Europe and European Union



Economy of Europe - Economy of the European Union - Economies of EU member states, GDP, growth, deficit and unemployment since 2011 - List of the largest trading partners of the European Union, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls, and in the eurozone trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members
Economic history of Europe - Companies of Europe

Arms production in Europe since the early modern period - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Weapons by country

Energy in Europe - Energy and energy policy in the European Union - 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, European Union directive requiring that 20% of the energy consumed within the European Union is renewable, target pooled among the member states
Fossil fuels in Europe and in the European Union: Fossil fuels in the European Union and fossil fuels by country - European countries by fossil fuel use (% of total energy)
September 2017: 28 September 2017: Governments of 11 European nations are providing subsidies totalling more than £80bn a year to fossil fuel industries, survey shows
December 2018: 19 December 2018: An EU deal to slowly phase out coal subsidies is 'completely inconsistent' with the bloc’s Paris climate agreement commitments, analysts say, after coal-dependent Poland in Katowice secured a loophole allowing countries another year to negotiate new 'capacity mechanisms' that would be exempted from the deadline
January 2019 subsidies for fossil fuel the same level as 2008: 23 January 2019: Subsidies for coal, oil and gas are not falling despite EU pledges to tackle climate change, as UK has biggest fossil fuel subsidies in the EU and along with the UK, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Ireland all gave more to fossil fuels than to renewable energy, finds commission
Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 and list of countries by oil imports: Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 - List of countries by oil imports
Natural gas in Europe and imports of natural gas into the EU: Natural gas in Europe - Imports of natural gas into the European Union
November 2015: 28 November 2015: Russian regime's pipeline projects have run into trouble with the EU's anti-monopoly rules, as the dependence on a single source of gas is seen as threat to the EU's energy security
2017 energy import from Russia: In 2017, energy products accounted around 60% of the total EU's import from Russia
February 2019 Cyprus' discovery of natural gas offshore: 28 February 2019: Cyprus has hailed a significant discovery of natural gas offshore, highlighting the Mediterranean island’s prospective role as an alternative source of energy to Europe
Electric power in Europe and in the European Union: Electric power in Europe - Electric power in the European Union
Nuclear power in Europe and in the European Union: Nuclear power in the European Union - Nuclear energy policy by country in Europe
Renewable energy in Europe and in the European Union: Renewable energy in Europe - Renewable energy in the European Union

Transport in Europe - Transport and the European Union - Transport infrastructure in Europe
Aviation in Europe: Aviation in Europe - Environmental impact of aviation
November 2015 variation in fuel efficiency and global emissions: 16 November 2015: Huge variation in fuel efficiency between transatlantic airlines, with British Airways and Lufthansa emitting 51% more carbon dioxide than the cleanest flyers, as European parliament study suggests that aviation and shipping will continue to increase their share of global emissions, predicting that by 2050 aviation will account for 22% of the total, and shipping 17%
April 2020 Airbus shelved plans to create a new assembly line for airliner: 10 April 2020: Airbus has shelved plans to create a new assembly line for its A321 airliner, in the latest example of how the covid-19 pandemic and economic crisis is crippling the aviation industry
Rail transport in Europe: Rail transport in Europe
Road transport in Europe: Road transport in Europe - Public transport in Europe - Cycling in Europe
Water transport in Europe: Water transport in Europe
Tourism in Europe: Tourism in Europe - Tourism in Europe by country - Hospitality industry in Europe by country - Resorts in Europe by country
July 2019 Mallorca ports: 25 July 2019: Mallorca residents call for cruise ship limit of one a day in Palma, signing petition asserting that cruise tourism is ‘unsustainable and undesirable’
May 2020 covid-19 throws Europe's tourism industry into chaos: 2 May 2020: Covid-19 throws Europe's tourism industry into chaos and no one knows if summer tourists will arrive, or how businesses will survive if not
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply in the European Union

Fishing in the European Union - Fishing in the North Sea
EU's common fisheries policy and 'Agriculture and Fisheries Council': Common Fisheries Policy is the fisheries policy of the European Union - Agriculture and Fisheries Council, one of the configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the European Union member states, its competencies include the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy
August 2018 fishermen's clash over shellfish: 29 August 2018: UK scallop fishermen clashed with French rivals in Channel, trying to protect stocks of the shellfish - 29 août 2018: La Commission européenne appelle à un accord 'à l'amiable' après des affrontements entre marins français et anglais sur la coquille Saint-Jacques

Agriculture in Europe - Agriculture in Europe by country - European Union and agriculture
European countries by employment in agriculture: European countries by employment in agriculture (% of employed), using the latest data from the World Bank
Organic farming in Europe: Organic farming in Europe and by country - European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture, a web-based networking and knowledge sharing platform around the world, as network is a European initiative which asserts the use of information and communication technology to further the goals of agriculture and food security as well as safety, acting as a neutral platform where members from various parts of the world can participate, established in 1974 by the FAO of the UN and European research institutions
Since June 2005 European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development: Since June 2005 European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development EAFRD, a EU's agricultural fund which was set up for the financing of Rural Development Programme actions by European Union Council Regulation on the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy CAP - European Commission's Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development 'DG AGRI', closely linked to the Common Agricultural Policy CAP and its concrete concerns including Managing and Dveloping the CAP, Reinforcing rural development policy as the second pillar of the CAP, Safeguarding the European model of agriculture, Conducting the enlargement process
Since June 2007 EU-Eco-regulation: Since June 2007 EU-Eco-regulation
April 2016 agriculture's crucial role for planet’s future: 28 April 2016: Agriculture will play a crucial role in addressing the planet’s most pressing challenges, whether on food production, health or the preservation of the environment, special report shows
May 2019 EU subsidies to climate-intensive livestock farms: 22 May 2019: The EU is disregarding the climate emergency by continuing to give out billions of euros in subsidies to climate-intensive livestock, meat and dairy farms, which have shown no drop in emissions since 2010, at the same time as promising to cut emissions, say campaigners
November 2019 EU’s agricultural policy should be overhauled urgently to stop decline in wildlife: 5 November 2019: The EU’s common agricultural policy should be overhauled urgently to stop the intensification of farming practices that is leading to a steep decline in wildlife, scientists from across the bloc have urged, including five organisations representing more than 2,500 experts
Cereals in Europe: Cereals in Europe
Livestock and meat in the EU: Livestock and meat in the EU
February 2019 nearly a fifth of the EU's budget goes on livestock farming: 12 February 2019: Nearly a fifth of the EU's budget goes on livestock farming, says Greenpeace, urging Europe to promote diets lower in meat and dairy and restrict animals to grass-based systems to free land for crops
14 September 2020 European meat plants posing 'avoidable risk' of disease, inspectors say: 14 September 2020: Consumers are being exposed to an 'avoidable risk' of disease after a reduction of official controls in food inspections of pig and poultry carcasses across the EU, European meat inspectors have said
Dairy farming in the EU: Dairy farming by country and in the EU - Dairy cows - and house cows, kept to provide milk for a home kitchen - are farmed commercially, and can also provide manure, for use as a garden fertiliser, and their offspring can be a source of meat - Dairy, a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk, mostly from cows or buffaloes, but also from goats, sheep, horses, or camels, for human consumption, as a dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm - Dairy products or milk products and alphabetical list of dairy products
2019-2020 secret footages show cruel treatment of calves in Europe: 7 May 2019: Secret footage shows young calves being beaten and kicked in Europe, as activists exposed brutal treatment of calves being trucked to the Netherlands to be sold as veal - 2 April 2020: Secret footage shows cruel treatment of weeks-old cattle transported on long journeys to Europe for veal, as calves from Ireland beaten and kicked in France
EU, animal welfare and legislation: Animal welfare and legislation in the European Union - Animal rights by country or territory - Animal welfare and rights by country
1999-2012 EU Council directive for keeping egg laying hens: European Union Council directives, a legislation passed by the EU on the minimum standards for keeping egg laying hens which effectively bans conventional battery cages, banning conventional battery cages from January 2012 after a 13-year phase-out
Food safety in Europe and the EU: Food safety in Europe - Food safety in the European Union
Since 1990s genetically modified food in the EU and regulation: Since 1990s genetically modified food in the European Union and Europe's regulation
Since February 2002 EU's Food Safety Authority: Since February 2002 European Food Safety Authority, the agency of the EU that provides scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain - Since 1979 Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, a system for reporting food safety issues within the EU and annual reports - List of governmental food safety organisations in Europe and the EU
Forestry in Europe: Forestry in Europe
March 2019 forests threatened by biodiversity collapse: 4 March 2019: Europe’s forests threatened by biodiversity collapse, warn campaigners

List of the largest trading partners of the European Union - the EU is the largest exporter in the world and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls
Treaties entered into by the European Union
EU free trade agreements
EU/Africa and the Middle East economic and trade relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations
2016: 15 September 2016: Major European oil companies and commodity traders including Dutch Trafigura, Vitol and British BP are exploiting weak fuel standards in African countries to export highly polluting fuels that they could never sell at the pumps in Europe, according to a new report - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe - 7 December 2016: Africa's crackdown on tax avoidance project designed to improve audit capacities and ensure multinationals observe local tax laws
EU/The Americas economic and trade relations: European Union/The Americas relations
EU/Asia-Pacific economic and trade relations: European Union/Asia-Pacific relations - The EU is China's largest trading partner, and China is the EU's second largest trading partner, mostly of industrial and manufactured goods, between 2009 and 2010 alone EU exports to China increased by 38% and China's exports to the EU increased by 31%, however there are sources of tension, such as human rights and the EU's arms embargo on China
Since 1972: Since 1972 European Union-ASEAN relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two organizations, the European Union EU and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN
EU/Central Asia economic and trade relations: European Union/Central Asia relations

Banking and banks in Europe: List of banks in Europe
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission - 12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas
12 August 2020 European banks urged to stop funding oil trade in Amazon: 12 August 2020: Indigenous people living at the headwaters of the Amazon have called on European banks to stop financing oil development in the region, as it poses a threat to them and damages a fragile ecosystem, after a new report found $10bn in previously undisclosed funding for oil in the region

Economic history of Europe and business cycles: Economic history of Europe and business cycles - Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe - Great Recession worldwide following the financial crisis since 2007 - European debt crisis affecting the countries of the eurozone since early 2009, when a group of 10 central and eastern European banks asked for a bailout - Causes of the European debt crisis
June/July 2011: 20. Juni 2011: EU Einigung am 20. Juni 2011 auf "Europäischen Stabilitätsmechanismus" ESM ab 2013 - 20. Juni 2011: Besorgnis des IWF über Europas Schuldensituation - 26. Juni 2011: Chinas Staatsfonds steht zu Euro-Investitionen - 11. Juli 2011: EU-Justizkommissarin will Macht der Rating-Agenturen brechen
August 2011: 12. August 2011: Belgien, Frankreich, Griechenland, Italien und Spanien verfügen Verbote sog. 'Leerverkäufe' im Börsenhandel, teils nur befristet - 25. August 2011: Frankreich, Italien und Spanien verlängern Verbot von sog. 'Leerverkäufen', d.h. insoweit von Spekulation auf den Ruin eben dieser Länder
September 2011: 28. September 2011: Strengere Regeln für Euro-Stabilitätspakt verabschiedet - 29. September 2011: Spanien und Italien verlängern Verbot von 'Leerverkäufen'
October 2011: 27 October 2011: EU leaders agree to a last-minute deal on eurozone debts and reducing Greek debts - 31 octobre 2011: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro a atteint 10,2% de la population active en septembre 2011
November 2011: 4 November 2011: Greek eurozone crisis and G20 meeting - current events - Lessons to learn: - Chapter: The form of value - Chapter: Productive and unproductive labour
December 2011: 8 December: European countries face eurozone crisis summit in Brussels still without any idea to disempower banks and to democratise credit - 9 December 2011: Brussels summit rejects EU wide treaty change
January/February 2012: 14 January 2012: EU criticises Standard&Poor's ratings downgrade of nine eurozone countries - 31 January 2012: Eurozone unemployment hits new record at the end of 2011 reaching a rate of 10,4 per cent - 21 février 2012: L'Eurogroupe approuve le plan d'aide de 130 milliards d'euros à la Grèce - 23. Februar 2012: Laut Konjunkturprognose der EU-Kommission rutschen die Euro-Länder in Rezession von 0,3%
April/May 2012: 2 avril 2012: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro est à son plus haut depuis 1999 et a atteint 10,8% de la population active en février 2012 - 2 May 2012: For all 17 nations in the eurozone, the jobless rate rose again to 10.9%, the highest since the euro was formed in 1999 - 16. Mai 2012: EU-Parlament und EU-Finanzminister vor Verhandlungen zu Eigenkapitalregeln für Banken
June 2012: 1 June 2012: Eurozone unemployment at 11%, in the 27-nation EU the jobless rate 10.3%, up from 10.2% - 10 June 2012: Spanish bank bailout request welcomed - 29 June 2012: Eurozone agrees to use its bailout fund to support struggling banks directly
July/August 2012: 2 July 2012: Unemployment in the eurozone hit 11.1% in May while the downturn in its manufacturing sector continued - 25 July 2012: Libor fixing to become criminal offence, EU justice commissioner Viviane Reding says - 2 August 2012: ECB's Draghi reaffirms promise to do 'whatever it takes' to save euro - 14 August 2012: Eurozone economy shrinks by 0.2% - 31 August 2012: Unemployment across the 17-nation eurozone hit a record 18 million in July
September/October 2012: 6 September: ECB's Mario Draghi unveils bond-buying euro debt plan - 1 October: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a fresh high of 18.2 million in August - 8 October: Eurozone unlocks $650bn crisis rescue fund - 13 October: The EU has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, which is worth a million euros, for six decades of work in advancing peace in Europe - 18 October: EU Brussels summit to focus on eurozone crisis - 19 October: At the EU Brussels summit compromise deal reached on eurozone bank supervisor - 23 October: The European Commission has backed plans from 10 countries to launch a financial transactions tax - 31 October: Eurozone unemployment jumps to fresh high of 18.49 million in September, unemployment rate up to 11.6% (a year earlier 10.3%)
November/December 2012: 6 November: The European Court of Auditors said there were errors in allocating about 5bn euros from the 2011 EU budget - 7 November: Eurozone jobless to peak near 12% in 2013,the EU autumn forecasts says - 30 November: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a record high in October, with more than 170.000 extra jobs lost and youth joblessness at almost 24 per cent, as the economy slumped into recession - 13 December: Eurozone agrees ECB banking supervision rules
January/February 2013: 8 January 2013: Eurozone unemployment reaches new high in 2012, as more than 26 million people are now unemployed across the EU - 28 February 2013: EU agrees to cap banker bonuses
April/May 2013: 2 April 2013: The euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 12.0 % in February 2013 - 15 mai 2013: Selon une première estimation de l'Eurostat, le Produit intérieur brut de la zone euro s'est replié de 0,2% au premier trimestre - 31 May: One in four youths is jobless as unemployment across the eurozone reaches record of 19.38 million people or 12.2%
September-November 2013: 27 septembre: Le budget UE 2013 accuse un trou de 20 milliards d'euros - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments
2014: 1 January 2014: European labour market opens for Romanians, Bulgarians - 5 June: As the eurozone economy is only growing at 0.2%, ECB slashes interest rate to 0.15%
26 October 2014: Twenty-four European banks fail European Banking Authority financial stress tests
2015: 22 January 2015: ECB president Mario Draghi pledges €60bn monthly top-up until September 2016 in quantitative easing move to save currency bloc - 20 February: Eurozone ministers gather for crucial Greece talks - 19 March: EU leaders set for crunch Greek talks at Brussels summit - 20 March: EU summit in Brussels demands Greece produce economic blueprint quickly - 20 March: EU offers funds to Greece in return for urgent reforms - 24 March: Greece promises list of reforms by next Monday to unlock cash and avoid default - 29 June 2015: Turmoil hits the financial world after capital controls imposed in Greece and banks are shut for a week, triggering a new phase of the eurozone crisis - 23 September: Volkswagen crisis and Chinese economy fears weigh on markets - 13 November 2015: The eurozone economy slowed in the three months to September 2015 as exports to large developing economies weakened
July 2017: 28 July 2017: Economic confidence across the eurozone has inched up to its highest level in a decade, as countries beat UK with solid growth in Q2
August 2018: 14 August 2018: The eurozone economy has shrugged off growing trade tensions to grow faster than previously estimated in the three months to the end of June, as GDP was also up 0.4% in the 28 EU countries
Mai 2019: 12 mai 2019: Les inégalités ont augmenté dans l'Union européenne ces dernières décennies, en particulier dans l'ancien bloc de l'Est, selon une étude
June 2019 eurozone's manufacturers hit by an even sharper slowdown than Britain on back of Brexit uncertainty: 3 June 2019: Manufacturers in the eurozone hit by an even sharper slowdown than Britain on back of Brexit uncertainty, as UK survey found that the seven-month delay to Brexit had been followed by a reduction in domestic and overseas orders and led to some companies diverting supply chains away from the UK, while weak production led to a second month of job losses
Februar 2020 eurozone economy hits seven-year low: 14 Februar 2020: Eurozone growth hits seven-year low amid weakness at Europe’s largest economies, as German economy stagnates and France, Italy and Finland contract, although countries in the periphery grew quite strongly in the last quarter of 2019
Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Europe: Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Europe, as the pandemic caused the largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown
March 2020 carmakers in Europe suspending or cutting production due to coronavirus: 20 March 2020: Every major carmaker in the UK and Europe is suspending or cutting production as the disruption from the Chinese coronavirus outbreak spreads, with only lower-volume manufacturers keeping factories open
30 April 2020 Eurozone records 3.8% slump in first quarter: 30 April 2020: Eurozone records 3.8% slump, as ECB chief Lagarde warns of worse to come saying there could be a 15% collapse after record first quarter output fall caused by covid-19 pandemic, with France and Italy falling into recession, as Spain reported a quarterly drop of 5.2%, while Belgian and Austrian GDPs fell by 3.9% and 2.5%, and as Germany, not releasing its growth figures, but reported a 373,000 increase in unemployment and a jump to 10.1 million workers on reduced hours in April
7 July 2020 Europe faces deep recession EC says: 7 July 2020: Europe faces deep recession and UK will shrink by 10%, says EC, as gloomy forecast comes 10 days before EU leaders meet to discuss €750bn recovery plan
31 July 2020 Eurozone economy shrinks by record 12.1% in Q2 due to covid-19: 31 July 2020: Eurozone economy shrinks by record 12.1% due to covid-19 pandemic, as data reveals contraction in second quarter wiped out more than decade of expansion

Demographics of Europe: Demographics of Europe - Demographics of Europe, as of 2010 Europe's population within the standard physical geographical boundaries was 740 million according to the United Nations - Demographics of the European Union, as of 2014 the population of the EU of 28 member states is about 507.4 million people
Ethnic groups in Europe: Ethnic groups in Europe - Ethnic groups in Europe by region - Ethnic groups in Europe by country
African diaspora in Europe and immigration: African diaspora in Europe by country - African immigration to Europe
Jews and Judaism in Europe: History of the Jews in Europe, stretching back over two thousand years - Jews and Judaism in Europe - Jews and Judaism in Europe by country
Kurdish diaspora in Europe: Kurdish diaspora in Europe - European people of Kurdish descent - Kurdish people by country of citizenship
23 October 2019 Syrian Kurdish man set himself on fire outside the UN: 23 October 2019: Syrian Kurdish man, who resides in Germany, set himself on fire outside the UN refugee agency headquarters in Geneva, then tried to enter the UNHCR building, and was flown by helicopter to the specialised burns unit at the university hospital in Lausanne
Middle Eastern diaspora in Europe: Middle Eastern diaspora in Europe by country
Romani in Europe: Romani in Europe by country
European history and society by country: European society by country - History of Europe

Social class in Europe
Mai 2019: 12 mai 2019: Les inégalités ont augmenté dans l'Union européenne ces dernières décennies, en particulier dans l'ancien bloc de l'Est, mais le fossé entre riches et pauvres reste moins gigantesque que dans d'autres régions du monde, selon une étude
Labor in Europe - Labour in the European Union
Trade unions in Europe - Trade unions in the European Union
List of federations of trade unions in Europe - European trade union federations
Since 1973: Since 1973 European Trade Union Confederation - European Trade Union Confederation by country
European labour law - Since 1989 Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers - Co-determination - European Employment Strategy

Human rights in Europe: Human rights in Europe - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country - List of Human Rights organisations
Since 1791 emancipation: Timeline of emancipation, i.e. years when legal equality was 'granted' to Jews, since 1791 in France - Année d'obtention de l'égalité des droits pour les Juifs en Europe
1794 first general abolition of slavery: Abolitionist movement to end slavery and first general abolition of slavery on 4 February 1794 in France - Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom
2015 EU parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime: 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive', wanting to host only cultural events and exhibits
2016 international refugee crisis and EU officials: 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 15 March 2016: Macedonia forcibly ('they hit everyone – women, children, men') returns thousands of exhausted refugees to Greece, after desperate men, women and children fled Greek camp a day earlier - 15 March 2016: Seeing Macedonian authorities sending people back in trucks to Greece late at night, dropping children off shivering, wet and disoriented, 'Save the Children' criticizes 'the wholly inadequate response of European leaders to this crisis, which treats people like bargaining chips and leaves them stranded with no safe plan for their future' - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie
2017 violence in Spain: 1 October 2017: Muted response from EU leaders over police crackdown in Catalonia, as Belgian PM Michel and senior MEP Verhofstadt among the few national leaders to denounce violence and human right groups also condemn the violence
January 2019 HRW report: 17 January 2019: Migration used to stoke fear in the EU, justify abusive policies, and block meaningful reform in 2018, even as arrivals at borders decreased, according to HRW in its report 2019, saying in 2017/2018 that xenophobic populists hostile to human rights shaped politics even when they failed to win at the ballot box, and European governments seemed determined to keep migrants away at all costs
June 2019 demanded prosecution of the EU for the deaths of thousands of migrants who drowned in the Mediterranean: 3 June 2019: The EU and member states should be prosecuted for the deaths of thousands of migrants who drowned in the Mediterranean fleeing Libya, according to a detailed legal submission to the international criminal court ICC
November 2019 EU democracy is under threat: 4 November 2019: According to the YouGov poll of 12,500 people in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia, published by George Soros’s Open Societies Foundations, majorities between 51% and 61% in six countries - including Germany - feel democracy is under threat, 30 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, but also demonstrating 'that where the establishment has failed citizens, civil society is perceived as a trustworthy counterpart'
March 2020 ignorant and violent EU amid war crimes against Syrian people: 2 March 2020: Refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe have clashed violently with Greek riot police as Turkey claimed more than 76,000 people were now heading for an ignorant EU amid war crimes, as a result of the escalating war in Syria where 33 Turkish soldiers, defending civilians, were killed by Russian-backed dictatorship troops, as a million civilians have been displaced since December inside Syria near the Turkish border in desperate winter conditions, and as Turkey, already home to 3.7 million Syrian refugees, decided to open the Turkish side of the border to the EU, now headed by CDU's von der Leyen - 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
2 March 2020 UN says Russia committed war crimes in Syria as world expects end of impunity: 2 March 2020: Russia committed war crimes in Syria, finds UN report, as Putin regime blamed for indiscriminate attacks in civilian areas without 'a specific military objective', also documenting 'unprecedented levels of displacement and dire conditions for civilians' in Syria
4 March 2020 doctors who flew to Lesbos to help refugees forced to flee: 4 March 2020: Doctors who flew to Lesbos to volunteer at Moria migrant camp have described how they were forced to flee after being set upon by a mob wielding nail-headed cudgels, the latest in a series of violent incidents targeting international aid workers, amid an increasingly hostile climate, enforced by the Greek government and EU commission, praising Greece as 'shield' and announcing taxpayers's €700m in EU funds for Greece, including €350m available immediately to upgrade 'infrastructure' at the border, instead of aid and tackling the causes of the refugee crisis
16 March 2020 child died in fire in overcrowded Moria camp: 16 March 2020: A young child died in a fire in an overcrowded migrant camp on the Greek island of Lesbos, as fire burned through two containers used as living quarters by people in the Moria camp, as well as some tents, as activists say 'European and Greek authorities who continue to contain people in such inhumane conditions have a responsibility'

European Court of Human Rights - Cour européenne des droits de l'homme - Site officiel
European Court of Human Rights judgments: List of European Court of Human Rights judgments
Since 1999 cases of Russian military abuses brought forward by Chechen civilians: Since 1999 cases of Russian military abuses brought forward by Chechen civilians against Russia in the course of the Second Chechen War, with 104 rulings to date as of April 2009 (including regarding the cases of torture and extrajudicial executions)
January 2014 Saudi torture remains unpunished: 14 January 2014: Four Britons, who say they were beaten and tortured by 'Mabahith', have been told by the European court of human rights they cannot sue Saudi Arabia in the UK courts over torture
May 2014: 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion
June 2014: 13 June 2014: Ukraine filed a lawsuit at the European Court of Human Rights concerning the kidnapping by terrorists of orphans from Snizhne
July 2014: 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison
September 2014: 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European Court of Human Rights
2015: 14 April 2015: ECHR postpones Ukraine's lawsuit against Russia over the actions of the Russian regime in Donbas and Crimea for six months at Russian request - 3 December 2015: Ukrainian citizens have filed 700 complaints to the ECHR against the Russian Federation in connection with military actions in Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the occupation of Crimea, as the court is expected to make the first ruling on these complaints in the near future
January 2016: 13 January 2016: ECHR to rule on prison term for Russian activist Kashapov, who was arrested in December 2014 for criticizing Crimea annexation by Russian regime in 2014
21 May 2016: 21 May 2016: Australian law firm wants compensation from Russian regime for MH17 crash and its President Putin on behalf of families of victims of July 2014 catastrophe, the relevant application was submitted on 9 May 2016 to the European Court of Human Rights - 21 mai 2016: Les familles des victimes du vol MH17 de la Malaysia Airlines, abattu alors qu'il survolait l'Ukraine en 2014, poursuivent en justice la Russie et son président Poutine auprès de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
31 May 2016: 31 May 2016: Russian regime must pay editor for breaching freedom of expression rights of Yelena Mikhaylovna Nadtoka, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Vecherniy Novocherkassk, who was found guilty in 2004, in a breach of her rights under article 10 of the European convention, of causing insult to a politician, ECHR rules saying that the newspaper’s article sought to complain of corruption on the part of the mayor of Novocherkassk, which was a subject of public interest
October 2016: 11 October 2016: Chess master Garry Kasparov wins a case against Russian regime at the European Court of Human Rights for unlawful arrest in 2007 and violation of his right to attend a rally in Samara he missed as a result of his detention in Moscow
January/February 2017: 26 January 2017: 'Among the Council of Europe member, the majority of judgments defining at least one violation of the European Convention on Human Rights in 2016 was delivered against Russia (222 judgments)', followed by Turkey with 77 judgments, the ECHR says - 10 February 2017: Ukrainian librarian Natalya Sharina held under house arrest in Russia since October 2015, has taken her case to the European court of human rights
April 2017: 13 April 2017: Russian authorities failed to take sufficient steps to stop the 2004 Beslan school siege in North Ossetia in which more than 330 people were killed, the European court of human rights has ruled
June 2017: 20 June 2017: Russian law '2013 federal statute' encourages homophobia and discrimination, the European court of human rights has ruled, in a sharply worded rebuke to the Russian regime
September 2017: 25 September 2017: Portuguese schoolchildren from the area struck by the country’s worst forest fires are seeking crowdfunding, supported by the NGO Global Legal Action Network, to sue 47 European countries, alleging that the states’ failure to tackle climate change threatens their right to life
October 2017: 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's Catalan plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights
March 2018: 20 March 2018: Turkey acted illegally by detaining journalists Mehmet Altan and Sahin Alpay who were arrested in the wake of the military coup attempt in July 2016, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled, saying there had been a violation of personal liberty and security under Article 5/1 of the European Convention
May 2018: 25 May 2018: A group of 270 relatives of the Dutch victims of flight MH17 downed in July 2014 in Russian-occupied Donbas will lodge a complaint against Russia with the European Court of Human Rights ECHR
July 2018: 18 July 2018: Investigative journalist Anna Politkovskaya’s murder inquiry in Russia was 'inadequate and violated human rights’, as those who commissioned the killing have not yet been identified, the European Court of Human Rights ruled, ordering Russia to pay 20,000 euros in damages to relatives of murdered journalist
July 2018: 18 July 2018: European Court of Human Rights found that Russia had violated five articles of the European Convention on Human Rights in its arrest and conviction of the Pussy Riot protest group in 2012, sentencing three members to two years in prison after performing a protest song in a Moscow cathedral
November 2018 Alexei Navalny arrests case: 13 November 2018: Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny was stopped at the border and barred from leaving Russia as he was about to travel to a court hearing at the European Court for Human Rights in France - 15 November 2018: Russia’s repeated arrests of opposition leader Alexei Navalny since 2012 are politically motivated, the European court of human rights ECHR has ruled, in a sharp rebuke of the Russian regime's authorities
April 2019: 9 April 2019: The European court of human rights has ruled that Russia violated the rights of the opposition leader Alexei Navalny by placing him under house arrest in 2014 and imposing other restrictive measures
August 2019 Magnitski case: 27 août 2019: La Cour européenne des droits de l'Homme a reconnu coupable la Russie pour la mort de l'avocat anti-corruption Sergueï Magnitski
September 2019 Russian Crimea annexation case: 11 September 2019: The Russian state directed and ran the military coup in Crimea and its subsequent annexation in 2014, Ukraine has told the European court of human rights
10 July 2020 Dutch government brings Russia before the ECHR for its role in the downing of Flight MH17: 10 July 2020: Dutch government decided to bring Russia before the European Court of Human Rights ECHR for its role in the downing of Flight MH17 over occupied Donbas on July 17, 2014

Since 2007 European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights ECCHR, an independent, nonprofit non-governmental organization focusing on legal issues and the enforcement of human rights by holding state and non-state actors responsible for egregious abuses
June 2018 legal claim against Italy: 29 June 2018: After Italian officials allegedly met with Syria's top military adviser, legal claim against Italy filed by ECCHR at the European commission alleging violation of EU rules

Asylum and right of asylum in Europe: Right of asylum in Europe - Right of asylum in the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk
Since 2015: Since 2015 Border barriers constructed during the European refugee and migrant crisis - Since June 2015 Hungarian border barrier - 28 November: Soldiers in Macedonia have begun erecting a metal fence on the country's southern border with Greece
2016: 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE
June 2018 EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants: 12 June 2018: Unable to tackle causes of refugee crises, EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants, as new border infrastructure, including scanners, automated number plate recognition systems, mobile laboratories for sample analysis, the establishment of teams of sniffer dogs, will be prioritised
June 2018 sharp fall in number of people seeking asylum in EU: 18 June 2018: The EU’s asylum office counted 728,470 applications for international protection in 2017, a 44% reduction on the 1.3m applications the previous year, after more than 1 million people entered the EU in 2015, many fleeing the war in Syria
July 2019 EU states' progress on plans to redistribute refugees: 23 July 2019: UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration said in a joint statement 'the crucial role played by NGOs must be acknowledged (and) they should not be criminalised nor stigmatised for saving lives at sea', as 14 EU states made progress on plans to redistribute refugees rescued in the Mediterranean, while eight said they would actively take part, including Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Portugal
31 December 2019 belief in Europe shattered: 31 December 2019: When photographer Alice Aedy first covered the refugee crisis in 2016 she believed Europe would respond with humanity to images of families seeking shelter and safety, now saying 'we have not only failed, we have broken promises'
5 March 2020 Turkey deploys police forces along its border with Greece to halt violent pushback of migrants: 5 March 2020: Turkey is deploying 1,000 special police forces along its border with Greece to halt the pushback of migrants towards its territory, Suleyman Soylu said, adding that 164 migrants had been wounded by Greek authorities
7/8 March 2020 refugee center set on fire: 7 mars 2020: Un centre d'accueil pour réfugiés sur l'île grecque de Lesbos, géré par un ONG suisse, a été incendié samedi, après des membres de l'extrême droite grecque et des habitants de l'île ont récemment protesté contre l'arrivée à Lesbos de plus de 1700 migrants et réfugiés venus de Turquie - 8 March 2020: Blaze at International School of Peace for Refugee Children in Lesbos, founded by Israelis, comes amid tense standoff with Turkey over refugees, as suspected arson caused second fire in under a week at a migrant installation

Causes of refugee crises include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate crises, economic hardship
Since 2011 Syrian refugees due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people: Migrant motives in the European refugee and migrant crisis since 2014/2015 - primarily credited to the inundation of refugees due to political and social conflicts in regions such as Syria, the greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people
2016: 2008-2016 List refugees and total population of concern by UN region, includes 21,288,728 people in Africa in 2016, 31,168,078 people in Asia in 2016, 8,061,269 people in Latin America in 2016, and 6,210,994 people in Europe in 2016
June 2018: 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees on 7 June 2018, according to UNHCR
4 July 2019: 5,625,871 registered Syrian refugees on 4 July 2019, as Assad's, Iranian and Russian murderous war against the Syrian people continues in its ninth year and as Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians in Idlib province on 22 July 2019

Culture in Europe: Culture in Europe and Languages in Europe - Languages in the European Union - List of endangered languages in Europe
Education in Europe and Education in the European Union: Education in Europe - Education in the European Union - Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
European Schools: European Schools, private-authority sponsored schools controlled jointly by the governments of the Member States of the EU and regarded as public institutions to provide a multilingual and multicultural education for nursery, primary and secondary level pupils
1 September 2020 European children head back to school under shadow of covid-19: 1 September 2020: European children head back to school under shadow of covid-19, as teachers and parents across the continent have raised concern the reopening of schools will accelerate the spread of the pandemic coming from China, but governments have insisted it should go ahead
Universities and colleges in Europe: Universities and colleges in Europe - Lists of universities and colleges in Europe - Universities and colleges in Europe by country - European student organizations
Universities and colleges in Europe by type: Universities and colleges in Europe by type - Universities and colleges in Europe by type by country
International universities: International universities - United Nations University
Since 1972 European University Institute in Florence: Since 1972 European University Institute, an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by EU member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, located in the small city of Fiesole, a suburb of Florence in Italy
20 July 2020 emancipation of the black mind: 20 July 2020: In Nigeria, colonial thinking affects everyone, and true emancipation of the black mind means questioning every communal understanding we take for granted, according to Eniola Anuoluwapo Soyemi, a political theorist and a Max Weber Fellow at the European University Institute
History of science and science and technology in Europe: History of science - Science and technology in Europe
Science in Ancient Greece: Ancient Greek science - Ancient Greek medicine
Natural history museums in Greece: Natural history museums in Greece - Archaeological museums in Greece - Archaeological Museum of Piraeus - Ethnographic museums in Greece
Museums of ancient Greece: Museums of ancient Greece in Greece - Museum of Ancient Greek Technology
August 2020 fifth-century BC amphorae underwater museum inaugurated: 2 August 2020: Greece has inaugurated its first underwater museum, a trove of fifth-century BC amphorae labelled the 'Parthenon of shipwrecks', off the coast of Alonissos island in the western Aegean, as site of the wreck will be open to tours by certified amateur divers from August to October, while those who can’t dive can follow a virtual reality tour at an information centre
Science museums in Greece: Science museums in Greece
European Union and science and technology, European Research Area: European Union and science and technology - European Research Area - Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
Since 1975 European Space Agency ESA: European Space Agency ESA, an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space since 1975, with 22 member states and headquartered in Paris, having worldwide staff of about 2,000 and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion in 2016
October 2016 ExoMars mission: 20 October 2016: Hopes are fading for Schiaparelli lander, part of the ExoMars 2016 mission jointly operated by ESA with the Russian regime's space agency Roscosmos, after mission control lost contact - 28 October 2016: ESA released images of its doomed Mars lander, showing a giant crater caused by impact, and scattered components
July 2018 water 'lake' revealed on Mars: 25 July 2018: Using Marsis, a radar instrument on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, researchers have found evidence of an existing body of liquid water on Mars
August 2018 'Aeolus': Since 22 August 2018 Atmospheric Dynamics Mission 'Aeolus' Earth observation satellite - 23 August 2018: ESA launched a rocket from French Guyana to put a satellite into orbit as part of what company Arianespace called the world’s first space mission to map the Earth’s wind on a global scale, as Aeolus will boost climate research and weather forecasting, particularly in data blindspot of the tropics
Proposed fusion, power generation that would generate electricity by using heat from nuclear fusion reactions in fusion reactors (proposed) - Proposed fusion reactors - Nuclear fusion
Since October 2007 international nuclear fusion research and engineering project ITER: Since October 2007 ITER, an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment, funded and run by 7 member entities including the EU, India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea, USA, as the EU, as host party for the ITER complex, is contributing 45.46% of the cost and as 35 countries are participating in the project with an experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance in southern France
Since 20th century problems and criticism of ITER project: Since 20th century problems and criticism of ITER project
1988-2035 timeline after ITER project officially initiated: Since 1988 timeline and status of ITER project
28 July 2020 Iter project began its five-year assembly phase: 28 July 2020: Iter project, the world’s largest nuclear fusion project aiming to show clean fusion power can be generated at commercial scale, began its five-year assembly phase on Tuesday in southern France, with the first ultra-hot plasma expected to be generated in late 2025

Health in Europe: Health in Europe by country - Health and the European Union - Health-EU Portal is an official web portal of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General that facilities the access of public-related health information to EU citizens
Health disasters in Europe by country, health crises healthcare and environmental issues: Health disasters in Europe by country and by health crises
September 2018 air pollution 'the biggest environmental risk': 11 September 2018: Air pollution is now 'the biggest environmental risk' to public health in Europe but governments are failing to adequately deal with the crisis, the EU Court of Auditors has found
2020 coronavirus outbreak in Europe: 2020 coronavirus outbreak in European countries, after the disease caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus first recorded in Wuhan in China in 2019, and as of 10 March 2020, every country in Europe except Turkey, Montenegro and Kosovo has reported at least one case of COVID-19
10 March 2020 Italy-wide lockdown comes into force: 10 March 2020: Italy-wide lockdown comes into force, reported by the British 'Guardian', to prevent spread of Chinese coronavirus
13 March 2020 EU seeks unified action against coronavirus: 13 March 2020: EU seeks unified action against coronavirus as case count mounts
14 March 2020 EU urges border health checks: 14 March 2020: EU urges border health checks as virus case count mounts, and as the pandemic is increasingly wearing on the EU’s cherished core principle, which envisions a border-free Europe where citizens can freely live, work and travel
22 March 2020 defiance of lockdown mandates and scientific advice to fight coronavirus pandemic prompts crackdowns: 22 March 2020: As young German adults hold 'corona parties' and cough toward older people, as from France to Florida to Australia, kitesurfers, college students and others crowd the beaches, the defiance of lockdown mandates and scientific advice to fight the coronavirus pandemic prompts crackdowns
22 March 2020 in solidarity European hospitals treat covid-19 patients from eastern France: 22 March 2020: Expressing solidarity, hospitals in Germany and Switzerland have offered to treat some critically ill coronavirus patients from the neighbouring Alsace region in France, which is struggling to cope with a rising number of cases
26 March 2020 global covid-19 cases near 500,000 as European health systems buckle: 26 March 2020: Global virus infections near 500,000 as European health systems buckle under the weight of caring for seriously ill victims
14 April 2020 European countries allow partial return to normal, others extend: 14 April 2020: Some European countries allow partial return to normal, others extend, as European Commission has repeatedly called for a common EU approach to fighting the covid-19, but the 27 members, with different conditions, have differed in the timing and scope of their measures, also seeking to balance the risks to health and the economy
19 April 2020 'I thought I would never wake up' and Belgium reports cases: 19 April 2020: As Belgium reports 38,496 confirmed cases of covid-19 with 5,683 deaths, Belgian doctor Sassine at Brussels' Delta Chirec hospital says 'I thought I would never wake up', after he and his team were all diagnosed at the hospital and after surviving following intensive care and 3 weeks in a coma
12 May 2020 UK's covid-19 death toll passes 40,000: 12 May 2020: United Kingdom's covid-19 death toll topped 38,000 as of early May, by far the worst yet reported in Europe, raising questions about PM Johnson's handling of the covid-19 crisis - 12 May 2020: UK covid-19 death toll passes 40,000, official figures say, as almost 10,000 care home residents included in latest update on fatalities from ONS - 12 May 2020: Judge questions covid-19 case against 'homeless' London man Sultan Monsour, charged with being outside residence, ‘namely no fixed address’
24 June 2020 Europeans say EU 'irrelevant’ during covid-19 as EU-wide survey reveals deep disillusionment: 24 June 2020: Europeans say EU was 'irrelevant’ during covid-19 pandemic, as EU-wide survey reveals deep disillusionment at response, and desire for closer cooperation in future
29 June 2020 covid-19 confirmed deaths pass half a million and rising poverty e.g. in EU's Italy: 29 June 2020: Covid-19 confirmed deaths pass half a million globally, as more than 10 million infections confirmed in 188 countries and territories, and as pandemic has caused mass unemployment in many countries and lockdowns kept people in their homes, froze economic activity, and fuels rising poverty e.g. in EU's Italy - 28 June 2020: Recovered covid-19 patients are baffling doctors with complaints of freak pains, lungs that just won’t get back to normal, and a range of incapacitating psychological issues, as Jerusalem’s Shaare Zedek Medical Center's Gabriel Izbicki says 'more than half the patients, weeks after testing negative, are still symptomatic', 'what we are seeing is very frightening'
15 July 2020 Italy's calls for urgent help since February 2020 were ignored by the EU: 15 July 2020: New revelations show that Italy's calls for urgent help since February 2020 to the European commission, led by CDU's Ursula von der Leyen, were ignored, as the specifications of Italy’s needs were uploaded into the EU’s Common Emergency Communication and Information System but distress call was met with silence, and then covid-19 swept through Europe and further, as now e.g. India covid-19 cases top 900,000 and 133m re-enter lockdown
22 August 2020 covid-19 cases on rise across Europe: 22 August 2020: Covid-19 cases on rise across Europe with Spain alone registering nearly 70,000 in past fortnight, as France has recorded another large jump in new covid-19 cases, as new cases have been reported by at least 41 schools in Berlin after schools reopened, and as number of confirmed cases in Germany increased by 2,034 to 232,082 on Saturday and death toll also rose by seven, bringing the confirmed total to 9,267
Healthcare in Europe: Healthcare in Europe, provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level as most European countries have universal health coverage
October 2016 record levels of the strongest antibiotics on European farms: 17 October 2016: Use of some of the strongest antibiotics available to treat life-threatening infections has risen to record levels on European farms across the major countries of the EU, according to new data from the European Medicines Agency

Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides
Since the early 20th century chemical herbicides: Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, and then a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
EU's Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks: Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, providing the European Commission with the scientific advice on questions relating to the toxicity and ecotoxicity of chemicals, biochemicals and biological compounds whose use may have harmful consequences for human health and the environment - European Food Safety Authority - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety - Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
2015 UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer warns against pesticides: 23 March 2015: The UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer says that three pesticides, the herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in USA's Monsanto's Roundup – and the insecticides malathion and diazinon, were 'probably' carcinogenic and two others, which have already been outlawed or restricted, were 'possibly' so
March 2016: 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation

Media and media freedom in Europe and the EU: European media
Media freedom in Europe - Media freedom, censorship and repression in Russia - Media freedom in the EU - Censorship in Europe - Since 2015 European Centre for Press and Media Freedom
Since the early 1990s assaults on journalists in Russia: Since the early 1990s assaults on journalists, denial of entry and deportation of foreign journalists in Russia
Since 2008 Media in Russia regulated by Roskomnadzor: Roskomnadzor 'Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media' re-established in Russia in May 2008
2014/2015: 17 June 2014: Ukrainian lawmakers call on the International Federation of Journalists, the European Federation of Journalists, the Association of European Journalists, and the Reporters without Borders regarding the information aggression of the Russian media against Ukraine - 11 September 2015: A group of European newspaper editors, includign papers in Hungary and Slovakia, united in an appeal to the EU to take decisive action to deal with the international refugee crisis
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak: February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak and Martina Kušnírová - 28 February 2018: A vigil has been held in Slovakia for journalist Jan Kuciak whose death police believe is likely linked to his work as a reporter of the news website Aktuality.sk focused mainly on investigating tax fraud of businesspeople connected to Slovak politicians - 28 February 2018: Slovakian journalist Ján Kuciak was investigating political corruption linked to an Italian mafia group at the time of his murder, according to a summary of his 'last investigation' published on Wednesday
April 2018: 13 April 2018: Hungarian journalists admit role in forging anti-migrant 'atmosphere of fear' ahead of Victor Orbán’s election victory this week, as the 'Guardian' spoke to several employees of the taxpayer-funded MTVA network to hear the inside story of how its channels pumped out government messaging, and at times false stories, with the goal of winning support for Orban's anti-immigration message
August 2019 Monsanto's 'intelligence center' targeted journalists and activists: 8 August 2019: Monsanto operated a 'fusion center' to monitor and discredit journalists and activists, and targeted a reporter who wrote a critical book on the company, documents reveal, as records reviewed by the Guardian show Monsanto adopted a multi-pronged strategy to target Reuters journalist Carey Gillam who investigated the company’s weedkiller and its links to cancer
23 September 2020 French journalists unite to back Charlie Hebdo after death threats: 23 September 2020: More than 100 French media organisations have signed and published an open letter defending freedom of speech against threats from 'terrorists and states', even supported by European states and politicians, as the tribune was released after a member of staff at the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo – targeted by Islamist gunmen who killed 12 people in January 2015 – was forced to leave her home after receiving death threats
European newspapers: Newspapers in Europe
Broadcasting in Europe: Broadcasting in Europe - Radio in Europe - Television in Europe
Internet in Europe: Internet in Europe - European news websites
Since 2004 history of internet censorship in Russia: Internet censorship in Russia - Since 2004 history of internet censorship in Russia
August 2018: 3 August 2018: EU is to launch an EU-wide initiative to combat voter manipulation through social media, as concerns grow about the issue ahead of European parliament's elections 2019 and as EU'S justice commissioner Vera Jourová says national governments needed to coordinate their efforts to tackle fake news and the misuse of personal data in micro-targeted political advertising
Journalism in Europe: Journalism in Europe - European Federation of Journalists - Journalism organisations in Europe
23 September 2020 French journalists unite to back Charlie Hebdo after death threats: 23 September 2020: More than 100 French media organisations have signed and published an open letter defending freedom of speech against threats from 'terrorists and states', even supported by European states and politicians, as the tribune was released after a member of staff at the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo – targeted by Islamist gunmen who killed 12 people in January 2015 – was forced to leave her home after receiving death threats
Investigative journalism: Investigative journalism
Since 2003 Global Investigative Journalism Network GIJN: Since 2003 Global Investigative Journalism Network - GIJN website
Since 2006 Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project OCCRP: Since 2006 Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project - OCCRP website
Since 2010 Bureau of Investigative Journalism TBIJ: Since 2010 Bureau of Investigative Journalism
Since 2015 European Investigative Collaborations EIC: Since 2015 European Investigative Collaborations, investigative journalism work from European media Falter (Austria), Mediapart (France), El Mundo (Spain), Politiken (Denmark), Le Soir (Belgium), Der Spiegel (Germany), L'Espresso (Italy), NRC Handelsblad (Netherlands), Dagen Nyheter (Sweden), Nacional (Croatia), Expresso (Portugal), The Black Sea (Romania - European Investigative Collaborations EIC website
Since 2015 'Football Leaks': Since September 2015 'Football Leaks', revealing transfer fees, wages, contract and corruption information - Since 2015 'Football Leaks' website, initially created by Rui Pinto, and the largest leak in the history of sports revealing 'murky' financial transactions in the world of European professional football and exposes the tax tricks employed by some of the continent's biggest stars, refers to the series of investigations published in December 2016 and November 2018 by media partners of the European Investigative Collaborations
March 2019: 5 March 2019: Portuguese Rui Pinto, who was detained in Hungary on a European arrest warrant issued by Portuguese authorities and linked to the Football Leaks website, is set to be extradited to Portugal after spending time under house arrest in Hungary, a court said on Tuesday, a move his lawyers oppose as they defend him as a 'whistleblower' and not a criminal

Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Since 1949: Since 1949 Council of Europe treaties - Treaties entered into by the European Union
May 1949: May 1949 Statute of the Council of Europe creating the council, the original signatories were Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom, as of 2013 it has been ratified or acceded to by 47 European states, nearly all European states with the exception of Belarus and Vatican City
1950: November 1950 European Convention on Human Rights
1961: October 1961 European Social Charter, the basic rights set out in the Charter are housing, health, education, labour rights, full employment, reduction of working hours, equal pay for equal work, parental leave, social security, social and legal protection from poverty and social exclusion, free movement of persons and non-discrimination, also the rights of migrant workers and that of the persons with disabilities
1979: September 1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats
2005: 2005 Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, also into force since June 2007 in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine, as of July 2016 it has been ratified by 35 states - International conventions related to terrorism and counter-terrorism cases, including the 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, the 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE made up of 324 parliamentarians from the national parliaments of the Council of Europe's 47 member states - Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Council of Europe's decision-making body comprisiong the Foreign Affairs Ministers of the member states, in collaboration with the Parliamentary Assembly it is the guardian of the Council's fundamental values, and monitors member states' compliance with their undertakings
'Venice Commission' advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent experts of constitutional law and created in 1990 after the fall of the Berlin wall, at a time of urgent need for constitutional assistance in Central and Eastern Europe
2014 Russia stripped of voting rights: 11 April 2014: Russian lawmakers stripped of voting rights at Council of Europe over Russian regime's annexation of Crimea - 6 May 2014: Ukraine dominates Council of Europe meeting, but Russian regime rules out holding a second international meeting in Geneva
May-September 2014: 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European court of human rights
2015: 18 March 2015: PACE report highlights Russian orchestration of east Ukraine conflict
2016: 7 January 2016: Council of Europe urges Poland’s president not to sign controversial media law that threatens press freedom - 29 February 2016: 'Venice Commission' publishes a draft opinion on the state of law in Poland, with a warning that democracy might be in peril in the country
April 2016: 15 April 2016: European Council has stressed the need to re-open Crimea to regular monitoring to safeguard the human rights of 2.5 million people - 22 April 2016: The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe calls for release of all prisoners in Donbas, punishment of those responsible
September 2016: 13 September 2016: Ukrainian side may suspend the membership in PACE if the powers of the Russian delegation are recognized, in spite of the illegitimate nature of the elections to the State Duma of Russia on the territory of annexed Crimea, Ukraine says
October 2016: 10 October 2016: The Council of Europe awards its Václav Havel human rights prize to the Iraqi activist Nadia Murad, who was an Islamic State terrorists' captive before becoming the face of a campaign to protect her Yazidi people - 12/13 October 2016: Russia claimed guilty by PACE resolution of aggression and responsible for crimes in occupied Ukrainian territories, also calling 'legal remedies for human rights violations on the Ukrainian territories outside the control of the Ukrainian authorities' - 14 octobre 2016: Un attaché parlementaire turc du Conseil de l'Europe et membre de du parti AKP du président Erdogan a vandalisé une œuvre d'art, une caricature représentant Mahomet avec une bombe à la place du turban, exposée au siège de l'organisation européenne à Strasbourg
January 2017: 27 January 2017: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe condemns Russia for its terrorist activities in Ukraine, as 'the deputies of all PACE political groups, except the united left, have condemned the actions of the Russian special services aiming to assassinate member of the Parliament of Ukraine Anton Gerashchenko'
April 2017: 26 April 2017: Pace votes to restart monitoring Turkey putting the country back on a watchlist over 'serious concerns' about democracy and human rights, a process it had relaxed in 2004, putting pressure on the EU to reassess relations with Ankara
October 2017: 11 October 2017: PACE passes resolution to lift political sanctions against Russian regime, rejecting amendments proposed by the Ukrainian delegation
17 May 2019 Germany and France support Putin regime: 17 May 2019: Russia will remain in the Council of Europe after ministers at the human rights organisation, put under pressure by Germany and France, voted in favour of the Putin regime, pretending to end a bitter dispute following the illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014, remaining illegal in 2019, as Ukraine reacted angrily to the decision, saying 'this is not diplomacy, this is a surrender'
24 May 2019: 24 May 2019: The Council of Europe’s parliamentary assembly rejected the creation of a political grouping of anti-human-rights European parties as nationalist movements look to make gains in this week’s European Parliament elections
25 June 2019: 25 June 2019: Ukrainian president Zelensky says he is disappointed by the decision of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE to reinstate the voting rights of the Russian Federation's delegation - 25 June 2019: Ukraine walks out of Europe human rights body as Russian regime returns
26 June 2019 and European corruption: 26 June 2019: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE is reportedly set to lift remaining sanctions from the murderous Russian regime after it became known that PACE committees had considered the question of the powers of Russia's delegation and recommended they should be reinstated with simultaneous cancellation of the remaining restrictions left after the Assembly passed a respective resolution, in order to get regime's contribution to the council’s annual budget, as Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko said 'money turned out [to be] more important than principles'
October 2019 serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2019: Pieter Omtzigt, a special rapporteur for the Council of Europe, has raised serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, saying 'individual officers may be doing their best, but the approach of the police force as a whole, and of the politicians responsible for it, does not match the prime minister’s promise to leave no stone unturned'

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE - Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media - OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
OSCE ministerial council meetings
2013: 20th OSCE Ministerial Council in Kyiv, Ukraine, 5/6 December 2013 - 5 décembre 2013: Lors du sommet à Kiev de l'OSCE Didier Burkhalter a appelé l'Ukraine à surmonter les divisions Est-Ouest et à respecter les manifestants
2014: 21 March 2014: OSCE to send observers to Ukraine as quickly as possible, Russian Putin regime says no Crimea mandate - 18 April: Ukraine OSCE peacemakers say they need more help and another 350 monitors to make Geneva deal work - 22 April: OSCE mission arrives in Sloviansk - 22 April: Antiterrorist center in Ukraine's east ensures work of OSCE mission - 24 April: OSCE chief monitor Apakan concerned about escalating violence in Donetsk region - 24 April: OSCE's Guldimann says Geneva accords helped stop escalation, confirming plans to increase the OSCE mission up to 500 monitors - 25 April: Ponomarev's pro-Russian separatists, who captured Vice journalist Simon Ostrovsky, hold OSCE military observers captive after their bus was seized - 3 May: All OSCE observers captured in Sloviansk released through joint efforts, FM Deshchytsia says adding that terrorists there are listening only to Russia - 7 May: At a meeting with OSCE Chairman Didier Burkhalter in Moscow, Putin calls on Ukrainian separatists to reschedule May 11 'referendum', adding that presidential elections in Ukraine, scheduled for May 25, are a step in the right direction - 27 May: The OSCE SMM loses contact with monitors near the city of Donetsk - 29 May: Pro-Russian separatists in Slovyansk claim to be holding four OSCE observers - 30 May: A second group of 5 OSCE observers went missing a day after pro-Russian separatists announced they were holding a four-member team of OSCE monitors - 12 June: OSCE wants to participate in negotiations with terrorists, as there is still no contact with kidnapped groups of observers in southeastern Ukraine - 13 June: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 27 June: Release from captivity of OSCE group of four observers confirmed but Luhansk-based team has not yet been released - 29 June: Pro-Russia separatists release second Ukraine OSCE monitor group - Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine since June 2014
July-December 2014: 3 July: Trilateral contact group proposed to resume before July 5 to reach a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine, controlled by OSCE observers - 1 August: Trilateral contact group in Minsk agree on release of hostages in eastern Ukraine - 10 September: Donetsk region waiting for 250 more OSCE observers - 20 September: Memorandum on ceasefire in Donbas signed in Minsk, concerning a security zone and the withdrawal of all foreign mercenaries - 4 October: OSCE observers admit to carrying armed pro-Russian separatists in their car - 8 October: OSCE mission in eastern Ukraine expanded to 92 people - 27 October: OSCE praises democratic manner of elections and firmness of Ukrainians - 31 October: OSCE outraged at Russian actor Porechenkov's shooting in Donetsk at the positions of Ukrainian forces in a helmet with the inscription 'Press' - 8 December 2014: Ukrainian president Poroshenko urges OSCE to promote ceasefire in Donbas tomorrow - 26 December: Following the recent meeting in Minsk, OSCE vows to help deliver Ukrainian humanitarian aid to Donbas - 31 December: After meeting in Luhansk including OSCE no statements made
2015: 5 January 2015: OSCE doubles its mission in Donbas - 13 January: Situation in Donbas gets worse, OSCE says - 31 January: Situation in Donbas deteriorates rapidly impacting civilians, OSCE says - 1 February: OSCE blames pro-Russian separatists for failed Ukraine talks in Minsk - 15 February: Russian-backed militants refuse to allow monitors from the OSCE to reach the encircled town of Debaltseve after a ceasefire took effect on Sunday - 17 February: OSCE reports ceasefire is not holding fully in Donetsk city, Debaltseve and Luhansk - 17 February: OSCE observers not allowed inspecting 19 trucks from the so-called Russian 'humanitarian convoy' in Luhansk - 18 February: OSCE calls on Russian-backed militants to immediately stop offensive - 7 March: OSCE urged to double the number of its observers in Ukraine to 1,000 - 19 March: Poroshenko's peace plan should be used along with Minsk accords, OSCE says - 26 March: OSCE reported continuing clashes near the village of Shyrokyne east from Mariupol - 9 April: OSCE mission ascertains that Ukrainian side withdraws heavy weapons at all visited locations - 30 April: Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine starts video conference, as Ukraine's Leonid Kuchma wants Minsk subgroups to start work soon - 4 May: Trilateral contact group may meet in Minsk on May 6 - 5 May: OSCE records nearly 700 explosions, using heavy mortars and machine guns, artillery and tanks, near Donetsk airport and Shyrokyne village during the past weekend - 6 May: The leaders of the so-called 'DPR' and the 'LPR' Zakharchenko and Plotnytsky have decided not to take part in the Trilateral Contact Group meeting in Minsk on 6 May - 7 May: In Minsk Trilateral Contact Group agreed to send observers from each subgroup to the contact line in Donbas - 7 May: OSCE observers have no access to checkpoints on border with Russia, also claiming that use of Grad multiple rocket launcher systems by Russian-backed militants is alarming - 8 May: Tripartite Contact Group agrees on four fundamental issues of further cooperation, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 7 August: The Trilateral Contact Group on settlement of the situation in Donbas will meet in Minsk on 26 August, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 9 August: Four OSCE cars destroyed in arson attack in militant-occupied Donetsk overnight - 13 August: OSCE at the Russian checkpoints of Gukovo and Donetsk reports that dumper trucks continue transporting coal from Donbas to Russia - 26 August 2015: Ukraine and representatives of Russian-led militant groups have tentatively agreed to abide by the ceasefire agreed in February starting on the beginning of the school year September 1 - 9 September: Trilateral Contact Group's working group on political issues will meet in Minsk on September 15-16, OSCE representative Martin Sajdik says - 24 September: The risk of new escalation in Donbas remains, OSCE says, as too many weapons remain in the territory - 30 September: Ukraine contact group agrees to pullback more weapons from the front line in Donbas, leaving Ukraine still not in control of its territory and border with Russia, as a 40th Russian truck convoy arrives in east Ukraine - 16 October 2015: British delegation to the OSCE requests the Russian delegation to explain the presence of Russian Buratino Multiple Rocket Launcher in militant-controlled area in Donbas - 19 November: The ceasefire situation in Ukraine's two war-torn regions remains unstable, according to OSCE
2016: 2 February 2016: Ukraine's military spokesmen accuse OSCE monitors of failing to respond to the increased number Russian-backed militant attacks - 22 March 2016: OSCE human rights chief raises concerns over Russian regime's Savchenko verdict, calling for release to Ukraine - 7 May 2016: OSCE monitors in Ukraine report the presence of seven T-72 tanks in the militant-occupied city of Luhansk, which is a violation of Minsk agreement - 11 May: Militant 'parades' in occupied territories in eastern Ukraine violate Minsk deal, OSCE says - 20 May: OSCE ready to send an armed police mission to help conduct elections in eastern Ukraine - 28 May: OSCE monitors to Ukraine's Ertugrul Apakan condemns violence against watchdog in east, after monitors came under fire and had a drone shot down - 2 June: Russian-backed separatists block OSCE from occupied Luhansk in eastern Ukraine - 2 June: OSCE's Martin Sajdik expresses concern about the shelling of the Special Monitoring Mission representatives working in Donbas and ceasefire violations which led to the military and civilian casualties - 25 June 2016: Monitors of the OSCE in Donbas are facing systemic obstacles to prevent them from carrying out their duties, which mostly occur in the areas not controlled by the Ukrainian authorities, OSCE says - 4 July 2016: OSCE slams Russia's violations of human rights in Crimea - 4 August 2016: OSCE's Hug says, that Minsk contact group ignores numerous ceasefire violations, promoting unpunishment - 16 September 2016: Minsk Group fails to agree on withdrawal of forces in Donbas as Ukraine categorically opposes the alteration of the demarcation line and changing Mink agreements to satisfy Russian proxies - 19 October 2016: OSCE monitor says most of restrictions are in separatist-held areas of eastern Ukraine, adding that 'impunity for violations and interference in the OSCE mandate is an open invitation to commit more', ahead of 'Normandy Four' meeting in Berlin to discuss the Minsk agreements - 11 November 2016: The conflict in eastern Ukraine is on the brink of a major escalation as the security situation deteriorated sharply over the past week, the OSCE warns - 18 November 2016: Triliteral contact group in Minsk discusses only modalities of the probable election in Russia-occupied Donbas, not a certain draft bill on it, Verkhovna Rada's Iryna Herashenko says, as OSCE warns about a possible attack on Mariupol, also reporting the biggest number of ceasefire violations along the frontline in Donbas in 2016 - 2 December 2016: Russia's deliberate escalation in Donbas makes Minsk ineffective, USA Ambassador Baer says
July 2017: 9 July 2017: OSCE PA condemns Russian aggression in Ukraine
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Ukraine reports three attacks on OSCE drones in Russian-occupied Donbas since Easter truce, one of the drones was downed near Miusynsk

Crime in Europe
Racism in Europe: Racism in Europe - 2015 Signatory countries of the United Nations 'International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination'
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
1683 'code noir' and expelling of Jews by French colonial forces: In 1683, the Jews were expelled from Haiti and all of the other French colonies, due to the 'Code Noir', which not only restricted the activities of free black people, but forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism (it included a provision that all slaves must be baptized and instructed in the Roman Catholic religion), and in turn ordered all the Jews out of France's colonies
Since 1799 Napoleonic wars, war crimes and restoration of slavery: 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars, total war, millions of Napoleonic wars casualties, leading to an ongoing period of reaction, including the restoration of slavery, nationalism and chauvinism worldwide
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and French atrocities in Haiti: In 1802, when it became apparent that the French under Napoleonic rule intended to re-establish slavery in Haiti black cultivators revolted in the summer of 1802, Leclerc's successor Vicomte de Rochambeau fought an even more brutal campaign, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since 1884 German colonial rule in Africa, forced labour under German rule during 1939-1945 World War II and German politics of extermination and starvation: 1884-1914 German colonial rule in Africa was an expression of nationalism highlighting racist views of mankind and characterized by the use of repressive violence - Forced labour under German rule during World War II - Extermination through labour - 'Hunger Plan' developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food entailing the death by starvation of millions of Slavs following the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union
2001 Durban conference acknowledgement of the slave trade and slavery as crime against humanity: 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
Since 2001/2006 France's recognition of slavery as a crime against humanity: On 10 May 2001, the French Senate adopted a law that recognized the trade of slaves as a crime against humanity, in 2006 May 10 was held to be a national date of commemoration of the abolition of slavery, a legislation resulting from Christiane Taubira's lifelong efforts to promote the historical and cultural heritage of French overseas territories
1933-2019: 1 March 2019: Former head of the British army Dannatt has called on the government to pay compensation to African veterans of the Axis powers' (German, Italian and Japanese empires) second world war who were paid three times less than their white counterparts, as black people in Nazi Germany since 1933 were considered to be an inferior race and, along with Romani people, were subject to the antisemitic and racial Nuremberg Laws under a supplementary decree
July 2019: 3 July 2019: Black MEP Magid Magid, who represents Yorkshire and the Humber for the Green party, and former lord mayor of Sheffield, claims he was asked to leave the European parliament building in Strasbourg by an official on his first day
6 June 2020 loneliest of D-Day remembrances is marked amid covid-19 as Germany continues to honour Nazigeneral Rommel: 6 June 2020: The loneliest of D-Day remembrances is marked amid covid-19 pandemic, as small ceremony held a year after tens of thousands came to Normandy beaches to cheer the dwindling number of veterans and celebrate liberation from Nazi oppression, as German 'Bundeswehr' continues to praise and honour the Nazigeneral Rommel, mocking all victims of German crimes in World War II and indoctrinating generations of young men since 1961, ongoing in the EU
11 July 2020 'the most terrible camp' called Sylt on UK soil constructed by Nazi Germany after June 1940: 11 July 2020: 'The most terrible camp', as after 80 years cruelty of SS site Lager Sylt on UK soil constructed on Alderney after the island was occupied in June 1940 revealed, and as archaeologists publish in-depth survey highlighting the historical importance of the oft-overlooked Lager Sylt, as well as the physical and psychological torture of its inmates, mostly East Europeans and a large contingent of French Jews, as French prisoners dubbed Alderney 'le rocher maudit' underlining the brutality of the wind-swept, sea-beaten and remote island with a prewar civilian population of 1,400 people evacuated by Britain when, deeming them too difficult to defend, it pulled out of the Channel Islands after the fall of France in June 1940 - Since June 1940 history of Alderney during World War II and German occupation - Since January 1942 'Lager Sylt' Nazi concentration camp on Alderney on the British Channel Islands, built along with three other labour camps by the Organisation Todt, as the control of Lager Sylt changed since 1943 when it was run by the Schutzstaffel SS-Baubrigade 1 becoming a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp located in Hamburg - 'Lager Norderney' Nazi concentration camp on Alderney, in the Channel Islands, named after the East Frisian island of Norderney, housing European (usually Eastern but including Republican Spaniards) and Russian enforced labourers, as prisoners in Lager Sylt were also slave labourers
Antisemitism in Europe: Antisemitism in Europe - Timeline of antisemitism - Holocaust denial in the European Union
Since the Middle Ages: Anti-Semitism in Europe became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
15th-19th century 'Limpieza de sangre': 15th-19th century 'Limpieza de sangre' racist legislation, referred to those who were considered pure 'Old Christians', without recent Muslim or Jewish ancestors, or within the context of the empire (New Spain and Portuguese India) usually to those without ancestry from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Asia, or Africa
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834
Nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first century: History of antisemitism in the 19th, 20th and 21th century
1938-1945 antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe and North Africa: Since the middle ages antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe 1938-1945 - The Holocaust in Germany, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis, also outside Europe under Axis occupation, in North Africa's 'Italian Libya', in Tunisia under Vichy-France rule etc. - The Holocaust by country
Since 1939 Jewish Archive in Francoist Spain: Jewish Archive in Francoist Spain 1939-1975 - instructions of the Francoist 'Directorate of General Security' the provincial governors of Spain assembled records of all Jews who lived in Spain, whether or not they were Spanish, recording 6,000 Jews living in Spain, that were handed to Heinrich Himmler's SS in Germany in 1941 and were included in Adolf Eichmann's Jewish Population Census, tabled at the Wannsee Conference, chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, in January 1942
Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe: Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe - Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe by country
2014/2015: 22 July 2014: After anti-Semitic protests and violence in their countries over the conflict in Gaza three EU foreign ministers pledge to fight 'acts and statements that cross the line to anti-Semitism' - 26 July 2014: European anti-Semitism is focus as Jewish groups, senators meet in Washington - 7 August 2014: Antisemitism on rise across Europe as attacks go beyond Israel-Palestinian conflict, experts say - 16 January 2015: European Jewish Congress demands that the EU ramp up it’s efforts to protect its Jewish citizens - 25 January 2015: Jewish leaders call for Europe-wide legislation outlawing antisemitism - 27 January 2015: Steven Spielberg raises alarm on persistent and surged anti-Semitism in Krakow speech
April 2018: 11 April 2018: Feelings of insecurity are widespread among European Jews as a result of the resurgence of the extreme right, a heated anti-Zionist discourse on the left and radical Islam, according to a global study of antisemitism
May 2018: 14 May 2018: After the German Nazis adopted the phrase 'The Jews are our misfortune', in 2018 a banner with the colors of the Israeli flag that said 'The state Israel is our misfortune' was held by neo-Nazis in Dortmund, expressing their alleged solidarity with Palestinians by waving PLO flags against both the opening of the USA embassy in Jerusalem and the founding of the State of Israel, as EU foreign policy chief appears to side with anti-Semitic Iranian regime
30 May 2018: In Italy, poll indicates, 25% 'unwilling’ to have a Jew in the family, in Britain 23%, in Austria 21%, in Germany 19%, and the mostly Catholic nations of Spain, Portugal and Ireland also had high non-acceptance levels at 13, 18 and 18 percent, respectively
November 2018: 27 November 2018: More than a quarter of respondents believe Jews have too much influence in business and finance, while over a third say they have no substantial knowledge of the Holocaust, a recent CNN poll conducted in seven European countries - Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Sweden - found
January 2019: 23 January 2019: The EU had given more than €5 million to at least 10 NGOs that promote boycotts against Israel, saying the EU insists it will defend 'free speech' after Israeli urged the EU to make any financial aid to NGOs contingent on an explicit commitment to opposing boycotts of Israel
27 January 2019: 27 January 2019: After in December 2018 a major European report found nearly 90% (56-95% depending on country) of European Jews feel that anti-Semitism has increased in their home countries over the past five years, and almost 30% say they have been harassed at least once in the past year, 12% of respondents maintain the scale of the Holocaust genocide is inflated, 12% of respondents maintain the scale of the genocide is inflated12% of respondents maintain the scale of the genocide is inflated, UK survey says, and common anti-Semitic statements are related to comparisons between Israelis and the Nazis with regard to the Palestinians and suggestions that Jews 'exploit Holocaust victimhood for their own purposes'
February 2019, increase in anti-Semitic incidents in 2018: 13 February 2019: After France and UK, Germany reports increase in anti-Semitic incidents in 2018, as the number of anti-Semitic crimes increased from 1,504 in 2017 to 1,646, with the number of cases considered violent almost doubling
March 2019: 7 March 2019: Aalst's Vismooil’n group behind anti-Semitic carnival float at Belgium’s most celebrated carnival, added in 2010 to UNESCO’s list of events, and mayor Christoph D’Haese are not sorry, as Pascal Soleme calls the float, which featured anti-Semitic depictions of Jews with money bags and rats, a 'celebration of humor', saying 'people who got offended live in the past'
22 November 2019 Church of England report admits Christian anti-Semitism helped lead to Holocaust: 22 November 2019: In a major report the Church of England admitted that centuries of Christian anti-Semitism helped lead to the Holocaust, as England’s established church cited 'the attribution of collective guilt to the Jewish people for the death of Christ and the consequent interpretation of their suffering as collective punishment sent by God' as being among the ideas that 'contributed to fostering the passive acquiescence if not positive support of many Christians in actions that led to the Holocaust'
February 2020 German appeals court denies bid to remove 700-year-old anti-Semitic 'Jew pig’ statue: 5 February 2020: 75 years after the liberation of the German Auschwitz death camp, German appeals court denies bid to remove 700-year-old anti-Semitic 'Jew pig’ statue from a church where Martin Luther once preached, as plaintiff Michael Duellmann argued that the sculpture is 'a defamation of and insult to the Jewish people' that has 'a terrible effect up to this day', telling AP that he will appeal the case to Germany’s Federal Court of Justice and is prepared to take it all the way to the European Court of Human Rights if necessary
23/24 February 2020 Aalst’s annual anti-Semitic parade and German neo-Nazism: 23 February 2020: Repeated city of Aalst’s annual anti-Semitic parade near Brussels features costumes of Jews with insect bodies, called an affront to nation’s ‘values and reputation’, damaging the country, by Belgian PM Sophie Wilmes, as in Germany during a candlelight vigil for 9 people killed by an immigrant-hating gunman a woman, adressing the president, called out from the crowd, demanding action, not words, in the country of Nazism and not ending neo-Nazism since World War II, the Holocaust, unprecedented crimes against humanity
26 June 2020 German church goes to high court to take down perverse anti-Semitic carvings: 26 June 2020: German church goes to high court to take down perverse anti-Semitic carvings, as landmarks commissions and German courts are protecting ancient 'Judensaus' sculptures, dozens of which are adorning churches that don’t want them in the 21st century, and as Israeli historian Isaiah Shachar in 2017 said there are 'Judensaus' in Portugal, France, Poland and Sweden, but most are in German-speaking countries
30 June 2020 Muslims chant in Brussels 'Jews, remember Khaybar, the army of Muhammad is returning': 30 June 2020: Pro-Palestinian demonstrators in Brussels chanted the name of Saudi locale where Muslims massacred Jews in the seventh century, as Arabic chants about Khaybar, located in modern-day Saudi Arabia, were filmed at a rally Sunday in the Belgian capital, saying 'Jews, remember Khaybar, the army of Muhammad is returning'
21 July 2020 Stephan Balliet on trial for deadly Halle synagogue shooting: 21 July 2020: German Stephan Balliet goes on trial at the eastern German state court in Magdeburg for the Yom Kippur attack and deadly shooting targeting Jews in the city of Halle last year, accused of shooting dead two people after failing to storm Halle synagogue and after publishing documents online that called for the killing of all Jews

Nationalism and fascism in Europe: Nationalism in Europe - Nationalist movements in Europe - White nationalism in Europe - White supremacy in Europe - Fascism in Europe - Nazi parties by country
20th-century National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany and collaborating states: National Socialism, also commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party, Nazi Germany, and collaborating organizations and states - Austrofascism in Austria - Italian Fascism in Italy - Fascism in Spain
Since World War I, during Nazi period including World War II concentration and extermination camps, concentration and internment camps worldwide: Since World War I and during Nazi period including World War II concentration camps in Austria-Hungary - Since 1973 Chile concentration camps during Pinochet's dictatorship in the 1970s and 80s - Since 1960 concentration camps in China - During Nazi period including World War II concentration camps in Croatia - Since 1852/1953 during Bonaparte's regime, during Nazi period including World War II concentration camps in France, and in North and West Africa - Internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II, as beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottoman civilian prisoners, the Third Republic 1871–1940 opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War 1936–1939, and following the prohibition of the French Communist Party by the government of Édouard Daladier, they were used to detain communist political prisoners, as the Third Republic also interned German anti-Nazis, mostly members of the Communist Party of Germany KPD, then, after the 10 July 1940 vote of full powers to Marshal Pétain and the proclamation of the État français or Vichy regime, these camps were used to intern Jews, Gypsies, and various political prisoners, anti-fascists from all countries, and Vichy opened up so many camps that it became a full economic sector - Since 1904-1908 concentration camps in German empire's South West Africa, 1904–1908, during Germany's World War I, and then in the Nazi period including World War II concentration camps in Germany - List of Nazi concentration camps, as there were 23 main concentration camps, of which most had a system of satellite camps, and the total number of Nazi concentration camps that existed at one point in time is at least 1,000 - List of Nazi Germany's extermination camps and euthanasia centers, as Nazis murdered their victims at a wide variety of sites, including vehicles, houses, hospitals, fields, concentration camps and purpose-built extermination camps, with six major extermination camps and eight major euthenasia extermination centers - During World War II Nazi concentration camps in Yugoslavia, as during the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia 1941–1944 as many as 70 Nazi concentration camps were formed in Yugoslavia, and the main victims in these camps were ethnic Serbs, Jews and Roma - Since 1942 German Nazi military established concentration camps during its occupation of the Channel Islands - Since 1940 concentration camps in Italy - Since the 1910s Italian colonial empire's concentration camps in Libya - Japanese empire's World War II camps in Asia - List of Japanese-run internment camps during World War II - After World War II concentration camps in North Korea - Since World War I concentration camps in the Ottman empire and Turkey - After World War I concentration camps in the Soviet Union and since 1990 in Russia - 1936-1947 Francoist concentration camps in Spanish empire 1492–1976, as first concentration camp was created by Spanish dictator Franco on 20 July 1936 in the castle of El Hecho in Ceuta, as inmates of concentration camps were republican ex-combatants of the Spanish Republican forces as well as political dissidents, as prisoners who were regarded as 'unrecoverable' were shot, others were used as forced labourers, as in 1938 Francoist concentration camps held more than 170,000 prisoners, after 1939 the imprisoned population fluctuated between 367,000 and 500,000 people - 1936-1945 White Terror and Francoist Repression, including executions and rapes, which were carried out by the Nationalist faction during the Francoist War since 1936 as well as during the first nine years of the regime of Franco, causing 100,000-200,000 deaths - During World War II internment camps in Switzerland - Since the Second Boer War 1899-1902 concentration camps in the United Kingdom's 'British empire', in Bermuda, Cyprus, Ireland, Kenya, Malaya, South Africa - Since 1838 USA's detention centers of Indigenous people, since 1901 concentration camps in the Philippines, since 1950 concentration camps were constructed to detain political dissidents, intended to hold alleged communists, anti-war activists, civil rights activists and other 'dissidents' from the 1950s to the 1960s, but were never used for their intended purpose, since 1961 internment camps in USA's Vietnam War until 1975
Since 2009 USA Holocaust Memorial Museum's 'Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945': Since 2009 'Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945', a seven-part encyclopedia series that explores the history of the concentration camps, ghettos, forced-labor camps, and other sites of detention, persecution, or state-sponsored murder run by Nazi Germany and other Axis powers in Europe and Africa, as the series is produced by the USA Holocaust Memorial Museum after research began in 2000 and the first volume was published in 2009, as the final volume is slated for publication in 2025, also containing along with entries on individual sites scholarly overviews for historical context

Nationalist, racist and fascist parties and politics in Europe: List of active nationalist parties in Europe - List of nationalist organizations - List of far-right political parties by country - List of fascist movements by country - Right-wing populism and political parties by country - Far-right politics in different countries
Since 1945 white nationalist, racist and fascist organizations in Germany: List of white nationalist organizations in Germany - Neo-Nazism in Germany and Europe
Since 1945 Neo-Nazism in Germany: Neo-Nazism in Germany - Neo-Nazism by continent
Neo-Nazism in Europe: Neo-Nazism in Europe
2004-2009 'European National Front': 2004-2009 'European National Front' coordinating structure of European nationalist parties, including National Democratic Party of Germany
2015: 21 March 2015: EU far-right parties set to gather in St. Petersburg for Russian forum, as Russian regime courts EU far-right, neo-Nazi movements
2016: 24 June 2016: UK vote sparks EU referendum demands of anti-immigration and racist parties
2017: 21 January 2017: Far-right party leaders from France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands meet in the German city of Koblenz on Saturday to present their vision for Europe that would dismantle the European Union - 4 June 2017: Far right raises £50,000 to target boats on refugee rescue missions in Mediterranean - 7/8 September 2017: Invited by German AfD's von Storch, who called on European border guards to use firearms to deter illegal immigrants, including women and children, and speaking at Berlin's Spandau Citadel British promoter of 'Brexit' Nigel Farage receives a standing ovation from German neo-Nazi linked AfD party, as he whipped up anti-EU sentiment
March 2018: 5 March 2018: Russian networks worked to boost xenophobic and neo-fascist discourse in Italy ahead of elections, according to Spanish newspaper 'El País'
26 March 2018: French to charge two men with anti-Semitic murder of 85-year-old Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll who had managed as a child to evade the notorious 1942 roundup of over 13,000 Jews in Paris during World War II, as fewer than 100 of those who were detained at the so-called Vel d’Hiv cycling track and then sent to the Nazi-Germany's death camps survived - 27 March 2018: Family members of Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death and set on fire in her Paris apartment, told Israeli media she had known one of her assailants, a Muslim neighbor, since he was seven years old, as police admits that Mireille Knoll had previously called police and complained that the neighbor had threatened to kill her
June 2018 Neonazis in Volgograd: 21 June 2018: English football supporters have caused outrage by singing an anti-Semitic song and throwing Nazi salutes in a local pub before England's World Cup match in Volgograd, where more than a million Soviet soldiers died to stop the German assault since 1941, 75 or 77 years ago
June 2018 Nazi Heinrich Himmler's daughter employed by BND: 29 June 2018: Germany’s foreign intelligence service BND employed the daughter of top Nazi Heinrich Himmler in the early 1960s, although she never renounced her father or Nazism, remained active in far-right extremism all her life, fought to defend her father’s reputation and aided in the defense of SS members and Nazi war criminals
April 2019: 19 April 2019: The World Jewish Congress urges European governments and lawmakers to take measures against a series of planned neo-Nazi gatherings over the weekend to mark Adolf Hitler’s birthday, saying events were scheduled across the continent, including a two-day conference by a fascist group in Bulgarian capital Sofia, a hiking and picnic trip in Ukraine, a rock concert in Italy, two conventions in Germany and a handful of gatherings in France
17-20 July 2019 neo-Nazis weapons cache in Italy: 17 July 2019: Italian police seized an air-to-air missile, machine guns and rocket launchers from neo-Nazis during raids sparked by an investigation into Italians who took part in the Russian-backed insurgency in eastern Ukraine, a huge haul of weapons that authorities said was almost without precedent - 20 juillet 2019: L'enquête sur l'arsenal néonazi s'étend à la Suisse
1 September 2019 neo-Nazi linked German AfD party make big gains: 4 September 2019: Anti-immigration and neo-Nazi linked AfD, the third-biggest party in the 2017 German general election, main opposition, and able to mobilise several hundred thousand people who had never voted before, overtakes German Left, Greens and SPD in Saxony and German CDU, Greens and Left in Brandenburg in state elections
7/8 September 2019 CDU, SPD and FDP elected neo-Nazi to head local authority: 8 September 2019: All representatives, including representatives of the CDU, SPD and FDP, of the Ortsbeirat of Altenstadt-Waldsiedlung had voted neo-Nazi Deputy NPD state chairman Stefan Jagsch as their head
6 February 2020 anti-Semitic AfD party's backing for Thuringia's new elected state premier Kemmerich shocks Germany: 6 February 2020: Anti-Semitic AfD party's backing for Thuringia's FDP politician and new elected state premier Kemmerich shocks Germany, also enjoying support from lawmakers of Chancellor Merkel’s CDU as well as his FDP stablemates, as tacit cooperation between CDU, FDP and AfD condemned by Josef Schuster, saying he was 'horrified' by Wednesday’s vote
5-23 February 2020 CDU supports neo-Nazi linked AfD and Secretary General denies solution of crisis: 5 February 2020: CDU and FDP politicians 'break taboo' voting with racist AfD and its state leader Björn Höcke, legally termed a fascist, to oust Thuringia premier Bodo Ramelow, defying the national party’s refusal to work with neo-Nazi linked parties - 23 February 2020: After lawmakers in Thuringia agreed on a way to vote in a new state government without the support of neo-Nazi party, avoiding a repeat of a decision earlier this month that caused a political uproar, CDU Secretary General Paul Ziemiak criticized party lawmakers for the way out of the crisis caused by the CDU (the party of NSDAP members Globke, Kiesinger, Filbinger etc.), saying 'this is about the credibility of the CDU in general', adding that the party 'rejects all coalitions and similar forms of cooperation'
Pan-European nationalism: Pan-European nationalism - Nationalisme européen - List of nationalist organizations
Since 2002: 'Le Bloc identitaire – Le mouvement social européen' ist ein Zusammenschluss von regionalen Gruppen in Frankreich und benachbarten frankophonen Regionen wie der Romandie und der Wallonie seit 2002, um eine angebliche 'europäische Identität' gegen kulturelle 'Überfremdung' etwa durch muslimische Einwanderung zu verteidigen
'Mouvance identitaire' en Europe, des groupes qui se proclament également identitaires, tels que l'Identitäre Bewegung en Allemagne, partiellement reliée à 'Pegida', et en Autriche, qui se réclame de la mouvance identitaire, ou 'Nordiska Förbundet' en Scandinavie, 'Causa Identitária' au Portugal, 'l’Union Nationaliste & Identitaire Suisse', Génération Identitaires Flandre et Mouvement Nation en Belgique, en Italie

