Eine sich verändernde Welt: Demokratie in Tunesien - eine Chance auch für ein sich veränderndes Europa

(Artikel vom 21. Januar 2011)





Als eine Folge der Weltwirtschaftskrise ab 2007 erleben wir im Winter 2010/2011 in der - seit 1956 von imperialer Protektoratsmacht, nämlich Frankreich (vgl. aktuelle Äußerungen der französischen Außenministerin M. Alliot-Marie) unabhängigen - Präsidialrepublik Tunesien eine Revolution gegen das Regime des Jahrzehnte regierenden Präsidenten Ben Ali und seine Quasi-Staatspartei "Rassemblement constitutionnel démocratique" RCD. Stark gestiegene Lebenshaltungskosten, mangelnde Zukunftsperspektiven insbesondere der Jugend (auch deren gut ausgebildeter Teile) bei hoher Arbeitslosigkeit, das korrupte, autokratische Regime und dessen Unfähigkeit, auf Krisenerscheinungen und Proteste anders als mit Repressalien und Gewalt gegen Demonstranten (nach UN-Angaben mehr als 100 Tote auf der Seite der Opposition) zu reagieren, sind die Ursachen der Revolution (vgl. den Wikipedia-Artikel Revolution in Tunesien 2010-2011 mit einer Chronologie der Ereignisse) und der Flucht Ben Alis nach Saudi-Arabien am 14. Januar 2011. Die Forderungen der Oppositionsbewegung: Entmachtung der Partei RCD, Demokratisierung von Staat und Gesellschaft (daher eine neue Verfassung), Freiheit der Meinungsäußerung, Versammlungs- und Organisationsfreiheit, Neuwahlen.

Aufgrund des nicht nachlassenden Drucks beginnt die amtierende Übergangsregierung ab Mitte Januar unter Präsident Mebazaa (und Ministerpräsident Ghannouchi) sich von der Partei RCD zu lösen, verspricht einen "vollständigen Bruch mit der Vergangenheit" und kommt mit einer Staatstrauer für die Opfer des Aufstands, einer Amnestie für politische Gefangene, mit Strafverfolgung für den geflohenen Machthaber, Schutz des tunesischen Eigentums (Auslandskonten Ben Alis etc.), der Ankündigung von Kommissionen für demokratische Reformen, Korruptionsaufklärung etc. den Forderungen der Revolutionsbewegung noch weiter entgegen.

Die Partei RCD, der zunächst noch ein Großteil der Minister der Übergangsregierung angehört hatten, wird am 17. Januar 2011 nach sage und schreibe 22 Jahren Vollmitgliedschaft aus der "Sozialistischen Internationale" (des 1914 zerbrochenen und 1951 wiederbelebten Zusammenschlusses sozialdemokratischer und sozialistischer Parteien und Organisationen mit 168 Organisationen weltweit) ausgeschlossen.

In den Tagen darauf folgen Rücktritte aus der Übergangsregierung aus Protest gegen die alte Regierungspartei RCD, vor allem seitens der Gewerkschafter (Mitglieder der UGTT und der Partei FDLT). Oppositionspolitiker wie Moncef Marzouki kehren ebenfalls in diesen Tagen aus dem Exil zurück.

Bemerkenswert ist, daß die Europäische Union Tunesien Hilfe für die sofortige Organisation von Wahlen angeboten hat. Es wird sich darum handeln, nicht nur mit Worten sondern mit Tatkraft die tunesische Revolution in ihrer demokratischen und sozialen Zielsetzung, für die sie im übrigen keinen Souffleur braucht, zu unterstützen. Daß die tunesische Revolution bereits nach Ägypten, Algerien (vgl. Wikipedia: Unruhen in Algerien 2011), Jemen, Jordanien, Kuwait, Mauretanien, Saudi-Arabien, Syrien - d.h. in die gesamte arabische und islamische Welt - ausstrahlt, unterstreicht die Bedeutung einer solchen praktischen Hilfe.



Mit den Ereignissen in den islamisch geprägten Ländern der letzten Wochen läuft eine Entwicklung parallel, die Europa (seine wirtschaftlich stärkeren Länder wie die Bundesrepublik, Frankreich, Großbritannien, Italien) und die sog. "Sozialistische Internationale" ebenfalls und mehr oder weniger direkt betrifft: Zur gleichen Zeit, seit dem 17. Januar 2011, steht die sozialdemokratische "Awoda" (Israelische Arbeitspartei) unmittelbar vor der Spaltung. Der Parteichef der Awoda Ehud Barak - und Verteidigungsminister der Regierung Netanjahu/Liebermann (vgl. den Artikel "Der Gazakrieg 2008/2009 ist eine Krise Europas und Deutschlands" - hat seinen Parteiaustritt und die Gründung einer neuen Partei "Azmaut" (Unabhängigkeit) bekanntgegeben. Unabhängig werden will Barak vor allem von der Partei "Awoda" (der er sein Mandat und seinen Ministerposten verdankt), in der die Kritik über den brachliegenden Friedensprozeß mit den Palästinensern immer lauter wird.

Die Europawahlen 2009 (Wahl vom 4. bis 7. Juni 2009 in den 27 EU-Staaten zum europäischen Parlament) und folgende nationale Wahlen mit der Niederlage erstarrter, deformierter sozialdemokratischer Parteien wie der britischen Labour Party (und mit Erfolgen rechtspopulistischer Bewegungen) in Großbritannien, in den Niederlanden, in Schweden, in Ungarn (Parlamentswahlen vom 11. April 2010) hatten ernüchternde Ergebnisse. Wie steht es mit der erforderlichen Erneuerung der betroffenen Organisationen? Wir werden es weiter beobachten können und beeinflussen. (Vgl. die Parlamentswahlen in der EU seit Juni 2009 mit teilweise großen Besonderheiten wie z.B. in Belgien 2010 - aufgrund des Nationalitäten- und Sprachenkonflikts sind die gesamten Parteien entsprechend gruppiert -, Bulgarien 2009, Griechenland 2009, in der Lettischen Republik 2010, in Portugal 2009, in der Slowakischen Republik 2010 und in der Tschechischen Republik 2010.)





Aktualisierungen seit 26. Januar 2011:



Algeria - Geography of Algeria - History of Algeria - French conquest of Algeria 1830-1847 - French Algeria 1830-1962 - Algerian War of Independence 1954-1962 - Demographics of Algeria
Economy of Algeria: Economy of Algeria - main industries include petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing, steel - Companies of Algeria by industry - Companies of Algeria
Mining in Algeria: Mining industry of Algeria
Energy in Algeria: Energy in Algeria - Fossil fuels in Algeria - Natural gas fields in Algeria - Natural gas pipelines in Algeria
Petroleum in Algeria: Petroleum in Algeria - Oil fields in Algeria
Electric power in Algeria: Electric power in Algeria - List of power stations in Algeria
Nuclear energy in Algeria: Nuclear energy in Algeria
Renewable energy in Algeria: Renewable energy in Algeria ranges from hydropower, solar and wind energy - Solar power in Algeria
Agriculture in Algeria: Agriculture in Algeria - products include cotton, tobacco, olive (fruit and oil), figs, dates, esparto grass, cork, and oat
Algerian wine: Algerian wine
Water supply and sanitation in Algeria: Water supply and sanitation in Algeria - Water privatization in Algeria
Tourism in Algeria: Tourism in Algeria - Visitor attractions in Algeria - World Heritage Sites in Algeria
Military of Algeria: Military of Algeria - Military history of Algeria
Taxation in Algeria: Taxation in Algeria
Politics of Algeria: Politics of Algeria - Algerian Constitution, first adopted by a referendum in 1963 following the Algerian War of Independence 1954–1962, last modified in 2008 and in 2016
Political parties in Algeria: Political parties in Algeria - List of political parties in Algeria
1954-1962 Algerian War of Independence: Algerian War of Independence, or the Algerian Revolution, was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France
1991-2002 Algerian Civil War: Algerian Civil War 1991-2002 - Massacres during the Algerian Civil War - Algerian massacres of the 1990s
Elections and parliament in Algeria: Elections in Algeria - Council of the Nation - People's National Assembly
2012: Algerian legislative election 10 May 2012 - 10 mai: Pour la première fois depuis le printemps arabe, les Algériens sont appelés aux urnes - 12 May: FLN won 220 out of 462 seats, RND came second with 68 seats and Green Algeria, a three-party Islamist alliance, came third with 48 seats
2013: 17 November 2013: Algeria’s President Bouteflika to run for 4th term
17 April 2014 Algerian presidential election: Algerian presidential election 17 April 2014 - 18 April: Algeria's Bouteflika wins a fourth presidential term taking more than 81% of the vote, but turnout is said to be 51.7% of the country's 23 million registered voters down from the 75% in 2009
May 2017 Algerian legislative election: 4 May 2017 Algerian legislative election - 5 May 2017: Algeria's ruling coalition wins majority in parliament
Social movements and protests in Algeria: Protests in Algeria
2011/2012: Algerian protests 2011-2012 - 2011 Algerian self-immolations - 30. April 2011: Unruhen nach versuchter Selbstverbrennung in Algerien
2013: 14 March 2013: Estimated 10.000 gather in the desert town of Ouarglain to protest lack of employment opportunities and corruption in oil-rich region, chanting 'the people want the downfall of corruption' - 4 August: About 300 people in the Kabylie region joined a public lunch on Saturday to protest persecution of people who refuse to observe the religious fast during Ramadan
Society, demographics. culture and human rights in Algeria: Algerian society
Human rights in Algeria: Human rights in Algeria
Religion and freedom of religion in Algeria: Religion in Algeria - Since 647 Muslim conquest of the Maghreb - Berbers and Islam - Freedom of religion in Algeria
2017: 25 August 2017: Algeria’s Ahmadis, pacifist Muslim sect, accused of heresy by Islamist extremists and targeted by the authorities, forced to go underground to worshipis
Provinces, districts and municipalities of Algeria: 48 Provinces of Algeria - 547 Districts of Algeria - 1,541 Communes (municipalities) of Algeria
List of cities in Algeria: List of cities in Algeria
Algiers: Algiers Province - Algiers, located on the Mediterranean Sea, is the capital and largest city of Algeria, an estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000 inhabitants - Timeline of Algiers since 3rd century BC - History of Algiers - Battle and bombardments of Algiers since 1510 - 1830 Bombardmen and invasion of Algiers by the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X - Algiers during the Algerian War of Independence - 1956-1957 Battle of Algiers between the National Liberation Front and the French colonial forces
Oran: Oran coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria, the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance
Demographics of Algeria: Demographics of Algeria - Ethnic groups in Algeria, including Berbers, Arabs, French people, Turks and Saharan Africans - Arab-Berber make up a majority of about 99% of Algeria's inhabitants, only a minority identify themselves as Berber, although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin and not Arab)
Arabs in Algeria: Arabs in Algeria - Arab Berber - Arabized Berber
Berbers: Berbers ethnolinguistic group indigenous to North Africa - Berbers in Algeria - Berberism, a Berber political-cultural movement of ethnic, geographic, or cultural nationalism - Algerian nationalism and Algerianism, one during the French colonial era, and another one after the independence of Algeria
Since 1st century CE Jews and history of the Jews in Algeria: History of the Jews in Algeria, dating to the 1st century CE - Berber Jews - 1934 Constantine pogrom, an anti-Jewish riot that erupted in the Algerian city of Constantine - Holocaust in Algeria under the Vichy regime since 1940 - Persecution of Jews following Algerian Independence Algeria, only 50 Jews remained in Algeria in the 1990s
Turks in Algeria: Turks in Algeria
Culture of Algeria: Culture of Algeria - Languages of Algeria - Algerian Arabic derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria - Berber languages - Algerian literature
World Heritage Sites in Algeria
Women in Algeria: Women in Algeria - Polygamy in Algeria
Education in Algeria: Education in Algeria
Health in Algeria: Health in Algeria
Media of Algeria: Media of Algeria - Censorship in Algeria
Newspapers in Algeria: Newspapers in Algeria
Algerian broadcasting: Algerian broadcasting - Entreprise nationale de télévision - Nessma TV - Entreprise nationale de Radiodiffusion sonore
Internet in Algeria: Internet in Algeria
Crime in Algeria: Crime in Algeria - Human trafficking in Algeria
Terrorism in Algeria: Terrorism in Algeria
Al-Qaida au Maghreb islamique: Al-Qaida au Maghreb islamique - 27 août 2011: Attentat suicide meurtrière à l'entrée de l'école militaire de Cherchell
In Aménas hostage crisis January 2013: In Aménas hostage crisis January 2013 - 17 janvier 2013: Dans une attaque meurtrière des islamistes ont pris en otage 41 Occidentaux sur un site gazier, demandant 'l’arrêt immédiat' des opérations françaises au Mali - 17 January: Algeria troops surround Islamist hostage-takers - 18 January: Fate of hostages unclear after reports that at least 30 were killed in military operation that ended a 36-hour standoff - 19 January 2013: While Algerian media says hundreds of hostages have been freed at the remote In Amenas desert gas facility, an American, a French, two British and two Japanese hostages have been confirmed dead and nations with hostages being held by militants express concern at the ongoing siege - 19 janvier: L'ultime assaut lancé par les forces spéciales algériennes à In Amenas - 20 January: Final assault on gas plant 'In Amenas' putting a bloody end to a stand-off that left at least 23 hostages and 32 militants dead, the Algerian government says - 21 janvier: Témoignages de rescapés: 'Ils ont mis une bombe sur lui, comme un collier'
2014: 24 September 2014: French tourist mountain guide Hervé Gourdel beheaded in Algeria by Isis-linked jihadis
2015: 19 July 2015: At least 11 Algerian soldiers were killed after they were attacked by Islamist militant gunmen west of the capital Algiers
Foreign relations of Algeria: Foreign relations of Algeria
Algeria/Angola relations: Algerian/Angola relations
Algeria/France relations: Algeria/France relations - French rule in Algeria - Algerian War of Independence
French nuclear test site Reggane - France and weapons of mass destruction - French nuclear weapons
Post-colonial relations: Post-colonial relations
11 avril 2012: Ahmed Ben Bella, le premier président de l'Algérie indépendante, est décédé mercredi à Alger à l'âge de 95 ans - 15 juillet: Pour sa première visite dans un pays arabe Laurent Fabius en Algérie - au premier plan le passé et le Mali - 20 December 2012: Visiting Algeria French President Hollande refuses to apologise for Algerian colonial past - 20 December 2012: President Hollande tells Algeria's parliament French rule in Algeria was 'brutal and unfair' - 24 September 2014: French tourist mountain guide Hervé Gourdel beheaded in Algeria by Isis-linked jihadis
Algeria/Germany relations: Algeria/Germany relations
Since 1940/2017: 24 August 2017: Algeria, under the control of German client regime Vichy France since 1940, was introducing a series of anti-Semitic laws which stripped Jews of their French citizenship, barred Jewish children from public schools, and prevented Jewish doctors, lawyers, pharmacists and other professionals from working in their trades
Algeria/Israel relations: Algeria/Israel relations
Algeria/Japan relations: Algeria/Japan relations - 19 January 2013: While Algerian media says hundreds of hostages have been freed at the remote In Amenas desert gas facility, an American, a French, two British and two Japanese hostages have been confirmed dead and nations with hostages being held by militants express concern at the ongoing siege
Algeria/Libya relations: Algeria/Libya relations - 7 septembre: Renforcement d'instabilité du Sahel depuis l'arrivée de combattants kadhafistes - conférence à Alger
Algeria/Mali relations: Algeria/Mali relations
2012/2013: 2 September 2012: Islamist militant group in Mali says it has killed one of the Algerian diplomats it seized five months ago - January 2013 In Amenas hostage crisis - 17 January 2013: At least two people killed and dozens abducted by terrorists in a raid near an Algerian gas field, demanding end to French operations in Mali
2014: Air Algérie Flight 5017 crash on 24 July 2014 - 25 July 2014: Wreckage of an Air Algerie plane missing with 116 people on board found in Mali's Gossi region
Algeria/Morocco relations: Algeria/Morocco relations
Algeria/Niger relations: Algeria/Niger relations
Algeria/SADR relations: Algeria/Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations - RASD TV Sahrawi state-owned broadcaster located in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf Province Algeria
Algeria/Tunisia relations: Algeria/Tunisia relations - 24 August 2015: A Tunisian border guard was killed and three wounded on Sunday in a shootout with jihadists on the border with Algeria
Algeria/United Kingdom relations: Algeria/United Kingdom relations - 18 January 2013: The hostage crisis at a gas facility operated by the Algerian state oil company along with BP and Norway's Statoil, where Islamist militants were holding foreign hostages has yet to be resolved, the UK says
Algeria/USA relations: Algeria/USA relations - 29 October: In a bid to win Algerian support for an intervention in northern Mali, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met with Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika - 19 January 2013: While Algerian media says hundreds of hostages have been freed at the remote In Amenas desert gas facility, an American, a French, two British and two Japanese hostages have been confirmed dead and nations with hostages being held by militants express concern at the ongoing siege
Algeria/Vietnam relations: Algeria/Vietnam relations
2015: 3 June 2015: Vietnam and Algeria agree to increase bilateral trade from US$250 million to US$1 billion in the coming years
2017: 20 July 2017: Vietnam’s export revenue to Algeria rose 37% year-on-year to US$190 million in the first half of 2017, including export of coffee, telephones and rice
Environment of Algeria: Environment of Algeria - Natural history of Algeria - Geology of Algeria - Climate and hydrology in Algeria - Deserts of Algeria
Ecoregions of Algeria: List of ecoregions in Algeria
Water in Algeria: Water in Algeria - Bodies of water of Algeria - Rivers of Algeria
Environmental issues in Algeria: Current environmental issues in Algeria
Natural disasters in Algeria: Natural disasters in Algeria
Climate change, heatwaves and droughts in Algeria:
2015: 24 August 2015: As Algeria is not responsible for a large amount of greenhouse gases, it will still suffer greatly from the impact of climate change as heatwaves are on the rise in the country due to climate change, expert says
Earthquakes in Algeria: Earthquakes in Algeria


Bahrain - Geography of Bahrain - History of Bahrain - Demographics of Bahrain
Economy of Bahrain: Economy of Bahrain - main industries include petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism - List of companies of Bahrain
Bahrain Petroleum Company - Banagas
List of banks in Bahrain
Agriculture in Bahrain: Agriculture in Bahrain
Trade unions in Bahrain: Trade unions in Bahrain - 12 January 2013: Firefighters locate remains of 13 people in three-storey building that caught fire at labour camp in Manama - 12 January: Eleven Bangladeshi workers were among the 13 killed in a fire that gutted a labour camp in Manama
Military of Bahrain: Military of Bahrain
Politics of Bahrain: Politics of Bahrain - King of Bahrain 2002–Present - Cabinet of Bahrain
Political parties in Bahrain: Political parties in Bahrain
Bahraini opposition: Bahraini opposition - Bahrain Freedom Movement - February 14 Youth Coalition since 2011 - National Democratic Action Society - Progressive Democratic Tribune
National Assembly of Bahrain: National Assembly of Bahrain - 40 royally-appointed members of the Consultative Council, the upper house - Bahraini general election December 2010 - 22 November 2014 Bahraini general election
Protests, social and political movements and repression in Bahrain: Protests in Bahrain
March/April 1965 uprising and independence of Bahrain in 1971: March/April 1965 Intifada, uprising calling for the end of the British presence in Bahrain, sparked by the laying-off of hundreds of Bahraini workers at the Bahrain Petroleum Company on 5 March 1965, resulting in the independence of Bahrain in 1971
1990s uprising in Bahrain: 1990s uprising in Bahrainan between 1994 and 1999 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces to demand democratic reforms and the reinstatement of parliament
2011-present Bahraini protests and uprising: Bahraini protests and uprising 2011–present - Timeline of the 2011/2012 Bahraini uprising
April 2011: 3 April 2011: Bahrein bans main opposition newspaper - 28 April: Bahrein sentences protesters to death
June 2011: 2 June: Security forces attack Bahraini protesters
July 2011: 1 July: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought - Bahrain opposition to join dialogue process 2 July - 17 July: Opposition 'quits Bahrain-talks' - Human Rights Watch report: Violence to stop protesters from receiving treatment - doctors and nurses targeted - Protesters reject Bahrain dialogue results July 29
August 2011: 13 August 2011: Bahrains's main opposition Al-Wefaq to boycott September 24 by-polls demanding a representative, elected parliament and civil rights - 31 August: Bahraini teenage boy killed in protest by police
September 2011: 1 September: Thousands march at Bahraini boy's funeral - 2 September: Bahrain medics go on hunger strike over trials - 3 September: More detainees join Bahrain hunger strike - 17 September: Bahrain forces fire tear gas at funeral - 23 September: Again Bahrain forces fire tear gas on protesters - 29 September: Bahrain sentences medics who treated protesters - 29 September: Medics who treated protesters jailed for 5,10 and 15 years
October 2011: 2. Oktober: Internationale Kritik an Sondergericht in Bahrain - verurteilte Ärzte fordern UN-Untersuchung - 3 October: 36 Bahrainis given prison sentences of between 15 and 25 years for taking part in rallies - 5 October: Bahrain retrial for 20 medics jailed over protests as 19 more activists are jailed over protests - 8 October: US politicians seek to halt Bahrain arms deal - 18 October: US plan to sell more weapons to Bahrain - 20 October: US suspends Bahrain arms deal ahead of probe
November 2011: 4. November: Panzerfahrzeuge und Tränengas gegen Trauerzug für einen nach Oppositionsangaben durch Polizeigewalt getöteten Mann - 23 November: Commission says in a report accepted by government that Bahrain forces used 'excessive force' and tortured detainees in 2011 - 24 November: Police fire tear gas and rubber bullets as around 2000 Bahrainis protest against monarchy in the wake of the report into government human-rights abuses
January 2012: 7 January: Bahraini activist beaten by 'riot police' - NZZ 7. Januar 2012: Tausende trotzen dem Demonstationsverbot in Manama am Samstag - 10 January: Thousands Bahrainis protest outside the UN's office in Manama calling for intervention to protect civilians - 26 January: Bahrain confirms teen Mohammed Yaaqub died in police custody - opposition says cause of death war torture
February 2012: 4 February: Bahrain protests grow ahead of anniversary - 14 February: Bahrain police repel protesters in Manama
March 2012: 9 March: Tens of thousands of Bahrainis have demonstrated outside the capital Manama demanding reform and more democracy - 13 March: Bahrain added to web censorship blacklist - 23 March: Activists and opposition supporters demonstrate in locations across nation to demand equal rights for Shias
April 2012: 6 April: Thousands protest in support of hunger striker Abdulhadi al-Khawaja moved to army hospital after nearly two months - 18 April: Thousands of pro-democracy protesters marched through a village outside the Bahraini capital on Wednesday - 20 April: Thousands of Bahrain Formula One race protesters dispersed - 21 April: Protester Salah Abbas Habib killed during Bahrain clashes - 22. April: Proteste in Bahrain vor Formel-1-Rennspektakel, der Demonstrant Salah Abbas Habib tot und eilige königliche Versprechungen - 23 April: Funeral for killed Salah Abbas Habib and thousands of protesters as Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case - 30 April: Jailed opposition activist Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja is to have his case retried, an appeal court has ruled
May 2012:4. Mai: Tausende fordern in Bahrain Reformen und Wahl einer Regierung - 11. Mai: Erneut Gewalt gegen Demonstranten, die die Freilassung inhaftierter Oppositioneller fordern - 19 May: Tens of thousands Bahrain protesters decry unity plans with Saudis - 28 May: Bahrain activist Al-Khawaja to end hunger strike following the release on bail of detained activist, Nabeel Rajab - 28 May: Bahrain activist Rajab released on bail
June 2012: 8 June: Police break up pro-democracy mass protests in Bahrain - 12 June: An 11-year-old boy chased down while playing in street and detained for nearly a month describes his time in custody, saying that police accused him of taking part in violent protests - 14 June: Bahrain court convicts medics for role in uprising - 27 June: Three policemen accused of killing three people during pro-democracy protests
July 2012: 10 July: Jail for Bahrain protest leader over tweet - 12 July: Huge crowds throng funerals for two Shia demonstrators killed by security forces in rallies following arrest of cleric
August 2012: 3 August: Activists say Zainab al-Khawaja was held along with dozens of protesters demanding political reforms in Gulf kingdom - 16 August: Bahraini activist Nabeel Rajab jailed for three years - 18 August: 16-year-old Husam al-Haddad died of injuries suffered after he was beaten by security forces in a confrontation late Friday night - 31 August: Tens of thousands join protest demanding release of prisoners and chanting anti-government slogans
September 2012: 4. Dezember: Manama Strafgericht verurteilt sieben bahrainische Regimegegner wegen ihrer Beteiligung an Strassenprotesten im Februar 2011 zu lebenslangen Haftstrafen - 8 September: Police fire tear gas at protesters calling for prisoner releases in Manama - 18 September: Seven lieutenants are charged with torturing Shia medics to obtain confessions - 29 September: Seventeen-year-old dies after police fire shotgun pellets at anti-government rally in Manama - 29 September: Police opens fire to disperse angry Shiite protesters following the funeral of the youth who was shot dead a day before
October 2012: 2 October: Bahrain medics jailed after losing appeal - 3 October: Rights activist Zainab al-Khawaja released from prison after a two-month jail term in an ongoing arbitrary political prosecution - 3 October: Protesters clashed with riot police after the funeral of a man jailed for taking part in last year's pro-democracy demonstrations - 6 October: Police use water cannon and tear gas to disperse mainly Shia protesters after memorial for Mohammed Ali Ahmed Mushaima who died in jail - 12 October: Police fire teargas and stun grenades to disperse hundreds of stone-throwing anti-government protesters - 30 October: Interior ministry imposed emergency-style rules banning all protest gatherings and threatening legal action against groups considered backing escalating demonstrations and clashes
November 2012: 2 November: Small demonstrations in support of a jailed opposition leader break out three days after the monarchy forbids them - 11 November: Government deploys paramilitaries to patrol city
December 2012: 1 December: Bahraini police fired tear gas and stun bombs to break up protests overnight in Shiite-populated villages around Manama, leading to arrests and injuries - 10 December: A court has sentenced pro-democracy activist Zainab al-Khawaja to one month in prison
January 2013: 7 January: Bahrain's highest appeal court has upheld the sentences of 13 activists for their part in anti-government protests last year
February 2013: 10 February: Bahrain crisis talks to begin as Shiite envoys remain wary of opening a process that they believe has no chance of reaching their goals: forcing the ruling monarchy to give up its monopoly on power and allow an elected government - 14 February: 16-year-old Hussain al-Jaziri shot at close range and killed during a protest in Al-Daih near Manama, marking the second anniversary of the country's pro-democracy rallies
March 2013: 14 March 2013: Anti-government protesters clash with riot police, two years after Saudi-led force quelled Gulf island's uprising - 28 March: Defence lawyer says, 21 medical personnel have been cleared of charges linked to anti-government protests but cases remain open against two others
April 2013: 21 April: Ongoing pro-democracy protests against Formula One Grand Prix 2013
May 2013: 10 May: The blogger Ali Abdulemam has been smuggled out of the troubled Gulf kingdom and taken refuge in the UK
2016: 2 avril 2016: Après le soulèvement de 2011 sur fond de printemps arabes, la répression dénoncée par les opposants se poursuit à Bahreïn - 13 June 2016: Bahrain detains rights activist Nabeel Rajab in raid that coincides with UN meeting in Geneva, as other activists were barred from attending and as UN official criticises repression - 18 July 2016: Bahraini authorities have stepped up their pressure on Nazeeha Saeed, the France24 correspondent who was detained and tortured 2011, now prosecuted for 'illegal reporting' on behalf of foreign media in what appears to be a renewed crackdown on free expression
2017: 26 January 2017: Bahraini human rights activist Nabeel Rajab accused at a court hearing, from which he and his lawyer were excluded, is facing a lengthy prison sentence simply for stating that journalists and international NGOs cannot enter Bahrain - 6 March 2017: Justice ministry files lawsuit to dissolve secular Wa’ad group, the main opposition party, and transfers many civilian judicial cases to a military court, amid fresh crackdown on dissent and human rights
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bahrain: Bahraini society - Demographics of Bahrain
Human rights in Bahrain: Human rights in Bahrain
2017: 15 April 2017: If F1 can't help protect ordinary Bahrainis, stop the grand prix, Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy's Alwadaei says, as the race exacerbates the human rights abuses that take place in Bahrain, with any protest or criticism being silenced to protect financial interests
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bahrain: Demographics of Bahrain - Ethnic groups in Bahrain - Ethnic, cultural and religious groups of Bahrain
Bahrani people: Bahrani people
Filipinos in Bahrain: Filipinos in Bahrain
Indians in Bahrain: Indians in Bahrain, today numbering at an estimated 400,000 people or 31% out of the country's total population of 1.3 million, making them the largest expatriate group in the country
Pakistanis in Bahrain: Pakistanis in Bahrain
Culture of Bahrain and religion: Culture of Bahrain - Religion in Bahrain
Women in Bahrain: Women in Bahrain - Polygamy - legal in Bahrain - Women's rights in Bahrain
Education in Bahrain: Education in Bahrain
Health in Bahrain: Health in Bahrain
Media of Bahrain: Media of Bahrain - Newspapers in Bahrain
Internet in Bahrain: Internet in Bahrain - Internet surveillance and filtering - Arrested bloggers in Bahrain
Crime in Bahrain: Crime in Bahrain
Torture and police brutality in Bahrain: Torture in Bahrain
2012: 29 April 2012: Bahrain's police continues to beat and torture detainees including minors, Human Rights Watch says
2011/2016: 30 May 2011 - 20 January 2016: France 24 correspondent Nazeeha Saeed tortured for covering pro-democracy demonstrations
Prisons in Bahrain: Prisons in Bahrain
Corruption in Bahrain: Corruption in Bahrain
Human trafficking in Bahrain: Human trafficking in Bahrain
Foreign relations of Bahrain: Foreign relations of Bahrain
International reactions to the 2011-2013 Bahraini uprising
Bahrain/Iran relations: Arab-Iran relations: Bahrain - Safavid dynasty, Shia Islam state religion and Safavid rule in Bahrain 1602–1717
Bahrain/Oman relations: 1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain
Bahrain/Pakistan relations: Bahrain/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in the Middle East - Pakistanis in Bahrain
Bahrain/Portugal relations: Portuguese rule in Bahrain 1521-1602
Bahrain/Philippines relations: Filipinos in Bahrain
Bahrain/Saudi Arabia relations: Bahrain/Saudi Arabia relations - Bani Utbah federation of Arab tribes, which originated from Najd - 1783 Bani Utbah invasion of Bahrain - House of Khalifa, the ruling family of Bahrain and belonging to the Utub tribe that migrated from Najd to Kuwait in the early 18th century
Bahrain/United Kingdom relations: Bahrain/United Kingdom relations - Signing the General Maritime Treaty with the United Kingdom in 1820, Bahrain became a British protectorate - General Maritime Treaty of 1820 - After a plebiscite Bahrain declared independence on 15 August 1971
Bahrain/USA relations: Bahrain/USA relations - 12 May 2012: USA partially resumes military supplies to Gulf Arab ally Bahrain


Djibouti - Geography of Djibouti - History of Djibouti - Demographics of Djibouti
Economy of Djibouti: Economy of Djibouti is derived in large part from its strategic location on the Red Sea, unemployment is extremely high - main industries are dairy, fishing, salt, construction, mining - List of companies based in Djibouti
Mining in Djibouti
Djibouti Armed Forces: Djibouti Armed Forces - Military history of Djibouti
Politics of Djibouti: Politics of Djibouti - Political parties in Djibouti
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: Afars and Issas independence referendum 8 May 1977
2011 Djiboutian presidential election: Djiboutian presidential election 2011
February 2013 Djiboutian parliamentary election: Djiboutian parliamentary election 22 February 2013
April 2016 Djiboutian presidential election: 8 April 2016 Djiboutian presidential election - 9 April: Djibouti incumbent president Guelleh wins a fourth five-year term, according to provisional results
Social movements and protests in Djibouti:
2011 Djiboutian protests: 2011 Djiboutian protests
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Djibouti: Djiboutian society - Demographics of Djibouti
Culture of Djibouti: Culture of Djibouti - Languages of Djibouti - Somali language - Afar language - Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic - Arabic language - French language
Education in Djibouti: Education in Djibouti
Health in Djibouti: Health in Djibouti
Djiboutian media: Djiboutian media
Human rights in Djibouti: Human rights in Djibouti - Religion in Djibouti
Minority and women's rights in Djibouti: Minority and women's rights - Polygamy in Djibouti
Crime in Djibouti: Crime in Djibouti
Human trafficking in Djibouti: Human trafficking in Djibouti
Law enforcement in Djibouti: Law enforcement in Djibouti
Foreign relations of Djibouti: Foreign relations of Djibouti
Djibouti/China relations: Djibouti/China relations
2015: 7 December 2015: China plans to build its first overseas military outpost in the east African nation of Djibouti, a move analysts say is part of a broader global economic and political strategy and reflects Chinese interests in Africa
Since 2017 Chinese naval base in Djibouti: Chinese naval base in Djibouti
July 2017: 12 July 2017: China sends troops to open first overseas military base in Djibouti
Djibouti/Eritrea relations: Djibouti/Eritrea relations - Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict June 2008
Djibouti/Ethiopia relations: Djibouti/Ethiopia relations - Ethio-Djibouti Railways jointly owned by the governments of Ethiopia and Djibouti, since 1977 after Djibouti gained independence
Djibouti/France relations: Djibouti/France relations - Djibouti colony of France since 1862, independenc in 1977, the largest French military base in Africa is located in Djibouti's territorial waters in the Red Sea - French Territory of the Afars and the Issas 1967-1977
Djibouti/Somalia relations: Djibouti/Somalia relations
Djibouti/USA relations: Djibouti/USA relations - 'Camp Lemonnier' USA Naval Expeditionary Base, the only permanent USA military base in Africa, situated at Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport and home to the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa
Djibouti/Yemen relations: Djibouti/Yemen relations - Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic


