cyprus - Paphos Forest

Czech Republic - Geography of the Czech Republic - History of the Czech lands - Demographics of the Czech lands
Fossil fuels in the Czech Republic: Fossil fuels in the Czech Republic
Renewable energy in the Czech Republic: Renewable energy in the Czech Republic
Tourism in the Czech Republic: Tourism in the Czech Republic
Economic history of the Czech Republic and economic cycles: Economic history of the Czech Republic
1989-2014 economic history of the Czech Republic: Since 1989 economic history of the Czech Republic
Taxation in the Czech Republic: Taxation in the Czech Republic
Political parties in the Czech Republic: Political parties in the Czech Republic
Trade unions in the Czech Republic: Trade unions in the Czech Republic
Elections and politics in the Czech Republic: Elections in the Czech Republic
May 2010 Czech legislative election: 28/29 May 2010 Czech legislative election
October 2012 Czech Senate election: Czech Senate election, October 2012
May 2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic: 24-25 May 2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic
Social movements and protests in the Czech Republic: Protests in the Czech Republic
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Czech Republic: Czech society - Human rights in the Czech Republic
Cities in the Czech Republic: Cities and towns in the Czech Republic
Demographics in the Czech Republic: Demographics of the Czech lands
Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic: Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic
Immigration to the Czech Republic: Immigrants to the Czech Republic
Women in the Czech Republic: Women in the Czech Republic
Education in the Czech Republic: Education in the Czech Republic
Health in the Czech Republic: Health in the Czech Republic
Healthcare in the Czech Republic: Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Czech media: Czech media
Newspapers in the Czech Republic: Newspapers published in the Czech Republic
Internet in the Czech Republic: Internet in the Czech Republic
Crime in the Czech Republic: Crime in the Czech Republic
Corruption in the Czech Republic: Corruption in the Czech Republic
Racism in the Czech Republic: Racism in the Czech Republic
Human trafficking in the Czech Republic: Human trafficking in the Czech Republic
Judiciary and courts of the Czech Republic: Judiciary of the Czech Republic - Courts of the Czech Republic
Supreme Court of the Czech Republic: Since 1993 Supreme Court of the Czech Republic
Law enforcement in the Czech Republic: Law enforcement in the Czech Republic
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Treaties of the Czech Republic: Treaties of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic's participation in international organizations: Czech Republic's participation in international organizations
Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic: Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic/Austria relations: Czech Republic/Austria relations
Czech Republic/P.R of China relations: Czech Republic/P.R of China relations
Czech-Chinese trade relations:Czech Republic/P.R of China trade relations
Czech Republic/France relations: Czech Republic/France relations
Czech Republic/Germany relations: Czech Republic/Germany relations
1938-1945 Czech resistance to Nazi occupation: Czech resistance to Nazi occupation 1938-1945
Czech Republic/Poland relations: Czech Republic/Poland relations
Czech Republic/Slovakia relations: Czech Republic/Slovakia relations
Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations: Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations
Environmentalism in the Czech Republic: Environmentalism in the Czech Republic
Natural disasters in the Czech Republic: Natural disasters in the Czech Republic
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods

Denmark - Geography of Denmark - History of Denmark - Demographics of Denmark
Manufacturing companies of Denmark: Manufacturing companies of Denmark
Construction and civil engineering companies: Construction and civil engineering companies of Denmark
Electronics companies of Denmark: Electronics companies of Denmark
Energy in Denmark: Energy in Denmark
Renewable energy in Denmark: Renewable energy in Denmark
Water supply and sanitation in Denmark: Water supply and sanitation in Denmark
Economic history of Denmark and economic cycles: Economic history of Denmark - Income inequality in Denmark
Since 2001 Danish property bubble: Danish property bubble of 2000s
Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe: Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe - Denmark
Employment in Denmark: Employment in Denmark
Unemployment benefits in Denmark: Unemployment benefits in Denmark
Taxation and budget in Denmark: Taxation in Denmark - Budgets of Danish government
Elections and politics in Denmark: Elections in Denmark - Danish EU membership referendum 2011
May 2019 European Parliament election in Denmark: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Denmark
Constitution, social movements and protests in Denmark: Constitution of Denmark - Social and political movements in Denmark - Protests in Denmark
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Denmark: Danish society - Human rights in Denmark - Freedom of speech and freedom of the press in Denmark
Faroese Dane: Faroese Dane
2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis
Museums in Denmark: List of museums in Denmark
Economy, history and culture of Copenhagen: Economy of Copenhagen - History of Copenhagen - Culture in Copenhagen
Education in Denmark: Youth in Denmark
Health care in Denmark: Health care in Denmark
Crime in Denmark: Crime in Denmark
Corruption in Denmark: Corruption in Denmark
Tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark: Elements of income tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark
Human trafficking in Denmark: Human trafficking in Denmark
Law enforcement in Denmark: Law enforcement in Denmark
Courts of Denmark: Courts of Denmark
Police of Denmark: Police of Denmark
Foreign relations of Denmark: Foreign relations of Denmark
Treaties of Denmark: Treaties of Denmark
Bilateral relations of Denmark: Bilateral relations of Denmark
Denmark/Germany relations: Denmark/Germany relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Denmark/Iran relations: Denmark/Iran relations
Denmark/Norway relations: Denmark/Norway relations
Denmark/Poland relations: Denmark/Poland relations
Denmark/Sweden relations: Denmark/Sweden relations
Denmark/Syria relations: Denmark/Syria relations
Denmark/Ukraine relations: Denmark/Ukraine relations
Denmark/USA relations: Denmark/USA relations
Geography and Kingdom of Denmark: Geography of Denmark - Kingdom of Denmark
Forests of Denmark: Forests of Denmark
Water in Denmark: Water in Denmark
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Denmark: Environmental issues in Denmark - Environmentalism in Denmark
Natural disasters in Denmark: Natural disasters in Denmark
Weather events in Denmark: Weather events in Denmark
Faroe Islands: Faroe Islands, politically associated with the Kingdom of Denmark, but self-governing since 1948
Ports and harbours and water transport in the Faroe Islands: Ports and harbours of the Faroe Islands - Water transport in the Faroe Islands
Demographics and society of the Faroe Islands: Demographics of the Faroe Islands - Faroese society
Education in the Faroe Islands: Education in the Faroe Islands
Health in the Faroe Islands: Health in the Faroe Islands
Political parties on the Faroe Islands: List of political parties on the Faroe Islands
Elections in the Faroe Islands: Elections in the Faroe Islands
August 2019 Faroese general election: 31 August 2019 Faroese general election
Faroese law: Faroese law
Greenland: Greenland
Geography of Greenland: Geography of Greenland
Climate of Greenland: Climate of Greenland
Greenland ice sheet and ice cap climate: Greenland ice sheet - Ice cap climate
Water in Greenland: Water in Greenland
History of Greenland: History of Greenland
Economy of Greenland: Economy of Greenland
Education in Greenland: Education in Greenland
Health in Greenland: Health in Greenland

Éire (Republic of Ireland) - History of Ireland - Geography of Ireland - Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Companies of the Republic of Ireland by industry: Companies by industry in the Republic of Ireland by industry
Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland: Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland
Fishing in Ireland: Fishing in Ireland
Transport in Ireland: Transport in Ireland
Water transport in the Republic of Ireland: Water transport in the Republic of Ireland
Rail transport in the Republic of Ireland: Rail transport in the Republic of Ireland
Road transport in the Republic of Ireland: Road transport in the Republic of Ireland
Irish economic history, economic cycle and crises: Economic history of the Republic of Ireland
Taxation in the Republic of Ireland: Taxation in the Republic of Ireland
Elections and politics in the Republic of Ireland: Elections in the Republic of Ireland
2008/2009 Fallout of the Irish government budget 2009: Fallout of the 2009 Irish government budget
May 2019 European Parliament election in Ireland: 24 May 2019 European Parliament election in Ireland
Social movements and protests: Protests in Ireland
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ireland: Irish society - Human rights in Ireland
Provinces and counties of Ireland: 4 provinces of Ireland (Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster) no longer serve administrative or political purposes, but function as historical and cultural entities - Counties of Ireland, in 2019 there are 26 county level, 3 city level and 2 city and county entities – the modern equivalent of counties corporate – that are used to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland - In the Republic of Ireland local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils - Local Government Reform Act 2014 - Local electoral areas for elections to local authorities in Ireland - There are currently 40 multi-member constituencies, that elect 158 TDs (members of parliament), to Dáil Éireann, Ireland's house of representatives, by means of the single transferable vote, to a maximum term of five years
Towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland by county: Towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland by county
History of Dublin to 795: History of Dublin to 795
Timeline of Dublin: Timeline of Dublin since 841
1919-1921 Irish War of Independence: 1919-1921 Irish War of Independence
1940-1941 German bombing of Dublin and of the Irish state: 1940-1941 German bombing of Dublin and of the Irish state in World War II