Since World War I 1914–1918 war crimes in Europe, by German empire and allies: Since World War I 1914–1918 war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against peace in Europe and committed by the German empire and allies - Genocides in Europe - Crime in Europe by country
German war crimes in World War I: German war crimes in World War I
World War II 1939–1945 war crimes committed by Germany, Italy, and Japan: World War II 1939–1945 war crimes committed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, the so-called axis powers - German war crimes in World War II - German war crimes against enemy combatants and civilians committed by military units of the 'Wehrmacht' since the invasion of Poland September-October 1939 and crimes against humanity including the Holocaust - Consequences of Nazism, as Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities, and people before, during and after World War II, and as the regime's attempt to exterminate several groups viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology was eventually stopped by the combined efforts of the wartime Allies headed by Britain, the Soviet Union, and the USA
World War II led to the UN since 1945, established to help prevent world wars: World War II led to the dissolution of the 1920–1946 'League of Nations' and to the founding of the 'United Nations' in October 1945, established to help prevent world wars and contain or stop smaller conflicts, as principles enshrined in the UN Charter are a testament to the world's attitudes at the fall of the German empire, finally called the 'Third Reich' - Consequences of Nazism and World War II for military, technology and doctrines
1946–1954 Indochina War: 1946–1954 Indochina War, the French Union's struggle against the independence movement, claiming 500,000 to 1.5 million Vietnamese lives from 1945 to 1954 - 1955–1975 USA's and allied forces Vietnam War
1952–1960 Mau Mau insurgency against British colonial rule: 1952–1960 Mau Mau insurgency against British colonial rule, as in attempt to suppress the insurgency in Kenya, British colonial authorities and forces suspended civil liberties, using collective punishment, torture and committed atrocities
1954–1962 Algerian War: 1954–1962 Algerian War, as Algeria won independence from France in the early 1960s
July 1995 Srebrenica massacre: July 1995 Srebrenica massacre, the genocide of more than 8,000 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War - 11 July 2020: Bosnia is marking the 25th anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre, the only declared genocide in Europe since the second world war, with a small number of survivors in attendance, due to the coronavirus pandemic
2003-2011 Iraq War by a USA-led coalition including European countries: 2003-2011 Iraq War by a USA-led coalition including United Kingdom, Poland and Australia, and supported by Canada, Italy and the Netherlands
2011–present Russian, Assad's and Iranian war crimes against the Syrian people: 2011–present war crimes in Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against the Syrian people
2 March 2020 UN says Russia committed war crimes in Syria as world expects end of impunity: 2 March 2020: Russia committed war crimes in Syria, finds UN report, as Putin regime blamed for indiscriminate attacks in civilian areas without 'a specific military objective', also documenting 'unprecedented levels of displacement and dire conditions for civilians' in Syria

Use of chemical weapons in Europe, since 1899 prohibited under the Hague Convention: Use of chemical weapons by country and in Europe, since 1899 prohibited under the Hague Convention
Since 1914 Germany's use of chemical weapons: Chemical warfare, following Germany's earliest uses of chemical weapons in October 1914, when shells containing the irritant dianisidine chlorosulfonate were fired at British troops near Neuve-Chapelle in France
Since 1939 during World War II use of poison gas by Nazi Germany: Since 1939 during World War II millions of Jews and other victims were gassed by Nazi Germany with carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide (including Zyklon B), remaining the deadliest use of poison gas in history
March 2018 'novichok' poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal: 4 March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal with a 'novichok' nerve agent
June 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings: 30 June 2018 Amesbury poisonings with a 'novichok' nerve agent of the same kind used in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury
September 2018: 5/6 September 2018: Two Russian nationals Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov named and charged by British police and prosecutors over the novichok poisoning of Sergei and Julia Skripal in March in Salisbury, as Britain to lay out case against Russian regime at UN with PM Theresa May saying suspects were GRU officers, pointing to Putin, explicitly blamed by security minister Ben Wallace - 6 September 2018: Russia has come under a sustained barrage of almost universal condemnation as nations lined up at the UN security council to decry its role in the Salisbury chemical weapons attacks - 7 September 2018: Sergei Skripal, poisoned in Britain with 'novichok' nerve agent, appears to have been working in recent years with intelligence officers in Spain, a country locked in a pitched battle with Russian organized crime groups, some with ties to the Russian government
August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
2/3 September 2020 Novichok use shows ‘only state’ could have poisoned Navalny aide says: 2 September 2020: Germany’s finding that Alexey Navalny was poisoned with nerve agent Novichok shows that only the Russian state could be responsible, opposition's Ivan Zhdanov says, as politicians worldwide are demanding answers from Putin's regime after toxicological examinations indicated that the Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny was poisoned with the nerve agent - 3 September 2020: Sarah Bailes, the wife of a police officer who almost died after investigating the Salisbury poisonings, said that 'actions speak louder than words”, in response to a tweet by Boris Johnson, after British PM joined world leaders in demanding answers from Putin regime amid claims the regime critic Alexei Navalny was poisoned using novichok
7 September 2020 Russia's Alexei Navalny out of induced coma in Berlin and responsive: 7 September 2020: Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has been taken out of an induced coma and is responding to speech, according to Charité hospital in Berlin, as UK summoned the Russian ambassador to express its concern, and as Dominic Raab said 'it’s completely unacceptable that a banned chemical weapon has been used and Russia must hold a full, transparent investigation'
17 September 2020 Novichok traces found on water bottle in Navalny's hotel room in Tomsk: 17 September 2020: Colleagues of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny said that a bottle of water with a trace of the Novichok nerve agent was found in his hotel room in Tomsk after his poisoning
20 September 2020 one of Novichok's developers apologized to Navalny: 20 September 2020: One of the developers of the Novichok combat poison, Vil Mirzayanov, has apologized to Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who has suffered from poisoning with this substance, explaining that in 1993 he met with a survivor of the Novichok poisoning and stating that the symptoms he described are similar to those mentioned by Navalny
23 September 2020 Putin investigators targeting Navalny and others use imported phone-hacking tech: 23 September 2020: Putin investigators targeting Navalny and others use Israeli phone-hacking tech, as committee headed by Putin associate Alexander Bastrykin claims it used Cellebrite’s technology more than 26,000 times for hacking phones
23 September 2020 treated in Berlin for Novichok poisoning Russian opposition leader Navalny's condition improved enough for him to be released: 23 September 2020: The German hospital treating Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny for poisoning said Wednesday that his condition improved enough for him to be released, and suggested a 'complete recovery' from the Russian nerve agent was possible, as French newspaper citing unnamed sources on Tuesday reported that Russian regime's Putin told his French counterpart Macron, that Navalny was an 'internet troublemaker' who may have poisoned himself, as Putin's spokesman Peskov on Wednesday said 'Le Monde' had misrepresented the call and its report was 'imprecise'

Terrorism in Europe and in the EU: Terrorism in Europe - Terrorism in the European Union - Reactions to terrorist attacks
Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe: Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe - Nationalist terrorism in Europe - Far-right politics in different countries - Terrorism in Europe by country
Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I and later: Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I - April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica carried out by Franco's allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian victims - World War II 'strategic' bombing conducted by Germany
Islamic terrorism in Europe 2014–present
March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks: 11-22 March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks committed by Mohammed Mera, targeting French Army soldiers and children and a teacher from a Jewish school in the cities of Montauban and Toulouse
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: 24 May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo and Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket terror attack in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket siege and terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris
International reactions to the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting - 17 January 2015: Europe on high alert following anti-terror raids and arrests of suspected Islamist militants - 19 January: Manhunts, death threats as Europe on high terror alert
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 13/14 novembre 2015: Sept attaques à Paris font plus d'une centaine de morts - 13/14 novembre 2015: Attentats du 13 novembre 2015 en Île-de-France, réactions internationales
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids
14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when armed Tunisian Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples
December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack: 19 December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack
March 2017: 22 March 2017 terrorist attack on Westminster Bridge, in Parliament Square and within the grounds of the Palace of Westminster in central London
April 2017: Attentat du 20 avril 2017, sur l'avenue des Champs-Élysées à Paris Karim Cheurfi, né le 31 décembre 1977 à Livry-Gargan, armé d'une kalachnikov tire sur un fourgon de policiers, tuant un de ces derniers en blessant deux autres et touchant une passante, avant d'être abattu
May 2017: 22 May 2017 Manchester Arena bombing - 23 May 2017: More than twenty people, including children, were killed and dozens injured when a man detonated a bomb at a pop concert by USA's Ariana Grande
June 2017: 3 June 2017 London attacks - 4 June 2017: The three assailants who killed seven people and injured over 40 others, reportedly shouting 'this is for Allah', in a terror attack were shot dead by British police within eight minutes of the stabbing and car-ramming spree in London, UK's general election campaigning suspended
August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack: 17 August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack, when a van was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas, killing 13 and injuring at least 100 - Domestic and international reactions to the 2017 Barcelona attack
August 2019 alleged 1980s agreement between French authorities and the Abu Nidal terror organization: 10 August 2019: After an alleged agreement between French authorities and the Abu Nidal terror organization in the 1980s following the 1982 anti-Semitic terror attack in Paris's Jewish quarter, established that authorities would not arrest the organization's members as long as it refrained from committing attacks on French soil, the agreement paid off in the form of quiet for a few years, while the group continued to commit attacks in Italy, Austria, and Greece, killing and wounding hundreds of people in dozens of countries, including plane hijackings, shootings in a synagogue and in embassies
Organized crime in Europe: Organized crime groups in Europe - Gangs in Europe - Organized crime by nation - People murdered by organized crime
August 2015 5 men charged with murder of 200 migrants in Mediterranean: 7 August 2015: Five men charged with murder of 200 migrants in Mediterranean who died when the boat they were travelling to Europe on capsized
October 2017 murder of journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 murder of anti-corruption investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia
February 2018 murder of journalist Ján Kuciak: 22/25 February 2018 murder of journalist Ján Kuciak - 9 March 2018: Protests in Slovakia and Europe against sleaze in public life following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak, calling for foreign experts to join the team investigating the killings
December 2018 mafia 'Ndrangheta' members arrested: 5 décembre 2018: Quelque 90 personnes appartenant à la 'Ndrangheta', la mafia calabraise, ont été arrêtées mercredi matin lors d'un vaste coup de filet international dans plusieurs pays d'Europe et d'Amérique latine, selon la police italienne
3 July 2020 hundreds arrested after European police hack crime chat network: 3 July 2020: Dutch, UK's and other police in Europe said they had arrested more than 800 people across Europe after shutting down an encrypted phone system used by organized crime groups to plot murders and drug deals, as police said they hacked into the EncroChat network so they could read millions of messages 'over the shoulders' of suspects as they communicated with custom-made devices
Corruption in Europe and the European Union: Corruption in Europe - Perception of corruption in Europe
2015 lack of control over lobbyists: 15 April 2015: Lack of control over lobbyists threatens to undermine European democracies, Transparency International says calling for tight new regulation
2016 'Panama Papers' revelations against hiding corruption, money laundering and tax evasion: 22 April 2016: The Isle of Man and Gibraltar among a group of 22 jurisdictions that signed up to a new information-sharing initiative of Europe’s five largest economies Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Spain in response to 'Panama Papers' revelations, to tackle criminals that use corporate secrecy to hide corruption, money laundering and tax evasion
Since 17 May 2019 FPÖ's and Austria's 'Ibiza affair': Since 17 May 2019 Ibiza affair, an ongoing political scandal in Austria involving FPÖ's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Vice-Chancellor of Austria, FPÖ's Johann Gudenus and both the Austrian Freedom Party and Austria's political landscape in general - 20 May 2019: Politicians from political parties across Europe have called on voters to shun the neo-Nazi linked polical organisations in this week’s European elections after Austria’s vice-chancellor resigned over a video sting that showed him offering public contracts in exchange for financial and campaign backing
January 2020 Airbus to pay record £3bn in fines for 'endemic' corruption: 31 January 2020: Europe’s largest aerospace multinational Airbus is to pay a record £3bn in penalties after admitting it had paid huge bribes on an 'endemic' basis to land contracts in 20 countries, including including China, Russia, Japan, Kuwait, Brazil, Turkey, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Taiwan, Ghana etc., and after judges declared that the corruption was 'grave, pervasive and pernicious, as planemaker agreed to pay the penalties on Friday after reaching settlements with investigators in the UK, France and the USA to end inquiries that started four years ago
EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report: EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report - 3 February 2014: The true cost of corruption in the EU is at least 120bn euros annually, the Home Affairs Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom says presenting the first EU-wide anti-corruption report
Corruption in the Media: Overview of Corruption in the Media
March 2015 corruption in the media killing ethical journalism according to EJN: 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says - 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
White collar crime, tax evasion, tax avoidance, money laundering, fraud etc. in Europe: Fraud in the European Union - White-collar criminals by nationality
2013 vast criminal network involved in sport events uncovered: 4 February 2013: European police said Monday that they had uncovered a vast criminal network involved in fixing hundreds of matches, including Champions League and World Cup qualifiers
2013 European horse meat contamination scandal: 2013 European horse meat contamination scandal - 21 février 2013: La viande chevaline en lieu et place du bœuf déjà décelée en 2003, pour Eurofins le scandale actuel n’est pas une surprise
2015 British, Switzerland's, USA's banks, called 'the cartel', manipulated foreign exchange markets 2007-2013: 20 May 2015: Regulators announce penalties against British Barclays, JP Morgan, Citigroup, Royal Bank of Scotland, Switzerland's UBS and USA's Bank of America Merrill Lynch, called 'the cartel', for manipulating the foreign exchange markets 2007-2013
2016 EOC's illegal tickets sale in Rio de Janeiro: 18 August 2016: The President of European Olympic Committees and Olympic Committee of Ireland Patrick Hickey arrested for illegal tickets sale in Rio de Janeiro, at least six more persons could be involved in the plot
July 2017 corporate investments channelled away from authorities into tax havens: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors
September 2018 €200bn money-laundering case at Denmark’s Danske Bank involving Russia, UK and the British Virgin Islands: 20 September 2018: The European commission has described the €200bn money-laundering case at Denmark’s Danske Bank as 'the biggest scandal' in Europe, after Danske Bank's Borgen has resigned admitting that the vast majority of €200bn flowing through its Estonian branch was money-laundered cash flowing illegally out of Russia, the UK and the British Virgin Islands
November 2019 12 EU countries blocked a proposed new rule against tax avoidance: 28 November 2019: Twelve EU countries, Ireland, Luxembourg and Malta, have blocked a proposed new rule that would have forced multinational companies to reveal how much profit they make and how little tax they pay in each of the 28 member states
Women's rights and abuse of women in Europe: Women in Europe - Women's rights in Europe - 6 March 2014: FRA report reveals extensive abuse of women in European Union
Human trafficking in Europe: Human trafficking in Europe - Human trafficking by country
October 2019 Essex lorry deaths: On 23 October 2019, the bodies of 39 Vietnamese, 29 men, 2 boys, and 8 women, were found in the trailer of a lorry in Essex in the United Kingdom, after the trailer had been shipped from the port of Zeebrugge
30 May 2020 EU arrests over 2019 Essex lorry deaths: 30 May 2020: 13 suspects arrested by French police over the deaths of 39 Vietnamese people found in a refrigerated lorry in Essex in October 2019 have been charged with people trafficking and manslaughter, a judicial source has said, as 6 of the group – mainly Vietnamese and French nationals – were taken into custody in the Paris region, while the alleged key figure in the ring of smugglers was caught in Germany, and as 13 people were also arrested in Belgium on the same day in an international police operation
Drugs and illegal drug trade in Europe: Drugs by country - Illegal drug trade and international drug routes - Since February 2004 European law on drug precursors
Drugs and doping cases in sport in Europe: Drugs in sport by country - Sportspeople in doping cases by nationality
July 2019 anti-doping police operation: 9 July 2019: A Europe-wide police operation has led to the seizure of tons of steroids, 234 arrests, the dismantling of 17 crime groups and the closure of nine underground labs
European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes: European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes - Global surveillance can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century and the United Kingdom/USA Agreement, later expanded to create the 'Five Eyes alliance' - Global surveillance disclosures 2013–present
2015: 30 April 2015: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker expects that German government gets to the bottom of Brussels spy scandal after Germany reportedly snooped on the EU and France at Washington's behest
Police brutality and torture in Europe: Police brutality in Europe - Torture in Europe
2016: 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time

Law in Europe: Law in Europe and by country
Courts in Europe: Courts in Europe
Courts in Albania
Courts in Austria
Courts in Belgium
Judiciary of Bulgaria and law
Courts in Denmark
Courts in Finland
Courts in France
Courts in Germany - Judiciary and law in Germany>
1921 Leipzig War Crimes Trials: 1921 Leipzig War Crimes Trials, a series of trials against some selected German war criminals of World War I before the 'German Reichsgericht' in Leipzig, in the country that started the war, as part of the penalties imposed on the German government under the Treaty of Versailles, as only twelve individuals were brought to trial, with mixed results, and the proceedings were widely regarded as a failure
Februar-April 1924 Adolf Hitler's trial in Bavaria used for Nazi propaganda: Februar-April 1924 Adolf Hitler's trial, after Hitler and his associates on 8–9 November 1923 violently tried to seize Munich and to march against Germany's Weimar Republic government, causing 4 Bavarian police fatalities, as Nazi head used the trial as an opportunity to spread his ideas by giving speeches to the court room, extensively covered in the newspapers, impressing the judges and as a result, Hitler served a little over eight months, was fined 500 Reichsmarks, changed his outlook after writing 'Mein Kampf', now trying to win German hearts 'strictly legal' and now even more developping Nazi propaganda additionally to ongoing violence by the Nazi party
Government and law of 1933-1945 Nazi Germany: Government and law in Nazi Germany
February/March 1933 Reichstag Fire Decree and Enabling Act: 28 February 1933 Reichstag Fire Decree issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler in immediate response to the Reichstag fire, nullifying many of the key civil liberties of German citizens - 23 March 1933 Enabling Act
Since 1933 anti-Jewish legislation in pre-war Nazi Germany: Since 1933 anti-Jewish legislation in pre-war Nazi Germany
Since May 1945 Chelmno trials in Poland and Germany: Since May 1945 Chelmno trials, a series of consecutive war-crime trials of the Chelmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and in Germany following World War II, as the cases were decided almost twenty years apart, first taking place in 1945 at the District Court in Lódz in Poland, and four subsequent trials held in Bonn in Germany beginning in 1962 - Since 1945 Holocaust trials
Since September 1945 Belsen concentration camp trial: Since September 1945 Belsen trial, taking place in Lüneburg in Lower Saxony, as defendants were men and women of the SS as well as prisoner functionaries who had worked at various concentration camps, notably Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen, second trial in June 1946
Since September 1946 allied Nuremberg trials against Nazi leaders: Since September 1946 Nuremberg trials, a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war - Subsequent Nuremberg trials, a series of twelve military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, lasting from December 1946 to April 1949 and differing from the first trial in that they were conducted before USA military courts rather than the international courts that decided the future of the major Nazi leaders, as the reason for the change being the growing differences between the four Allied powers
1949 Hamburg trial of Nazi Germany's World War II general Erich von Manstein and legend of 'clean Wehrmacht': 1949 trial of Erich von Manstein, a commander of Nazi Germany's World War II army, for war crimes under pressure from the Soviet Union, who was convicted of nine of seventeen charges, sentenced to 18 years in prison, but served only four years before being released, despite charges covering activities such as authorising or permitting the killing, deportation, and maltreatment of Jews and other civilians, maltreating and killing prisoners of war, ordering the execution of Soviet political commissars in compliance with Hitler's Commissar Order and issuing scorched earth orders while in retreat in the Crimea, as his early release on 7 May 1953 was also the result of pressure by Winston Churchill, Konrad Adenauer, B. H. Liddell Hart, and other supporters, and as the conduct of the trial was partly responsible for creating the legend of a 'clean Wehrmacht'
1945-2016 German trial judgments concerning national socialist homicidal crimes: 1945-2016 German trial judgments concerning national socialist homicidal crimes - Justiz und NS-Verbrechen - Ungesühnte Nazijustiz - Furchtbare Juristen
2013-2018 'National Socialist Underground' trial in Munich's Higher Regional Court: 2013-2018 National Socialist Underground trial against several people in connection with the 'National Socialist Underground' terrorist organization in Germany and the NSU murders, making public claims of institutionalized racism within the German police force who for years ruled out the Neo-Nazis as potential suspects in the killings and instead focused on suspects with Turkish backgrounds
February 2020 German appeals court denies bid to remove 700-year-old anti-Semitic 'Jew pig’ statue: 5 February 2020: 75 years after the liberation of the German Auschwitz death camp, German appeals court denies bid to remove 700-year-old anti-Semitic 'Jew pig’ statue from a church where Martin Luther once preached, as plaintiff Michael Duellmann argued that the sculpture is 'a defamation of and insult to the Jewish people' that has 'a terrible effect up to this day', telling AP that he will appeal the case to Germany’s Federal Court of Justice and is prepared to take it all the way to the European Court of Human Rights if necessary
July-October 2020 Halle synagogue attack trial at Magdeburg district court: October 2019 Halle synagogue shooting trial in Magdeburg
22 July 2020 at Bruno Dey trial in Hamburg witness Marek Dunin-Wasowicz wants to be heard in Germany: 22 July 2020: Still haunted by the pyres of burning bodies, Marek Dunin-Wasowicz, who spent several months at Stutthof camp, initially built to imprison Polish leaders and intelligentsia in September 1939, where war crimes defendant Bruno Dey at trial in Hamburg served, wants to speak out for the more than 60,000 people killed at the camp and for the few survivors who are still alive, also wanting his testimony to be heard in Germany, the country where Nazism originated and at a time of rising neo-Nazism linked rhetoric, politics and crime in Halle, Hanau, Kassel, Frankfurt, Berlin etc. and in Europe, also reporting that Germans came up to his table in the courtroom to meet him, 'to ask forgiveness in the name of their grandfathers, their fathers', 'I was shocked', and also calling Germany’s long delay in bringing Nazi personnel like Dey to justice 'inexcusable'
Courts of Greece
Courts in Iceland
Courts of Ireland
Courts in the Netherlands
Courts in Norway
Courts in Romania
Courts in Russia
Courts in Serbia
Courts in Slovenia
Courts in Spain
Courts in Sweden
Courts in Switzerland
Courts in Turkey
Courts in Ukraine
Courts of the United Kingdom
Law enforcement in Europe: Law enforcement in Europe - Law enforcement agencies in Europe
Europol: Since 1998 Europol, the law enforcement agency of the EU to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states - Since 2002 European Confederation of Police, the umbrella organization of 33 trade unions from 26 European countries, which represent a total of more than 500,000 police officers, as its goals include enhancing the efficiency of police work under democratic control, the creation of norms for the qualifications of police employees, the preservation of the civil status of police officers, and the prevention of the privatization of police duties - Since 2002 Eurojust, an agency of the EU dealing with judicial co-operation in criminal matters among agencies of the member states, seated in The Hague
July 2019 anti-doping police operation: 8 July 2019: 3.8 million doping substances and fake medicines seized worldwide, according to Europol, saying 17 organised crime groups involved in the trafficking of counterfeit medicines and doping material dismantled as 33 countries, Interpol, the Joint Research Centre, the European Anti-Fraud Office, the World Anti-Doping Agency joined forces in the Europol-coordinated operation 'Viribus' for a massive crackdown on the trafficking of doping materials and counterfeit medicines - 9 July 2019: A Europe-wide police operation has led to the seizure of tons of steroids, 234 arrests, the dismantling of 17 crime groups and the closure of nine underground labs, in the largest operation of its kind ever conducted

Environment of Europe: Environment of Europe - Environment of the European Union
Air pollution in the EU: Air pollution in the European Union - Air quality and EU legislation
September 2018: 11 September 2018: Air pollution is now 'the biggest environmental risk' to public health in Europe but governments are failing to adequately deal with the crisis, the EU Court of Auditors has found
February 2019: 19 February 2019: Majority of European firms have no CO2 reduction targets and only one in three firms have climate goals set to go beyond 2025, report finds
March 2019: 12 March 2019: The number of early deaths caused by air pollution is double previous estimates, and dirty air is killing 800,000 people a year in Europe, according to new research, published in the European Heart Journal, urging the phasing out of fossil fuel burning
October 2019 little progress on tackling air quality in Europe: 16 October 2019: Little progress has been made on tackling air quality in Europe despite public outcry in many countries, according to European Environment Agency research that found levels of fine particulate matter stalled after decades of reductions
December 2019 despite the scale of shipping emissions they are not part of European emissions reduction targets: 9 December 2019: Greenhouse gas emissions from shipping equal the carbon footprint of a quarter of passenger cars in Europe and stand in the way of countries meeting the Paris agreement, new analysis reveals, but despite the scale of shipping emissions from both container and cruise ships in Europe, they are not part of European emissions reduction targets
3 August 2020 increase of SUV numbers, high-polluting cars threat to public health: 3 August 2020: The large increase in numbers of SUVs in the UK and around the world is the second-largest contributor to the increase in global emissions since 2010, according to the International Energy Agency, also saying if SUV drivers were a nation, they would rank seventh in the world for carbon emissions
Climate and climate change in Europe: Climate of Europe - Climate change in Europe
August 2017: 4 August 2017: Deaths from weather disasters could increase 50-fold in Europe by the start of the next century if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or protect citizens, researchers are warning
July 2019: 25 July 2019: Climate crisis blamed as temperature records broken in three EU nations
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply and sanitation in the European Union
August 2018: 2 August 2018: Freshwater fish are suffocating in rivers across Europe during the heatwave
Environmental issues by country: Environmental issues by country
Since 2014 diesel emissions scandal: Since 2014 International diesel emissions scandal, raising awareness over the high levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide range of carmakers, including BMW, Citroen, Fiat, Ford, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes, Peugeot, Renault, Volkswagen group and Volvo - 28 February 2018: 'Dieselgate' - a timeline of Germany's car emissions fraud scandal
2016: 8 December 2016: Amid mounting frustration in Brussels over what EU officials see as governments colluding with the powerful car industry, the European Commission is wielding its biggest available stick in an attempt to force nations to clamp down on diesel cars spewing health-harming nitrogen oxide pollution
2017: 15 May 2017: The global human health impact of the diesel emissions scandal has been revealed by new research showing a minimum of 38,000 people a year die early due to the failure of diesel vehicles to meet official limits in real driving conditions, as most of the deaths are in Europe, where highly polluting cars are the main culprit, and in China and India
February 2018: 22 February 2018: 'We can't just stop breathing', a global scandal, made in Germany
May 2018: 4 May 2018: Former VW boss Winterkorn can avoid USA jail by staying in Germany, after indictment says that Winterkorn conspired with other VW employees to defraud the USA, commit wire fraud, and violate the country's Clean Air Act - 17 May 2018: The European Commission sent six countries, including Germany, France and the UK, to Europe’s highest court ECJ for breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits and for failing to meet EU air quality standards, in a long-running process of crimes, denials and shady tricks
September 2018: 17 September 2018: Three years after the Dieselgate scandal erupted, number of highly polluting diesel vehicles pumping out toxic emissions on Europe’s streets still growing and has risen to 43 million - 19 September 2018: EU probes German car makers including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen and Audi for suspected collusion to cheat emission tests
November 2018: 27 November 2018: Air pollution from roads causes at least €70bn in health damage every year in the EU, with diesel fumes responsible for three-quarters of the harm, according to a new report, finding the vast majority of the costs were borne by taxpayers through government-funded health services
Waste in Europe: Waste in Europe - Waste in the European Union
Food waste in the European Union: Food waste in the European Union
2016: 13 July 2016: Action to cut food waste gains momentum across Europe, after France’s ban on supermarkets throwing away unwanted food has led to greater calls for laws on food waste
Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
2017 Egg contamination scandal: July/August 2017 Egg contamination scandal in EU's Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - 3 August 2017: Millions of eggs are being recalled from shops and warehouses in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium after they were found to contain high levels of a toxic insecticide banned from use in the production of food for human consumption - 12 August 2017: Scandal involving eggs contaminated with insecticide spread to 15 EU countries, Switzerland and as far away as Hong Kong, as the European Commission calls for a special meeting on the growing crisis
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
Environmental policy of the European Union: Environmental policy of the European Union
2000: December 2000 Water Framework Directive, EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies
2015: 28 October 2015: EU caves in to auto industry pressure for weak emissions limits and test procedure, which will allow car manufactures to emit more than twice legal limit of NOx
2017: 6 January 2016: New European data reveal that modern diesel cars produce 10 times more toxic air pollution than heavy trucks and buses, due to the much stricter testing applied to large vehicles in the EU, according to the researchers behind the report
May 2018: 17 May 2018: Paris, Brussels, Madrid, suffering from high levels of dangerous nitrogen oxides emmissions caused in part by diesel vehicles, seek to annul EU legislation that eased car emmission limits
December 2019 despite the scale of shipping emissions they are not part of European emissions reduction targets: 9 December 2019: Greenhouse gas emissions from shipping equal the carbon footprint of a quarter of passenger cars in Europe and stand in the way of countries meeting the Paris agreement, new analysis reveals, but despite the scale of shipping emissions from both container and cruise ships in Europe, especially France, Germany, UK, Spain, Sweden and Finland, they are not part of European emissions reduction targets
European Climate Change Programme: European Climate Change Programme

Natural disasters in Europe
European windstorms: European windstorms
2007 Kyrill storm: Kyrill (storm) 2007
2013 St. Jude storm, Cyclone Bodil and Orkan Dirk: St. Jude storm October 2013 - Cyclone Bodil December 2013 - 5 December 2013: European storm turns deadly, threatens huge tidal surge - Orkan Dirk 23. - 25. Dezember 2013
October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia: October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia
October 2017 storm Herwart: Oktober 2017 Sturmtief Herwart - 30 October 2017: At least six people have died in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic as a result of storm Herwart, while fallen trees and damage to railway lines have left thousands of travellers stranded
2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season: 2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season - January 2018 Storm Eleanor
2017–2018 Western Europe windstorm season: 2017–2018 Western Europe windstorm season - 3 janvier 2018: La tempête Eleanor (Burglind), quatrième de la saison, a causé plusieurs accidents, tuant une personne en France et perturbant le trafic - 18. Januar 2018 Sturmtief Friederike - 19 January 2018: Deadly gales halt trains and flights across north-west Europe
2018–19 European windstorm season: 2018–19 European windstorm season since September 2018
22 December 2019 storms Elsa and Fabien: 22 December 2019: Storms Elsa and Fabien leave nine people dead across Europe, namely in Spain, Portugal and France, as the region braced for more violent winds and heavy rain
Since 4 February 2020 Storm Ciara: Since 4 February 2020 Storm Ciara affecting European countries, called 'Orkan Sabine' in German
Since 10 February 2020 storm Dennis: Since 10 February 2020 storm Dennis is an active European windstorm currently affecting parts of Northwestern Europe - 16 February 2020: Anger and fear across UK as second storm, called 'Dennis', wreaks havoc, reported by 'The Guardian'
Floods in Europe: Floods in Europe
2002 European floods: 2002 European floods
2005 European floods: 2005 European floods
2009 European floods: 2009 European floods
2010 Central European floods: 2010 Central European floods
2011 European floods: 2011 European floods
2013 European floods: 2013 European floods - 3 juin 2013: Des inondations et des glissements de terrain provoqués par des pluies diluviennes dans plusieurs pays d'Europe ont fait quatre morts et au moins huit disparus, et des centaines de personnes ont été évacuées
May 2014 Southeast Europe floods: May 2014 Southeast Europe floods, causing over 2,000 landslides across the Balkan region and spreading damage across many towns and villages
May/June 2016 European floods: May/June 2016 extreme flooding began after several days of heavy rain in central Europe, mostly Germany and France, but also Austria, Belgium, Romania, and Moldova
October 2018 mediterranean floods: 11 October 2018: The search continues for missing people following flash flooding events in Spain, Italy, and France
Since 4 October 2018 European floods: Since 4 October, 2018, heavy floods have affected Europe, in the Italian region of Calabria and Sardinia, in Spain and Mallorca, in Southwest France, in some parts of Portugal and the United Kingdom, at the end of the month Italy was struck again by heavy floods and strong winds
Weather events in Europe: Weather events in Europe
2010/2011 European winter: Winter of 2010–11 in Europe
March 2013 extreme weather events in Europe: March 2013 extreme weather events in Europe
February/March 2018 European windstorms: February/March 2018 European windstorms and the 'Beast from the East'
February 2018: 28 février 2018: La vague de froid qui s'est abattue ces derniers jours sur l'Europe avait fait une quarantaine de morts, dont de nombreux sans-abri
Januar 2019 Schneefälle in Mitteleuropa: Januar 2019 Schneefälle in Mitteleuropa
Cold waves in Europe: Cold waves in Europe
Early 2012 European cold wave: Early 2012 European cold wave
January 2017 European cold wave: January 2017 European cold wave - 8 January 2017: Heavy snowfall and below-freezing temperatures cause death and chaos across Europe - 11 January 2017: Cold snap in large parts of Europe causes hardship especially among migrants, the homeless and the elderly
2018 European cold wave: 28 février 2018: La vague de froid qui s'est abattue ces derniers jours sur l'Europe avait fait une quarantaine de morts, dont de nombreux sans-abri
Heat waves in Europe: Heat waves in Europe
2003 European heat wave: 2003 European heat wave
2006 European heat wave: 2006 European heat wave
2017 European heat wave: Hitze und Unwetter in Europa 2017 - 2 August 2017: Alert in Europe over rising temperatures, with more than 40 degrees in some regions
2018 European heat waves: 2018 European drought and heat wave, a period of unusually hot weather that has led to record-breaking temperatures and wildfires in many parts of Europe during the spring and summer of 2018, part of a larger heat wave affecting the northern hemisphere - 27 July 2018: The heatwave searing northern Europe was made more than twice as likely by climate change, according to scientists - 3 août 2018: La canicule tue deux personnes en Espagne, un ouvrier d'origine nigériane, qui travaillait sur un chantier d'autoroute près de Murcie, et un senior qui entretenait son jardin potager à Murcie - 6 August 2018: Heat kills thousands of fish in River Rhine, as Europe is in the throes of a heat wave that is impacting life in many different ways - 6 August 2018: Swiss aid drought-hit farmers, pull dead fish from Rhine - 19 octobre 2018: Faute de pluie, le Rhin à son plus bas historique, nombreuses répercussions économiques
June/July 2019 European heat wave: Since 24 June 2019 European heat wave, a period of unusually hot weather affecting Southwestern to Central Europe, which led to record-breaking temperatures for the month of June for many places in Europe - 23 juillet 2019: Le mercure va grimper jusqu'à 43 degrés jusqu'à vendredi sur l'ensemble de l'Europe occidentale - 26 July 2019: All-time temperature records tumble again as heatwave sears Europe and Paris displays a temperature of 42.5C
August 2019: 2 August 2019: With wildfires raging around the world, hot July 2019 across the globe and record-shattering European heatwave likely a result of the human-driven climate crisis, according to new data from the World Meteorological Organization, following the warmest ever June - 2 August 2019: Heatwaves amplify near-record levels of ice melt in northern hemisphere, as glaciers retreat on Greenland fjords and Alpine peaks
Wildfires in Europe: Wildfires in Europe
2017: 18 juillet 2017: De violents incendies de forêt font rage depuis plusieurs jours dans le sud de l'Europe, notamment au Portugal, en France, en Italie et en Croatie où les flammes ont atteint la banlieue de Split, la deuxième ville du pays
Earthquakes in Europe: Earthquakes in Europe
Earthquakes in Greece
Earthquakes in Italy - 2009 L'Aquila earthquake - 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
Earthquakes in Russia
Earthquakes in Spain - 2011 Lorca earthquake
Earthquakes in Yugoslavia




European Union: European Union
Treaties and law of the European Union: Treaties of the European Union - European Union law
1992 Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, led to the creation of the single European currency, and has been amended by the treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon
2004 Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 but was replaced by the Treaty of Lisbon following the French European Constitution referendum in 2005 and the Dutch European Constitution referendum in 2005
Common values of the European Union's member states: Common values of the European Union's member states are human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law, respect for human rights, minority rights, free market, member states support the principles of pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity, equality of the sexes
Since 2007/2009 Treaty of Lisbon amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union - Since 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Human rights in Europe and in the European Union - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country
2015/2016: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' European Union report examining migration and asylum, discrimination and intolerance, counterterrorism, Croatia, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK
European Convention on Human Rights and 2005 rejected constitution: Since 1950/1953 European Convention on Human Rights, international treaty to respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe
2004/2005 'Constitution for Europe' rejected by French and Dutch voters: 2004 Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, rejected by French and Dutch voters in May and June 2005, an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the EU, that would have replaced the existing EU treaties with a single text, given legal force to the Charter of Fundamental Rights, and expanded Qualified Majority Voting into policy areas which had previously been decided by unanimity among member states
Since October December 2000/2009 'Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union': Since October December 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, enshrining certain political, social, and economic rights for EU citizens and residents into EU law, after its legal status was uncertain until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009 - EU Charter of Fundamental Rights website - Text
Text of the 'Charter of Fundamental Rights': The text of the 'Charter of Fundamental Rights' contains some 54 articles divided into seven titles, as the first six titles deal with substantive rights under the headings dignity, freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens' rights and justice, while the last title deals with the interpretation and application of the Charter
Title 'Dignity': Title 'Dignity', contains 11 articles including 'Human dignity', 'Right to life' saying everyone has the right to life, 'Right to the integrity of the person' saying everyone has the right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity, 'Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment', 'Prohibition of slavery and forced labour'
Title 'Freedoms': Title 'Freedoms', contain articles 6-19 including 'Right to liberty and security', 'Respect for private and family life' saying everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications, 'Protection of personal data', 'Right to marry and right to found a family', 'Freedom of thought, conscience and religion', 'Freedom of expression and information' saying everyone has the right to freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers, the freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected, 'Freedom of assembly and of association', 'Freedom of the arts and sciences', 'Right to education' saying everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training, 'Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work', saying everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation, and nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union, 'Freedom to conduct a business', 'Right to property', 'Right to asylum', 'Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition', saying collective expulsions are prohibited, and no one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
Title 'Equality': Title 'Equality', contains 'Equality before the law', 'Non-discrimination', 'Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity', 'Equality between women and men', 'The rights of the child', 'The rights of the elderly', 'Integration of persons with disabilities'
Title 'Solidarity': Title 'Solidarity' - title IV of the charter - contains 11 articles including 'Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking', 'Right of collective bargaining and action', 'Right of access to placement services', 'Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal', 'Fair and just working conditions', 'Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work', 'Family and professional life', 'Social security and social assistance', 'Health care' saying everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment, 'Access to services of general economic interest', 'Environmental protection', 'Consumer protection'
Title 'Citizen's Rights': Title 'Citizen's Rights', contains 'Right to good administration', 'Freedom of movement and of residence'
Title 'Justice': Title 'Justice'
European Court of Human Rights: Since 1959/1998 European Court of Human Rights (see Europe in general further up)