Egypt - History of Egypt - Geography of Egypt - Ancient Egyptian agriculture - Recent history of Egypt - Demographics of Egypt
Economy of Egypt: Economy of Egypt - main industries include textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures - Companies of Egypt by industry
Manufacturing in Egypt: Manufacturing companies of Egypt - List of companies of Egypt
Military industry in Egypt: Egyptian military industry
Transport in Egypt: Transport in Egypt
Suez Canal: Suez Canal - 1 September 2013: Suez Canal Authority says attack attempted on container ship - 1 September 2013: Egypt arrests three who machine-gunned ship in Suez Canal and captures suspected mastermind of ambush that killed 25 police in Sinai - 6 August 2014: Egypt to build second, parallel Suez Canal
Telecommunications in Egypt: Telecommunications in Egypt
Tourism in Egypt: Tourism in Egypt - Impact of Egypt's Revolution on Tourism - 19 June 2013: Egypt’s tourism minister resigns over appointment of new governor of Luxor province Al-Khayat, who is linked to Islamic militant's Al-Gamaa Al-Islamiya, the group behind the Luxor massacre 1997 - 30 June 2013: Morsi’s policies failed to revive Egypt's suffering tourism sector - 11 February 2014: Egypt's tourism industry is battling to recover from its 'worst year in modern history', after millions of tourists were put off visiting resorts and heritage sites in 2013
2015/2016: 18 September 2015: Egyptian forces bombed a convoy of Mexican tourists about five times over a period of three hours, even after local security forces on the ground had stopped them twice and cleared their passage, according to a survivor - 9 January 2016: Police kill attacker as 3 tourists stabbed at Egyptian resort
Banking in Egypt: Central Bank of Egypt - List of banks in Egypt
Egypt's state budget and crisis:
2011-2012: Deficit in 2011-12 budget revised to 8,6% - 22 August 2012: Egypt requests IMF loan
2013: 5 January 2013: Egypt's uprising against the regime of Mubarak has not been accompanied by an economic boom - 15 April 2013: 9.5% deficit forecast for Egypt's 2013/14 state budget - 16 May 2013: Egypt sees major decline in consumer confidence in Q1/2013 - 3 June 2013: Egypt’s budget deficit estimated to hit EGP 197.5bn by end of June
Agriculture in Egypt: Agriculture in Egypt - Category: Agriculture in Egypt
2013: 2 October 2013: Egypt aims for revolution in desert farming promoting 'Aquaponics', an ancient form of cultivation that originated with the Aztecs and enables farmers to increase yields by growing plants and farming fish in the same closed freshwater system - Aquaponics
Irrigation in Egypt: Irrigation in Egypt
Water supply, management and sanitation in Egypt: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt - Water resources management in modern Egypt - Alexandria Water Company
Water in Egypt: Water in Egypt - Bodies of water of Egypt - List of rivers of Egypt - there is only one year-round river in Egypt, the Nile
Nile: Nile - Nile basin - Nile Basin Initiative - Water politics in the Nile Basin
Aswan Dam, Lake Nasser, irrigation projects: Aswan Dam - Aswan Low Dam
Lake Nasser
Three mega-projects were initiated in the mid-1990s to irrigate so-called 'New Lands' outside the Nile River Valley - The North Sinai Development Project
New Valley Project
Poverty, income distribution and unemployment in Egypt: Poverty and income distribution in Egypt - 25 July 2013: Unemployment Rate in Egypt increased to 13.20 percent in the first quarter of 2013
Foreign Trade of Egypt: Foreign Trade of Egypt - 23 July 2013: The European Union, traditionally Egypt's main trading partner, covering 23% of Egypt's trade volume in 2012 and ranking first both as Egypt's import and export partner
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Egypt: Egyptian society
Human rights in Egypt: Human rights in Egypt
Demographics of Egypt: Demographics of Egypt
Ethnic groups in Egypt: Egyptian people by ethnic or national origin - Ethnic minorities in Egypt include Bedouin Arab tribes of the Sinai Peninsula and the eastern desert, the Berber-speaking community of the Siwa Oasis and the Nubian people along the southern Nile - Immigrants to Egypt
Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt: Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt
Syrian refugees in Egypt: Syrian Refugees in Egypt, caused by Assad's war against the Syrian people and the Arab Spring movement since 2011
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response'
2016/2017: 26 March 2017: A court in Egypt has sentenced 56 people to prison terms of up to 14 years over a boat that capsized on 21 September 2016, killing more than 200 onboard as about 170 passengers were rescued
Culture and languages in Egypt: Culture of Egypt - Languages of Egypt - Egyptian Arabic - Varieties of Arabic - Egyptian language - Coptic language
Women, polygamy and women's rights in Egypt: Women in Egypt - Polygamy in Egypt - Women's rights in Egypt - Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights
12 November 2013: Sexual harassment, high rates of female genital cutting and a surge in violence and Islamist feeling after the Arab Spring uprisings have made Egypt the worst country in the Arab world to be a woman, a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey says - 14 March 2014: A doctor and the father of 13-year-old Sohair al-Bata'a are the first to be prosecuted in Egypt for deadly practice of FGM - 6 June 2014: Egypt makes sexual harassment of women a crime for the first time but campaigners remain concerned about whether the law will be enforced by police - 16 July 2014: Egyptian court jails 7 men for life for sexually assaulting several women during a rally in Tahrir Square on 8 June - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says
Women's role in the Egyptian revolution since 2011: Women's role in the Egyptian revolution since 2011 - 13 December 2013: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood turns to sisters in fight against government in 2013 - 2 March 2014: First woman to head a political party in Egypt says it proves the revolution has changed attitudes
Children's rights in Egypt: Children's rights in Egypt - Child right's non-governmental organization 'Plan Egypt'
Education in Egypt: Education in Egypt - Universities in Egypt
Healthcare in Egypt: Healthcare in Egypt
Religion and freedom of religion in Egypt: Religion in Egypt - Freedom of religion in Egypt
2013: 17 June 2013: A Cairo court sentenced an Egyptian Muslim preacher to 11 years in jail for blasphemy for burning a Bible during a protest last year outside the US embassy
2015: 23 February 2015: Head of Al-Azhar muslim cleric Ahmed al-Tayeb urges education reform to counter extremism saying that there is a link between extremism and bad interpretations of the Koran
Religiously motivated violence and suicide bombings in Egypt: Religiously motivated violence in Egypt - 19 août 2013: Les attaques contre la minorité chrétienne d’Égypte se sont multipliées depuis la dispersion sanglante des manifestations pro-Morsi - 21 October 2013: Gunmen riding a motorbike shot and killed three people, including an 8-year-old girl, when they fired on a group leaving a wedding at a Coptic Christian church in Cairo late on Sunday
Terrorism in Egypt - Suicide bombings in Egypt
Freedom of speech and repression in Egypt: Freedom of speech in Egypt
2013: 1 April 2013: Popular Egyptian TV satirist Bassem Youssef released on bail after turning himself in for questioning over allegations he insulted Islam and Mohamed Morsi - 3 June 2013: Opposition youth activist Ahmed Duma sentenced by a Cairo court to 6 months in prison for insulting Morsi
2015: 12 August 2015: Human rights groups fear for rule of law in Egypt as lawyer Karim Hamdy died after two days in police detention, having signs of torture including broken ribs and bleeding in the brain
Media in Egypt: Media in Egypt - Radio stations in Egypt - Television in Egypt - Egyptian Radio and Television Union, operated by the Egyptian government
2013: 2 November 2013: Channel suspends satirist Bassem Youssef's show after he pokes fun at army chief
2013/2014: 9 July 2013: Qatari-owned media company Al-Jazeera saw 22 members of its staff in Egypt resign on Monday over biased Egypt coverage - 11 February 2014: Al-Jazeera correspondent's trial set for next week, charged with having links to the Muslim Brotherhood and airing false news - 5 June 2014: Egyptian prosecutors seek 15-year prison sentence for Al Jazeera journalists - 16 June: Egypt to free Al Jazeera journalist on hunger strike - 23 June: Egypt court sentences Qatar-based Al-Jazeera journalists to seven years for 'publishing lies' - 2 November 2014: Several hundred Egyptian journalists reject declaration by newspaper editors pledging support to government and banning criticism of police and army - 29 December 2014: Protests outside Egyptian embassy in London against imprisonment of journalists one year behind bars
2015: 1 January 2015: Egyptian court cancels jail sentences against three Al Jazeera journalists - 1 February: Australian journalist Greste released from a Cairo jail and left Egypt for his native country - 25 June: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990 - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says - 29 August 2015: Australian journalist Greste as well as his two Qatar-based Al Jazeera colleagues Canadian-Egyptian Fahmy and Baher Mohamed found guilty and sentenced to at least three years jail for broadcasting material harmful to Egypt and operating with no press license
2016: 7 May 2016: Egyptian court seeks death penalty against three journalists Alaa Omar Sablan, Ibrahim Mohammed Helal, and Asmaa al-Khateeb
Newspapers in Egypt: Newspapers in Egypt - 29 January 2015: Egyptian state newspaper office destroyed in 'Islamic State' affiliate's el-Arish attack, six people dead - 11 March 2015: Censors have forced regime-friendly Egyptian newspaper Al-Watan to rewrite its front-page after it claimed that key state institutions and politicians owe billions of Egyptian pounds in taxes
Internet and censorship: Internet in Egypt - Internet censorship - Internet censorship in the Arab Spring
Crime in Egypt: Crime in Egypt
Corruption in Egypt: Corruption in Egypt - 5 December 2012: Annual Corruption Perceptions Index says Egypt had fallen six places to 118th out of 176 countries as levels of bribery, abuse of power and secret dealings remain high
Human trafficking in Egypt: Human trafficking in Egypt
Terrorism in Egypt: Terrorism in Egypt - Terrorist incidents in Egypt by year - Suicide bombings in Egypt - Timeline of the Sinai insurgency 2011-2015
2011-2014: 2011 Alexandria bombing - 17 August 2013: Brother of al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri arrested in Egypt - December 2013 Mansoura bombing - 24 décembre 2013: Au moins 14 personnes tuées et une centaine d'autres blessées dans un attentat contre la police à Mansoura - 25 December 2013: An Al-Qaeda-inspired group based in Sinai claims Mansura police headquarters suicide bombing - 24 January 2014 Cairo bombings
2015: Terrorist incidents in Egypt in 2015 - 23 August 2015: With ongoing terrorism, journalists and activists jailed and a new terrorism law in effect, a culture of fear is growing in Egypt
2016: 8 January 2016 Hurghada attack, as two Islamic State terrorists armed with a melee weapon and a signal flare stormed a hotel in Hurghada, stabbing three foreign tourists from Austria and Sweden - 11 December 2016 Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral bombing - 11 December 2016: Cairo's main Coptic cathedral bomb blast kills at least 25 people and injures dozens
April/May 2017: 9 April 2017 Palm Sunday twin suicide bombings, detonating at St. George’s Church in Tanta on the Nile delta and Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Alexandria and killing at least 45 people and injuring more than 136 - 9 avril 2017: Un attentat à la bombe a fait au moins 13 morts dimanche près d'une église dans la ville de Tanta, au nord du Caire - 9 avril 2017: Un attentat à la bombe a fait au moins 13 morts dimanche près d'une église dans la ville de Tanta, au nord du Caire - 26 May 2017: 23 people were killed and 25 wounded in an attack by gunmen on a bus carrying Coptic Christians south of Cairo
July 2017: 15 July 2017: Two German tourists stabbed to death at Egyptian beach resort, four others wounded
Sinai, Sinai insurgency and terrorism: Sinai insurgency - Sinai Peninsula - South Sinai regional development programme - Ansar Bait al-Maqdis
2004: 2004 Sinai bombings
2011/2012: Operation Eagle 2011/2012 - Operation Sinai since 2012
2013: May 2013 hostage crisis - 22 May 2013: After the intervention of tribal leaders, heavily armed kidnappers released three Egyptian policemen and four soldiers captured last week in the Sinai peninsula - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 6 July: Coptic priest killed in Sinai - 10 juillet: Des attaques dans le Sinaï font deux morts - 15 July: Militants killed at least three people and wounded 17 when they fired on a bus carrying workers in the North Sinai town of Al-Arish - 22 July: Six Egyptians were killed and 11 others wounded in several attacks by militants in the Sinai peninsula near Egypt's borders with Israel and the Palestinian Gaza strip - 24 July: A car bomb exploded near a police base and two soldiers were killed in separate, multiple attacks in the Sinai peninsula - 19 August: Militants kill 24 Egyptian policemen in Sinai - 8 septembre: L'attentat du Caire auquel a échappé le ministre de l'Intérieur revendiqué par des djihadistes du Sinaï - 8 septembre: L'armée égyptienne poursuit ses opérations au Sinaï - 11 September: At least three soldiers were killed and at least 10 others were wounded when a suicide car bomb targeted an intelligence outpost in Egypt’s Sinai - 21 September: Roadside bomb wounds two soldiers in Egypt's Sinai as security forces arrested 16 suspected militants - 27 September: Gunmen kill policeman in Sinai - 10 October: Egypt troops killed in Sinai suicide bomb attack - 21 October: Jihadists claim Egypt canal city car bombing - 6 November: Sniper kills Egypt soldier in Sinai - 20 novembre: Un attentat à la voiture piégée a visé un convoi militaire dans le Sinaï et tué au moins 10 soldats
2014: 25 January 2014: An Al Qaeda-inspired group, based in Sinai Peninsula, claimed responsibility for Friday's Cairo attacks which killed six people
February 2014 Taba bus bombing - 16 February: A bomb attack on a tourist bus in the Sinai peninsula has killed at least three South Korean tourists and an Egyptian driver - 2 May: Suicide bomber kills soldier in Sinai, second blast wounds 3 targeting security checkpoint on road to tourist resort - 21 May: One Egyptian killed and six others injured in a bomb attack on a security vehicle in Sinai, near the Israeli border - 14 July: Militants fire mortar rounds at military post in el-Arish near Israel border, killing a soldier as well as seven civilians, including two children
October 2014 Sinai attacks: October 2014 Sinai attacks - 24 October: Militants killed at least 26 people at a military checkpoint in the northern Sinai peninsula
1 November: Seven Egyptian security personnel were injured on Friday, after a blast near El-Arish - 23 December: Suspected Islamist militants blow up natural gas pipeline in North Sinai
2015: 5 January: Bomb wounds four policemen in Egypt's Sinai - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish - 30 January: 'Islamic State' affiliate claims responsibility for coordinated attacks that struck more than a dozen army and other targets in the three Sinai towns of el-Arish, Sheik Zuwayid and Rafah, killing at least 26 security officers - 1 February: Three women killed as violence continues in Sinai - 6 March: Egyptian military air strikes reportedly killed 25 Islamist militants in Northern Sinai near the town of Sheikh Zuweid over the last two days - 10 March: 25 Egyptian policemen wounded by suicide car bomber targeting compound in the city of el-Arish - 2 April: Gunmen attacked several checkpoints in Sinai, killing at least five soldiers - 12 April: An explosion targeting a military vehicle kills five soldiers near Sheikh Zuweid on Sunday - 20 April: Three Egyptian soldiers killed in blast claimed by ISIS affiliate in Rafah - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 1/2 July: At least 70 Egyptians including soldiers and civilians killed in Islamic State terrorists' offensive in Sinai, as ties to Hamas’ military wing suspected - 9 July: 20 Egyptian policemen wounded in Sinai bombing in the provincial capital of el-Arish - 18 July: 'Islamic State' terrorists in Sinai attacked two Egypt military checkpoints, killing five soldiers and wounding at least seven near town of Sheikh Zuweid - 23 July: Four Egyptian soldiers killed in Sinai bombing claimed by Islamic State loyalists - 15 October: A roadside bomb by unknown assailants in the northern Sinai city of el-Arishhas has left one civilian and one soldier dead, also injuring six policemen - 4 November: At least 3 Egyptian police killed in Sinai bombing, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 15 November 2015: Egyptian police found the bodies of 15 African migrants who appeared to have been shot dead in northern Sinai near the border with Israel - 24 November: At least three people have died after two bombs exploded in al-Arish outside a hotel where election judges were staying
2016: 21 January 2016: Unknown assailants shot dead five Egyptian policemen in an attack on a security checkpoint in el-Arish - 14 October 2016: Islamic State terrorists killed 12 members of Egypt's military in North Sinai province and wounded six more in an attack on a checkpoint, the military said, adding that it killed 15 militants in return
2017: 9 January 2017: At least 9 Sinai troops killed in bomb-laden garbage truck attack on checkpoint in northern city of el-Arish - 23 January 2017: Assailants kill 5 Egyptian soldiers in Sinai - 7 July 2017: At least 10 security troops killed when a suicide bomber rams vehicle into checkpoint in southern Rafah in northeastern Sinai Peninsula, followed by heavy gunfire from dozens of masked fighters
Egyptian law and legal history in Egypt: Egyptian law - Legal history of Egypt - History of the Egyptian Constitution - List of written constitutions in Egypt - Human rights in Egypt
Judiciary of Egypt: Judiciary of Egypt
Courts in Egypt: Courts in Egypt
Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
Law enforcement and law enforcement agencies of Egypt: Law enforcement in Egypt - Law enforcement agencies of Egypt - Egyptian Police - Central Security Forces
Police brutality in Egypt: 2006-2011 Police brutality in Egypt - during the Mubarak regime and in the five years before the revolution, claims by domestic and international groups provided cellphone videos or first-hand accounts of hundreds of cases of police brutality
2011: 28 January 2011: Police brutality in Egypt is 'routine and pervasive' and the use of torture widespread, according to leaked USA cables released today by WikiLeaks
2012: 15 October 2012: In a report of Cairo-based Nadim Centre for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims over 200 cases of police brutality, 34 cases of death, 88 cases of torture, and 7 cases of sexual assault at the hands of Egyptian police were recorded during President Morsi's first 100 days in office - 25 October 2012: Egyptian police brutality continues, according to human rights groups
2016: 13 February 2016: Thousands of Egyptian doctors protest over alleged police brutality after accusations that two doctors were beaten up by policemen in a Cairo hospital
Military of Egypt: Military of Egypt - Military history of Egypt
Egyptian Army: The Egyptian Army, the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces and the largest army in Africa - Structure of the Egyptian Army - Equipment of the modern Egyptian Army - Egyptian military personnel
Military industry and budget in Egypt: Military budget rank 41 - Egyptian military industry
List of conflicts in Egypt: List of conflicts in Egypt - List of wars involving Egypt
July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état: July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution - August 2013 Rabaa massacre, Egyptian security forces raided two camps of protesters in Cairo, one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square - 2013-2014 Post-coup unrest in Egypt - Egyptian Crisis (2011–present)
International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état: International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
Politics of Egypt: Politics of Egypt - Emergency law in Egypt - History of the Egyptian Constitution - Egyptian Constitution of 2014
Political parties and trade unions in Egypt: List of political parties in Egypt - Egypt national association for change - Freedom and Justice Party - Workers Democratic Party - April 6 Youth Movement - Hizb el-Dostour (Constitution Party) - 1 March 2014: Hala Shukhrallah is the first woman and Copt to head Constitution Party, a major Egyptian political party - 2 March 2014: First woman to head a political party in Egypt says it proves the revolution has changed attitudes
Trade unions in Egypt - Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions - Egyptian Trade Union Federation
Domestic responses to the Egyptian revolution - elections 2011- 2015: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 - Constitutional referendum 2011 - Results, 20.03.2011 - Egyptian parliamentary election October 2011 - Presidential elections by end of 2011 - 17 September 2011: Election for the lower house of parliament begins on November 28, for the upper house on January 22 - 20. September 2011: Ägypten verbietet Gründung einer Islamisten-Partei - 2. Oktober 2011: Militärrat stellt Zeitplan für die Machtübergabe an zivile Regierung vor - 1 décembre: Le parti Liberté et Justice PLJ affirme avoir obtenu plus de 40% des voix aux législatives - Egyptian parliamentary election 2011/January 2012 - Egyptian presidential election May 2012
2014: Egyptian presidential election 26 and 27 May 2014 - Egyptian parliamentary election 2014 postponed
October/November 2015 Egyptian parliamentary election: 17/18 October - 23 November Egyptian parliamentary election (21 March 2015 - 27 April 2015)
Egyptian Revolution since January 2011 and July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état (ongoing): Egyptian Revolution 2011 (ongoing) - Trials and judicial hearings following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 - Timeline of the Egyptian Crisis under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces - Timeline of the Egyptian Crisis under Mohamed Morsi - 2012–2013 Egyptian protests - June 2013 Egyptian protests - 2013 Egyptian coup d'état - Post-coup unrest in Egypt (2013–14) - Egyptian Crisis (2011–present)
June 2011: 29 June 2011: Fresh clashes in Cairo
July 2011: 8. Juli 2011: Unzufriedene Aufständische protestieren in Kairo und anderen Städten am 8. Juli - 10. Juli 2011: Ägyptische Regierung macht Demonstranten Zugeständnisse - 13 July 2011: Egyptian protesters call for end to army rule - 15. Juli 2011: Proteste gegen Ägyptens Militärregierung auch am 15. Juli - 16. Juli 2011: Demonnstranten vertreiben General Mahdi (Mitglied des regierenden Obersten Militärrats) vom Tahrir-Platz - 17. Juli: Ägyptens Außenminister tritt zurück - 17. Juli 2011: Verwirrspiel um Mubaraks Gesundheit - nach Schlaganfall im Koma? - New cabinet sworn in amid continuing protests 21 July - 24. Juli 2011: Angriffe auf Demonstration der Demokratiebewegung am 23. Juli - 28. Juli 2011: Mubarak ab 3. August vor Gericht in Kairo - Friday 29 July: Islamists lead Tahrir Square rally in Cairo
August 2011: 3. August: Mubarak und zwei Söhne vor Gericht in Kairo, Prozeßfortsetzung 15. August - 15 August: Mubarak due back in court as trial resumes in Cairo - 15 August: Judge adjourned Mubarak trial until September 5 and halts live TV coverage
September 2011: 5 September: Police testify in Mubarak trial amid clashes - 8 September: Egypt's ex-interior minister told police to use live ammunition against protesters, witness says during Mubarak trial - 9 September: Egyptians protest against military rule pressing to keep promises of political reform - 10 September: Crowds attack Israel embassy in Cairo in overnight clashes - 11 September: Military leader Tantawi says he is 'too busy' to testify in Mubarak trial - 30. September: Demonstranten in ganz Ägypten fordern Aufhebung der Notstandsgesetze der Mubarakzeit
October 2011: 10 October: Egypt's PM Sharaf urges calm after Cairo clashes between Coptic Christians and security forces - 11 October: Egypt army seeks probe into Cairo clashes - 18 October: Mubarak sons have $340m in Swiss banks - 26. Oktober: Tod eines Bloggers zählt nicht viel vor ägyptischem Gericht - 29 October: Egypt prison guards accused of torture death - 30 October: Mubarak trial once more adjourned until December
November 2011: 1. November: Demonstration in Kairo für verhafteten Blogger - 18 November: Tens of thousands protest in Egypt demanding to hand power to promised civilian government - 20 November: Deadly clashes follow Egyptian protests against military rule, deaths and hundreds of protesters injured ahead of elections - 20 November: Thousands of protesters are regrouping in central Cairo after day of clashes - 21 November: Egypt protesters against military rulers in Cairo's Tahrir Square for third day, after the deaths of at least 13 people over the weekend - 21 November: Egypt cabinet resigns as protests intensify - 22 November: Activists demanding end to military rule call for a mass demonstration - 22 novembre: L'armée promet une élection présidentielle avant juillet 2012 - 22 November: Ruling generals say being prepared to hold a referendum on power transfer if people demand it - 27 November: Activist killed near Tahrir Square as death toll rises to 42 in another week of opposition against military rule, now ahead of elections - ElBaradei 'willing' to head Egypt's interim cabinet - 28 November: Large numbers, including a high turnout of women, go to the polls on the first day of post-Mubarak elections - 29 November: Egypt votes in Alexandria, Cairo and seven more provinces continue after big turnout on day one
January 2012: 3 January: Third and final round of Egyptian parliamentary poll - 7. Januar: Muslimbrüder vor Wahlsieg bei Parlamentswahl - 17 January: Mubarak trial set to resume in Cairo - 21. Januar: Islamistische Parteien (Muslim-Bruderschaft und Nur-Partei) gewinnen zwei Drittel der Parlamentssitze - 30 January: Egyptians vote in upper house elections
February 2012: 3/4 February: Deaths in Egypt protests over football riot - 5 February: Egypt clashes rage into fourth day - 6 February: Protests continue as activists demand early presidential elections and swift handover of power by military - 11 February: Activists plan a day of civil disobedience in Egypt on Saturday to mark the first anniversary since they toppled Mubarak - 15 February: Egypt to hold presidential poll 'in May'
March 2012: 24 March: Parliamentarians meet to name 100-member panel to write constitution, but liberals say Islamists are dominating process
April 2012:10. April: Der frühere Chef der IAEA Mohammed al-Baradei will mit weiteren Vertretern der ägyptischen Opposition eine neue Partei gründen - 10 April: Egypt court suspends constitutional panel after political groups charged that 100-member panel did not represent Egypt's diversity - 13 April: Cairo protests against Mubarak-era candidates for the presidential election - 14. April: Ägyptens Wahlkommission schließt u.a. den Muslimbruder Chairat al-Shater und den früheren Geheimdienstchef Omar Suleiman von der Präsidentschaftswahl aus
May 2012: 2 May: At least 20 killed as attackers target Cairo protest - 2 mai: En raison des violences certains candidats à la présidentielle suspendent leur campagne - 5 mai: Les dirigeants militaires ont imposé un couvre-feu au Caire - 20. Mai: Ägyptischer Präsidentschaftskandidat Chaled Ali schliesst sich Hungerstreik aus Protest gegen die Inhaftierung hunderter Demonstranten an
Egyptian presidential election 23/24 May 2012 - 23 May: Egyptians to choose president in historic vote - 25 May: Brotherhood claims lead as Egypt vote count begins - 26 May: Hamdin Sabbahi, who is said to have come third, seeks recount in Egypt's election, citing many 'violations' - 29 May: Thousands demonstrate at Tahrir Square to protest the outcome of the presidential election as some protesters torch HQ of presidential candidate Shafiq
June 2012: 2 June: Egypt's ex-president Mubarak and his interior minister given life term for protester deaths - 3 June: Mubarak sentenced, the acquittal of police officers, the quashing of a set of corruption charges against Mubarak's sons evoke spate of protests - 4 June: Protesters return to Tahrir Square - 6 June: Thousands descend on Cairo square for the fourth straight night to demand Ahmed Shafiq's removal from presidential race - 8 June: Egypt's political parties agreed on the formation of a commission tasked with drafting a new constitution - 9 June: Several thousand gather in Tahrir Square to oppose Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafiq's bid for presidency - 14 June: Egypt military police gets sweeping powers ahead of polls - 15 June: Constitutional court dissolves Muslim Brotherhood-led parliament and approves candidacy of Mubarak-era PM Ahmed Shafik
Egyptian presidential election, runoff 16-17 June 2012 - 16 juin: Les Égyptiens élisent leur président ce week-end - 16 June: Amid deep political uncertainty, without parliament and constitution Egyptians are voting in the first day of the presidential runoff - 17 June: Egyptians are voting in a presidential runoff that pits the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate against the last Mubarak prime minister - 18 juin: Les Frères musulmans revendiquent la victoire de Mohammed Morsi - 18 June: Egypt's military grants itself sweeping powers - 21 June: Egyptian election result announcement delayed - no date for a decision - 22 June: Tahrir Square fills up as Egypt awaits result - 23 June: Tens of thousands protest disputed court rulings and moves by military - 25 June: Egypt's first elected president Morsi says 'national unity is the only way out' - 26 juin: L'armée n'est plus autorisée à arrêter des civils - 28 June: Egypt’s ex-oil minister jailed for 15 years - 30 June: Morsi, received with applause by tens of thousands at Tahrir Square, vows to be president for all Egyptians promising a 'civilian state'
July 2012: 7 July: Egypt's president Morsi has ordered a fresh investigation into the killing of anti-government protesters over the past 16 months - 9 July: Egypt's president orders return of parliament - 10 July: After the Supreme Constitutional Court rejected the President's order to reconvene the parliament, Egypt's military 'warns' President Mursi over parliament decision - 11 July: After Egypt's parliament reconvened on Tuesday the Supreme Constitutional Court overruled President Mursi over parliament - 11 July: Thousands in Cairo protest high court ruling - 11 July: President Mursi seeks talks with other institutions to resolve constitutional crisis - 14 July: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urges full civilian rule - 17 July: Egypt court to rule on drafting of new constitution - 18 July: Around 23.000 employees of Misr Spinning and Weaving, Egypt's biggest textile company, took their strike for better pay into a fourth day and were joined by some 12.000 workers at other state firms - 22 July: Attack on Egypt-Israel-Jordan pipeline - 24 July: Egypt's outgoing irrigation minister Hisham Qandil named as new Prime Minister
August 2012: 2 August: Egypt's President Morsi has sworn in a new cabinet that retained military chief Tantawi as defence minister - 6 August: Egypt's military has pledged to hunt down those behind the killing of its 16 soldiers at a checkpoint along the Sinai border with Israel - 8 August: Egypt has launched air strikes in the Sinai region close to the border with Gaza, killing more than 20 people - 9 août: De nouveaux affrontements auraient éclaté dans le Sinaï - 13 August: Egypt’s President Morsi has ordered the retirement of the Defence Minister Tantawi and Chief of Staff - 14 August: Egyptian media hails president's decision to dismiss powerful defence minister and curb military's sweeping powers
September 2012: 2 September: Egypt retires 70 army generals - 14 September: An Egyptian court has convicted the former prime minister Ahmed Nazif - already serving a seven-year term - on corruption charges and sentenced him to three years in prison - 30 September: Muslim television preacher to face charges after being video-taped burning a copy of the Bible
October 2012: 5 October: Doctors in Egypt have gone on strike to protest against low wages and badly equipped, unclean hospital facilities - 9 October: One hundred days into his term President Mursi has pardoned all those arrested during the revolution that toppled Mubarak and up until June this year - 12 October: Egypt prosecutor-general vows to keep post despite president's attempt to remove him after acquittals in Camel Battle case - 12 October: Egypt tensions spark clashes in Cairo's Tahrir Square - 13 October: President Morsi agrees prosecutor-general to stay - 20 October: France 24 TV-correspondent Sonia Dridi in Cairo was 'savagely attacked' near Tahrir Square by a crowd of men and later rescued by a colleague and other witnesses
November 2012: 22 November: President Morsi sacks prosecutor general ordering new investigations into the deaths of protesters killed during last year's popular revolt and gives himself judicial powers on top of legislative ones - 23 November: Opposition calls for protests to denounce President Morsi after he sacks prosecutor general Mahmoud responsible for the failure of prosecutions and acquittals of Mubarak-era officials - 24 November: Egypt's president defends granting himself sweeping new powers, saying they would help root out corruption, as angry youths hurled rocks at security forces, burned a police truck and thousands gathered in central Cairo to protest at President Mursi's 22 November declaration and Muslim Brotherhood offices were torched in cities across Egypt in violent protests in Alexandria, Port Said and Suez - 24 November: 'Resistance fighter' sacked prosecutor general Mahmoud - discovering judicial independence - rejects the president's decree - 25 November: Signing an open letter Egyptian rights groups call on President Mursi to withdraw the decree granting himself extensive new powers as some hundred demonstrators outside the high court building in Cairo rallied against Morsi on Saturday - 26 November: President sticks by disputed decree after meeting judges, and rival forces plan a mass protest on Tuesday - 28 November: Protests in Cairo against President Morsi's decision to grant himself sweeping powers continue - 29 November: New constitution in final draft as protests sweep Egypt - 30 November: Egypt's constituent assembly approves articles of disputed new constitution, as opposition continue protests
December 2012: 1 December: Supporters and opponents of Egypt's president are planning mass, rival rallies on Saturday over new draft constitution - 2 December: President Morsi announces a December 15 vote on new draft constitution amidst ongoing protests in Cairo - 2 December: Morsi supporters gather outside Egypt's top court - 3 décembre: Les juges de l'ancien Mubarak régime refusent de superviser le référendum - 3 December: Supreme Judicial Council has agreed to oversee the referendum on a draft constitution - 5 décembre: Au Caire, le palais présidentiel est toujours encerclé par les opposants - 5 December: Clashes outside Egypt's presidential palace - 6 December: At least five people have been killed and over 400 injured in overnight clashes outside the presidential palace in Cairo, in the morning at least four tanks were deployed - 7 décembre: Président Morsi a invité l'opposition à un dialogue le 8 décembre - 7 December: Activists denounce president's call for dialogue as he refuses to delay constitutional referendum - 8 December: Egypt delays early voting on new Constitution - 8 décembre: Vice-président Mahmoud Mekki laisse entrevoir l'éventualité d'un report du référendum sur la nouvelle Constitution - 8 December: President Morsi expected to press ahead with dialogue on ways to end crisis despite main factions vowing to stay away - 9 December: President Morsi has annulled the decree he issued last month expanding his powers - Opposition says President Morsi's decision to rescind controversial decree 'falls short of expectations' - 10 December: Coalition of opposition parties calls for demonstrations against President Morsi's plans for vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Rival rallies planned in Cairo over President Morsi's decision to go ahead with Saturday's vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Morsi approves army's unity talks as rival protests grow - 12 décembre: L'opposition appelle à voter 'non' au référendum - 14 December: Protesters clash over draft charter in Alexandria
2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt - Egyptian constitutional referendum 15 and 22 December 2012 - 16 December: Egypt referendum vote count under way - 18 December: Egypt's opposition has called for mass protests in Cairo and elsewhere over alleged polling violations - 20 December: Official overseeing referendum on draft constitution resigns amid allegations of irregularities - 20 December: Egypt's new public prosecutor Talaat Ibrahim retracts resignation offer - 22 December: Egyptians have begun voting in the second stage of the constitutional referendum that has sparked weeks of unrest - 22 December: Egypt vice-president Mekki resigns on final day of referendum - 23 December: Egyptians appear to have approved a controversial new constitution in a referendum as Egypt's Islamists claim victory with about 64% percent of voters - 24 December: Egypt set to declare constitutional poll result as the opposition is demanding to investigate the irregularities - 24 December: The result of a controversial referendum on Egypt's new constitution has been delayed as officials check allegations of fraud - 25 décembre: Les résultats officiels du référendum sur la Constitution attendus mardi - 25 December: Charter drafted by Islamist supporters of President Morsi wins 63.8 percent of votes in two-round referendum - 25. Dezember: Mubarak-Vertrauter Ex-Senatspräsident Safwat al-Sherif kommt nach Gerichtsentscheidung auf Kaution frei - 26 December: President Morsi promises to take necessary steps to fix economy, as Shura Council convenes with full legislative powers until elections for a new lower house is called within two months - 28 December: Investigation ordered into accusations of treason by opposition leaders as country faces constitutional dispute
January 2013: 6 January: Finance portfolio and interior ministry, which controls police, change hands as part of measures to salvage economy - 13 January: At least 14 people have been injured when unknown assailants attacked opponents of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi who were camping outside the presidential palace in Cairo - 13 January: Egyptian court orders re-trial for Mubarak - 25 janvier: Dans une grave crise économique, l'opposition appelle à descendre dans la rue à l'occasion du 2e anniversaire de la révolution égyptienne - 25 January: Police and protesters clash as opposition groups call for rallies to mark second anniversary of 2011 revolution - 26 January: An Egyptian court has sentenced to death at least 20 defendants over clashes between rival football fans in which 74 people were killed last year - 26 January: Six people were killed in Suez and one in Ismailia as police clashed with protesters in several towns and cities - 26 janvier: L’armée égyptienne se déploie à Suez après de violentes manifestations - 27 January: At least 30 people have died in Port Said in clashes sparked by the sentencing to death of 21 local people over football riots in Egypt - 28 January: President Morsi declares state of emergency in Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, scenes of major and deadly protests in recent days - 28 January: Egypt’s main opposition coalition rejected President Morsi’s invitation to take part in talks amid ongoing unrest, calling instead for fresh protests nationwide - 29 January: Thousands of protesters have taken to the streets of the cities of Port Said, Ismailiyah and Suez in defiance of President Morsi's declaration of a curfew and a state of emergency after days of deadly unrest - 31 January: Egyptian parties and groups cutting across political lines condemn violence at meeting called by country's top Islamic scholar
February 2013: 2 February: Protesters denouncing Egypt's Islamist president hurled stones and firebombs through the gates of his palace gates on Friday, clashing with security forces who fired tear gas and water cannons, as President Morsi calls on all factions to condemn the violence - 2 February: Egypt's new 'bodyguards' - women and men - to protect women protesters and to end a surge in sexual assaults on women that activists say has become the darkest stain on the country's opposition street movement - 3 February: Egypt to probe controversial police brutality case of Hamada Saber, who says he was undressed by rioters and that army soldiers were helping him after he had been attacked by protesters who mistook him for police - 4 February: Egyptian Popular Current opposition party on Monday claimed police tortured Mohammed el-Gindy, one of its members, to death, electrocuting him and beating him repeatedly on the head - 7 February: Thousands of men and women march in Cairo against increasing instances of sexual harassment of female protesters - 12 February: Police fired tear gas and used water cannons at stone-throwing protesters outside the presidential palace as the opposition held rallies to mark the second anniversary of Mubarak's overthrow - 12 February: Protesters took to the street again on Tuesday to demand an end to sexual violence, as campaigns against the repeated attacks in central Cairo pick up steam - 17 February: Thousands of protesters have blocked access to the harbour and rallied outside state buildings in Port Said to demand justice over the deaths of dozens of people killed in riots last month - 21 February: Egypt will hold parliamentary elections in several stages beginning April 27
March 2013: 4 mars 2013: Un policier tué et un officier blessé, tous deux touchés par des coups de feu tirés par des inconnus à Port-Saïd, où des affrontements ont opposé les habitants à la police, faisant plusieurs dizaines de blessés - 7 March: Electoral commission cancels timetable for parliamentary elections following a court ruling that threw the entire polling process into confusion - 8 March: Government wants corruption cases settled out of court - 9 March: After a court confirmed the death sentences against 21 people for taking part in deadly soccer riot 2012 but acquitted seven police officials for their role in the violence, enraged suspected fans torched the soccer federation headquarters and a police club in Cairo - 10 March: Egypt raises alert level in Sinai - 14 March: Egyptian policemen were to blame for the deaths of more than 800 protesters during Egypt's 2011 uprising, according to a leaked report commissioned by president Morsi - 22 March: Dozens injured as protesters clashed with supporters of Muslim Brotherhood - 27 March: Egypt court reinstates fired prosecutor Mahmoud - 29 March: Protests and clashes in Cairo and two other cities between supporters and opponents of the Muslim Brotherhood
April 2013: 1 April 2013: Popular Egyptian TV satirist Bassem Youssef released on bail after turning himself in for questioning over allegations he insulted Islam and Mohamed Morsi - 6 April: Five Egyptians were killed and eight wounded in clashes between Christians and Muslims in El Khusus near Cairo - 8 avril: Les affrontements entre coptes et musulmans se poursuivent au Caire - 19 April: Pro- and anti-Morsi demonstrators clash in Cairo
May 2013: 11 May: Police forces have detained prominent activist Ahmed Maher, who leads the April 6 Youth Movement, on suspicion of inciting an anti-government protest
June 2013: 2 juin: Le Sénat et la commission constituante jugés illégaux - 8 June: President Morsi dismisses calls for early vote - 10 June: The Egyptian court retrying Hosni Mubarak for conspiracy to murder hundreds of demonstrators unsealed new evidence, including CCTV video and logbooks taken from Cairo security forces' armouries - 21 June: Egyptians rally on streets of Cairo to show solidarity with President ahead of planned protests against leader's rule - 28 juin: L'Egypte sous tension avant des manifestations pro et anti-Morsi - 29 June: Two Egyptians and a US citizen killed in protests and deadly clashes as Egypt's clerics warn of civil war - 29 June: At least eight Egypt MPs quit parliament in support of anti-Morsi movement, after 22 million signatures were collected to demand Morsi's departure and a snap presidential election
2013 Egyptian parliamentary election (April-June) cancelled timetable: 22 April 2013 Egyptian parliamentary election, cancelled timetable - 7 March: Electoral commission cancels timetable for parliamentary elections following a court ruling that threw the entire polling process into confusion - 27 March 2013: Egypt could hold delayed election in October, Morsi says
July 2013: July 2013 Egyptian protests - Tamarod collected more than 22 million signatures against Morsi as of 29 June 2013 - 1 July: At least seven people were killed and more than 600 wounded on Sunday in clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 1 July: Protesters overrun Muslim Brotherhood headquarters and four ministers quit Morsi's government - 1 July: Egypt's army gives Morsi 48 hours to meet the demands of the people or it would intervene with a roadmap - 3 July: Defiant president Morsi says he won't step down - 3 July: The death toll in violence involving Islamist supporters of President Morsi near Cairo University rose to 16 on Wednesday and 200 people were wounded - 4 July: 14 people dead in Egypt as Morsi opponents and supporters clash - 4 July: Egypt's military has ousted Morsi, calling for early presidential election, suspending the Islamist-backed constitution and names an interim government presided by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 5 July: Islamist supporters of Morsi will rally to express their outrage at his overthrow and to reject an interim government backed by their liberal opponents - 6 July: Deadly clashes and fighting across Egypt after Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader Badie told followers to continue protesting until return of ousted president Morsi - 6/7 July: The choice of Mohamed ElBaradei as interim PM following talks of the Tamarod campaign with interim president Mansour is thrown into doubt by Islamist objections - 7 July: Mohamed ElBaradei called for the Muslim Brotherhood to be included in Egypt's political future, in a media interview conducted before his candidacy as interim PM hit opposition - 8 July: A group of Egyptian activists on trial for inciting violence during protests against former President Morsi were acquitted by a court in Cairo - 8 juillet: Les salafistes d'Al-Nour se retirent des négociations pour mener la transition politique en Égypte - 8 juillet: Au moins 34 partisans de Morsi ont été tués par l’armée égyptienne devant le siège de la Garde républicaine au Caire, selon un responsable du ministère de la Santé - 8 July: Islamists call for uprising after at least 51 people were killed including an army officer - 9 juillet: Le président intérimaire Adly Mansour a fixé par décret un calendrier pour la tenue d'élections législatives avant la fin de 2013 - 9 July: Egypt's interim president named liberal economist Hazem al-Beblawi, a former finance minister, as the country's new prime minister - 10 juillet: El-Beblaoui va tendre la main aux Frères musulmans - 10 juillet: Les Frères musulmans rejettent le plan de transition politique, le FSN et le mouvement Tamarrod exigent que des amendements soient apportés à la 'déclaration constitutionnelle' - 11 juillet: Hazem Beblawi espère former un gouvernement d'ici la semaine prochaine - 11 July: Egypt's public prosecutor's office ordered the arrest of Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Badie on charges of inciting violence outside the Republican Guard headquarters where 51 people were killed - also other top leaders charged, investigation - 13 July: On Tahrir, thousands gathered to attend a celebration of Ramadan, as thousands of Morsi supporters marched along streets in Cairo and US seeks Morsi's release - 13 July: Egypt PM edges closer to forming cabinet - 13/14 July: Egypt announces criminal investigation against Morsi including complaints of spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy - 14 July: ElBaradei sworn in as Egypt's interim vice president for foreign relations - 16 July: Clashes return to streets of Cairo - 16 July: Egypt's interim president swears in new Cabinet by PM Hazem el-Beblawi, an economist - 18/19 July: Adly Mansour in first public address vows to protect the country against those who seek chaos and violence, hours before pro-Morsi rallies - 20 July: Three people killed and at least six others injured during clashes in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura as thousands rally in support of Morsi in Cairo and elsewhere and opponents also hold demonstrations - 21 July: New Egyptian PM Hazem el-Beblawi seeks dialogue to drive back the nation's divisions - 23 July: Rallies of supporters and opponents of Morsi turn violent and deadly, as interim president renews calls for reconciliation - 24 July: Unknown gunmen who shot at supporters of Morsi have killed at least one person, witnesses and health officials confirm - 24 July: A bomb exploded at a police station in Mansoura, the capital of Dakhalia province north of Cairo early on Wednesday, killing one person and wounding 17 others - 24 July: Egypt's army chief called for public rallies this week to give him a mandate to fight terrorism and violence - 26 July: Ousted President Morsi is under investigation for an array of charges including that he conspired with Hamas to flee jail during the 2011 uprising, killing some prisoners and officers, kidnapping soldiers and torching buildings - 27 July: Egypt suffers night of deadly violence as hundreds of thousands come out for rallies in a divided country - 27 July: Over 100 supporters of Morsi claimed dead as soldiers are accused of shoot-to-kill policy to clear protest urging his release - 28 July: Egypt's interior minister pledged to deal decisively with any attempts to destabilize the country, a thinly veiled warning to supporters of Morsi occupying two squares in Cairo in a month-long stand-off with the security forces - 29 July: At least 12 people have been killed in a fight in central Cairo caused by a dispute between street vendors over spaces - 30 July: Morsi in good health, has access to news and follows developments, says EU's Ashton - 31 July: Egypt's cabinet orders police to end pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo - 3 top Muslim Brotherhood leaders referred to court on charges of inciting violence
August 2013: 1 août: Les plaintes de voisinage pourraient justifier l'expulsion des pro-Morsi et les sit-ins - 2 August: Egypt's government tells pro-Morsi protesters to quit camps - 2 August: Morsi supporters defy warnings, plan fresh rallies - 2 August: Egypt's government tells pro-Morsi protesters to quit camps - 3 August: Rallies continue and clashes with police erupt in Egypt's capital even as foreign pressure to solve crisis mounts and rights groups demand an investigation into allegations that Morsi's supporters tortured opponents - 3 Augaust: Allies of deposed Egyptian President Morsi told mediators on Saturday they respected the popular will expressed in mass protests that led to his downfall - 4 August: Muslim Brotherhood leaders' trial on charges related to the killing of protesters to open on August 25 - 4/5 August: Efforts to resolve Egypt political crisis intensify as al-Sisi meets Islamist leaders and William Burns and Western and Arab envoys visit jailed Muslim Brotherhood leader El-Shater - 6 August: The EU's Bernardino Leon and US William Burns extend their stay in Cairo to hold a series of talks in the ongoing crisis - 8 August: On the eve of Eid interim President Mansour says that the government will press on with its own plan to hold new elections in nine months - 12 August: Islamist al-Nour Party to help shape new Egyptian constitution - 14 August: Egyptian troops swoop on pro-Morsi camps, many feared killed - 14 August: Egypt declares month-long state of emergency as scores confirmed dead - 15 August: Pessimism as Egypt counts its dead and Muslim Brotherhood vows revenge - 16 August: UN Security Council calls for 'maximum restraint' in Egypt and end to violence spreading across the country, also calling for national reconciliation - 17 August 2013: Egypt Islamists vow fresh marches and plan new actions as security forces surround the al-Fath mosque in Cairo full of incited Morsi-supporters on Saturday, after new destructive street battles that left more than 80 dead on Friday - 17 August: Egyptian police exchanged gunfire Saturday with armed Islamist Morsi-supporters, surrounded in the al-Fath mosque - 18 August: After a gunbattle with followers of the Muslim Brotherhood - witnesses saw gunmen shoot from a window of the al-Fath mosque - on Saturday, security forces cleared the mosque, while Egypt's government considers banning the Islamist group and as Islamists announce fresh demonstrations for several days - 19 août: Au moins 36 prisonniers islamistes meurent lors d'un transfert en prison près du Caire dans des circonstances encore confuses - 19 August: Morsi accused of complicity in the deaths and torture of protesters outside his presidential palace in late 2012, judicial sources say - 20 August: Egypt arrests Muslim Brotherhood chief Mohamed Badie accused by authorities of inciting the violence causing the death of protesters - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief - 22 August: Egypt to put ex-leader Hosni Mubarak under house arrest - 23 August: On Friday some thousands in Egypt join fresh protests against Mohamed Morsi's ouster - 24 August: Mubarak and Brotherhood chiefs due in court - 27 August: Fugitive Muslim Brotherhood leader denies terror charges despite Morsi supporters attacked police stations, government buildings and churches - 29 August: Senior Muslim Brotherhood official Beltagi arrested - 30 August: On Friday once again thousands of supporters of Morsi marched through Cairo and cities across Egypt amid heavy security, but numbers less than hoped for
September 2013: 2 September: Deposed president Morsi is to stand trial on charges of inciting the killing of opponents protesting outside his palace while he was in office - 3 September: As a bomb attack on a police station hits central Cairo, a judicial panel supports a legal challenge to the status of the Muslim Brotherhood - 3 September: An Egyptian military court has sentenced 11 Muslim Brotherhood members to life in prison for violence targeting the army in the port city of Suez - 5 September: Egypt's interior minister Ibrahim survives an assassination attempt when a bomb targeted his convoy near his house in Cairo wounding many guards - 6 September: Morsi supporters hold new protests in Cairo after Friday prayers - 8 September: Sinai islamic militants claim bomb targeting Egypt minister - 13 September: Egypt extends state of emergency by two months - 13 September: Mohamed Morsi remanded to a further 30 days in custody on charges of jailbreak and espionage during the 2011 uprising - 16 septembre: L'armée égyptienne reprend Delga, ville tenue par les islamistes - 17 September: Muslim Brotherhood spokesman arrested as assets frozen - 19 septembre: L'armée égyptienne donne l'assaut contre des islamistes près du Caire - 24 September: Egyptian court bans Muslim Brotherhood and orders its funds seized - 29 September 2013: Egypt's latest political transition, including presidential and parliamentary elections, will end 'by next spring', foreign minister Nabil Fahmy says at UN
October 2013: 4/5 October: Five people were killed in clashes on Friday as supporters of Morsi took to the streets and places of Cairo and other cities - 6 October: 44 people dead as divided Egypt marks 40th anniversary of Yom Kippur War and supporters and opponents of Morsi took to the streets - 7 octobre: Le jour de commémoration tourne au bain de sang - 7 octobre: Deux attaques contre les forces de sécurité en bordure du canal de Suez et dans le Sinaï, tuant sept soldats - 19 October: Car bomb near Egypt army intelligence building in Ismailia wounds at least six soldiers - 21 October: Gunmen riding a motorbike shot and killed three people, including an 8-year-old girl, when they fired on a group leaving a wedding at a Coptic Christian church in Cairo late on Sunday
November 2013: 4 November: On the eve of the trial of deposed president Morsi on Monday over the deaths of protesters, gunmen shot dead two policemen and injured a third near Ismailia on the west bank of the Suez Canal - 5 novembre: Entrant sous les applaudissements et aux cris de 'À bas le régime militaire', le procès de Mohamed Morsi a été ajourné au 8 janvier 2014 - 8 November: FM Nabil Fahmy says, Egypt would hold parliamentary elections between February and March 2014, followed by presidential polls in early summer, and that Freedom and Justice Party could take part - 13 novembre: L'Égypte lève l'état d'urgence en vigueur depuis trois mois - 20 November: Car bomb kills ten Egyptian soldiers in Sinai - 26 novembre: Dix membres du comité pour réviser la constitution ont suspendu leur participation pour protester contre l'arrestation de manifestants - 27 November: Egypt's new constitution is still in the drafting stage but has already disappointed rights groups and activists who had hoped it would curb the military's wide-ranging powers and privileges - 29 novembre: Un étudiant a été tué, lors d'une manifestation islamiste à l'Université du Caire après la condamnation des jeunes filles à 11 ans de prison - 29 November: Egypt police arrest nearly 200 protesters defying draconian protest ban - 30 November: Egypt panel votes on draft constitution that enshrines army's role in politics and bans religious parties
December 2013: 2 December: Egypt’s draft constitution approved for referendum - 8 décembre: Condamnées à 11 ans de prison pour avoir manifesté pour Morsi, 21 jeunes Égyptiennes ont été remises en liberté - 19 December: Egypt's public prosecutor charges Mohamed Morsi and 35 other top Islamists with conspiring with foreign groups to commit terrorist acts in Egypt - 22 December: New charges against Morsi in a third trial include spreading chaos and abducting police officers in collaboration with foreign militants - 24 December: A powerful car bomb at the police headquarters in Mansoura early Tuesday kills at least 14 people, mostly policemen, and wounds more than 100 people - 25 December: Egypt arrests Mohamed Morsi's ex-prime minister Hisham Kandil on his way to Sudan - 25 December: An Al-Qaeda-inspired group based in Sinai claims Mansura police headquarters suicide bombing - 26 décembre: Les Frères musulmans déclarés 'organisation terroriste' en Égypte - 26 December: Five people have been injured in Cairo bus bomb blast - 27 December: Police fired tear gas at stone-throwing Islamist protesters in two cities - 28 December: Four people killed, scores wounded in clashes across Egypt - 28/29 December: After student Muslim Brotherhood supporters stormed a faculty building at Cairo's Al-Azhar University where exams were being taken and set it on fire, an Islamist student was killed and scores were arrested in clashes with Egyptian police - 29 December: Blast damage military facility in north Egypt, wounding four people - 31 December: Egypt sentences 139 pro-Morsi protesters
January 2014: 2 January: Two people killed in violent clashes between pro-Islamist protesters and police in Alexandria - 4 January: At least 13 Morsi supporters were killed in clashes during nationwide protests in Cairo, Alexandria, Ismailia, Fayoum and Minya - 10 January: At least three people killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 11 January: Egypt army chief al-Sisi eyes presidency bid - 14 January: A bomb exploded outside a Cairo court just before polling stations were to open for the constitutional referendum boycotted by Morsi supporters
Egyptian constitutional referendum 14/15 January 2014: Egyptian constitutional referendum 14/15 January 2014 - 15 January: Second day of voting on new constitution after nine people died in clashes involving Morsi supporters on Tuesday
18 January 2014: Egypt's new constitution gets 98% 'yes' vote, turnout 38.6% - 19 January: Morsi faces a fourth trial on charges of insulting the judiciary - 23 January: Five policemen have been killed in Egypt in an armed attack on a checkpoint in Beni Suef province south of Cairo - 24 January: A car bomb outside the police headquarters in Cairo followed by a second blast near a city metro station has killed at least five people and wounded dozens more on Friday - 25 January: A bomb exploded near Cairo police academy on Saturday, wounding one person - 26 January: At least 49 people reportedly killed in clashes on the third anniversary of the popular uprising in Egypt - 26 January: Egypt to hold presidential poll before parliamentary vote, the interim government says - 28 janvier: L'armée égyptienne donnne mandat à al-Sissi pour briguer la présidentielle - 30 janvier: Vingt journalistes d'Al-Jazira devant la justice égyptienne
February 2014: 6 February: Army chief al-Sisi reportedly said he will run for president - 7 February: A bomb has targeted a police checkpoint on a flyover in Cairo's twin city of Giza, wounding three police - 24 February: Egypt interim government resigns - 25 February: Egypt courts sentence 220 Morsi supporters to prison for inciting violence - 25 February: New army-backed PM Mahlab vows to 'crush terrorism' hoping improved security will lead to economic recovery - 26 February: 26 people sentenced to death over Suez 'terror plot' - 26 February: Egypt army chief Sissi won't run for president, official source says
March 2014: 8 March: Three protesters killed and dozens wounded as Islamists and police clashed across Egypt on Friday - 15 March: Six Egyptian military police killed as gunmen attack Cairo checkpoint - 17 March: Interim president Mansour says public opposes the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 March: Egyptian court sentences 17 people to 14 years in jail each on charges including assault and occupying public buildings during protests at Cairo's Al-Azhar University last year - 24 March: A court in southern Egyptian convicts 529 Morsi supporters, sentencing them to death on charges of murdering a policeman and attacking police - 24 March: Anger in Egypt as 529 Morsi supporters sentenced to death and fears for the integrity of Egypt's legal system deepened - 25 March: The wife of the policeman whose murder led to death sentences for 529 Egyptians has suggested that only two men may be responsible for his killing, who were still in hiding - 26 March: Egypt's Abdel Sisi to resign as minister and declares candidacy for presidency - 28 March: At least three people killed in Cairo as Brotherhood supporters protest following sentencing of over 500 Islamists to death, and the army chief announcing he will run for president - 30 March: An Egyptian court sentenced two supporters of Morsi to death for committing murder during violence that broke out in Alexandria last year - 30 March: Egypt presidential election set for May 26, 27
April/May 2014: 2 April: Two bombs targeting security posts near Cairo University killed a police general, followed by a third blast as police and journalists gathered - 7/8 April: An Egyptian appeals court upheld the jailing of three leading figures of the 2011 pro-democracy uprising, tightening a crackdown on secular activists opposed to the army-backed government - 16 April: An Egyptian court sentenced 119 supporters of Morsi to three years each in prison in connection with protests last October - 19 April: An explosion rocked a busy square in Cairo, killing one police officer, wounding three and causing panic - 19 April: Hamdeen Sabahi enters Egypt's presidential race - 27 April: 13 Morsi supporters sentenced to prison terms ranging from five to 88 years for rioting - 28 April: Death sentence for the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and 682 supporters - 29 April: Even the dead are sentenced to death by Egyptian courts - 2 May: A bomb blast in Cairo kills one policeman, wounds three, shortly after double suicide attack strikes Sinai Peninsula - 6 May: In first campaign TV interview al-Sissi says uncovered two assassination plots - 18 May: A bomb wounded at least three people at a Cairo election rally for al-Sissi on Saturday - 20 May: A drive-by shooting reportedly killed three policemen during a rally by Islamist students in Cairo - 21 May: Egyptian court sentences ousted president Mubarak and sons to 3 respectively 4 years in prison on charges of stealing public funds - 26 May: Egyptians go to the polls to elect new president
26/27 May 2014 Egyptian presidential election: Egyptian presidential election 26/27 May 2014 - 27 May: Egyptian presidential election extended to third day in an attempt to encourage more people to vote - 29 May: As turnout nationwide was around 44%, Sissi reportedly wins 92% of votes in Egypt election - 3 June: Election Commission officially announced el-Sissi's victory with 96.9% of the vote
June 2014: 7 June: Egypt bans unauthorized preachers from giving sermons or teaching Islam in mosques and other public places - 8 January: Egyptian court sentenced ten Islamist supporters of Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood to death in absentia on charges of inciting violence and blocking a road last July as an appeals court overturned the sentences given to four police officers over the deaths of 37 detainees - 9 June: Al-Sisi promised to rule Egypt in an inclusive manner after he was sworn in as president but gave no indication he would reconcile with the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 June: Egyptian court confirms death sentence for Muslim Brotherhood leader Badie and at least 182 of his supporters - 24 June: Facing a huge unemployment problem and widening budget deficit, al-Sissi prepares Egyptians for austerity cutting own pay - 28 June: A girl reportedly killed and her mother wounded by the explosion of a homemade bomb on the outskirts of Cairo - 30 June: Days after militant group Ajnad Misr claimed planting bombs, blasts near Egypt's presidential palace kill 2 police officers
July/August 2014: 4 July: Five people killed in Cairo clashes marking anniversary of Morsi ouster - 16 July: Egyptian court jails 7 men for life for sexually assaulting several women during a rally in Tahrir Square on 8 June - 9 August: An Egyptian court has dissolved the Freedom and Justice party, the political wing of the banned Muslim Brotherhood - 12 August 2014: Rabaa killing of 817 people a year ago was a premeditated attack on largely unarmed protesters, HRW says
October/November 2014: 15 October: A strong blast hit a busy district in central Cairot, leaving 12 wounded, as a court sentenced seven Islamic militants to death over earlier terror attacks - 23 October: A bomb outside Cairo University reportedly wounded 11 people, among them several police officers - 25 October: Egypt declares state of emergency in Sinai after checkpoint bombing - 28 November: At least two protesters and three officers killed in separate incidents, over 100 Islamists arrested - 29 November: Mubarak, his sons and former aides acquitted from charges of murdering protesters during the 2011 uprising and of corruption - 30 November: Two people killed and nine wounded as police disperse protests against Mubarak's acquittal
December 2014: 3 December: Egypt court sentences 188 people to death for attack on police station that left 11 police officers and two civilians dead in August 2013 - 6 December: Egypt court sentences seven jihadists to death in Sinai case
January 2015: 6 January: Gunmen kill 2 Egyptian policemen guarding Coptic church south of Cairo - 6 January: Egyptian police officer killed while trying to defuse a bomb outside a petrol station in Cairo, with jihadis claiming responsibility - 9 January: Egypt said it is to hold parliamentary elections from March 21 - 13 January: Egyptian court orders retrial in embezzlement case against Mubarak, dropping the only remaining conviction - 23 January: An Egyptian student killed on Friday during clashes between Muslim Brotherhood protesters and local residents in Alexandria - 25 January: At least 15 killed in Egypt protests marking 2011 uprising, gunmen in a car opened fire on a security checkpoint near the Pyramids, killing two policemen - 26 January: Images of killed Egypt protester revive criticism of police - 27 January: One person killed by a car bomb, parked near a police station by suspected Islamists in Alexandria
February 2015: 3 February: Homemade bomb explodes in central Cairo, two bombs found in Cairo airport - 9 February: Egyptian authorities say that 19 people had been killed in clashes at a Cairo stadium, adding that none of the victims had been killed by police - 16 February: Thousands mourn Egyptian victims of 'Islamic State' killings, who paid a gruesome price for simply seeking work in Libya - 26 February: One person killed and five others wounded including policemen when five bombs exploded in Cairo on Thursday
March-June 2015: 1 March: A bomb went off near a police station and mosque in the southern city of Aswan, killing two civilians and wounding a soldier and four others - 1 March: Egypt parliamentary poll looks set for delay after court ruling - 14 March: One killed in Cairo bombing as Gulf leaders make $12 billion pledge - 21 April: Ousted Egyptian president Morsi gets 20 years in prison over conviction finding him responsible for deaths of protesters in 2012 - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 9 May: Mubarak sentenced to 3 years in prison for corruption after former Egyptian president and two sons convicted of embezzling millions of dollars of state funds over decade - 16 May: Islamists warn of backlash over Mohamed Morsi death sentence calling it an act of revenge by Egyptian regime - 9 June 2015: 11 men sentenced to death over 2012 football stadium killings in Egypt - 11 June: Egyptian police officer jailed for 15 years over death of protester Shaimaa el-Sabbagh at peaceful demonstration in Cairo in January - 16 June: Egypt's Morsi sentenced to death and 25 years in prison in two different cases along with Muslim Brotherhood spiritual leader - 29 June: Egypt's public prosecutor targeted by deadly car bomb
July-September 2015: 1 July 2015: At least 30 Egyptian soldiers killed in terror attacks as suspected Islamist militants attacked several military posts in Egypt's North Sinai area - 1 July: Egypt cabinet passes anti-terrorism laws amid deadliest Sinai battle in 40 years - 11 July 2015: At least one civilian killed, several others and at least two police officers wounded in explosion witnesses said caused massive destruction to Italian Consulate in Cairo - 17 August 2015: Egyptian President al-Sissi approved an anti-terrorism law that sets up special courts and provides protections to its enforcers - 30 August: Egypt will hold a long-awaited parliamentary election in two phases starting on 18-19 October and on 22-23 November - 12 September 2015: After authorities arrested Egypt’s agriculture minister over corruption allegations, Egypt’s cabinet resigns but will stay on in a caretaker role until a new government is formed - 14 September: After Egyptian security forces killed 12 Mexicans and Egyptians and injured 10, targeting Mexican tourist convoy in the country's western desert, Egyptian authorities claim tourist convoy was in area illegally
October/November 2015 Egyptian parliamentary election: 17 October - 23 November Egyptian parliamentary election (initially expected to be held before the end of March 2015) - 19 October: In absence of opposition parties in Egypt shun elections, the result will be a foregone conclusion but a low turnout suggests that the strongman president is losing popularity - 22 November: Egyptians vote in the second phase of elections that are meant to restore parliament but which critics say have been undermined by widespread repression
November/December 2015: 28 November 2015: 4 Egyptian policemen killed in drive-by shooting on checkpoint near the 4,600-year-old Step Pyramid near Cairo - 4 December 2015: At least 16 people were killed and two wounded in a petrol bomb attack on a Cairo disco in the early hours of Friday
January/February 2016: 9 January 2016: Gunmen shot dead an Egyptian police colonel and a conscript west of Cairo as they traveled to work - 13 February 2016: Thousands of doctors in Egypt have staged a rare protest against police abuses after accusations that two doctors were beaten up by policemen in a Cairo hospital
April/May 2016: 15 April 2016: Thousands in Egypt take to the streets of Cairo against el-Sissi’s decision to hand over two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia in first significant protest against government since Sissi’s takeover - 15 avril: La police égyptienne a fait usage de gaz lacrymogènes pour disperser au Caire et à Alexandrie des centaines de manifestants contre la rétrocession de deux îles à l'Arabie saoudite - 27 April: Around 100 Egyptian journalists staged a protest in Cairo against the arrest of colleagues for covering demonstrations opposing President al-Sisi - 8 May: Eight Egyptian policemen gunned down in the Helwan district south of Cairo - 15 mai: 152 manifestants sont condamnés à des peines de 2 à 5 ans de prison pour avoir protesté contre le régime et la cession par l'Egypte de deux îles de la mer Rouge à l'Arabie saoudite
July 2016: 13 July 2016: Hundreds of Egyptians have been forcibly disappeared and tortured in a campaign by 'security' forces in Egypt to wipe out peaceful dissent, rights group says
March/April 2017: 8 March 2017: Some of Egypt’s major cities have been paralysed by rare protests in response to a cut in bread subsidies - 13 March 2017: An Egyptian prosecutor allowed for former president Hosni Mubarak to be released, after an appeals court acquitted him of involvement in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising - 10 April 2017: Egypt under emergency rule after church terror attacks, as during funerals for 45 victims killed in Palm Sunday bombings, mourners denounce security services for failing to protect Christians
Foreign relations of Egypt: Foreign relations of Egypt - International reactions to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 - International reactions to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 - NZZ 20. Mai 2011: USA-Finanzhilfe für Ägypten, Tunesien (Rede Obamas) - NZZ 27. Mai 2011: G8 - Milliardenhilfe für arabische Länder - NZZ 5. Juni 2011: Aussicht auf IWF-Kredit von 3Mrd. $ für Ägypten - 25 June 2011: Egypt drops plan for International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan - deficit in 2011-12 budget revised to 8,6%
29 September 2013: Egypt wants a Middle East region 'free from weapons of mass destruction, as well as from nuclear, chemical and biological weapons', says foreign minister Nabil Fahmy at UN
Egypt/Africa relations: Egypt/Africa relations - 7 septembre: Une vingtaine d'Érythréens sont bloqués à la frontière entre l’Égypte et Israël
Egypt/Australia relations: Australia/Egypt relations - 25 January 2014: Australian journalist Peter Greste calls his detention in Egypt 'attack on freedom'
Egypt/Ethiopia relations: Egypt/Ethiopia relations - 9 June 2013: Egypt's foreign minister, vowing not to give up 'a single drop of water from the Nile', says he would go to Addis Ababa to discuss a giant dam that Ethiopia has begun building in defiance of Cairo's objections - 12 June 2013: Nothing will stop Nile dam project, Ethiopia says
Egypt/European Union relations: Egypt/European Union relations
2013/2014: 29 July 2013: EU's Ashton arrives in Cairo for talks Monday amid crisis - 30 July: EU's Ashton went to meet Morsi amid renewed Cairo protests - 30 July: Morsi is doing 'well' and has access to news, Ashton says - 30 April 2014: EU says Egypt's sentencing of 683 people to death breached international law
2016: 25 September 2016: Egypt tightens borders after more than 160 migrants die in ship disaster when their Europe-bound boat sank in the Mediterranean, as over 12,000 migrants arrived in Italy from Egypt this year, showing the extent of Egypt's harsh economic reality of high unemployment and rising inflation
Egypt/France relations: Egypt/France relations - 20 October: France24 journalist Sonia Dridi in Cairo assaulted by a crowd of men near Tahrir Square while reporting on a protest and later rescued by a colleague and other witnesses - 17 September 2013: A teacher and French citizen, jailed for breaking a curfew, was beaten to death by detainees in a prison cell in a Cairo police station - 13 February 2015: Egypt government purchases 24 multi-role Rafale fighter jets as part of $6 billion defense deal
2016: EgyptAir Flight 804 operated by EgyptAir went missing over the Mediterranean Sea on 19 May 2016 - 20 May 2016: Huge hunt in the Mediterranean for EgyptAir Flight 804 that disappeared from radar while carrying 66 people from Paris to Cairo
Egypt/Iran relations: Egypt/Iran relations - 19 August: Egypt's state news agency reports that President Morsi will visit Iran to attend the Non-Aligned Movement meetings on August 30 - 6 February 2013: Shoes thrown as Iranian president comes to Egypt in the first visit in three decades
Egypt/Iraq relations: Egypt/Iraq relations - 31 August 2013: Qaeda in Iraq urges Egyptians to rise against army - 22 September 2014: 'Islamic State' terrorists call on Sinai militants to carry on with beheadings and bomb attacks against Egypt’s security forces after Cairo blast, claimed by Egyptian jihadi group
Egypt/Israel relations: Egypt/Israel relations - 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
Since 2005 rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba: Rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba since 2005
2013/2014: 17 April 2013: Islamist militants in Sinai claim responsibility for a rocket attack on the Israeli Red Sea resort of Eilat on Wednesday - 21 April 2013: Israeli PM Netanyahu vowed Israel would 'exact a price' from the Gaza militants who fired missiles from Sinai at the southern resort city of Eilat on Wednesday - 13 August 2013: Iron Dome battery successfully intercepts rocket targeting Eilat - 13 August 2013: Moshe Ya'alon says residents and tourists in Eilat do not need to be on high alert or change their daily routines, but warns that Islamist activity is ongoing in the Sinai peninsula - 31 January 2014: Iron Dome intercepts rocket over Eilat
2017: 8/9 February 2017: Israel's Iron Dome intercepts three rockets from Sinai headed for Eilat, as 2 Palestinians said killed in strike near Gaza-Egypt border - 20 February 2017: Two rockets from Sinai hit southern Israel, IDF says - 10 April 2017: IS terror group in Sinai claims Passover-eve rocket attack on Israel, that hit Negev greenhouse - 23 May 2017: A rocket was fired from Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula at southern Israel on Tuesday morning, amid a visit to Saudi Arabia and Israel by USA's Trump
History of Egypt/Israel relations since 2011: History of Egypt/Israel relations since 2011
2011: 19 August 2011: Egypt protests to Israel over troops killings - 20. August 2011: Kairo zieht Botschafter aus Israel ab - 21 August: Egypt says Israel's regret is not enough - 10. September 2011: Demonstranten stürmen israelische Botschaft in Kairo - 24. Oktober 2011: Auch Ägypten und Israel vereinbaren Gefangenenaustausch
2012: 22 April 2012: Egypt scraps Israel gas supply deal - 22 July: Attack on Egypt-Israel-Jordan pipeline - August 2012 southern Israel cross-border attack - 6 August: Egypt vows strong response to Sinai attack - Israel's military says that five of the attackers, who attempted to enter Israel through the crossing during the raid, were killed - 21 September: An Israeli soldier and three militants have been killed in a clash inside Israel near its southern border with Egypt - 16 November: Egypt PM Hisham Qandil arrives in Gaza to show support to Palestinians, after Israel struck at more than 130 targets overnight and militants fired 11 rockets from Gaza
2013: 10 August: An Israeli drone strike killed five suspected Islamic militants and destroyed a rocket launcher in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula - 10 August: Hundreds of people, including armed jihadists, many among them wanted by authorities, tribesmen carrying weapons, and family members of the dead took part in the funeral for militants reportedly slain in Israeli drone strike in Sinai
2014: 16 February: Blast hits tourist bus on Egypt side of Israel border, killing at least four people - 12 March: No injuries in blast outside Israel’s Cairo embassy - 11 June 2014: Egypt deploys infantry battalion in Sinai to prevent attacks on Eilat - 24 July: Egyptian army shot and killed a suicide bomber on his way to Israel and destroyed rocket launcher
Egypt/Italy relations: Egypt/Italy relations
2015: 11 July 2015: At least one civilian killed, several others and at least two police officers wounded in explosion witnesses said caused massive destruction to Italian Consulate in Cairo
2016: 8 February 2016: More than 4,600 academics from across the globe sign an open letter protesting against the death of student Giulio Regeni from Italy whose body was found on the outskirts of Cairo bearing signs of torture last week, and demanding an investigation into the growing number of forced disappearances in Egypt
Egypt/Jordan relations: Egypt/Jordan relations - 22 July 2012: Attack on Egypt-Israel-Jordan pipeline
Rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba 2005-2013
Egypt/North Korea relations: Egypt/North Korea relations - During Yom Kippur War 1973 North Korea managed to train Egyptian military officials directly in North Korea, also sending some 30 pilots and missile technicians to Egypt
Egypt/South Korea relations: Egypt/South Korea relations - 18 February 2014: Jihadist group claims bombing of tourist bus in Sinai, that killed three South Koreans and their local driver
Egypt/Libya relations: Egypt/Libya relations
2014/2015: 19 July 2014: Near the border with Libya Egyptian border guards killed by armed smugglers - 16 February 2015: Egypt bombs 'Islamic State' targets in Libya following video appearing to show the beheading of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians there - 24 February 2015: Seven civilians reportedly killed in Egypt airstrikes on Libya city of Derna and a residential neighborhood
2017: 26 May 2017: Egyptian fighter jets carried out six strikes against camps near Derna in Libya, where militants responsible for attacks are believed to have been trained, after at least 26 people, including children, were killed and 25 wounded in a gun attack on a bus carrying Coptic Christians south of Cairo
Egypt/Mexico relations: Egypt/Mexico relations
2015: 14 September 2015: After Egyptian security forces killed 12 Mexicans and Egyptians and injured 10, targeting Mexican tourist convoy in the country's western desert, Egyptian authorities claim tourist convoy was in area illegally
Egypt/Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
2013/2014: 8 February 2013: Already saddled with its own internal challenges, Egypt must now lead OIC for the next three years - 17 June 2014: Crises and situations in Iraq, Syria, in Central Africa, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria and Mali on the agenda of the OIC Foreign Ministers Conference, 41st session in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) 18/19 June 2014
Egypt/Palestine relations: Egypt/Palestine relations - History of the Middle East
Since 1948: Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt between 1948 and October 1956 and again from March 1957 to June 1967
2012: NZZ 23. Juli 2012: Ägypten erlaubt Palästinensern visafreie Einreise - 16 November: Egypt PM Hisham Qandil arrives in Gaza to show support to Palestinians - 30 December: Egypt has allowed a shipment of construction materials to enter the Gaza Strip from its territory for the first time since 2007
2013: 29 July 2013: Abbas visits Cairo in show of support for post-Morsi interim government - 16 août 2013: Le Hamas et les islamistes à Amman et à Khartoum manifestent pour Morsi - 12 September: Cairo accuses Hamas of training Egyptian militants - 30 octobre: L'Egypte a détruit des centaines de tunnels de contrebande creusés sous la frontière avec la bande de Gaza
2014: 4 March 2014: Court in Egypt bans all activities by the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas - 29 March: Egypt reopens border crossing with Gaza - 8 June: Egypt willing to open Gaza border crossing permanently, official says - 10 July: Egypt opens border with Gaza to allow airstrike casualties in for medical care - 20 July: Hamas says invited for Cairo truce talks - 2 August: Egypt truce plan 'real chance' to end Gaza clashes, al-Sisi says - 9 August: Deadly Gaza conflict reignites as Egypt urges new truce - 11 August: Following reports that Egypt would agree to the deployment of some 1,000 PA policemen along the Egypt/Gaza border, Hamas reportedly will let the PA monitor Rafah crossing
2015: 2 January 2015: Egyptian border troops shot dead a Palestinian youth as he tried to slip across the border with three other youths - 6 January: Egypt to expand buffer zone between Sinai and the Gaza Strip - 31 January: Egyptian court bans Hamas' armed wing, lists as terrorist organization - 28 February: Egypt court lists Hamas as terrorist organization
Egypt/Qatar relations: 8 January 2013: Qatar has lent Cairo a further £1.25bn and donated an extra £300m in an effort to control a currency crisis prompted by Egypt's political turmoil - 8 juillet 2013: Des collaborateurs d'Al-Jazeera en Egypte ont démissionné en raison d'un désaccord sur la ligne éditoriale de leur employeur - 14 July 2013: Following Morsi’s ouster, Qatar’s support to Egypt in question - 22 December 2014: Egypt, Qatar announce mending of relations
Egypt/Russia relations: Egypt/Russia relations - 13 February 2014: Putin backs Sisi 'bid for Egypt presidency'
2015: 10 February 2015: Egypt rolls out red carpet for Putin as residential neighbourhoods of the Ukrainian city of Kramatorsk are shelled by Russian-backed separatists and as Russian-backed Assad regime kills over 100 civilians and injures hundreds in a series of brutal attacks on the district of Douma
Kogalymavia Flight 9268, international chartered passenger flight, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia, that crashed in central Sinai following departure from Sharm el-Sheikh on 31 October 2015
Egypt/Saudi-Arabia relations: Egypt/Saudi-Arabia relations - 28 April 2012: Saudi Arabia recalls its ambassador from Egypt following protests against the Saudi arrest of an Egyptian human rights activist - 11 July 2012: New Egypt president in Saudi on first foreign trip - 10 July 2013: Saudi Arabia will give Egypt $5 billion in aid, made up of a $2 billion interest-free deposit in Egypt's central bank, a $1 billion donation and the equivalent of $2 billion in oil and gas products - 15 April 2015: Egypt and Saudi Arabia discussed 'major military manoeuvre' in Saudi Arabia amid the Saudi-led campaign against Shi'ite militias in neighbouring Yemen
Egypt/Sudan relations: Egypt/Sudan relations
Egypt/Switzerland relations: Egypt/Switzerland relations - 29. Juli: Ägypten fordert 700 Mill. Mubarak-Dollar auf Schweizer Bankkonten zurück
Egypt/Syria relations: Egypt/Syria relations - 30 August 2012: Assad's delegation walks out after Egypt's president Morsi calls for 'solidarity with struggle' against 'oppressive regime' at NAM summit - 7 February 2013: At the summit of 57-member Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Egyptian in Cairo president Morsi urges Assad regime not to put its interests above those of the nation - 16 June 2013: President Morsi announces closure of embassies in Damascus and Cairo, calls for the imposition of a no-fly zone against the Assad regime and demands that Hezbollah must leave Syria - 28 September 2013: Egypt wants a Middle East region 'free from weapons of mass destruction, as well as from nuclear, chemical and biological weapons', says foreign minister Nabil Fahmy at UN - 17 October: Egypt denies it was mistreating Syrian refugees following a report by Amnesty International accusing authorities of unlawfully detaining and deporting hundreds of Syrians fleeing civil war
Egypt/Turkey relations: Egypt/Turkey relations
2013: 24 November 2013: Egypt and Turkey dismissed each other’s ambassadors and downgraded their diplomatic relations after months of tensions over former president Mohamed Morsi
2016: 17 July 2016: UNSC failed to condemn the violence and unrest in Turkey after Egypt objected to a statement that called on all parties to 'respect the democratically elected government of Turkey', saying the council is 'in no position to qualify, or label that government'
Egypt/United Arab Emirates relations: Egypt/United Arab Emirates relations - 10 July 2013: United Arab Emirates has offered $3 billions in aid for Egypt - 4 August: Reporters Without Borders has condemned the United Arab Emirates for the detention of Egyptian journalist Anas Fouda - 27 October: UAE to give $3.9 billion to Egypt's military-installed government
Egypt/United Kingdom relations: Egypt/United Kingdom relations - British Egypt 1882-1952 - History of Egypt under the British - Suez Crisis 1956 - 3 September 2012: UK 'fails to freeze' Mubarak-era assets
Egypt/United Nations relations: Egypt/United Nations relations - UN Security Council resolutions concerning Egypt - UN reactions to the 2011 Egyptian revolution - 15/16 August 2013: UN Security Council calls for 'maximum restraint' in Egypt and end to violence spreading across the country, also calling for national reconciliation - 25 March 2014: UN says an Egyptian court's decision to sentence 529 members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death contravene international law - 2 April: UN's Ban Ki-moon tells Egypt he's concerned by mass death penalties
Egypt/USA relations: Egypt/USA relations - 7 December 2011: Rights group condemns US arms sales to Egypt - 14 July 2012: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urges democratic transition - 16 juillet: En visite en Egypte Hillary Clinton a rencontré le nouveau président Mohammed Morsi ainsi que des généraux - 13 September: Despite the Morsi government's call for calm, demonstrations over foreign film are ongoing outside the US embassy in Cairo - 19 September: Italy's highest court confirmes the guilty verdicts of 23 CIA agents tried in absentia for the 2003 abduction of Egyptian imam Osama Mustafa Hassan in Milan - 3 March 2013: Arrived in Egypt on his first visit to Arab world US secretary of state Kerry releases $190m for Cairo and urges rival factions to unite - 29 June: US warns against Egypt travel, after a US citizen died in deadly clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 19 July 2013: Ex-CIA Milan chief held in Panama over cleric Abu Omar abduction - 10 octobre: Les États-Unis ont gelé une partie de leur aide à l’Égypte - 13 February 2014: Egypt detained local USA Embassy staffer for nearly three weeks without charges
Environment of Egypt: Environment of Egypt - Natural history of Egypt - Climate of Egypt
Ecoregions in Egypt: List of ecoregions in Egypt
Environmental issues in Egypt: Environmental issues in Egypt
Air pollution in Egypt: Air pollution in Egypt
Urbanization in Egypt: Urbanization in Egypt - Noise pollution in Egypt
Water in Egypt: Water in Egypt - Bodies of water of Egypt - List of rivers of Egypt - there is only one year-round river in Egypt, the Nile, having no non-seasonal tributaries for its entire length in Egypt
Nile, Nile Basin Initiative and water politics in the Nile Basin: Nile - Nile Basin Initiative - Water politics in the Nile Basin
River regulation and dams in Egypt: River regulation in Egypt - Dams in Egypt
Water supply and water resources management in modern Egypt: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt - Water resources management in modern Egypt
Natural disasters in Egypt: Natural disasters in Egypt - Geography of Egypt
Nile delta sea level - 29 March 2013: Rising sea levels threaten livelihoods of millions of people living in coastal cities and in Nile Delta
10 August 2015: At least 21 people have died and 66 others suffered exhaustion in Egypt due to a severe heatwave