Economy of Cork: Economy of Cork
Economy of Limerick: Economy of Limerick
Demographics and ethnic groups in Ireland: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland - Ethnic groups in Ireland
History of the Jews in Ireland: History of the Jews in Ireland
Immigration to the Republic of Ireland: Immigration to the Republic of Ireland
Women and women's rights in Ireland: Women in Ireland - Women's rights in Ireland
Children's rights in Ireland: Children's rights in Ireland
Health in the Republic of Ireland: Health in the Republic of Ireland
Healthcare of the Republic of Ireland: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland
Media of the Republic of Ireland: Media of the Republic of Ireland
Internet in the Republic of Ireland: Internet in the Republic of Ireland
Since the 1930s abuse in the state childcare system: Since the 1930s abuse in the state childcare system in Ireland
Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies: Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies
2017 Tuam care home mass grave of babies and children: 3 March 2017: Mass grave of babies and children found at Tuam care home in Ireland
Crime in the Republic of Ireland: Crime in the Republic of Ireland
Corruption in Ireland: Corruption in Ireland
Law and legal history of the Republic of Ireland: Law of the Republic of Ireland - Law and legal history in the Republic of Ireland
Judiciary of the Republic of Ireland: Judiciary of the Republic of Ireland
Law enforcement in the Republic of Ireland: Law enforcement in the Republic of Ireland
Foreign relations of Ireland: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
Treaties of Ireland: Treaties of Ireland
Bilateral relations of the Republic of Ireland: Bilateral relations of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland/Australia relations: Ireland/Australia relations - Irish Australian
List of uprisings by Irish people against English and British claims of sovereignty in Ireland since 1534 (ongoing) - Irish republicanism based on the conviction that all of Ireland should be an independent republic - Irish Rebellion of 1798 against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798 influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions - 1848 Young Irelander Rebellion led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider democratic revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe - Easter Rising during Easter Week 1916 was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I - Irish War of Independence between the Irish Republican Army and the British Government and its forces 1919-1921 - Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 - Irish Free State 1922-1937 - Gaelic revival
Ireland/USA relations: Ireland/USA relations - Irish Americans
Natural disasters in Ireland: Natural disasters in Ireland
Weather events in Ireland: Weather events in Ireland

France - Geography of France - Gaul during the Iron Age inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, of the Netherlands and of Germany - Gallic Wars and expansion of the Roman Empire over the whole of Gaul 58–52 BC - Frankish Kingdom 481–843 during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages - History of France - Early modern France 1453–1789 - French colonial empire 1534-1980 - French Revolution 1789-1799 marking the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and replacing them with democracies and republics, and Napoleon until 1815 - France in the twentieth century, post World War II period 1945-present - Demographics of France
Shipbuilding companies of France: Shipbuilding companies of France
Car manufacturers of France: Car manufacturers of France
Tractor manufacturers of France: Tractor manufacturers of France
Chemical companies of France: Chemical companies of France
Clothing companies of France: Clothing companies of France
French bicycle industry: French bicycle industry
Construction and civil engineering companies of France: Construction and civil engineering companies of France
Housing in France: Logement en France
Energy and energy companies of France: Energy in France - Energy companies of France
Fossil fuels and oil companies of France: Fossil fuels in France - Oil companies of France
November 2011 France needs to upgrade all nuclear reactors: 17 November 2011: France needs to upgrade all nuclear reactors
French wine: French wine
Water pollution in France: Water pollution in France
Transport in France by city: Transport in France by city - Transport in Paris
Foreign trade of France: Foreign trade of France
Banking in France: Banking in France
Since 2010 Bank of France controversy: Since 2010 Bank of France controversy
Since 2010 BNP Paribas controversies: BNP Paribas controversies since 2010
Since 2006 Crédit Agricole controversies: Crédit Agricole controversies since 2006
Since the early 1990s Société Générale controversies: Société Générale controversies since the early 1990s
Since 2010 Groupe BPCE controversy: Groupe BPCE controversy since 2010
Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy: Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy
Late 2000s recession in Europe and France: Late 2000s recession in Europe: France
Chômage en France: Chômage en France
Inégalités de revenu en France: Inégalités de revenu en France
Poverty in France: Poverty in France
French Armed Forces: French Armed Forces
France and weapons of mass destruction: France and weapons of mass destruction
Since 1954 nuclear weapons program of France: Nuclear weapons program of France - List of nuclear weapons tests of France
Barracuda class nuclear attack submarine: Barracuda class, a nuclear attack submarine for the French Navy
Military budget in France: Military budget
Intelligence agencies of France: List of intelligence agencies of France
Taxation and budget in France: Taxation in France - Budget of France
June 1960 amendment concerning French colonies in Africa and French pressure: 4 June 1960 adopted amendment to the constitution concerning the independence of 'African Member States of the French Community' - 1960 independance of 13 African countries from France during the 'Year of Africa', as France exerted pressure to remain within the French sphere of influence, particularly in economic terms, and French companies thus accepted arrangements, because they would remain well-positioned to profit from the newly independent countries - 1960 is referred to as the 'Year of Africa' because of a series of events that took place during the year, mainly the independence of 17 African nations, that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent, a culmination of African independence movements and the subsequent emergence of Africa as a major force in the UN
Political parties and trade unions in France: Political parties of France - Trade unions in France
Parliament of France: French Parliament
Government of France: Government of France
Elections and politics in France: Elections in France
Élections cantonales mars 2011: Élections cantonales mars 2011
January-May 2016: 27 January 2016: French minister Christiane Taubira resigns after fallout over controversial plan to strip people convicted of terrorism of their French citizenship - 1 février 2016: Christiane Taubira n'a pas abandonné le débat sur la déchéance de nationalité pour autant et va publier un livre-réquisitoire - 10 February 2016: French MPs vote in favour of in 2012 elected president Hollande’s heavily contested package of measures to change the French constitution enshrining 'emergency powers' - 10/11 February: French FM Fabius steps down questioning the USA’s commitment to resolving the crisis in Syria, saying its 'ambiguous' policy was contributing to the problem, as Hollande brings Greens and former PM Ayrault to government in cabinet reshuffle - 4 mai 2016: François Hollande à son plus bas niveau historique
June 2017 French legislative election: 11 and 18 June 2017 French legislative election - 12 June 2017: Amid concerns over low turnout of just 48.71%, 'La République En Marche' party and its allies take 32,32% of vote in first round, ahead of 'Les Républicains' and its allies on 21.56%, the anti-EU 'Front National' on 13.20%, followed by 'La France Insoumise' and its allies on 11,02%, the 'Socialist party', that took just 9.51% of the vote with its allies, and 'Europe Écologie Les Verts' on 4.3% - 18/19 June 2017: Tempered by a record low turnout of 42.64% and as abstention particularly high in low-income areas reopens the debate about France’s social divide, the French voting system and legitimacy, Macron’s party and its ally has won a large majority in the French parliament, taking 350 out of 577 seats, handing him a relatively free rein to implement his plans to change French labour law and overhaul unemployment benefits and pensions
September 2017 French Senate election: 24 September 2017 French Senate election
Since 18 July 2018 Benalla-Macron affair: Since 18 July 2018 Benalla affair, a political and judicial case involving Alexandre Benalla, who served as a security officer and deputy chief of staff to Emmanuel Macron - 19 July 2018: France’s public prosecutor has opened a preliminary inquiry after Benalla, one of Emmanuel Macron’s top security officers, was filmed hitting and stamping on a young man at the edge of a Paris demonstration on 1 May while illegally dressed as a police officer, as it emerged that Benalla had continued to take part in other high-profile presidential security operations and MPs suggest there had been a cover up - 20 July 2018: French politicians insisted on a parliament inquiry into how Macron's security officials could have appeared wearing a police armband and visor, committing violence among real police officers without being stopped, as second bodyguard Vincent Crase who worked for Macron also featured wearing a police armband, violently dragging, shaking and raising his hand against young man - 23 July 2018: Macron under pressure to say why aide's brutality went unreported - 25 July 2018: Saying 'Alexandre Benalla has never had the nuclear codes, ... neither has Alexandre Benalla ever been my lover', Emmanuel Macron - after keeping Benalla’s assaults quiet for more than two months - wants to take the blame over Benalla scandal, caused by hate against the national and international labour movement