Citizenship of the European Union: Citizenship of the European Union - Citizens’ Rights Directive
November 2015: 15 November 2015: Calls across Europe for tightening of borders grow louder after Paris Islamic State's terror attacks
October 2018 OECD's blacklist: 16 October 2018: Europe’s security is being put at risk by so-called 'golden passport' schemes that have allowed states to sell citizenship or residency to potentially dangerous individuals, EU justice commissioner Vera Jourová warns, after Malta and Cyprus were named in OECD's blacklist of 21 nations operating passport schemes that are deemed to pose a high risk of tax evasion and after the two EU member states have already sold citizenship to hundreds of individuals from Russia, China and the Middle East

Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union: Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union

European Union's internal market: European Union's internal market

The right of asylum in the EU, asylum and immigration: Asylum in the European Union - Right of asylum in the European Union - European Asylum Curriculum EAC is an EU Member State initiative intending to enhance the capacity and quality of the European asylum process as well as to strengthen practical cooperation among the European asylum/immigration systems - European Asylum Support Office, agency to strengthen EU Member States practical cooperation on asylum, enhance the implementation of the Common European Asylum System CEAS, and support Member States under particular pressure - Since 1990 Dublin Regulation, a EU law that determines the EU Member State responsible to examine an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention and the EU Qualification Directive, within the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015 - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response' November 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk - 21 September 2015: As ministers of EU member states, divided over how to distribute the influx of refugees, are meeting for more talks, at least 13 refugees drowned off the coast of Turkey, the latest to perish as they try to escape brutal conflicts, known by Europeans and others since many years - 3 November 2015: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands more refugees to Europe, as UNHCR reports 30% in increase in refugees since Russia began bombing Syria - 14 November 2015: Islamic State's terror attacks in Paris have increased fears amongst the refugees, many fleeing from Islamic State terrorists in Iraq and Syria and Assad's, Russia's and Iran's war crimes, that more borders will shut and that they will not be welcomed so readily by European communities - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
Since 2015 border barriers in the EU: Since 2015 Border barriers constructed during the European refugee and migrant crisis - Since June 2015 Hungarian border barrier - 28 November: Soldiers in Macedonia have begun erecting a metal fence on the country's southern border with Greece
January-Mars 2016 since border barrieres: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE
August-November 2016 alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers: 30 August 2016: Tens of thousands migrate through Balkans since route declared shut in springtime - 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time
June 2018 EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants: 12 June 2018: Unable to tackle causes of refugee crises, EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants, as new border infrastructure, including scanners, automated number plate recognition systems, mobile laboratories for sample analysis, the establishment of teams of sniffer dogs, will be prioritised - 18 June 2016: MSF rejects EU funding in protest at the way Europe has responded to the refugee crisis
June 2018 sharp fall in number of people seeking asylum in EU: 18 June 2018: The EU’s asylum office counted 728,470 applications for international protection in 2017, a 44% reduction on the 1.3m applications the previous year, after more than 1 million people entered the EU in 2015, many fleeing the war in Syria
April 2019 emigration and immigration: 1 April 2019: Southern and eastern European countries are more concerned about emigration than immigration, according to a wide-ranging survey of attitudes in 14 EU countries
July 2019 EU states' progress on plans to redistribute refugees: 23 July 2019: UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration said in a joint statement 'the crucial role played by NGOs must be acknowledged (and) they should not be criminalised nor stigmatised for saving lives at sea', as 14 EU states made progress on plans to redistribute refugees rescued in the Mediterranean, while eight said they would actively take part, including Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Portugal
31 December 2019 belief in Europe shattered: 31 December 2019: When photographer Alice Aedy first covered the refugee crisis in 2016 she believed Europe would respond with humanity to images of families seeking shelter and safety, now saying 'we have not only failed, we have broken promises'
2 March 2020: Erdogan puts EU's failure to agree a common migration policy in spotlight: 2 March 2020: Erdogan puts EU's failure to agree a common migration policy in spotlight, the British 'Guardian' says, after 2016 EU-Turkey deal was 'celebrated by people who are dancing on the grave of refugee protection', according to Amnesty International
5 March 2020 Turkey deploys police forces along its border with Greece to halt violent pushback of migrants: 5 March 2020: Turkey is deploying 1,000 special police forces along its border with Greece to halt the pushback of migrants towards its territory, Suleyman Soylu said, adding that 164 migrants had been wounded by Greek authorities
7/8 March 2020 refugee center set on fire: 7 mars 2020: Un centre d'accueil pour réfugiés sur l'île grecque de Lesbos, géré par un ONG suisse, a été incendié samedi, après des membres de l'extrême droite grecque et des habitants de l'île ont récemment protesté contre l'arrivée à Lesbos de plus de 1700 migrants et réfugiés venus de Turquie - 8 March 2020: Blaze at International School of Peace for Refugee Children in Lesbos, founded by Israelis, comes amid tense standoff with Turkey over refugees, as suspected arson caused second fire in under a week at a migrant installation

Causes of refugee crises and EU's failure: Causes of refugee crises include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate crises, economic hardship
Since 2011 Syrian refugees due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people: Migrant motives in the European refugee and migrant crisis since 2014/2015 - primarily credited to the inundation of refugees due to political and social conflicts in regions such as Syria, the greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people
2016: 2008-2016 List refugees and total population of concern by UN region, includes 21,288,728 people in Africa in 2016, 31,168,078 people in Asia in 2016, 8,061,269 people in Latin America in 2016, and 6,210,994 people in Europe in 2016
2017 EU's 'out of sight' policy: 9 July 2017: Europe’s shameful response to the growing refugee crisis and its 'out of sight, out of mind’ attitude represents its failure of policy
June 2018: 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees on 7 June 2018, according to UNHCR
4 July 2019: 5,625,871 registered Syrian refugees on 4 July 2019, as Assad's, Iranian and Russian murderous war against the Syrian people continues in its ninth year and as Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians in Idlib province on 22 July 2019

The European Parliament, the directly elected parliamentary institution of the EU, composed of 751 members - Politics and elections of the European Parliament - Political groups of the European Parliament
2013: 6 February 2013: After catches have declined from 8.07 million tonnes in 1995 to just 4.94 million tons in 2010, the EU parliament has pushed for a drastic reform of fishing policy in a landmark vote seeking to end decades of overfishing - 16 avril 2013: Le Parlement européen freine le plan de lutte de l'UE contre le réchauffement climatique - 23 octobre: En réaction aux révélations d'espionnage le Parlement européen demande la suspension d'un accord avec les USA sur les données bancaires
January 2014: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies
May 2014 European Parliament election: European Parliament election 22–25 May 2014 - 27 May 2014: Far-right parties sweeping EU vote should serve as warning sign
September-November 2014: 18 September: In a resolution the European Parliament urges EU member states to cancel South Stream agreement and disconnect Russian banks, reaffirming also the prospect of Ukraine as a EU member - 27 November: EU parliament approves resolution calling on the EU to consider ordering search engines to separate their commercial services from their businesses
2015: 10 March: EU Parliament calls in fraud squad over National Front suspicions - 26 March: European Parliament has overwhelmingly voted for providing Ukraine with EUR 1.8 bln in macro-financial aid - 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I, despite undermining by German SPD-Schulz - 9 June 2015: MEPs advocate for extension and strengthening of sanctions against Russia during the debate on EU-Russia relations - 10 June: European Parliament's TTIP vote, and even debate over controversial dispute mechanism allowing big companies to bypass national courts, postponed by a margin of just two votes - 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive' - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision
2016: 28 April 2016: European MPs urge governments to carry out airdrops of food and medicines to relieve starving Syrian civilians trapped in areas that are besieged by Assad’s forces - 27 September 2016: Investigative journalists discuss 'Panama papers' in EU Parliament as EU seeks to develop plans to tackle widespread tax abuse through anonymous offshore companies - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 27 October/13 December 2016: Yazidi women, who escaped Islamic State terrorists' slavery and now advocate Yazidi community rights, win Sakharov prize and will receive the price on 13 December at noon in Strasbourg
2017: 18 January 2017: Berlusconi ally Tajani elected head of European parliament, following pact with Guy Verhofstadt’s liberals and cements centre-right’s dominance of top EU jobs - 28 février 2017: Une commission du Parlement européen a approuvé mardi un rapport d'enquête sur le scandale des moteurs diesel truqués de Volkswagen, qui dénonce 'la mauvaise gestion' de la Commission et des Etats membres après le scandale - 14 March: Polish MEP who said women must earn less than men because they are weaker, smaller and less intelligent has been handed unprecedented penalties by the European parliament - 4 July 2017: Jean-Claude Juncker accuses MEPs of failing to show respect for a small country describing the European parliament as ridiculous after only a few dozen MEPs turned up to a debate dedicated to assessing Malta’s six months in the EU presidency chair, also overshadowing the debate on the refugee and migrant crisis since 2014, as the EU still struggles in 2017 to forge a common response to the thousands and thousands of people arriving from north Africa and the Middle East or dying in the Mediterranean
2018: 27 March 2018: Members of European parliament raise concerns about cronyism and conflicts of interest at hiring of Juncker successor, as Eurosceptics already seized on the affair - 25 October 2018: Opponent of Russian regime's annexation of his native Ukrainian Crimea region Oleg Sentsov, imprisoned in Russia, has been awarded this year’s European Parliament Sakharov prize for freedom of thought
March 2019 Syria democracy protests outside the European Parliament: 14 March 2019: Demonstrators and activists gathered outside the European Parliament in the Belgian capital Brussels to demand the release of detainees from the prisons and detention centers of the Assad regime
May 2019 European Parliament election: 23-26 May 2019 European Parliament election - 2019 European Parliament election by country
26-28 May 2019: 26 May 2019: EU election results 2019 across Europe as voters boost Greens and far right and as centre left and right lose out, according to 'The Guardian' - 28 May 2019: Europe’s Greens, big winners in Sunday’s European elections, will use their newfound leverage in a fractured parliament to push an agenda of urgent climate action, social justice and civil liberties
15/16 July 2019 back-room candidate in the sign of field marshals: 15/16 July 2019: As 'Field marshal' Haftar’s forces supporting France and therefore involved in the 2 July 2019 Tajoura migrant center airstrike by Khalifa Haftar’s forces, that may amount to a war crime, according to the United Nations, Germany's Hitler-general 'Field marshal' Erwin Rommel supporting and whitewashing Minister of Defence Ursula von der Leyen, the back-room policy's candidate by a group of EU leaders led by Emmanuel Macron, narrowly backed as next European Commission president by MEPs
September 2019 EU parliament criticises UK's government: 12 September 2019: EU parliament is to criticise the British government’s treatment of EU citizens living in the UK and insist it will refuse to ratify a deal that fails to include an Irish backstop and provisions that tie the UK into EU standards after Brexit
18 September 2020 532 MEPs of EU Parliament demand halt to Nord Stream 2 project over Navalny's poisoning: 18 September 2020: European Parliament has demanded that sanctions against the Russian Federation should be strengthened and the construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline should be halted over the poisoning of Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny, as 532 MEPs voted for the resolution, 84 voted against it, and another 72 abstained

European Commission and Politics of the European Union
2012: 3 October 2012: EU nuclear reactors need repair according to a leaked draft-report by the European Commission - 22 November 2012: EU nations face tough budget summit - 23 November: EU leaders warn budget deal far off - 13 décembre: Accord à l'arrachée sur la supervision des banques européennes
2013: 8 February 2013: EU leaders in Brussels edged towards a 2014-2020 budget deal that would fix the bloc's ceiling for overall spending at €960 billion - 15 March 2013: EU summit begins amid anti-austerity protests - 14 mai: Réunion des Européens pour avancer sur l'évasion fiscale - 30 May: The European Commission gives major economies France and Spain extra time to trim their deficits as it laid down economic targets - 28 juin: L'UE veux concentrer sur 2014 et 2015 6 milliards d'euros de crédits budgétaires, afin de financer un mécanisme garantissant à de jeunes chômeurs de retrouver un emploi, un stage, une formation ou un apprentissage, et approuve le projet de budget 2014-2020 - 24 octobre 2013: Sommet de l'UE dominé par Lampedusa et l'espionnnage américain - 25 octobre: Initiative franco-allemande pour réglementer le renseignement - 25 octobre: Face à l'immigration aucune précision de l'UE n'est toutefois prévue avant juin 2014 - 8 November: EU executive backs trade chief caught in tax-fraud case - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments - 4 December: EU fines eight banks record 1.7 bn euros for rate fixing - 19 December: EU agrees on banking union ahead of summit
2014: 3 February 2014: Corruption in Europe costs the EU economy at least 120bn euros annually, the European Commission says - 28 May: After European Parliament election EU leaders agree to review priorities to win back public support - 28 June: EU promised to address Britain's concerns about the future of the EU after nominating Jean-Claude Juncker as the next European Commission president - 15 July: Jean-Claude Juncker elected European Commission president - 24 October: EU agrees to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and to 27% targets for renewable energy market share and increase in energy efficiency improvement - 24 October: EU finance ministers are to convene an emergency meeting after the disclosure of a demand for some countries to contribute billions more to the EU budget - 19 December: EU summit backs an investment plan aimed at kickstarting Europe's stalling economy, decision of new sanctions against Russia over its annexation of the Crimea reportedly not taken
2015: 9 March 2015: EU chief Juncker plans European army saying that 'with its own army, Europe could react more credibly to the threat to peace in a member state or in a neighbouring state' - 23 April 2015: EU to restore rescue operations after latest Mediterranean migrant boat disasters - 23 April: EU summit to offer resettlement to only 5,000 refugees - 23 April: Rights group condemns proposed EU refugees plan as 'totally inadequate' - 5 May 2015: Britain should get a fair deal in the EU but cannot impose its agenda on the bloc's other 27 members, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker answers after UK's Cameron has said he wants to be able to limit an influx of people from other EU states to Britain - 19 May: EU foreign ministers approve naval force to tackle people smugglers - 17 June: EU plan for refugee crisis in jeopardy as countries struggle to agree - 18 June: Greece's future in EU at stake as ministers gather for talks - 18/19 June: After eurozone finance ministers talks with Greece's Varoufakis failed, more emergency meetings and an EU emergency summit on Monday announced - 22 June: EU meeting in Brussels as Greece's Tsipras again demands debt relief and markets surge on hopes of last-minute deal - 23 June: Eurozone politicians in Brussels cautiously welcome new reform proposals by Greece as a possible basis for an agreement, saying that there is still a lot of work to be done to reach deal this week - 25 June: No deal reached in Greek debt crisis after another long night of talks, despite creditors' ultimatum, ahead of another crunch eurogroup meeting and then the EU leaders summit tonight - 26 June: Talks between eurozone finance ministers resume on Saturday as Greece has to make its €1.6bn payment to the International Monetary Fund on Tuesday - 30 June: EU's Juncker makes last-minute offer to Greece but Tsipras unmoved - 30 June: Hopes of last-minute deal on decision day for Greek PM Tsipras, as Greece faces deadline for reaching deal with creditors and making €1.6bn IMF payment, otherwise it will lose €7.2bn bailout funds - 6 July: European politicians will meet for crisis talks and the ECB faces a crucial decison over whether to its funding freeze after Greece's referendum 'no' vote - 7 July: Eurozone finance ministers and leaders meet in new efforts to find a common way out of Greek crisis - 8 July: Unless Greek government presents convincing details entailing more austerity as the basis for its third bailout in five years, all 28 national EU leaders are to gather in Brussels on Sunday in emergency session to discuss how to contain the fallout from Greece’s financial collapse - 8 July: After months of Greek government's second-rate theatre Europe has five days to find a shift - 9 July: Greek government seeks new EU loan to avert 'Grexit' and economic collapse, urged to deliver a detailed economic package - 10 July: After it has submitted a package of tough austerity measures Tsipras' government urges MPs to back bailout plan - 11 July: Eurozone creditors meet to discuss latest Greek proposals and to decide, after PM Tsipras received backing from his MPs - 12 July: Eurozone ministers will resume talks on Sunday after failing to reach agreement tonight on Greece’s request for a third bailout - 13 July: After Eurozone agreed that Greece should receive a new aid programme, several national parliaments must give their approval, including the Greek parliament - 16 July: ECB and Eurogroup consider next steps after Greek parliament's 'Yes' vote - 17 July: Eurozone's national votes on the Greek bailout 2015 - 17 July: German MPs debate Greek bailout - 17 July: EU agrees €7bn loan as Germany backs new Greek bailout talks - 15 August: Eurogroup’s approval of a third bailout for Greece means the country’s place in the Eurozone is not under threat, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker says - 19 August: Eurozone finance ministers and ESM agree 86-billion-euro bailout deal for Greece - 9 September 2015: Saying the response to this crisis should be the first priority of the EU, Jean-Claude Juncker gives details of a quota plan to resettle 160,000 refugees in the European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 September: EU interior ministers are gathering in Brussels for emergency talks on how to tackle the mounting refugee crisis a day after Germany reintroduced borders - 15 September: EU ministers can’t agree on what to do with 120,000 refugees, as Czech Republic, Slovakia and others oppose common plans to help desperate people and take strain off Greece, Italy and others - 21 September: Eastern Europe foreign ministers to meet in Luxembourg to discuss international refugee and migrant crisis - 22 September: EU ministers to discuss binding quotas, as Hungarian army given power to block refugees and Central European states resist refugee quotas - 22/23 September: European ministers adopt refugee relocation plan in Brussels - 23 September: EU summit amid resentment over quota deal in refugee crisis - 24 September: EU emergency talks with pledge of hundreds of millions of euros to help transit countries, as European council president Tusk criticises 'open doors and windows' policy - 24 September: EU without common policy on refugee crisis, as some politicians open their mouth widely and border disputes worsen - 15 October: EU summit issues today include Ukraine ceasefire, the refugee and migrant crisis, the economy, climate change, and efforts to support countries like Turkey to tackle refugee crisis - 16 October: EU offers Turkey 'action plan' on migration crisis - 26 October: EU and Balkans agree plan for 100,000 places in reception centres for refugees and a 17-point plan to manage the flow of refugees in the Balkans, including more shelter, border registration and increased naval operations - 20 November: EU ministers agree tighter border checks as Paris death toll rises to 130 - 5 December: Home affairs ministers push forward passenger data changes to store the names and credit card information of all passengers on flights into and out of the EU - 17 December 2015: Migrant crisis tops agenda of final EU summit of 2015
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government - 26 January: Schengen scheme on the brink after Amsterdam EU talks - 18/19 February 2016: EU summit in Brussels without invited Turkey but with special rights demanding UK's Cameron who will 'walk away' from talks if no EU deal - 20 February: Following EU summit deal Cameron takes Brussels plan to cabinet - 2 March: EU's Schengen members urged by European Commission to lift border checks to save passport-free zone - 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation - 7 March: International refugee and migrant crisis summit of EU and Turkey in Brussels - 7/8 March: 'One in, one out', the EU's simplistic answer to the refugee crisis, not even settled as decision delayed until a summit next week to flesh out the details of Turkey's new demands - 8 March 2016: UN refugee agency has concerns over the deal reached between the EU and Turkey that would see refugees sent back to Turkey, where some nationalities lack protection - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE - 17 March: EU member states and Turkey meet in Brussels to discuss a plan to stop migrants and refugees coming to Europe - 18 March: Deal between the EU and Turkey to stem the flow of refugees and migrants to Europe is hanging in the balance, over a decades-long dispute about the divided island of Cyprus - 18 March: EU's deal with Turkey means all those arriving in Greece from Sunday can expect to be returned to Turkey - 20 March: Greece delays sending refugees back to Turkey under EU deal saying they are waiting for extra personnel to implement the deal and will struggle to enforce it - 6 April: EU to set out proposals for overhaul of European asylum rules - 8 April: EU 'will toughen plans to make firms disclose offshore tax bills' in the wake of the Panama Papers - 23 April 2016: EU finance ministers agree to propose joint list of tax havens and approve plan to automatically exchange data on shell company owners - 27 April: Tusk rejects Tsipras request for EU summit on Greece bailout - 25 mai: Les ministres des Finances de la zone euro se sont engagés à alléger à terme la dette grecque si certaines conditions sont réunies - 13 July 2016: European officials have finalised plans to create a common EU asylum system and refugee resettlement scheme, which critics believe will be a further betrayal of refugee rights - 30 August: More tax deals involving some of the world's biggest companies from Amazon to Starbucks in the European commission's sights after EU's ruling against USA's 'Apple', the biggest blow dealt by Brussels so far in a long-running battle against multinationals and their tax avoidance - Informal EU meeting of the 27 heads of state or government on 16 September 2016 in Bratislava - 29. Oktober 2016: EU-Kommissar CDU-Oettinger nennt Chinesen bei Vortrag in Hamburg 'Schlitzaugen' und spricht von 'Kommunisten'-Blockade der Wallonie bei den CETA Verhandlungen zwischen Canada und der EU - 30 October 2016: German EU commissioner CDU-Oettinger accused of racism after remarks about Chinese, calls for his resignation follow failure to apologise for remarks
2017: 1 January 2017: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker spent years in his previous role as Luxembourg’s prime minister secretly blocking EU efforts to tackle tax avoidance by multinational corporations, leaked documents reveal - 27 September 2017: The Swedish truckmaker Scania, which is owned by Volkswagen, has been fined €880m by the European commission for price fixing - 25 octobre 2017: La Commission européenne a annoncé qu'aucun vote des Etats membres n'a eu lieu sur le renouvellement de la licence du glyphosate, après elle a abaissé sa proposition à une période d'utilisation réduite entre cinq et sept ans - 5 December 2017: EU named and shamed 17 countries in its first ever tax haven blacklist and put a further 47 on notice, including British overseas territories and the crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man - 15 December 2017: EU to force firms to reveal true owners in wake of Panama Papers, but anti-corruption campaigners criticise failure to include trusts in corporate ownership requirements
June 2018: 29 June 2018: According to the text signed at the EU summit, the 28 member states call on the Russian regime to recognize responsibility for the shooting down of the Malaysian Boeing 777 flight MH17, which was downed in the Donetsk region on 17 July 2014 - 30 June 2018: Cracks emerged Friday in Europe’s hard-fought summit deal on migration, as EU President Donald Tusk warned there was no guarantee it would work and France and Austria ruled themselves out of hosting migrant centres, as 'Medecins Sans Frontieres' said agreement aimed to turn away even the most vulnerable people from Europe’s shores, and the bodies of three babies were recovered and around 100 people were missing after a migrant boat sank off the coast of Libya on Friday
September 2018: 19 septembre 2018: Migrants et Brexit au menu des 28 à Salzbourg
May 2019 EU sanctions against cyberwarfare to cope with impunity: 17 mai 2019: Le conseil des ministres de l'UE a annoncé des 'mesures restrictives comprennent l'interdiction de voyager vers l'UE et le gel des avoirs' pour sanctionner les responsables de cyberattaques menées depuis l'extérieur de l'UE
July 2019: 3 July 2019: Lawmakers in the European Parliament and from across Germany's political spectrum slammed a proposal to make German Defense Minister CDU Ursula von der Leyen (CDU) the next European Commission president, saying her nomination failed to meet pre-electoral promises to respect the lead candidate process and the results of the European elections, calling the nomination a 'classic victory of backroom politics over democracy' and a 'farce' - 3 July 2019: Von der Leyen faces an investigation into suspected wrongdoing surrounding the use of outside consultants, including accusations that von der Leyen’s office circumvented public procurement rules in granting contracts worth millions of euros to the firms, as testimony from key witnesses appear to confirm suspicions of systematic corruption at the ministry
July 2019 von der Leyen, EU commission, arms exports and parliamentary investigative commission: 3 July 2019: Lawmakers in the European Parliament and from across Germany's political spectrum slammed a proposal to make German Defense Minister CDU Ursula von der Leyen the next European Commission president, saying her nomination failed to meet pre-electoral promises to respect the lead candidate process and the results of the European elections, calling the nomination a 'classic victory of backroom politics over democracy' and a 'farce' - Since April 2018 von der Leyen promoted CDU-led German government's decisions on arms exports to Saudi Arabia and Turkey - In 2019 a parliamentary investigative commission was installed after the Federal Court of Auditors complained that rules of government procurement had been ignored when giving external consultancies in von Leyen's ministry from 2015 to 2016 and it turned out documents were destroyed to cover this up - 3 July 2019: Von der Leyen faces an investigation into suspected wrongdoing surrounding the use of outside consultants, including accusations that von der Leyen’s office circumvented public procurement rules in granting contracts worth millions of euros to the firms, as testimony from key witnesses appear to confirm suspicions of systematic corruption at the ministry
September 2019 von der Leyen's 'Protecting the European way of life': 13 September 2019: CDU von der Leyen's 'Protecting the European way of life' from migrants is a gift to the neo-Nazis, as CDU and neo-Nazi linked AfD find common ground in 18 German towns
Budget of the European Union:
21 February 2020 EU budget summit collapses: 21 February 2020: EU summit collapses as leaders struggle to fill €75bn Brexit hole, as states deeply divided over budget and as big contributors reject plan for them to pay more - Budget of the European Union
9 April 2020 EU strikes €500bn relief deal for countries hit hardest by covid-19, showing remaining divisions: 9 April 2020: EU strikes €500bn relief deal for countries hit hardest by covid-19 pandemic, as France and Netherlands at odds on finance ministers’ €500bn compromise, showing remaining bitter divisions within the EU
23 April 2020 EU discuss covid-19 and impacts: 23 April 2020: EU countries discuss Europe-wide recovery fund and efforts against covid-19 pandemic
18 May 2020 proposed EU rescue fund against covid-19 crisis: 18 May 2020: Germany and France propose €500bn EU rescue fund against covid-19 crisis
24 June 2020 Europeans say EU 'irrelevant’ during covid-19 as EU-wide survey reveals deep disillusionment: 24 June 2020: Europeans say EU was 'irrelevant’ during covid-19 pandemic, as EU-wide survey reveals deep disillusionment at response, and desire for closer cooperation in future
5 July 2020 Srebrenica 25 years on and how the EU and UN lost appetite to fight war crimes: 5 July 2020: Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serb general convicted of ordering the execution of 8,000 men and boys from Srebrenica, will spend this week’s 25th anniversary of the slaughter in a cell in The Hague, after he was brought to justice in a joint effort, but where’s the desire to investigate mass killings in Syria, Yemen and Myanmar, the British 'Guardian' asks
7 July 2020 Europe faces deep recession EC says: 7 July 2020: Europe faces deep recession and UK will shrink by 10%, says EC, as gloomy forecast comes 10 days before EU leaders meet to discuss €750bn recovery plan
10 July 2020 bees and other wild pollinators not protected from decline by the EU: 10 July 2020: Bees and other wild pollinators are not being protected from decline by the EU, with loopholes even allowing for the use of banned pesticides known to be major killers of key species, according to a report from the European court of auditors
12 July 2020 EU leaders split over covid-19 recovery ahead of this week’s emergency summit: 12 July 2020: EU leaders are split over covid-19 recovery ahead of this week’s emergency summit that will expose national divisions over budgets, the €750bn pandemic fund, but not yet over Nazi general Rommel admiring Ursula von der Leyen, promoting war criminal Rommel, assigned as commander of the Führerbegleitbatallion, tasked with guarding Hitler and his field headquarters during the invasion of Poland, which began on 1 September 1939, describing the Rommel Barracks as one of the most important installations of the German military
17 July 2020 politicians discuss EU recovery fund in Brussels: 17 July 2020: Markets hope for progress over EU recovery fund during summit, after revelations showed that Italy's calls for urgent help since February 2020 to the European commission, led by CDU's Ursula von der Leyen, were ignored, and as the British 'Guardian' now reports live in rolling coverage of economic and financial news in a devastating pandemic and crisis
18 July 2020 EU talks to rescue €750bn recovery package stall and split over size of fund and seven-year budget: 18 July 2020: EU talks to rescue €750bn recovery package stall amid heated debate as second day sees negotiations split over size of fund and seven-year budget
19 July 2020 EU goes into extra time: 19 July 2020: EU prime ministers and presidents go into extra time as tempers fray at coronavirus pandemic summit, and as Poland's Mateusz Morawiecki publicly accused the Netherlands, Austria, Denmark and Sweden of being 'misers' while Italy's Giuseppe Conte claimed the Dutch were trying to rewrite the EU’s rules with their insistence on a veto on the disbursement of emergency funds, and as Macron and Merkel abruptly walked away from negotiations with PM Rutte who fears next Dutch general election in March 2021, amid expectations that, whereas the covid-19 crisis is over the peak, the economy would continue shrinking, and the industries, in particular the construction industry, which were doing relatively well, would be hit as well, and forecasts that the unemployment rate would grow from 3% to 7% by the end of 2020, due to political failures first and mainly in causing China and then as a consequence also in the EU commission ignoring calls for support in time
21 July 2020 EU's 'historic day' for taxpayers and working people: 21 July 2020: EU nations clinch $2.1 trillion budget and covid-19 aid deal after 4 days of talks to confront the biggest crisis and recession in its history, including a 750 billion euro covid-19 fund to be sent as loans and grants to hardest hit countries, as at first the grants were to total 500bn euros but later lowered to 390bn, on a so-called 'historic day for Europe', that is really historic for European taxpayers and working people, paying terribly since February 2020 for a decade of failures facing Iranian Mullahs', Assad's and Putin regime's aggressions and terrorism since 2011 in Syria, Yemen, the Middleeast, backed by Beijing's regime and its 2019 prevention of a reply in due time to the covid-19 aggression on global health
23 September 2020 EU's ‘solidarity à la carte’ plan: 23 September 2020: The European commission is abandoning the idea of mandatory refugee quotas, as it revives an attempt to change Europe’s asylum and migration rules after more than four years of deadlock, and as long-awaited migration proposals would allow EU member states to choose whether to accept refugees, or take charge of returning those denied asylum to their home countries, as millions of people were uprooted from their homes by conflict, violence and natural disasters in the first six months of this year 2020 according to new research
22-24 September 2020 European Research and Innovation Days: 22-24 September 2020 European Research and Innovation Days, the European Commission’s annual flagship event, bringing together policymakers, researchers, entrepreneurs and citizens to debate and shape the future of research and innovation in Europe and beyond, as Nazi general Rommel admiring Ursula von der Leyen continues to promote war criminal Rommel, assigned as commander of the 'Führerbegleitbatallion' during the invasion of Poland, since 1940 a military commander in Nazi Germany's conquest of western Europe, describing the Rommel Barracks as one of the most important installations of the German military
24 September 2020 school friend of Anne Frank lays first stone at new Dutch Holocaust memorial featuring names of victims: 24 September 2020: As site in Amsterdam’s Jewish Quarter will feature names of more than 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who were murdered in or on their way to Nazi concentration camps, a school friend of World War II Jewish diarist Anne Frank laid the first stone Wednesday at a new memorial under construction in Amsterdam to honor all Dutch victims of the Holocaust, after Dutch court cleared the way last year for the memorial to be constructed

EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
July 2018 Google hit with a landmark €4.34bn fine by the EU over 'serious illegal behaviour': 18 July 2018: Google has been hit with a landmark €4.34bn fine by the EU over 'serious illegal behaviour' to secure the dominance of its search engine on mobile phones since 2011

Budget of the European Union: Budget of the European Union
21 February 2020 EU budget summit collapses: 21 February 2020: EU summit collapses as leaders struggle to fill €75bn Brexit hole, as states deeply divided over budget and as big contributors reject plan for them to pay more
Taxation in the European Union: Taxation in the European Union
15/16 July 2020 EU commission proposing measures to contribute to Europe's recovery and growth: 15/16 July 2020: European Commission presents its new Tax Package proposing measures to contribute to Europe's recovery and growth

Common Agricultural Policy of the EU: Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union implements a system of agricultural subsidies and other programmes - Agriculture and Fisheries Council composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the 27 European Union member states
Since 1958 EU Commissioner for Agriculture: Since 1958EU Commissioner for Agriculture
Since 1956 timeline of EU agricultural policy: Timeline of EU agricultural policy since 1956 - Objectives and sectors covered by the CAP
Since 2014 reformed common agricultural policy: Since 2014 reformed common agricultural policy
2015 French protest against against cheap imports: 27 July 2015: Demonstrations of French farmers against cheap imports and falling prices prevent over 400 trucks from bringing in agricultural goods from Germany and Spain as president insists government is 'by their side'
Common Fisheries Policy of the EU: Common Fisheries Policy of the EU
December 2019 with new EU-commission fish populations will continue to be over-exploited: 18 December 2019: With new EU-commission, Europe’s fish populations will continue to be over-exploited despite a longstanding 2020 deadline for setting fishing quotas at sustainable levels, after ministers from across the EU forced through higher limits than scientists advised
Regional policy of the EU: Regional policy of the European Union

History of the euro, European Central Bank, European Stability Mechanism and Banking Union: History of the euro - The European Central Bank is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 18 EU member states - The Eurogroup meeting of the finance ministers of the eurozone exercises political control over the currency and related aspects of the EU's monetary union such as the Stability and Growth Pact - Eurozone
The European System of Central Banks is composed of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 European Union Member States
2012 European Stability Mechanism: European Stability Mechanism since 2012 - 2012 Banking Union in the EU is the transfer of responsibility for banking policy from the national to the EU level, initiated in 2012 as a response to the Eurozone crisis
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
2014: 19 August 2014: The Single Resolution Mechanism implements in participating Member States the EU's Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms found to be in danger of failing - 4 November 2014: Single Supervisory Mechanism, granting the European Central Bank a supervisory role to monitor the financial stability of banks based in participating states, starting from 4 November 2014
2015: 19 June 2015: ECB staves off collapse of Greek banking system with emergency funding, as Greece's PM Tsipras sides with Putin regime in Moscow for financial support, saying 'we are ready to go to new seas to reach new safe ports' - 6 July: ECB decides to maintain the emergency liquidity assistance keeping Greek banks afloat at the level set on June 26 adjusting the collateral demanded from Greek banks in return for the assistance - 16 July: ECB hands Greece extra €900m in emergency funds as eurozone finance ministers scramble to assemble €7bn bridging finance to keep Greek economy afloat
2018: 19 February 2018: The reputation of the European Central Bank is under the spotlight after the detention of its policymaker Ilmars Rimsevics over bribery allegation, who is questioned on charge relating to bank accused of doing business with North Korea
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
European Investment Bank
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development since 1991
2015: 2 July 2015: Lidl supermarket chain owned by one of Germany’s wealthiest families given almost $1bn in public development funding over past decade by World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and others as it expands into eastern Europe
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission

Social movements and protests in the European Union
Since 2000: Crisis situations and unrest in Europe since 2000
2003: 15 February 2003 Anti-War Protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressing opposition to the imminent Iraq War, some of the largest protests took place in Europe
2011: 2011 'Occupy Wall Street' locations worldwide - 15. Oktober 2011: 'Occupy Wall Street' kommt nach Europa (Deutschland, England, Frankreich, Italien, Schweiz, Spanien)
2012: 11 February 2012: Tens of thousands in co-ordinated protests across Europe opposing a controversial 'anti-piracy' agreement - 12 February 2012: Europeans in many countries protest against controversial EU internet pact 'ACTA' - 26. Februar 2012: Erneut Demonstrationen von Zehntausenden in ganz Europa gegen 'ACTA' - 19 May 2012: 20.000 march at Frankfurt 'Occupy' protest rally - 14 November 2012: General strikes in Spain and Portugal will spearhead the day of action called by European unions and joined by activists as anger over governments' tight-fisted policies boils over - 14 November: Workers across the European Union have staged a series of protests and strikes against rising unemployment and spending cuts
2013: 27 February 2013: French writer (Occupy movement), diplomat, member of the French resistance during World War II and concentration camp survivor, Stéphane Hessel has died at the age of 95 - 1 June 2013: Thousands protest Europe crisis in Madrid on Saturday in a string of demonstrations across Europe
2015: 13 September 2015: Tens of thousands of Europeans hit the streets in several countries on Saturday to show solidarity with huge numbers of refugees entering the continent amid the international refugee and migrant crisis - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards, smaller protests were also held in other EU cities, including Amsterdam - 19 October 2015: Thousands of people demonstrated in the capitals of France, Spain and Italy on Sunday in solidarity with Israel, as the wave of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories continued unabated - 19 December: Marking International Migrants Day, Greeks and migrants took to the streets of Athens calling on European leaders to stop erecting fences and to open the borders for refugees and migrants fleeing countries torn by war and poverty
2016: 28 February 2016: Protests against Russian aggression in Ukraine in European countries France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain have taken place on 28 February 2016, two years after Russian regime forces began their invasion of Crimea - 19 March: Thousands of people marched in London, Athens, Barcelona, Vienna, Amsterdam and several Swiss cities voicing their support for refugees and migrants on Saturday, the day after the EU and Turkey sealed a deal designed to tackle the international refugee and migrant crisis - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 18 April 2016: Thousands of people, including victims and their families, walked through central Brussels on Sunday in a 'march against terror and hate', almost one month after 'Islamic State' terrorists' attacks
October 2016: 5 October 2016: Demonstrators gathered in Brussels near the headquarters of the EU Council and the European Commission to protest against the brutal attacks by the Assad and Russian forces on the liberated areas in Syria, especially in Aleppo, calling for saving Aleppo and stopping the indiscriminate bombardment of civilians, slamming the international community’s 'dubious' silence over the continued bombing and mass forced displacement of civilians by the Assad regime and its allies - 22 octobre 2016: Quelque 6000 personnes ont manifesté ce samedi à Amsterdam contre le CETA et pour déclarer leur soutien à la Wallonie
December 2016: 14 December 2016: Protests and vigils were held in cities across the world including Ankara, Beirut, Istanbul and Paris on Tuesday and Wednesday to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being committed against civilians by the Assad regime and its Hezbollah, Iranian and Russian allies - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where after all hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy - 18 December: Doctors, nurses and medics have staged a protest outside Parliament in London against Russian, Iranian and Assad's attacks on their professional colleagues trying to save lives in Syria as thousands of people in Germany and in France were protesting against Assad's ongoing war in Syria
2017: 5 February 2017: From London and Paris to New York and Washington, thousands of people took to the streets to protest USA president Trump’s travel ban amid a fierce legal battle over the order
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Nearly 50,000 people marched through the European quarter of Brussels on Thursday night in support of Catalan independence and the region’s ousted president Carles Puigdemont, who has avoided arrest in Spain by taking refuge in Belgium - 17 December 2017: Ahead of International Migrants Day on 18 December and calling for more facilities to accommodate asylum seekers, migrant charities, rights advocates and concerned citizens marched along the French Riviera, also calling on authorities to allow migrants to enter France from Italy - 31 December 2017: Iranian regime opponents held demonstrations Saturday in France and Germany to show support for opposition groups who have held rallies inside their country in recent days
February 2018 protests against Assad's Rif Dimashq bombing campaign: 23 February 2018: Demonstrations were held in European cities and capitals to show solidarity with the people of the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta which is under a ferocious bombing campaign by regime forces who are backed by Russian air force
March 2018: 2 March 2018: Tens of thousands of Slovaks marched in a national rally to honor journalist Jan Kuciak and his girlfriend, who were shot dead as Kuciak was working on a story about the influence of the Italian mafia in Slovakia, as similar marches were being held in some 25 towns and cities across the country and in cities abroad, including London, Paris and Brussels
May 2018: 29 May 2018: Critics note that protest includes no mention of the nearly 4,000 Palestinians who have died in the Syrian conflict since 2011, mostly at the hands of Assad and his allies in their war against the Syrian people, as demonstrators outside the meeting place in Brussels of EU foreign ministers protest deaths, including many Israelis, related to hostilities between Israel and Palestinians since 2008
August 2018: 10 August 2018: Almost 400 Ryanair flights scheduled for Friday have been grounded because of pilot strikes, as employees in Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands are staging a 24-hour walkout over pay and conditions
November 2018: 24 November 2018: Tens of thousands of people rallied across Europe on Saturday protesting violence against women, with more than 30,000 turning out in Paris
8/9 February 2019: 9 February 2019: Several thousand supporters of an exiled Iranian opposition group marched through Paris on Friday, calling for an end to Iran’s clerical regime 40 years after the regime's seizure of power and months after European authorities thwarted regime-backed plot to bomb event
March 2019: 30 March 2019: Irish people took part in a number of demonstrations on the Irish border along a number of border crossing points in Counties Cavan, Donegal, Fermanagh, Louth, Monaghan and Tyrone in opposition to Brexit, also setting up a mock checkpoint in Carrickcarnon, which was manned by protesters dressed as customs officers and carrying anti-Brexit placards and EU flags
July 2019 Syrian refugees hunger strike: 5 July 2019: More Syrian refugees in Europe are joining a hunger strike, as activists gathered in Paris on Thursday, holding signs that demonstrated solidarity with the victims of the Assad regime and Russian brutal bombing campaign, and as French government itself is involved in the July 2019 Tajoura migrant center massacre and airstrikes by warlord Haftar's forces, backed by Egypt, France, Russia and the United Arab Emirates
20 July 2019 protest against neo-Nazi party in Kassel: 20 July 2019: Thousands of people have staged a counterprotest against a planned demonstration by a neo-Nazi party in Kassel, several weeks after the murder of Walter Lübcke, one of the city's prominent pro-migrant politicians
31 May 2020 demonstrators rally in Europe's Denmark, Germany and UK to protest against racism and USA police brutality: 31 May 2020: After USA protesters' anger and concern over the racist killing of African-American George Floyd by a white police officer in Minnesota has resonated in European countries, demonstrators rally in Europe's Denmark, chanting 'No justice, no peace', and Germany, saying 'Justice can't wait' and 'Black lives matter', and UK to protest against racism and police brutality, despite social distancing rules, in solidarity with USA protesters
7 June 2020 thousands rally in Europe against racism, police brutality: 7 June 2020: Thousands rally against racism and police brutality in Barcelona, Berlin, London, Madrid, Paris and Rome and more cities on Sunday in support of the 'Black Lives Matter' movement, which has drawn large protests around the world including Europe, in a sign that the movement against USA police brutality is resonating in Africa, North and South America, Asia, Australia and Europe with wider calls over addressing racism in different countries, as messaging technology is helping fuel global protests