Iran - Geography of Iran - History of Iran - 1953 Iran coup d'etat - role of USA and UK - Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution 1979 - History of the Islamic Republic of Iran (since 1979) - Demographics of Iran
Economy of Iran: Economy of Iran - main industries are petroleum, petrochemicals, fertilizers, caustic soda, car manufacture, parts, pharmaceuticals, home appliances, electronics, telecom, energy, power, textiles, construction, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and non-ferrous metal fabrication, armaments - List of companies of Iran - Companies of Iran by industry
Industry of Iran: Industry of Iran
Military industry in Iran: Iran's military industry exported weapons to 57 countries as of 2006 and is composed of the following main components: Iran Electronics Industries, Defense Industries Organization - tanks, rockets, bombs, guns, armored vehicles, etc., Iranian Space Agency - guided missiles systems etc., Iran Aviation Industries Organization - aircraft, UAV, helicopters, etc., Naval industry - ships, hovercrafts, submarines, etc.
List of military equipment manufactured in Iran: List of military equipment manufactured in Iran
Energy in Iran: Energy in Iran - List of power stations in Iran - gas was the dominant fuel in Iran in 2009, accounting for an estimated 56.8% of primary energy demand, followed by oil at 40.8% and hydro with a 1.4% share of PED - Iran exports annually 5.5 TWh of electricity to seven surrounding countries, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan
Petroleum industry in Iran: Petroleum industry in Iran - 'National Iranian Oil Company' ranks as the world's third largest oil company - Oil reserves in Iran
Natural gas reserves in Iran - National Iranian Gas Company
Nuclear facilities in Iran: Nuclear facilities in Iran - Iran's nuclear program has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants
Renewable energy in Iran: Renewable energy in Iran - Hydroelectric power stations in Iran - Solar power in Iran - with about 300 clear sunny days a year and an average of 2,200 kilowatt-hour solar radiation per square meter, Iran has a great potential to tap solar energy, but has only two plants using solar power, Shiraz solar power plant, 'pilot' power station with a capacity of 250 kilowatt (!) since 2008, 'Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station', using natural gas and oil as primary fuels
Agriculture in Iran: Agriculture in Iran - crops including cereals (wheat, barley, rice, and maize), fruits, vegetables, cotton, sugar beets, sugarcane and pistachios, nuts, olives, spices e.g. saffron, raisin, tea, tobacco, Berberis and medicinal herbs - Iranian fruit production ranking 1st in the Middle East and North Africa - Persian walnut, melon, tangerine, citrus fruits, Kiwifruit, dates, cherries, pomegranates, peach, oranges and raisins - Livestock in Iran - Fishing in Iran
Water in Iran: Water in Iran - Bodies of water of Iran - List of rivers of Iran - Irrigation in Iran
Water supply and sanitation in Iran: Water supply and sanitation in Iran
Water crisis in Iran: Water crisis in Iran refers to the problems which due to the water scarcity occur in Iran - as of 2014, Iran is using 70% of its total renewable freshwater, far above the upper limit of 40% recommended according to international norms
2016: 9 May 2016: Ambitious water transfer projects look attractive for tens of millions of people in the desert cities of central Iran worried about drought, but there are fears of a growing dichotomy of water management and environmental sustainability
Transport in Iran: Transport in Iran
Banking, insurance and financial services in Iran: Banking and insurance in Iran - Banks of Iran - Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran - Iranian rial - currency of Iran
Financial services companies of Iran - Iranian oil bourse - Tehran Stock Exchange
Economic history, business cycles and unemployment in Iran: Economic history of Iran - Iran's successive economic plans 1991-2010, growth and unemployment
3 October 2012: Riot police in Iran have clashed with protesters in Tehran over sharp falls in the currency - 7 October: Most money changers refuse to comply with government's demand for a fixed dollar rate to reverse currency collapse
Foreign trade of Iran and foreign investment: Foreign trade and economic relations - Foreign direct investment in Iran
Sanctions against Iran
Iranian arms sales:
2006: Iran's military industry exported weapons to 57 countries as of 2006 and is composed of the following main components: Iran Electronics Industries, Defense Industries Organization - tanks, rockets, bombs, guns, armored vehicles, etc., Iranian Space Agency - guided missiles systems etc., Iran Aviation Industries Organization - aircraft, UAV, helicopters, etc., Naval industry - ships, hovercrafts, submarines, etc.
2017: 13 September 2017: North Korea singled out alongside Saudi Arabia and Iran as one of the world’s most secretive major exporters of small arms, including Kalashnikovs, rockets and machine guns, according to the Small Arms Survey Trade Update 2017
Military of Iran: Military of Iran - Equipment of the Iranian Army - 29 September 2013: Iranian army unveils home-made combat drone
Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
2014/2015: 25 December 2014: Iran’s national army has begun a massive military drill near the strategic Strait of Hormuz, saying that the maneuvers were aimed at 'transferring experiences' to a younger generations of Iranian soldiers - 7 July 2015: Iran's Revolutionary Guards stand to profit from emerging nuclear deal
2017: 17 September 2017: Iranian Revolutionary Guard says it has 'father of all bombs’, comparable to the USA's so called 'Mother Of All Bombs', the world’s largest non-nuclear bomb
Iran's missile forces: Iran's missile forces - Guided missiles of Iran
2012/2013: 7 August 2012: Iran test fires short-range missile equipped with guidance system - 21 August: Iran unveils new missile, other weapons - 25 September: Iran unveils domestically made drone aircraft - 28 January 2013: Iran sends monkey into space, showing missile progress - 22 septembre 2013: Les forces armées iraniennes présentent 30 missiles balistiques d'une portée de 2.000 kilomètres lors de leur défilé annuel - 9 November 2013: Iran starts producing new missile system
2014/2015: 10 February 2014: Iran claims successful ballistic missiles test, described as a 'new generation' - 5 March: Iranian Revolutionary Guard has multiple-warhead missiles - 16 May 2014: Despite apparently reducing illicit purchases that breach UN sanctions, Iran is pursuing development of ballistic missiles, a confidential UN report says - 22 January 2015: Satellite images reportedly show Iranian missile that 'can reach far beyond Europe' - 25 February 2015: Iran tests naval missiles as part of fresh war games 'Great Prophet 9' in Persian Gulf - 5 July 2015: Iran unveils new long-range radar system - 13 October 2015: USA says missile test by Iran 'likely' violated UN resolution related to the use of ballistic missiles
2016: 1 janvier 2016: Les Gardiens de la révolution iranienne possèdent tellement de missiles qu'ils ne savent pas où les stocker - 10 February 2016: Iran to upgrade missiles, set to receive Russian S-300 within two months - 8/9 March: Iran launches ballistic missiles during military exercise in possible volation of UN resolution, with the phrase 'Israel must be wiped out' written on them in Hebrew and designed to demonstrate to Israel that it is within Iranian missile range, according to an Iranian commander - 9 May 2016: Iran claims to successfully test highly accurate ballistic missile that can reach Israel
2017: 4 February 2017: Defiant Iran in missile exercise day after USA sanctions over a ballistic missile test launch - 9 March 2017: Defiant Iran successfully tests another ballistic missile despite sanctions - 22 July 2017: Iranian regime announces production of new missile, claiming 'completely indigenous’ Sayyad-3 an upgrade over previous version of air-to-surface missile - 29 July 2017: Iran vows to continue missile program ‘with full power’
Iran and weapons of mass destruction: Iran and weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear program of Iran: Nuclear program of Iran - 10 June 2013: Iran's Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant has suffered a malfunction in its main generator - 27 December: Iran develops new generation of centrifuges - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful - 3 December 2015: Iran worked on developing nuclear weapons, with some activities continuing up to 2009, according to IAEA report, after Iran has consistently denied any interest in nuclear arms or past work on such weapons
2016: 14 May 2016: Iranian regime says it is 'enhancing' nuclear activities and uranium enrichment, hailing technological progress and adding that Iran is establishing itself as an exporter of nuclear products - 19 July 2016: Iranian regime defends international deal's secret document easing nuke program restrictions, as FM Zarif says paper obtained by AP that shows Iran will be able to get within 6 months of a bomb in a decade is a 'matter of pride’ - 13 December 2016: Iran’s Hassan Rouhani on Tuesday ordered the country’s scientists to start work on nuclear-powered ships in response to the expected renewal of sanctions by the USA
2017: 13 August 2017: Israel's Mossad chief Cohen noted that in the two years since the signing of the Iran nuclear deal, known formally as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Tehran regime has not abandoned its desire to develop nuclear weapons, and that the agreement 'only reinforced that trend and strengthened Iranian aggression in the region'
Military budget of Iran: Military budget
Taxation and budget in Iran: Taxation in Iran - Public finance and fiscal policy in Iran
Politics of Iran: Politics of Iran - Political parties in Iran - List of political parties in Iran
Iranian reform movement - Combatant Clergy Association, founded in 1977 - Association of Combatant Clerics, founded in 1988
Ideology, constitution and Iran's network of elected and unelected institutions since 1979: Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution 1979 - Ideology of the Iranian Revolution - Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists - Guardian Council - Islamic Revolutionary Court - Expediency Discernment Council
Elections in Iran: Elections in Iran
'Assembly of Experts': Assembly of Experts
2016: 24 May 2016: Hard-line Iranian cleric Jannati has become the speaker of the Assembly of Experts, that is mainly tasked with selecting the country's supreme leader
Islamic Consultative Assembly (Iranian Parliament): Islamic Consultative Assembly (Iranian Parliament)
Iranian legislative election 2 March 2012: Iranian legislative election 2 March 2012 - 2 March 2012: Iran's ruling political and religious hardliners face off in vote, echoing a deepening rift in a conservative establishment - 4 March: Loyalists of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei have won more than 75% of the seats in Iran's parliament, dealing a severe blow to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - 4 May: Polls open in Iran's run-off parliamentary election - 5. Mai 2012: Ahmadinejad bei Stichwahlen in Iran abgestraft - Bündnis um Parlamentspräsident Larijani mit den meisten Mandaten
Iranian presidential election 14 June 2013: Iranian presidential election 14 June 2013 - 16 May 2013: Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi says women cannot be presidential candidates, as 30 women seek to run in the June 14 election - 22 May: Iran's Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani barred from standing for president - 11 June: The sole reformist candidate in the June 14 presidential election Mohammad Aref quits presidential race, a move in favour of the moderate candidate Hassan Rowhani - 12 June: Four years after Iranians took to the streets to demonstrate against the results of the presidential election 2009, the authorities are taking no chances this time, keeping opposition leaders confined under house arrest with doors and windows welded shut - 12 June: Ahmadinejad's legacy - unemployment, international isolation and nuclear standoff - 14 June: Iran begins voting to elect new president - 15 June: Early vote count in Iran gives Hasan Rowhani wide lead - 15 June: Hassan Rowhani secured just over 50 percent of the ballot based on a 72 percent turnout of 50 million eligible voters, a mandate of the Iranian people for change, which will not be betrayed - 30 June: Rohani hints he will balance hard-line, reformist demands - 4 August 2015: New president Rouhani will be publicly inaugurated on Sunday after he was formally endorsed by Khameini on Saturday
2015: 2 June 2015: Murderous Rouhani vows Iran will support Syrian regime's Assad 'until the end of the road' - December 2015: Financing terror – the economic impact of Iran’s nuclear programme and its support to paramilitary groups across the Middle East
January 2016: 19 January 2016: Reformist hopefuls banned from Iran's parliamentary poll, as only 1% of the moderate candidates have been allowed to run
February/April 2016 Iranian legislative election: 26 February 2016 Iranian legislative election - the Islamic Consultative Assembly and the Assembly of Experts will be elected simultaneously for the first time - 26 February: Iranians turn out to vote without real choices - 26 February: Analyst Zibakalam, acknowledging the checkered past of 'new' conservative allies, including former intelligence ministers, linked to the death of dissidents and intellectuals, sentencing thousands to death, says on Iranian elections 'we had to choose between bad and worse' - 27 February: Early results show 'reformists' and so-called 'moderates' lead in Iran elections - 29 February: Iran's citizens turn to social media to take aim at conservative hardliners, sharing celebratory jokes and mocking memes
April 2016: 15 April 2016: Newly elected female MP Minoo Khaleghi in Iran is to be barred from entering the next parliament apparently because she is alleged to have shaken hands with an unrelated man during a trip abroad
29 April 2016: 30 April 2016: So-called reformist and moderate politicians allied with regime's Rouhani secure up to 40 of the 68 parliament seats up for grabs, unofficial results show, while conservatives gain 21 spots
2016: 28 mai 2016: Le nouveau Parlement iranien est entré en fonction samedi lors d'une cérémonie au cours de laquelle l'ayatollah Ali Khamenei a estimé dans un message aux nouveaux députés que leur devoir était de résister aux 'ruses' des ennemis de l'Iran
2017: 2017 Candidates of Iranian presidential election
April 2017: 12 April 2017: In surprise move, Iran’s Ahmadinejad registers to run for president
May 2017 Iranian presidential election: 19 May 2017 Iranian presidential election - 20 May 2017: With nearly all votes counted, incumbent president Rouhani has a commanding lead over his chief rival Raisi - 20 May 2017: Iranians have chosen the 'path of engagement with the world' and rejected extremism, Rouhani says, re-elected with 57% of the vote, writing on Twitter that 'I will remain loyal to my promises to you'
August 2017: 9 August 2017: A day after coming under fire from reformists for nominating no women ministers, Rouhani appoints two female vice presidents but still no women in cabinet
'Supreme Leader', guardian council, president, government and politics of Iran: 'Supreme Leader' of Iran - Guardian Council - President of Iran - Government of Iran - Cabinet of Iran
2011: 25. August 2011: Irans Präsident Ahmadinejad ruft 2011 erneut zur Auslöschung Israels auf - das feste Ziel iranischer Politik
2012: 17 August 2012: 'Cancerous tumour' Israel will soon be destroyed, says Ahmadinejad in Tehran marking Iran's Quds Day
27 December 2012: Iran's Ahmadinejad dismisses health minister, who was Islamic Republic's first woman cabinet member, for criticising colleagues
2013: 5 February: President Ahmadinejad is accusing parliamentary speaker's family of corruption - 5 February: Former Tehran prosecutor Saeed Mortazavi, dismissed from his judicial post over the torture deaths of three protesters in custody after the 2009 elections and considered to be a close aide of President Ahmadinejad, has been arrested on Monday - 6 February: Saeed Mortazavi has been released after two days in prison, state media say - 27 February: Saeed Mortazavi, accused of being involved in deaths of anti-government protesters in 2009, appears in court - 2 August 2013: In Quds Day remarks broadcast on state TV and in one of his last public speeches Iran's outgoing President Ahmadinejad warns Israel will be 'uprooted' - 2 août: Le nouveau président iranien Rohani a affirmé vendredi qu'Israël était un corps étranger qui devait être extirpé de la région, à la veille de sa prise de fonctions - 2 August: After Israeli criticism, Iran's media changed their version of Rohani remarks, that Israel had inflicted a 'wound' on the Muslim world and that the Israeli wound 'must be cleansed', now taking out the reference to 'cleansing'
Since August 2013 Government of Hassan Rouhani: Government of Hassan Rouhani 2013–present - Confirmations of Hassan Rouhani's Cabinet
5 August 2013: Iran's supreme leader today appointed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to the Expediency Council, the country's top political arbitration body
September 2013: 28 September 2013: Nearly 60 gathered chanting "Death to America" and "Death to Israel" and eggs and shoes were thrown at Iranian President Hassan Rouhani's motorcade as he arrived home from New York to a mixed reception after his historic call with Barack Obama - 30 septembre: Le chef des Gardiens de la révolution critique le contact Rouhani-Obama
October 2013: 5 October: Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei hints at disapproval over Hassan Rouhani's phone call with Barack Obama - 20 October: Iran's Rouhani names three new ministers to replace nominees rejected by the conservative-dominated parliament in August
November 2013: 10 November: Iranian deputy minister of industries Rahmatabadi shot dead in Tehran by unidentified assailant - 13 novembre: Selon une enquête publiée par l’agence Reuters, l’actuel Guide de la révolution islamique, Ali Khamenei, est à la tête d’un vaste empire économique d’environ 95 milliards de dollars - 25 novembre: Les Iraniens saluent l'accord sur la régulation du nucléaire iranien
2014: 11 May 2014: Calling for mass-production of missiles, Khamenei says Western expectations that Iran will limit its missile program are 'stupid and idiotic', and Rouhani says Iran won't accept 'nuclear apartheid' - 11 August 2014: Saying he will continue a policy of moderation and 'constructive engagement' with West Iran president Rouhani tells nuke hard-liners to go 'to hell'
2015: 10 January 2015: Condemning 'extremism, violence, and terrorism whether in Palestine, Lebanon and the Levant or in Paris and the United States', Rouhani likens Paris terrorist attacks with Israel's policies toward Palestinians - 18 April: Iran marks Army Day with cries of 'Death to America' and 'Death to Israel' and a truck carrying banner calling for destruction of Jewish state
June 2015: 2 June 2015: Murderous Rouhani vows Iran will support Syrian regime's Assad 'until the end of the road'
October 2015: 14 October: Iran's Revolutionary Guard opens the doors of a secret underground missile base to state TV, showing off medium- and long-range missiles, as Syrian Assad regime's army begins an offensive backed by Iranian soldiers and Russian jets - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful
December 2015: December 2015: Financing terror – the economic impact of Iran’s nuclear programme and its support to paramilitary groups across the Middle East
2016: 3 January 2016: Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei's threat of 'divine vengeance' for the execution of Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr in Saudi-Arabia - 17 April 2016: As Iranian regime parades parts of advanced S-300 missile battery in Tehran marking the country’s annual Army Day, regimes' Rouhani says that Iran will aid countries seeking to combat Israel - 29 mai 2016: Mettant en œuvre une décision prise lors d'une réunion du Haut conseil du cyberespace dirigé par le président Hassan Rohani, l'Iran exige des réseaux sociaux étrangers de lui transférer d'ici un an leurs serveurs contenant les informations des utilisateurs iraniens
June 2016: 14 June 2016: Seventy distinguished academics from North American universities urge Iran's Hassan Rouhani in a letter, to break his silence over the ongoing house arrests of the country’s opposition leaders Mir Hossein Mousavi, Zahra Rahnavard and Mehdi Karroubi, as in a separate letter Narges Mohammadi, a prominent human-rights activist who is currently imprisoned, asks Rouhani to protest against the continuing harassment and persecution of civil-rights activists
July 2016: 1 July 2016: Iranian al-Quds Day resolution demands elimination of ‘cancerous’ Israel, as President Rouhani, attending the Tehran rally, says regional conflicts were making it increasingly difficult to address the Palestinian issue, 'we are far away from the ideal of liberating Palestine'
December 2016: 14 December 2016: Iranian regime claims a military victory in Aleppo boasting that dictator Assad’s forces would have been unable to retake the besieged city without support from Tehran, and Iran’s Rouhani phones Bashar Assad to congratulate him on the impending defeat of rebel forces as a planned ceasefire to allow civilians to leave last rebel-held pocket of Aleppo collapsed, leaving tens of thousands of civilians stranded in the besieged city under heavy bombardment
February 2017: 10 février 2017: Aux cris de 'Mort à l'Amérique', des millions d'Iraniens sont descendus dans les rues pour marquer le 38e anniversaire de l'état islamique
April 2017: 18 April 2017: At annual military parade, Iranian regime shows off new air defense systems and banners displayed alongside various offensive and defensive weapons with the slogan 'Death to Israel' in Persian
June 2017: 7 June 2017 2017 Tehran attacks - 7 June 2017: Two people were confirmed killed and several others were reported injured after armed men burst into Tehran’s parliament building and the mausoleum of revolutionary founder Ruhollah Khomeini, with state media reporting at least two suicide bombings, claimed by Islamic State terrorists
June 2017: 23 June 2017: Iranian regime and supporters hold annual anti-Israel rallies to mark al-Quds day, chanting 'Death to Israel' and displaying surface-to-surface ballistic missiles
August 2017: 13 August 2017: Iran’s parliament voted to allocate $520 million to develop its missile program to fight USA’s 'adventurism' and sanctions, and to boost the foreign operations of the country’s Revolutionary Guards
Repression, social movements and protests in Iran: Protests in Iran - Provisions in violation of human rights in Iran - Extralegal violations of human rights in Iran
1988: 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners
1988-1998: Series of murders and disappearances from 1988 to 1998 by Iranian government operatives of Iranian dissident intellectuals
1998: Narges Mohammadi, first arrested in 1998 for her criticisms of the Iranian government and spending a year in prison
2009-2010: 2009/2010 Iranian election protests - 2009 Iran poll protests trial - Prisoner abuse
2011: 2011 Iranian protests, Protestations iraniennes de 2011 - 1. Juni 2011: Parlament - juristische Schritte gegen Verfassungsverstoß Ahmadinedschads - 12. Juni 2011: Demonstrationen und Festnahmen in Teheran am 12. Juni
2012: 8 March 2012: Mehdi Khazali, given 14 years for criticising government, begins 60th day without food - Mehdi Khazali - 4 October: Police fires tear gas to disperse demonstrators as they protest against the collapse of rial
26 April 2012: Human rights activist Narges Mohammadi whose contribution to the campaign against juvenile executions in Iran is internationally recognised has been arrested to serve her six-year prison term
25 October 2012: Set up by victims of political crimes committed in the wake of Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution a tribunal held in the library of the Peace Palace in The Hague began hearings in a bid to highlight killings ignored by international justice
26 December 2012: Arrested and tortured by 'Fata', blogger Sattar Beheshti's death stirs political hornet's nest in Iran
2013: 28 January 2013: Authorities accuse 14 journalists of co-operating with foreign media, a charge tantamount to 'serving the enemy's purpose' - 22 August: Victory for Iran protesters as govt closes polluting factory - 5. November: Hungerstreik politischer Gefangener in Irans Gefängnissen gegen die schlechte medizinische Versorgung und dubiose Sterbefälle - 5 December: Iran's Revolutionary Guards have carried out a new wave of arrests of cyber activists and members of pro-opposition social networking websites
2014: 3 February 2014: Iran opposition leader Mehdi Karroubi remains under house arrest - 11 February 2014: Iran has executed an Arab-Iranian poet and rights activist for 'waging war on God' and 'acting against national security' - 20 May: Hundreds of Iranian women are posting pictures of their bare heads in call for change to Iranian restriction on women attire in public - 1 June 2014: Iranian court sentences 8 Facebook users to up to 20 years in prison for criticizing the regime on Facebook - 9 June 2014: More than 140 Iranian journalists call on authorities to release Saba Azarpeik, who was picked up last month from the offices of a magazine in Tehran and is currently being held incommunicado - 9 July: Iranian journalist Marzieh Rasouli sentenced to 50 lashes and two years in prison over charges of spreading anti-government propaganda - 29 October 2014: After public outrage about a string of acid attacks in Isfahan, Iranian journalists detained after reporting on acid attacks
2015: 6 May 2015: Iranian rights activist Narges Mohammadi, a close associate of Nobel peace laureate Shirin Ebadi, arrested in Tehran at her home - 16 July: Warning from Iran's hardliners mars celebrations of July 2015 Vienna nuclear deal to end sanctions - 23 July 2015: More than 200 teachers were arrested by riot police during a protest outside the parliament in Tehran demanding the release of their colleagues such as Esmael Abdi, the head of the teachers union, from jail, activist group says - 12 August 2015: Iran refuses to free student activist Bahareh Hedayat after six years in jail despite the fact she should have been freed in June, while her husband is threatened for speaking out - 21 October 2015: Filmmaker Emad Tayefen, imprisoned several times and severely tortured, left Iran in August risking his life to complete 'Public Enemies', a documentary showcasing activists who don’t have the power to get heard - 29 October: Iran poets sentenced to 99 lashes for holding women’s hands amid widespread crackdown on free expression by judiciary and regime security services targeting activists, journalists and artists
2016: 18 January 2016: Iranian poets Fatemeh Ekhtesari and Mehdi Mousavi, facing lashings and prison sentences, have fled Iran, a rare escape for local artists and activists ensnared in an ongoing crackdown on expression in the country, as USA and European governments lift sanctions on Iran - 1 February 2016: A group of activists believe their collective experience in Iranian jails can help others and steer citizens away from recurrent pitfalls, since the Islamic regime expanded its use of tools after the unrests of 2009 to silence dissidents, including torture and capital punishment - 29 February: Iran's citizens turn to social media to take aim at conservative hardliners, sharing celebratory jokes and mocking memes - 27 April 2016: Three Iranian journalists Afarin Chitsaz, Ehsan Mazandarani and Saman Safarzaee given lengthy prison sentences, after a court in Tehran found the journalists guilty of charges including spreading propaganda against the ruling system, conspiring against officials and insulting authorities, and as the regime’s hardline judiciary tightens its grip on press freedom - 19 May 2016: 16-year-sentence against critically ill Iranian human rights activist Narges Mohammadi, for her work defending human and women’s rights, signals all-out repression
October/November 2016: 31 October 2016: Iranian regime cracks down mass protest against its restrictive policies, after thousands attending annual celebration of pre-Islamic ruler Cyrus demand more freedoms, saying 'freedom of thought impossible with the mullahs' - 17 November 2016: In rare dissent, Iran scholar slams regime’s anti-Israel rhetoric, as Sadegh Zibakalam takes on Khamenei in clip posted by independent, but state-sanctioned website
February-May 2017: 17 February 2017: Human rights campaigners have accused Iran of silencing Shahnaz Akmali, the mother of a protester who was killed in post-election unrest in 2009 - 8 May 2017: Angry coal miners besieged a car carrying Iranian president Rouhani after he visited the site of the mine explosion that reportedly killed at least 35 miners Wednesday in northern Golestan province, a rare protest targeting the nation’s top elected official as he campaigns for re-election
August 2017: 16 August 2017: Mehdi Karroubi, one of the opposition leaders of Iran’s Green Movement who has been under house arrest since 2010, goes on hunger strike in protest to the conditions of his arrest, demanding a public trial
September 2017: 13 September 2017: Labour activist Reza Shahabi and a group of about 50 others, including teachers and other labour movement prisoners in Iranian jails, now on hunger strike for almost a month in protest about the legality of their imprisonment and prison conditions
Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Iran: Iranian society - Social class in Iran
Demographics, ethnic groups and languages in Iran: Demographics of Iran - Ethnic groups in Iran - Ethnicities in Iran - Iranian peoples - Ethnic minorities in Iran
Afro-Iranians: Afro-Iranians are concentrated in Hormozagan, Sistan and Baluchestan and Khuzestan
Iranian Arabs: Iranian Arabs are the Arab speaking peoples of Iran forming 2% of its population - Arabic language
Iranian Armenians: Iranian-Armenians are mostly concentrated in Tehran, Tabriz and Jolfa district, Isfahan, and an estimated 150,000-300,000 currently reside in Iran
Assyrians in Iran: Assyrians in Iran numbered approximately 200,000 prior to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, 1996 Iranian census counted only 32,000 Assyrians
Iranian Azerbaijanis: Azerbaijan region's population consists mainly of Azerbaijanis - Iranian Azerbaijan region in northwestern Iran
Iranian Balochis: The Balochi people of Iran live in southern and central parts Sistan and Baluchistan province - Baloch people living mainly in the Balochistan region of the Iranian plateau in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan - Balochi language
Iranian Georgians: Iranian Georgians living mainly in the Fereydan area
Iranian Jews: Iranian Jews (Persian Jews) have had a continuous presence in Iran since the Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE, according to the 2012 Iranian census, the Jewish population of Iran is 8,756 - History of the Jews in Iran
Iranian Kurdistan: Iranian Kurds make up the majority of the population of Kordestan province and together with the Azaris, they are one of the two main ethnic groups in West Azarbaijan province - Kurdestan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan - Kurds of Khorasan
1979-1983: 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran since mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution, and became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in Iran against the new regime
2011: 18. Juli 2011: Iranische Truppen erobern drei kurdische Lager im Irak - 21. Oktober 2011: Gemeinsames Vorgehen von Iran und Türkei gegen PKK
2015: 7 May 2015: Tensions are on edge in the ethnically Kurdish city of Mahabad where protesters earlier torched a hotel over the unexplained death one of its female employees Farinaz Khosravani - 11 May 2015: Two people reported killed in Mahabad demonstrations after Farinaz Khosravani fell to her death from fourth floor in the city’s Tara Hotel due to a suspected attack by an Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps soldier
Lurs: Lurs people estimated at around five million living mainly in south-western Iran's Lorestan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Khuzestan, Fars, Bushehr, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Hamadan, Ilam and Isfahan provinces and are the demographic majority of the provinces of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Lorestan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari - Luri language
Persian people: Persian people, Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages - Iranian languages
Gilani people native to the northern Iran province of Gilan - Gilaki language
Mazanderani people's homeland is the North of Iran (Tabaristan) - Mazanderani language
Qashqai people: Qashqai people live in the Iranian provinces of Fars, Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Bushehr and southern Isfahan - Qashqai language
Romani in Iran: Romani in Iran - Persian Romani
Talysh people: Talysh people indigenous to a region shared between Azerbaijan and Iran which spans the South Caucasus and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea - Talysh language
Iranian Tats: Tats of Iran living near Alborz Mountains in Iran, especially in the south of Qazvin province - Tati language
Iranian Turkmen: Iranian Turkmen living mainly in Northern and Northeastern of Iran - Turkmen language
Regions, provinces and counties of Iran: In 2014 Iran was administratively divided into five regions - Iran is subdivided into 31 provinces, each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city - Counties of Iran are administrative divisions of larger provinces
Tehran Province is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran
List of cities in Iran: List of cities in Iran
Rural Districts of Iran: Rural Districts of Iran
Culture of Iran: Culture of Iran - Religion and culture in ancient Iran - World Heritage Sites in Iran
Languages of Iran: Languages of Iran
Human rights in Iran: Human rights in Iran
2013: 24 October 2013: No progress for now on Iran rights situation, UN envoy Ahmed Shaheed wrote in a report - 26 October 2013: Iran hangs 16 'rebels' held at a prison in reprisal for Pakistan border killings
2015: 17 March 2015: A sharp rise in executions and crackdown on dissent is cause for concern for UN's special investigator Ahmed Shaheed, saying situation in the country worse since Hassan Rouhani became president in 2013
2015/2016: United Nations OHCHR monitoring Iran's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties
2016: 4 October 2016: UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon has given a damning assessment of human rights in Iran, highlighting the 'alarming rate' of executions, unfair trials and arbitrary detentions in 19-page report - 16 November 2016: General Assembly's human rights committee approved a resolution by a vote of 85 in favor, 35 against and 63 countries abstaining, to cease enforced disappearances and the widespread use of arbitrary detention and has expressed serious concern about severe limitations on freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief
Judicial system and religion in Iran: Judicial system of Iran - Ideology of the Iranian Revolution - Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists - Islamic Revolutionary Court - Special Clerical Court
Religion in Iran - Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran - Iranian 'Cultural Revolution' 1980–1987 - Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists - Blasphemy law in Iran - Freedom of religion in Iran
2015: 13 October 2015: Salman Rushdie says in Frankfurt, defending freedom of expression, 'we challenge fears, literature is unafraid'
2017: 28 August 2017: Mohammad Ali Taheri, imprisoned since 2011 for blasphemy and seen as threat to regime’s religious orthodoxy, again sentenced to death on charges of founding another version of Shiite Islam
Iranian antisemitism and Holocaust denial: Antisemitism in Iran - 1839 Allahdad violent riot and forced conversion against the Jews of Mashhad, Khorsan, Qajar Iran - Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel
2006: 2006 Iranian 'International Holocaust Cartoon Competition' - Tehran Holocaust denial conference December 2006: 'International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust'
2015: 21 February 2015: As upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial, Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest - 31 March 2015: The commander of the Basij militia of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Reza Naqdi said that 'erasing Israel off the map' is 'nonnegotiable'
2016: 19 January 2016: Unter dem angeblich moderaten iranischen Präsidenten Rouhani soll im Juli 2016 in der Stadt Mashad wieder eine Holocaust-Karikaturen-Ausstellung stattfinden - 28 January 2016: As the global community marked International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Iran’s Khamenei uploaded a video to his official website questioning the magnitude of the Nazi regime’s mass murder campaign against the Jewish people during World War II - 15 May 2016: As Iran is holding its annual Holocaust denial cartoon contest, Israel's PM Netanyahu says that Iran 'denies the Holocaust, mocks the Holocaust, and is preparing another Holocaust, and I think all the countries of the world need to stand up and condemn this unequivocally'
Women in Iran: Women in Iran - Domestic violence in Iran - Women's rights in Iran - Women's rights movement in Iran
2012: 22 September 2012: Thirty-six universities across Iran have banned women from 77 different majors, including accounting, counselling, and engineering
2013: 16 May 2013: Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi says women cannot be presidential candidates, as 30 women seek to run in the June 14 election - 29 May: UN criticises Iran for excluding women candidates, saying the move violated international law - 28 octobre 2013: L'actrice Pegah Ahangarani condamnée à 18 mois de prison en raison 'des déclarations politiques et des interviews accordées à des médias hostiles étrangers' selon le régime
2014: 20 May: Hundreds of Iranian women are posting pictures of their bare heads in call for change to Iranian restriction on women attire in public - 25 October 2014: Execution of Reyhaneh Jabbari
2016: 28 April 2016: Many Iranians have come to hate the hijab - 17 May 2016: Iranian regime had carried out a crackdown on female models who had appeared on social media and Instagram without wearing their legally mandated Islamic head coverings, also targeting photographers, fashion designers, and makeup artists - 19 May 2016: The prominent Iranian human rights activist Narges Mohammadi has been sentenced to serve ten years of a 16-year prison sentence, for her work defending human and women’s rights in Iran - 20 May 2016: Iranian painter and women’s rights campaigner Atena Farghadani held in Tehran’s Evin prison is on trial in Tehran on charges of spreading propaganda against the ruling establishment - 8 June 2016: Montreal's Concordia University professor of social anthropology Homa Hoodfar has been jailed in Iran’s notorious Evin prison after conducting academic research on women in Iran - 6 October 2016: Iranian judges have ordered female writer and activist Golrokh Ebrahimi Iraee to serve a six-year jail term for writing an unpublished fictional story, said to have been found in her home, about stoning to death in her country
Children and children's rights in Iran: The Rights of the Child in Iran
Military use of children in Iran: Military use of children in Iran
2016: 9 December 2016: At Iran amusement park, kids as young as 8 can fire plastic bullets at Netanyahu effigy
Child labor in Iran: Child labor in Iran
Early marriage in Iran: Early marriage in Iran
Children and gender discrimination in Iran: Children and gender discrimination in Iran
2017: 9 August 2017: Iranian children arrested for teaching Zumba and 'western' dance, charged with dancing and failing to wear proper hijab
Education in Iran: Education in Iran
Schools in Iran: Schools in Iran
2014: 25 February 2014: Iranian teacher builds robot to teach prayer
Science and technology in Iran: Science and technology in Iran
Health care in Iran: Health care in Iran
Sport in Iran: Sport in Iran - Sport in Iran by sport - Women's sport in Iran
Iranian boycotts of Israel in sports: Boycotts of Israel in sports by country
2017: 4 August 2017: Iran’s soccer federation condemned two Iranians who play for a Greek team on Friday for participating in a match against an Israeli team, Iranian media reported
Media of Iran and repression: Media of Iran - Censorship in Iran
2013-2015: 28 August 2013: More than 40 percent of Iranians watch TV channels beamed into Iran and accessible only by illegal but widespread satellite dishes, media reports say - 28 October: Iran bans reformist newspaper 'Bahar' for publishing an article seen by critics as questioning the beliefs of Shia Islam - 11 November 2013: Iran arrests Ali Asghar Gharavi, the author of Bahar daily's article on Shiite Islam - 9 June 2014: More than 140 Iranian journalists call on authorities to release Saba Azarpeik, who was picked up last month from the offices of a magazine in Tehran and is currently being held incommunicado - 9 July: Iranian journalist Marzieh Rasouli sentenced to 50 lashes and two years in prison over charges of spreading anti-government propaganda - 29 October 2014: After public outrage about a string of acid attacks in Isfahan, Iranian journalists detained after reporting on acid attacks - 1 February 2015: Iranians could get the truth about Holocaust as documentary airs over satellite TV after the first Iranian film crew visited Auschwitz in January 2015 - 31 March 2015: A Canada-based Iranian writer and television producer was put into Tehran's notorious Evin prison soon after his return to his home country - 18 November 2015: Iranian journalist Reyhaneh Tabatabaei sentenced to jail after being found guilty of spreading propaganda against the Islamic Republic - 22 November: An Iranian court has sentenced Washington Post reporter Jason Rezaian to a prison term
2016: 22 February 2016: Forty state-run media outlets in Iran have pooled together to raise $600,000 to add to the fatwa on writer Salman Rushdie, 27 years after Iran’s first supreme leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, called for Rushdie’s assassination - 27 April 2016: Three Iranian journalists Afarin Chitsaz, Ehsan Mazandarani and Saman Safarzaee given lengthy prison sentences, after a court in Tehran found the journalists guilty of charges including spreading propaganda against the ruling system, conspiring against officials and insulting authorities, and as the regime’s hardline judiciary tightens its grip on press freedom - 29 mai 2016: Mettant en œuvre une décision prise lors d'une réunion du Haut conseil du cyberespace dirigé par le président Hassan Rohani, l'Iran exige des réseaux sociaux étrangers de lui transférer d'ici un an leurs serveurs contenant les informations des utilisateurs iraniens - 24 juillet 2016: Les autorités iraniennes ont détruit 100'000 antennes paraboliques et autre matériel de réception de la télévision par satellite
Internet in Iran: Internet in Iran - Internet censorship in Iran - Iranian Cyber Police
2012/2013: In November 2012 Iranian blogger Sattar Beheshti died after being arrested by the Iranian Cyber Police - 19 May 2013: Iran's regime is tightening control of the Internet ahead of presidential election, mindful of violent street protests that social networkers inspired last time around over claims of fraud
2016: 29 mai 2016: Mettant en œuvre une décision prise lors d'une réunion du Haut conseil du cyberespace dirigé par le président Hassan Rohani, l'Iran exige des réseaux sociaux étrangers de lui transférer d'ici un an leurs serveurs contenant les informations des utilisateurs iraniens
Blogging in Iran - timeline since 2001: Blogging in Iran - timeline since 2001
Capital punishment and public executions in Iran: Capital punishment in Iran - Public executions in Iran - in 2013, Iran was only one of four countries known to have committed public executions
Stoning in Iran: Stoning in Iran
2012: 12. März 2012: 'Alarmierende' Zunahme von Hinrichtungen in Iran laut Uno-Berichterstatter - 23 October 2012: Iran is maintaining its record-setting use of capital punishment, UN investigator Ahmad Shaheed says - 3 January 2013: IHRDC Chart of Executions by the Islamic Republic of Iran documenting 518 executions in 2012
2013: 16 October 2013: At least 125 people have been executed in Iran since Hassan Rouhani took office as president in August and now Iranian man who survived execution for smuggling drugs must be hanged again, judges say - 26 October 2013: Iran hangs 16 'rebels' held at a prison in reprisal for Pakistan border killings - 9 April 2014: IHRDC Chart of Executions by the Islamic Republic of Iran documenting 665 executions in 2013
2014: 11 February 2014: Iran has executed an Arab-Iranian poet and rights activist for 'waging war on God' and 'acting against national security' - 21 February 2014: Most of at least 80 executions in the first seven weeks of 2014 not for crimes for which international law allows death penalty, UN says - 1 June 2014: Iran's regime executed detained Gholamreza Khosravi linked to the opposition Mujahedeen-e-Khalq group - 25 October 2014: Execution of Reyhaneh Jabbari - 25 October: Despite global appeals for retrial Iran executes Reyhaneh Jabbari who reportedly killed former intelligence ministry worker in self defence after he tried to sexually assault her - 7 January 2015: IHRDC Chart of Executions by the Islamic Republic of Iran documenting 721 executions in 2014
2015: 18 February 2015: UN urges Iran not to execute Kurdish juvenile, set to be killed for membership in Party of Free Life of Kurdistan and clashes with Revolutionary Guards 5 years ago - 2 July 2015: Iran executes hundreds in brutal crane hangings at prison outside Tehran, as rights group warns that at least 1,900 people have been executed in Iran since President Hassan Rouhani took office in June 2013 - 27 October 2015: UN investigator Ahmed Shaheed says executions in Iran have been rising at 'an exponential rate' since 2005 and could top 1,000 this year as the country cracks down on drug offenders - 30 December 2015: IHRDC Chart of Executions by the Islamic Republic of Iran documenting 957 executions in 2015
2016: 26 February 2016: Iran executed all adult men in one village for drug offences, official reveals, as rights group says it had recorded 'a staggering execution rate' in the Islamic republic in 2015 - 10 March 2016: Executions in Iran surged to nearly 1,000 in 2015, UN special rapporteur for human rights in Iran Ahmed Shaheed, says in a report to the organization’s Human Rights Council, the highest level in more than a quarter-century - 15 May 2016: In the past three days, Iran's clerical regime has put four more prisoners to death as the regime’s judiciary roles ahead full force with capital punishment for even petty charges - 6 August 2016: Mass executions continue under 'moderate' Rouhani, as regime carried out execution of 33 Sunni Kurds behind closed doors, not even allowing many families a chance to say goodbye - 7 August 2016: Iranian nuclear scientist Shahram Amiri, whose disappearance in Saudi Arabia in 2009 and subsequent return was shrouded in mystery, has been executed in Iran after returning to Iran from USA, receiving a hero’s welcome in Tehran and being portrayed as someone who had fled the enemy's captivity
Torture and mistreatment in Iran: Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran - Iranian torture victims
2016: 3 October 2016: Washington Post reporter Jason Rezaian detained for 18 months sues Iranian government after suffering 'irreparable harm' being subject to ‘torture and other cruel treatment’ during his detention in a Tehran prison
Prisons in Iran: Prisons in Iran - Evin Prison - Section 209 of the Evin prison, unofficial and secret detention centre of Iran's Secret Service - Gohardasht Prison - Kahrizak detention center
1988: 1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran refers to the state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and enduring for approximately five months, 4,482 disappeared prisoners during this time, but as many as 30,000 dissidents may have been executed
2016: 1 February 2016: A group of activists believe their collective experience in Iranian jails can help others and steer citizens away from recurrent pitfalls, since the Islamic regime expanded its use of tools after the unrests of 2009 to silence dissidents, including torture and capital punishment
Crime in Iran: Crime in Iran
Corruption and fraud in Iran: Corruption in Iran
2002/2003: 2002/2003 Statoil corruption case involving Norwegian oil company
2011: 2011 Iranian embezzlement and fraud scandal involving the use of forged documents to obtain credit from at least seven Iranian state and private banks to purchase state-owned companies
2014: 24 May 2014: A total of 39 defendants were convicted in fraud and corruption case, four received death sentences including tycoon Khosravi
Smuggling in Iran: Smuggling in Iran
Terrorism in Iran: Terrorism in Iran - Assassination and terrorism in Iran - Terrorist incidents in Iran
1978 Cinema Rex fire: In August 1978 the Cinema Rex fire in Abadan was set ablaze, killing at least 470 individuals, later it was disclosed that Islamic militants set the Cinema Rex on fire
June 2017: 7 June 2017 2017 Tehran attacks - 7 June 2017: Two people were confirmed killed and several others were reported injured after armed men burst into Tehran’s parliament building and the mausoleum of revolutionary founder Ruhollah Khomeini, with state media reporting at least two suicide bombings, claimed by Islamic State terrorists
Iranian regime's use of 'targeted killing' and assassinations conducted by the Islamic Republic of Iran: Iranian regime's use of 'targeted killing' - List of Iranian assassinations, conducted by the Islamic Republic of Iran
Since 1988 Chain Murders of Iran: Chain Murders of Iran, series of murders and disappearances from 1988 to 1998 by Iranian government operatives of Iranian dissident intellectuals, who had been critical of the Islamic Republic system in some way
2016: 22 February 2016: Iran's 27-year-long fatwa against author Salman Rushdie is now $600,000 richer, after 40 state-run media outlets pooled together to increase the bounty offered for Rushdie's killing, British newspaper reports
Iran and state-sponsored terrorism: Iran and state-sponsored terrorism
Since 1982: Since 1982 Iran's support of Hezbollah terror attacks and military activities
2006-2016: 11 November 2016: Iranian regime gave Hezbollah missiles it used against Israel, as the Islamic Republic set up a missile factory in Syria's Aleppo which transferred supplies and rockets to Hezbollah for use in 2006 war against Israel, Iranian chief of staff says
2017: 19 July 2017: Iran still top state terror sponsor, according to USA's annual 'Country Reports on Terrorism'
Foreign relations of Iran: Foreign relations of Iran
Treaties of Iran: Treaties of Iran
Wars involving Iran and Iranian military history: Wars involving Iran - List of wars involving Iran since Median Empire - Military history of Iran
Since 1956: Since 1956 Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran
Since 1979 Iran's state-sponsored terrorism: Iran's state-sponsored terrorism - since 1979 the Iranian regime has been accused by members of the international community of funding, providing equipment, weapons, training and giving sanctuary to terrorists
Since 2005: Iran–Israel conflict and escalation since 2005 - Presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in Iran from 2005 to 2013 and Israel
Since 2011: Iranian support for the Assad regime in the Syrian Civil War
2012: 30 August 2012: Iran's 'medical staff of capitalism' hopes the two-day summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Tehran with issues like Syrian crisis and Palestine statehood will change the balance of international opinion - 30 August: Assad's delegation walks out after Egypt's president Morsi calls for 'solidarity with struggle' against 'oppressive regime' at NAM summit
2013: 29 March 2013: Iran, North Korea and Syria block UN first-ever international arms treaty to regulate the $70bn global conventional weapons trade
International views on the nuclear program of Iran: International views on the nuclear program of Iran
Bilateral relations of Iran: Bilateral relations of Iran
Iran/Afghanistan relations: Iran/Afghanistan relations
2015: 5 November 2015: Iran is recruiting Afghan refugees to fight in the foreign military contingent supporting Assad's regime in Syria, promising a monthly salary and residence permits
2016: 30 June 2016: Iranian regime covertly recruits Afghan soldiers to fight in Syria and to support the Assad regime
Iran/Arab relations: Iran/Arab relations - 8. September 2011: Auch Irans Ahmadinejad fordert Asad auf, die Niederschlagung der Proteste zu beenden - Aufnahme eines Dialogs verlangt - 16 April 2012: The United Arab Emirates has summoned Iran's ambassador to Abu Dhabi to denounce a visit by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to a disputed island in the Gulf
2015: 15 February 2015: Iranian Unit 190 reportedly weapons suppliers to terrorists throughout Mideast
2016: 5 January 2016: Following Saudi-Arabia, Bahrain and Sudan, Kuwait recalls ambassador from Tehran, as USA, UN and Turkey call for calm in the region - 5 January 2016: Syrian Coalition's Ahmed Ramadan said that 'the Iranian regime has become a symbol of chaos, terrorism and aggression, not only in our country but in many countries in the region'
Iran/Argentina relations: Iran/Argentina relations - 28 January 2013: Argentina and Iran create independent commission to investigate 1994 bombing at a Jewish centre in Buenos Aires that killed 85
2016: 2015/2016 Iran/Argentina relations and the 1994 bombing at a Jewish centre in Buenos Aires - 19 January 2016: Thousands call for justice at memorial for slain Argentine prosecutor Alberto Nisman
Iran/Canada relations: Iran/Canada relations - 8 September 2012: Canada closes its embassy in Iran accusing the Iranian government to be 'the most significant threat to global peace and security in the world today'
2015: 31 March 2015: A Canada-based Iranian writer and television producer was put into Tehran's notorious Evin prison soon after his return to his home country
2016: 8 June 2016: University professor of social anthropology Homa Hoodfar from Montreal, who was born in Iran but has been living in Canada for 30 years, has been jailed in Iran’s notorious Evin prison after conducting academic research on women in Iran, relatives and lawyer have been unable to see her - 11 June 2016: A Canadian judge orders Iran’s non-diplomatic land and bank accounts in Canada to be handed over to victims of attacks by Hamas and Hezbollah, sponsored by Iranian regime
Iran/Egypt relations: Iran/Egypt relations - 19 August: Egypt's state news agency reports that President Morsi will visit Iran to attend the Non-Aligned Movement meetings on August 30 - 6 February 2013: Shoes thrown as Iranian president comes to Egypt in the first visit in three decades
Iran/European Union relations: Iran/European Union relations - 26 October: The EU prize for human rights and freedom of thought awarded to filmmaker Jafar Panahi and jailed lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh who have both been cut off from the outside world for defying the country's leadership - 27 October: Tehran cancels European Parliament visit after delegation requests meeting with jailed lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh and Jafar Panahi - 7 September 2013: EU court strikes down sanctions imposed on seven Iranian companies despite reported links to Iran’s illicit nuclear activities - 5 November 2013: Nobel winner Shirin Ebadi urges EU, USA to ban Iran from using US and European satellites to broadcast Islamic Republic's propaganda - 9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat
2016: 25 April/16 May 2016: French-Iranian citizen and French Foreign Ministry staffer Nazak Afshar, who left Iran in 2009 after facing espionage charges has been sentenced to six years in jail following her return to the country to visit her critically ill mother, now awaits appeal on prison sentence in Iran - 11 July 2016: Iran indicts three dual nationals including British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been held in solitary confinement, reports say
Iran/France relations: Iran/France relations
1979: On 1 February 1979 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini flew to Iran in a chartered Air France plane after political exile in France, accompanied by supporters as well as 120 international journalists, greeted by crowds of Iranians and fast appointing 'God's government' on 11 February
Since 1979: French exile of PM Shapour Bakhtiar, Islamic Republic's death sentence for him and series of assassination attempts - National Resistance Movement of Iran - 6 August 1991 Assassination of Shapour Bakhtiar along with his secretary Soroush Katibeh in Paris by three assassins, including Vakili Rad, who was received as a hero by Iranian officials in 2010
1980–1988 France and Iran–Iraq War: With the USA and other countries, France supported Iraq's dictator Saddam Hussein in the war against Iran 1980–1988
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
2016: 26 January 2016: USA-Geiselnehmer von 1979 Aboutalebi, der Direktor des politischen Büros Rouhanis, begleitet den iranischen Hinrichtungspräsidenten nach Rom und Paris - 25 April 2016: Iran jails French-Iranian woman who came back to visit sick mother - 16 May 2016: French Foreign Ministry staffer Nazak Afshar with dual citizenship awaits appeal on prison sentence in Iran
2017: 3 July 2017: France’s Total to invest an initial $1 billion in the South Pars offshore gas field as part of a consortium with Iranian and Chinese firms which will eventually pour $4.8 billion into the project, as Total will take a 50.1% stake, while China National Petroleum Corporation will own 30% and Iran’s Petropars 19.9%
Iran/Germany relations: Iran/Germany relations
17 September 1992 Mykonos restaurant assassinations: 17 September 1992 Mykonos restaurant assassinations in Berlin - 14 December 2007: Terrorist freed in Germany is welcomed by Iranian regime
2012-2015: 15 August 2012: Four men have been arrested in Germany on suspicion of illegally supplying Iran with parts needed to build a nuclear reactor - 21 July 2015: Iran dismisses Germany’s call for Israel recognition following the signing of Vienna nuclear accord with world powers
2016: 17 June 2016: Germany’s FM SPD-Steinmeier welcomed Iran's Assad ally Javad Zarif for a bilateral meeting in Berlin, seemingly defying Chancellor Angela Merkel’s earlier commitment to not normalize relations with Iranian regime as long as the regime refuses to recognize Israel’s right to exist
2017: 4 July 2017: Violent acts by neo-Nazi groups in Germany rose 14% to 1,600 in 2016, annual BfV intelligence and government report says, seeing 'a clear radicalization in both substance and rhetoric regarding asylum matters', also saying that Germany is a big target of spying and cyberattacks by foreign governments such as Iran, Russia, China and Turkey, warning of 'ticking time bombs' that could sabotage critical infrastructure, and assuming 'that Russian state agencies are trying to influence parties, politicians and public opinion, with a particular eye to the 2017 parliamentary election'
Iran/Iraq relations: Iran/Iraq relations - Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam - conversion in Iraq - Iraq/Iran war 1980-1988
2012: 22 août 2012: L’Iran s’appuierait sur l’Irak pour contourner les sanctions internationales
2013: 9 February 2013: Six people including a woman were killed and more than 25 wounded in a rocket attack on Iranian dissident camp in Iraq's capital Baghdad - 15 June: Two people killed in a mortar attack on Iranian dissident camp in the Iraqi capital - 6 September 2013: US intercepts an order from an Iranian official instructing Shi'ite militants in Iraq to attack US interests in Iraq - 27 December: Rockets struck near Baghdad airport in what an exiled Iran opposition group said was an attack on their camp that left three dead and around 50 wounded
2014-present Iranian intervention in Iraq: Iranian intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
2014: 5 janvier: L'Iran a annoncé être prêt à fournir des équipements militaires et des conseils à l'Irak pour l'aider dans sa lutte contre Al-Qaïda - 13 June: Iran's regime sends top general to Baghdad as Obama contemplates air strikes against Sunni insurgents - 14 June: Iran's regime has sent 2,000 advance troops to Iraq to fight against Isis insurgency - 25 June: Gunmen kill three Iranian security guards in an ambush near the Iraqi border - 26 June: Iran reportedly sends drones, arms to Iraq - 3 July: Iran has supplied Iraq with Russian-built Sukhoi SU-25 attack jets - 6 July: Iranian pilot killed fighting against Sunni Muslim militants in Samarra north of Baghdad - 3 December: Iran has flown missions against ISIS, USA confirms - 6 December: Iran says it carried out air strikes against 'Islamic 'State' in Iraq
Iran/Israel relations: Iran/Israel relations
2011: 5. November 2011: Israels Präsident Peres weist auf die internationale Verpflichtung hin für Israel bedrohliche iranische Atombestrebungen zu stoppen - schwere Aufgabe für die IAEA, bevorstehender Bericht - 6 November: French FM Juppé says hardening sanctions preferation to the irreparable consequences of a military attack on Iran - 7 novembre: Moscou met en garde contre une intervention israélienne
2012: 17. August 2012: Ahmadinejad bezeichnet Israel während einer Rede zum al-Kuds-Tages als 'ein Krebsgeschwür' und spricht ihm abermals das Existenzrecht ab - 28 September: Netanyahu says world must draw 'red line' for Iran - 8 octobre: Drone abattu en Israël le 6 octobre - Tel-Aviv voit la main du Hezbollah et de Téhéran - 11 October: Hezbollah admits launching drone over Israel - unmanned aircraft was designed in Iran and assembled in Lebanon - 29 octobre: Drone du Hezbollah - l'Iran affirme détenir des images de sites israéliens
2013: 21 March 2013: Iran's clerical leader Khamenei said the Islamic Republic would destroy the cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa if it came under Israeli attack - 2 August 2013: In Quds Day remarks broadcast on state TV and in one of his last public speeches Iran's outgoing President Ahmadinejad warns Israel will be 'uprooted' - 2 August: After Israeli criticism, Iran's media changed their version of Rohani remarks, that Israel had inflicted a 'wound' on the Muslim world and that the Israeli wound 'must be cleansed', now taking out the reference to 'cleansing' - 29 August: Iran's army chief of staff Hassan Firouzabadi threatens that any military action against Syria will have consequences beyond the region and leave Israel in flames - 19 September: Rohani says Iran wants peace, but slams Israel as 'occupier that does injustice to the people of the region' - 25 September: During the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly Obama and Rowhani offer hope for peace - 25 September: Israel says Iran president offered 'zero' in UN speech - 2 October: PM Netanyahu at UN makes strongest-ever Israeli public threat to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities - 2 October: Iran now has a window of opportunity to prove its nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, UN's Ban Ki-moon reportedly told PM Benjamin Netanyahu during their meeting in New York - 9 November: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iran of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
2014: 18 February: Iranian animated film depicts how the Islamic regime might respond against Israel to an American or Israeli strike on its nuclear facilities - 5 March: Israel seizes ship in the Red Sea with medium-range missiles heading from Iran to Gaza as USA military was prepared to get involved in the seizure - 9 March: Israeli troops in Eilat unload 40 short-range rockets from Gaza-bound ship - 11 March: Iran's finger on trigger to destroy Israel, warns senior Revolutionary Guards commander Salami - 15 March: Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehqa praises Palestinians for firing on Israel and says they have yet to display their actual missile capabilities - 5 May: Senior military aide of Khamenei boasts West's failure in Syria is Iran's victory, saying that Iran's frontline has now reached Israeli border - 25 July 2014: Keep arming Palestinians until Israel is destroyed, Iran's Khamenei says - 28 July: PFLP chief says Syria, Iran, Hezbollah armed Hamas - 30 July: Iranian official says, regime will arm West Bank with missiles because Tel Aviv and Haifa will be much easier to hit from Judea and Samaria - 5 October: Iran's Khamenei vows on Friday 'Zionist regime and its supporters will go extinct' - 12 October: Iran warns USA that toppling Assad would put Israel at risk
2015: 19 January: Six Iranians killed in Israeli strike in Syria, including commanders and Revolutionary Guards general, as well as six members of Hezbollah - 21 February 2015: As upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial, Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest - 26 February: Iranian military chief threatens to 'wipe Tel Aviv off the map' - 28 March: On the Syrian Golan, unlike in Yemen, an Iranian offensive fails, as joint operation by Hezbollah, Revolutionary Guards, and Syrian forces, designed to clear opposition near Israel’s border, grinds to halt - 3 April 2015: Tehran crowds welcome returning FM after Lausanne e3+3 and Iran agreement, chant 'condolences' to Israel - 5 April 2015: Iran transfers millions to Hamas for the rebuilding of tunnels and restocking of missile arsenals destroyed by Israel during 2014 Operation Protective Edge - 21 July 2015: Iran brusquely dismissed German Vice Chancellor’s appeal that it recognize the State of Israel’s right to exist, saying its stance is not going to change following the signing of Vienna nuclear accord with world powers - 30 August 2015: Iran has not softened its position on Israel and will not recognize Israel, top Khamenei adviser says - 1 September 2015: Iran walks out on speech, as Knesset Speaker Yuli Edelstain calls on Israel’s Arab neighbors at a global conference to visit Israel and discuss environmental cooperation 'people to people', urging leaders not to wait for peace agreements but rather to build up confidence from the ground up - 9 September 2015: Iran's Ayatollah Khamenei says that Israel will not exist in 25 years, in remarks to the Iranian people in Tehran, after the nuclear deal reached with the West - 14 September: As Iranian regime continues to deny Israel's right to exist and to support anti-Israeli militant groups like Hamas and Hezbollah, Iran's Hassan Rohani wishes Jews a Happy New Year on Twitter
2006-2016: 11 November 2016: Iranian regime gave Hezbollah missiles it used against Israel, as the Islamic Republic set up a missile factory in Syria's Aleppo which transferred supplies and rockets to Hezbollah for use in 2006 war against Israel, Iranian chief of staff says
2016: 28 January 2016: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani accused the 'Zionist lobby' of torpedoing potentially positive ties between Tehran and Washington Wednesday, on International Holocaust Remembrance when he received a warm welcome by some European governments beginning in Italy - 28 February 2016: Israel's PM Netanyahu said that Israel welcomes the cease-fire in Syria but stressed that the agreement must include halt to 'Iranian aggression against Israel from Syrian territory' - 1 July 2016: Iranians demands 'Death to Israel' and burn Israeli flag at al-Quds Day rallies in Tehran and nationwide
2017: 21 February 2017: Addressing a regime’s sixth international conference, Iran’s supreme leader Khamenei backs 'holy intifada' to destroy 'cancer' Israel - 6 August 2017: Israel will allow entry to Iranian journalist Neda Amin, fleeing persecution in her home country, and who could face the death penalty in Iran after writing op-eds for an Israeli news site, according to Interior Minister Arye Dery
Iran/North Korea relations: Iran/North Korea relations
Arms production and weapons sales between North Korea and Iran: Weapons sales between North Korea and Iran
2012: 1 September 2012: Iran, North Korea sign technology agreement - 10 December 2012: Iranian experts at North Korea's rocket site
2013: 8 March 2013: USA's Obama administration officials are raising alarms about a scientific-cooperation pact between North Korea and Iran that could advance the nuclear and missile programs of both countries - 29 March 2013: Iran, North Korea and Syria block UN arms trade treaty
2014: 14 May 2014: Iran shares nuclear technology with North Korea, Israel's PM Netanyahu says in an interview in Japan
2015: 30 March 2015: Since 2012 Iran is stationing personnel from the Ministry of Defense and associated firms at a military base in North Korea, in a mountainous area close to the Chinese border, reportedly working on both missiles and nuclear weapons - 15 September 2015: The Iran nuclear deal is silent on an issue that proliferation experts are concerned about, that the Iranian regime may outsource parts of its nuclear and missiles program to the secretive regime in North Korea, which on Tuesday committed itself to producing more fuel for nuclear bombs
2016: 7 January 2016: After bomb test, North Korea and Iranian regime continue illicit nuke cooperation - 7 January 2016: North Korea's nuclear test reveals a major flaw with the Iran deal, as its fourth nuclear test could have been a crucial step for developing thermonuclear capability and a breakthrough for a second country with potential nuclear ambitions
2017: 13 May 2017: How Iran and North Korea cooperate in their twin quests to develop more dangerous missiles
Iran/Lebanon relations: Iran/Lebanon relations - Russian and Iranian weapons for Lebanese Hezbollah
2017: 13/14 March 2017: Iran has established factories in Lebanon under the full control of the Hezbollah terror group, that can produce different types of missiles and firearms, a top Iranian general told a Kuwaiti newspaper - 6 May 2017: Lebanese Forces' Samir Geagea blames Iran for several regional conflicts, saying that Iran’s actions breach the legitimacy of countries in the region, also stressing that Hezbollah has made a strategic mistake by getting involved on the side of Assad - 9 July 2017: Iran-backed Hezbollah terrorist group reportedly constructing at least two underground facilities in Lebanon for manufacturing missiles and other weaponry
Iran/Marshall Islands relations: 28 April 2015: Iran seizes Marshall Islands cargo ship in Gulf waters, USA says
Iran/OIC Organisation of Islamic Cooperation relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
2014: 17 June 2014: Crises and situations in Iraq, Syria, in Central Africa, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria and Mali on the agenda of the OIC Foreign Ministers Conference, 41st session in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) 18/19 June 2014
Iran/OPEC relations: OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) membership - OPEC quotas and production of petroleum - World oil reserves - Key oil producing countries and petroleum politics
Iran/Pakistan relations: Iran/Pakistan relations - Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline - Gas pipeline controversies - 12 March 2013: Pakistan starts work on Iranian gas line - 26 October 2013: Iran hangs 16 'rebels' held at a prison in reprisal for Pakistan border killings
Iran/Palestine relations: Iran/Palestine relations
2012: 21 novembre 2012: Depuis le dernier conflit d’envergure avec l’armée israélienne 2008/2009, le Hamas a quasiment multiplié par deux la portée de ses roquettes iraniennes
2014/2015: 5 March 2014: Israel seizes ship in the Red Sea with medium-range missiles heading from Iran to Gaza as USA military was prepared to get involved in the seizure - 15 March 2014: Iranian Defense Minister Hossein Dehqa praises Palestinians for firing on Israel and says they have yet to display their actual missile capabilities - 25 July 2014: Keep arming Palestinians until Israel is destroyed, Iran's Khamenei says - 28 July: PFLP chief says Syria, Iran, Hezbollah armed Hamas - 6 August: Saying Hamas should let civilians hide in its tunnels Iran's Mohsen Rezai criticizes Gaza’s rulers over casualties, but stresses support for ‘resistance’ against Israel - 5 April 2015: Iran transfers millions to Hamas for the rebuilding of tunnels and restocking of missile arsenals destroyed by Israel during 2014 Operation Protective Edge - 13 November 2015: Iran reportedly builds a Hezbollah-style terror group in the Gaza Strip, as 'Al-Sabirin' has begun recruiting an intended initial force of 400 fighters, and is directly funded by the regime in Tehran
2017: 30 May 2017: Iranian regime reportedly agreed in principle to renew its funding for the Hamas terror group - 30 May 2017: Iran parliament speaker Ali Larijani says Israel 'a threat to humanity’, urging Palestinians to follow Hezbollah’s lead and 'liberate’ lands
Iran/Russia relations: Iran/Russia relations - Iran/Russia relations, recent 'Times of Israel' reports - Military cooperation and trade - Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant
2013: 10 June 2013: Iran's Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant has suffered a malfunction in its main generator - 11 septembre: En pleine crise syrienne, Moscou s'apprêterait à proposer des missiles perfectionnés S-300 à l'Iran, autre allié du régime de Bachar al-Assad - 23 September 2013: Iran to take control of Russian-built nuclear power station at Bushehr on its Gulf coast - 21 October 2013: Iran holds talks with Russia to boost military cooperation
2014: 21 October 2013: Iran holds talks with Russia to boost military cooperation - 17 October 2014: Iran and Russian hold joint three-day naval exercise in the Caspian Sea
2015: 20 January 2015: Iran and Russia reportedly agreed to a military cooperation pact - 23 February: Iran studies Russian offer of new missiles instead of S-300 - 6 October 2015: Iranian General Qassem Soleimani's July visit to Moscow reportedly the first step in planning for a Russian military intervention that has reshaped the Syrian war and forged a new Iranian-Russian alliance in support of Assad - 8 October 2015: After Iran lobbied in the summer for Russian campaign in Syria, Russian cruise missiles fired from ships in Caspian Sea and aimed at Syria land in Iran and may have caused injuries
2016: 23 August 2016: Iranian murderous regime's Dehghan criticized Russian murderous regime for 'not having kept its promise' when Russia made public that it was using an Iranian airbase for bombing raids in Syria
2017: 29 March 2017: Iranian regime, visiting Moscow, allows Russian jets to use its bases to bomb Syrians in Assad's war against the Syrian people, in a partial return to an earlier deal that was allegedly halted after Russian regime boasted its planes were operating out of Iran, upsetting local lawmakers, despite earlier this month an Iranian official confirmed Russian warplanes are still using Iran’s airspace to carry out airstrikes in Syria
Iran/Saudi-Arabia relations: Iran/Saudi-Arabia relations - Arab-Iran relations: Saudi-Arabia
Shia–Sunni relations - Successors of Muhammad
1980-1988: 1980-1988 during the Iran–Iraq war Saudi authorities pledged US$25 billion of aid to the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein - July 1987 Mecca incident, clash between Shia pilgrims and demonstrators and the Saudi Arabian security forces during the Hajj pilgrimage, which led to the deaths of over 400 people
2015: 16 March 2015: Any terms that world powers grant Iran under a nuclear deal will be sought by Saudi Arabia and other countries, risking wider proliferation of atomic technology, Saudi-Arabian regime fears - 26 May 2015: Iran reportedly summons Saudi envoy over Yemen airstrike
2015/2016: 2015/2016 Military intervention in Yemen
2016: 3 January 2016: Protesters in Tehran attack Saudi embassy after Shiite cleric executed in Saudi-Arabia, setting fires and throwing papers from the roof
2017: 9 May 2017: Iranian regime threatens Saudi Arabia saying only Mecca and Medina will remain in war
Iran/Singapore relations: Iran/Singapore relations - Singapore support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war 1980-1988 - 28 April 2015: Rickmers Shipmanagement, the Singapore-based company that has chartered the Maersk Tigris taken by Iran's navy after shooting, concerned for the 24 crew members on board, most of whom come from Eastern Europe and Asia
Iran/South Sudan relations: 20 June 2015: Saudi top secret memo published by Wikileaks says Iran bombed South Sudan
Iran/Sudan relations: Iran/Sudan relations - 29 October 2012: Iran naval task force including a corvette and freighter 'docks in Sudan' - 28 June 2014: A UN expert panel has concluded that a shipment of rockets and other weapons that was seized by Israel came from Iran for Sudan and represents a violation of the UN arms embargo on Tehran
Iran/Switzerland relations: Iran/Switzerland relations
Since 1979: Since 1979 Switzerland becomes the 'protecting power' of the USA in Iran after the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979
Since 1980: Since 1980 Swiss engineer Friedrich Tinner connected with the Khan network trafficking in the proliferation of nuclear materials and know-how to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea and later cover-up to hide the involvement of Urs Tinner with the CIA - 31 May 2008: Nuclear bomb blueprints and manuals on how to manufacture weapons-grade uranium for warheads are feared to be circulating on the international black market, according to investigators tracking the world's most infamous nuclear smuggling racket
1984-1988: Since 1984 victims of the Iran–Iraq War received medical treatment in Switzerland, while Swiss companies were doing multibillion-dollar business with Iraq at the same time
Since 1954 trade agreements between Switzerland and Iran: Since 1954 trade agreements between Switzerland and Iran on air traffic, road and rail transport 1977, export risk guarantees 1966, protection of investments 1998 and double taxation 2002, as Iran is one of Switzerland's most important trading partners in the Middle East
Iran/Syria relations: Iran/Syria relations - Iran's involvement in the Syrian civil war - Iranian support for Assad regime in the Syrian civil war since 2011 - Iran-Iraq-Syria pipeline
2012: 16. Mai 2012: Syrien erhält weiterhin illegale Waffenlieferungen aus dem Iran - 5 August: Syrian opposition says hostages 'Iranian soldiers' - 5 août: Une vidéo montre des Iraniens aux mains de la brigade Al-Baraa de l'Armée syrienne libre affirmant '48 miliciens iraniens étaient en mission de reconnaissance à Damas' - 7 août: L'émissaire iranien Saïd Jalili en Syrie estime que 'la situation en Syrie n'est pas une crise interne mais un conflit entre l'axe de la résistance dans cette région' contre Israël et les Etat-unis - le peuple syrien, les enfants sont les victimes de cette estimation - 20. September 2012: Iran unterstützt laut Geheimdienstbericht Assad Regime in grossem Stil mit Waffen und Soldaten
2013: 5 mai 2013: Après des frappes israéliennes contre des armes destinées au mouvement chiite libanais Hezbollah, Téhéran se dit prêt à entraîner l'armée syrienne - 16 June: As positive reactions emerge from governments in France, the UK and the US following Hassan Rohani's victory in Iran's election, the Syrian National Coalition calls on Iran’s president-elect to reconsider the country’s position on Assad's war against democracy and his people - 16 June 2013: Iran to send 4,000 troops to help Syria’s Assad - 27 June 2013: Iran, Russia and China prop up Assad economy - 30 November: Iran stands alongside Assad regime in its fight against 'axis of evil', Iranian vice president says
2014: 21 February 2014: Iran steps up support for Assad regime providing elite teams to gather intelligence and train troops along with deliveries of munitions and equipment from Russia - 3 April 2014: Iranian general admits advising Syrian regime on establishing 'shabbiha' paramilitary force, which has terrorised Syrian dissidents and committed grave human rights abused since the start of the Syrian revolution in March 2011 - 12 May: Iran and Assad have won in Syria, say top Tehran foreign policy figures - 2 June: With Assad poised to win a third term in office denounced as a sham by the West, Iran claims his anticipated victory as its own
November 2014: November 2014: Iran in Syria - from an ally of the regime to an occupying force
2015: 1 April 2015: National Coalition's Bassam al-Malek says that Assad's regime depends on Iran's military and economic support and that it is on the brink of economic collapse - 21 April 2015: Syria, Iran discuss boosting cooperation - 9 May 2015: Islamic Revolution Guards Corps commander Jafari says, that Iran's intervention in Yemen and Syria comes within the framework of the expansion of the Shiite Crescent in the region - 19 May 2015: Iran extends new credit line to Syria's Assad regime - 21 May: New evidence of Iran’s increasing influence in Syria - 2 June 2015: Rouhani vows Iran will support Assad 'until the end of the road' - 8 July 2015: Assad signs $1 billion credit line from Iran - 8 August 2015: Iran reportedly continues to send mercenaries to Syria to support Assad regime - 28 August: A top commander in the Iranian regime’s Revolutionary Guards was killed fighting in Syria’s war, along with 17 Iranian-recruited Afghan militants killed in the month of August, according to Iranian officials - 7 September 2015:: Iran’s Zarif blames Syria bloodshed on those calling for Assad’s ouster - 8 September 2015: Iran has established subsidiary military battalions in central Syria, specifically in the province of Hama, in an attempt to strengthen its military influence in western Syria - 10 September: Iran has deployed hundreds of elite fighters in Syria, unprecedentedly deepening its involvement on behalf of Assad in his war against Syrians, Israeli security officials say - 17 September 2015: Under relentless assault led by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and the Hezbollah militias, the medical staff working in the town of Zabadani sent an urgent appeal for help to humanitarian and medical organizations to protect what remained of civilians and medical personnel trapped inside the town - 6 October 2015: Iranian General Qassem Soleimani's July visit to Moscow reportedly the first step in planning for a Russian military intervention that has reshaped the Syrian war and forged a new Iranian-Russian alliance in support of Assad - 8 October 2015: After Iran lobbied in the summer for Russian campaign in Syria, Russian cruise missiles fired from ships in Caspian Sea and aimed at Syria land in Iran and may have caused injuries - 16 October 2015: Assad's army launches Aleppo offensive with Iranian support, the first time Iranian fighters take part on such a scale in war in Syria - 16 October 2015: Russian-Iranian aggression on Syria has killed 878 civilians, including 86 children and 65 women, since 30 September, the largest number of victims recorded in Aleppo, where 301 civilians were killed, mostly as a result of the Russian aerial bombardment, in addition 142 people were killed in Homs, 137 Damascus and its suburbs, 100 in Dara’a, and 94 in Hama - 28 October 2015: Some 2,000 Iranian troops in Syria, USA military head Joseph Dunford says, adding that with Russian and Iranian regime boosting Assad, the ‘balance of forces’ is in his favor - 5 November 2015: Iran is recruiting Afghan refugees to fight in the foreign military contingent supporting Assad's regime in Syria, promising a monthly salary and residence permits - 20 November: A senior Israeli military officer cited Israeli intelligence findings that "55-plus" Iranian military personnel, including elite troops and senior officers, had been killed in clashes with Syrian rebels, in addition to a Hezbollah death toll he put at between 1,000 and 2,000
2016: 29 January 2016: Iran sending thousands of Afghans to fight in Syria and to support the Assad regime - 9 March 2016: Wide dissatisfaction exists among Alawites and military leaders regarding Iranian regime's hegemony over political and military decisions in Syria, Assad regime sources claim - 17 March: Iran signaled Wednesday that it was training commandos and snipers to send to Syria, days after Russia announced it was pulling some fighter jets out of the country - 21 March 2016: Media in Iran broadcast Assad’s words on Iran being considered the chief supporter for his war against the Syrian people since 2011, including support of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps IRGC, special IRGC unit Quds Force and militias employed by the Iranian administration - 29 March 2016: Iran's plan to seize Damascus continues with support from Assad regime, as research shows a wave of purchases by Iranian traders involving a large amount of Syrian real estate in a number of cities including Damascus and Homs - 21 April 2016: Iran, in complicity with the Assad regime, is trying to bring about demographic change in Syria through the systematic displacement of residents in areas in and around Damascus, Syrian Coalition's Adnan Rahmoun says - 25 April: Syrian activists accuse Iran of deliberately starting fire in UNESCO-listed site of the Asruniyeh market of the Old City of Damascus in an attempt to force out locals from around the Umayyad Mosque - 8 May: Thirteen Iranian soldiers were killed in a battle with Islamist militants over a village near the Syrian city of Aleppo, Iranian regime says on Saturday - 16 May 2016: 1,200 Iranian 'revolutionary guards' killed in Syria in past four years, according to IRGC commander Tabrizi - 20 June 2916: A coalition of rebel and FSA groups has captured four militants affiliated with the Iranian-backed foreign militias fighting alongside regime forces in southern rural of Aleppo - 30 June 2016: Iranian regime covertly recruits Afghan soldiers to fight in Syria and to support the Assad regime - 30 June 2016: Russian, Iranian backed militias in Homs provine increasingly devoting themselves to the interests of Iranian and Russian regime often at the expense of the Assad regime in the central province of Syria - 13 July 2016: Iranian regime reportedly sent up to 1,000 Iranian military personnel to the Syrian capital to help lay siege to rebel-held Aleppo - 11 August 2016: The number of Iranian soldiers killed in Aleppo has raised to eight after the death of two senior Iranian Revolutionary Guard officers, Qolam Hussein Mousavii and Ali Nazari, was revealed - 16 August 2016: Russia uses Iran as base to bomb Syria for first time, deepening its involvement in the Middle East and widening the combined terrorist campaign
August 2016: 23 August 2016: Iranian murderous regime's Dehghan criticized Russian murderous regime for 'not having kept its promise' when Russia made public that it was using an Iranian airbase for bombing raids in Syria
September 2016: 13 September 2016: Iranian commander Ataiyeh of the key Afghan Fatimid Brigade killed by opposition forces in Syria's coastal Lattakia region, as the Fatimid Brigade number more than 25,000, most of them recruited from Iran and distributed throughout most Syrian cities, as some areas and districts in the Damascus countryside are completely under the brigade’s administration, and as a number of its fighters’ families have been brought from Iran and settled in the Damascus countryside within a systematic settlement project which aims at demographic change in the Syrian capital - 29 September 2016: Shia Islamic fighters from Iraq, Iran, Lebanon and Afghanistan have converged on Aleppo's outskirts to prepare for a clash that they see as a pre-ordained holy war that will determine the future of the region
October/November 2016: 10 October 2016: Under the guise of helping liberate the Iraqi city of Mosul from the Islamic State terrorists, Iranian murderous forces in Syria advancing regime’s plan to establish a corridor between Iran and the Mediterranean - 22 November 2016: Syrian Coalition’s Mohammed Jojah says that the Assad regime’s stepping up of bombardment on the besieged neighborhood of Alwaer in Homs and other besieged areas across Syria is mainly aimed at forcing residents of these areas out of their homes to bring about a demographic change in line with Iran’s project and plans in the region - 23 November 2016: Providing military and political backing to Assad's regime more than 1,000 fighters sent from Iran have been killed in Assad's war against the Syrian people so far, according to figures of an Iranian official - 26 November 2016: Iranian army chief says naval platforms in war-torn regional countries Syria and Yemen no less important than nuclear power
December 2016: 14 December 2016: As tens of thousands of desperate civilians trapped without food, water or medicine under a hail of artillery and airstrikes found themselves once again pawns in a geopolitical struggle, with Iranian-backed militia spearheading the ground assault on eastern Aleppo and carrying out execution-style shootings of civilians, residents say 'we will always remember and never forget how the criminals of the world forced Aleppo’s people to choose between two options, collective death or collective forced displacement', while Iranian regime claims military victory, and Iran’s Rouhani phones Bashar Assad to congratulate him - 24 December 2016: Iranian militias carry out summary executions against civilians in Aleppo
January 2017: 3 January 2017: Iranian 'Revolutionary Guard Corps' has amassed an army of 25,000 troops in and around Aleppo and established a network of bases around the city before the takeover, an Iranian dissident says - 14 January 2017: Iran repopulates Syria with Shia Muslims to help tighten regime's control, as communities are settling in areas where Sunnis have fled or been forced out also seeking an arc of control stretching from its borders to Israel
May 2017: 18/19 May 2017: USA jets have attacked a convoy of Iranian-backed militiamen in the first clash between the USA military and forces loyal to the Iranian regime, in south-eastern Syria where Syrian opposition forces backed by the USA have been under recent attack by Assad and Russian jets, near al-Tanf and the main road linking Damascus to Baghdad, destroying Russian-made heavy weapons, killing six of the pro-Assad militiamen and wounding 25 - 27 May 2017: Iran is seeking to solidify its access to the Mediterranean Sea by building a permanent seaport and constructing numerous military installations throughout Syria, USA lawmakers warn
June 2017: 9 June 2017: Iran plans to form new militia in effort to whitewash the image of Iranian regime forces in Syria, aimed at cementing Iran’s influence - 19 June 2017: Iranian regime says its missiles hit Islamic State targets in Syria after it launched missile strikes targeting the Syrian town of Deir ez-Zour - 21 June 2017: Iranian regime's missile attack on alleged Islamic State targets in Syria reportedly also a dangerous failure, as three of the rockets fell outside Syrian territory in Iraq, while two fell somewhere inside Syria, missing their targets by many kilometers
August 2017: 13 August 2017: Israel's Mossad chief Cohen warned that as the Islamic State terrorist group is beaten back, Iran and its proxies are rushing in to take over its territory in Syria
Iran/Tanzania relations: Iran/Tanzania relations - 12 August 2012: Tanzania says shipping agent in Dubai reflagged 36 Iranian oil tankers with the Tanzanian flag without its knowledge
Iran/Turkey relations: Iran/Turkey relations - Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam
Shia–Sunni relations - Successors of Muhammad
2012: 6. April 2012: Erdogan widerspricht Irans Absicht, die in Istanbul geplante Fortsetzung der Atomgespräche nach Bagdad oder Damaskus (!) zu verlegen
2016: 8 January 2016: Turkey summons Iran envoy after media links Saudi executions including execution of Shi'ite cleric with Erdogan
2017: 30 April 2017: Founder of Farsi-language satellite network Saeed Karimian, who ran TV network in Turkey, killed in Istanbul alongside a Kuwaiti business partner months after conviction for 'propaganda' against Islamic republic, according to Turkish media
Iran/United Kingdom relations: Iran/United Kingdom relations
Since 1953: 1953 Iran coup d'etat - role of USA and UK - 19 August 2013: 60 years later CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup - declassified documents describe in detail how US, with British help, engineered coup against democratically elected Mohammad Mosaddeq
1979: Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution 1979
2011: 29 November 2011: Iran protesters storm UK embassy in Tehran during a demonstration against sanctions - 3 February: Iran accused of intimidating BBC Persian staff - 19 February: Iran 'halts oil sales to France and Britain'
2014: 2 November 2014: British-Iranian woman Ghavami, a law graduate from London, jailed for a year for trying to watch volleyball game
2016: 26 June 2016: British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe has been held in solitary confinement 600 miles from her daughter for three months because she helped to design a website implicated in the 2009 protests known as Iran’s Green Movement, even though she was in Britain at the time, senior Iranian prosecutor says - 2 July 2016: Renowned Iranian artist Parviz Tanavoli wanting to fly to London to speak at the British Museum has his passport confiscated without explanation and is barred from leaving the country - 11 July 2016: Iran indicts three dual nationals including British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been held in solitary confinement, reports say - 9 September 2016: British-Iranian mother Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe detained in Iran for more than 150 days has been sentenced to five years in prison on charges that 'remain secret', despite an online petition launched by her husband Richard Ratcliffe urging both the British Prime Minister and Iran's Supreme Leader to take appropriate action to secure the safe return of his wife and his baby daughter Gabriella, that has been signed by over 800,000 supporters in over 155 countries
2017: 24 April 2017: Iran’s supreme court has upheld the conviction of British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe sentenced to five years in jail on non-specific charges, dashing her hopes of overturning the verdict through legal avenues - 2 July 2017: British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe serving a five-year jail sentence in Tehran on unspecified charges relating to national security is losing her hair and experiencing 'low and despairing' moods as her incarceration lasts far beyond her family’s expectation and as husband calls for UK government’s aid
Iran/United Nations relations: UN Security Council resolution 1929 - Sanctions against Iran
9 November 2011: Russia rejects new Iran sanctions despite the IAEA report indicating military nuclear ambitions - 9 novembre: Paris et Londres plaident pour de nouvelles sanctions contre Téhéran - 17 novembre: Accord sur une résolution visant le programme nucléaire iranien - 22 November: Iran hit with new sanctions over IAEA report - 14 April 2012: The five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany will meet the Iranian delegation again in the Iraqi capital Baghdad on May 23 - NZZ 22. August 2012: Sucht Ban Ki Moon mit seiner Iran-Reise Ende August das besorgte 'Fachgespräch' über Krebsgeschwüre und Chemotherapie? - 26 February 2013: Iran, world powers begin nuclear talks in Kazakhstan - 27 February: Iran nuclear talks end without progress - 5 April: World powers resume talks with Iran in the Kazakh city of Almaty, aiming to resolve dispute over Iranian nuclear programme - 6 April: World powers and Iran failed again to ease their decade-old dispute over Tehran's disputed nuclear programme - 2 October: Iran now has a window of opportunity to prove its nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, UN's Ban Ki-moon reportedly told PM Benjamin Netanyahu during their meeting in New York - 24 October: No progress for now on Iran rights situation, UN envoy Ahmed Shaheed wrote in a report - 13 janvier 2014: L'accord sur le nucléaire appliqué le 20 janvier - 20 January 2014: EU and USA suspend sanctions against Iran after IAEA confirmed Iran's regime has begun halting sensitive nuclear activities
2016 Iran: 16 January 2016: IAEA satisfied with Iranian regime’s moves to comply with some UN nuclear watchdog's demands, but hopes that it would bring movement in other realms remain unfulfilled, nevertheless USA and European officials in Vienna immediately announced that deal was officially implemented, and that nuclear sanctions on the regime had been removed - 11 March 2016: As Iranian regime insists missiles emblazoned with 'Israel must be wiped out' are 'for legitimate defense', UN's Ban Ki-moon urges Iranian 'moderation' after missile tests, calling on the Iranian regime and its 'moderates' 'not to increase tensions through hasty actions' so soon after nuclear deal 'and so soon after the positive news of the lifting of sanctions against Iran' - 30 March: By launching nuclear-capable missiles Iran has defied a UN Security Council resolution that endorsed last year's historic nuclear deal, the USA and its European allies say in a joint letter - 19 July 2016: Iranian regime defends international deal's secret document easing nuke program restrictions, as FM Zarif says paper obtained by AP that shows Iran will be able to get within 6 months of a bomb in a decade is a 'matter of pride’
Iran/USA relations: Iran/USA relations - 1953 Iran coup d'etat - role of USA and UK - United States of America support for Iraq during the Iraq/Iran war - 16 June 2013: As positive reactions emerge from governments in France, the UK and the US following Hassan Rohani's victory in Iran's election, the Syrian National Coalition calls on Iran’s president-elect to reconsider the country’s position on Assad's war against democracy and his people - 6 September 2013: USA intercepts an order from an Iranian official instructing militants in Iraq to attack USA interests in Iraq - 18 septembre 2013: La justice américaine saisit un gratte-ciel à New York détenu par l'Iran et qui blanchit de l’argent avant de le renvoyer - 25 September 2013: During the 68th Session of the UN General Assembly Obama and Rowhani offer hope for peace - 27 septembre: Le secrétaire d'Etat américain John Kerry et son homologue iranien Mohammad Javad Zarif se sont rencontrés jeudi en tête-à-tête à l'ONU pour discuter du dossier nucléaire iranien - 5 November 2013: Nobel winner Shirin Ebadi urges EU, USA to ban Iran from using USA and European satellites to broadcast Islamic Republic's propaganda
2016: 10 January 2016: Following Iranian denial USA releases black-and-white video taken by a navy helicopter and showing an Iranian Revolutionary Guards vessel firing unguided rockets on 26 December near USA ships - 21 February: Iran refuses lawyer for dual USA-Iranian citizen Siamak Namazi detained by Iran’s 'Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' since October, while visiting family - 10 April: Iranian foreign minister Zarif dismisses USA counterpart’s suggestion of negotiations on ballistic rockets as 'baseless', as Iranian defense minister calls plan 'nonsense’ - 24 July 2016: USA citizen Robin Reza Shahini reportedly detained while visiting his mother in Iran is the latest in string of arrests of dual nationals - 7 August 2016: Iranian nuclear scientist Shahram Amiri, whose disappearance in Saudi Arabia in 2009 and subsequent return was shrouded in mystery, has been executed in Iran after returning to Iran from USA, receiving a hero’s welcome in Tehran and being portrayed as someone who had fled the enemy's captivity - 3 October 2016: Washington Post reporter Jason Rezaian detained for 18 months sues Iranian government after suffering 'irreparable harm' being subject to ‘torture and other cruel treatment’ during his detention in a Tehran prison
2017: 12 January 2017: Iran and Syria ordered by Washington D.C. District Court to pay $178m to family of American-Israeli infant Chaya Zissel Braun killed in 22 October 2014 Jerusalem terror attack by member of the Hamas terrorist organization al-Shaludi, because the two countries financially back Hamas and as the 'criminal regimes in Tehran and Damascus are the biggest state sponsors of terrorism in the world', according to chairwoman Darshan-Leitner - 20 June 2017: USA shoots down second Iran-made armed drone over Syria in 12 days, as it approached outpost near borders of Syria, Iraq, and Jordan
Iran/Yemen relations: Iran/Yemen relations
Climate and deserts of Iran: Climate of Iran - Deserts of Iran
Environmental issues in Iran: Environmental issues in Iran
Air pollution in Iran: Air pollution in Iran
Natural disasters in Iran: Natural disasters in Iran
Earthquakes in Iran: Earthquakes in Iran - Geology of Iran
Storms and cyclones in Iran: Tropical cyclones in Iran
Floods in Iran:


Iraq - Geography of Iraq - History of Iraq - Demographics of Iraq
Since 2003 sectarian violence, attacks, terrorism and continued war in Iraq: List of suicide bombings in Iraq since 2003 - Terrorist incidents in Iraq by year
2012: 5 January: New bombings target mainly Shia area of the Iraqi capital - 5 January: Wave of bombings leave scores dead across the country - 10 January: Many deaths in series of Iraq attacks - 14 January: Suicide bomb kills dozens in Basra Shia pilgrim attack - 15 January: A series of car and roadside bombs strike Ramadi, targeting the police - 24 January: Deadly blasts in Baghdad's Sadr City - 26 January: Deaths in attacks on Iraq's Sunni districts - 23 February: Car bombings, shootings and explosions target mostly Shia neighbourhoods, leaving at least 55 dead across the country - 5 mars: 26 policiers tués dans une série d'attaques coordonnées à Haditha - 20 March: Deadly explosions in series of attacks on Iraqi cities - 19 April: Several blasts in Iraq capital and northern city leave several people dead and dozens injured - 31 May: Six blasts across Baghdad kill at least 17 - 4 June: Blast strikes Shia charity office in Iraq - 13 June: Cities of Hilla and Baghdad hit by wave of deadly bomb attacks - 31 December: Car bombing kills two people south of Baghdad - 31 December: At least 23 people have been killed and scores injured in shootings and bombings in several cities and towns
March 2013: 1 March: At least 22 people were killed in a series of blasts in Shi'ite neighbourhoods of Baghdad - 12 March: Attacks across Iraq killed 12 people, including three people who died in a suicide bombing at a police station near a school that also wounded 165 others - 14 March: At least 20 people killed and 50 others injured after after three car bombs and a suicide attack hit the Green Zone of Baghdad - 17 March: Car bomb kills ten people, wounding 16, near the outskirts of the south Iraq city of Basra - 19 March 2013: A series of coordinated car bombs and roadside blasts hit Shi'ite districts across Baghdad and south of the Iraqi capital, killing at least 25 people and wounding 88 others ten years after the beginning of US-led invasion - 26 March: Explosion rips through armoured car, killing two local politicians in town of Tuz Khurmatu - 29 March: Four Shia mosques in Baghdad and one in Kirkuk struck by car bombs, with reports of at least 18 dead and dozens hurt
April 2013: 6 April: A coordinated attack involving a suicide bomber at an open-air election campaign meeting in Baquba in central Iraq kills 25 people - 12 avril: Sept morts dans un attentat contre une mosquée sunnite au nord de Bagdad - 15 April: Seven killed, 118 wounded in a series of car bomb blasts across the country - 19 April: At least 27 people were killed and dozens more wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up inside a Baghdad cafe - 23 April: Bomb attacks on Sunni mosques in Iraq killed 13 people and wounded dozens of other people - 24 avril: Après plusieurs jours de violences intercommunautaires où près de 125 personnes sont mortes, des hommes armés ont pris le contrôle de Souleimane Bek au nord de Bagdad - 26 April: Nearly 50 people were killed in clashes on Thursday in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul - 27 April: Bomb blasts in Baghdad killed at least 20 more people on Friday - 29 April: Three car bombs exploded south of Baghdad on Monday, killing nine people and wounding 70 others
May 2013: 2 May: At least 22 people were killed in attacks across Iraq on Wednesday - 6 May: A series of attacks including a blast near an Internet cafe in a Sunni area killed nine people and wounded dozens on Sunday in and around Baghdad - 7 May: Shootings and bombings in Iraq, including one targeting a provincial council member, killed seven people and wounded two others - 15 mai: Des vendeurs dans des magasins d'alcool à Bagdad disent craindre pour leur vie au lendemain d'une attaque d'inconnus contre des échoppes vendant de la bière et des spiritueux qui a fait douze morts - 15 May: Bomb attacks in Shi'ite areas of Baghdad and in northern Iraq killed more than 30 people on Wednesday - 16 May: A suicide bomber attacked a Shiite place of worship in Kirkuk, killing 12 people - 18 May: Bombs targeting Sunnis, including two outside a mosque in Baquba and one at a funeral procession, killed 67 people in Iraq on Friday, after dozens died in two days of attacks on Shiites - 18 May: Gunmen raid the house of an anti-terrorism police officer in the southern suburbs of Baghdad, killing five people including him and his sleeping family - 18 May: A string of attacks killed at least 16 people on Saturday, while gunmen abducted eight policemen guarding a post on Iraq's main highway to Jordan and Syria - 20 May: 10 Iraqi policemen killed by militants in attacks on checkpointsin the West of the country - 20 May: Wave of attacks hits Shiite and Sunni areas of Iraq, killing at least 86 people - 21 May: Four bombings in a Turkmen Shiite area of Tuz Khurmatu and in Kirkuk killed five people and wounded 69 today - 27 May: More than 70 people were killed in a wave of bombings in markets in Shi'ite neighbourhoods across Baghdad - 28 May: Bombings and gunfire in central and northern Iraq killed at least 11 people and wounded 35 others on Tuesday - 29 May: After 27 people killed in wave of violence in Iraq, United Nations urges talks to resolve crisis - 30 May: Car bombs and roadside explosions hit mainly Sunni Muslim districts of Baghdad and a northern city, killing at least 27 people - 31 May: Bombs kill 25 in Sunni-Shiite neighbourhoods across Iraq, three policemen killed by gunmen in Fallujah
June 2013: 6 June: Iraqi officials say two car bomb explosions in Baghdad have killed at least six people and wounded more than two dozen - 7 June: Car bomb in Najaf kills 10 Iranian pilgrims - 10 June: At least 12 people have been killed in a series of bombings in a market north of Baghdad - 10/11 June: A wave of bombings and attacks rocked central and northern Iraq on Monday, targeting market-goers, police posts including an assault on police headquarters in Mosul and killing more than 70 people - 16 June: At least 10 apparently coordinated car bombs and a shooting across Iraq have killed at least 24 and wounded dozens - 17 June: At least 12 people were killed in three bomb attacks in Iraq today, police said - 20 June: A suicide bombing in northern Iraq killed a provincial political party leader and four relatives, ahead of elections - 25 June: Baghdad car bombs kill 23, injures 81 - 25 June: Suicide bombers target Iraqi Turkmen, killing eight - 29 June: A series of bombs near a bakery, at a funeral, inside a senior police officer's car and at a football stadium killed at least 22 people across Iraq - 29 June: Attacks in Sunni Arab areas of Iraq killed 10 people on Saturday
July 2013: 1 July: A bomb planted near a yard where people were playing soccer in Nahrawan, south of Baghdad, killed 12 and wounded 24 people on Sunday - 2 July: More than 2,500 people were killed in Iraq in the past three months, the UN said on Monday as new attacks left 41 people dead - 3 July: Suicide attacks, bombings and shootings erupted across Iraq today, killing at least 17 people - 8 July: In two days of violence 19 people were killed, including six family members shot dead while returning from a wedding - 12 July: Militants killed 25 Iraqi security forces in a wave of attacks, and 15 other people died in other attacks including 10 mourners in twin bombings - 13 July: Bomb attack on a tea house in Kirkuk kills 31 people - 14 July: Two bomb attacks near Sunni mosques in the Iraqi capital killed at least 23 people who had gathered to pray - 19 July: Suicide bomber kills 20 people in a Sunni mosque in the town of Wajihiya - 21 July: A wave of bombings killed 65 people in Baghdad province and the commercial areas of the capital, without a claim of responsibility for the attacks - 22 July: Gunmen raid Iraq's Abu Ghraib and Taji jails, as bombings and shootings kill 13 people on Sunday - 22 July: A suicide bomber attacks an army convoy in the eastern Kokchali district of Mosul, killing at least eight soldiers and two passers-by - 23 July: At least 500 escape in deadly assaults on Iraq prisons - 23 July: Bombs targeting worshippers gathered for evening prayers at three Sunni mosques in Iraq killed nine people on Tuesday - 25 July: Militants killed nine police in an attack with mortars and automatic weapons, while 14 people including six soldiers died in other violence - 25 July: 14 Shia truck drivers shot dead after being stopped by gunmen on main road leading north of Baghdad - 26 July: At least 28 people killed in bombings and shootings across Iraq, including a car bomb that exploded in a busy market killing 14 people in central Muqdadiya - 28 July: A suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a Kurdish security patrol in northern city of Tuz Khormato killing eight people and wounding five more - 29 July: At least 22 killed and more than 100 injured in coordinated bombings targeting mainly Shia areas in Baghdad and Basra - 31 July: A Shiite and a Sunni mosque in Baghdad have been targeted in bombings that killed at least nine people, officials say
August 2013: 1 August: July deadliest month in Iraq since 2008, UN says - 4 August: Bombings and shootings across Iraq killed 19 people, including an ambush that targeted a military convoy - 7 August: A series of car bombs targeting busy markets and shopping streets in and around Baghdad killed at least 51 people and wounded more than 100 on Tuesday - 11 August: Baghdad car bombs kill dozens in attacks on Shia neighbourhoods - 15 August: Car bombs across Baghdad kill at least 33 people - 22 août: Dix-huit personnes ont été tuées jeudi dans de nouveaux attentats en Irak, notamment lors d'une attaque contre une fête de mariage - 24 August: Suicide bombing in a park in northern Baghdad crowded by cafe- and restaurant-goers the bloodiest attack in a day of violence that killed at least 36 people across the country - 28/29 August: Baghdad bomb attacks extending the wave of sectarian bloodshed killed 86 people and wounded 263, police and medical sources say - 30 August: Iraqi officials say bomb blasts at a market north of Baghdad and another on the outskirts of the capital have killed 23 people - 30 August: Two roadside bombs exploded on the edge of the north Iraq town of Tuz Khurmatu, killing at least 13 people, most of them children - 31 August: Gunmen killed five worshippers at a Sunni mosque in Baghdad on Saturday
September 2013: 3/4 September: A series of car bombs exploded across Iraqi capital, killing nearly 60 people in predominantly Shi'ite districts - 10 septembre: Au moins 16 personnes ont été tuées, dont six alors qu'elles lavaient le corps d'un mort avant de l'enterrer - 12 September: Bombings at Shi'ite mosque in Baghdad kill at least 33 - 13 September: A pair of roadside bombs exploded outside of a Sunni mosque in Baquba, killing at least 30 people as they left the building after Friday prayers - 15 September: A suicide bomb attack at a funeral held by members of Iraq’s Shabak ethnic minority near the city of Mosul in northern Iraq killed 26 people and left 46 others injured - 16 September: A wave of car bombings and other attacks in Iraq killed at least 58 people in mostly Shiite-majority cities in south and central Iraq - 22 September: At least 56 killed in Baghdad bombings - 23 September: A suicide bomber struck a Sunni funeral in Baghdad on Sunday, killing at least 12 people - 23 septembre: Au moins neuf personnes ont été tuées et 27 blessées lundi dans un attentat contre des funérailles sunnites à Adhamiya, dans le nord de la capitale - 25 September: Militants attacked local government and police buildings in Hawijah with suicide bombings and mortar fire, sparking clashes that killed 14 people, among 24 deaths nationwide - 26 September: Bombs ripped through outdoor markets in and near Baghdad on Thursday, killing at least 21 people and wounding dozens - 29 September: At least 40 people were killed when a suicide bomber blew himself up at a Shi-ite Muslim funeral in Mussayab, 60km south of Baghdad, on Sunday - 29 septembre: Au moins six personnes ont été tuées dans une série d’attentats à Erbil, au Kurdistan irakien
October 2013: 2 October: Militants shoot down military helicopter in the region of Kirkuk and Salahuddin province, killing all four crew members - 5 October: Gunmen killed two Iraqi journalists in the city of Mosul, as other violence including a suicide bombing at a cafe left 20 people dead - 8 October: Eight explosions in mainly Shi'ite districts in Baghdad, one explosion in a mixed area and another in the predominantly Sunni Muslim neighbourhood of Doura kill at least 38 people - 10 October: 20 people killed on Thursday, among them four anti-Al-Qaeda fighters shot dead by gunmen, eight militants killed by security forces, civilians and police killed by bombings in Baghdad and northeast of Baquba - 12 octobre: Une voiture piégée a explosé au nord de Bagdad, faisant au moins 12 morts - 13 October: More than a dozen bombs exploded in Iraq on Sunday, killing at least nine people and wounding more than 70 others - 15 octobre: Neuf personnes ont été tuées dans un attentat ayant visé mardi des fidèles à Kirkouk, après la prière marquant le début de l'Aïd al-Adha - 17 October: Seven car bombs exploded in Baghdad province, killing at least 24 people and wounding at least 70 - 20 October: Dozens killed in bomb attack on Baghdad cafe while at least another 12 died in a spate of bomb attacks on security personnel and government buildings - 24 October: Iraqi journalist Bashar Abdulqader killed in Mosul - 26 October: Bombings in central Iraq that targeted a market, a cafe and the homes of police officers killed 13 people on Friday - 27 October: Ten bombings mainly targeting Shiite-majority areas of Baghdad province killed at least 41 people, while 20 died in bombings and shootings elsewhere in Iraq
November 2013: 5 novembre: Treize personnes, la plupart des membres des forces de sécurité, ont été tuées mardi en Irak - 8 November: Attacks in Iraq, including a double suicide car bombing targeting a military base in Tarmiyah, kill 30 people across the country - 10 novembre: Au moins sept morts dans des violences dans le nord du pays, principalement à Mossoul - 13 November: Violence across Iraq, including bombings against Shiites, kills twenty three people on the eve of rituals - 17 novembre: Au moins 17 morts dans des attaques à Bagdad - 22 November: A truck bomb tore through an outdoor vegetable market in Sadiyah, the deadliest of a series of attacks that killed at least 48 people - 26 novembre: Un attentat suicide à l'entrée d'une base de l'armée au nord de Bagdad a fait au moins 7 morts et 22 blessés - 29 November: Market bombings, attacks across Iraq kill 29 people - 30 November: 52 people dead in throwback to Iraq's sectarian bloodshed - 30 novembre: Sept personnes morts samedi dans de nouvelles attaques qui ont frappé la périphérie de Bagdad et les environs de Mossoul et Touz Khoumartou
December 2013: 7 décembre: Attaques contre des commerces de boissons alcoolisées, 9 morts - 8 December: 35 people killed in wave of Baghdad area bombings - 13 December: Oil workers massacred in Iraqi town of Muqdadiya in al-Qaida-style attack - 15 December: At least 17 people, most of them Shi'ite Muslims, killed in a wave of bombings and shootings across Iraq - 19 December: Suicide bombers, militant attack kill 41 across Iraq - 20 December: Two bombings in a market and another in a cemetery as people buried victims of the first blasts killed at least 11 people in Tuz Khurmatu - 21 December: At least 18 Iraqi military officers were killed in an ambush in the province of Anbar - 25 December: At least 34 people killed in bomb attacks in Christian areas of Baghdad on Wednesday, some by a car bomb exploding near a church after a Christmas service - 30 December: At least 18 people including soldiers were killed in attacks across Iraq on Sunday
2014-present Iraq War: Iraq War (2014–present)
January 2014: 2 January: Violence in Iraq surged in 2013 to its worst level in five years, fuelled by discontent among the Sunni Arab minority and the civil war in neighbouring Syria - 2 January: Iraqi security forces and armed tribesmen battle al Qaeda-linked jihadist militants who reportedly seized swathes of the two Sunni-majority cities of Fallujah and Ramadi - 3 January: Clashes kill 62 Al Qaeda militants in the Ramadi area - 4 janvier: La ville de Fallouja est passée aux mains des islamistes - 5 janvier: Les autorités irakiennes veulent reprendre la cité de Fallouja à Al-Qaïda - 6 January: Residents are fleeing Fallujah - 13 January: Bomb attacks kill at least 18 in Baghdad and Tuz Khurmatu - 19 January: Attacks across Baghdad, including car bombs at an up-scale shopping mall and near a juvenile detention centre, kill 21 people - 25 January: Shelling against a Shiite Muslim village killed six people on Saturday, including a young boy - 30 January: Baghdad bombs and shooting kill at least 19 people - 31 January: Six suicide bombers burst into a Ministry of Transportation building, took hostages and killed at least 24 people including themselves
June 2014: 8 June: A wave of car bombs exploded across Baghdad, killing more than 60 people, and militants stormed Anbar university campus - 2014 Northern Iraq Isis offensive since 5 June - 10 June: Isis insurgents seize control of Iraqi city of Mosul - 11/12 June: 500,000 people flee Iraq's second city of Mosul after Islamist militants took control and Iraq army capitulates in more cities - 12 June: Isis forces take Tikrit, a day after 35,000 Iraq soldiers reportedly fled an Isis force of 800 in Mosul - 12 June: Iraqi Kurdish forces take Kirkuk after central government's army abandons posts and Isis captured towns - 13 June: Iraq's senior Shi'ite cleric urges followers to fight Sunni militants, who captured two more Iraqi towns - 14 June: Iraqi forces massing in Samarra - 15 June: Series of explosions kills 15 people, wounds 30 in Baghdad as followers of Shia group heading to Baghdad to join the Iraqi army and fight against Sunni insurgents - 17 June: Residents flee as insurgents take the northern Iraqi city of Tal Afar after a two-day battle with security forces - 17 June: Scores of Iraqis killed during battle for provincial capital of Baquba, that also shuts main oil refinery - 19 June: Iraqi forces battle Islamists for control of country's largest refinery Baiji, as 250-300 workers are evacuated - 20 June: Iraqi militants seize Saddam's top chemical weapons facility used to make chemical agents including sarin during the Iran-Iraq war, but any weapons found inside reportedly useless - 21 June: Sunni militants seize Syrian border crossing after killing some 30 Iraqi troops in a day of clashes - 24 June: Islamists launch push to seize Baiji oil refinery as Kerry visits Irbil and Maliki agrees to set up new government by 1 July - 24 June: Iraqi air strikes killed at least 32 people as security forces held off attacks on Haditha and Baiji - 26 June: Iraqi Kurds strengthen their positions while Isis advances and Maliki insists that any new government must be based on an election he won - 26 June: With USA troops now deployed in Iraq, the Iraqi army is making a push to drive ISIS back from Baghdad and launches aerial assault against ISIS - 28 June: Thousands from a predominantly-Christian town south of Mosul flee from fighting between Isis and Kurdish forces - 28/29 June: Iraqi army makes push to retake Tikrit from Islamists, claiming Tikrit retaken
July 2014: 4 July: Iraq army reportedly retakes Awja - 6 July: Iranian pilot killed fighting against Sunni Muslim militants in Samarra north of Baghdad - 9 July: The Islamic State extremist group, formerly known as ISIS, has taken control of a vast former chemical weapons facility northwest of Baghdad, where remnants of 2,500 degraded chemical rockets filled decades ago with the deadly nerve agent sarin are stored along with other chemical warfare agents - USA now says it would be very difficult to use the materials - 11 July: Iraq's security forces and allied Shiite militias executed at least 255 Sunni prisoners as they fled a lightning jihadist-led advance last month, Human Rights Watch says - 12 July: Iraq battles assault on the city of Ramadi while the Kurds claim disputed oilfields - 18 July: The escalating violence in Iraq has killed more than 5,500 civilians over the first six months of 2014, UN says - 19 July: Baghdad bombings kill dozens
August 2014: 6 August: Kurds, Islamic State clash near Kurdish regional capital Arbil - 8 August: USA's Barack Obama orders air strikes against IS terrorists in northern Iraq, humanitarian aid drops to threatened people - 9 August: USA forces bomb IS/Isis militant positions targeting frontlines around Kurdish capital of Irbil, food for civilians dropped on Mount Sinjar to help encircled refugees - 10 August: Obama warns of long campaign as Iraq strikes continue against Isis, as minorities flee Islamist onslaught and British planes join relief effort - 10 August: Aided by USA air strikes, Peshmerga forces liberate Zamar, Makhmour and al-Gweir areas northern Mosul, near Irbil - 11 August: USA conducts fourth food, water drop for civilians besieged by jihadists - 12 August: USA urges Abadi to form new government swiftly as fears grow for the besieged Yazidi community and the resistance movement against IS depends on solidarity and inclusion - 13 August: As UN's Ban Ki-moon urges countries to do more for threatened civilians in Iraq, USA sends more 130 troops to support the resistance in the Irbil area - 14 August: USA team in Iraq assesses that there are far fewer Yazidis on Mount Sinjar than feared adding that the USA will continue to provide humanitarian assistance - 14 August: Thousands of Iraqi refugees reportedly 'still at risk' despite ending of Mount Sinjar siege, as hundreds of thousands driven from their homes by IS terrorists - 15 August: IS militants reportedly murdered some 80 Yazidis in a village in Iraq's north - 17 August: As part of a joint Iraq-USA plan, USA air strikes targeting Islamic State militants near Iraq's Mosul dam - 17/18 August: Key facility retaken by Kurdish forces after major campaign of USA airstrikes near Mosul Dam began
September/October 2014: 11 September: Obama announces expansion of USA campaign against terrorist 'Islamic State' in Iraq and Syria - 12 September 2014: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Gulf states agree to join USA-led military campaign against Islamic State terror group - 16 September: USA begins expanded air strikes on Islamic State in Iraq - 30 September/1 October: Retaking lost ground in August, Iraqi Kurdish forces capture a strategic border crossing and several villages from Islamic State terrorists, with new signs of cooperation in the border region of northern Iraq - 1 October: As Australia sends two unarmed planes to support USA air strikes in Iraq, British jets bomb Islamic State for first time - 11/12 October: At least 45 people killed in bombings in Baghdad and its rural outskirts as the government continues to fight against jihadists and USA defense secretary says Iraqi forces are in full control of Baghdad - 12 October: Islamic State suicide bombers kill 28 Kurds in an attack on a Kurdish security headquarters and a provincial police chief - 14 October: Rights group accuses Iraqi government of supporting and arming groups of Shiite fighters carrying out kidnappings and killings against Sunni civilians in response to Islamic State - 16 October: Islamic State terrorists target Baghdad with deadly wave of car bombs and mortar attacks - 20 October: After seizing two Kurdish villages, Islamic State terrorists reportedly advanced on the Iraqi town of Qara Tappa disguised as Kurdish peshmerga fighters, new deadly attacks in Bagdad and Kerbala - 24 October: Iraqi forces must be trained, armed and ready before major advances, USA says - 25 October: Kurdish regional forces retook the northern Iraqi town of Zumar and several nearby villages - 26 October: Iraq government forces and militias take control of strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar south of Baghdad, breaking the grip of Islamic State terrorists after months of fighting - 28 October: As a car bomb kills at least eight people in Baghdad and a suicide bombing left dead at least 14 pro-government fighters south of the capital, the US-led coalition carries out fresh air strikes against terrorists in Iraq and Syria
November/December 2014: 2 November: Islamic State terrorists executed 67 people from a pro-government Sunni tribe in the western Iraqi province of Anbar - 27 November: Iraqi forces backed by tribesmen hold off 'Islamic State' attack on Ramadi - 28 November: New series of USA military air strikes hit 'Islamic State' in Iraq and Syria - 4 December: 'Islamic State' cedes little ground despite coalition's air attacks - 17 December: Iraqi Kurdish forces launch offensive to retake 'Islamic State' held areas - 18 December: Iraqi Kurds backed by USA air strikes reportedly free 'vast area' of Mt Sinjar freeing trapped Yazidis - 21 December: Iraq Kurds deliver aid to Mt Sinjar, expand their offensive against 'Islamic State' and push its militants out of a large area around Mt Sinjar, backed by USA-led air strikes - 28 December: Hundreds of executions by 'Islamic State', also killing its own members, in Syria reported, as Iranian general killed by sniper bullet in embattled Iraqi city - 29 December: Iraqi forces launch offensive on 'Islamic State' in Dhuluiyah
2015: 1 February: Iraq Kurdish forces retake oil field, villages in Kirkuk province from 'Islamic State' terrorists, freeing also 24 workers who had been taken captive - 8 February: At least 40 people killed in Baghdad 'Islamic State's' bombings as decade-old nightly curfew ends, 'Islamic State' claims responsibility for one attack - 9 February: At least 13 civilians killed in a suicide bombing at a security checkpoint in western Baghdad's Shi'ite neighborhood of Kadhamiya - 14 February: Sunni tribal leader and seven others killed in Baghdad ambush - 20 February: Expected operation to retake Mosul from 'Islamic State' terrorists will likely begin in April or May - 24 February: Wave of bombings around Baghdad kills 28 people - 26 February: A USA-led coalition air strike near the Iraqi border town of Al-Qaim reportedly killed at least 17 'Islamic State' terrorists and nine civilians overnight - 28 February: Kurdish fighters rout 'Islamic State' terrorists from Tel Hamees in Syria’s northeastern Hassakeh region near Iraq - 28 February: Iraq bombs kill dozens in attacks north of Baghdad - 2 March: Iraqi forces begin assault on 'Islamic State' stronghold Tikrit - 3 March: USA-led coalition conducts more airstrikes on 'Islamic State' targets in Syria and Iraq, as at least four Shi’ite militias will help try to liberate Mosul - 6 March: Islamic State terrorists 'bulldozed' ancient city of Nimrud, Iraqi ministry says - 9 March: Backed by coalition airstrikes, Kurdish forces attack 'Islamic State' terrorists around Kirkuk - 12 March: Iraqi forces enter 'Islamic State' held Tikrit after 10-day push - 14 March: Evidence that IS used chemical weapons, Iraqi Kurds say - 22 March: Iraqi Sunnis accuse Shi'ite paramilitaries of burning homes outside Tikrit - 1 April: Iraq's defense ministry declares 'magnificent victory' over Islamic State terrorists in Tikrit - 4 April: Shi'ite fighters leave Tikrit under government deal after looting - 14 April: A car bomb in a commercial area in Mahmoudiyah south of Baghdad killed at least seven civilians and wounded 13 others - 16 April: IS terrorists clash with security forces inside Iraq's largest refinery in Anbar province - 18 April: Iraqi forces reportedly retake most of Baiji refinery - 19 April: More than 90,000 people fleeing violence in Iraq's Anbar province as bombings and mortar fire targeting public places kill 14 people around the capital Baghdad, UN says - 28 April: 3 car bombs on busy streets and marketplaces in Baghdad kill at least 19 people, a day after a wave of bombings hit the capital - 1 May: Five car bombs exploded across Baghdad on Thursday evening, killing at least 17 people - 14 May 2015: Five members of one family, including a pregnant woman and girl aged eight, died in Fadhiliya in suspected USA-led air strike, as other victims of the anti-IS air campaign may go unrecorded - 18 May: Ramadi falls to IS terrorists after Iraq military forces have fled abandoning their weapons, dozens of army vehicles and Iraqi PM's calls for reinforcement - 18 May: About 500 people — both civilians and Iraqi soldiers — are estimated to have been killed and thousands fled as Ramadi fell to the IS terrorists - 24 May: Iraqi forces regain ground from Islamic State terrorists east of Ramadi - 29 May: Bombings targeting two top hotels in Baghdad kill 15 people, with another 42 wounded - 4 June: UN appeals for half a billion dollars in international aid to help tackle worsening humanitarian crisis in Iraq triggered by the conflict with Islamic State - 10 June: USA's Obama weighs sending several hundred more USA troops to Iraq - 11 June: USA's expanded military campaign will set up a new base in Anbar Province to advise Iraqi forces on how to plan and organize operations and help them reach out to Sunni tribes and bring them into the battle
12 June 2015 - present 'Battle of Mosul', offensive launched by the Iraqi government and Kurdish forces against 'Islamic State' terrorists - 15 June: Seventeen people killed in battles between 'Islamic State' terrorists and pro-government forces near Iraq's Baiji refinery - 6 July: Heavy fighting as Iraqi Shi'ite fighters and army troops try to surround Falluja - 13 July: Baghdad bombings in Shia Muslim neighbourhoods and blamed on 'Islamic State' terrorists, reportedly kill at least 21 and wound 62 during Ramadan - 13 July: Iraq says operation to retake the country's largest province Anbar from 'Islamic State' underway - 14 July 2015: Iraq conflict leaves nearly 15,000 civilians dead over last 16 months, as UN report estimates death toll is in addition to 30,000 wounded and multiple gross human rights abuses - 18 July: A car bomb claimed by 'Islamic State' terrorists killed at least 80 people including children in a busy market in Iraqi town of Khan Bani Saad, about 20 miles northeast of Baghdad, while Muslims were celebrating end of Ramadan - 22 July: At least 32 people killed in bomb attacks across Iraq, the deadliest incident in northeastern Baghdad - 11 August: Three explosions, two of them suicide bombings, killed at least 33 people near Baquba, the capital of Iraq's eastern province of Diyala - 13 August: 'Islamic State' terrorists' truck bomb attack in the Iraqi capital's Jameela market kills 58 people also wounding at least 89 - 16 August: A series of bombings across Baghdad have killed at least 24 people on August 15 - 26 August: Kurds launch new assault on 'Islamic State' terrorists in northern Iraq - 30 September 2015: Kurds take ground from Islamic State terrorists in north Iraq, driving them out of several villages near the oil city of Kirkuk - 10 October: Iraq says forces advancing in several areas north and west of Ramadi - 17 October: Iraqi forces in huge anti-terrorist push in Baiji as part of their biggest advance against the Islamic State - 22 October: In a raid by Kurdish troops and USA special forces in northern Iraq nearly 70 hostages facing 'imminent mass execution' have been rescued from an Islamic State terrorists' jail, also leading to the first USA combat death since 2011
November/December 2015: November 2015 Sinjar offensive of Kurdish Peshmerga forces to recapture the city of Sinjar from the Islamic State terrorists - 12 November: Kurdish forces launch an extensive push to retake Sinjar city in northern Iraq, 15 months after it was seized by Islamic State terrorists - 13 November: Kurdish forces seize Iraq's Sinjar town from IS terrorists - 22 décembre: L'armée irakienne est entrée dans le centre de Ramadi - 27 décembre: Les forces kurdes ont arrêté et tué plusieurs membres du groupe Etat islamique à Riyadh en Irak - 28 December: Iraqi forces seize key base in Ramadi from 'Islamic State' terrorists - 29 December: Iraq's army will need Kurdish fighters' help to retake Mosul, Iraqi Finance Minister Zebari says, adding that its liberation would mark the end of the caliphate proclaimed by the 'Islamic State' terrorists
2016: 4 January 2016: At least two Sunni Muslim mosques have been attacked in Iraq in apparent retaliation for the execution of a Shi'ite cleric in Saudi Arabia - 11 January 2016: Dozens dead in spate of attacks by 'Islamic State' terrorists suicide bombers and gunmen in Iraq - 19 janvier: L'Etat islamique continue à mener des actes qui pourraient constituer des crimes de guerre, contre l'humanité et potentiellement un génocide, selon un rapport de l'ONU, qui cible aussi des violations de tous les autres acteurs - 22 January 2016: Kurds and Shias face off over Kirkuk in vacuum left by Iraqi army - 28 February: Bombings claimed by the Islamic State terrorists killed at least 33 and wounded at least 79 people in a Shiite area of Baghdad on Sunday - 6 March: Devastating busy checkpoint crowded with traffic in Hilla, 'Islamic State' terrorists' truck bomb kills 47 people south of Baghdad - 25 mars 2016: Double offensive à Palmyre et Mossoul contre le groupe Etat islamique - 25 March: Suspected 'Islamic State' suicide bomber kills 29 at football match in Iskanderiyah near Baghdad, as Iraqi forces recapture territory in western and northern provinces - 11 mai 2016: Au moins 34 personnes ont été tuées et une cinquantaine blessées mercredi dans un attentat à la voiture piégée ayant visé un marché à Bagdad - 15 May: Bomb attacks against a state-run cooking gas factory in Baghdad's northern outskirts on Sunday killed at least 11 people, including policemen, and wounded 21 others - 17 May: Two bombs went off in Baghdad on Tuesday, killing at least 13 people and wounding more than 40 - 24 mai: Les forces irakiennes poursuivaient leur vaste offensive pour reprendre la ville de Fallouja au groupe Etat islamique, une bataille qui met la population civile en grave danger - 29 May: Fears for civilians trapped inside Fallujah and in northern Syrian Islamic State terrorists' areas - 29 May: Servicemen from the USA-led coalition are assisting Kurdish Peshmerga forces in a new offensive in Iraq that aims to retake a handful of villages from Islamic State terrorists east of their Mosul stronghold - 30 May: Iraqi army enters Falluja in attempt to drive out Islamic State terrorists - 5 juin: Les forces irakiennes impliquées dans les opérations pour la reprise de Fallouja au groupe terroriste Etat islamique ont découvert dimanche une fosse commune qui contiendrait des centaines de corps - 9 June 2016: Two separate terror attacks targeting commercial street and army checkpoint in Baghdad kill at least 22 and wound more than 70 - 12 June: Iraqi forces gain ground against Islamic State terrorists south of Mosul - 17 June: Iraqi forces reportedly seized a tactically significant district in the embattled city of Falluja - 26 June 2016: Iraqi forces recaptured the last remaining district held by Islamic State terrorists in Falluja on Sunday, declaring the battle complete - 3 July 2016: At least 83 people were killed and 176 wounded in two separate bomb attacks in the Iraqi capital early Sunday, as one blast targets busy shopping center in Karada, killing 78 and wounding scores, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 8 July 2016: Islamic State terrorists claim a triple suicide attack on Thursday evening near a Shia mausoleum north of Baghdad that killed at least 35 people and wounded 60 others - 9 July: Shia militias rule after battle to free Falluja, a city of ghosts and graffiti and a uncertain future for the people - 24 July: A suicide bomber struck near a checkpoint in a Shiite area of northern Baghdad, killing at least 12 and wounding at least 22 people - 25 juillet: Un attentat-suicide à la voiture piégée a fait au moins 12 morts et 37 blessés lundi matin à l'entrée de la ville de Khales au nord-est de Bagdad - 31 July: Thousands are fleeing Shirqat controlled by Islamic State terrorists, as Iraqi forces eye the northern Iraqi town, one of the last steps before Mosul - 14 August: Kurdish peshmerga forces in fresh push to recapture Mosul from Islamic State terrorists
October 2016: Since October 2016 Battle of Mosul, a joint offensive by Iraqi forces with allied militias, Kurdish Peshmerga of Iraqi Kurdistan, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from Islamic State terrorists, following March-September 2016 Mosul offensive against the the so-called Islamic State in the region in a joint effort by Iraqi forces and Kurdish Peshmerga, limited USA ground forces, and USA and allied air support - 14/15 October 2016: Iraqi and Kurdish forces are finalising plans to attack the last urban stronghold Mosul of Islamic State terrorists in Iraq, which after a month-long buildup is now largely surrounded by a 60,000-strong force, as terrorists have banned civilians from leaving the city, setting up checkpoints on roads out and blowing up the homes of those who do flee as punishment and to deter others - 15 octobre: Au moins 27 fidèles chiites, qui étaient rassemblés pour la fête de l'Achoura dans le quartier d'Al Chaab, dans le nord de la capitale irakienne, ont été tués dans un attentat-suicide revendiqé par 'l'Etat islamique' - 17 October 2016: Iraqi and Kurdish forces launch assault on Mosul, which has been in the hands of Islamic State terrorists since 2014 - 19 October: Mosul residents who have fled Islamic State say a homegrown resistance, raised over the past six months, has made plans to launch coordinated attacks against the group as Iraqi and Kurdish forces close in - 20 October: After 'Islamic State' terrorist leaders reportedly have begun to flee Mosul, Iraqi army, special forces and Kurdish peshmerga launch 'large-scale' operation to retake Mosul - 21 October: Islamic State terrorists launch a commando raid on Kirkuk as concerns mount over fate of civilians in Mosul - 22 October: Nearly 1,000 people have been treated for breathing problems linked to toxic gases from a sulphur plant which Islamic State terrorists are suspected to have set on fire near the city of Mosul - 28 octobre: Au moins 232 personnes ont été exécutées par le groupe Etat Islamique il y a quelques jours, près de Mossoul, alors que les troupes irakiennes s'approchaient de cette ville, selon l'ONU
November/December 2016: 2 November 2016: Iraqi special forces are holding their positions in Mosul a day after entering the Islamic State-held city for the first time since 2014 - 2 November: Mosul civilians flee heavy fighting and Islamic State terrorists - 4 November: Heavy fighting in Mosul as Iraqi forces launch assault - 7 November 2016: Peshmerga liberate Bashiqa in the joint offensive to liberate Mosul and its countryside - 12 November 2016: As Iraqi troops battle IS terrorists in Mosul, UN reports terrorists's executions, over 47,000 displaced people, and USA-backed forces in Syria advance on jihadist bastion of Raqqa - 15 November 2016: In cleared areas of Mosul, Iraqi troops struggle to provide civilians with food - 24 November 2016: Dozens of people, many of them Iranian Shia pilgrims, have been killed by a suicide bombing claimed by Islamic State terrorists near the Iraqi city of Hilla, 60 miles south of Baghdad - 21 décembre 2016: Des combattants du groupe Etat islamique ont 'délibérément' attaqué des civils refusant de leur servir de 'boucliers humains' dans leur fuite face aux forces irakiennes à Mossoul - 29 December: Iraqi troops resume push to take Mosul from Isis after two-week lull - 31 December 2016: Two bombs explode in a busy market area in Baghdad's central al-Sinek neighborhood on Saturday, killing at least 18 people and wounding dozens
March/April 2017: 4 March 2017: Thousands flee Iraq’s Mosul overnight, as fighting rages on to recapture it from Islamic State terrorists - 4 March 2017: UN raises fears of chemical attack in Mosul as patients exhibit 'severe signs associated with exposure to a blister agent' - 24 March 2017: For almost a week desperate neighbours had scraped through the rubble, searching for shouting children and as many as 130 people who lay buried after three homes in a west Mosul suburb were destroyed by coalition airstrikes, raising fresh questions about USA rules of engagement - 25 March 2017: Iraq suspends Mosul offensive after USA-led coalition airstrike atrocity - 28 March 2017: Residents in Mosul were instructed not to leave their homes ahead of airstrikes last week that are reported to have killed more than 150 civilians, rights group says
May/June 2017: 30 May 2017: A suicide bomber detonated an explosives-rigged vehicle at a popular Baghdad ice cream shop killing 15 people and wounding 24 and claimed by 'Islamic State' terrorists - 30 mai 2017: Les forces irakiennes continuant de progresser dans l'ouest de Mossoul où quelque 200.000 civils piégés sont en grand danger selon l'ONU - 4 June 2017: Isil has surrendered the key town of Baaj in north-west Iraq, a known hideout of the terrorist group’s leader which had been under Islamist militants’ control throughout 14 years of war and insurgency - 13 June 2017: Contaminated food supplied by a UK charity has made hundreds of people severely ill at a camp for Iraqi civilians who have fled Islamic State terrorists and fighting in Mosul - 18 June 2017: Iraqi troops move into Mosul’s Old City, last Islamic State stronghold, as UN says over 100,000 civilians are trapped in battle zone, where terror group is using them as human shields - 22 June 2017: With IS terrorists close to defeat in Mosul, its various opponents are already competing to define what will happen next
Oil and gas companies of Iraq: Oil and gas companies of Iraq
Hydroelectric power stations in Iraq: Hydroelectric power stations in Iraq
World Heritage and archaeological sites in Iraq: World Heritage Sites in Iraq - Archaeological sites in Iraq
External trade of Iraq: External trade of Iraq
Federal government and budget: Federal government of Iraq
Elections and politics in Iraq: Elections in Iraq
July 2014: 1 July: Iraqi parliament session collapses amid political standoff - 2 July: Control of rivers and dams reportedly has become a major tactical weapon for Isis and water supply one key to outcome of conflicts in Iraq and Syria - 8 July: Iraq’s new parliament postponed its next session for five weeks, extending the country’s political paralysis in the face of Sunni Islamist aggression - 10 July: Kurdish ministers boycott Iraqi cabinet meetings in response to prime minister Nouri al-Maliki's branding of Kurdish capital Irbil as haven for Isis militants - 16 July: Iraq's parliament elects new speaker al-Jabouri as Iraqi forces withdraw from Tikrit after heavy resistance - 25 July: USA congratulates Iraq on electing new president Fuad Masum, urging him to form a 'cohesive government' to help fight Islamic militants
Social movements and protests in Iraq: Protests in Iraq - 2011 Iraqi protests - 2012–14 Iraqi protests
2013: 4 January: Tens of thousands of Sunni Muslims in Iraq have been staging anti-government protests in Baghdad and other cities - 11 January: Tens of thousands of people continue to protest in numerous cities, including Ramadi, Samara and Mosul - 26 January: Thousands of mourners gathered in the Iraqi city of Fallujah on Saturday at the funerals of Sunni protesters killed by army troops a day earlier - 1/2 February: Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis protesting against alleged discrimination and PM Nuri al-Maliki in new rallies in Sunni-majority parts of the country - 22 February: Anti-al-Qaeda fighters targeted near Baghdad as fresh demonstrations are held against Maliki's Shia-led government - 24 April: After Iraqi forces raided a Sunni protest camp and deadly clashes between security forces and protesters in a wave of revenge attacks, gunmen seized control of Sulaiman Bek north of Baghdad - 31 August: Thousands of protesters in and around Baghdad and south Iraq angrily railed against lawmakers' lavish benefits
Iraqi society, culture, religion and human rights in Iraq: Iraqi society
Demographics and minorities in Iraq: Demographics of Iraq - Ethnic groups in Iraq - Minorities in Iraq
Shia–Sunni relations in modern Iraq: Shia–Sunni relations in modern Iraq
Governorates and districts of Iraq: Governorates (provinces) of Iraq - Districts of Iraq
Children in Iraq:
Education in Iraq: Education in Iraq
Schools in Iraq: List of schools in Iraq
Universities in Iraq: Universities in Iraq
Violence against academics in post-invasion Iraq: Violence against academics in post-invasion Iraq since 2003
Health in Iraq: Health in Iraq
Water supply, quality and sanitation in Iraq: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq
2007 Iraq cholera outbreak: 2007 Iraq cholera outbreak
Internet in Iraq: Internet in Iraq
Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2016: Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2016
2014: 25 September 2014: ISIS kill lawyer Samira Salih al-Nuaimi for 'apostasy' when she criticised them on Facebook for being religious bigots - 4 October 2014: Isis video shows murder of British hostage Alan Henning, who had gone to Syria to help victims of conflict by joining an aid convoy and was taken captive on December 26
Persecution of Yazidis and Assyrians by the 'Islamic State': Persecution of Yazidis by Islamic State - Persecution of Assyrians by the Islamic State
Destruction of cultural heritage by 'Islamic State' terrorists: Destruction of cultural heritage by Islamic State terrorists
Corruption in Iraq: Corruption in Iraq
Human trafficking in Iraq: Human trafficking in Iraq
Law enforcement in Iraq: Law enforcement in Iraq
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1918-2003, disputed territories and regional government: Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1918-2003 - Disputed territories of Northern Iraq - Kurdistan Regional Government
Economy of Iraqi Kurdistan, society, politics and human rights: Economy of Iraqi Kurdistan - Iraqi society - Human rights in Iraqi Kurdistan
Elections and politics in Iraqi Kurdistan: Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election 25 July 2009
2012/2013: 28 July 2012: Kurd leader Massoud Barzani warns against budget cuts by Iraq - 10 January 2013: Syrian Kurds find refuge in northern Iraq - camp Domiz is home to about 30.000 Syrian Kurds who are allowed to move freely and work in the region - 14 mai: Les premiers rebelles du PKK arrivent en Irak après leur retrait de Turquie - 11 June 2013: More than 1,000 Kurdish career soldiers in the Iraqi army have deserted and want to be integrated into the Kurdish former rebel peshmerga militia - 26 June 2013: A Kurdish bloc won the most seats in one of two provinces that held delayed elections last week, surprisingly beating out the governor's Sunni Arab party - 28 July: A suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a Kurdish security patrol in northern city of Tuz Khormato killing eight people and wounding five more - 18 août 2013: Des milliers de Kurdes syriens affluent dans la région autonome du Kurdistan irakien en quête d'un peu de répit, loin des privations et des combats contre les jihadistes
Foreign relations of Iraq: Foreign relations of Iraq
2014-present Iranian intervention in Iraq: Iranian intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
Iraq/Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Iraq/United Kingdom relations: Iraq/United Kingdom relations
British/USA-led Iraq War (2003-2011) and aftermath: Iraq War (2003-2011) - Category: Iraq War since 2003 - Bush and Blair determined to go to war regardless of the facts - memo of the meeting 31 January 2003 - Besetzung des Irak seit 2003 - "Iraq War Logs" (Tagebuch des Irakkriegs) - 104.924 recorded Iraqi deaths including 66.081 civilian deaths until 2009 - 20 October 2012: The families of two soldiers killed in Iraq have been told they can sue the Ministry of Defence for negligence - 21 December: Britain has paid out $22.7m to Iraqis who accused UK troops of illegally detaining and torturing them following the 2003 invasion - 29 January 2013: British troops in Iraq killed civilians including women, the elderly and children and committed 'terrifying acts of brutality', the British High Court heard today - 1 June 2013: Britain must investigate torture in Iraq, Afghanistan, UN says
Iraq/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council and the Iraq War - 10 February 2013: UN condemns attack on Iranian exile camp and demands investigation by Iraqi authorities into deadly attack on dissident base that left at least six dead - 27 avril 2013: L'ONU appelle à la 'retenue' en Irak après au moins 200 personnes sont mortes ces quatre derniers jours, principalement dans des heurts entre forces de l'ordre et manifestants sunnites hostiles au PM chiite al-Maliki - 12 June 2014: UN official to Iraq briefs Security Council saying there is no immediate threat to Baghdad - 2 July: UN and USA sharply criticised Iraqi leaders, warning time is running out after chaos in parliament despite calls for unity in the face of Isis offensive - 15 August: Iraq PM al-Maliki's decision to step down welcomed by UN's Ban Ki-moon, who urges meeting on nuclear-free Mideast - 20 September 2014: UN urges global support for Iraq to fight terror, reaffirming support for its force in Golan - 24 September: As USA-led coalition's campaign against 'Islamic State' continues in Iraq and Syria, a UN Security Council committee blacklists more than a dozen foreign extremist fighters, fundraisers and recruiters tied to militant groups in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Tunisia and Yemen - 18 October: UN Security Council urges the international community to further strengthen support for the Iraqi government including Security Forces in the fight against Islamic State
Environment of Iraq: Environment of Iraq
Environmental issues in Iraq: Environmental issues in Iraq
Natural disasters in Iraq - heatwaves, droughts, flooding:


Jordan - Geography of Jordan - History of Jordan - Demographics of Jordan
Agriculture in Jordan: Agriculture in Jordan
Tourism in Jordan: Tourism in Jordan
Banking and financial services in Jordan: Banks of Jordan - Arab Bank - HSBC Bank Middle East - Amman Stock Exchange
Taxation in Jordan: Taxation in Jordan
Jordanian Armed Forces: Jordanian Armed Forces
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Jordan: Jordanian society - Demographics of Jordan - Human rights in Jordan
Religion and freedom of religion in Jordan: Religion in Jordan - Freedom of religion in Jordan
Women in Jordan: Women in Jordan
Culture of Jordan: Culture of Jordan
Education in Jordan: Education in Jordan
Health care in Jordan: Health care in Jordan
Crime in Jordan: Crime in Jordan
Corruption in Jordan: Corruption in Jordan
Human trafficking in Jordan: Human trafficking in Jordan
Violence and terrorism in Jordan: Terrorism in Jordan
Law and law enforcement in Jordan: Jordanian law - Constitution of Jordan
Foreign relations of Jordan: Foreign relations of Jordan
Refugee camps in Jordan: Refugee camps in Jordan
Jordan/France relations: Jordan/France relations
July 2017: 24 July 2017: Israeli government says, Israeli Embassy guard is protected from arrest and investigation by Vienna Convention, as Jordan won’t let him leave the country after he shot dead a Jordanian man who attacked him with a screwdriver at Israel’s embassy compound in Amman - 25 July 2017: Jordan investigation concludes Jordanian teen attacked Amman security officer, who then shot his assailant, killing him and another Jordanian national by accident - 28 July 2017: Jordan king visits slain embassy stabber’s family, after 17-year-old Jordanian Mohammed Mohammed al-Jawawdeh attacked Israeli security guard Ziv, whose last name has not been cleared for publication, and was shot dead by him acting in self-defense, and after family of Jordanian stabber demanded death penalty for Israeli guard, also saying if he did carry out attack, he’s 'a martyr’
Jordan/Palestine relations: Jordan/Palestine relations - Jordan River
2014: 6 April 2014: Syrian refugee killed and dozens wounded in riot at Zaatari refugee camp after the detention of a refugee family and a driver - 21 May: As Assad's war has forced two and a half million Syrians to flee, journalist and photographer visits two refugee camps in Jordan run by UNHCR - 27 May 2014: Jordan gives Assad regime's ambassador 24 hours to leave after violation of diplomatic protocol, in response Assad regime expels Jordan's ambassador - 31 July 2014: At Jordan's Zaatari refugee camp near the border with Syria, the horror of the neighboring country's civil war can be seen in the faces of its youngest refugees - 24 December: 'Islamic State' captures Jordan pilot after coalition warplane crashed in Syria, UN urges to treat the pilot in accordance with international humanitarian law
Jordan/USA relations: Jordan/USA relations
Environment of Jordan: Environment of Jordan
Natural disasters in Jordan: 2013 Middle East cold snap and floods