December 2018: 2 December 2018: French government to hold emergency meeting after central Paris saw its worst unrest in a decade on Saturday afternoon as masked protesters fought running battles with police, set fire to cars, banks and houses and burned makeshift barricades on the edges of demonstrations against rising fuel taxes and living costs, as peaceful protestors complained that the use of teargas had begun very early in the morning, and as Alexandre Benalla's foster-father Macron said he would 'never accept violence' - 4 December 2018: French government reportedly 'to suspend fuel tax increase' following protests - 10 December 2018: In a long-awaited address on television, Macron tried to talk the protesters out of further action, promising a rise in the minimum wage and tax concessions, saying he had heard and understood protesters’ anger and indignation, which he said was 'deep and in many ways legitimate' - 11 December 2018: Macron’s appeal to French from behind gold desk reportedly leaves 'gilets jaunes' protesters unimpressed, as a record 23 million people tuned in - 16 décembre 2018: L'ex-collaborateur déchu de l'Élysée Alexandre Benalla a de nouveau été mis en examen le 29 novembre pour des violences commises en marge du défilé du 1er mai à Paris - 16 décembre 2018: Le premier ministre Philippe a concédé que l'Exécutif n'avait 'pas assez écouté les Français' et 'fait des erreurs' dans la gestion de la gestion de la crise des 'gilets jaunes'
February 2019: 1 février 2019: 'Nous sommes un peuple violent, depuis des siècles et des siècles. La France n'est pas la Suisse', s'exprime Macron dans une 'discussion au coin du feu' - 1 février 2019: Le Conseil d'Etat français est resté sourd aux demandes de la Ligue des droits de l'homme contre les violences policières et l'usage du LBD à l'origine de nombreuses blessures graves, utilisée plus de 9200 fois depuis le début du mouvement de contestation sociale - 10 février 2019: Une enquête judiciaire a été ouverte après qu'un manifestant a eu la main déchiquetée par une grenade samedi à Paris - 20 February 2019: A French senate committee has recommend prosecuting Alexandre Benalla, the former security aide of the French president Macron, for perjury following a seven-month investigation into his violent conduct during a street protest
May 2019 European Parliament election in France: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in France
August 2019 victims of 1982 anti-Semitic attack demand parliamentary inquiry: 9 August 2019: Families of the victims of the 1982 terrorist attack on Paris’ Jewish quarter and Jo Goldenberg’s restaurant are demanding a parliamentary inquiry into an alleged secret pact of French intelligence with the perpetrators, after ex-French spy chief Yves Bonnet now, in 2019, admitted the 1980s pact with Fatah terrorists, following the August 1982 bombing and shooting attack by the Abu Nidal Organization - Since 28 August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following the 9 August 1982 terrorist attack in Paris, when a secret police anti-terrorist cell established by president François Mitterrand arrested three Irish nationals in Vincennes, proudly proclaiming a victory against 'international terrorism', until in 1983 the case fell apart and the suspects were exonerated when it was revealed that weapons and other evidence used against the three had been planted by the arresting officers, who then lied to the courts with the support of the executive - 17 June 2015: Suspects, including the mastermind al-Abassi of the 1982 bomb attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris, were identified 32 years later thanks to statements from Abu Nidal group members to whom French judges guaranteed anonymity
2 September 2019 France canvasses Iranian regime: 2 September 2019: Once again France hosts Iranian regime officials, presenting offers including a $15 billion credit line for oil 'pre-purchases' to threatening Iranian regime, also praising terror group Hezbollah's Sunday missile attack on IDF targets, as regime's diplomats travel to France and Russia to reinforce regime's Friday deadline for Europe to offer it a way to sell its crude oil on the global market, and as Yad Vashem marks 80th anniversary of start of World War II with online exhibit, describing the progression of the war and exploring the lives of Europe’s Jewish communities with many unable to comprehend the impending horror the war would bring, following European and American retreat in the face of getting stronger nazism and fascism
November 2019 France pledges millions to stop deadly domestic violence: 25 November 2019: France pledges millions to stop deadly domestic violence
8 December 2019 pensions overhaul to go ahead despite huge protests: 8 December 2019: France pensions overhaul to go ahead despite huge protests
5 January 2020 French allied pro-Haftar airstrike kills at least 28 young people and leaves dozens injured in Tripoli: 5 janvier 2020: Au moment de la frappe contre l'école militaire de Tripoli à al-Hadba al-Khadra, un secteur résidentiel peuplé dans la capitale libyenne, qui a tué 28 cadets et blessé des dizaines d'autres, les jeunes hommes effectuaient leur dernier rassemblement de la journée dans la cour principale avant de regagner leurs dortoirs, après la mission de l’ONU en Libye, à plusieurs reprises, a demandé que les secteurs civils soient épargnés par les frappes qui 'pourraient constituer des crimes de guerre' - 5 January 2020: Deadly airstrike on young people in Tripolis occurred after ambulance service appealed for a temporary ceasefire to allow its crews to retrieve the bodies of five civilians killed on As Sidra Road in southern Tripoli and to evacuate families, coming under fire after their appeal
17 March 2020 in a speech to the nation Macron declares 'We are at war': 16/17 March 2020: After inviting and hosting war criminal Putin in France in August 2019, after hosting Chinese regime's Xi Jinping in France in March 2019, after inviting murderous Iranian regime's Zarif to France in August 2019, after supporting Libyan warlord Haftar murdering innocent civilians, desperate refugees, women and children since April 2019, after saying in 2019 'nous sommes un peuple violent', France's drama student Macron declared in a speech to the nation 'We are at war' against ... coronavirus, tightening restrictions on freedom of movement, suspending economic reforms and delaying the second round of local elections in the fight against Chinese coronavirus, banning his French fellow citizens insulted as violent from making anything other than essential outings from their homes on pain of punishment for at least two weeks - 17 mars 2020: Macron déclare la 'guerre' au coronavirus et restreint fortement les déplacements des Français - Les États font la guerre aux autres États, pas aux individus ni aux familles qui les composent, le mot la 'guerre' est définie comme un acte de politique étrangère ou défensif, et vient du francique 'werra', vieux haut allemand werra 'confusion, querelle, lutte', en anglais 'war' vient du normand werre, variante de 'guerre', meaning 'to confuse', 'to bring into confusion'
9 June 2020 France bans chokehold arrest as anger mounts over police brutality: 9 June 2020: France bans chokehold arrest as anger mounts over police brutality
April 2022 French presidential election: April 2022 French presidential election
Social movements and protests in France: Protests in France - Political movements in France
2013: 5 janvier 2013: Lors d'une rencontre avec une délégation des salariés de Petroplus à Val-de-Reuil (Eure), Hollande a exclu une reprise du site par les pouvoirs publics - 25 March 2013: Paris police used tear gas and batons to fight hundreds of thousands of people protesting against a draft law allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children - 5 mai 2013: Grande manifestation anti-austérité du Parti de Gauche à Paris - 6 June: Protests held in France after left-wing student Clement Meric beaten to death by a group of far-right militants - 10 septembre: Entre 155 000 et 360 000 personnes ont participé aux quelque 180 rassemblements organisés en France pour protester contre la première réforme des retraites - 17 October: Paris students protest against the deportation of foreign pupils following the high-profile eviction of a 15-year-old Roma girl - 1 décembre 2013: Face aux récentes attaques contre la ministre Christiane Taubira, plusieurs milliers de personnes se sont rassemblées à Paris pour dire non à toutes formes de discrimination - 3 décembre: Soirée contre la haine au Théâtre du Rond-Point à Paris
2015: 9 January 2015: Thousands of people took to the streets in France and other countries again Thursday to condemn the killing of 12 people by terrorists at Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 11 January: As police hunt suspected accomplice more than 700,000 people took to the streets of France in solidarity with terror victims ahead of Paris march - 11 January: An estimated 3.7 million people across France march in solidarity with terror victims, all ages, nations and religions showing their support for the Republic's 'liberté, égalité, fraternité' - 2 March: As Russians march in mourning for murdered opposition leader Nemtsov in Moscow, in Paris about 100 people gathered to remember Nemtsov, asking for an international investigation to be opened and carrying posters reading 'I am Boris' - 24 May 2015: About 3,000 protesters gathered in Paris to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 5 septembre: Plus de 10000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans toute la France, et notamment à Paris, pour l’accueil des réfugiés - 22 novembre 2015: Plus de 10.000 manifestants 'contre la barbarie' à Toulouse, une semaine après les attentats de Paris - 2 December 2015: A court in Paris fines a woman €1,000 for refusing to have her fingerprints taken at a rally where clashes erupted between protesters and security forces ahead of 2015 UN climate summit
2016: 26 January 2016: Day of protest as taxi drivers, teachers, farmers and air traffic controllers among employees taking industrial action across France - 27 February: Angry French farmers heckle Hollande at agricultural fair amid rising tensions in agricultural sphere over competition from big industry and neighbouring countries in Europe's single market - 9 March 2016: French students take to the streets to protest far-reaching labour-law reforms as labour unions pledge to hold about 150 marches and protests nationwide - 24 mars 2016: Les manifestations contre le projet de loi travail, présenté en Conseil des ministres, ont rassemblé jeudi plusieurs milliers de jeunes et salariés à Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Grenoble ou encore Besançon, à l'appel de sept syndicats et organisations de jeunes, une vidéo montrant un policier frappant un jeune fait le buzz - 31 March 2016: Hundreds of thousands of workers and high-school students joined protest marches across France to challenge plans to loosen the country's protective labour laws that unions say favour businesses