European Union law is a body of treaties and legislation, such as Regulations and Directives, which have direct effect or indirect effect on the laws of member states of the European Union - Law enforcement in Europe - Judiciary of the European Union - Relationship between the European Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights - European Union and the International Criminal Court
Primacy of European Union law: Primacy of European Union law, an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails, the norms of national law have to be set aside - Conflict of laws
Schengen Information System: Schengen Information System
EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
2017: 24 July 2017: Germany's largest car maker Volkswagen AG has asked Europe's antitrust watchdog to scrutinize decades of coordination efforts by the country's main auto manufacturers amid growing concern they might have breached antitrust regulations
Anti-fraud Office in Europe: European Anti-fraud Office
2015: 3 June 2015: European Anti-Fraud Office says it received 1,417 allegations of fraud in 2014 and recommended that the EU tries to claw back 900 million euros lost because of suspected fraud
2018: 5 January 2018: Secret report by the EU’s antifraud office calls on EU officials in Brussels to take 'appropriate measures' over a farm and hotel owned by Czech PM Andrej Babiš’s Agrofert and alleged 'irregularities'
Data protection in the EU and Europe:
Since 1995/1998 Data Protection Directive: Since 1995/1998 Data Protection Directive is a EU directive which regulates the processing of personal data within the EU and an important component of EU privacy and human rights law - National data protection authorities are authorities tasked with information privacy. In the European Union and the EFTA member countries their status was formalized by the Data Protection Directive - List of national data protection authorities in the European Economic Area, Europe and some other countries
Since 1996 'Article 29 Working Party' advisory body: Since 1996 Article 29 Working Party, an advisory body made up of a representative from the data protection authority of each EU Member State, the European Data Protection Supervisor and the European Commission
Since 2004 European Data Protection Supervisor: Since 2004 European Data Protection Supervisor, an independent supervisory authority whose primary objective is to ensure that European institutions and bodies respect the right to privacy and data protection when they process personal data and develop new policies - EU Commission Data Protection Officer is a position in the European Commission responsible for independently ensuring the application of data protection
Since 2016/2018 General Data Protection Regulation: Since 2016/2018 General Data Protection Regulation, a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the EU and the European Economic Area, also addressing the export of personal data outside the EU and EEA, aiming primarily to give control to citizens and residents over their personal data and to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying the regulation within the EU - Comité européen de la protection des données, établie 2018

European Court of Justice - Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union - List of members of the European Court of Justice
List of European Court of Justice rulings: List of European Court of Justice rulings by subject - Court of Justice of the European Union case law
July 2012: 12. Juli 2012: Der Europäische Gerichtshof hat in einem wegweisenden Urteil die Rechte von Bauern und kleinen Agrargemeinschaften gegenüber internationalen Saatgutkonzernen gestärkt
April 2014: 8 April 2014: EU Court of Justice rejects requirement to keep data of telecom users and declares the Data Retention Directive invalid
October 2015: 6 October 2015: USA digital data storage systems do not provide sufficient privacy from state surveillance, the European court of justice has ruled
March 2017: 14 March 2017: Employers may bar staff from wearing visible religious symbols, the European Court of Justice rules in its first decision on the issue of women wearing Islamic headscarves at work, saying that ban on visible wearing of political, philosophical or religious sign does not constitute direct discrimination
July 2017: 26 July 2017: European court of justice rules that the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas should remain on the EU terrorism blacklist, finds that the lower court's 2014 ruling was based on media reports, not legal reasoning, and refers the case back
July 2017: 28 July 2017: European court of justice has ordered Poland to immediately halt large-scale logging in the ancient, protected and Unesco-listed Bialowieza forest, one of many cases that has pitted the nationalist, eurosceptic government in Warsaw against the bloc
September 2017: 6 September 2017: EU's Court of Justice has dismisses complaints by Slovakia and Hungary about EU migration policy, dealing a blow to the Hungarian PM Orbán and his allies in central Europe over the bitterly contested policy of refugee quotas
May 2018: 17 May 2018: The European Commission sent six countries, including Germany, France and the UK, to Europe’s highest court ECJ for breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits and for failing to meet EU air quality standards, in a long-running process of crimes, denials and shady tricks
2 April 2020 Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland broke EU law by refusing to comply with refugee quota program: 2 April 2020: The EU’s top court ruled that the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland broke EU law by refusing to comply with a refugee quota program launched after well over a million refugees and migrants entered the bloc, most fleeing war in Syria and Iraq, as failure of nations to take part in a burden-sharing measure meant to help EU partners in distress was at the heart of one of the bloc’s biggest political crises, and the issue of immigration then became a major vote-winner for far-right parties

General Court EGC, a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union, hearing actions taken against the institutions of the European Union by individuals and member states, although certain matters are reserved for the European Court of Justice, decisions of the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice, but only on a point of law