Kuwait - Geography of Kuwait - History of Kuwait - Demographics of Kuwait
External trade and finance of Kuwait: External trade and finance of Kuwait
Society, demographics and human rights in Kuwait: Kuwaiti society - Human rights in Kuwait
Nepalis in Kuwait: Nepalis in Kuwait
Freedom of religion and repression in Kuwait: Freedom of religion in Kuwait
Women and women's rights in Kuwait: Women in Kuwait - Women's rights in Kuwait - Polygamy in Kuwait
Migrant workers in Kuwait: Migrant workers in Kuwait
Health in Kuwait: Health in Kuwait
Kuwaiti media: Kuwaiti media - Radio stations in Kuwait - TV in Kuwait
Terrorism in Kuwait: Terrorism in Kuwait
Elections and politics in Kuwait: Elections in Kuwait - Kuwait National Assembly
Since 2011 Kuwaiti protests, repression and politics: 2011/2012 Kuwaiti protests
Foreign relations of Kuwait: Foreign relations of Kuwait
Kuwait/Israel relations: Kuwait/Israel relations
Kuwait/India relations: Kuwait/India relations - 26 January 2013: Indian community in Kuwait celebrate Republic day
Kuwait/Pakistan relations: Kuwait/Pakistan relations
Kuwait/Saudi Arabia relations: Kuwait/Saudi Arabia relations
Kuwait/USA relations: Kuwait/USA relations