January/February 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Bordeaux, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 18 février 2017: 4000 à 5000 personnes selon les organisateurs, se sont réunies samedi à Paris à l'appel notamment d'associations antiracistes et de syndicats, pour protester contre les violences policières après le viol à la matraque présumé d'un jeune noir, Théo, au cours d'une interpellation - 19 février 2017: Des manifestations contre la 'corruption' en politique se sont déroulées dimanche à Paris et ailleurs en France, une première depuis les accusations d'emplois fictifs visant le candidat de droite à la présidentielle François Fillon et la candidate d'extrême droite Marine Le Pen
December 2018: 3 décembre 2018: Une vieille dame, qui a été atteinte par une grenade lacrymogène tirée lors des manifestations des 'gilets jaunes' à Marseille, est morte à l'hôpital - 7 December 2018: French high school students in Paris made to kneel with hands on heads by police, as protests at nearly 300 schools against stricter university entrance requirements have added to recent unrest - 8 December 2018: Over 350 detained and police accused to use teargas against protesters, as Paris braces for ‘yellow vest’ protest violence, and tens of thousands of police took position around France, fearing worsening violence in a new round of anti-government protests - 9 December 2018: 'Protesters' faced off with French riot police in Paris, hurling projectiles, torching cars, vandalising shops, restaurants and newsstands, also damaging a social movement which stands up for an increase to the minimum wage, lower taxes, higher salaries, cheaper energy, better retirement benefits and help for hard-pressed households, certainly without ability to replace torched cars - 9 December 2018: Uniting green and yellow vest protesters, people took to the streets in Paris on Saturday to demand that global leaders take action on climate change
January 2019: 5 janvier 2019: Les 'gilets jaunes' continuent la mobilisation dans plusieurs villes de France, pour défier le gouvernement - 6 janvier 2019: Lors des rassemblements des 'gilets jaunes' à Toulon, un officier de police a été filmé en train de frapper plusieurs personnes, pour le procureur de la République c'était un acte 'proportionnel' - 6 janvier 2019: Des centaines de femmes 'gilets jaunes' se sont rassemblées dimanche dans plusieurs villes, souhaitant donner une image pacifique du mouvement au lendemain d'une mobilisation nationale aussi marquée à la fin par de nouvelles violences - 8 January 2019: Former French boxing champion who was filmed punching police officers during a gilets jaunes protest and who handed himself in to police, has said in a video that he had 'boiled over' after being teargassed alongside his wife on his eighth Saturday protest, also saying 'I reacted badly', adding that he had seen the 'repression' of the police towards protesters - 11 janvier 2019: Manifestation des 'gilets jaunes' interdite à Bourges - 12 janvier 2019: Des dizaines de milliers de 'gilets jaunes' sont de nouveau attendus samedi partout en France contre la politique sociale et fiscale du gouvernement - 12 January 2019: Police use water cannon and teargas on Paris protesters, as at least 84,000 demonstrators turned out across France, according to officials, and as in Bourges, a town of 66,000 people (chosen because of its central location) about 6,700 gilets jaunes gathered despite a ban on protests in its historical centre
3 June 2020 Paris protest against racism and police violence: 3 June 2020: Clashes at Paris protest against racism and police violence
18 June 2020 health workers protest in France: 18 June 2020: Health workers protest in France
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in France: French society
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and French atrocities in Haiti: In 1802, when it became apparent that the French under Napoleonic rule intended to re-establish slavery in Haiti black cultivators revolted in the summer of 1802, Leclerc's successor Vicomte de Rochambeau fought an even more brutal campaign, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since 1945 French Indochina War and since 1930/1931 use of torture in Vietnam: French Army practiced torture in Vietnam since 1930 and during its Indochina War since 1945
Economy of Paris: Economy of Paris
Timeline of Paris: Timeline of Paris
March 2018 protest against the stabbing of Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll: 27 March 2018: Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo, actitivsts and politicians call for all the city's residents to march Wednesday in memory of Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death in an apparent anti-Semitic attack, as politicians across the political spectrum pledge to attend - 28 March 2018: Several thousand people took part in a silent march in Paris on Wednesday and in other large French cities including Lyon, Marseille and Strasbourg in memory of Mireille Knoll who survived the Holocaust but was stabbed to death last week, in what is being investigated as an antisemitic attack, raising questions about France’s failure to tackle resurgent antisemitism after in 2017 Orthodox Jewish Sarah Halimi was beaten and thrown out of the window of her home in Paris
Demographics of Marseille: Population and demographics of Marseille
Economy of Marseille: Economy of Marseille
11 November 2019 mothers call on Macron to use gangland profits to revive communities: 11 November 2019: Marseille's mothers call on Macron to use gangland profits to revive communities
Timeline of Marseille: Timeline of Marseille
Since 2015 Lyon Metropolis: Since 2015 Lyon Metropolis
History and timeline of Toulouse: History of Toulouse
Timeline of Nantes: Timeline of Nantes
Timeline of Bordeaux: Timeline of Bordeaux
12 June 2020 noting colonial past France's Bordeaux adds info plaques to slave trader street signs: 12 June 2020: As statues of slave traders and colonial figures tumble worldwide in a wave of anger against racism, and as some local French authorities remove monuments of racist figures and rename streets honoring them - after protesters against police brutality and racism in the wake of African American George Floyd’s killing by a white police officer, after Bordeaux was France’s second largest slave port, prospered off the lucrative trade, deporting 150,000 African slaves to the Americas from 1672 to 1837 and providing Europe with goods - have toppled statues of colonial figures in Britain, Belgium and the USA, Bordeaux is instead trying to inform the public of their 'complicated' pasts, indead complicated due to French colonial history and crimes against human rights
Timeline of Grenoble: Timeline of Grenoble since 43 BCE
Demographics of France: Demographics of France
Ethnic groups in France: Ethnic groups in France
French people by ethnic or national origin: French people - French people by ethnic or national origin
Jews and Judaism in France and history: Jews and Judaism in France - History of the Jews in France
Since 1007 persecutions of Jews in the Kingdom of France: Since 1007 widespread persecutions of Jews in France instigated by the King of France
Since 1799/1804 Napoleon Bonaparte's 'First French Empire' and the Jews in France: Since 1799/1804 Napoleon Bonaparte's 'First French Empire' and the Jews in France
African immigration to France: African immigration to France
2013-2015: 15 October: Roma in France get access to more jobs (increased from 150 to 291) - 29 January 2013: A group of Roma children near Lyon have been forced to attend classes at a police station after local schools refused to take them in - 3 avril: Expulsés d'un terrain près de Lyon, une cinquantaine de Roms attaquent la préfecture du Rhône en justice pour la contraindre à leur trouver un hébergement d'urgence - 13 mai: Deux femmes et un enfant ont péri dans la nuit dans l'incendie d'une usine désaffectée de Lyon dans lequel vivaient environ 200 Roms - 23 July 2013: French MP Bourdouleix faces legal action after he allegedly said 'Hitler didn't kill enough of' the Roma people - 17 octobre: L'expulsion du pays de Leonarda, une collégienne rom kosovare, a mis de nouveau au jour les dissensions au sein de la majorité, y compris dans le gouvernement - 14 novembre: Jean-Marie Le Pen condamné pour ses propos selon lesquels 'comme les oiseaux', les Roms voleraient 'naturellement' - 4 January 2015: Outrage as Leclerc, mayor of Paris suburb Champlan, refuses burial of Roma baby
2016: 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 13 février 2016: Le Premier ministre français Valls ne veut pas aller plus loin que le quota de 30'000 réfugiés en France et a d'ailleurs rencontré CSU Horst Seehofer, l'une de ces voix critiques parmi les alliés de la chancelière allemande - 13 February 2016: French PM Valls rejects permanent quota system for refugees, saying 'We won't take any more' - 28 February 2016: The first purpose-built camp in France to provide proper, humanitarian-standard shelter to refugees who are currently sleeping rough is to open near the port of Dunkirk next month, after the local Green mayor Damien Carême approached Médecins sans Frontières and asked the organisation to construct temporary shelters, saying he was exasperated by what he deemed to be the inaction of the French Socialist government
2018: 8 janvier 2018: La France a enregistré un niveau 'historique' de demandes d'asile en 2017, alors que le gouvernement prépare une loi sur l'immigration déjà à l'origine de débats animés - 11 January 2018: Anger grows at French president over migration law plans, sharing close views with Austria's Kurz on European issues including migration - 17 January 2018: NGOs accuse Macron, who campaigned for president last year as a champion of open borders, of betraying France’s long tradition of offering sanctuary, also accusing the police in Calais of trying to drive out migrants by 'exhaustion' - 24 mars 2018: Une migrante nigériane, qui a souhaité finir sa grossesse auprès de sa soeur en France mais était bloqué par les gendarmes français qui l'ont juste déposée en pleine nuit devant la gare de Bardonnecchia, est morte la semaine dernière dans un hôpital de Turin, son bébé Israel est né par césarienne juste avant
Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France: Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France
Language policy in France: Language policy in France
Architecture and arts in France: Architecture in France - Arts in France - French literature
Music of France: Music of France
Music history of France: French music history
Women and women's rights in France: Women in France - Women's rights in France
1791 Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen 1791
Islamic dress controversy in France: Islamic dress controversy in France
Violence against women in France: Violence against women in France