Foreign relations of the European Union - History of colonialism - Emigration from Europe - Asylum in the European Union - Immigration to Europe - Illegal immigration to Europe
2014-2018 World War I centenary: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 14 January 2014: Diaries from British soldiers describing life on the frontline during World War One are being published online by the British National Archives - 16 January 2014: How countries across Europe will mark centenary - 26 June 2014: Ahead of a summit in Brussels European prime ministers and presidents attend first world war ceremony in Ypres joining a minute of silence at the Menin Gate to remember the millions who died in the war - 5 August 2014: European politicians in the industrial town of Liege commemorated the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I by warning of lessons to be learned in the face of today's many crises, including Ukraine
2014-2020 World War II 75th Anniversary Commemoration: 75 years later the British website 'World War II Today' continues to follow the war through to August 1945 - Aftermath of World War II - Aftermath of World War II by country - Aftermath of the Holocaust - Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe by country
2011-2018 the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another: 8 April 2018: Haaretz' Anshel Pfeffer describes how the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another, saying that in the history of war, no war crime has been so well documented and so predictable to those who had it in their power to prevent it from recurring
October 2019 EU people see overseas aid as 'a major priority': 23 October 2019: Results from Eurobarometer, the EU’s polling organisation, found that almost 90% of people thought helping people in developing countries should be a priority of the EU and national governments, as also two-thirds of British people see overseas aid as 'a major priority'
4 March 2020 Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria: 4 March 2020: Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria, as focusing on the refugee crisis Russia has created addresses symptoms not the cause, George Soros writes in the 'Financial Times'
Foreign trade of the EU: List of the largest trading partners of the European Union
1 July 2020 petrol sold to Nigeria from Europe 'dirtier' than black market 'bush' fuel: 1 July 2020: Black market fuel made from stolen oil in rudimentary 'bush' refineries hidden deep in the creeks and swamps of the Niger delta is less polluting than the highly toxic diesel and petrol that Europe exports to Nigeria, new laboratory analysis has found, as Shell, Exxon, Chevron and other major oil companies extract and export up to 2m barrels a day of high quality, and as international dealers export to Nigeria around 900,000 tonnes a year of low-grade, 'dirty' fuel, made in Dutch, Belgian and other European refineries
European Union free trade agreements: Traité de libre-échange signé par l'Union européenne - Accord de libre-échange de l'Union européenne et accords en cours - Accord de libre-échange de l'Union européenne et accords en cours de négociation
European Union free trade agreements, negotiations concluded, but not signed: European Union free trade agreements, negotiations concluded, but not signed
June 2019 European Union–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement: June 2019 European Union–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement, a free trade agreement on which the EU and Mercosur reached agreement in principle in 2019, announced at the 2019 G20 Osaka summit after twenty years of negotiations
Third-country relations of the EU: Third-country relations of the European Union
List of diplomatic missions of the EU and European External Action Service since 2010: List of diplomatic missions of the European Union - Since 2010 European External Action Service - European External Action Service (Website) - News service and press releases
European Union/Afghanistan relations: European Union/Afghanistan relations
Since 2001: Since 2001 military involvement in Afghanistan by EU member states, as 25 of the EU members contribute to the 43-nation NATO-led ISAF mission, also making a considerable contribution in other areas
Since June 2016: United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union following June 2016 referendum - 1839 to 1842 British East India Company's invasion of Afghanistan, the 'First Anglo-Afghan War'
2016: 3 October 2016: The EU has signed an agreement with the Afghan government allowing its member states to deport an unlimited number of the country’s asylum seekers, and obliging the Afghan government to receive them
September 2019: 8 September 2019: EU's special envoy for Afghanistan said presidential elections must be held in the country this month as Afghanistan needs a political leadership that has received a renewed democratic mandate from its citizens, amid rising number of Taliban terror attacks in the summer 2019
European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations - The EU's relations with Africa
May 2020 remains of a modern human 45,000 years old found in the Balkans: 13 May 2020: Remains of a modern human 45,000 years old found in the Balkans show our ancestors coexisted with Neanderthals in Europe for around 8,000 years, as fragments found in a cave in Bulgaria prove that modern humans reached Europe some 5,000 years earlier than previously thought
Immigration to Europe - African immigration to Europe
2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck: 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck: 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2012 migrant boat disasters: September 2012 Baradan Bay, Turkey migrant boat disaster - December 2012 Lesbos, Greece migrant boat disaster
2013 refugees and migrants dying: October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 4 octobre 2013: Le naufrage d’un navire de migrants clandestins au large de Lampedusa soulève la question de la gestion des flux migratoires par l’Europe - 8 octobre: Les Européens sont appelés mardi à montrer une plus grande solidarité après la tragédie de Lampedusa - 8 October: EU pushes for sea patrols in wake of migrant shipwreck - 9 octobre: Barroso et Letta accueillis mercredi sur l'île de Lampedusa, par les huées et les insultes d'habitants - 11/12 October: Dozens of people died on Friday when a boat carrying around 250 migrants capsized between Sicily and Tunisia, a week after the 3 October 2013 migrant shipwreck - 13 October 2013: The shipwreck off Malta on October 11 that claimed the lives of more than 30 migrants revealed yet another facet of Syria's humanitarian nightmare - the largest displacement of people in decades - 25 October: Nearly 700 refugees including dozens of Eritreans have been rescued off Sicily in five operations, as leaders grapple with the issue of illegal immigration at a EU summit - 29 November: Six people believed to be Syrians dead as immigrant boat trying to reach Greece sinks off Turkey
2014 more refugees and migrants dying: 13 May 2014: At least 14 people were killed and 200 went missing after a boat packed with migrants sank near Italy - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to Central African Republic to stop clashes - 2 April 2014: Africans and Europeans hold crisis talks at EU-Africa summit on the escalating violence in the Central African Republic - 20 June: At a UNHCR conference marking World Refugee Day Malta's Helena Dalli says that Europe has 'a lot to do to make up for the damage it had caused' - 14 September: At least 15 Gaza migrants killed as boat capsizes in Mediterranean - 26 September: Almost 300 mostly Syrian rescued refugees refuse to disembark in Cyprus demanding to be taken to Italy - 29 September: Migrants trying to reach more prosperous countries have died at a rate of eight every day for the past 14 years, the majority of them trying to get to Europe, according to IOM - 20 October: Ebola tops EU meeting in Luxembourg with warnings crisis is at 'tipping point' - 31 December: Italy's navy has taken control of a ship adrift in the Adriatic Sea with hundreds of mainly Syrian migrants on board
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response'
2015: 1 January 2015: Catastrophe avoided as runaway ship with 768 people on board on a collision course with Italy's rocky shoreline stopped by Gallipoli's coastguard - 2 January 2015: Sierra Leone-flagged vessel, second in four days to be abandoned by crew in rough seas with 450 migrants on board, being towed to Italy - 3 January 2015: People smugglers likely raked in more than US$1.0 million from the hundreds of desperate 'ghost ships' migrants abandoned off the coast of Italy, IOM says - 3 January: After 'ghost ship' Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean, 360 Syrians emerged - 20 January 2015: EU to launch anti-terror projects with Muslim nations - 9 February: At least 29 migrants die of hypothermia after Italian coastguard rescue with small patrol boats - 17 March: EU to name new special envoy Fernando Gentilini to Mideast peace process - 16 April: EU under pressure over migrant rescue operations in the Mediterranean after 400 lives lost in latest incident - 17 April: Muslim migrants had thrown 12 Christians overboard during a recent crossing from Libya, police says, and an aid group says another 41 people were feared drowned in a separate incident - 19 April: EU plans urgent talks after up to 700 African migrants feared dead when boat capsizes near Libya - 20/21 April: EU emergency meeting results in decision to boost maritime patrols in Mediterranean, broaden search-and-rescue mandate and to launch military operations against migrant-smugglers in Libya, as UN refugee agency, after speaking to survivors of the disaster, confirms 800 migrants died in the shipwreck off Libya on Sunday - 12 May: Many would-be migrants to EU die unrecorded, study of Free University of Amsterdam says - 21 May: After Italian PM Renzi described people-smugglers as 'the slave traders of the 21st century', leading migration experts have denounced plans for military action against Libyan smugglers as reminiscent of the actions of countries that enabled the 16th to 19th century British, French etc. slave trade - 30 May: EU naval mission rescues more than 4,200 migrants in Mediterranean in 24 hours - 6/7 June 2015: More than 2000 migrants rescued from people traffickers in Mediterranean, as operations go on - 16 June: Italian police forcibly remove migrants stranded near French border - 26 June: Agreeing a plan to share out the care of people fleeing war and poverty in north Africa and the Middle East, EU meeting finally reaches deal on resettling 60,000 asylum seekers securing exemptions for Hungary, Bulgaria, while the UK has opted out of the scheme - 1 July 2015: The sea route to Europe, the Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees
July-December 2015: 10 July: Twelve migrants have died after their overcrowded rubber dinghy sank off the coast of Libya, the Italian Coast Guard said, while some 823 were rescued in the latest events - 18 July: Impoverished Greece flooded by new wave of migrants - 25 July: As long as the bloody civil war in Syria continues with no end in sight, the number of refugees who see the perilous journey to Europe as their last chance for a future will continue to rise - 1 August: Migrants trying to sail from Turkey to Greece are increasingly reporting being attacked by gunmen trying to prevent them from reaching Europe - 6 August: Over 200 migrants attempting the perilous journey across the Mediterranean were feared to have drowned after their overcrowded fishing boat capsized off Libya - 12 August: Up to 50 migrants reportedly went missing after a large rubber dinghy sank in the Mediterranean, while more than 1,500 were picked up from other vessels in the past 24 hours - 18 August: Macedonia becomes another frontline of Europe's refugee crisis - 19 August: Nearly 110,000 migrants were tracked entering the EU in July by irregular means, official data show, setting a record as the influx continues, notably of Syrians reaching Greek islands from Turkey - 23 August: Italy's coastguard coordinated the rescue of around 3000 migrants in the Mediterranean after receiving distress calls from more than 20 overcrowded vessels drifting in waters off Libya - 26 August: Bodies of about 50 migrants found in hull of boat rescued off Libyan coast - 27/28 August: Discovery of dozens of dead migrants in an abandoned refrigerated lorry found on an Austrian motorway near the Hungarian border shocks Europe - 28 August: Up to 200 bodies discovered floating off the coast of Zuwara, one of Libya’s main people-smuggling hubs, in the latest tragedy of the European migration and refugee crisis - 2 September: Migrant and refugee flows continue as countries on Schengen border say they are doing everything they can - 3 September: People rush into Budapest Keleti railway station and try to board trains following the blocking and a re-opening of the station and an ongoing confusion in deeply divided EU, now waiting for a special meeting of EU ministers on September 14 - 10/11 September 2015: European countries inside and outside the EU bitterly divided over their responses to the tens of thousands of refugees heading west and north - 16 September 2015: Refugees and migrants head for Croatia to avoid Hungarian fence - 17 September: Refugees and migrants accumulate at Hungarian border with Serbia after EU-member Hungary brings in tough new measures, using use tear gas and water cannons and detaining dozens - 17 September: Thousands of refugees enter Croatia after Hungary's crackdown
October-December 2015: 2 October 2015: In the paupers’ section of Lesbos cemetery, volunteers, strangers, Israeli and Palestinian activists attend funerals for unidentified migrant victims, including kids, who drowned in the Aegean Sea - 7 October: EU military operation against refugee and migrant traffickers in the Mediterranean begins - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 29 October: Horrendous scenes reported after worsening weather caused boats to capsize in the Aegean Sea, killing at least 11 refugees and migrants, including several children - 30 October: Two boats reportedly sink off Greece, leaving at least 22 people dead - 2 November 2015: As 218,000 migrants and refugees crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in October 2015, the coming winter is already threatening to expose thousands to harsh conditions - 4 November 2015: Unicef's Marie-Pierre Poirier informs the media after she has completed a one week mission in Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia, amid rising numbers of refugees, women and children on the move and bad weather - 11 November 2015: Over 800,000 refugees and migrants reached Europe after crossing the Mediterranean Sea since the start of the year, IOM says - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 12 November: Sweden and Slovenia became the latest European nations to tighten borders as African leaders warned their EU counterparts at a summit in Malta against building a 'fortress' Europe and as the European Commission is setting up a €1.8-billion 'trust fund' for Africa - 24 November: EU countries' development money being spent on tackling refugee crisis and border security rather than fighting poverty and inequality, European NGO confederation says - 6 December: As thousands of people continue to arrive at the Greece-Macedonia border daily, small numbers of refugees and migrants who had been denied entry into Macedonia have opted to go back to Athens - 19 December: Eighteen refugees and migrants drown after boat sinks off Turkey's southwestern coast - 23 diciembre: Más de 40 muertos en el Egeo en cuatro días, la mitad de ellos niños
Januar-March 2016: 22 January 2016: At least 15 migrants including eight children drowned when their boats capsized off the Greek islands of Kalolimnos and Farmakonisi - 28 janvier 2016: 24 réfugiés et migrants dont dix enfants sont morts noyés lors d'un nouveau naufrage jeudi matin au large de l'île grecque de Samos en mer Egée, tandis que onze sont portés disparus - 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 30 January: At least 10,000 unaccompanied child refugees have disappeared after arriving in Europe, 5,000 in Italy alone, according to the EU’s criminal intelligence agency - 31 January 2016: Ten children were among at least 37 migrants who drowned in the Aegean Sea after their boat capsized as they attempted the crossing from Turkey to Greece, 75 people were rescued - 2 February 2016: Nine migrants, including two babies drowned off Turkish coast, as more than 62,000 refugees and migrant arrivals reported in Greece last month - 8 February 2016: At least 27 refugees, including 11 children, drowned after a boat trying to reach the Greek island of Lesbos capsized two miles off the Turkish coast - 13 February 2013: Over 80,000 refugees and migrants have already arrived in Europe since the beginning of 2016, the majority of those arriving in January 2016 were women and children making up nearly 58%, over 400 have died trying to cross, according to UNHCR's Melissa Fleming - 17 February: Croatia sends over two hundred migrants and refugees including women and children from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Syria back to Serbia, now at a UNHCR centre in the border town of Sid - 23 February: Thousands of refugees stranded in Greece amid tightened border control by Macedonia - 26 February: Two refugees tried to commit suicide at a makeshift refugee camp at a central square in the city of Athens amid growing frustrations over border closures which have left tens of thousands stranded in the country - 28 February: Humanitarian challenges mounting at Greek/Macedonian border, as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass, and UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees - 1 mars 2016: Depuis janvier 2016 plus de 130'000 personnes ont rejoint l'Europe par la Méditerranée, selon le HCR qui dénonce l'incapacité de l'Europe, au bord d'une crise humanitaire, 'à trouver des solutions' - 2 mars 2016: La Macédoine a laissé passer sur son territoire environ 170 réfugiés alors que côté grec 10'000 migrants continuaient d'attendre, selon les autorités locales grecques - 5 March: Refugees and migrants stranded at Greece-Macedonia border face another day of frustration - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 9 March 2016: Slovenia and Croatia ban transit of refugees to other European countries - 10 March: At least five migrants dead after boat sank off Turkish coast attempting to reach Greek Island of Lesbos, the Turkish Coast Guard rescued 9 people - 11 March: Thousands of refugees and migrants, many already ill, trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia, facing food shortages and unsanitary conditions as rains continue to pour down on flimsy tents and an already waterlogged ground - 12 March: Around 1,100 refugees remain stranded in a refugee camp on the Macedonian side of the Serbian border, another 500 are stranded in the no-man's land between the two countries - 12 March 2016: A video shows Turkish coastguard using sticks against a boat full of refugees and migrants as they sail to Greece in the Aegean Sea - 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 13 March 2016: Relentless rain and biting cold turn despair into suffering for thousands of refugees and migrants stranded on Greece's border with Macedonia and in the so-called no man's land - 14 March 2016: At the Idomeni camp on the Greek-Macedonian border, conditions are getting worse after heavy rains in recent days have turned much of the ground into a swamp - 15 March: Macedonia reportedly sent back to Greece about 1,500 migrants and refugees, who crossed the border hiking for hours along muddy paths and forded a rain-swollen river to get around the border fence where they were detained by Macedonian forces - 19 March: Refugees and migrants at the Greek border camp of Idomeni say they are as determined as ever to reach Western Europe and appear undeterred by an accord between Turkey and the EU aimed at stemming the flow of people from the Middle East and North Africa - 21 March: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe - 22 March 2016: UNHCR has stopped transporting refugees and migrants arriving on Lesbos from Turkey to a reception facility as their subsequent freedom of movement is no longer guaranteed, a UNHCR spokesman says, referring to last week's EU-Turkey deal - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 26 mars: es autorités grecques ont commencé à évacuer des réfugiés et migrants bloqués dans le camp d'Idomeni à la frontière avec la Macédoine - 27 March 2016: Hundreds take part in protest at Macedonia border as Greece tries to evacuate overwhelmed Idomeni camp and hundreds of hopeful refugees return to Greece’s overwhelmed Idomeni camp following rumours
April-June 2016: 2 April 2016: Protests of migrants and refugees in Greece mount before EU-Turkey migrant deal takes effect and as UNHCR warns against immediate refugee returns to Turkey - 3 April 2016: 50,000 migrants in Greece in turmoil over their fate as EU deal set to come into effect - 4 April: First boats returning migrants and refugees from Greece arrive in Turkey - 6 April 2016: Refugees block Greece-Macedonia border crossing to protest deportation - 8 avril: Les migrants retenus sur les îles grecques de Lesbos et de Chios vivent dans des conditions 'effroyables', selon un rapport - 8 April: Greece ferries migrants to Turkey under EU pact - 9 April: Five migrants, four women and one child, drown off Greek island of Samos after boat capsized - 10 April: Macedonian police use teargas on migrants at Greek border in Idomeni - 11 April: At least 260 people were hurt on Sunday when Macedonian police fired tear gas at refugees and migrants and hundreds were treated by medical units also for wounds caused by plastic bullets and for other injuries, according to 'Doctors Without Borders' - 13 avril 2016: La police macédonienne a tiré des gaz lacrymogènes et des grenades assourdissantes mercredi contre des migrants qui manifestaient le long de la barrière de la frontière macédonienne à Idomeni - 16 April 2016: 'Only those who see the eyes of those small children that we met at the refugee camps will be able to immediately recognize, in its entirety, the bankruptcy of humanity and solidarity that Europe has shown these last few years to these, and not only these, people', Church of Greece's Ieronymos II says at Moria Refugee Camp in Lesbos - 16 avril 2016: Le pape rentre de Grèce avec 12 réfugiés syriens - 16 avril 2016: L'association européenne SOS Méditerranée annonce avoir secouru 116 migrants ce samedi - 20 April 2016: Up to 500 migrants might have drowned in Mediterranean tragedy, UNHCR says - 1 May 2016: Ninety-nine refugees and migrants are believed to have drowned in two separate incidents off the coast of Libya over the weekend - 13 May 2016: At least 800 migrants were rescued off the coast of Sicily on Thursday, among them at least 150 Syrians, the Italian coast guard and the UN refugee agency said - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 24 mai 2016: L'évacuation du camp de réfugiés et migrants comptant 8400 personnes à Idomeni à la frontière greco-macédonienne a commencé, en présence de nombreuses forces policières - 28 May 2016: The Italian navy recovers the bodies of 45 people who drowned on Friday, while dozens of others are still missing in the third major tragedy in the Mediterranean in as many days, as Russian regime's Putin and Greece's Tsipras sign several economic deals on Friday during the war criminal's visit to Greece aimed at reinforcing a relationship with his accessory - 31 mai 2016: Près de 205'000 réfugiés et migrants sont arrivés par la mer en Europe depuis janvier tandis que 2500 d'entre eux périssaient, selon OIM et HCR - 3 June 2016: Hundreds of people were rescued from a migrant boat that capsized south of the Greek island of Crete on Friday, but it is feared that many more are missing
July/August 2016: 2 juillet 2016: Près de 71'000 migrants sont arrivés en 6 mois en Italie, selon le ministère italien de l'Intérieur - 7 juillet 2016: Les équipes de pompiers italiens ont récupérées les corps de 217 migrants morts noyées dans le naufrage d'un chalutier en avril 2015 - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie - 19 juillet: Plus de 2500 migrants embarqués sur des bateaux bondés ont été recueillis mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 25 juillet 2016: Les corps de 87 migrants morts noyés en tentant de gagner l’Europe ont été retrouvés depuis vendredi sur une plage de Sabrata, une ville côtière dans l’ouest de la Libye - 29 juillet: Plus de 3400 migrants ont été secourus vendredi au large des côtes libyennes, selon les gardes-côtes italiens - 31 juillet: Cinq migrants sont morts en Méditerranée dimanche au large de la Libye, selon les garde-côtes italiens, qui ont coordonné le sauvetage de plus de 6'500 personnes depuis jeudi - 2 août 2016: Plus de 4'000 migrants et réfugiés ont perdu la vie sur la route de la Méditerranée depuis le début de l'année, selon OIM - 5 August 2016: More than 100 migrants have broken through police barriers at the Italian border town of Ventimiglia and made their way into France, as France's Hollande and Italy's Renzi applaud Iranian, Russian and Syrian Assad regime in Rio de Janeiro - 30 August: Startling images have emerged of refugees being rescued off the coast of Libya, showing what has become an everyday occurrence in the southern Mediterranean Sea over the past three years
September 2016: 2 septembre 2016: Un an après la publication de la photo du petit Syrien Ayan gisant sur une plage, environ 500'000 enfants auraient été exploités par des passeurs depuis début 2015 parmi les demandeurs d'asile en Europe, selon l'Unicef
October 2016: 4 October 2016: About 6,055 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe rescued from sea in a single day, as at least nine people died and a pregnant woman and a child had been taken by helicopter to a hospital in Lampedusa - 6 October 2016: EU launches tough border force to curb refugee and migrant crisis - 26 octobre 2016: Cette année, ce ne sont pas moins de 3800 réfugiés et migrants qui ont perdu la vie en tentant de rallier l'Europe - 27 October: About 100 people are feared missing after a boat sank off the coast of Libya, amid mounting evidence that already dangerous conditions are worsening for migrants crossing the Mediterranean sea to get to Europe
November 2016: 2 November 2016: As 60% of Gambia's population live in poverty, as Gambians represent the fourth-largest group of arrivals to Italy, as Gambian president Jammeh dismisses the economic worries of Gambian migrants and as Gambia’s information minister critizises the lack of action by European nations to protect migrants, the goalkeeper of Gambia’s national women’s football team dies crossing the Mediterranean - 3 November 2016: At least 239 dead in two refugee and migrant boat shipwrecks off Libya in Mediterranean, survivors tell UN on Italian island of Lampedusa - 17 November 2016: About 100 people are feared to have drowned off the coast of Libya after their smuggler abandoned them on the high seas without a motor, increasing the Mediterranean death toll this year to an unprecedented 4,700
December 2016: 23 December 2016: About 100 people are missing and feared dead after two boats capsized off Italy, increasing the estimated death toll among migrants in the Mediterranean this year to at least 5,000, according to UN agencies
January 2017: 10 January 2017: Thousands of refugees are enduring freezing temperatures in flimsy tents across Greece as a result of the arctic blast that has swept across Europe - 24 January 2017: Thousands of refugee children sleeping rough in sub-zero Serbia, says UN - 25 January 2017: Cold weather reignites fears for refugees poorly sheltered in Greece - 30 janvier 2017: Plus de 1360 migrants ont été secourus dans des conditions souvent difficiles depuis vendredi, et trois retrouvés sans vie, à bord d'une douzaine d'embarcations parties de Libye
March 2017: 2 March 2017: European countries have accepted less than 10% of the 160,000 refugees they promised to move to safety from unsanitary and cramped camps in Italy and Greece, leading the European commission to warn it will 'accept no more excuses' - 24 mars 2017: Au moins 11 personnes sont mortes noyées vendredi après le naufrage d'un bateau de migrants au large de la Turquie, huit personnes ont été secourues et trois étaient toujours portées disparues
April 2017 EU 'leaving migrants to drown': 14 April 2017: More than 2,000 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe reportedly plucked from the Mediterranean on Friday in a series of dramatic rescues as one person was found dead - 15 April 2017; EU 'leaving migrants to drown' say rescuers who saved 2,000 from Mediterranean in single day - 28 April 2017: Frustration mounts among locals on Chios island, where refugees feel like prisoners with no hope of getting to mainland Europe
May 2017: 9 May 2017: The final toll of dead and missing from two refugee shipwrecks off Libya at the weekend has risen to 245, according to UNHCR
June 2017: 5 June 2017: EU commits 50 million euros to combat terrorism in West Africa
July 2017 EU accused of 'wilfully letting refugees drown': 4 juillet 2017: Plus de 100'000 migrants et réfugiés sont arrivés depuis janvier 2017 en Europe en traversant la Méditerranée, selon OIM - 29 July 2017: EU accused of 'wilfully letting refugees drown' as NGOs face having rescues suspended in the Mediterranean
August: 2017: 25 August 2017: European countries including Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK are poised to begin the process of returning refugees to Greece, as migrants seeking reunification with their family members, mostly in Germany, step up protests in Athens
September 2017: 1 September 2017: At least 8,500 people have died or disappeared while attempting to cross the Mediterranean since the death of three-year-old Syrian boy Alan Kurdi, whose body washed ashore in Turkey in 2015 - 11 September 2017: A clampdown on Europe’s eastern borders has forced refugees and migrants to choose more dangerous routes as the death toll in the Mediterranean continues to rise despite a drop in the overall number of arrivals, according to the UN, as more than 22,500 migrants have reportedly died or disappeared globally since 2014, according to the IOM - 29 September 2017: Greece is experiencing a dramatic rise in the number of refugees and migrants entering the country, exacerbating already deplorable living conditions on island camps
October 2017: 25 October 2017: Emergency response teams from Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, as well as Spain, Italy and France, gathered in Israel to learn how to work together and to overcome the common enemy 'natural disasters' as part of an exercise sponsored by the European Union
November/December 2017: 29 November 2017: 5th African Union - European Union summit in Abidjan, youth, unemployment, migration, terrorism on agenda - 17 December 2017: Libya’s coastal guard has rescued more than 250 illegal migrants trying to leave the North African country in small boats bound for Italy, according to officials - 17 December 2017: Ahead of International Migrants Day on 18 December and calling for more facilities to accommodate asylum seekers, migrant charities, rights advocates and concerned citizens marched along the French Riviera, also calling on authorities to allow migrants to enter France from Italy
January/February 2018: 6 janvier 2018: Au moins 25 personnes sont mortes noyées au large de la Libye dans le naufrage d'une embarcation transportant jusqu'à 150 migrants - 4 février 2018: Repérés par un bateau espagnol, les corps de près d'une vingtaine de migrants noyés ont été repêchés entre l'Espagne et le Maroc
March/April 2018: 17 mars 2018: Au moins 14 personnes, dont quatre enfants, se sont noyées dans la nuit dans le naufrage dans le sud-est de la mer Egée d'un bateau, selon la police grecque - 22 avril 2018: Onze migrants morts en mer, 263 secourus au large de la Libye
3 June 2018: 3 June 2018: Dozens drown and rescuers save at least 60 lives after vessel with about 180 people onboard sank off Tunisia coast
11 June 2018 SOS Mediterraneee rescue ship denied entry to Italy and Malta: - 11 June 2018: Migrants stranded at sea, as Italy and Malta close doors and new populist Italian government refuses to open port to SOS Mediterraneee rescue ship carrying 629 people, including 123 unaccompanied minors and seven pregnant women, amid fight with Maltese government over who is responsible for asylum seekers, as farther west in the Mediterranean Spain’s maritime rescue service saved 334 migrants and recovered four bodies from boats it intercepted trying to reach Europe, and as UN says at least 785 migrants have died crossing the sea so far this year - 12 June 2018: Spanish FM Borrell attacks 'ostrich politics' in row over rescued migrants, saying the new government was 'banging its fist on the table' ahead of a meeting of European leaders to discuss migration and asylum at the end of June, as 'MSF welcomes the important gesture of humanity from Spain to disembark in Valencia'
12 June 2018 EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants: 12 June 2018: EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting illegal migration
14 June 2018: 14 juin 2018: Une soixantaine de Syriens à bord d'un bateau ont été secourus au large de l'île méditerranéenne de Chypre, a annoncé jeudi la police chypriote
16 June 2018: 16 June 2018: Italy bars two more refugee ships from ports
17 June 2018: 17 June 2018: Aquarius migrants arrive in Spain after rough week at sea
22 June 2018: 22 June 2018: Around 220 migrants drowned off Libya in two days, bringing to at least 1,000 the number to die this year on the main migratory route linking Africa and Europe, according to the UN - 22 juin 2018: Avant le mini-sommet européen sur les migrations, l'Italie maintient sa ligne dure envers les ONG aidant les migrants en danger
27 June 2018: 27 juin 2018: Le 'Lifeline', qui attendait depuis une semaine un port d'accueil, attendu à Malte avec 233 migrants
30 June 2018: 30 juin 2018: Un bateau d'une ONG a secouru 59 migrants au large de la Libye, et après le refus de l'Italie de l'accueillir, il fait cap vers Barcelone
July 2018: 3 July 2018: More than 200 migrants have drowned at sea in the Mediterranean in the past three days, taking the death toll for the year to more than 1,000 and prompting fears that human traffickers are taking greater risks because of a crackdown imposed by the Italian government and the Libyan coastguard - 16 juillet 2018: Les centaines de migrants qui restaient bloqués sur des navires ont finalement pu débarquer dans la ville sicilienne Pozzallo, grâce à l'engagement de pays européens voisins - 18 July 2018: Proactiva Open Arms, a Spanish rescue group, accused both a merchant ship sailing in international waters and the Libyan coastguard of abandoning three people in the Mediterranean, including a woman and a toddler who died, after the coastguard intercepted a boat carrying 160 people heading for Europe - 28 juillet 2018: Selon l'OIM au moins 1500 migrants ont déjà péri en Méditerranée en 2018 - 29 July 2018: 334 migrants rescued by Spanish coastguard - 31 July 2018: Italian 'Asso 28', an oil rig support vessel, allegedly broke international law by returning 108 people rescued from Mediterranean to Tripoli
August 2018: 11 août 2018: Le navire humanitaire Aquarius géré par SOS Méditerranée et Médecins Sans Frontières a secouru vendredi 141 personnes au large des côtes libyennes lors de sa première mission depuis qu'il a repris la mer - 15 août 2018: Le navire humanitaire Aquarius est arrivé mercredi à Malte où il a été finalement été autorisé à accoster après avoir erré plusieurs jours en Méditerranée avec 141 migrants épuisés à son bord - 18 août 2018: Un navire des garde-côtes italiens était bloqué depuis 48 heures au large de Lampedusa avec à bord 177 migrants secourus entre Malte et l'île italienne et que personne ne veut laisser débarquer - 21 August 2018: Standoff in Italian port as Salvini refuses to let refugees disembark - 26 August 2018: Prosecutors in Sicily open an inquiry over Interior Minister Salvini's refusal to allow over 100 rescued migrants off the coastguard ship Diciotti for 'illegal confinement, illegal arrest and abuse of power', as church, tiny Albania and Ireland agree to take the 140 migrants
September 2018: 3 September 2018: Fewer people are making the journey across the Mediterranean to Europe, but the proportion of those losing their lives while trying has risen sharply, UN says - 6 September 2018: Arrest of Syrian 'hero swimmer', who saved 18 refugees in 2015 by swimming their waterlogged dingy to the shores of Lesbos with her Olympian sister, and now accused of people smuggling, espionage and membership of a criminal organisation, puts European refugee crisis in a further spotlight - 10 septembre 2018: Plus de 100 migrants ont péri au début du mois dans le naufrage de deux embarcations au large des côtes libyennes, selon MSF - 25 September 2018: Aquarius with 58 people onboard cannot disembark in Marseille, says French minister, after Panamanian authorities revoked the Aquarius vessel’s registration in a move described by Médecins Sans Frontières and SOS Méditerranée, which operated the vessel, as 'a major blow” to its humanitarian mission', claiming that Panama was forced to revoke the registration after coming under pressure from the Italian government
December 2018: 28 December 2018: 308 mostly African migrants rescued in the Mediterranean sea off the coast of Libya one week ago by charity group arrive in Spain, after entry was refused by several European countries including Malta and Italy, although a mother and her newborn baby were airlifted to Malta by helicopter
January 2019: 9 January 2019: The EU has been strongly criticised over the increasingly dangerous state of the EU-sponsored Moria camp on the island of Lesbos, where a 24-year-old man from Cameroon was found dead in the early hours of Tuesday as temperatures fell below freezing - 14 janvier 2019: 'Proactiva Open Arms' a affirmé que l'État espagnol empêchait son bateau de prendre la mer pour aller secourir des migrants en Méditerranée
February 2019: 12 February 2019: The deflagging of the 'Aquarius', the last migrant rescue ship in the Mediterranean, represents a dark moment in European history, setting a dangerous precedent for states to flout international humanitarian laws, according to HRAS
24 February 2019: 24 February 2019: The African Union is seeking opposition against EU’s latest blueprint for stemming migration, claiming it would breach international law by establishing 'de facto detention centres' on African soil, trampling over the rights of those being held
March 2019: 10 mars 2019: Le corps d'une fillette manifestement victime du naufrage d'un bateau transportant des migrants a été retrouvé sur une plage de l'île de Lesbos en Grèce, selon Ana, et plus de 200 candidats à l'exil sont morts depuis le début de l'année en mer Méditerranée, la plupart d'entre eux en essayant de se rendre en Italie, selon OIM
20 March 2019: 20 March 2019: Italian authorities have ordered the seizure of charity rescue ship Mare Jonio after volunteers rescued about 50 people including children off Libya on Tuesday and rescuers defied Italy’s Salvini order not to bring refugees and migrants to Italy
April 2019: 11 April 2019: Desperate Syrians are still trying to make the dangerous crossing from Turkey to Greece, with many drowning before they reach their destination reports Zaman Al Wasl, as Syrian child saved by Turkish coast guard
8 May 2019 UNHCR warning: 8 May 2019: UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency is calling for refugees and migrants in detention centres in conflict areas in Tripoli to be immediately evacuated to safety, after an airstrike hit a target less than 100 metres away from Tajoura detention centre, where over 500 refugees and migrants are being detained
10/25 May 2019: 10 May 2019: As many as 70 people trying to reach Europe from Libya have drowned after their vessel capsized in the deadliest such incident in the Mediterranean since January - 25 May 2019: A Maltese armed forces patrol boat picked up more than 200 migrants from two dinghies in the Mediterranean and fetched them to Malta on Saturday, a spokesman said
June 2019 rescue of 40 refugees: 29 June 2019: After 16 days of stalemate, the 40 migrants who were rescued off the Libyan coast disembarked in the Italian island of Lampedusa on Saturday, after the ship's German captain Carola Rackete, who said the situation on board the ship was dire and that she was forced to break the blockade to protect the lives of the migrants aboard, finally entered the Italian port on Friday but was arrested by police, for saving lives - 30 June 2019: Captain Carola Rackete defends her decision to force rescue boat into Italian port, saying act of 'disobedience' in Lampedusa was necessary to avert tragedy, adding that 'from a legal standpoint, these were people fleeing a country at war [and] the law bars you from taking them back there', as 'Sea-Watch' says being 'proud of our captain'
2 July 2019: 2 July 2019: Italian judge orders release of ship captain Carola Rackete who rescued refugees
3 July 2019 airstrike by warlord Haftar's forces: 3 July 2019: An airstrike apparently by Haftar's militias that hit a detention center for migrants near the Libyan capital early Wednesday, killing at least 44 people and wounding more than 130, raises further concerns about EU's policy of partnering with Libyan militias to prevent migrants from crossing the Mediterranean, which often leaves them at the mercy of brutal traffickers or stranded in squalid detention centers near the front lines - 3 July 2019 Tajoura migrant center airstrike and massacre by warlord Haftar's forces, backed by Egypt, France, Russia and the United Arab Emirates, after UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, on 8 May 2019 called for refugees and migrants in detention centres in conflict areas in Tripoli to be immediately evacuated to safety, after an airstrike hit a target less than 100 metres away from Tajoura detention centre, where over 500 refugees and migrants are being detained
4/5 July 2019 boat capsized: 4 July 2019: More than 80 people trying to reach Europe from Libya are feared dead after their boat capsized off the coast of Tunisia, according to the UN migration agency - 5 July 2019: One of only four survivors after an inflatable raft carrying more than 80 people capsized off the coast of Tunisia has recounted his ordeal as 54 rescuees from a separate shipwreck headed to Malta
7/8 July 2019: 7 July 2019: 41 refugees and migrants disembarked overnight at the port of Lampedusa after Italian-flagged charity vessel Alex that rescued them off Libya defied an attempt by Italy’s Salvini to close ports to NGO boats - 7 July 2019: German NGO Sea-Eye said that its rescue vessel Alan Kurdi operating in the central Mediterranean would head to Malta due to deteriorating conditions on board after being denied access to Italian territorial waters - 8 July 2019: Dozens of refugees and migrants aboard Alan Kurdi rescue ship disembark in Malta
9 July 2019: 9 juillet 2019: Le navire humanitaire 'Alan Kurdi' a secouru des dizaines de migrants, qui se trouvaient en détresse au large de la Libye
14 July 2019: 14 July 2019: More bodies found in Tunisia migrant ship sinking
18 July 2019: 18 juillet 2019: Entendue jeudi par la justice sicilienne, la capitaine du Sea-Watch Carola Rackete demande aux pays européens d'accueillir les réfugiés secourus en mer - 18 juillet 2019: La réunion de plusieurs ministres de l'Intérieur de l'UE à Helsinki n'a pas abouti à un accord sur la migration
25/26 July 2019: 25 July 2019: Up to 150 people are feared to have died in a shipwreck off the coast of Libya, while another 150 were rescued and are being returned to Libya, according to UNHCR - 26 July 2019: Dozens of bodies found after migrant boat capsizes off Libya
4 August 2019: 4 August 2019: Migrant rescue ship with 40 people arrives in Malta after EU deal - 4 août 2019: Après un accord de répartition a été conclu entre plusieurs pays de l'Union européenne, le gouvernement maltais a donné son accord au débarquement des migrants
11 August 2019: 11 August 2019: Ocean Viking rescue ship picks up 251 migrants, according to Doctors Without Borders and SOS Mediterranee, which operate the new migrant rescue ship, saying the mainly Sudanese men and adolescents were picked up off the coast of Libya during three rescue missions
16 August 2019 rescued refugee reports: 16 août 2019: Un Ethiopien secouru lundi dans un état critique sur un petit canot parti de Libye 11 jours plus tôt a raconté à Malte l'enfer à bord et la mort lente de ses 14 compagnons de voyage
20 August 2019: 20 août 2019: Un bateau militaire espagnol va être envoyé pour récupérer les migrants secourus par le bateau de l’ONG Proactiva Open Arms, actuellement stationné près de l’île italienne de Lampedusa, où ils ont interdiction de débarquer
September 2019 Italy breaks from era of hardline immigration measures: 14 September 2019: Italy's new government says migrants can disembark from rescue boat
29 September 2019: 29 September 2019: A boat with more than 50 people on board has capsized off the Libyan coast, the UN said on Saturday
7 October 2019: 7 October 2019: At least nine people have died when a migrant boat capsized near the island of Lampedusa as they were about to be rescued, 22 people were saved, according to Italian Coast Guard
11 January 2020 12 people die after migrant boat sinks off Greek island of Paxos: 11 January 2020: 12 people die after migrant boat sinks off Greek island of Paxos, as 21 others rescued with search for survivors in Ionian Sea ongoing
2 March 2020 ignorant and violent EU amid war crimes against Syrian people: 2 March 2020: Refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe have clashed violently with Greek riot police as Turkey claimed more than 76,000 people were now heading for an ignorant EU amid war crimes, as a result of the escalating war in Syria where 33 Turkish soldiers, defending civilians, were killed by Russian-backed dictatorship troops, as a million civilians have been displaced since December inside Syria near the Turkish border in desperate winter conditions, and as Turkey, already home to 3.7 million Syrian refugees, decided to open the Turkish side of the border to the EU, now headed by CDU's von der Leyen - 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
6 March 2020 unteachable EU critizised by human-rights organisations for crackdown on refugees and migrants: 6 March 2020: While Greek riot police have been using teargas and water cannon to repel refugees and migrants trying to get into the country, while Turkish police have been firing volleys of teargas towards Greece in return, the EU is critizised by 85 charities and human-rights organisations for accepting Greece’s decision to suspend asylum applications
16 March 2020 child died in fire in overcrowded Moria camp: 16 March 2020: A young child died in a fire in an overcrowded migrant camp on the Greek island of Lesbos, as fire burned through two containers used as living quarters by people in the Moria camp, as well as some tents, as activists say 'European and Greek authorities who continue to contain people in such inhumane conditions have a responsibility'
17 March 2020 UN agency decries return of boat with 49 people to Libya: 17 March 2020: UN agency decries return of boat with 49 people to Libya, embattled in warlord Haftar's war supported by France's Macron
24 March 2020 EU urged to evacuate asylum seekers from overcrowded Greek camps: 24 March 2020: The EU has been urged to evacuate asylum seekers from overcrowded camps on the Greek islands in order to save lives, as the European parliament’s civil liberties, justice and home affairs committee has called for the evacuation of 42,000 people on the Greek islands
5 April 2020 Greece has quarantined second migrant facility after covid-19 case: 5 April 2020: Greece has quarantined a second migrant facility on its mainland after a 53-year-old Afghan tested positive for covid-19, as the man lived with his family at the Malakasa camp along with hundreds of asylum seekers
15 April 2020 European and African leaders call for massive help for Africa: 15 April 2020: Nearly 20 European and African leaders have made a joint appeal, signed by France, Ethiopia, Germany, South Africa and other nations, for a massive international effort to boost Africa’s coronavirus response, saying that 'only a global victory that fully includes Africa can bring this pandemic to an end'
27 April Samos refugee camp fire: 27 avril 2020: Un incendie s'est produit dans le camp de migrants surpeuplé de Samos en Grèce, et de nombreuses tentes ont été détruites et environ 200 personnes sont sans abri, selon les autorités
10 June 2020 boat with migrants on board capsized off the Tunisian coast: 10 juin 2020: Un naufrage de migrants au large des îles Kerkennah en Tunisie d’une embarcation clandestine, qui se rendait probablement en Italie, a fait 34 victimes, en majorité des femmes
1 July 2020 petrol sold to Nigeria from Europe 'dirtier' than black market 'bush' fuel: 1 July 2020: Black market fuel made from stolen oil in rudimentary 'bush' refineries hidden deep in the creeks and swamps of the Niger delta is less polluting than the highly toxic diesel and petrol that Europe exports to Nigeria, new laboratory analysis has found, as Shell, Exxon, Chevron and other major oil companies extract and export up to 2m barrels a day of high quality, and as international dealers export to Nigeria around 900,000 tonnes a year of low-grade, 'dirty' fuel, made in Dutch, Belgian and other European refineries, and as Belgian king expresses 'deepest regrets' for brutal colonial rule
27 July 2020 more refugees and migrants try to reach Europe: 27 juillet 2020: Une centaine de migrants ayant tenté la traversée vers l'Europe depuis la Libye dérivent sur une embarcation de fortune en Méditerranée et risquent de faire naufrage, a alerté OIM
20 August 2020 deadly boat incident off the Libyan coast: 20 août 2020: Un naufrage provoque la mort d’au moins 45 migrants au large de la Libye
27 August 2020 Greece has a deadly migration policy and all of Europe is to blame: 27 August 2020: Greece, a country once considered to be a main origin of European culture in addition to Jewish, has a deadly new migration policy, and all of Europe is to blame, as every time Athens pushes a refugee boat away, it’s the result of an entire continent acting in its perceived self-interest, 'The Guardian' reports
29 August 2020 European authorities are ignoring our pleas Banksy-funded rescue ship says: 29 August 2020: European authorities are ignoring our pleas, says crew of Banksy-funded rescue ship, after it rescued on Thursday 89 people including 14 women and four children, and is now safeguarding more than 200 people off Libya’s coast
30 August 2020 migrants arriving on Lampedusa: 30 août 2020: Environ 450 migrants à bord d’un vieux bateau de pêche, dont la nationalité n’est pas connue ont été débarqués par petits groupes dans la nuit de samedi à dimanche sur l’île de Lampedusa, ont rapporté les agences italiennes
2 September 2020 African migrants and refugees taking a new deadly route to reach Europe: 2 September 2020: African migrants and refugees are taking a new deadly route to reach Europe's shores, as arrivals via the Atlantic path to Spain's Canary Islands have seen a big rise compared to last year, but almost 250 have drowned or gone missing
9 September 2020 huge fire ripped through the camp of Moria: 9 September 2020: Thousands of asylum seekers on the Greek island of Lesbos were left homeless after fleeing for their lives as a huge fire ripped through the camp of Moria, the country’s largest and most notorious migrant facility, as over 12,000 men, women and children ran in panic out of containers and tents into nearby olive groves and fields as the fire destroyed most of the overcrowded, squalid camp
10 September 2020 second fire in Greece’s notoriously overcrowded Moria refugee camp: 10 September 2020: A second fire in Greece’s notoriously overcrowded Moria refugee camp destroyed nearly everything that had been spared in the original blaze, Greece’s migration ministry said Thursday, leaving thousands more people in need of emergency housing
11 September 2020 tents built on Lesbos: 11 September 2020: Tents built on Lesbos after thousands of men, women and children forced by devastating fires to evacuate Greece’s largest refugee camp spent a second night of sleeping rough, as without shelter, families young and old had been forced to sleep wherever they could, and as in a sign of growing frustration, asylum seekers surrounded by riot police and water cannon, pleaded for help, many holding cardboard placards proclaiming 'we want freedom'
12 September 2020 Greek police fire teargas at protesting migrants on Lesbos: 12 septembre 2020: La police sur l’île grecque de Lesbos a tiré samedi du gaz lacrymogène contre des migrants qui leur lançaient des pierres, lors d’une manifestation pour exiger des abris après les incendies qui ont détruit le sordide camp de Moria
European Union/Algeria relations: European Union/Algeria relations
26 September 2020 755 migrants arrested as three drowned: 26 septembre 2020: Les gardes-côtes algériens ont repêché trois corps et intercepté 755 migrants qui se trouvaient à bord de plusieurs embarcations au large des côtes algériennes, entre le 20 et 25 septembre, selon un bilan du ministère de la Défense publié samedi
European Union/Americas relations: European Union/Americas relations
April 2019 European spies sought lessons from dictators’ brutal ‘Operation Condor’: 15 April 2019: British, West German and French intelligence agencies sought advice from South America’s 1970s campaign of terror against opposition, wanting to learn about 'Operation Condor', a secret programme in which the dictatorships of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador conspired to kidnap and assassinate opposition members, according to a newly declassified CIA document
European Union/Armenia relations: European Union/Armenia relations
Since 2009 'Eastern Partnership' initiative: Since 2009 'Eastern Partnership' initiative of the EU with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine
April 2015 European Parliament's recognition of the Armenan Genocide during WW I committed by Turkey: 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I
European Union/Asia relations: Since 1996 Asia–Europe Meeting ASEM, an Asian–European political dialogue forum to enhance relations and various forms of cooperation between its partners including the European Union EU and the European Commission, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN and individual countries - Asia-Europe Foundation ASEF
Asia-Europe relations since antiquity: Chronology of European exploration of Asia since antiquity
October 2018: 24 October 2018: Ancient Greek trading ship dating back more than 2,400 years, preserved by the oxygen-free waters and therefore world’s oldest intact shipwreck, found in Black Sea
European Union/Balkan (Western Balkans) relations: European Union/Balkan (Western Balkans) relations
July 2017: 11 July 2017: The EU has long supported its partners in the Western Balkans on their respective integration paths, and the European Council reaffirmed its unequivocal support for the European perspective of the Western Balkans on 9 March 2017
April 2019: 30 April 2019: Monday’s Berlin Summit on the Western Balkans ended without a hoped-for breakthrough in restarting EU-mediated talks between Kosovo and Serbia, as next meeting on the issue will only be held at the start of July
European Union/Belarus relations: European Union/Belarus relations
11 August 2012 EU backs Sweden in Belarus row: 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row
October 2013 EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition calling for broader sanctions: 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
November 2015 EU temporarily suspended package of sanctions on Belarus despite lack of change: 21 November 2015: EU temporarily suspended package of sanctions on Belarus despite lack of change in Minsk regime
17 August 2020 EU calls leaders to emergency summit to support Belarus people: 17 August 2020: European council's Charles Michel has invited EU’s 27 heads of state and government to an extraordinary meeting by video conference on Wednesday, tweeting 'the people of Belarus have the right to decide on their future and freely elect their leader', and 'violence against protesters is unacceptable and cannot be allowed', reflecting the rapid pace of events in cities across Belarus, after the embattled autocrat Lukashenko urged Russian regime's Putin to save his regime over the weekend
19 August 2020 EU emergency talks to discuss the political crisis in Belarus: 19 August 2020: EU leaders are to hold emergency talks to discuss the political crisis in Belarus, after 10 days of protests that have shaken Alexander Lukashenko’s 26-year grip on power, as in the run-up to the meeting on Wednesday the Belarusian opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya urged the EU not to recognise Lukashenko as president
8 September 2020 EU demands release of Belarus political prisoners: 8 September 2020: EU demands release of Belarus political prisoners and warns of sanctions
21 September 2020 EU fails to agree on Belarus sanctions: 21 September 2020: EU fails to agree on Belarus sanctions despite Lukshenko's human rights violations and crimes
European Union/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
2016: 15 February 2016: Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for EU membership
European Union/Brazil relations: European Union/Brazil relations
July 2007 summit meeting between the EU and Brazil: 4 July 2007 summit meeting between the EU and Brazil in Lisbon, as Brazil was granted special partnership status with the EU
December 2018: 18 December 2018: Brazil’s indigenous leader Sônia Guajajara has called on the EU to impose trade sanctions to prevent ecological disaster and a 'social extermination', after Jair Bolsonaro has terrified indigenous communities by promising to take every centimetre of their land, designate rights activists as 'terrorists' and carve a motorway through the Amazon, which could deforest an area larger than Germany
June 2019 European Union–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement: 28 juin 2019 accord de libre-échange entre le Mercosur et l'Union européenne
August 2019 Free Trade Agreement and Brazil fires: 23 août 2019: l'Irlande et la France menacent de ne pas ratifier l'accord de libre-échange entre l'Union européenne et le Mercosur si le Brésil ne protège pas la forêt amazonienne
European Union/Canada relations: European Union/Canada relations - Canada–Europe relations - 18 October 2013: The EU and Canada reached a free-trade agreement
2016: 13 October 2016: Canada's Trudeau warns EU over CETA reluctance, presuming to say that its failure to ratify CETA deal with Canada will undermine the block’s 'usefulness', as German court gives no free ticket for CETA’s approval - 22 October: Wallonia continues to have concerns about threat of an independent court system to settle disputes between states and foreign investors, which critics say may be used by multinationals to dictate public policy, following CETA’s approval - 27 octobre: La Belgique est parvenue à arrêter une position commune sur CETA, que pourrait permettre aux Européens de signer cet accord, malgré un calendrier incertain - 27 October: CETA debate continues - 30 October: Trudeau off to sign EU trade deal after plane returns briefly with mechanical issues - 30 October: EU and Canada sign free trade deal
European Union/Chad relations: European Union/Chad relations
2016: 16 May 2016: Chadian torture documentary at Cannes film festival sheds light on one of Africa’s least-known mass killings, as some 40,000 people were murdered during Habré’s eight-year reign of terror between 1982 and 1990, while the west looked the other way
European Union/PR of China relations: European Union/PR of China relations
2013/2014: 5 juin 2013: Les panneaux solaires chinois taxés par Bruxelles à partir du 6 juin à 11,8%, plus tard à 47,6% en moyenne si la Commission ne parvient pas à trouver un accord avec Pékin - 27 July 2013: EU deal with China over solar-panel dispute and minimum prices - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows
2016: 4 December 2016: The grim truth of Chinese factories producing the west’s Christmas toys, as undercover investigation by China Labor Watch exposes low wages, hazardous chemicals and overtime beyond legal limits
2017: 29 January 2017: China must investigate a harrowing account of torture by a detained lawyer and release several political prisoners, the EU has demanded in a rare statement amid a deteriorating human rights situation under president Xi Jinping - 2 June 2017: EU and China vow to keep fighting global warming joining states around world in show of solidarity after Trump’s announces USA pullout from climate accord
November 2019 European Commission said violence in response to the escalating protests in Hong Kong unacceptable: 18 November 2019: The European Commission said that violence in response to the escalating anti-government protests in Hong Kong was unacceptable and called on the authorities to keep their action 'strictly proportionate'
December 2019 EU parliament calls for China sanctions over Uighur treatment: 20 December 2019: Members of the European Parliament have called for 'targeted sanctions' against Chinese regime's officials over the treatment of detained Uighur Muslims
19 April 2020 growing pressure on China demanding covid-19 pandemic enquiry: 19 April 2020: Australia demands covid-19 pandemic enquiry, adding to pressure on China
29 May 2020 criticizing China over Hong Kong EU rules out taking any firm action: 29 May 2020: EU is criticizing Chinese regime for asserting more control over Hong Kong but ruled out taking any firm action for now, instead describing Friday's meeting as a preparation for an EU-China summit German city of Leipzig in September
5 June 2020 alliance formed to counter China threat amid rising tensions: 5 June 2020: International cooperation is needed to protect democratic values from an increasingly assertive China, a new group made up of lawmakers from 8 countries and the EU parliament has said, as legislators, representing parties across the political spectrum, have formed a global alliance, the Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China, to push their governments to take a stronger stance on relations with the country