Lebanon - Geography of Lebanon - History of Lebanon - Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990 - Demographics of Lebanon
Tourism in Lebanon: Tourism in Lebanon
Agriculture in Lebanon: Agriculture in Lebanon - Lebanese wine
Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon: Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon
Banking and financial services in Lebanon: List of banks in Lebanon - Banque du Liban - Beirut Stock Exchange
Lebanese Armed Forces: Lebanese Armed Forces
Elections and politics in Lebanon: Elections in Lebanon - Lebanese general election 2013
Ruling coalition since June 2011: Ruling coalition since June 2011: March 8 Alliance - March 8 Alliance member: Hezbollah - March 8 Alliance member: Syrian Social Nationalist Party - 13 June 2011: Lebanese new cabinet Miqati, dominated by Hezbollah - 19 October 2012: Prominent Lebanese security official Wissam al-Hassan, ally of opposition leader Saad Hariri, is among the dead in a car bombing in the capital Beirut that has killed at least eight people and wounded up to 80 others - 20 octobre: Au lendemain de l'attentat attribué par les experts et l'opposition au régime syrien le Premier ministre Mikati a annoncé qu’il resterait à la demande du président - 23 March 2013: PM Najib Mikati steps down after impasse in his cabinet over election preparations and senior security officials' dispute - 23 March: Lebanese president accepts Mikati's resignation over divisions on several domestic issues, asking him to continue in caretaker capacity
May 2017 Lebanese general election: 21 May 2017 Lebanese general election
August/September 2015: 2015 Lebanese protests, series of protests in response to the government's failure to dispose accumulated waste after the capital's main landfill was closed a month ago - 23 August 2015: Lebanese police fired tear gas and water cannon and shot in the air to try to disperse thousands of protesters in Beirut calling on the Salam government to step down for mishandling a dispute which left rubbish uncollected in the streets for weeks - 29 August: Thousands of protesters waving Lebanese flags took to the streets of Beirut for an unprecedented mobilisation against sectarian politicians they say are incompetent and corrupt - 5 September: Thousands of protesters rally in Beirut over politician's call to elect Lebanon's president by popular vote to address the crisis that has paralysed government and parliament
Society, demographics, culture, religion and human rights in Lebanon: Lebanese society - Human rights in Lebanon
Demographics and ethnic groups in Lebanon: Demographics of Lebanon - Ethnic groups in Lebanon
Culture and languages of Lebanon: Culture of Lebanon - Languages of Lebanon
Education in Lebanon: Education in Lebanon
Health in Lebanon: Health in Lebanon
Internet in Lebanon: Internet in Lebanon
Crime in Lebanon: Crime in Lebanon
Violence and terrorism in Lebanon: Terrorism in Lebanon
Since 2004 Lebanon bombings and assassinations: Lebanon bombings and assassinations since 2004
Since 2011 conflict in Lebanon and Syrian Assad regime's war spillover: Since 2011 conflict in Lebanon and Syrian Assad regime's war spillover
2013: 24 mai 2013: À Tripoli, sunnites et alaouites se déchirent comme en Syrie - 26 May: Firefights in northern Lebanon between Sunni Muslims and Alawites have killed 30 people - 26 May 2013: Four people were wounded on Sunday when two rockets exploded in the Shiite-majority Hezbollah heartland of south Beirut - 9 July 2013: A car bomb rocked Beirut's southern suburbs, a stronghold of Lebanon's Shiite Hezbollah movement, injuring at least 53 people - 15 August: Twenty people were killed in an explosion which struck the southern Beirut stronghold of Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group - 23 August: As locals were finishing Friday prayers in the largely Sunni Muslim city of Tripoli, bombs hit two mosques, killing at least 42 people and wounding hundreds - 30 August: Lebanon on Friday charged five men, including a Sunni Muslim cleric close to the Syrian government and a Syrian military officer, over bomb attacks on two mosques in the northern city of Tripoli last week that killed at least 42 people - 28 September: Gunbattles between Hezbollah fighters and local residents in the city of Baalbek in eastern Lebanon kill at least three people, including two Hezbollah members, leaving several others wounded - 19 November: The Iranian embassy in Beirut was the apparent target of two explosions on Tuesday, killing at least five people
2014: 3 January: Deadly car bomb strikes Hezbollah stronghold in Beirut - 16 January: At least three people killed and several more wounded when a car bomb exploded near a local government building in Hermel - 21 January: Suicide bombing kills four people in the Haret Hreik area of Beirut - 2 Februry: Deadly car bomb hits Hezbollah stronghold Hermel - 3 February: A suicide bomber blew himself up in a passenger van in Beirut, wounding at least six people - 19 February: A blast in the southern suburbs of Beirut on Wednesday reportedly killed four people and wounded 19 - 16 March: Suicide bomb kills three people in Nabi Osmane in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley - 23 March: One person was killed and 10 people wounded in clashes in Beirut between Assad loyalists and opponents - 24 June 2014: Beirut suicide bombing wounds 19 people as conflict in Syria causes unrest across border - 14 July: Six dead as Hezbollah battles Syria rebels on Lebanon border
Foreign relations of Lebanon: Foreign relations of Lebanon
Since 1982 Hezbollah's alleged suicide and terror attacks in the Middle East and worldwide: Since 1982 Hezbollah's alleged suicide and terror attacks in the Middle East and worldwide
Lebanon/Brazil relations: Lebanese Brazilians
Lebanon/Israel relations: Lebanon/Israel relations - Hasbani River
2014: 25 February: Israeli planes attack Hezbollah targets on Lebanon-Syria border - 28 February: Israel warns Lebanon to curb Hezbollah threats - 5 March: Israeli troops shot Hezbollah fighters near Golan Heights, trying to plant a bomb - 14 March: An explosive charge detonates near Har Dov in the vicinity of the Israel-Lebanon border targeting an IDF force - 15 March: Lebanon's new government agrees to a statement that fell short of explicitly enshrining Hezbollah's role in confronting Israel - 7 April: Nasrallah says March bombing of Israeli patrol was intended to highlight Hezbollah's ability to fight Israel despite battle in Syria - 14 July 2014: Rockets fired at Israel from southern Lebanon, drawing retaliatory artillery fire from Israeli forces, in the third such rocket attack from Lebanon since Friday - 7 October: Hezbollah claims responsibility for blasts near Israel-Lebanon border, after two Israeli soldiers wounded
List of Lebanese rocket attacks on Israel: List of Lebanese rocket attacks on Israel
Lebanon/Syria relations: Lebanon/Syria relations
1976-2005 Syrian occupation of Lebanon: Syrian occupation of Lebanon 1976-2005
Since 2011 Iranian-backed Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people: Since 2011 Iranian-backed Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people and timeline of Hezbollah's deployment in Syria
Since 2011 Syrian Assad regime's war spillover in Lebanon: Syrian Assad regime's war spillover in Lebanon June 2011 – present
Since 2011 refugees of Assad's war against the Syrian people in Lebanon: Since 2011 Refugees of Assad's war against the Syrian people in Lebanon
2012: 13. Mai 2012: Kämpfe in Syrien greifen auf Libanon über - Zwei Tote bei Gefechten zwischen Gegnern und Anhängern Asads - 7 July 2012: At least three people have been killed and nine injured in northern Lebanon in shelling from across the Syrian border - 7. Juli 2012: Das syrische Militär hat mehrere Dörfer im Norden Libanons beschossen und drei Menschen getötet und zahlreiche weitere verletzt - 10 juillet: Des obus du côté syrien s'abattent au Liban après échange de tirs - 11 août: Le patron de la Sécurité syrienne soupçonné de fomenter des attentats au Liban - 16 August: Lebanon revenge kidnappings raise tensions - 22 août: Touché par le conflit syrien neuf personnes tuées et 84 blessées à Tripoli - 24 August: Syria spillover clashes escalate in Lebanon - 20 October: Lebanese opposition politicians blame President Assad for bombing that kills senior security official Wissam al-Hassan and seven others in Beirut - 21 octobre: L'opposition libanaise appelle à un grand rassemblement contre le régime syrien - 23 October: Lebanon opposition MPs receive 'Syria threats' by SMS - 5 December: At least two people were killed in clashes between Sunni-dominated Bab al-Tebbaneh and Alawite-dominated Jabal Mohsen in Tripoli - 6 December: At least six people killed in two days of fighting between gunmen loyal to opposing sides in Syria's conflict - 10 December: Deadly clashes continue in Tripoli after Lebanon received bodies from a group of 14 Lebanese killed in Syria
2013: 5 February 2013: A Lebanese judge issues arrest warrant for top Syrian intelligence official Ali Mamlouk for his alleged involvement in bomb plot - 24 February: One killed in fierce Syria-Lebanon border fighting as Lebanese president Sleiman demanded that Syria 'refrain from firing towards Lebanese territory' - 19 March: Assad's Russian warplanes bomb Lebanon border area targeting Syrian opposition in Lebanese Arsal town - 3 April: Syrian Assad jet fires missile into Lebanon border town Arsal - 24 April: As fierce clashes continue in the border villages of al Qusayr, there are growing fears that Lebanon is being drawn further into the Syrian conflict - 20 May: As Assad's warplanes bomb Qusair and as his army is hitting the town with tanks and artillery from the north and east, Iran-backed Lebanese Hezbollah is firing mortar rounds and multiple rocket launchers from the south and west - 3 June: Lebanon sees worst clashes yet from Syria - 12 June: After a helicopter gunship attacked the eastern town of Arsal, Lebanon army warns will hit back against any new Assad raids - 20 June: As Iraq and Lebanon are alarmed at spreading Syria war, Lebanon's president urges his country's Hezbollah movement to pull its fighters out of the conflict - 23 June: Two Lebanese army officers and a soldier killed in a clash with supporters of a radical Sunni Muslim sheikh opposed to the Shiite movement Hezbollah - 18 juillet: Le fonctionnaire syrien Mohammad Darrar Jamo, pro-Assad, assassiné au Liban - 3 August: Near the border with Lebanon an Assad warplane has killed at least nine people including six members of the same family and wounded nine others, targeting the opposition-held Syrian town of Yabroud just across the border from the Lebanese town of Arsal - 24 August: Lebanon is to observe a day of national mourning Saturday for 42 people killed in powerful bombings outside two Sunni mosques in a city riven by strife over Syria's war - 30 August: Lebanon on Friday charged five men, including a Sunni Muslim cleric close to the Syrian government and a Syrian military officer, over bomb attacks on two mosques in the northern city of Tripoli last week that killed at least 42 people - 19 octobre: Libération de neuf otages libanais détenus en Syrie depuis mai 2012 - 30 November: Four people were killed in Tripoli on Saturday in exchanges of fire between neighborhoods that support rival sides in Syria's civil war - 2 December: Gun battles and rocket fire in Tripoli killed at least 10 people and wounded dozens more over the weekend - 5 December: Lebanese soldier killed in new Syria-related clashes in Tripoli - 31 December: Lebanese army fires at Syrian aircraft after border raid
2014: 17 January 2014: Assad rockets kill seven people in Lebanese border town of Arsal wounding at least 15 - 27 January: Syrian refugees in Lebanon exceed 890,000 - 2 February: Explosion kills four people in Hermel, a Hezbollah stronghold near Syria - 22 February: A suicide bomber killed two Lebanese soldiers and a civilian with a car bomb at an army checkpoint in Hermel - 16 March: Suicide bomb kills three people in Nabi Osmane in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley - 29 March: Car bomb kills three soldiers in attack on Lebanese army checkpoint in Arsal - 3 April: The number of Syrians registered as refugees in Lebanon has surpassed one million, UN says - 20 May: Lebanon is desperate for help as tens of thousands of Syrian refugees continue to stream into the small country that will have 1.5 million refugees by year end, UN says - 21 May: A shortfall in international support has left many Syrian refugees in Lebanon unable to access crucial medical care, rights group says - 21 July: Disturbing video of Syrian refugee child was instigated by Hezbollah's abusive sectarian prejudice, Syrian Coalition says - 3 August: Eight Lebanese soldiers have been killed in clashes with fighters in eastern Lebanon, near the border with Syria - 7 August: Syrian Coalition's Nora al-Ameer says that Hezbollah’s denial of any involvement 'as an unacceptable attempt to evade responsibility for the humanitarian catastrophe that afflicts the Syrian refugees in Arsal' - 18 October: Lebanon blocks Syrian refugees from entering, UN says - 25 October: Lebanon army fights gunmen in Tripoli, six soldiers killed
November 2016: 16 November 2016: Hezbollah staged a military parade in the Syrian town of Qusayr, which it retook from Syrian rebels in 2013 in its first major victory after it intervened in support of Assad’s regime, showing its advanced Russian and USA weaponry including tanks, armored vehicles and anti-aircraft batteries, as USA's Obama administration supplies equipment to Lebanon’s army saying that the USA would be 'gravely concerned' if it ended up in Hezbollah’s hands - 24 November 2016: Russia and terror organization Hezbollah have begun 'official' military coordination in Syria at the behest of Russian regime, establishing 'continual' communication and shared channels between the two sides over what’s happening on the battlefield, as Russia is especially interested in coordinating with Hezbollah’s infantry on the ground in Aleppo
2017: 10 July 2017: A young refugee, whose only crime was to cross paths with members of the Lebanese Army as he returned home from night shift at Al-Rahma Hospital in Arsal, reportedly killed under torture by Lebanese Army, as there are still around 400 other Syrian refugees detained by the Lebanese Army with unknown fate - 22 July 2017: Human Rights Watch renews its calls for an independent and transparent investigation into the recent deaths of Syrians in Hezbollah supported Lebanese army custody, as well as allegations of torture and ill-treatment of the detained - 24 July 2017: Lebanese Future Movement stresses that the Hezbollah militia does not have the legitimacy to intervene in Syria and participate in battles in which Syrian civilians are being killed, also saying that Hezbollah’s intervention in Syria serves Iranian and Assad regime
2006 Jiyeh Power Station oil spill: 2006 Jiyeh Power Station oil spill
Natural disasters in Lebanon: 2013 Middle East cold snap and floods