Protection de l'enfance en France: Protection de l'enfance en France
Colleges and universities in France: Universities and colleges in France
Health in France: Health in France
Medical outbreaks and health disasters in France: Medical outbreaks in France - Health disasters in France
Timeline of the 2020 covid-19 pandemic in France and situation by region: Timeline of the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in France by region
Medical outbreaks and health disasters in Overseas France: Medical outbreaks in Overseas France - Health disasters in Overseas France
1960-1996 French nuclear weapons testing in Algeria and Polynesia: Since 1960 French nuclear weapons testing in French colonies
2020 covid-19 pandemic in Overseas France: 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Overseas France
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Guadeloupe: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Guadeloupe
8 April 2020 Guadeloupe reports 141 covid-19 cases and 8 deaths: 8 April 2020: Guadeloupe reports 141 covid-19 cases, 8 deaths, and 43 recovered
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Guiana: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Guiana
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Martinique: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Martinique
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Mayotte: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Mayotte
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in New Caledonia: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in New Caledonia
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Polynesia: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Polynesia
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Réunion: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Réunion
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Saint Barthélemy: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Saint Barthélemy
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Saint Martin: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in French Saint Martin
8 April 2020 Saint Martin reports 32 covid-19 cases and 2 deaths: 8 April 2020: Saint Martin reports 32 covid-19 cases, 2 deaths, and 11 recovered
Since April 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Saint Pierre and Miquelon: Since April 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Timeline of healthcare in France: Timeline of healthcare in France
Athletics, swimming, water sports, skiing and gymnastics in France: Athletics in France - Swimming in France - Water sports in France - Sailing in France - Skiing in France - Gymnastics in France
Handball, basketball, ice hockey and tennis in France: Handball in France - Basketball in France - Volleyball in France - Ice hockey in France - Tennis in France
2016: 9-11 June 2016 Marseille riots before and after UEFA Euro 2016 football match between England and Russia - 11/12 June 2016: Reports from Marseille suggest an England supporter is fighting for his life after an attack from Russian fans ahead of their Euro 2016 match on Saturday evening - 12 June 2016: Violence in Nice as Northern Ireland and Poland fans attacked by local hooligans - 12 June 2016: Russian hooligans reportedly approached the violence, which occurred before and after England’s opening Euro 2016 game in Marseille, with 'military organisation', well equipped and disguised, as Uefa opens disciplinary proceedings against Russia’s football union - 13 June 2016: German hooligans attack Ukraine fans in Lille also showing fascist symbolism at UEFA Euro 2016 - 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 14 June: Russia handed suspended '2016 UEFA European Football Championship' disqualification, confirmed by UEFA - 16 June: Dozens arrested in Lille after England and Russia foot supporters clash and more people are hospitalised - 18 June: Senior UK government officials fear the violence unleashed by Russian hooligans at Euro 2016 was sanctioned by Vladimir Putin’s regime and are investigating links with his regime as a significant number of those involved in savage and highly coordinated attacks on England fans and others in Marseille and Lille have been identified as being in the 'uniformed services' in Russia
Cycling and cycle racing in France: Cycling in France - Cycle racing in France
Hate speech laws in France: Hate speech laws in France
History of French journalism: History of French journalism
Since 1789 newspapers of the French Revolution: List of journals appearing under the French Revolution
Newspapers in France: Newspapers in France
Internet in France: Internet in France
Internet censorship in France: Internet censorship in France
2013 censorship of Wikipedia in France: 2013 censorship of Wikipedia in France
Telecommunications in France: Telecommunications in France
Crime in France: Crime in France
French war crimes: French war crimes
Since 1799 Napoleonic wars, casualties and war crimes: 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars, total war, millions of Napoleonic wars casualties, leading to an ongoing period of restoration, reaction, nationalism and chauvinism worldwide - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior' - 25. Januar 2006: Daß Napoleon Bonaparte ein überzeugter Rassist war, der schwarze Franzosen vergasen ließ, rüttelt an den Grundfesten der 'Grande Nation' der französischen Kolonialherren
Since 1930/1931 and since 1945 French use of torture in Vietnam: French Army practiced torture during its Indochina War in Vietnam since 1945
Antisemitism in France: Antisemitism in France
1940-1944 Vichy France, French Nazi collaborators and history of Jews in Vichy France: Vichy France 1940-1944 - French Nazi collaborators - Histoire des Juifs sous le régime de Vichy
Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps: Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps
Since 1958 history of fascist and neo-Nazi movements in France's fifth republic: Since 1958 history of fascist and neo-Nazi movements in France's fifth republic
2014 French payment of $60 million for Holocaust victims deported by state rail company: 5 December 2014: France to pay $60 million for Holocaust victims deported by state rail company to Nazi death camps
2017 Céline praised by Emmanuel Macron: 31. Dezember 2017: Von Louis-Ferdinand Céline, so Emmanuel Macron im Interview mit Michel Houellebecq im Mai 2017, könne man lernen, die Sorgen des 'Mannes auf der Straße' ernstzunehmen, Macron erwähnt allerdings nicht, daß Céline in seinen Schriften 'dem Mann auf der Straße' den Nationalsozialismus empfiehlt und z.B. Ernst Jünger auffordert mit seiner Kompanie die Juden abzuschlachten 'und keinen übrig zu lassen' - In his 1937 antisemitic pamphlet 'Bagatelles pour un massacre' Céline campaigned for an alliance between France and Nazi Germany, writing 'Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism is. Who has done the most for the working man? The USSR or Hitler? Hitler has. Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler
Holocaust denial in France: Holocaust denial in France
France's 'National Front': France's 'National Front'
Racism and Antisemitism in 21st-century France: Antisemitism in 21st-century France
2015: 7 January 2015: Unidentified individuals started a fire inside a synagogue in Garges near Paris and drew a swastika on its wall - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - 3 February 2015: Anti-terror patrol soldiers stabbed outside Jewish cultural center in Nice - 15 February 2015: Several hundred tombs desecrated with Nazi swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans at the Jewish cemetery of Sarre-Union near the German border a day after a deadly shooting at Copenhagen synagogue - 19 February 2015: The French are becoming more racist and intolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities including both Muslims and Jews, according to a Council of Europe report this week - 28 February 2015: Paris killer asked victims if they were Jewish before firing, transcript shows - 10 April: After defending Petain's cooperation with Nazi Germany and his past comment that Nazi gas chambers were a 'detail of history', France's National Front founder Le Pen rebuffs daughter's call to quit - 27 April 2015: Front National founder Jean-Marie Le Pen allegedly kept €2.2m in hidden Swiss bank account - 2 May 2015: Two Jewish residents of Paris were assaulted on the street Friday by a gang of about 40 people - 25 November 2015: A Belgian court finds French Dieudonne guilty of hate speech, incitement to hatred and Holocaust denial
March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll: 23 March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll, officially described as a hate crime - 25 March 2018: Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll’s body found burnt, stabbed in Paris apartment, who had previously reported that a neighbor threatened to burn her, according to BNVCA and French media - 26 mars 2018: Deux hommes ont été placés en garde à vue et le parquet de Paris a retenu le caractère antisémite dans l’enquête sur le meurtre de Mireille Knoll, qui avait rescapée de la rafle des Juifs du Vel d’Hiv’ de juillet 1942 en s’enfuyant de Paris avec sa mère - 27 March 2018: Family members of Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death and set on fire in her Paris apartment, told Israeli media she had known one of her assailants, a Muslim neighbor, since he was seven years old, as police admits that Mireille Knoll had previously called police and complained that the neighbor had threatened to kill her
Toulouse and Montauban shootings March 2012: March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings - 20 March 2012: Police say same gun and scooter used in attack on Jewish school in Toulouse that left four dead and soldier shootings - 20. März 2012: Tausende an Schweigemarsch in Paris nach den tödlichen Schüssen in einer jüdischen Schule in Toulouse - 21 mars: Opération en cours contre le suspect de la tuerie de Toulouse - 22 March: Siege of alleged gunman in Toulouse enters second day - 22 March: French gunman who shot dead 3 Jewish children killed in siege in Toulouse - 25 March 2012: Several thousand people have marched silently through Paris urging unity and tolerance of all religions and cultures after deadly shootings of Jewish schoolchildren - 28 March: Vigilance call after French Jews hit by new attacks