10 June 2020 EU accusing Beijing regime for first time of running false campaigns: 10 June 2020: EU shifts position by accusing Beijing regime for first time of running false campaigns, saying regime behind 'huge wave' of covid-19 disinformation and Russia and China were running 'targeted influence operations and disinformation campaigns in the EU, its neighbourhood, and globally', as USA's expert Fauci says ‘we’re still at the beginning’ of pandemic', and as global economy will contract at least 6% this year, with the unprecedented loss of income and 'extraordinary uncertainty' according to OECD
24 July 2020 EU committee chairs demand harder stance on China’s abuse of human rights: < href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/24/european-committee-chairs-jointly-condemn-china-over-hong-kong">24 July 2020: Joint statement by EU committee chairs from countries including Belgium, Germany, Latvia, Norway, the UK and the European parliament itself, shows a network of parliamentarians is being constructed to shift European governments towards a harder stance on China’s abuse of human rights
European Union/Egypt relations: European Union/Egypt relations - 29 July 2013: EU's Ashton arrives in Cairo for talks Monday amid crisis - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief
European Union and France: European Union and France - The 'Inner Six' Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West-Germany were the six founding member states of the European Communities
Since 2002 tax haven Monaco: Tax haven Monaco's absence of a personal income tax has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy 'tax refugee' residents who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco - 24 October 2002 Franco-Monégasque treaty greatly increases Monaco’s ability to conduct it own foreign relations, alleging that the Principality is an independent and sovereign State - Franco-Monégasque economic and political ties, including an agreement that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco and companies doing more than 25% of their business outside the country would be taxed at French rates
2016: 26 May 2016: The EU, France and Monaco
2017: 31 janvier 2017: Marine Le Pen est accusée d'avoir rémunéré des cadres du Front national avec l'argent du Parlement européen
European Union and Germany: Germany and the European Union
Representation of the European Commission in Germany
2016 Holocaust survivors in Europe waiting for compensation: 5 May 2016: Tens of thousands of Holocaust survivors are spending the final years of their lives in financial hardship while waiting for governments across Europe to compensate them for property stolen during the Nazi era
February 2019 clean air benchmarks: 5 February 2019: Germany's CSU Scheuer’s claim that 'increasing voices' in medical profession were casting doubt on the science behind clean air benchmarks provoked a strong response from the EU environment commissioner Karmenu Vella, who said if the limits were changed they would only be made stronger - Since 2001 Clean Air for Europe
April 2019 EU worries about recession risks in Italy and German slowdown: 5 April 2019: EU worries about recession risks in Italy, German slowdown
May 2020 German government has thrown Lufthansa a €9bn lifeline amid negotiations with EU: 26 May 2020: After government has thrown Lufthansa a €9bn lifeline in the largest corporate rescue since the coronavirus crisis struck, seeking to protect thousands of jobs, minister declined to give details about the remaining sticking points in negotiations with the European commission - 26 May 2020: Franco-German plan for European recovery will face compromises
11/12 July 2020 the only EU country without comprehensive national legislation to return private property confiscated by the Nazis is Poland: 11 July 2020: As Poland is the only country in the EU that has not passed comprehensive national legislation to return, or provide compensation for, private property confiscated by the Nazis, Polish president rejects Holocaust restitution claims ahead of election, as Andrzej Duda vows no reparations for assets seized from Jews during World War II, saying 'damages should be paid by the one that started the war', and as EU leaders are split over covid-19 recovery ahead of this week’s emergency summit that will expose national divisions over budgets, the €750bn pandemic fund, but not yet over Nazi general Rommel admiring Ursula von der Leyen, promoting war criminal Rommel, assigned as commander of the Führerbegleitbatallion, tasked with guarding Hitler and his field headquarters during the invasion of Poland, which began on 1 September 1939, describing the Rommel Barracks as one of the most important installations of the German military
European Union/Honduras relations: European Union/Honduras relations
2016: 20 April 2016: The daughter of murdered environmental leader Berta Cáceres has called for a suspension of European aid to Honduras and investment in its hydro projects until the country complies with human rights norms
European Union/Hungary relations: European Union/Hungary relations
2015: 22 May 2015: Amid growing unease over constitutional changes made by Hungary’s rightwing government, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker welcomed Hungarian PM Orban at Riga summit, greeting him with 'Hello, dictator' - 24 June 2015: Hungary defies EU rule on asylum seekers - 31 August 2015: Condemned by many EU officials, Hungary continues construction of border fence with Serbia directed against desperate refugees
July 2018: 19 July 2018: European Commission sent a formal letter of notice to Hungary, the first step of an infringement procedure, over the government’s 'Stop Soros' law, threatening aid workers and human rights advocates working with asylum-seekers with up to a year in prison
September 2018: 15 September 2018: Hungary vows to challenge the European Parliament vote, paving the way for sanctions, as most Hungarians think the parliament’s decision to trigger Article 7 disciplinary procedures against Hungary was fair, according to an Euronews poll
European Union/India relations: European Union/India relations - 20 March 2013: EU foreign policy chief Ashton defends Italy's breach of trust over two marines on trial for murder in India
European Union/Indonesia relations: European Union/Indonesia relations
16th-20th centuries European colonization of Southeast Asia: 16th-20th centuries European colonization of Southeast Asia after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and later French and British traders, beginning with the Portuguese acquisition of Malacca in 1511, including Dutch colony 'Dutch East Indies' until 1949, consisting of what is now Indonesia - List of European colonies in Southeast Asia and impact
27 March 2020 Hague court orders Dutch state to pay out over colonial massacres: 27 March 2020: Hague court orders Dutch state to pay out over colonial massacres, as Indonesian Andi Monji forced to watch his father’s execution is among those who will get compensation, including widows and children of other executed men, mainly farmers, and as court recognised in its ruling that the sums granted the relatives of victims were 'disproportionate' (i.e. marginally) to the suffering caused, following Dutch and European crimes during hundreds of years never persecuted and punished
European Union/Iran relations: European Union/Iran relations
Since 2011: EU restrictive measures against Iran, since 2011, the EU has also adopted restrictive measures related to Iranian regime's violations of human rights
2013/2014: 7 September 2013: EU court strikes down sanctions imposed on seven Iranian companies despite reported links to Iran’s illicit nuclear activities - 20 January 2014: EU and USA suspend sanctions against Iran after IAEA confirmed Iran's regime has begun halting sensitive nuclear activities - 8/9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton visits Iran for first time, nuclear issue on agenda - 9 March: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 25 November 2014: The EU extended a freeze on certain sanctions against Iran after negotiations aimed at curbing the country's nuclear programme were prolonged by seven months
2015: 3 April 2015: IAEA welcomes that Iran is set to allow the agency more access to its nuclear sites in a framework agreement on Iran's nuclear program reached in Lausanne E3+3 and Iran negotiations on Thursday - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful
2016: 8 March 2016: EU expresses support for Iranian women resistors struggling against government oppression - 25 April 2016: French-Iranian citizen Afshar who left Iran in 2009 after facing espionage charges has been sentenced to six years in jail following her return to the country to visit her critically ill mother - 16 May 2016: French Foreign Ministry staffer Nazak Afshar with dual citizenship awaits appeal on prison sentence in Iran - 11 July 2016: Iran indicts three dual nationals including British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been held in solitary confinement, reports say - 19 July 2016: Iranian regime defends international deal's secret document easing nuke program restrictions, as FM Zarif says paper obtained by AP that shows Iran will be able to get within 6 months of a bomb in a decade is a 'matter of pride’ - 28October 2016: EU’s foreign policy chief Mogherini in Tehran to meet once again smiling child killers and shake bloody hands
2017: 29 July 2017: USA and European allies Britain, France and Germany urged Iran to halt all ballistic missile activity after regime tested a satellite-launch rocket in what USA denounced as a 'provocative' act - 4 August 2017: Amnesty International urges EU's Federica Mogherini to use a visit to Iran to demand that Iranian regime immediately release all imprisoned human rights activists - 13 August 2017: Israel's Mossad chief Cohen noted that in the two years since the signing of the Iran nuclear deal, known formally as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Tehran regime has not abandoned its desire to develop nuclear weapons, and that the agreement 'only reinforced that trend and strengthened Iranian aggression in the region'
November 2017: 2 November 2017: Iran’s trade with the EU stood at €13.1 billion in the eight months ending August 2017, almost double compared with the same period of last year, as Iran-Germany trade increased in 2017 by 19% and Israeli Chief Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says that a genocide is being perpetrated in Syria by the Assad regime and its allies, insisting that there is a moral responsibility to stop the bloodshed of civilians
January 2018: 4 January 2018: To repulse Trump, the Iranian regime needs the Europeans, remaining silent so far in response to the killing of protesters during the 2017/2018 series of protests, as the Iranian theocratic regime spends billions on proxy wars throughout the Mideast
May 2018: 9 May 2018: As Iranian lawmakers vow response 'US and Zionists will regret’, burning a piece of paper representing the nuclear deal and shouting 'Death to America!', France's, Germany's and the UK's governments vow, in a show of unity against the USA on Tuesday, to uphold the Iran nuclear deal, despite USA president’s decision to withdraw from it saying that his administration 'will be instituting the highest level of economic sanction' against the Iranian regime
15 May 2018: Zarif, minister of the Iranian regime committing war crimes together with the Assad and Putin regime, gave an upbeat assessment after a 'good and constructive' meeting with EU's Mogherini, as USA hits Iran’s central bank officials with terror sanctions for helping terrorist group Hezbollah
July 2018: 2 July 2018: Belgium, France and Germany have detained six people, including an Iranian diplomat posted in Vienna, over an alleged plot to bomb a weekend rally by an exiled Iranian opposition group in France, as Iranian regime's Rouhani arrived in Bern on his visit to Switzerland and Austria that regime said was of 'crucial importance' for 'cooperation' between the regime and Europe, telling Swiss president that Israel is 'illegitimate' at a joint press conference
August 2018: 23 August 2018: The European Union agreed 18 million euros ($20.6 million), as part of a wider package of 50 million euros, in aid for Iran on Thursday - 24 August 2018: Israel's PM Benjamin Netanyahu slams the European Union’s financial support package for Iran as a 'big mistake' and said it was like a 'poison pill to the Iranian people and to the efforts to curb Iranian aggression in the region and beyond the region', as Iranian regime attempted to conduct a terror attack on European soil just weeks ago - 25 August 2018: USA slams EU for sending 'wrong message’ with 'aid package' meaning European taxpayers' money for the Iranian regime, as new envoy for Iran says 'more money in the hands of the Ayatollah means more money to conduct assassinations' in Europe
September 2018: 25 September 2018: EU said its members would set up a payment system to allow oil companies and businesses to continue trading with the Iranian regime in a bid to evade sanctions, siding with its state-sponsored terrorism and war once again, as Iran video threatens missile strikes on UAE and Saudi Arabia, also threatening Israel - 27 September 2018: Israel had identified a 'secret atomic warehouse' in Tehran, containing nuclear equipment and radioactive material, according to Israeli PM Netanyahu, calling for new sanctions against Iran and accusing European leaders of 'appeasement' for opposing them
October 2018 Iranian regime's foiled bomb attack near Paris in June: 2 October 2018: France blames Iranian regime for foiled bomb attack near Paris in June, saying Iranian ministry of intelligence, which is part of Rouhani’s government, ordered attack on opposition MEK
January 2019 Iranian regime accused of being behind plots to assassinate regime opponents on Dutch, Danish and French soil: 9 January 2019: EU hit Iran’s intelligence services with sanctions after accusing Iranian regime of being behind plots to assassinate regime opponents on Dutch, Danish and French soil - 31 January 2019: France, Germany and UK expected to launch payment mechanism letting Iranian regime bypass USA sanctions, as Iranian demonstrators since months criticize continued regime's spending of billions of dollars on regional proxy wars and support for terrorist groups, as USA warns it will pursue any company breaching sanctions, and some days after Iran general Hossein Salami said regime aims to wipe Israel off the 'global political map'
April 2019 Iran accused of developing missile technology in contravention of UN resolution: 2 April 2019: Britain, France and Germany accused Iran of developing missile technology in contravention of a UN resolution, drawing attention to regime’s ballistic missile efforts and their potential relevance for a nuclear weapons program, and called for a full UN report on recent activities, according to a letter released Tuesday
May 2019: 9 May 2019: Despite nuke deal, European firms have been reluctant to work with Iran - 9 May 2019: European powers reject Iran’s ‘ultimatums’ on nuclear deal
July 2019 'wake-up call' to Europe: 2 July 2019: A day after Iranian regime said it had breached an agreed-upon limit on its stocks of low-enriched uranium, which Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu described as a 'significant step' toward building a nuclear weapon, urging Europe to scrap 2015 deal and reimpose punishing sanctions on Iran, Israel’s foreign minister calls the Iranian move a 'wake-up call' to Europe
16 July 2019 Iranian threats: 16 July 2019: Iran's ayatollah Ali Khamenei vows response to Britain's 'piracy' and 'will not leave such evil deeds unanswered', saying country will retaliate over the seizure of an Iranian oil tanker in Gibraltar
8 August 2019 INSTEX Bernd Erbel defended Iranian regime’s ballistic missiles: 8 August 2019: Head of EU-Iran trade entity INSTEX and ex-diplomat Bernd Erbel, who gave pair of interviews to journalist who claimed ‘Holocaust industry’ inflates number of victims and reportedly defended Iranian regime’s ballistic missile program, has pulled out of the job
September 2019 Britain to join USA-led naval mission: 13 September 2019: Britain's decision to join a USA-led naval mission in the Gulf has delayed European efforts to set up a maritime force to ensure safe shipping in the Strait of Hormuz separate from USA patrols
24 September 2019 Britain, France and Germany blame Iran for attacks on oil facilities: 24 September 2019: Britain, France and Germany joined the USA in blaming Iran for attacks on key oil facilities in Saudi Arabia, as the Iranian foreign minister tried to invalidate the substantiated assessment through his prophetic revelation 'if Iran were behind this attack, nothing would have been left of this refinery'
December 2019 EU countries encouraging bloody Iranian regime: 1 December 2019: Encouraging bloody Iranian regime, more European countries including Belgium, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden join Iran sanctions-busting mechanism, amid Khamenei's and Rouhani's bloody crackdown on opposition movement and protests, amid regime's backed bloody crackdowns in Iraq and Lebanon, and as Iranian regime's involvement in Assad's and Russia's war against the Syrian people completes its 9th year - 1 December 2019: Report of Iranian regime's brutal crackdown in Shiraz, after an internet blackout hid the regime’s response to unrest over raising fuel prices, interviews with activists and an analysis of social media posts reveal what happened
December 2019 UK, Germany and France slam Iran for working on nuclear-capable missiles: 5 December 2019: UK, Germany and France slam Iran for working on nuclear-capable missiles, also accusing Iranian regime in UN letter of proliferating ballistic missile technology in the region, also citing social media footage of a previously unseen flight test of a new Shahab-3 medium-range ballistic missile
6/7 January 2020 EU is rolling out red carpet for Iranian regime's promoter of violence Zarif as USA denies entry: 5 janvier 2020: L'Iran lève toute limite sur ses centrifugeuses - 6 January 2020: EU is rolling out a red carpet in Brussels for Iranian regime's promoter of violence Zarif amid tensions, war and terrorism in the Middle East and worldwide caused by the regime, as USA has denied an entry visa to Zarif, preventing him from attending a UN Security Council meeting scheduled for later this week, Reuters says
11/12 January 2020 EU's agency EASA warns against flying over Iran after Mullah regime shot down Ukrainian jet killing 176 passengers: 11 January 2020: EU aviation agency EASA warns against flying over Iran, after Mullah regime admitted shooting down Ukrainian passenger jet, killing 176 people from Afghanistan, Canada, Iran, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom - 12 January 2020: Iranian Khamenei, Rouhani, Zarif regime deploys riot police as it braces for further protests over plane shootdown, amid circulating calls for protests later in the day, and after a large black banner unveiled in Vali-e Asr Square in Tehran bore the names of those killed in the plane crash
European Union/Iraq relations: European Union/Iraq relations - 13 August 2014: EU allows states to arm Iraqi Kurds but fails to reach a joint stance on arming Kurds fighting IS terrorists - 15 August: EU backs supply of arms to Kurdish fighters against Islamic terrorists in Iraq, insisting that deliveries should be approved by the new government in Baghdad
European Union/Israel relations: European Union/Israel relations
2013/2014: 8 November 2013: A fifth of Jewish respondents in an EU survey said they had experienced an anti-Semitic incident in the past 12 months, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency says - 26 novembre: Accord UE-Israël sur la coopération scientifique - 9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 18 July: Israel working to ensure EU foreign ministers don’t mix settlements with Gaza at upcoming meeting - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 21 May: The Palestinians, not Israel, walked out of USA-led negotiations 2013/2014, Israel's Hotovely tells EU's Mogherini
2016: 10 February 2016: EU and Israel said in talks to restore ties hurt by the EU’s new labeling guidelines for West Bank and Golan Heights products
December 2017: 11 December 2017: Fending off widespread international criticism, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in Brussels that recognizing Jerusalem as his country’s capital made peace possible, rather than distancing the prospect of an agreement with the Palestinians, as EU's Mogherini insists the city will have to be a shared capital, condemns attacks on Jews worldwide
May 2018: 10 May 2018: EU, British PM back Israel’s right to defend itself from Iranian strikes, as Israeli PM Netanyahu says Iran rocket fire #crossed a red line and we reacted accordingly’, also urging the international community to unite and cut Iranian regime's 'tentacles of evil' spreading in Syria - 25 May 2018: Israel calls on EU to end funding to pro-boycott groups, saying some of the groups have links to terror groups while receiving EU money, adding that the financial support violates the EU’s stated policy that it opposes boycotts against the Jewish state - 29 May 2018: EU condemns ‘unacceptable indiscriminate attack’ on Israel from Gaza, as European envoy highlights mortar shell that fell outside kindergarten, saying 'I know the resilience of communities in southern Israel'
June 2018: 6 June 2018: As Israeli PM Netanyahu ends his visit to Germany, France, UK, diplomatic source quoted as saying there is 'widespread agreement' on ending Iranien regime's military presence in Syria
September 2018: 27 September 2018: Israel had identified a 'secret atomic warehouse' in Tehran, containing nuclear equipment and radioactive material, according to Israeli PM Netanyahu, calling for new sanctions against Iran and accusing European leaders of 'appeasement' for opposing them
November 2018: 29 November 2018: Ring of Roman governor Pontius Pilate who crucified Jesus found in Herodion site in West Bank, as name of the man who ordered Jesus crucified and ran his trial, the ancient infamous Roman governor of Jerusalem, Pontius Pilate, has been deciphered on a bronze ring found in excavations
January 2019: 23 January 2019: Israeli ministry accused the EU of funding organizations that support the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement to the tune of millions, urging the EU to make any financial aid to NGOs contingent on an explicit commitment to opposing boycotts of Israel, as EU insists it will defend 'free speech'
July 2019 UN's and EU's wrong world: 26 July 2019: France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg and Malta joined Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Russia, and Venezuela and 29 other nations in supporting UN resolution accusing only Israel of women’s rights violations, ignoring the world’s worst abusers of women’s rights and refusing to pass a single resolution on the situation of women in Saudi Arabia and Iran
14 January 2020 Polish Jewish community backs president’s decision to skip Holocaust event in Jerusalem: 14 January 2020: Calling Russian Putin regime's attempt to blame Poles for cooperation with Hitler 'a provocation', Poland’s largest Jewish communal group expressed its support for Polish president Duda’s decision to withdraw from Holocaust memorial event in Jerusalem on 23 January after being left off speakers’ list and as representatives of France, the successor state of the pre-1945 German Reich (!), Russia, the UK, the USA would all speak at the memorial
European Union/Italy relations: Italy and the European Union
2016 Italy obstructs EU's opposition to Russian war crimes: 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit, as a UK-backed plan ran into opposition from Italy
March 2018 Italy receives Assad’s head of secret services Ali Mamlouk: 30 March 2018: Italy receives Assad’s head of secret services Ali Mamlouk in violation of EU legislative acts against the Assad regime
October 2018 disputed populist government's budget: 23 October 2018: EU and Italy face off over populist government's budget, 'openly and consciously going against commitments made', as EU warns 'debt weights too heavy and you end up having no freedom at all'
April 2019 EU worries about recession risks in Italy and German slowdown: 5 April 2019: EU worries about recession risks in Italy, German slowdown
15 July 2020 Italy's calls for urgent covid-19 help since February were ignored by the EU: 15 July 2020: New revelations show that Italy's calls for urgent help since February 2020 to the European commission, led by CDU's Ursula von der Leyen, were ignored, as the specifications of Italy’s needs were uploaded into the EU’s Common Emergency Communication and Information System but distress call was met with silence, and then covid-19 swept through Europe and further, as now e.g. India covid-19 cases top 900,000 and 133m re-enter lockdown
15 August 2020 victims of 1944 Nazi Fosse Ardeatine massacre identified and EU commission: 15 August 2020: After 76 years, victims of 1944 Fosse Ardeatine massacre, in which civilians were killed by Nazi German occupation soldiers in reprisal for a partisan attack on an SS regiment in Italy, identified through DNA testing, as two of those who died can now finally be honored by families, and as David Reicher's father Marian, a Polish Jew who fled to Italy during WWII, was among the 335 civilians murdered in the indiscriminate mass killings, which targeted Jews and Gentiles of all ages, from all professions, and socioeconomic groups, during the German led massacre period following the overthrow of Mussolini, as Nazi Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel became commander of German Army Group B in Italy since July 1943, to force Italy to continue Nazi's war after the overthrow of the war criminal Mussolini, as EU's present-day president of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen calls Erwin Rommel a resistance fighter
European Union/Japan relations: European Union/Japan relations - 7 octobre 2013: Airbus signe sa première grosse commande avec le Japon
European Union/Kenya relations: European Union/Kenya relations
2018: 19 January 2018: EU criticised for its ‘poor response’ after indigenous herder Robert Kirotich was killed during a forced eviction for a water conservation project it funds in Kenya
European Union/North Korea relations: European Union/North Korea relations - EU-Democratic People's Republic of Korea DPRK relations (EU website)
Since 2006 EU restrictive measures against North Korea: Since 2006 EU restrictive measures against North Korea, the EU has implemented the restrictive measures imposed through resolutions of the UN Security Council and has reinforced them through its own measures, targeting the DPRK's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missile-related programmes
European Union/South Korea relations: European Union/South Korea relations
Since 2001 Europe–Korea Foundation: Since 2001 Europe–Korea Foundation, the philanthropic arm of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in Korea EUCCK, an NGO and a separate entity financially independent from the EUCCK
Since 2009/2011 European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement: Since 2009/2011 European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement
European Union/Lebanon relations: European Union/Lebanon relations
July 1994 and 2019 Argentina declares Hezbollah a terrorist organization held responsible for the 1994 attack against AMIA: 18 July 1994 AMIA suicide van bombing attack on the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association building in Buenos Aires, killing 85 people and injuring hundreds, Argentina's deadliest terrorist attack to date, as on 18 July 2019, at the request of Israel and the USA, Argentina officially declares Hezbollah a terrorist organization, freezing assets and expelling all members of the organization from the country, which is held responsible for the 1994 attack against AMIA
2013 EU to decide on blacklisting Hezbollah: 22 July 2013: EU to decide on blacklisting Hezbollah - 22 July 2013: EU ministers have agreed to put the military wing of Lebanese group Hezbollah on the EU terror list, now facing visa ban and asset freezes
2014 EU upholds 'principles' that bans engagement with Hamas until it forswears terrorism: 17 December 2014: After an EU court's decision, body led by EU foreign Policy chief Federica Mogherini releases statement saying that the EU upholds the 'Quartet principles' that bans engagement with Hamas until it forswears terrorism - 21 March 2014: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe
July 2017 investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon demanded: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account
February 2019 UK urges EU to blacklist Lebanon’s Hezbollah as a terrorist organization in its entirety: 25 February 2019: The United Kingdom announced that it plans to blacklist Lebanon’s Hezbollah as a terrorist organization in its entirety, including its political wing, saying that it could no longer distinguish between the two branches, as Israel applauds decision and urges EU to follow in their footsteps
12 June 2019 vast ammonium nitrate cache found in London part of terror group Hezbollah’s planned ‘revenge’ against Israel: 12 June 2019: Hezbollah planned huge, game-changing attacks on Israel targets globally, as Israeli intel official says vast ammonium nitrate cache found in 2015 in London, as reported this week, was part of terror group’s planned ‘revenge’ against Israel
5 May 2020 Lebanon needs support to tackle the country’s crises: 5 May 2020: UN Security Council backed Lebanon’s efforts to end the country’s economic crisis and tackle other challenges including the impact of covid-19 and called on the international community to help
19 August 2020 Hezbollah behind the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and attempts to block a fair investigation: 19 August 2020: Israel responded Tuesday evening to a UN-backed tribunal’s conviction of a Hezbollah member for involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, saying the terror group was behind both the attack and attempts to block a fair investigation of it
15 September 2020 UN peacekeepers rescued refugees mostly Syrians from a boat off the Lebanese coast as one passenger had already passed away: 15 September 2020: A UN peacekeeping force rescued 36 people, mostly Syrians, and recovered the body of a passenger from a boat off the Lebanese coast on Monday, according to the UN refugee agency, as the destination of the boat was not immediately clear, but Lebanon and neighboring Cyprus have reported several migrant vessels trying to leave the Middle Eastern country in recent weeks
15 September 2020 USA's Pompeo warns France over Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry: 15 September 2020: USA Secretary of State warned France that efforts to resolve the crisis in Lebanon would be in vain without immediately tackling the issue of Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry, after French president said Hezbollah's elected arm has a legitimate political role, as Pompeo added that the USA 'has assumed its responsibility and we will stop Iran buying Chinese tanks and Russian air defence systems and then selling weapons to Hezbollah'
17 September 2020 Hezbollah accused of stockpiling weapons and ammonium nitrate across Europe: 17 September 2020: USA's counterterrorism coordinator Nathan Sales has accused Hezbollah of storing caches of weapons and ammonium nitrate for use in explosives across Europe in recent years, with the alleged aim of preparing for future attacks ordered by Iran, saying 'I can reveal that such [Hezbollah weapons] caches have been moved through Belgium to France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland', adding Hezbollah is a 'unitary organization that cannot be subdivided into a military and so-called political wing', and that without a full ban the Islamist group can still raise money and recruit operatives
European Union/Libya relations: European Union/Libya relations
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 19 April 2016: Libya offered security help by European Union as UN-backed PM Fayez Seraj appeals for aid to fight 'Islamic State' terrorists and rebuild country - 24 mai 2016: Quelque 550 migrants qui tentaient de rejoindre l'Europe par la mer ont été arrêtés mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 29 May 2016: UNHCR says it is now certain that last week was the deadliest since April 2015 as more than 700 refugees and migrants feared dead in three Mediterranean sinkings and as rescue teams describe shocking scenes
2017: 27 February 2017: NGO rescues off Libya encourage traffickers, the head of the EU border agency Frontex Leggeri says, calling for rescue operations to be re-evaluated and adding that NGOs work ineffectively with security agencies - 9 September 2017: German NGO Sea-Eye resumes migrant rescue operations off Libya
September 2017: 25 September 2017: European leaders are embracing Libyan general Khalifa Haftar, a former CIA asset, who has ordered his soldiers to commit war crimes, according to new evidence that has been analysed by senior legal experts
December 2017: 12 December 2017: European leaders stand accused by rights group of being knowingly complicit in the torture and exploitation of thousands of migrants and refugees by the EU-financed Libyan coastguard and officials running the country’s detention camps
July 2018: 20 July 2018: Libya rejects EU plan for refugee and migrant centres, after Italy in June proposed reception and identification centres in Africa as a means of resolving divisions among European governments
January 2019: 21 January 2019: The EU’s support for Libya’s anti-migrant policies is contributing to a cycle of 'extreme abuse', including arbitrary detention, torture, sexual violence, extortion and forced labour, according to Human Rights Watch
March 2019: 27 mars 2019: Fin des bateaux de l'UE au large de la Libye
8 April 2019: 8 April 2019: UK urges France to condemn Haftar’s assault on Tripoli, as EU foreign ministers are meeting in Brussels to condemn an assault on Tripoli by the Libyan warlord Khalifa Haftar and call for all sides to revert to UN-led political discussions about the riven country’s future, after UK-led moveto pass a security council statement condemning Haftar at the UN on Sunday was blocked by Russia
12 April 2019 Libyan protests: On 12 April 2019 people protested on the streets of Tripoli and Misrata opposing warlord Haftar's military attack on Tripoli, rejecting support for the attack by France, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia, with Misrata protestors burning a French flag
24 April 2019: 24 avril 2019: Le président français Macron joue gros dans le conflit libyen pour avoir offert une légitimité internationale au conducteur de guerre Khalifa Haftar, qui bouscule aujourd'hui tous les efforts de paix avec son offensive sur Tripoli
June 2019 Libya’s peace initiative: 17 June 2019: Libya’s UN-recognised government in Tripoli has sought to break the deadlock in the country’s civil war by launching a peace initiative which will include a national peace forum followed by simultaneous parliamentary and presidential elections to be held by the end of the year
July 2019 airstrike and massacre by warlord Haftar's forces: 3 July 2019 Tajoura migrant center airstrike and massacre by warlord Haftar's forces, backed by Egypt, France, Russia and the United Arab Emirates, after UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, on 8 May 2019 called for refugees and migrants in detention centres in conflict areas in Tripoli to be immediately evacuated to safety, after an airstrike hit a target less than 100 metres away from Tajoura detention centre, where over 500 refugees and migrants are being detained - 3 July 2019: Air raid blamed on the forces of the warlord Khalifa Haftar on Libya detention centre was predictable, and EU officials have long been aware of the risks in Libya, where migrants have faced atrocious mistreatment at the hands of militias, while Europe’s governments have prevented the sailing of migrant boats to Italy and elsewhere - 5 juillet 2019: Malnutrition, enlèvements, travail forcé, torture - des ONG présentes en Libye dénoncent les conditions de détention des migrants piégés dans ce pays, conséquence selon elles de la politique migratoire des pays européens conclue avec les Libyens
10 July 2019 France admits Haftar military support: 10 juillet 2019: La France a admis que les missiles découverts dans un QG du maréchal libyen Khalifa Haftar près de Tripoli lui appartenaient
12 July 2019 rights groups urge EU to save lives: 12 July 2019: EU foreign ministers gathering in Brussels on 15 July 2019, should issue a clear call to Libyan authorities to close their migrant detention centres, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and the European Council on Refugees and Exiles said, also urging ministers to make a commitment on behalf of EU states to facilitate the evacuation of detainees to safe places, including outside of Libya and to EU member states
14 July 2019: 14 July 2019: Migrants and refugees in Libya are still in peril, as Europe’s 'business as usual’ approach is making things worse, even after the UN’s human rights agency begged for action, the British 'Independent' says
24 July 2019: 24 July 2019: The Libyan navy on Wednesday rescued 38 migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean on a dinghy in distress off Ras Agedir, a town about 177 km west of Tripoli, before the migrants were transferred to the Tajoura detention center that was bombed earlier this month by Khalifa Haftar’s forces
5/6 August 2019 another murderous airstrike by French-backed Haftar: 5 août 2019: Au moins 42 civils ont été tués dans une frappe aérienne contre une ville du sud de la Libye, selon Ibrahim Omar, membre du conseil municipal de Morzouk, en accusant les forces de Khalifa Haftar, en ajoutant qu'un bâtiment gouvernemental où étaient réunies plus de 200 personnes, des notables et doyens de la ville pour régler des différends sociaux, a été visé par trois frappes, et en affirmant que les bombardements ont aussi fait plus de 60 blessés dont 30 dans un état grave - 6 August 2019: Libyan Ministry of Interior strongly condemned the brutal air attack on Murzuq town southwest of Libya, calling on the international community and the UN mission to assume their responsibilities towards the behavior of illegal armed groups and to investigate the war crimes committed by Haftar, after the UN Security Council reaffirmed Monday the call on all Libyan parties to commit to a ceasefire and rapidly to return to a UN-mediated political process
6 August 2019 MSF International demand EU to act: Europe must act now to end preventable deaths in Libya and at sea, according to MSF International, saying 'it seems that Europe’s leaders consider people drowning as an acceptable price to pay in order to stem the flow in the Central Mediterranean'
17 August 2019 Haftar's torture and executions: 17 August 2019: 12 prisoners of war, showing signs of torture and abuses, have been executed by Khalifa Haftar’s infamous Al-Kaniyat militia group after their detention in different frontlines in southern Tripoli, as two other civilians abducted by the same group in Qarabulli town east of Tripoli had the same fate, according to ministry
September 2019 Khalifa Haftar’s war on Tripoli supported by France, the UAE and Egypt, Al-Sarraj told UN General Assembly: 26 September 2019: Khalifa Haftar’s war on Tripoli was encouraged by France, the UAE and Egypt, Libya's Al-Sarraj told UN General Assembly, saying the three foreign countries are interfering in Libya’s internal affairs and provided military and financial support for war criminal Haftar to launch his offensive, adding 'we condemn the three countries’ support to Haftar which constitute a flagrant violation of Security Council resolutions'
20 November 2019 EU condemns bombing of food factory in Tripoli: 20 November 2019: EU condemns bombing of food factory in Tripoli, without mentioning French support for Haftar's war
14 December 2019 European Parliament calls on the EU to condemn Haftar and prevent a bloodbath in Libya: 14 December 2019: The European Parliament expressed its deep concern on the ongoing attacks of Haftar's militants on the south of Tripoli, calling on the European Union and the international community to condemn the threats of Haftar and take the necessary measures to prevent a bloodbath in Libya
28 December 2019 Italy wants no-fly zone in Libya for immediate cessation of hostilities: 28 December 2019: Italian PM Giuseppe Conte outlined the establishment of a no-fly zone to stop indiscriminate aerial attacks especially committed by Haftar's forces supported by Russia's Putin and France's Benalla-Macron, for resolving the Libya conflict, saying Italy fully supports the initiative for a Libya conference early next year in Berlin
Since 7 January 2020 Libyan political parties express concern about the upcoming visit of European foreign ministers: 7 January 2020: Several Libyan political parties have expressed concern about the upcoming visit of European foreign ministers to Tripoli, saying 'it is far too late', voicing their rejection to the 'political hypocrisy' of European countries by not rejecting aggression and military coups - 7 January 2020: Civilians killed or injured in Libya by explosive weapons rose by 131% last year, with the number of incidents at its highest since 2011, the year of the Benghazi uprising, according to new data seen by the Guardian, as most of the 900 people who died or were hurt in explosions in the country in 2019 were victims of airstrikes - 8 January 2020: Haftar's forces said they carried out air strikes on Wednesday on a coastal road west of Sirte - 8 January 2020: Haftar's forces clash with government forces near Sirte - 12 January 2020: Libya's UN-supported government has accused Haftar’s forces of violating a ceasefire minutes after it was supposed to take effect, as Haftar's forces ruled out any retreat from areas recently captured by his aggressive troops, supported by the UAE, Egypt, France and Russia
18/19 January 2020 Berlin Libya conference of colorful sharp of representatives including war criminals: After in September 2019, Libya's Salamé stated to the UNSC that he had visited several countries in the region with the aim of organising an international conference, 19 January 2020 Berlin conference organized to include cast of quirky characters and representatives of Algeria, the Arab League, the AU, the P.R. of China, Republic of Congo, Egypt, the EU, France (supporting war criminal Haftar since years), Italy, war criminal state Russia, Turkey, the UAE, the UK, the UN, USA, as even the GNA head Serraj of the country attacked by war criminal Haftar since April 2019 and this warlord himself are invited to the conference in Berlin, the former capital of the German empire, as police only informed since Tuesday is now forced to protect Novichok-Putin, after in December Germany declared two Russian embassy employees non-gratae for non-cooperation on Khangoshvili murder case - Estimates of the 'value of life' in different capitalist countries, including Russia - 18 January 2020: UN envoy to Libya said on Saturday he hoped but 'could not predict' whether oil ports in the east of the country would be reopened in a few days - 18 January 2020: Libya's Foreign Ministry has sent a message to the German embassy in Libya, demanding that it is necessary to invite Tunisia and Qatar to the Berlin conference, explaining that the importance of Tunisia comes for being a bordering neighbour country, who have sheltered thousands of Libyan refugees throughout the Libyan conflict, in addition to the common security concerns it shares with Libya
19 January 2020 Libyan oilfields face closure: 19 January 2020: As international powers gather in Berlin for a summit on Libya, group Fezzan Anger, named for Libya's southwestern Fezzan desert region and that has previously shut down Libya's largest oilfield, is threatening to do so again, potentially taking nearly all the country's oil output offline, as NOC said existing closure ordered by eastern warlord Khalifa Haftar leading to the loss of 800,000 barrels per day, more than half the country's total production
19 January 2020 minimalist hope in Berlin: 19 January 2020: Minimalist hope in Berlin that a permanent ceasefire can be agreed, EU states at odds over which of the two warring Libyan sides to support, the blatant meddling by Russian fascists, multiple Arab states and even France, the Turkish policy to ignore EU pleas and send other mercenaries to join the fight, show how little influence a sidelined EU has, today influenced by Germany's CDU Merkel and von der Leyen, protecting German war criminal Erwin Rommel, field marshal of Nazi Germany during World War II, in North Africa 1941–1943, and today's namesake of German barracks, together with former German Chancellery Chief of Staff CDU Hans Globke, founded on his career during National Socialism, together with former Federal Minister for Displaced Persons, Refugees and Victims of War CDU Theodor Oberländer, founded on his career during National Socialism, together with former Supreme Commander of the NATO ground forces in Central Europe and Nazi military commander of France 1940-1944 Hans Speidel, together with NSDAP Werner Bahlsen, 'zu Beginn der NS-Herrschaft ... förderndes Mitglied der SS, die er bis 1935 finanziell unterstützte, 1942 NSDAP, leitete zudem eine von der Firma Bahlsen verwaltete Keksfabrik mit etwa 1500 Beschäftigten im besetzten Kiew und koordinierte die Verschickung von Zwangsarbeiterinnen aus der Ukraine nach Hannover', together with 'Liste ehemaliger NSDAP-Mitglieder, die nach Mai 1945 politisch tätig waren'
19 January 2020 situation in Libya, arms embargo and ceasefire monitoring committee: 19 January 2020 situation in Libya - 19 January 2020: Sanctions threatened against countries who break arms embargo by 11 countries of Berlin Libya conference, while both sides to the conflict have agreed to nominate five members to an UN ceasefire monitoring committee
20 January 2020 'a ceasefire requires someone to take care of it', EU’s Josep Borrell says: 20 January 2020: The EU will discuss all ways to uphold a formal ceasefire in Libya if one is reached but any peace settlement will need real EU support to make it hold, according to EU’s Josep Borrell, saying 'a ceasefire requires someone to take care of it' - 20 January 2020: Libya's Al-Sarraj calls for deployment of international troops
29 January 2020 Haftar’s shelling on Tripoli residential areas kills children: 29 January 2020: Haftar’s shelling on Tripoli residential areas kills three children and injures two others, hit as they were on the way to school, according to local official, amid Haftar's daily violations of the Berlin 'ceasefire'
29/30 January 2020 EU and USA must work together to end the siege of Tripoli to avoid escalation: 29 January 2020: Returned from Berlin conference and ceasefire promises, France's belligerent Macron will send warships to support Greece in Turkish standoff over regional energy reserves, after French Total and Russian Novatek signed 2018 contract with Lebanon for oil and gas disputed by Israel, warning against 'provocative behavior' and more - 30 January 2020: The EU and USA must work together to end the siege of Tripoli
16 February 2020 'arms embargo has become a joke', UN's Stephanie Williams says: 16 February 2020: At Berlin Conference on Libya January 2020 reaffirmed 'arms embargo has become a joke', and the country’s financial position is deteriorating rapidly, UN's Stephanie Williams told a news conference in Munich, monitoring unscrupulous violations by land, sea and air by the main perpetrators since April 2019, including Haftar's militias, Russia, Egypt, France, UAE, and Saudi-Arabia, without any accountability
17 February 2020 expert says UN security council’s members are to blame for the dangers posed to Libyan civilians by unexploded munition: 17 February 2020: Libya analyst Jalel Harchaoui says UN security council’s members are to blame for the dangers posed to Libyan civilians by unexploded munition, after warlord Khalifa Haftar supported by Russia, France, Egypt, UAE launched campaign to seize Tripoli - 17 February 2020: EU ministers agree in principle to monitor a UN arms embargo, which is routinely flouted, and 'to create a mission to block the entry of arms into Libya'
4 March 2020 researcher says 'EU will not be able to enforce the UN arms embargo in Libya': 4 March 2020: The EU will not be able to enforce the UN arms embargo in Libya, German researchers say
12 March 2020 unlawful EU assault on the rights of desperate refugees and migrants reported: 12 March 2020: Evidence obtained by the British 'Guardian' exposes a coordinated and unlawful EU assault on the rights of desperate people trying to cross the Mediterranean
24 March 2020 EU seems unconcerned by northern African battleground and dictators: 24 March 2020: Europe seems unconcerned by the chaos smouldering on its doorstep in northern Africa, as five-year-old conflict Libya supported by EU countries becomes world’s main theatre of drone combat, and as most recent ally of Khalifa Haftar, the warlord who has been attacking the Libyan capital Tripoli since April last year, is Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad, now indirectly supported also by France
31 March 2020 Libya's critical situation requires urgent action EU's Josep Borrell says: 31 March 2020: Libya is a priority for the EU, as shown by the Berlin conference, but the situation is critical and requires urgent action, EU's Josep Borrell said Tuesday
2 April 2020 Libya’s FM protests EU’s softness on arms flow to warlord Haftar: 2 April 2020: Libya’s GNA Foreign Minister protests EU’s softness on arms flow to warlord Haftar - 2 April 2020: Haftar forces kill 2 civilians in Libya’s Tripoli, GNA urges halt of arming militias
16 April 2020 children and woman killed and wounded by Haftar: 16 April 2020: A woman and a child were killed and another five children were wounded by attacks and artillery shelling of several neighborhoods in Tripoli by warlord Haftar's forces seeking to capture the capital, a UN-backed government's spokesman says, despite UN calls for a cease-fire since April 2019
17 April 2020 Haftar' forces killed a doctor during an attack on Tripoli: 17 April 2020: Haftar' forces killed a doctor during an attack on southern Tripoli Friday
18 April 2020 Haftar steps up attack on Tripoli: 18 April 2020: Haftar steps up attack on Tripoli, causing civilian casualties, after suffering losses west of the city - 18 April 2020: Libyan Air Force strikes Hafta'r militias in Al-Wattia Military Base
21 April 2020 EU's Cozzolino holds Haftar fully responsible for the crisis in Libya: 21 April 2020: EU official Andrea Cozzolino holds Haftar fully responsible for the crisis in Libya
1 May 2020 3 civilians killed in shelling by Haftar forces: 1 May 2020: Three civilians were killed in shelling by forces loyal to warlord Haftar in Zintan city, northwestern Libya
12 May 2020 backed by Cyprus, France and Greece, Haftar attacks Tripoli airport amid ongoing deadly crisis: 12 May 2020: Shelling of Tripoli's airport hit fuel tanks and damaged passenger planes after Haftar forces fired rockets into Tripoli - 12 May 2020: Russia-trained Syrian fighters reportedly to join Haftar forces in Libya, as UN once again calls on the international community to push for a ceasefire in Libya - 12 May 2020: Turkish FM spokesman said Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, France and the UAE were pursuing 'regional chaos and instability' in the eastern Mediterranean and sacrificing Libyans’ 'hope for democracy for the reckless aggression of dictators'
17 May 2020 Haftar attacks shelter for displaced people killing many: 17 May 2020: Bombs hit a shelter for displaced people in Libya’s capital Tripoli, killing at least seven people including a 5-year-old child from Bangladesh, also wounding many others in the latest attack on civilians by Haftar backed by Egypt, France, Russia, UAE and other Arab countries - 17 May 2020: Since hosting a Libya summit four months ago, the German government has approved arms exports worth €331 million to countries accused of supporting warring parties in the country, according a report from the German Economy Ministry
5 June 2020 blow to warlord Haftar, UAE's Khalifa, Egypt's el-Sisi, Russian regime's Putin, and France's Macron: 5 June 2020: In a blow to warlord Haftar, UAE's Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Egypt's el-Sisi, Russian regime's Putin, and France's Macron, UN-backed Libyan forces oust renegade general from Tripoli after his 14-month siege of the south of the city, now ending in failure when his forces retreated from the south of the city toward his heartlands in the south and the east of the country, as UN-recognised government's interior minister Bashagha hailed 'the beginning of the end of the entire dictatorship project', urging cities under Haftar’s control to rise up against him and spare themselves further conflict, amid remaining uncertainty that the extent of Haftar’s retreat may depend on the point at which newly arrived Russian fighter jets intervene to shore up his lines of defence
9 June 2020 residents of Tripoli celebrate defeat of Haftar’s forces: 9 June 2020: Residents of the Libyan capital Tripoli celebrated defeat of rebel group aligned to Khalifa Haftar’s eastern forces, after forces loyal to Libya’s UN-recognised government overrun Haftar’s last western stronghold, following a 14-month assault on Tripoli
11 June 2020 discovery of mass graves in Libya after Haftar's retreat: 11 July 2020: UN has expressed horror at the discovery of eight mass graves in Libya, mainly in the town of Tarhuna south of Tripoli, in an area recently retaken from forces loyal to warlord Haftar, saying it welcomed the decision by the internationally recognised GNA government to launch an investigation into the graves
17 June 2020 France stands with 'putschists' in Libya: 17 June 2020: Turkey expressed its rejection to the statements of French FM Jean-Yves Le Drian's regarding Ankara's role in Libya, insisting that Paris's support to illegal entities is the obstacle to establishing peace and stability in Libya, saying 'the support France is providing to Haftar is fueling the Libyan crisis' - 17 June 2020: USA welcomes GNA call for investigating violations in Libya
18 June 2020 Malta calls for European-American alliance to end violence in Libya: 18 June 2020: The war for Tripoli is over, but new battles loom - 18 June 2020: Malta calls for European-American alliance to end the violence in Libya
24 June 2020 Libya exhuming Tarhuna mass graves as HRW demands Haftar to investigate alleged war crimes 5 monthts after Berlin conference: 24 June 2020: Medical teams from Libya’s UN-recognized unity government exhumed mass graves discovered in the western city of Tarhuna, as Human Rights Watch called on Libyan military strongman Haftar to investigate alleged war crimes by his fighters after the discovery of the mass graves in territory formerly under their control - 24 June 2020: UN Human Rights Council adopted a draft resolution of the Libyan permanent mission in Geneva condemning war on Tripoli and reiterating Libya's sovereignty and unity
24 June 2020 Italy's FM meets Libyan PM in Tripoli: Italy's FM meets Libyan PM in Tripoli, stressing 'the need to resume the political process and end foreign interference' in Libya, according to a statement from Sarraj's office
26 June 2020 end of Tripoli siege raises fears of full-scale proxy war in Libya: 26 June 2020: End of Tripoli siege raises fears of full-scale proxy war in Libya, as diplomatic efforts intensify to avert Cairo’s entry into Libya’s nine-year civil war amid wider tensions and escalate tensions between some of the Middle East’s most implacable foes including Egypt, the UAE, France, Russia, and on the other side Qatar and Turkey
27 June 2020 Libya calls for EU and USA sanctions on Russian mercenaries and backers 5 monthts after Berlin conference: 27 June 2020: Libya calls for USA, EU sanctions on Russian mercenaries and backers in the African country
4 July 2020 Russia deploys fighter jet amid protests in Hun as Haftar mercenaries kill a local citizen 6 monthts after Berlin conference: 4 July 2020: Russia deploys military fighter aircraft to Libya, Africom officials say, likely to provide close air support and offensive fires for the Wagner Group - 4 July 2020: Protests in Hun as Haftar mercenaries kill a local citizen
5 July 2020 foreign warplanes backing up Haftar strike Al-Watiya airbase in Libya 6 monthts after Berlin conference: 5 July 2020: Foreign warplanes backing up Haftar’s forces carried out airstrikes on Al-Watiya airbase west of the capital Tripoli, on Sunday
21 July 2020 Egypt preparing military intervention in Libya to support criminal Haftar 6 monthts after Berlin conference: 21 July 2020: Egypt parliament approves military intervention in Libya after strongman al-Sisi spoke of military operations in neighbouring Libya to support Haftar - 21 July 2020: Egypt and Nato-member Turkey edged closer to the possibility of armed conflict this week over Libya, with both sides preparing for an impending battle over key city Sirte
17 August 2020 instead of acting in the EU courageous(ly) German FM wants to find way in Libya: 17 August 2020: German FM Maas made an unannounced visit to Tripoli, saying that the world must not be deceived by the 'deceptive calm' at the moment and find a way to end the conflict in Libya, where 'both sides in a bloody civil war' are being armed by international allies, since many years, also involving EU countries, and particularly since April 2019
2 September 2020 EU's high representative Josep Borrell held talks in Libya: 2 September 2020: EU's high representative Josep Borrell held talks in Libya with the warring sides in a bid to find a solution to end the conflict, after previous efforts to secure lasting cease-fires have stalled
European Union and Malta: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
April 2018 Daphne Caruana Galizia murder case: 18 April 2018: Following Tuesday’s launch of the Daphne Project, a collaboration between international media organisations, politicians across Europe have demanded that Malta’s chief of police broaden the investigation into the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia so that it pursues more aggressively those 'with a motivation for silencing' the anti-corruption journalist
December 2019 murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 3 December 2019: EU mission tells Malta PM to quit immediately over Caruana Galizia case, saying Muscat has made serious errors over investigation into journalist’s murder
May 2020 migrants die as Malta uses private ships to push them back to Libya: 19 May 2020: 12 die as Malta uses private ships to push migrants back to Libya
European Union/Middle East relations: European Union/Middle East relations - EU/Bahrain relations - EU/Iraq relations - EU/Iran relations - EU/Israel relations - EU/Jordan relations - EU/Lebanon relations - EU/Morocco relations - EU/Palestinian territories relations - EU/Syria relations - EU/Turkey relations - EU/Yemen relations
1871-1945 the Middle East, German empire and World War I and II: 2004: Germany and the Middle East, 1871-1945 - 15 September 2020: Naval commandos from the Hamas terror group reportedly succeeded in retrieving a trove of ammunition, including large-caliber naval shells, from a sunken British warship off the coast of the Gaza Strip with the aim of using it to arm itself against Israel, as over a period of several weeks, divers removed the ammunition from HMS M15, which was sunk in 1917 during World War I by a German submarine and now lies about a kilometer northeast of Gaza City
October/November 1991 Madrid Middle East Conference: October/November 1991 Madrid Conference, a peace conference hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the Soviet Union and an attempt to revive the Israeli–Palestinian peace process through negotiations, involving Israel and the Palestinians as well as Arab countries, including Jordan, Lebanon and Syria
Since 2002 'Quartet on the Middle East': Since 2002 'Quartet on the Middle East'
Since 2003 Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly: Since 2003 Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly
Since 2010 Euro-Mediterranean free trade area: Since 2010 Euro-Mediterranean free trade area including the European Union, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian territories and Tunisia
2011-2018 the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another: 8 April 2018: Haaretz' Anshel Pfeffer describes how the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another, saying that in the history of war, no war crime has been so well documented and so predictable to those who had it in their power to prevent it from recurring
May 2018 Iran’s nuclear archive: 5 May 2018: European intelligence officials briefed in Israel on Iran’s nuclear archive
13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Middle East Conference: 13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Conference, hosted by Poland and the USA the issues of the event include 'terrorism and extremism, missile development and proliferation, maritime trade and security, and threats posed by proxy groups across the region' of Middle East and especially 'Iran’s influence and terrorism in the region' - 14 February 2019: '60 foreign ministers and representatives of dozen of governments, an Israeli PM and the foreign ministers of leading Arab countries stood together and spoke with unusual force, clarity and unity against the common threat of the Iranian regime', Israel's Netanyahu says in Warsaw - 14 February 2019: Israel's Netanyahu on Thursday called on Arab states to continue normalizing relations with Israel, as the Iranian regime, vowing to revenge, once again tries to blame Israel and the USA for an attack reportedly claimed by Jaish ul-Adl
15 February 2019 EU, Syria and Iranian regime: 15 February 2019: Syrian Coalition's Dima Moussa says that the international consensus among participants in the Warsaw Conference, which considered the Iranian regime the biggest threat in the Middle East, should be followed by tough, practical measures twisting the arms of this state sponsoring cross-border terrorism, including steps leading to the isolation of the Iranian regime and ending its interference in the affairs of countries of the region