Libya - Geography of Libya - History of Libya - Post World War II - Cyrenaica - Fezzan - Tripolitania - Demographics of Libya
Energy in Libya: Energy in Libya
Oil reserves in Libya: Oil reserves in Libya
External trade and finance: External trade and finance
Taxation in Libya: Taxation in Libya
Politics of Libya: Politics of Libya
United Nations Support Mission in Libya since 2011: United Nations Support Mission in Libya since September 2011
Elections in Libya: Elections in Libya
Libyan Constituent Assembly election 20 February 2014: Libyan Constituent Assembly election 20 February 2014
June 2014 Libyan House of Representatives election: Libyan House of Representatives election 25 June 2014
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Libya: Libyan society - Demographics of Libya
Religion and women in Libya: Religion in Libya - Women in Libya
Human rights in Libya: Human rights in Libya
Education and culture in Libya: Education in Libya - Culture of Libya
Newspapers and TV in Libya: Newspapers in Libya - TV in Libya
Crime in Libya: Crime in Libya
Racism in Libya: Racism in Libya
Human trafficking in Libya: Human trafficking in Libya
Libya/European Union relations: Libya/European Union relations
2015: 18 January: UN Security Council threatens sanctions over Libya turmoil - 2 March 2015: Libya's elected House of Representatives agreed to go back to UN-brokered peace talks with rival government, a week after they pulled out over a militant suicide bombing - 8 March: UN says talks among warring Libyan factions make progress toward a unity government, and a Libyan delegate said they would resume discussions next week - 23 March: UN says Libya talks extended despite clashes - 8 June 2015: Officials say UN talks are the only hope of forming a unity government and halting the fighting among factions allied to either government, as UN to host new rounds of Libya talks in Morocco - 18 June: UN Security Council urges all Libyan parties to accept peace deal that requires the internationally recognized government to share power with rival Islamists who control Tripolis - 7 August: UN to host new round of Libya peace talks to reach political settlement between the country's rival factions - 22 September: UN hands Libya factions final text of peace deal - 10 October 2015: As the UN's proposed national unity government to end the war between the internationally recognised government and a competing self-declared administration faces resistance in Tripoli, Western countries are backing the proposal - 3 November: UN urges Libya's warring factions to agree on a unity government after they were offered proposals to ease concerns over regional distribution in a UN-backed power-sharing deal - 14 December 2015: International conference endorses UN-backed deal for unity government in Libya as Libyan factions declare readiness to sign - 23 décembre: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a adopté à l'unanimité une résolution pour soutenir le futur gouvernement libyen d'union nationale, demandant aux pays membres de l'aider à restaurer la stabilité en Libye
Libya/USA relations: Libya/United States relations - 2 September: NTC must deal with Lockerbie bomber, Hillary Clinton says - NZZ 3. September: Enge Kooperation von amerikanischem CIA und britischem MI-6 Geheimdienst mit Gaddafis Verbrecherregime von 2002-2007 durch gefundene Dokumente aufgedeckt - Human Rights Watch 6 September 2012: USA Bush government tortured opponents of Muammar Gaddafi, then transferred them to mistreatment in Libya, according to accounts by former detainees and recently uncovered CIA and UK Secret Service documents - 12 septembre: Un film jugé 'anti-islam' entraîne la mort d'un Américain en Libye - 13 September: USA to investigate consulate attack in Benghazi - Libyans protest in Benghazi condemning the attack - 13 September: USA president says killing of ambassador and staff in Benghazi will not break the bonds between the two countries - 'How could this happen in a country we helped liberate, in a city we helped save from destruction,' Hillary Clinton asks the Islamists - 16 October 2012: The USA administration has won congressional approval to devote $8 million to helping Libya develop a commando force to fight terrorist groups - 6 October 2013: USA commando raids hit terror targets in Libya and Somalia
June 2011: 1. Juni 2011: Nato verlängert Libyen-Einsatz bis Ende September - 3. Juni 2011: Libysche Rebellen erobern wichtige Orte im Westen - 4. Juni: Nato-Einsatz von Kampfhelikoptern - 13. Juni: Emirate erkennen Übergangsrat an - 18. Juni 2011: Kämpfe um westliche Grenzstadt Nalut ... und Maizières "Kurzsichtigkeit" - 19. Juni 2011: Viele leere Versprechungen - Interview zur schwierigen Finanzlage der libyschen Opposition - 20. Juni: Nato gibt Bombardierung von Wohnhaus zu - 22. Juni: Italien stellt Nato-Einsatz in Frage - China stärkt Übergangsregierung den Rücken - 26. Juni 2011: Libyens Top-Fußballer zeigen Gaddafi die rote Karte - 26. Juni 2011: Offensive der Opposition südlich Tripolis - ICC issues Gaddafi arrest warrant - 29. Juni: Gaddafi-Gegner erobern Waffenlager - außerdem 40 Tonnen Kriegsmaterial aus Frankreich geliefert - keine deutschen Bauteile für Nato-Einsatz
July 2011: 1. Juli 2011: Gaddafi droht Europa mit Anschlägen - 4. Juli: Türkei erkennt Nationalen Übergangsrat als legitimen Vertreter Libyens an - Civilians killed in Misurata shelling by Gaddafi troops 5 July - 6. Juli 2011: Neue Offensive der Gaddafi-Gegner südlich von Tripolis - Libyan rebels take town of al-Qawalish - Libyan rebels advance towards town of Gharian south of Tripoli - 9. Juli: Gaddafi droht Europa erneut - 12. Juli 2011: Schweiz eröffnet Verbindungsbüro in Bengasi - Übergangsrat sei der legitime Ansprechpartner - Parlement francais approuve (482:27) la poursuite des opérations militaires en Libye - 'Libya Contact Group' discuss Libya in Istanbul 15 July - USA recognises 'Transitional National Council' as legitimate authority 15 July - 19. Juli: USA nach direkten Gesprächen - "Gaddafi muß gehen" - 27. Juli: Großbritannien anerkennt Nationalen Übergangsrat - Libyan rebels 'capture key supply route town of Ghazaya' - 29. Juli: Kommandeur der Gaddafi-Gegner Younes von Bewaffneten ermordet - Libyan rebels confirm Younes arrest warrant
August 2011: 6 August: Libyan opposition fighters capture the strategic town of Bir Ghanam - 8 August: National Transitional Council reshuffles team - 11 August: Fuel shortage slows Libyan oppositon fighters advance - 12. August: Gaddafi-Gegner melden Einnahme von Brega - 13 August: Opposition fighters advance in Brega to capture oil terminal - 13/14 August: Opposition launches offensive in Western Libya to cut supply routes - 14 August: Opposition forces fight for key towns near Tripoli - 15 August: Gaddafi urges his supporters to continue bloodshed 'inch by inch' - 16 August: Libyan opposition forces push to isolate Tripoli - 16 August: Gadhafi forces 'launched Scud missile' - 16 August: Opposition forces fight for control of Zawiya - 17 August: Libyans look to post-Gaddafi era - united against dictatorship - NZZ 17. August: Libyens Opposition rückt bis al-Heisha vor - 17 August: Opposition forces advance for control of a key costal oil refinery in Zawiya - 18. August: Gaddafi-Gegner erobern Sahara-Stadt Morsuk - 19. August: Nato bestätigt Tod des libyschen Geheimdienstchefs - blutige Kämpfe um die Stadt Slitan östlich Tripolis' - 20. August: Gaddafi-Gegner haben Ölhafen Brega unter Kontrolle - 21 August: Libyan uprising reaches streets of Tripoli - 21. August: Heftige Kämpfe in Tripolis - 21. August: Demonstrationen in Tripolis - Tunesien anerkennt Nationalen Übergangsrat - 21. August: Gaddafi-Gegner am westlichen Rand von Tripolis - 22. August: Heftige Kämpfe bei Gaddafis Führungsbunker - 22 August: NTC leader M. Jibril calls for restraint and compassion - 22. August: Verbrechen bis zum bitteren Ende - Gaddafi-Panzer und Scharfschützen in Tripolis - große Verluste der Gaddafi-Gegner - 23. August: Tripolis noch nicht völlig befreit - Angriffe auf Gaddafis befestigte Residenz mit Nato-Unterstützung - 23 August: Opposition fighters from the east press onwards to Tripoli - 23. August: Gaddafi-Gegner dringen nachmittags bereits in seine Residenz ein - abends Erstürmung - 24. August: Gaddafi ruft weiter zur Gewalt auf und versucht, noch möglichst viele in den Tod zu reißen - 24 August: Democratic forces pushing to secure Tripoli - 25 August: National Transitional Council tries to capture Gaddafi to stop the bloodshed - ongoing battles in Tripolis and other regions - 26. August: Nationaler Übergangsrat in Tripolis - andauernde Kämpfe - 27 August: Democratic forces consolidate control in Tripoli - security now a key concern - 28 August: Arab League recognises NTC African Union refuses - 28 August: Tripoli faces severe shortages of water, food, electricity, fuel - preparations for the assault of Sirte - 28. August: Demokratische Truppen nehmen weitere Städte im Westen ein - NZZ 29. August: In Libyen kommen weitere Grausamkeiten ans Licht - 29 August: United Nations Libya plan 'revealed in report' (elections, observers) - request by Libyan authorities needed - 29 August: Democratic forces surge towards Gaddafi's hometown Sirte - 29 August: Gaddafi family - wife, daughter, two sons - 'flee to Algeria', the Algerian foreign ministry says - 30. August: NTC fordert von Algerien Auslieferung der Gaddafi-Familie - 30 August: NTC gives ultimatum to Gaddafi forces to surrender until Saturday - 31. August: Der NTC lehnt Entsendung von UN-Truppen in das entstehende demokratische Libyen ab - 31 August: Gaddafi's son Saadi 'ready to surrender' - 31 August: Gaddaf's foreign minister A. Obeidi reportedly arrested on Tuesday - 31 August: Democratic forces 'encircling Gaddafi city of Sirte'
September 2011: 1 September: Gaddafi's sons differ over conflict - Saadi seeking negotiations - 1. September: Auch Rußland muß zum September den NTC anerkennen - 1 September: Summit on Libya in Paris over a further unfreezing of assets, Nato support, security and rebuilding - 1 September: NTC gives extra week to Gaddafi forces to surrender - NZZ 2. September: Zeitplan des NTC - neue Verfassung innerhalb von 8 und Parlaments- und Präsidentenwahlen innerhalb von 18 Monaten - 3 September: NTC forces to lay siege on pro-Gaddafi cities supplying people with humanitarian aid - 4 septembre: L'étau se resserre autour des derniers bastions kadhafistes - 6 September: Large Libyan convoy of military vehicles arrives in Niger - UK to examine spy ties - 7 September: Gaddafi 'last tracked in southern Libya' - 7. September: Berichte von Umzingelung Gaddafis - 9 September: Libyan fighters enter Bani Walid - 11 September: Interim leader Abdul Jalil in Tripolis while Libyan democratic forces face fierce resistance in Bani Walid, Jufra, Sabha and Sirte - 12 September: Gaddafi's son Saadi in Niger - Mahmoud Jibril announces an interim government within ten days - 12. September: Gaddafi-Gegner stoßen weiter auf erbitterten Widerstand vor allem in Bani Walid - 13. September: Abdul Jalils erste öffentliche Rede - Libyen soll ein demokratischer Rechtsstaat mit gemäßigt islamischer Ordnung werden - 14. September: NTC strebt Vertretung in UNO an - 16 September: NTC fighters meet Sirte resistance - 17 September: NTC forces driven back from Bani Walid - 17 September: NTC fighters prepare for assault on Sirte - 18 September: Heavy resistance from Gaddafi forces in Bani Walid - NTC forces regrouping - NTC debates interim cabinet - 19 September: Libya's interim leaders fail to agree on a new cabinet on Sunday - 19 September: NTC forces capture parts of Sabha - fighting continues in Bani Walid, concern for civilians - Sirte residents flee - 20. September: Afrikanische Union erkennt NTC an - 21 September: Gaddafi 'losing control of Sabha' - 22 September: NTC fighters struggle to capture Sirte - 22 September: Gaddafi's last PM al-Mahmoudi 'jailed in Tunisia' near the border with Algeria - 22 September: NTC forces capture three southern towns, Al-Jufra, Waddan and Sokna - 24 September: NTC forces prepare for final Sirte assault evacuating residents - 25 September: NTC fighters gain ground in fight for Sirte - M. Jibril's speech at UN - 26 September: Notorious Abu Salim prison mass grave found - 26 September: Street battles rage in Sirte - 28 September: Libyan fighters are in control of Sirte airport - 30. September: M. Jibril will nur bis zur vollständigen Befreiung Libyens Vorsitzender des Exekutivrats des NTC bleiben
October 2011: 2 October: Sirte medical needs 'desperate' - 2 October: Hundreds of residents flee Sirte as NTC forces observe a ceasefire - 3 October: Civilians flee Sirte - 48-hour NTC suspension in fighting - 3 Oktober: Neue Übergangsregierung für November von NTC angekündigt - 6 octobre: À Syrte, un déluge de feu pour neutraliser les tireurs embusqués pro-Kadhafi - 8 October: At least 12 people killed in what NTC officials say is final assault to take Sirte - 9 October: Fierce street fighting in Sirte - 9 October: Sirte 'close to falling' - 11 October: Gaddafi fighters 'cornered' in Sirte, NTC says - 12. Oktober: Schwindender Widerstand der Gaddafi-Kämpfer in Sirte - 14. Oktober: Gaddafi-Kämpfer leisten weiter Widerstand - 17 October: NTC forces in Bani Walid - 17. Oktober: NTC Kämpfer kontrollieren Bani Walid - 20 October 2011: NTC forces say they have taken full control of Sirte - 21 October 2011: Former dictator Gaddafi killed as Sirte is liberated - 22. Oktober: Parlamentswahl spätestens in 8 Monaten angekündigt - Rücktritt Jibrils
September 2012: 6 September: Gaddafi's spy chief in custody in Tripoli after extradition from Mauritania - 12 September: US official dies in Libya consulate attack in Benghazi - US-produced film is said to be insulting to the Prophet Muhammad - NZZ 13. September: Mustafa Abu Shagur zum neuen Ministerpräsidenten gewählt - 21 September: Large pro-peace 'Save Benghazi' marchof tens of thousands of Libyans seeking to disband Islamist militias coincides with smaller Ansar Sharia protest - 22 September: Demonstrators in Libya have stormed the headquarters of the Islamist Ansar al-Sharia group and evicted its fighters from the site in a sweep of militia bases in the eastern city of Benghazi - 23 September: Two groups in eastern city of Derna announce they will lay down arms, as Tripoli bans all non-state-sanctioned militias - 30 September: Hundreds of Libyans turn in weapons
October 2012: 5 October: Mustafa Abushagur says he is ready to change nominations after protesters stormed national assembly over line-up - 7 October: Prime Minister-elect Abushagur dismissed, after failing for a second time to win parliamentary approval for a new cabinet - 14 October: Libya's national congress has elected new prime minister Ali Zidan - 21 October: Fightings in Bani Walid entering their fifth day kill 22 pro-government militiamen - 31 octobre: Malgré un vote perturbé par des manifestations contre la proposition d'un gouvernement de coalition, le Parlement approuve le nouveau gouvernement Ali Zeidan
November/December 2013: 8 November: Two Libyan militias clashed in Tripoli after the death of one of their leaders, leaving at least 10 people injured amid intense gunfire - 9 November: A string of attacks in the eastern towns of Derna and Benghazi killed a public prosecutor and three members of the security forces in less than 24 hours - 15 November: Militiamen attacked thousands of peaceful protesters demanding the disbanding of the country's rampant armed groups, killing at least 22 people as they opened fire on the march - 16 November: Fresh clashes erupt in Tripoli, as the death toll from the anti-militia protest rises above 40 and the government is contended with appeals for restraint - 17 November: State of emergency declared in Tripoli - 18 novembre: Grève générale de trois jours à Tripoli après les affrontements entre Tripolitains et miliciens qui ont fait plus de 40 morts - NZZ 23. November: Grosse Milizen aus Misrata und Zintan haben nach Demonstrationen der Bürger die libysche Hauptstadt Tripolis verlassen - 25 November: At least three people reportedly killed in clashes between the Libyan army and an Islamist militia in Benghazi - 22 December: Suicide attack on a security checkpoint near Libya's Benghazi kills seven people
April-June 2014: 13 April: Less than a week after parliament tasked him with forming a new cabinet, Libya's PM Abdullah al-Thani stepped down, saying he and his family had been the victims of a 'traitorous' armed attack the previous day - 13 April: Amid security fears Gaddafi sons' war crimes trial begins in Tripoli facing accusations of masterminding campaign of murder and torture during civil war - 5 May: Libyan Parliament reportedly does not recognise new PM Miitig - 8 May: Intelligence Chief in Libya's Benghazi shot dead - 19 May: Tripoli tense a day after forces loyal to a renegade general stormed the parliament challenging the legitimacy of the weak central government - 21 May: Libyan Interior Ministry reportedly backs ex-general in fight with Islamists - 25 May: Libya's Maiteeq wins congress confidence vote after militia threats - 26 May: Gunmen shot dead a newspaper editor in Benghazi who was an outspoken critic of Islamists - 2 June: Ansar al-Shariah and Khalifa Haftar's fighters clash in Benghazi - 4 June: Libya's Khalifa Haftar survived an assassination attempt in Benghazi, where he has been leading an offensive against Islamist militants - 7 June: Libyan warplanes raid Islamists in Benghazi as supporters and opponents of Khalifa Haftar scuffle in Tripoli's Martyrs' Square
September-December 2014: 11 September: CDA plans to publish draft constitution in December - 30 September: Amid the country's spiralling security, UN dialogue seeks to end Libya crisis - 3 October: Thirty-six soldiers were killed in car bomb attacks and fighting between the army and Islamists around Benghazi airport - 18 October: At least 17 people killed in Benghazi where pro-government forces backed by locals are fighting Islamists, rival Libyan governments claim to control oil policy - 2 November: Libya pro-government forces recapture parts of Benghazi - 11 December 2014: Libya's recognized government continues military campaign to claim back the capital Tripoli - 26 December: Islamists have killed at least 22 soldiers using speedboats and firing rockets in failed attempt to seize oil terminal
2015: 16 January: Libyan factions agree on 'agenda' for unity government - 27 January: Car bomb explodes outside hotel in Tripoli - 28 January: At least nine people killed, including four Europeans and a USA security contractor, in Tripoli hotel terrorist attack - 17 February: UN security council resolution demanded on international intervention in Libya - 8 March: Around 10 foreigners are missing after an attack on Al-Ghani oil field - 28 March: Forces loyal to rival government controlling Tripoli have withdrawn from frontline bases near the country's biggest oil ports, raising hopes the ports might soon be reopened - 2 May 2015: A rocket hit a medical centre for dispatching ambulances in Libya's eastern Benghazi on Friday, killing three people and wounding seven - 21 May: Ten people killed and almost 40 wounded when Libya's two rival governments clashed with Islamist fighters in the cities of Benghazi and Misrata - 30 May: Rocket attack in Libya's Benghazi targeting a residential district leaves 8 people dead, 8 wounded - 12 June: Seven people were shot dead on Friday at a protest against 'Islamic State' terrorists in the eastern Libyan city of Derna - 12 July: Tripoli parliament stays away from signing of Libya peace agreement - 29 August 2015: Libyans protest against smugglers after up to 200 refugees drown off coast - 5 September: Libyan deal on a unity government possible 'in coming days', UN envoy Leon says - 19 October: Internationally recognized parliament refuses to sign agreement over amendments added to UN proposal for a power-sharing arrangement by Islamist authorities without lawmakers’ consent - 20 October: Warplanes reportedly carried out air strikes on the Libyan city of Sirte targeting areas controlled by fighters loyal to Islamic State terrorists - 23 October: At least nine people were reported killed and dozens more injured in Benghazi on Friday when mortar shells fell on people protesting against a UN proposal for a unity government to end a political crisis - 27 October: Several military commanders from Libya’s self-styled government in Tripoli have been killed after their helicopter was shot down by another of the country’s armed factions, triggering clashes west of the capital between armed brigades - 11 novembre 2015: Au moins 13 soldats gouvernementaux tués par des attaques dans l'Est libyen - 6/7 décembre 2015: Les responsables des parties prenantes annoncent un accord en vue d'un règlement du conflit en Libye - 11 décembre: Le 16 décembre, les représentants des Parlements rivaux en Libye accepteront un texte pour sortir le pays de la crise politique
2016: 19 January 2016: Libyan factions have announced a unity government aimed at stemming the chaos that has engulfed the country since 2011 uprising toppled Gaddafi - 15 février 2016: Soutenu par les Nations unies, un gouvernement libyen d'union nationale est composé de factions rivales - 12/13 March: As Libya's UN-backed Presidential Council calls on the international community to stop dealing with any rival powers within Libya, Libyan unity government moves to start work - 2 April 2016: Libya's UN-backed unity government won the support of guards who secure the country's key oil terminals, the latest pledge of loyalty for a cabinet facing strong opposition from rival political forces - 17 avril 2016: Premiers affrontements depuis le nouveau gouvernement ont eu lieu dans la capital libyenne après une visite des ministres français et allemand des Affaires étrangères pour soutenir le gouvernement d'union nationale - 9 June 2016: After three-week offensive to enter the coastal city of Sirte Libyan forces claim to have ousted Islamic State terrorists from final stronghold - 25 juin 2016: Quatre civils ont été tués et 14 autres blessés vendredi par l'explosion d'une voiture piégée devant un hôpital de Benghazi - 2 August: A car bomb targeting security forces in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi reportedly killed 22 people and wounded 20 amid Libya clashes - 10 August 2016: Libyan forces battling to oust Islamic State terrorists from Sirte say they have made significant advances, gaining control of a large convention centre
2017: 7 March 2017: Libya falls back into civil war as rival sides fight to control oil terminals - 15 March 2017: Libya national army recaptures oil ports at Sidra and Ras Lanuf - 29 March 2017: Power struggle for control of Libya’s oil is threatening to deepen splits in the country and undermine the fragile authority of the UN-backed Libyan Government of National Accord - 24 April 2017: Libya's warring sides reach diplomatic breakthrough in Rome, that has the potential to bring the two main warring sides together in a new political agreement after years of division, fighting and economic misery - 25 July 2017: In an agreement Libyan PM Fayez al-Sarraj and General Hifter have committed themselves to a ceasefire, working towards presidential and parliamentary elections next year and finding a roadmap to secure the country against terrorism and trafficking of all kinds


Mauritania - Geography of Mauritania - List of ecoregions in Mauritania - History of Mauritania - Demographics of Mauritania
Mining in Mauritania: Mining in Mauritania - Iron ore
List of rivers of Mauritania: List of rivers of Mauritania
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Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Mauritania: Mauritanian society
Human rights, religion, freedom of religion, repression and slavery in Mauritania: Human rights in Mauritania - Religion in Mauritania - Freedom of religion in Mauritania
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Corruption in Mauritania: Corruption in Mauritania
Mauritanian law and law enforcement: Mauritanian law - Law enforcement in Mauritania
Foreign relations of Mauritania: Foreign relations of Mauritania
Mauritania/Algeria relations: Mauritania/Algeria relations
Mauritania/Morocco relations: Mauritania/Morocco relations
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Natural disasters in Mauritania:
Storm and floods in Mauritania:


Morocco - Geography of Morocco - History of Morocco - Demographics of Morocco
Mining companies of Morocco: Mining companies of Morocco
Information technology in Morocco: Information technology in Morocco
Energy in Morocco: Energy Energy policy of Morocco
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Social movements and protests: Protests in Morocco
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Demograhics and ethnic groups in Morocco: Demographics of Morocco - Ethnic groups in Morocco
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'Sûreté Nationale', 'Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie' and 'Direction générale de la surveillance du territoire': 'Sûreté Nationale' is the authoritative and main State police body of Morocco - Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie - Direction générale de la surveillance du territoire
Social and women's rights and equality in Morocco: Women in Morocco - Social rights and equality in Morocco - Polygamy in Morocco
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Morocco/Egypt relations: Morocco/Egypt relations
Morocco/European Union relations: Morocco/European Union relations
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Morocco/Turkey relations: Morocco/Turkey relations
Morocco/United Nations relations: Morocco/United Nations relations
Environment of Morocco: Environment of Morocco
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Coalition marocaine pour la justice climatique: Coalition marocaine pour la justice climatique
Natural disasters in Morocco: Natural disasters in Morocco
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Oman - Geography of Oman - History of Oman - Demographics of Oman
Fishing in Oman: Fishing in Oman
Governorates of Oman: 11 Governorates of Oman
Consultative Assembly of Oman: Consultative Assembly of Oman
October 2011 Omani general election: Omani general election 15 October 2011
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Oman: Omani society - Demographics of Oman - Ethnic groups in Oman - Human rights in Oman
Women in Oman: Women in Oman
Healthcare in Oman: Healthcare in Oman
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Oman
Oman/Pakistan relations: Oman/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in Oman
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Palestinian territories - Outline of the Palestinian territories - Gaza Strip - West Bank - History of Palestine (region) - History of the Palestinian people - Demographics of Palestine - Demographics of the Palestinian territories
Economy of the Palestinian territories: Economy of the Palestinian territories - main industries include cement, quarrying, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, mother-of-pearl souvenirs, food processing - Economy of Gaza - 5 July 2012: The economic potential of Palestinian communities in the Jordan Valley area of the West Bank is being jeopardised by Israeli settlement activity, a report by the UK charity Oxfam says - 3 July 2013: Israeli controls hold back Palestinian economy, the IMF says - 13 July 2014: Hamas rocket strikes power line in Gaza Strip, cutting off power to 70,000 Palestinians - 17 September 2014: The Palestinian economy is expected to contract 4% this year for the first time in seven years, the result of the recent Gaza war - 29 September 2015: The Palestinian economy has worsened for a third consecutive year, the World Bank says, citing drop in donor aid, Israeli restrictions and political instability
Water supply effects of the Gaza war 2008/2009 and the Gaza blockade: Effects of the Gaza war 2008/2009 and the Gaza blockade
Poverty in the Palestinian territories: Poverty in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian society and demographics of the Palestinian territories: Palestinian society - Demographics of the Palestinian territories
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Human rights in the Palestinian National Authority: Human rights in the Palestinian National Authority - Human rights in the Gaza Strip
Human rights organizations in the Palestinian territories: Human rights organizations based in the Palestinian territories
Crime in the Palestinian territories: Crime in the Palestinian territories
2012: 7 April 2012: Hamas hangs Gaza prisoners, including one 'collaborator' with Israel - 1 August 2012: Palestinians protest murder of battered wife - 17 September: A Hamas-run military court in the Gaza Strip has convicted four Palestinians for their involvement in the abduction and murder of the Italian activist Vittorio Arrigoni in April 2011 - 3 October: Palestinians in the Gaza Strip face 'serious abuses' in the justice system, according to a report of Human Rights Watch
2017: 20 March 2017: Palestinian police officer killed overnight Monday during an arrest raid in the Balata refugee camp near Nablus, wanted man seriously injured in exchange of fire - 25 March 2017: Thousands of Hamas supporters called for 'revenge' during the Gaza funeral of top terrorist Mazen Faqha, as leaders of the terror group continued to blame Israel for his killing and threatened retribution - 25 May 2017: Hamas will execute three Palestinian men on Thursday who were found guilty this week of assassinating senior member Mazen Faqha of the terror group in March - 20 July 2017: The Palestinian Authority systematically tortured dozens of suspected collaborators with Israel between 1990 and 2003, and must compensate them for the physical and mental harm it caused them, a Jerusalem court ruled this week - 3 August 2017: Israel breaks up alleged Hamas Turkey-Hebron money laundering ring
Corruption in the Palestinian territories:
Palestinian domestic weapons production: Palestinian domestic weapons production
Palestinian tunnel warfare in the Gaza Strip: Palestinian tunnel warfare in the Gaza Strip
Palestinian law: Palestinian law
Law enforcement in the Palestinian National Authority: Law enforcement in the Palestinian National Authority
Taxation and budget in the Palestinian territories: Taxation in the Palestinian territories - International aid to Palestinians - Budget
Social movements and protests in the Palestinian territories: Protests in the Palestinian territories
Elections and politics of the Palestinian National Authority: Elections in the Palestinian National Authority
August 2014: 8 August 2014: As Gaza rocket fire continues and Hamas rejects extending truce, a new poll says that 92% of Palestinians in Gaza are in favor of a long-term ceasefire between Israel and Hamas and 72% hope their leaders will work to achieve a lasting peace agreement - 10 August: Hamas threatens major escalation in rocket strikes on Israel as Gazans in addition to hundreds of victims, destruction and unemployment struggle with rising prices - 13 August: The annihilation of the state of Israel has begun, says the official PLO envoy Salah al-Zawawi in Tehran, as Hamas representative in Iran Khaled al-Kadoumi says, that he hopes its weapons will become more advanced with the help of the Iranians - 15 August: After weeks of war, some fearless Gazans are starting to speak out questioning Hamas’s handling of the crisis - 17 August: Hundreds of Fatah members under Hamas house arrest in Gaza - 18 August: Israel arrested 93 Hamas men in West Bank over terror network targeting Palestinian Authority
October 2016 Palestinian local elections, postponed: 8 October 2016 Palestinian local elections, postponed
Foreign relations of the Palestinian National Authority: Foreign relations of the Palestinian National Authority
Palestine/Brazil relations: Palestine/Brazil relations
Palestine/China relations: Palestine/China relations
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Palestine/Turkey relations: Palestine/Turkey relations
Palestine/United Arab Emirates relations: Palestine/United Arab Emirates relations
Palestine/United Kingdom relations: Palestine/United Kingdom relations
Palestine/United Nations relations: Palestine/United Nations relations
2014: 12 February 2014: The Syrian crisis that has left millions of people dependent on international aid has caused the reduction of funds to assist Palestinians, UN says - 13 March 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon strongly deplores heavy rocket barrage on Israel from Gaza - 13/14 July 2014: Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Council Kraishi says every missile fired from Gaza at Israel is a crime against humanity because it is directed at civilian targets and, unlike IDF, 'we never warn anyone about where these missiles are about to fall' - 19 July: UN's Ban Ki-moon joins efforts for ceasefire negotiations after Hamas's rejection and as death toll reaches 350 - 20 July 2014: 'United' Nations agency UNRWA handed 20 missiles found in Gaza school back to Hamas, not to International Criminal Court - 22 July 2014: Israeli newspaper asks wether is was a war crime that UNRWA handed rockets over to Hamas - 22 July: For the second time in less than a week, rockets have been found in a school in Gaza operated by the UNRWA - 23 July 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon is 'alarmed' to hear that rockets placed in UN-run school in Gaza now 'have gone missing', demanding a full review - 28 July 2014: Hamas fired anti-tank missile from UNRWA school in Beit Hanoun on Thursday, yard was empty when IDF responded, IDF investigation says - 30 July 2014: UN agency for Palestinian refugees admits that a stockpile of Hamas rockets for the third time since the onset of Operation Protective Edge was found in UNRWA’s Gaza schools, but was not publicized by UNRWA - 30 July 2914: Three Israeli soldiers were killed and 15 injured in an explosion at a booby-trapped UNRWA 'health clinic' in Gaza's Khan Yunis that housed the opening of a Hamas tunnel for terrorist attacks in Israel - 2 August 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon condemns Hamas violation of humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza and demands the immediate, unconditional release of captured Israeli soldier Goldin - 18 December: Jordan formally submitted Palestinian-drafted resolution to the UN Security Council calling for peace between Israel and the Palestinians within one year and an Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank by the end of 2017 - 31 December: UN Security Council rejects resolution on Palestinian statehood, with the Palestinians failing to get the minimum nine yes votes
Palestine/USA relations: Palestine/USA relations - 30 July 2012: Palestinians accuse US presidential candidate Romney of 'racist' remark as this tax evader says on his visit in Israel he believes 'culture' has made Israel more successful than occupied Palestine and 'might explain Palestinians' income inferiority to Israel - 19 July 2013: Palestinians undecided on Kerry peace talks plan - 1 August 2014: USA blames Hamas for the breakdown of a ceasefire with Israeli forces, accusing Hamas of launching a barbaric attack to capture Israeli soldier Goldin - 23 February 2015: USA jury orders the PLO and the Palestinian Authority to pay more than $218m for supporting al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and Hamas terrorists, after USA victims and their families had sued over attacks in the Jerusalem area more than a decade ago - 15 August 2017: PLO condemns USA lawmakers' move to slash aid to the Palestinian Authority over its stipends to terrorists and their families
Palestine/Vietnam relations: Palestine/Vietnam relations
International recognition of the State of Palestine: International recognition of the State of Palestine - Proposals for a Palestinian state - 13 August 2011: Palestinians to bid for UN state recognition next month - 31 octobre 2011: La Palestine devient membre à part entière de l'Unesco - 107 countries voted in favour while USA, Israel, Germany and some others voted against membership - 7 January 2012: Hamas leader's Tunisia visit angers Palestinians - 29 June: Bethlehem sites given Unesco World Heritage status - NZZ 23. Juli: Arabische Liga unterstützt UN-Antrag der Palästinenser - 28 September: President Abbas says he will seek a vote at UN General Assembly to approve Palestine as a 'sovereign country' - 23 October: Qatar emir calls for Palestinian unity on visit to Gaza - 12 November: Palestinian Authority decides to move forward with a bid for elevated UN status - 30 November: In the UN General Assembly 138 countries voted (41 others abstained) to recognise Palestine as a non-member observer state, despite Israel and US criticism

Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Israeli-Palestinian conflict - Arab-Israeli conflict

Violent incidents in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 1878-2014 (ongoing)
Natural disasters in the Palestinian territories: Natural disasters in the Palestinian territories


Qatar - Geography of Qatar - History of Qatar - Demographics of Qatar
Agriculture in Qatar: Agriculture in Qatar
Tourism in Qatar: Tourism in Qatar
Sport competitions in Qatar: Sport competitions in Qatar
Since 2011 Qatar FIFA World Cup 2022 controversies and corruption allegations: List of 2022 FIFA World Cup controversies - 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar
Society, demographics, immigrant labor, human rights and crime in Qatar: Qatari society - Human rights in Qatar
Culture in Qatar: Qatari culture
Women and women's rights in Qatar: Women in Qatar - Women's rights in Qatar
Freedom of speech, freedom of the press in Qatar and role of the government: Freedom of expression in Qatar - Freedom of the press in Qatar
Internet in Qatar: Internet in Qatar
Crime and Human rights in Qatar: Crime in Qatar
2011 Detention of Sultan al-Khalaifi: Detention of Sultan al-Khalaifi
Terrorism and alleged state-sponsored terrorism in Qatar: Alleged state-sponsored terrorism in Qatar
2014: 24 January 2014: 185 Nepalese men died in 2013, building the infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup - 26 February: Qatar's foreign domestic workers subjected to slave-like conditions, a report says - 20 March: As more than 900 already killed in Qatar's preparation for World Cup, pressure growing to hold new bid for host country in 2022 - 31 March: UN agency ILO criticises Qatar over migrant workers' rights after 36 Nepalese and Indian workers died in February in Qatar - 23 April 2014: Hundreds of migrant workers and Qatar maids who have had documents seized by employers are being held for months in deportation centre - 14 May 2014: Qatar promises to reform labour laws in the wake of an international outcry over conditions for migrant workers - 28 July: In a project directly commissioned by the Qatar government migrant workers building luxury offices for Qatar's 2022 football World Cup organisers, have told British newspaper they have not been paid for more than a year and are now working illegally - 23 December: Despite Qatar’s promises to improve conditions for Qatar’s 2022 World Cup workers, Nepalese migrants have died at a rate of one every two days in 2014, excluding deaths of Indian, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi workers
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Qatar
Multilateral relations of Qatar: Multilateral relations of Qatar
June 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis: June 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis - 5 June 2017: Arab states Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and UAE cut ties to Qatar, accusing Doha of meddling in internal affairs, supporting Iran-backed terror and destabilizing region - 6 June 2017: Panic buying in Qatar as shoppers stockpile food due to Saudi 'blockade' - 9 June 2017: Qatar crisis grows as Arab nations draw up terror sanctions list, which includes politicians and members of ruling family - 17 June 2017: United Arab Emirates says a western monitoring mechanism will be needed to force Qatar to abide by any agreement to end its alleged support for terrorism - 23 June 2017: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Kingdom of Bahrain and other Arab countries that have cut ties to the Emirate of Qatar issued a steep list of demands, insisting that their Persian Gulf neighbor cut back diplomatic ties to Iran, close down a Turkish military base in Qatar, sever all ties with the Muslim Brotherhood and with other groups including Hezbollah, al-Qaeda and the Islamic State group, and shutter al-Jazeera, accusing the Doha-based satellite broadcaster of fomenting unrest in the region
Bilateral relations of Qatar: Bilateral relations of Qatar
Qatar/Bangladesh relations: Qatar/Bangladesh relations
Qatar/India relations: Qatar/India relations - Indians in Qatar
Qatar/Pakistan relations: Qatar/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in Qatar
Qatar/Philippines relations: Filipinos in Qatar
Qatar/Russia relations: Qatar/Russia relations
Qatar/United Kingdom relations: Qatar/United Kingdom relations
1916-1971 British control of Qatar: British control of Qatar 1916–1971
Qatar/United Nations relations: Qatar/United Nations relations - 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Qatar - 25 November 2012: As Qatar welcomes world leaders to the 18th UN climate change conference, its own environmental record has come under criticism as a major contributor to greenhouse gases - 26 November 2012: About 17.000 delegates expected in Doha to attend the latest round of the climate talks, with carbon permits on the agenda - 10 novembre 2013: L'ONU veut améliorer la condition des travailleurs immigrés - 31 March 2014: UN agency ILO criticises Qatar over migrant workers' rights after 36 Nepalese and Indian workers died in February in Qatar - 25 April 2014: UN calls on Qatar to end exploitation, trafficking of domestic workers and to overhaul labour laws to include domestic workers - 24 March 2016: Qatar has been given 12 months to end migrant worker slavery or face a possible UN investigation


Saudi-Arabia - Geography of Saudi-Arabia - Pre-Islamic Arabia - List of expeditions and battles of Muhammad - Caliphates in the Arabian Peninsula after Muhammad's death in 632 - Ottoman Arabia 1517-1918 - Unification of Saudi Arabia military and political campaign 1902–1932 - 'Modern' history of Saudi Arabia begins with the unification of Saudi Arabia in a single kingdom in 1932 - Demographics of Saudi-Arabia
Petroleum politics in Saudi Arabia: Petroleum politics in Saudi Arabia
2013: 7 April 2013: Saudi Arabia's king ordered a three-month delay to a crackdown on migrant workers which has led to thousands of deportations - 28 April: Saudi Arabia has plans to replace the eight million expatriate workers with locals - 28 May: Tens of thousands of foreign workers are trying to leave Saudi Arabia - 30 May: Every day hundreds of 'illegal' foreign workers, mostly South Asians, queue in the scorching heat outside an immigration office seeking to get their papers in order or leave - 9 June: 180,000 foreign workers leave Saudi Arabia in 2 months - 10 July 2013: Saudi Arabia to expel foreigners disrespecting Ramadan - 5 novembre: Arrestation de milliers d'immigrés illégaux, l'économie perturbée - 10 November: No leniency for illegal foreign workers, Saudi Arabian authorities say - 10 novembre 2013: Deux personnes ont été tuées et 68 autrres blessées dans un quartier de Riyad lors d'affrontements impliquant des immigrés
Absolute monarchy, military and religion in Saudi-Arabia: Absolute monarchy in Saudi-Arabia - Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia - Custodian of the two 'Holy Mosques'
Incidents preparing and during the Hajj: Incidents during the Hajj
Terrorism, violation of human rights and crime in Saudi Arabia: Crime and state terrorism in Saudi Arabia
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