Clément Méric assassiné le 5 juin 2013: Clément Méric, membre de l’Action antifasciste, assassiné à Paris, le 5 juin 2013 - 6 juin 2013: Agressé par un groupe de plusieurs militants d'extrême droite JNR, le militant du Parti de Gauche Clément Méric en état de mort cérébrale - 6 juin 2013: Clément Méric, le militant antifasciste agressé par des skinheads, est mort - 8 June: Five skinheads to face court after assassination of Clement Meric - 14 September 2018: Two skinheads convicted over 2013 death of anti-fascist activist Clement Méric, as Méric’s mother Agnes says 'what is needed is to continue to fight against the breeding grounds of the extreme right', and several hundred anti-fascists gathered in Paris for the verdict, chanting 'Clement! Clement! We do not forget, we do not forgive'
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks in Paris and aftermath: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - Worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 7 January: Worldwide vigils as French authorities seek terrorists who stormed the Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people - 8 January: Arrests made as police hunt for suspects of Charlie Hebdo shooting - 9 January: France to host international 'anti-terrorism' meeting in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris - 9 January: Search for terrorists continues as Charlie Hebdo announces to print 1 million copies next week - 10 January: Two hostage standoffs end with four hostages killed in Paris kosher grocery, three terrorists dead and four more hostages badly hurt - 12 February 2015: 'Islamic State' terror group confirms widow of Paris kosher grocery shooter in Syria - 9 March 2015: Four people including a policewoman arrested over suspected links to Paris kosher market terrorist - 7 January 2020: France commemorated the fifth anniversary of the extremist attack on Charlie Hebdo that killed nine of its editorial staff, a guard, a visitor to the building and a patrol officer in the street outside, as the killers were a pair of French brothers, claiming the attack was revenge for caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 14 Novemer 2015: Gunmen kill at least 120 people in terror attacks in Paris, injuring some 200 people - 15 November: French national suicide bomber Ismael Omar Mostefai in Paris attacks identified, who had been flagged as a possible security threat in 2010, as investigation spreads across Europe - 16 November: French police carry out raids as investigations across borders continue - 17 November: France calls for EU help following Paris attacks - 18 November: Police in St-Denis arresting suspects, two suspects dead in ongoing raid, including a woman who detonated an explosive device - 19 November: Raids in Brussels linked to Stade de France suicide bomber as latest evidence points to wider conspiracy of primarily young Europeans - 20 November: Three people died during the Wednesday night raid in St-Denis, where the alleged ringleader of the Paris attacks Abaaoud was killed, prosecutor says - 21 November: Raids and Paris attacks investigations across borders continue as three suspects arrested in Turkey - 23 November: UK's Cameron visits Paris offering support, also offering French use of RAF Cyprus base for attacks against IS terrorists - 24 November: 'Belt of explosives' found south of Paris in town of Montrouge
July 2016: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when a suspected armed French-Tunisian man drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 15 July 2016: After attack in Nice France mourns and investigates again - International reactions to the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 17 juillet: Un feu d'artifice tiré dans la nuit depuis le Grand hôtel de Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat 48 heures après l'attentat commis sur la Promenade des Anglais, a suscité une vague d'indignation sur Twitter - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples - 22 July 2016: Five suspects formally charged over Bastille day's truck attack in Nice that killed 84 people - 22 July: Authorities in Nice refuse a request from French anti-terror police to delete surveillance camera images of Bastille day's deadly truck attack, amid growing questions over the scale of the police presence at the time and after interior minister Cazeneuve acknowledged that only lightly armed local police were guarding the entrance to the pedestrian zone on the Nice beachfront
Police violence and abuses in France: Police abuses in France
1961 Paris massacre: Paris massacre of 1961
Riots in France: Riots in France
June 2016 UEFA Euro riots in France: UEFA Euro 2016 riots in France
Since August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following anti-Semitic attack: Since 28 August 1982 'Irish of Vincennes' political scandal following the 9 August 1982 terrorist attack in Paris, when a secret police anti-terrorist cell established by president François Mitterrand arrested three Irish nationals in Vincennes, proudly proclaiming a victory against 'international terrorism', until in 1983 the case fell apart and the suspects were exonerated when it was revealed that weapons and other evidence used against the three had been planted by the arresting officers, who then lied to the courts with the support of the executive - 9 August 1982 Goldenberg restaurant attack, a bombing and shooting attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris's Marais district carried out by the Abu Nidal Organization - 17 June 2015: Suspects, including the mastermind al-Abassi of the 1982 bomb attack on a Jewish restaurant in Paris, were identified 32 years later thanks to statements from Abu Nidal group members to whom French judges guaranteed anonymity - 9 August 2019: Families of the victims of the 1982 terrorist attack on Paris’ Jewish quarter and Jo Goldenberg’s restaurant are demanding a parliamentary inquiry into an alleged secret pact of French intelligence with the perpetrators, after ex-French spy chief Yves Bonnet now, in 2019, admitted the 1980s pact with Fatah terrorists
Accusation d’emplois fictifs au MoDem, le Mouvement démocrate de François Bayrou - 8 juin 2017: L'affaire des collaborateurs de députés du Parlement européen contamine de plus en plus les alliés centristes de l'entourage de Macron - 9 juin 2017: Une dizaine de salariés du MoDem ont également été employés par des eurodéputés MoDem et rémunérés comme assistants parlementaires, dont deux ministres en exercice, selon Franceinfo - 20 June 2017: French defence minister Sylvie Goulard, who is second minister to go in 24 hours, steps down over allegations her MoDem party misused European funds - 21 June 2017: Two more ministers quit Macron administration amid funding inquiry, bringing the number of ministers to leave to four - François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez, Richard Ferrand and Sylvie Goulard - in just 48 hours
Violence against women and rape in France: Violence against women in France - Viol en France
Child abuse and sexual abuse in France: Child abuse in France - Child sexual abuse in France
Judiciary of France: Judiciary of France
Wars involving France: Wars involving France
Resistance to the French colonial empire: Resistance to the French colonial empire
1793 slave rebellion in Guadeloupe: 1793 slave rebellion in Guadeloupe
French Polynesia: French Polynesia
Réunion: Réunion
Treaties of France: Treaties of France
French membership in international organisations: French membership in international organisations
Since 1945 France and the United Nations: France and the United Nations
France and NATO: France and NATO
1966-2009 French withdrawal from NATO: 1966-2009 French withdrawal from NATO
November 2019 Macron criticised over Nato 'brain death' claims: 7 November 2019: France's Macron criticised by USA and Germany over Nato 'brain death' claims
August 2019 G7 summit in Biarritz: 24-26 August 2019 G7 summit in Biarritz
24 August 2019 G7 emergency talks over Amazon wildfires crisis: 24 August 2019: G7 leaders to hold emergency talks over Amazon wildfires crisis
Foreign relations of France by continent and country: Foreign relations of France by continent - Bilateral relations of France
France/Africa relations: France/Africa relations
France/Algeria relations: France/Algeria relations
1830-1962 rule in Algeria: 1830-1962 French rule in Algeria
Since 1960 French nuclear test site Reggane: France and weapons of mass destruction - France and nuclear weapons
France/Americas relations: France/Americas relations
From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade: From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery: Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery
France/Angola relations: France/Angola relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
France/Argentina relations: France/Argentina relations
France/Asia relations: France/Asia relations
1887-1954 'French Indochina': 1887-1954 'French Indochina'
France/Belgium relations: France/Belgium relations
France/Benin relations: France/Benin relations
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War: February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War
1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War: 1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War
August 1960 Dahomey's independence from France: On 1 August 1960 Dahomey declared independence from France
France/Brazil relations: France/Brazil relations
France-Brazil economic relations: France-Brazil economic relations
France/Burkina Faso relations: France/Burkina Faso relations
France/Cameroon relations: France/Cameroon relations
Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon: Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon
France/Chad relations: France/Chad relations
France-Chad trade relations: France-Chad trade relations
France/Republic of the Congo relations: France/Republic of the Congo relations
France/Comoros relations: France/Comoros relations
1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros: 1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum
France/Egypt relations: France/Egypt relations
France/Equatorial Guinea relations: France/Equatorial Guinea relations
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 12 octobre 2013: Les commémorations du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale, qui devraient se prolonger sur cinq ans, ont été partiellement dévoilées à Blois - 11 November 2013: France remembers the Armistice that marked the end of World War I in 1918 after four years of bloody conflict that cost millions of lives - 29 mai 2016: Bayeux a commémoré le centenaire de la bataille de Verdun, conçue par le commandant en chef de l'Armée allemande général Erich von Falkenhayn comme une bataille d'attrition pour 'saigner à blanc l'Armée française' sous un déluge d'obus - 8 November 2018: 'The only thing we will remember from Petain is that he was, in the name of the French people, struck with national indignity during his trial in July 45', CRIF's Francis Kalifat says, after Macron praised WWI general Petain who later collaborated with Nazis
France/Greece relations: France/Greece relations
France/Haiti relations: France/Haiti relations
1625-1809 Colony of France Saint-Domingue: Colony of France Saint-Domingue 1625-1809
Since 1804 external debt of Haiti: External debt of Haiti, one of the main factors that has caused the country's persistent poverty, after the slaves declared themselves free and the country independent in 1804 and France, with the complicity of its allies, demanded that the newly formed country pay the French government and French slaveholders the modern equivalent of US $21 billion dollars for the 'theft' of the slaves' own lives and the land that they had turned into profitable sugar and coffee-producing plantations, this independence debt was financed by French banks and the American Citibank, and finally paid off 143 years later, in 1947 - The Haiti indemnity controversy culminated in an agreement by Haiti to a 1825 gold demand by France for a FRF 150 million indemnity to be paid by the Republic of Haiti in claims over property lost through the Haitian Revolution, delivered to the country by 12 French warships armed with 528 cannons, in return for diplomatic recognition
France/India relations: France/India relations
France/Iran relations: France/Iran relations
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
France/Iraq relations: France/Iraq relations
France/Israel relations: France/Israel relations
June 2016: Paris summit a ‘missed opportunity': 3 June 2016: Paris summit was a ‘missed opportunity,’ Israel says
France/Italy relations: France/Italy relations
France/Ivory Coast relations: France/Ivory Coast relations
France/Japan relations: France/Japan relations
France/Jordan relations: France/Jordan relations
France/Korea relations: France/Korea relations
France/North Korea relations: France/North Korea relations
France/South Korea relations: France/South Korea relations
France/Laos relations: France/Laos relations
1893–1945, 1946–1953 French 'Protectorate' of Laos: French Protectorate of Laos 1893–1945, 1946–1953
France/Lebanon relations: France/Lebanon relations
France/Libya relations: France/Libya relations
Since 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, trial and Libyan compensation: 19 September 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, investigation, trial and Libyan compensation
Since 2007 alleged Libyan influence in the French elections: Alleged Libyan influence in the 2007 French elections
April 2019 France’s double game in Libya: 17 April 2019: France’s double game in Libya
13-20 April 2019 Libyan protests against Haftar's offensive and backers: 13 April 2019: Thousands of Libyans came out to demonstrate in Tripoli and Misrata against the war on Tripoli waged by Khalifa Haftar, calling for a civilian state and objecting to possible military rule with placards not only denouncing Haftar but also his French, UAE and Saudi backers - 15 April 2019: Some foreign states unified by aim of Libyan instability, Libyan government spokesperson says - 15-20 April 2019: Civilian casualties and displacement expected to increase in Libya due to continued use of air strikes and heavy artillery, UN report says - 20 April 2019: Libyans accuse France of backing Tripoli assault, as protesters demonstrated in the Libyan capital Tripoli against the offensive by military strongman Haftar
21 September 2019 Haftar's airstrikes on Murzuq: 21 September 2019: Haftar's forces conduct 4 airstrikes on Murzuq
France/Madagascar relations: France/Madagascar relations
1882-1897 French Malagasy Protectorate: French Malagasy Protectorate 1882-1897
1895 Menalamba rebellion: Menalamba rebellion 1895
1897-1958 French colony of Madagascar and military rule: French colony of Madagascar 1897-1958
1958 Malagasy constitutional referendum: Malagasy constitutional referendum 1958
26 June 2020 Madagascar celebrates 60th independence anniversary from France: 26 June 2020: After gaining its independence, following uprising, which claimed nearly 100,000 citizens since 1947, on the 26 of June 1960, Madagascar is celebrating its 60th independence anniversary from France with a series of activities across the country, as despite the exuding joy of freedom memories of the scars of pain and agony suffered under colonial masters even echoed among todays generation as victim and pro-independence fighter Randriamamonjy reports 'every morning they would make us go up the hill (and) Senegalese riflemen with the French kept guard and whipped us like we were donkeys pulling a cart', saying ‘do you give in now’, but Randriamamonjy answered ‘I’d rather die with my fallen brothers'
France/Mali relations: France/Mali relations
France/Middle East relations: France/Middle East relations
France/Monaco relations: France/Monaco relations
France/Morocco relations: France/Morocco relations
1912-1956 French 'protectorate' of Morocco: French 'protectorate' of Morocco 1912-1956
France/Norway relations: France/Norway relations
France/Pakistan relations: France/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in France
France/Russia relations: France/Russia relations
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
France/Rwanda relations: France/Rwanda relations
1994 Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide: Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide 1994
France/Saudi-Arabia relations: France/Saudi Arabia relations since 1926
France/Senegal relations: France/Senegal relations
1659 French conquest of Senegal: French conquest of Senegal 1659 - Ndar (Saint-Louis)
1895-1958 French West Africa: French West Africa 1895-1958
1960 Independence of Senegal: 1960 Independence of Senegal
France/Singapore relations: France/Singapore relations
France/Spain relations: France/Spain relations
17th century France/Spain relations: 17th century France/Spain relations
18th century France/Spain relations: 18th century France/Spain relations
July 1808 Battle of Bailén: July 1808 Battle of Bailén
19th century Latin American revolutions and wars of independence: Following the French invasion of Spain during the early 19th century, American opposition against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence, as after the restoration of rule by Ferdinand VII in 1814 and his rejection of the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, social and political movements hardened their stance toward Spanish colonialism and they increasingly sought political independence - During the late 18th and early 19th centuries Latin American revolutions and wars of independence, resulting in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America following the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the British, Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies in the Americas
1939-1946 Camp de Gurs: 1939-1946 Camp de Gurs
21th century France/Spain relations: 21th century France/Spain relations
France/Switzerland relations: France/Switzerland relations
France/Syria relations: France/Syria relations
August/September 2013: 27 August: President Hollande says that France was 'ready to punish' those behind last week's deadly chemical attack in Syria - 30 August: President François Hollande says that the UK parliamentary vote against taking military action against Assad regime would not affect France’s will to act alongside the United States in 'punishing' Assad regime for a chemical weapons attack - 1 September: Obama stalls on Syria, upping pressure on Hollande - 2 September: Assad forces carried out a 'massive and coordinated' chemical attack on August 21 near Damascus posing a major threat to national and global security, according to a declassified French intelligence report - 2 September: France calls for coalition to act against Assad regime - 7 September 2013: International support is growing for a strong response to the chemical weapons attack by the Syrian regime, France's foreign minister Fabius said during a joint press conference with USA counterpart Kerry - 9 September 2013: Assad regime must commit immediately to destruction of chemical arms, French foreign minister says - 10 September 2013: France says that a Russian proposal to have Assad hand over his chemical weapons arsenal was acceptable only if it came after a UN Security Council resolution spelling out consequences if he failed to comply - 13 September 2013: After reports that UN report will confirm Syria chemical weapons use, French, USA and British foreign ministers will meet in Paris on Monday for talks on Syria and a UN Security Council resolution - 20 September 2013: France suggests it is ready to give weapons to Syria's opposition in a 'controlled framework' - 29 septembre 2013: Appel de parlementaires PS et EELV à une aide militaire aux forces de l'opposition en Syrie
2014/2015: 13 May: France calls on United Nations to refer Syrian War to International Criminal Court - 27 February 2015: France and Britain dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition - 5 March: French President Hollande receives Syrian Coalition delegation in Paris - 16 March 2015: After speaking to USA's John Kerry on the phone France's FM Fabius says, the French position on the Syrian crisis had not changed and that 'the solution is a political transition (which) must both preserve regime institutions - not Mr Bashar al-Assad - ... and include the opposition of course' - 23 May 2015: A majority of 55% of French people are in favour of a military intervention by France in Syria, poll says - 27 September 2015: France launches first airstrikes against Islamic State terrorists in Syria, as French president says 'civilian populations must be protected against all forms of violence, ... also against the murderous bombings of Bashar al-Assad' - 29 September: In New York, Syrian Coalition's Khoja and France's Hollande agree on Syria without Assad, as Khoja explains the regime’s brutal practices against civilians, most notably using barrel bombs which account for nearly 95% of the overall civilian deaths in Syria, and as France will discuss with its partners in the coming days a proposal by Turkey and the Syrian opposition for a no-fly zone in northern Syria - 30 September: France is investigating Bashar al-Assad over alleged crimes against humanity, also examining claims of torture and kidnapping by Assad's forces and opened 'on the basis of indications received from the foreign ministry' on 10 September - 8 October: France will support establishing safe zones in Syria - 24 October 2015: France's FM Fabius announced that Paris will host foreign-minister level talks on Syria on 27 October, adding that Russia's foreign minister Lavrov will not be part of the talks and reiterating that Bashar al-Assad could not be part of any solution in Syria
2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 1 April 2016: France accuses Syrian Assad regime of violating ceasefire, saying that airstrikes in south-east Damascus were intended to terrorise people and undermine international peace efforts - 11 June 2016: Photos of 1,000 Syrian detainees out of hundreds of thousands of detainees currently in Assad’s prisons will be raised by Syrian and French activists at the 'Place de la Bastille' in Paris - 10 October 2016: Saying that France is 'committed as never before to saving the population of Aleppo’ and that he will ask the international court of justice to investigate possible war crimes in Syria French FM Ayrault also says that President Hollande will take into account the situation in Syria's Aleppo when deciding whether to see Russia's Putin when he visits Paris on 19 October - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria - 21 November 2016: At a meeting with French FM Jean-Marc Ayrault Syrian Coalition's Hijab stresses that the brutal onslaught on Aleppo by Assad and its Russian and Iranian allies are war crimes and crimes against humanity, calling upon the international community to assume its duty to stop Assad and Russia’s massacres in Syria - 1 December 2016: Head of Aleppo provincial council Brita Haji Hasan and French FM Ayrault calling to save Aleppo - 2 December 2016: The Syrian civil defense was awarded the Franco-German Prize for Human Rights and the Rule of Law a few days after receiving the Alternative Nobel Prize honoring their humanitarian role in relief work, as French FM Ayrault condemns the attacks that target civilians and hospitals in Aleppo, adding that systematic war crimes are being committed in the war-torn city and that the international community often ignores these crimes, as Syrian Coalition's Abdah calls for urgent action to save the people of Aleppo from the ongoing genocide, warning of an unprecedented humanitarian disaster that will have serious political, humanitarian consequences for the Syrian people and the peoples of the region
2017: 9 January 2017: Syria's war criminal al-Assad on Sunday received a number of members of the French National Assembly, headed by Thierry Mariani - 22 June 2017: France's Macron breaks with previous French policy in support of the struggle for freedom and democracy also in Syria, saying that 'nobody has shown me a legitimate successor' to Syria's dictators Hafez al-Assad 1970-2000 and Bashar al-Assad since 2000 - 3 juillet 2017: Des intellectuels et spécialistes français et syriens reprochent au président français son revirement à propos de Bachar el-Assad, qu'ils qualifient d'erreur d'analyse majeure - 20 September 2017: During meeting with French president, opposition leader Hijab ties a successful solution to the Syrian crisis with the prosecution of Assad - 26 December 2017: French rights groups and associations are seeking to coordinate their efforts to condemn the Assad regime at European and international judicial institutions, such as the European Court and the International Criminal Cour
France/Tunisia relations: France/Tunisia relations
1881-1956 French conquest and 'protectorate' of Tunisia: French conquest of Tunisia 1881 - French 'protectorate' of Tunisia 1881-1956
France/Turkey relations: France/Turkey relations
France/Ukraine relations: France/Ukraine relations
France/United Arab Emirates relations: France/United Arab Emirates relations
France/United Kingdom relations: France/United Kingdom relations
1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars: 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars tragedy
2016: 1 March 2016: Calais camp is razed by French authorities with nowhere for most refugees to go - 20 June 2016: France’s first Shakespearean-style theatre near Condette in northern France built as tribute to Anglo-French friendship vandalised - 26 juillet 2016: Un migrant éthiopien a été tué aux abords de la 'Jungle' de Calais lors de rixes, qui ont également fait six blessés, et ont éclaté 'à proximité du camp opposant des migrants africains (Soudanais, Erythréens, Ethiopiens) et afghans' - 24 September 2016: Up to 1,000 unaccompanied minors will be left to fend for themselves when the bulldozers move in Calais refugee camp and French authorities hope Britain will honour pledges and rescue minors - 23 October 2016: Despite concerns about the safety of thousands of children and vulnerable adults living there, French officials are expected to press ahead with plans to start dismantling the Calais refugee camp on Monday - 27 October 2016: Charities fear for safety of unregistered minors as French officials try to declare camp's clearout complete and fires ravage camp - 5 November 2016: Nearly all of the children who stayed in the now demolished Calais camp for refugees have a mental health condition such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression, according to 'Citizens UK', which is supporting scores of children dispersed around France - 19 November 2016: Child refugees sent from the demolished Calais 'jungle' to supposedly safe welcome centres across France claim they have been pressed into forced labour
France/USA relations: France/USA relations
2013/2014: 12 April 2013: Hopi Native American masks sold at Paris auction amid protest - 1 juillet: Le 'Guardian' a affirmé que la France, l'Italie et la Grèce figuraient parmi les 38 'cibles' surveillées par la NSA - les Européens exigent des explications - 2 July: France tells USA to stop spying ‘immediately’ - 22 octobre: À la suite des révélations sur l’espionnage des Français par le NSA, le président Hollande a fait part de sa colère et de son incompréhension à Obama - 25 October 2013: Germany and France demand 'no-spy' agreement with USA - 11 février 2014: Washington et Paris 'amis pour toujours', se félicite Hollande en visite d’État outre-Atlantique sans first lady - 10 April 2014: Maryland adjourned for the year Monday without voting on legislation that would have prohibited rail company SNCF from winning the $2.37 billion commuter rail contract, until it paid reparations to people it transported during the Holocaust - 30 May 2014: BNP Paribas faces fine of more than $10bn to settle charges that it violated US sanctions against Iran and other countries - 22 June: Alstom agrees to General Electric's bid to acquire its energy business - 1 July 2014: BNP Paribas pleads guilty to pay $9 billion after violating USA sanctions against Sudan, Cuba and Iran
1939-1945 World War II, France stayed in Indochina tolerated by Japan: France stayed in Indochina during 1939-1945 World War II, tolerated by the Japanese Army
France/Yemen relations: France/Yemen relations
Forests of France: Forests of France
Water pollution in France: Water pollution in France
Fauna of France and endangered species: Fauna of France - List of birds of Metropolitan France
Natural disasters in France: Natural disasters in France
Windstorms and weather events in France and Europe: Weather events in France - European windstorms
Floods in France: Floods in France
Heat waves in France:
2003 heat wave in France: 2003 heat wave in France
August 2012 heat wave in France: Canicule en France métropolitaine d'août 2012
June/July 2019 heat wave in France: 2019 heat wave in France
Wildfires in France: Wildfires in France

Germany - Geography of Germany - Demographics of Germany
History of Germany: History of Germany
Second 'careers', protection of Nazi murderers (ongoing):
2011: 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012/2013: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 2 September: Germany tries 92-year-old member of the Nazi Waffen SS Siert Bruins for Nazi war crime - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir
24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 juillet 2019: Suite à la plainte de familles de victimes du massacre de 86 civils à Ascq, commis dans la nuit du 1er au 2 avril 1944 par des SS y compris Karl Münter, ce l'ancien SS, qui a assuré que le chiffre de 6 millions de juifs assassinés par les nazis était exagéré lors d'un entretien à la chaîne publique ARD diffusé le 29 novembre 2018, qui a estimé que les victimes d'Ascq étaient aussi responsables de leur mort, est enfin mis en accusation maintenant pour incitation à la haine, après en mars 2018, le Parquet allemand avait en effet annoncé l'abandon des poursuites parce que le suspect avait déjà été condamné à mort par contumace par un tribunal militaire en France en 1949 et qu'il ne pouvait donc être jugé une seconde fois pour ces mêmes faits
Engineering companies of Germany: Engineering companies of Germany
Automotive industry in Germany: Automotive industry in Germany
Since 2008 worldwide 'Volkswagen' defeat device and emissions scandal: Volkswagen emissions scandal - in September 2015 'Volkswagen' admitted to illegally using installed software to change emissions test results for 11 million of its diesel engine cars sold between 2009 and 2015 - 20 September 2015: Volkswagen orders external investigation after USA regulators found cars gave inaccurate data on toxic emissions - 22 September 2015: Calling for a 'Europe-wide' investigation in the Volkswagen emissions scandal, France’s finance minister Sapin says, 'what we are dealing with is making sure people avoid being poisoned by pollution' - 28 September: Prosecutors reportedly launch inquiry into former 'Volkswagen' boss Winterkorn - 2 October: Volkswagen emissions testing scandal is deepening, with the Paris prosecutor announcing a preliminary inquiry - 9 October: Carmaker VW says half of models involved in emissions scandal may need complex, costly repairs such as a new fuel tank - 15 October: Volkswagen is to recall 8.5m diesel cars across the EU after German authorities rejected its proposals for a voluntary scheme in the emissions scandal - 3 November 2015: VW reveals CO2 emissions problem in 800,000 vehicles - 5 November: The deepening crisis at Volkswagen has hit sales hard, with the first signs emerging that the emissions-rigging scandal is putting customers off
Since 1914 Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history: Germany, weapons of mass destruction and history - Since 1914 Chemical weapons in World War I
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Monsanto legal cases: Monsanto legal cases
Renewable energy in Germany: Renewable energy in Germany
Food industry in Germany: Food industry in Germany
Dairy farming in Germany: Dairy farming in Germany
Fishing in Germany: Fishing in Germany
Water supply and sanitation in Germany: Water supply and sanitation in Germany
Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
Economic history and economic cycles in Germany: Economic history of Germany since 1945
1932-1939 unemployment rate in Germany: 1932-1939 unemployment rate in Germany