May 2019 Gaza rocket fire on Israel: 4/5 May 2019: European leaders strongly condemn Gaza rocket fire on Israel, as one Israeli man and eight Palestinians were killed and three Israelis were wounded so far since tensions ratcheted up along the border
June 2019 economic peace conference in Bahrain: 26 June 2019: EU nations sent lower level officials from their foreign or finance ministries instead of senior politicians to the economic peace conference in Bahrain sponsored by the USA, as EU special representative for the Middle East peace process, Susanna Terstal, came to the conference as an observer
3/4 November 2019 Israelis 'sent back to the crazy reality' and EU's friendly condemnation: 3 November 2019: Gaza rocket that hit home in southern Israel reminds residents that no one is safe, as Rina Cohen, whose house was hit, says 'it’s frustrating, once you start feeling optimistic, you get sent back to the crazy reality' - 4 November 2019: French Resistance hero Yvette Lundy, who provided fake papers to Jews fleeing Nazis, survived the concentration camps, liberated by the Soviet army in April 1945, and went on to teach reconciliation, giving talks to French as well as German students, dies at 103, as Mayor of Epernay Franck Leroy praised her 'incredible commitment to the duty of remembrance' - 4 November 2019: EU condemns rocket fire from Gaza, saying 'unacceptable and must stop immediately’
25 December 2019 Aviv Kohavi says Israel alone in fight against aggressive Iran and its proxies: 25 December 2019: Israel's IDF Chief of Staff Aviv Kohavi lamented that Israel is alone in the fight against Iran and its proxies in the Middle East, as the Islamic Republic grows increasingly aggressive in the region
21 July 2020 Egypt preparing military intervention in Libya to support criminal Haftar 6 months after Berlin conference: 21 July 2020: Egypt parliament approves military intervention in Libya after strongman al-Sisi spoke of military operations in neighbouring Libya to support Haftar - 21 July 2020: Egypt and Nato-member Turkey edged closer to the possibility of armed conflict this week over Libya, with both sides preparing for an impending battle over a key city
27 August 2020 rising tensions in the eastern Mediterranean and war games: 27 August 2020: Germany has called for naval exercises in the eastern Mediterranean to cease in an attempt to defuse tensions between Greece and Turkey that it fears could tip over into 'catastrophe', as Greece has staged war games with France, Italy and Cyprus and as Turkey has announced it will hold live-fire military exercises off its southern Mediterranean coast next week
15 September 2020 UN peacekeepers rescued refugees mostly Syrians from a boat off the Lebanese coast as one passenger had already passed away: 15 September 2020: A UN peacekeeping force rescued 36 people, mostly Syrians, and recovered the body of a passenger from a boat off the Lebanese coast on Monday, according to the UN refugee agency, as the destination of the boat was not immediately clear, but Lebanon and neighboring Cyprus have reported several migrant vessels trying to leave the Middle Eastern country in recent weeks
15 September 2020 USA's Pompeo warns France over Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry: 15 September 2020: USA Secretary of State warned France that efforts to resolve the crisis in Lebanon would be in vain without immediately tackling the issue of Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry, after French president said Hezbollah's elected arm has a legitimate political role, as Pompeo added that the USA 'has assumed its responsibility and we will stop Iran buying Chinese tanks and Russian air defence systems and then selling weapons to Hezbollah'
European Union/Moldova relations: European Union/Moldova relations - 1 July 1998: EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement - Delegation of the EU to Moldova since 2005 - 29 April 2014: Moldova keen to join the European Union in 2019 - 28 June: EU signs association agreements with Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia
European Union/New Zealand relations: European Union/New Zealand relations
Trade relations: New Zealand/European Union trade relations, as the EU is New Zealand's third-largest trading partner, after China and Australia, and New Zealand is the EU's 50th, and as New Zealand's exports is dominated by agricultural goods, while the EU's exports is dominated by manufactured goods
European Union/Palestinian relations: European Union/Palestinian territories relations - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza - 6/7 August 2014: European countries propose EU mission to open Gaza crossing with a plan for the rehabilitation of Gaza, which calls for its demilitarization but at the same time demands Israel ease the blockade of the enclave - 15 August 2014: EU offers to oversee Gaza border crossings and to work to prevent illegal arms flows, insisting on a durable truce and an disarmament of terrorist groups in the Strip - 18 December 2014: A European Parliament resolution to recognize 'Palestine' as a state only in principle linking the recognition with the resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, passed with 498 votes - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 20 May: In visit with EU foreign minister Mogherini, Palestinian Abbas repeats demand for Israeli settlement freeze, release of prisoners and sets preconditions for peace process - 27 October 2015: In Brussels meeting with EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini, PA president Abbas cites disappointment among young generation, feeling of hopelessnes, fearing deterioration amid wave of terror attacks - 27 October 2015: EU's Mogherini urges Abbas and Netanyahu to meet Quartet ‘in days’, saying Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only get worse with each round of violence
4 November 2019 EU condemns rocket fire from Gaza: 4 November 2019: EU condemns rocket fire from Gaza, saying 'unacceptable and must stop immediately’
12 November 2019 EU calls for an immediate end to the firing of rockets from Gaza: 12 November 2019: EU calls for an immediate end to the firing of rockets from Gaza toward Israeli civilians, saying targeting of Israeli civilians with rockets is ‘unacceptable’
European Union and Poland: European Union/Poland relations
2003/2004: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
July 2017: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom - 26 July 2017: EU executive to start legal action against Poland over judiciary reform - 20 December 2017: The European commission triggers process that could see Poland stripped of voting rights in Brussels, over legal changes that the EU claims threaten the independence of the judiciary
September 2018: 18 September 2018: Poland was banned Monday from the EU body representing the member states’ judicial institutions after controversial Polish government reforms, saying recent reforms mean the country cannot guarantee the independent delivery of justice
9 January 2020 Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel over snub due to Putin: 9 January 2020: Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz over snub, after being told he would not be allowed to speak at the event, but Russian regime’s war criminal Vladimir Putin
25 January 2020 Poland pushes for Nazi Gusen camp in Austria to be remembered: 25 January 2020: Poland pushes for Nazi camp in Austria to be remembered, charging that Gusen camp, a satellite of Mauthausen complex, is neglected by Austrian authorities, where some 35,800 detainees, many Polish, died, , often deported for political reasons, working to death there
11/12 July 2020 Poland the only EU country without comprehensive national legislation to return private property confiscated by the Nazis: 11 July 2020: As Poland is the only country in the EU that has not passed comprehensive national legislation to return, or provide compensation for, private property confiscated by the Nazis, Polish president rejects Holocaust restitution claims ahead of election, as Andrzej Duda vows no reparations for assets seized from Jews during World War II, saying 'damages should be paid by the one that started the war', and as EU leaders are split over covid-19 recovery ahead of this week’s emergency summit that will expose national divisions over budgets, the €750bn pandemic fund, but not yet over Nazi general Rommel admiring Ursula von der Leyen, promoting war criminal Rommel, assigned as commander of the Führerbegleitbatallion, tasked with guarding Hitler and his field headquarters during the invasion of Poland, which began on 1 September 1939, describing the Rommel Barracks as one of the most important installations of the German military
26 July 2020 Poland to withdraw from European treaty on violence against women: 26 July 2020: Poland will take steps next week to withdraw from a European treaty on violence against women, which the government has said violates parents’ rights by requiring schools to teach children about gender
European Union and Romania: European Union and Romania
August 2018: 15 August 2018: Political science team says Eastern European countries such as Romania are experiencing a return to authoritarianism some 30 years after the Prague Spring uprising as the ruling government tightens its grip on power - 17 August 2018: EU authorities are facing calls to defend the rule of law in Romania, a week after more than 400 people were injured in mass protests against corruption and changes to the judicial system
European Union/Russia relations: European Union/Russia relations
Russia in the European energy sector - Documented examples of energy sector incidents
30 October 2013: European Union to probe allegations of Russia spying during G20 summit - 29 November: Russia cannot 'veto' its ties with East Europe nations, European Union says - 16 December: European countries bordering Russia's territory of Kaliningrad say they are worried at reports that Moscow has put nuclear-capable missiles there - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups
2014: Since March 2014, the EU has progressively imposed restrictive measures against Russia, adopted in response to the Russian illegal annexation of Crimea and the deliberate destabilisation of Ukraine
Since March 2014: Cyprus, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia are among the EU states most skeptical about the EU sanctions against Russia and have repeatedly called for review of sanctions
March-December 2014: 11 March: EU tells Russia to start Ukraine talks or face sanctions - 13 March: EU agreed on a framework for sanctions on Russia - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU drafts plans for much more substantive sanctions if Putin presses ahead with Russian territorial expansion - 29 March: Russia reportedly retaliated against sanctions imposed by Western countries over its annexation of Crimea - 11 April: USA accuses Russia after Putin warning on gas supplies to Europe - 11 April: EU demands Russia honour its gas commitments - 17 April: European Parliament votes to impose tougher sanctions on Russia due to its military aggression against Ukraine - 27 May: EU awaits constructive steps from Russia after Ukrainian elections - 28 May: EU should make Russia take its mercenaries from Ukraine, Poland's Donald Tusk says - 17 July: USA and EU significantly strengthened sanctions on Russian regime over Ukraine, with USA for the first time directly targeting Russia's banking, military and energy sectors - 25/26 July: EU expands Russian oligarch sanctions blacklist in wake of MH17 crash and broad economic measures against regime are looking increasingly likely - 29 July: EU governments agree to impose sweeping sanctions on Russian regime, targeting state-owned banks, imposing an arms embargo, restricting sales of sensitive technology and the export of equipment for the country's oil industry - 16 August: EU wants Russia not to cover military aggression with humanitarian situation, calling on its regime to put an immediate stop to the flow of arms, military advisers, armed personnel, and to withdraw its forces from the border - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: New EU sanctions against Russia targeting Russian oil firms, defence companies and banks over the crisis in Ukraine enter into force - 16 October: Candidate countries for EU membership join EU sanctions against Russia - 17 October: Putin under pressure from EU leaders to commit to fragile peace plan for eastern Ukraine as violence continues to spread across region despite ceasefire - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 30 October: Recognition of illegal Donbas 'elections' reportedly to strengthen EU sanctions against Russia - 17 December: EU insists on implementation of all points of the Minsk agreements, Federica Mogherini says in Kyiv demanding full respect for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity
2015: 11/12 January: Meeting of foreign ministers a few days before possible east Ukraine summit, as Russia doesn't prove ceasefire commitment and violence spikes in region - 29 January: EU to debate fresh Russia sanctions - 30 January: EU extends sanctions against Russia - 6 February 2015: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel in truce talks in Ukraine and Russia as TV report from Debaltseve shows 'a town almost too dangerous to live in' due to Russian weapons - 7 February: France, Germany and Russia agree to draft Ukraine peace plan that would also include proposals from Ukraine`s President Poroshenko - 8 February: German chancellor Angela Merkel 'disappointed' by Russian attitude but says proposal for demilitarised zone to end conflict is 'worth trying' - 9 February: Normandy format foreign ministers representatives to meet today in Berlin to prepare Minsk meeting on Wednesday - 16 February: More EU sanctions on Russia come into effect on Monday over Russian regime's intervention in east Ukraine - 20 February: France and Germany promise fresh sanctions on Russian regime if the second peace deal brokered in Minsk to end the conflict in Ukraine is not observed - 26 February: EU calls Russia responsible for Nadia Savchenko's state of health - 4 March 2015: Britain, France, Germany, Italy, EU head Donald Tusk and USA called for a 'strong reaction' from the international community to any major violation of a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine as they seek to further pressure Russia over the conflict - 8 March: EU divisions exposed as Russia evades sanctions - 12 March: EU leaders want to tackle Russian 'disinformation' on Ukraine war - 17 March: EU nations called to maintain economic sanctions on Russian regime over its annexation of Crimea and support for separatists until Minsk II ceasefire agreement has been fully implemented - 17 March: Let's not repeat the Munich betrayal of 1938, write Czech and Slovak public intellectuals in an open letter to representatives of EU, France, Germany, U.K., and USA with an appeal to provide more assistance to Ukraine in order to help itself to defend against the Russian aggression - 20 March: EU's Russia sanctions extended to end-2015, EU president Donald Tusk says after a summit in Brussels - 2 April: EU condemns as 'a blatant violation of the right to freedom of expression' the closure of the Crimean Tatar ATR TV, following searches of its premises and attacks on its journalists in the past weeks - 14 April: 'Normandy Four' call on the withdrawal of even more weaponry in Donbas - 20 April: EU will officially complain that Gazprom was hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets - 31 May: EU criticises Russian entry ban on 89 European politicians, including outspoken critics of Russian regime, and military leaders, similar to a list for USA citizens - 4 June: Fighting near Maryinka in eastern Ukraine is the most serious violation of the Minsk agreements by Russian-backed separatists, EU says - 5 June: EU extends sanctions against occupied Crimea for another year, as Germany's Angela Merkel says Russia's participation in G7 not possible without return of Crimea to Ukraine, and Canada's Stephen Harper says that Putin regime cannot be allowed to return to G7 because there 'really is no point in having a dialogue' - 22 June: EU prolongs sanctions against Russian regime over aggression in Ukraine - 30 July 2015: Six more states - Montenegro, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, as well as Ukraine - support the extension of sanctions against Russia until 31 January 2016 - 12 August: The EU notes that the sharp deterioration of the situation in Donbas, which is connected with the attacks of pro-Russian separatists on the positions of Ukrainian militaries, contradicts the Minsk agreements - 16 September: The European Union does not recognize and condemns the electoral processes conducted by Russia in the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea - 12 October: EU foreign ministers urge Russian regime to halt its military intervention in Syria and call for protection of civilians to become an international priority, saying that Assad bore the greatest responsibility for the 250,000 dead and linking 'the systematic targeting of civilians by the regime' to 'mass displacements' - 3 December 2015: EU plans to extend economic sanctions against Russia for another six months - 15 December: EU foreign ministers indicate need to extend Russian sanctions
February-June 2016: 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 28 February 2016: Several European diplomats have paid tribute to the slain Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, visiting the spot in Moscow where the Putin regime critic was gunned down - 7 March 2016: EU to extend sanctions against Russia until 15 September - 7 March 2016: European Union's Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini calls for Nadiya Savchenko's immediate, on humanitarian grounds, release and all other illegally detained Ukrainian citizens - 9 March: Members of the European Parliament urge EU to impose personal sanctions against Russia's Putin and 28 others - 18 March: Russian takeover of Crimea remains 'direct challenge to international security', EU's Federica Mogherini says, warning of worsening human rights situation in the occupied Black Sea region - 26 May: EU officials insist restrictions against Russian regime are to remain unless the Minsk protocol is fully implemented - 21 June: EU extends sanctions against Russia for another six months
May 2016 Europe a Russian gangster playground: 12 May 2016: How Europe became a Russian gangster playground
October 2016: 17 October 2016: Mogherini rules out EU sanctions on Russia over Syria - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit
February-June 2017: 28 February 2017: The European Parliament has called on the international community to increase pressure on Russia due to unlawful criminal prosecution of Ukrainian citizens on political grounds - 27 March 2017: European Union calls 'on the Russian authorities to abide fully by the international commitments it has made, including in the Council of Europe … to uphold these rights and to release without delay the peaceful demonstrators that have been detained', after tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Russia on Sunday - 14 June 2017: Nord Stream 2 project, that involves piping gas directly from Russia to Germany through the Baltic sea, is unaffected by sanctions and its progress means that Europe is excoriating the Putin regime diplomatically while at the same time promising to inflate the same regime with billions of gas dollars - 19 June 2017: EU prolongs for one year restrictive measures against Russia over Crimea annexation
November/December 2017: 25 November 2017: The EU is stepping up its campaign to counter disinformation and fake news from Russia by spending more than €1m a year on its specialist anti-propaganda unit East Stratcom taskforce - 21 December 2017: EU prolongs economic sanctions against Russia, targeting the energy, financial, defence sectors and the area of dual-use goods, by six months until 31 July 2018
March 2018 Russian poisoning in Salisbury: 19 March 2018: EU backs Britain in wake of Russian poisoning in Salisbury, after UK foreign secretary Boris Johnson stated 'we actually have evidence within the last 10 years that Russia has not only been investigating the delivery of nerve agents for the purpose of assassination, but has also been creating and stockpiling novichok'
20 March 2018: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker and USA's Trump have broken ranks with western disapproval for Russia's Putin, issuing their congratulations to the former KGB spy for his electoral success even as diplomats were flown out of the UK in retribution for the Salisbury nerve agent attack, and as Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who became Russia’s richest man during the dissolution of the Soviet Union when he owned the Yukos oil company, recognises that if Russia's Putin wants him dead 'no amount of security measures can prevent that' delivering the message 'that you can’t escape from the special services' - 22 March 2018: Europe needs a collective defence strategy to counter Russia, Guy Verhofstadt says - 23 March 2018: EU recalls ambassador from Russia as leaders back May over Salisbury - 23 March 2018: At least 10 EU nations to expel Russian diplomats in response to the use of a nerve agent in Salisbury, described as an 'attack on European sovereignty' - 26 March 2018: Countries across Europe and allies of the UK, including Australia and the USA, have announced the expulsion of dozens of Russian regime's diplomats in a common response to the 'novichok' nerve agent attack in Salisbury
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Ukraine's former president Viktor Yushchenko says in an interview he hopes Europe will wake up to the threat posed by Russia in the wake of the poisonings in Salisbury
Calls to boycott the soccer World Cup in Russia 2018: 12 April 2018: A number of EU member states may announce a diplomatic boycott on the World Cup 2018 in Russia, according to RFE/RL's correspondent in Brussels Rikard Jozwiak - 18 April 2018: Dozens of members of the European Parliament have signed a letter calling on EU governments to boycott the soccer World Cup tournament in Russia this summer, citing Russian Putin regime's 'mockery' of European values
May 2018 EU calls on Russia to acknowledge responsibility for MH17: 25 May 2018: The EU has called on Russia to acknowledge its responsibility for the downing of Malaysia's flight MH17 over occupied Donbas on 17 July 2014, after the Netherlands' government has begun to take steps to hold Russia accountable for the downing of the MH17 flight
June 2018: 11 June 2018: The European Parliament will hold a debate and vote on a resolution related to violation of human rights in Russia - 14 June 2018: EU Parliament has overwhelmingly passed a resolution calling on Russian authorities to release Ukrainian filmmaker Oleh Sentsov and all the other 'illegally detained Ukrainian citizens' in Russia and Russia-annexed Crimea 'immediately and unconditionally', as political groups in the chamber also wanted to include a call for an EU diplomatic boycott of the soccer World Cup that kicks off in Russia on 14 June 14, followed by a call on 'the EU to make a statement to condemn human rights violations in Russia and the attempt to hide them under the cover of the FIFA World Cup' - 18 June 2018: EU extends sanctions against Russia over Crimea annexation by one year
August 2018: 21 August 2018: UK's FM Jeremy Hunt is to urge the EU to stand shoulder to shoulder with the USA administration by imposing more comprehensive sanctions against Russia, saying Vladimir Putin has made the world 'a more dangerous place', and that after a chemical weapons attack in England, the EU should apply more pressure to protect western democracy
November 2018: 28 November 2018: Germany, France against new anti-Russian sanctions, reportedly seeking to continue their 'diplomatic efforts' amid Russian escalation and conflict at the Sea of Azov
January 2019: 21 January 2019: EU ambassadors have approved personal sanctions against four Russians, including A. Mishkin ('Alexander Petrov') and A. Chepiga ('Ruslan Boshirov'), for complicity in the poisoning of Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia with the novichok military grade nerve agent in Salisbury, according to RFE/RL's Rikard Jozwiak
March 2019: 30 March 2019: The European External Action Service EEAS says the EU does not recognize Russian legislation in the occupied Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and expects the immediate release of 23 Crimean Tatars, illegally detained during searches
May 2019 sanctioned Andrei Pavlov travels widely in Europe: 24 May 2019: Europe is under pressure to review its border controls, after it emerged that Andrei Pavlov sanctioned over his alleged role in Russia’s biggest ever tax fraud has visited member states more than 70 times in the past four years
June 2019 EU demands cooperation in MH 17 criminal investigation: 21 juin 2019: Les dirigeants de l'UE ont joint leurs voix jeudi à la pression internationale sur la Russie en l'exhortant à 'coopérer pleinement' à l'enquête sur le crash du vol MH17, abattu en 2014 au-dessus de l'est de l'Ukraine par un missile russe
9 January 2020 Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel over snub due to Putin: 9 January 2020: Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz over snub, after being told he would not be allowed to speak at the event, but Russian regime’s war criminal Vladimir Putin
10 January 2020 miserable European Union and about 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people: 10 January 2020: About 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people standing for continuous killing and destruction, while war criminals go unpunished, Russia and Iran are the regime’s winning cards, and geography of influence and control is constantly changing at the expense of millions of civilians, according to SOHR
4 March 2020 Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria: 4 March 2020: Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria, as focusing on the refugee crisis Russia has created addresses symptoms not the cause, George Soros writes in the 'Financial Times'
22 May 2020 EU and NATO urging Russia to comply with 'Open Skies' pact: 22 mai 2020: L'Otan et l'UE ont appelé vendredi la Russie à respecter son obligation de coopération à la surveillance de ses activités militaires pour sauver le traité 'Ciel Ouvert', menacé par un retrait des Etats-Unis
8 July 2020 Chechens in fear after third Kadyrov critic killed now in Vienna: 8 July 2020: Chechens in Europe have expressed renewed fears for their safety, after a strident critic of the Kremlin-backed Chechnya leader, Ramzan Kadyrov, was shot dead in Vienna on Saturday
European Union/Rwanda relations: European Union/Rwanda relations
1994 role of the international community in the Rwandan genocide: Role of the international community in the Rwandan genocide 1994
16 May 2020 Rwandan genocide suspect Felicien Kabuga arrested in France: 16 May 2020: Rwanda's most-wanted war criminal Felicien Kabuga, accused of funding the militias that massacred some 800,000 Tutsis, staying 'with impunity in Germany, Belgium, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, or Switzerland', arrested in France, living under a false identity in a flat in Asnieres-Sur-Seine
European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations: European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations
June 2015: 8 June 2015: EU vows to make 'every effort' to free Saudi blogger Badawi - 29 October 2015: Saudi Arabia urged by EU lawmakers to free blogger Raif Badawi sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for insulting Islam, as he wins the EU’s Sakharov prize for human rights - 16 décembre 2015: Ensaf Haidar a reçu le prix Sakharov pour la liberté de l'esprit du Parlement européen au nom de son mari Raef Badaoui, détenu en Arabie saoudite pour 'insulte' envers l'islam
Since October 2018 European reactions to the assassination of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi: European reactions to the assassination of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi - 21 October 2018: As international condemnation grows over the 2 October 2018 disappearance of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul and later admitted assassination, EU's foreign policy chief calls it a 'shocking violation' of international conventions
October/November 2018: 22 October 2018: Germany halts arms exports to Saudi Arabia after Khashoggi’s death, urging other EU member states to do the same - 24 October 2018: The United Kingdom, France and Spain to maintain arms sales to Saudi Arabia, despite growing pressure in the wake of the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, as French president Macron says 'the sales of arms have nothing to do with Khashoggi case' - 24 October 2018: Need to keep jobs grounds for continuation of arms sales to Saudi Arabia, argues Spanish president Sánchez, after earlier this year the King of Spain and the heir to the Saudi throne met in Madrid, which led to a deal in which the bloody dictatorship agreed to buy five warships from Spain for two billion euros - 19 November 2018: Germany gives European entry ban to 18 Khashoggi killing suspects including the members of the 15-strong death squad, after France's Macron, the British and Spanish kingdoms denied to suspend arms sales
December 2018: 14 December 2018: Turkish president says audio tape of the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi has been shared with USA, Germany, France and Canada, revealing further details, after Turkey said this week that the international community should seek out justice for Khashoggi under international law
April 2019: 12 April 2019: France and the UK should join German bonesaw Saudi arms embargo
European Union/Serbia relations: Since 2007 accession of Serbia to the EU, the process of the Republic of Serbia being admitted to the EU as a member state and it is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU
April 2019: 30 April 2019: Monday’s Berlin Summit on the Western Balkans ended without a hoped-for breakthrough in restarting EU-mediated talks between Kosovo and Serbia, as next meeting on the issue will only be held at the start of July - 30 avril 2019: 20 ans après leur conflit armé, la Serbie et le Kosovo ont accepté lundi de reprendre leurs pourparlers, avec une nouvelle rencontre prévue début juillet à Paris
European Union/Singapore relations: European Union/Singapore relations
Since 2010 European Union–Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Since 2010 European Union–Singapore Free Trade Agreement
European Union/Sudan relations: 13 May 2016: Sudan and the European Union
2017: 28 February 2017: The EU is facing calls to rethink its cooperation with Sudan on migration flows after scores of refugees were whipped, fined, jailed and deported from Khartoum last weekend following a peaceful protest over a huge rise in visa processing fees
European Union/Switzerland relations: European Union/Switzerland relations - 10 February 2014: Swiss voters back limit on immigration - 10 février 2014: Le vote sur l'initiative UDC contre l'immigration intéresse la presse européenne - 15 February: Swiss vote on immigration boosts far-right parties through Europe
European Union/Syria relations: European Union/Syria relations
2013: 27 May 2013: EU to discuss arms embargo on Syria, ending this week either helping Syrian opposition or the Assad regime - 28 May: EU ends arms embargo on Syrian opposition, maintaining stiff economic sanctions against Assad's regime - 7/8 September: European Union blames Bashar Assad for chemical weapons attack in Damascus, calls the attack in Damascus a war crime and a crime against humanity, adding that a strong response is essential to make clear there is no impunity - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - 17 October: Syrian refugees stranded at Milan rail hub - 20 October: A boatload of 254 Syrian and Egyptian migrants including 94 minors landed in Italy on Sunday after a perilous voyage through rough seas from Egypt - 13 December 2013: EU failing Syria refugees, human rights group says
2014: 11 April 2014: With all doors rapidly closing shut, tens of thousands of refugees from war-torn Syria end up in the EU's poorest state Bulgaria - 26 June: Thousands of Syrian children risking death to reach Europe, report says - 25 July: Reluctance to arm moderate rebels increases extremists’ influence, Syrian Coalition's Nasr al-Hariri says - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015
2015: 16 April 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini stresses the importance of achieving a political transition in Syria through a peaceful solution that guarantees the departure of Bashar al-Assad - 20 April 2015: Syrian Coalition regrets the ongoing failure of the international community to find a solution for the problem of displaced Syrians who are drowning in the Mediterranean Sea while trying to seek refuge in Europe - 25 May 2015: 2,157 Syrians, 75 percent of whom are women and children, drowned in the Mediterranean sea since 2011 while trying to escape to Europe, rights group's report claims - 24 June: Syrian Coalition's al-Maleh has set off on a tour of several European capitals to raise the Syrian issue again on the levels of human rights, pushing for opening international investigation into Assad’s crimes - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision - 15 July 2015: A yearlong analysis by the FBI has concluded that the torture photographs of Syrian political prisoners are authentic, providing powerful new evidence to support charges of the Assad regime’s extensive human rights violations - 29 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the international community to shoulder its humanitarian and ethical responsibilities towards the Syrian people and to work on ending the Syrian refugees’ crisis - 2 September: Young Syrian boy found lying face-down on a beach near Turkish resort of Bodrum was one of at least 12 Syrians who drowned attempting to reach Greece - 4 September: Abdullah Kurdi, the father of two children who drowned with their mother as they attempted to reach Greece from Turkey, is preparing to take their bodies back to Kobani in Syria for burial - 6 September: A newborn baby boy found dead on Greek island of Kos after his parents reached the shores in a boat, as Greece is struggling to cope with a wave of refugees from the war in Syria and as refugees and migrants clash with police on another Greek island - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 20 October: At a meeting with the EU reprehensive Lara Scarpetta, the Syrian Coalition’s political committee stressed that the Russian airstrikes are exclusively targeting civilians and rebel fighters allowing ISIS to extend its territory, urging the EU to take firm stand of the Russian aggression and to increase humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees - 6 November: Syrian Coalition submitted a memorandum to the EU containing a legal study on the unlawfulness of the Russian aggression on Syria, documenting war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by Assad and Russia - 16 December: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to condemn the continued indiscriminate use of violence by the Assad regime and Russia carried out by its aircrafts against civilians in Syria - 19 December: UN refugee chief Guterres calls for 'massive resettlement' of Syrians in Europe
2016: 16 January 2016: New UN chief for refugees Filippo Grandi says he hopes Europe's refugee and migration crisis will be solved soon if the necessary political decisions are made - 6 February 2016: European Commission 'extremely worried', USA's Obama administration 'deeply concerned' about the worsening humanitarian crisis due to Assad regime's barbaric onslaught, backed by the Russian regime, the Iranian regime and foreign militias - 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 15 February: Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaite calls for responding to Russia’s violations of international law in Syria and Ukraine, warning that failing to respond to Russia’s actions will put Europe’s security at risk - 21 April 2016: During a meeting between the Syrian Coalition and European External Action Service's officials, Anas al-Abdah says any solution that does not lead to Assad’s departure is doomed to fail - 27 April 2016: EU's Mogherini rules out political future role for Assad in Syria - 23 May 2016: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to salvage political process through reviving the cessation of hostilities agreement and playing a more active role in Syria - 27 May 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bahra calls for EU pressure on Russia to accelerate political solution - 14 June 2016: Russia’s continued aggression on Syria disrupts Geneva negotiations, Syrian Coalition says in Brussels, meeting with European officials to discuss stepping up efforts to reach a political solution - 17 June: EU promises to respond to the Syrian opposition’s requests to step up its engagement on the political track of the Syrian file and create conditions for a substantive resumption to the Geneva talks ending to the monopoly of the USA and Russian regime over the solution in Syria - 28 June 2016: Syrian HNC's Basma Qadamani calls on the EU to impose sanctions on Russian companies involved in the delivery of arms shipments to the Assad's regime which uses them to indiscriminately bomb liberated areas across Syria - 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 19 July 2016: As at least 500 civilians were killed in aerial attacks by the Assad regime and Russia forces on Aleppo and its countryside between 11-19 July mainly directed on the rebel-held areas, Syrian Coalition's Yahya says that the Syrian people lost confidence in the international community as more get killed every day - 20 July: Syrian Coalition's Anas Alabdah sent a letter to the foreign ministers of the USA-led coalition in the wake of the horrific massacres committed in the town of Manbij by aircrafts which claimed the lives of over 125 civilians, calling for suspension of the coalition’s airstrikes
October 2016: 11 October 2016: As British MPs debate the war in Syria and possible ways to end the bloodshed, in contrast to other European parliaments like the German that not by hazard never discussed Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, the medics and rescue teams of east Aleppo are going about their grim daily task of picking through rubble left by airstrikes and patching up survivors - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18/19 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime, and that 'it is unacceptable that some member nations of the European Union continue to defend Russia against credible action and lighten pressure on it despite their ability to immediately stop the disaster occurring in eastern Aleppo' - 19 October 2016: Russian convoy of warships, including an aircraft carrier carrying fighter bombers, passes Britain, monitored by governments and politicians, since nearly 6 years concerned about their discussion threads with brutal criminals and Russian, Iranian and Assad terrorists and not about the victims, on its way to Syria where it is thought they will participate in a final assault on the besieged city of Aleppo, where children are coming as body parts to surviving doctors in out bombed hospitals - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria
November 2016: 30 November 2016: Syrian Coalition's Fahd calls upon the European Union to intervene urgently to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of civilians currently trapped in eastern Aleppo, also calling on the EU to play a more effective role commensurate with its position in the international community - 30 November 2016: 'As Assad’s forces, backed by the Russians, make their final move on Syria’s second city, the world can only count the cost of a humanitarian and military disaster it failed to stop', the British newspapter Guardian says
December 2016: 1 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Anas Abdah urges 15-member group of friends of the Syrian people as well as to international and regional organizations to press for stopping the brutal bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia air forces - 14 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Fahd calls upon the European countries and the USA to take urgent, concrete action to stop the massacres being committed by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies in besieged eastern Aleppo - 15 December 2016: ‘More than words are needed to save civilians’, the mayor of east Aleppo Brita Hagi Hasan says as he arrives in Brussels to address the EU summit, wanting European countries to send monitors to ensure thousands of residents trying to flee the besieged Syrian city make it out safely - 16 December 2016: EU leaders condemn Russia and Iran over Aleppo carnage, as German chancellor accuses the Kremlin and Tehran of 'crimes' that 'must be avenged'
January/February 2017: 4 January 2017: European Parliament's Dutch MP Marietje Schaake criticizes the failure of European countries to stand by the Syrian people in the war that has been waged on them by the Assad regime since 2011, calling the situation in Syria is 'a disgrace to our current generation' - 16 January 2017: After nearly six years of Assad's ongoing war against the Syrian people, European Union foreign ministers in Brussels discuss to continue discussions on the EU's role in supporting a full ceasefire and a genuine political transition in Syria - 14 February 2017: Syrian National Coalition calls on the EU to assume a more active role in pushing forward the negotiations for a political solution in Syria - 21 February 2017: Demanding support of the the EU and the USA, the Syrian Network for Human Rights calls for a preliminary prosecution of the users of chemical weapons in mandated regional tribunals
April 2017: 5 April 2017: Syrian Coalition sent letters to 26 countries and international organizations, including the UN, the EU, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, explaining the repercussions of the chemical attack by the Assad regime against civilians in the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib on Tuesday - 26 April 2017: French intelligence has proof that Assad forces were behind Khan Sheikhoun sarin attack
May 2017: 8 May 2017: Syrian Coaltion's Riad Seif stresses need to develop relations with the EU in meeting with EU foreign affairs advisor Lara Scarpitta - 9 May 2017: Almost four years ago, Italian forces ignored a sinking ship full of Syrian refugees and let more than 250 including 60 children drown, says leaked audio - 17 May 2017: EU's Federica Mogherini said that the entire EU 'is united behind the goal of a political solution to the war, and the means to achieve it' as she stressed accountability for war crimes as key to resolving the conflict in Syria and as Syrian Coalition's Nazir Hakim warned that international inaction towards the Assad regime’s use of chemical and non-conventional weapons against the Syrian people risks creating security threats affecting the whole world - 29 May 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif met with Netherlands Special Envoy for Syria Gerard Steeghs and Renko Verheij to discuss the latest developments in Syria, urging support for basic services projects, as France's Macron hosts Russia's war criminal Putin in Versailles - 30 May 2017: EU extends sanctions on Assad regime for another year, adds 3 ministers to list
June 2017: 5 June 2017: In Brussels Syrian Coalition calls for greater EU role in Syria to curb regime violence, saying that Europe has failed to take action to end the crimes of the Assad regime, Russia and Iran - 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses
July 2017: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account - 17 July 2017: EU imposes sanctions against 16 additional persons of the Assad regime, including 8 high-ranking military officials and 8 'scientists', for their role in the development and use of chemical weapons against the civilian population
October 2017: 9 October 2017: EU Officials reportedly urging Syrian opposition to accept war criminal Assad remaining, pursuing 'normalization' with Assad through the diplomatic and security fields - 11 October 2017: USA urges allies to sanction Hezbollah and disrupt its activities, as Iran-backed group has been heavily involved in the crimes against the Syrian people - 28 October 2017: Human Rights Watch has urged the international community to slap sanctions on the Assad regime after UN investigators blamed Assad regime forces for a sarin gas attack that killed dozens back in April 4
January/February 2018: 23 January 2018: About 10,900 persons reportedly killed by the International Coalition’s warplanes in 40 months including thousands of civilians including hundreds of children and women - 21 February 2018: France says that the bombings on eastern Ghouta by the Assad regime and its allies targeting 'inhabited areas and civilian infrastructure, including medical facilities ... constitute a serious violation of international humanitarian law' - 22 February 2018: Germany's Angela Merkel calls for end to 'massacre' in Syria, condemning the Syrian regime for targeting 'its own people', 'the killing of children, the destruction of hospitals' - 25 February 2018: The response to years of atrocities enacted by the Syrian Assad regime and his allies has been shameful, European, North American countries and their allies should reconsider their policy and change their response to brutality and impunity, the director of foreign policy at the Centre for European Reform Ian Bond says
March 2018: 16 March 2018: Members of the European Parliament have called for the establishment of a Syrian war crimes tribunal and the referral of Syria to the International Criminal Court as attacks by the Assad regime continue to cause mounting civilian casualties in many areas across Syria, particularly in eastern Ghouta, as rights group slams seven years of 'catastrophic failure’ of the international community in Syria - 17 March 2018: Syrian Kurds call the EU to condemn Turkey
April 2018: 4 April 2018: British, French, German and USA's joint statement marking the first anniversary of the chemical massacre in Khan Shaykhun, as Russian-backed Assad regime forces carry out raids on areas in Idlib province, amid increased aerial bombardments - 25 April 2018: As an EU donor conference aims to raise up to $6bn to help Syrians displaced both inside and outside the country, head of the UN’s humanitarian task force for Syria Jan Egeland warns Idlib could be next Syrian disaster zone in 'marathon of pain', now lasting 'two years longer than the second world war' - 25 April 2018: Donor conference for Syrian refugees falls $5bn short of UN target - 30 April 2018: SNHR documents in a report the deaths of 64 civilians, including 12 children, at the hands of regime forces and their Russian allies in the two weeks since the USA-British-French military strike, that has done little to stem the flow of civilian deaths
May 2018: 2 May 2018: In a documenting report SNHR says that the Assad regime and its backers killed dozens of civilians across Syria in April 2018, adding at a meeting that brought together seven European countries, that accountability for war crimes in Syria is essential to bring an end to 'hopelessness and exhaustion that have afflicted the Syrian society' - 13 May 2018: As SOHR says that about 85% of more than half a million people killed in Syria since 2011 were civilians killed by Assad, his Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian allies, and after Europe has done nothing to end the war crimes, German chancellor Angela Merkel, receiving a peace award from Franciscan monks, says on 12 May 2018 that Europe needs to do more to end the war in Syria, while neo-Nazi linked 'Alternative for Germany' speaks at Catholic Convention in the city of Münster
9 September 2018: 9 September 2018: As Putin incites more atrocities in Syria, Europe is exposed as craven, the Guardian's Nick Cohen says
10 September 2018 price of non-intervention in Assad's war unacceptably high: 10 September 2018: Foreign affairs committee report says the price of non-intervention in Assad's seven-year war has been unacceptably high in terms of lost lives, increased Russian and Iranian influence and severe consequences for Europe
March 2019 Europe’s role crucial: 1 March 2019: Assad can still be brought to justice and Europe’s role is crucial, British Guardian's Natalie Nougayrède Says
July 2019 seized Iranian supertanker violated sanctions: 4 July 2019: Gibraltar detains Syria-bound supertanker with Iranian oil, as Panamanian-flagged carrier is believed to be in violation of EU sanctions against war-ravaged Assad regime - 5 July 2019: Nearly 30 British troops working with the Gibraltarian police have helped seize Iranian supertanker suspected of carrying 2m barrels of oil to Syria off the coast of Gibraltar, in a dramatic manoeuvre Spain said had been conducted at the request of the USA, as Iranian regime responded by summoning Britain’s ambassador to its foreign ministry to explain what it described as an 'illegal seizure', which had been earlier described by the UK as enforcing the EU’s sanctions regime against Syria
July 2019: 9 July 2019: Britain has agreed to deploy additional special forces in Syria alongside France to allow the USA to withdraw its ground troops from the ongoing fight against the remaining Isis forces in the country
September 2019: 23 September 2019: Syrian Negotiations Commission's delegation met the EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini on the sidelines of UN General Assembly meetings in New York, discussing the humanitarian catastrophe unfolding in Idlib resulting from the brutal bombardment being carried out by Assad regime and Russia forces in northwestern Syria
21/22 October 2019 'Europe cannot simply be an onlooker' in the current Syria situation: 22 October 2019: Expected to be put forward at the meeting of NATO defense ministers, scheduled from October 24-25, Germany's Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer said that she would table a plan for an internationally managed safe zone to be established in northern Syria, pointing out that 'Europe cannot simply be an onlooker' in the current Syria situation, as SPD and Greens contradict, saying the proposition damages 'Deutschlands Ruf als zuverlässigen Partner'
24 October 2019: Mazloum Abdi, head of the Syrian Democratic Forces, welcomed a German proposal for an international force to establish a security zone in the north of the country
5 November 2019 ex-UN Syria envoy says he quit to avoid having to shake Assad's hand: 5 November 2019: Saying EU’s failure to address Syria crisis led to Brexit vote, ex-UN Syria envoy Staffan de Mistura says he quit to avoid having to shake Assad's hand
10 November 2019 Kurdish leaders warn EU over Islamic State terrorists: 10 November 2019: Kurdish leaders tell EU to get tough with Turkey or face Islamic State terrorist fighters, also saying the West should investigate Turkey's alleged use of chemical weapons against the Kurds
29 December 2019 EU demands an end of Assad's and Putin's crimes against civilians: 29 décembre 2019: L'Union européenne a appelé Damas et ses alliés à mettre un terme à 'l'escalade de la violence' et aux 'bombardements indiscriminés' de civils dans le nord-ouest de la Syrie. Elle a aussi exigé 'un accès humanitaire rapide, sûr et sans entrave'
4 January 2020 EU fawns on Putin, Khamenei and Assad: 4 janvier 2020: Le secrétaire d'Etat des Etats-Unis Mike Pompeo a reproché aux Européens de ne pas avoir été 'aussi utiles' qu'ils auraient dû l'être dans l'affaire du général iranien Qassem Soleiman tué lors d'un raid en Irak, disant 'c'était une bonne chose pour le monde entier et nous appelons chacun dans le monde à soutenir l'action des Etats-Unis pour faire en sorte que la République islamique d'Iran se comporte simplement comme une nation normale' - 3 janvier 2020: La principale coalition de l'opposition syrienne en exil a salué la mort du général iranien, y voyant dans un communiqué 'la fin d'un des criminels de guerre les plus importants de Syrie et de la région' aprés son unité a joué un rôle incontournable pour soutenir et consolider le pouvoir de Bachar el-Assad depuis 2011, fort de ce soutien iranien, de l'appui de la Russie et du Hezbollah libanais
January 2020 'letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raises question who will do this for other citizens and children worldwide: 4 January 2020: South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham told TV news 'I really appreciate President Trump letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raising the question who will promise and do this for other citizens and children worldwide - 4 January 2020: Five children and four adults have been killed by a missile that hit a school and a camp for displaced people in Syria’s Idlib region, and 19 people were injured, including a teacher who is in a critical condition, the latest attack on civilian infrastructure in opposition held areas, as spokesman for the civil defence office in the town of Sarmin Mustafa Al Rashid said 'fortunately, most students had left only 10 minutes before the bombing, but there were some still playing in front of the school'
February 2020 Greece and Bulgaria crack down on Turkish borders as refugees arrive: 28 February 2020: Despite effectively opposing Russian and Assad regime's war crimes, Greece and Bulgaria crack down on Turkish borders as refugees arrive following Russian and Assad's murderous offensive in north-west Syria - 29 February 2020: Greek police fired teargas toward refugees who were gathered on its border with Turkey, as Greek government reiterated its threat to keep refugees and migrants out - 29 février 2020: Des milliers de migrants aux portes de l'Europe
1 March 2020 UN says 13,000 refugees amass at Greek border: 1 March 2020: UN says 13,000 refugees amass at Greek border after Turkey opens frontier to Europe, aS Greek authorities fired tear gas and stun grenades through Saturday to prevent repeated attempts by more than 4,000 people massed at the border crossing in Kastanies to cross, and fought a cat-and-mouse game with groups cutting holes in a border fence along the border to crawl through, amid Assad's and Russian escalation in northwestern Syria that has forced hundreds of thousands of Syrian civilians to flee fighting there
3 March 2020 Syrian man shot and killed by Greek border guards: 3 March 2020: Young Syrian man was shot and killed by Greek border guards as he attempted to cross the border into Greece
6 March 2020 murder of Syrian refugee by Greek border guards: 6 March 2020: London-based research group Forensic Architecture released an investigative video confirming that 22-year-old Syrian asylum seeker Muhammad al-Arab was killed by Greek border guards, indicating that the shooting of the asylum-seeker took place at about 8:00 am last Monday
10 March 2020 first Syrian born on the Turkish-Greek border: 10 March 2020: A Syrian child has been born on the border between Turkey and Greece, and his father has promised to try and make the crossing into Europe
21 March 2020 Greek Cyprus prevented boat carrying Syrian refugees from reaching coasts: 21 March 2020: SOHR reports that forces of the Greek Cyprus prevented a boat carrying 175 Syrian refugees (30 women, 69 children, 76 men) from reaching the state’s coasts yesterday, called a part of precautionary measures against the spread of coronavirus, as Cypriot police gave the refugees cloths, fuel and food, asking them to go back, and as the refugees were taken this morning to a sports arena in Turkish Cyprus Island
23 March 2020 SOC sends letter urging European Council to assist against coronavirus in Syria: 23 March 2020: Syrian Opposition Coalition sends letter urging European Council action to prevent coronavirus outbreak in Syria - 24 March 2020: Regime's health ministry announced first case of coronavirus, a woman in her 20s who had recently travelled from Europe
30 March 2020 EU calls for a full ceasefire in Syria: 30 March 2020: EU's office for foreign policy called for an immediate ceasefire in Syria because of the coronavirus, saying the northwestern ceasefire needed to be generalized across Syria because of the coronavirus, also also calling for an evacuation of prisoners from all its prisons, as two deaths confirmed in Daraa due to covid-19 and regime announced a total ban on all travel between governorates
29 May 2020 EU to extend sanctions on the Assad regime: 29 May 2020: EU foreign ministers decided to extend sanctions on the Assad regime and its supporters by one more year over the regime's continued crackdown on civilians
27 June 2020 SOC appeals to free world to save detainees from Assad regime’s prisons: 27 June 2020: SOC issued an appeal to the free world to save detainees and force the Assad regime and its backers to release them from the death cells, in an appeal marking the 'International Day in Support of Victims of Torture' which falls on June 26, as France's Macron wants closer cooperation with war criminal Putin, and as SNHR said that about 14,235 detainees, including many children and women, have been killed under torture in the prisons of the Assad regime since March 2011
15 September 2020 UN peacekeepers rescued refugees mostly Syrians from a boat off the Lebanese coast as one passenger had already passed away: 15 September 2020: A UN peacekeeping force rescued 36 people, mostly Syrians, and recovered the body of a passenger from a boat off the Lebanese coast on Monday, according to the UN refugee agency, as the destination of the boat was not immediately clear, but Lebanon and neighboring Cyprus have reported several migrant vessels trying to leave the Middle Eastern country in recent weeks
15 September 2020 USA's Pompeo warns France over Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry: 15 September 2020: USA Secretary of State warned France that efforts to resolve the crisis in Lebanon would be in vain without immediately tackling the issue of Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry, after French president said Hezbollah's elected arm has a legitimate political role, as Pompeo added that the USA 'has assumed its responsibility and we will stop Iran buying Chinese tanks and Russian air defence systems and then selling weapons to Hezbollah'
European Union/Thailand relations: European Union/Thailand relations
April 2016: 28 April 2016: EU-Thailand relations after the military coup in May 2014, as country’s key fishing and fruit industries have come under the spotlight from Brussels, whilst human rights activists and lawyers allege a crackdown on any dissent to the junta
January 2019: 10 January 2019: EU under fire after lifting threat to ban Thai seafood imports over illegal fishing as campaigners claim Thailand has failed to address labour abuses
European Union/Togo relations: Relations entre le Togo et l'Union européenne
European Union/Tunisia relations: The European Union is Tunisia's first trading partner with a total trade amounting to approximately €20.6 billion in 2012 - Association Agreement with the EU since July 1995
2018: 12 February 2018: Growing unemployment, dwindling wages and tax hikes in Tunisia trigger rise in illegal migration and concerns over terrorism, as downturn drives European exodus
June 2018: 3 June 2018: Dozens drown and rescuers save at least 60 lives after vessel with about 180 people onboard sank off Tunisia coast
European Union/Turkey relations: European Union/Turkey relations - accession to the European Union fraught with obstacles by Turkey - 22 October 2013: The EU has agreed to resume long-running talks on Turkey’s membership, scheduled for November 5 - 7 June: Turkey must investigate the excessive use of force by police against anti-government protesters, EU Enlargement Commissioner Stefan Fuele says in Istanbul
2015: 15 April 2015: Turkey's Erdogan says Turkey would disregard the European Parliament's vote later on Wednesday on the 1915 mass killings of Armenians - 6 October 2015: EU and Turkey join forces to thwart Russia's Syria intervention - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 30 November 2015: EU has offered Turkey three billion euros to help Syrian refugees in Turkey in return for Turkish help in stemming migrant flows
2016: 19 February 2016: EU and Turkey to hold special summit on the international refugee and migrant crisis in early March - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 23 March: Turkey prepares list of 25,000 Syrian refugees to send to Europe in 'exchange' for refugees and migrants to be returned from Greece to Turkey - 24 April 2016: After facing judge and arrest ('Police at the door. No joke') over tweets deemed critical of president Erdogan, Dutch journalist Ebru Umar blocked from leaving Turkey, a country wanting accession to the EU - 6 May 2016: Visa-free travel deal between the EU and Turkey on the brink of collapse, after Erdogan insisted he would not change Turkey’s anti-terrorism laws, a key condition of the agreement because used in the country to prosecute journalists and government critics - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 18 July 2016: European politicians urge Turkey's government to respect rule of law after failed coup
24 novembre 2016: Les députés du Parlement européen demandent le gel des négociations d'adhésion avec la Turquie et dénoncent le recul des droits de l'homme et la répression 'disproportionnée' en cours depuis le coup d'Etat manqué
2017: 13 March 2017: Turkey threatens to re-evaluate a key deal to halt the flow of migrants to Europe in a dramatic escalation of its diplomatic row with EU member states, as Erdogan defies pleas from Brussels to tone down his rhetoric, repeating accusations of European 'nazism' and support of terrorism and suspends high-level political contacts with the Netherlands - 18 April 2017: European Commission calls on Turkey to investigate alleged irregularities in Sunday's referendum boosting the powers of Turkish president Erdogan, also urging him to show restraint after his narrow victory
March 2018: 17 March 2018: Syrian Kurds call the EU to condemn Turkey - 16/17 March 2018: At least 16 casualties, including 2 pregnant women, and more injured people in a massacre by Turkish forces targeting the only hospital in Afrin city, as Turkish forces try to break into the city from its north - 17 March 2018: More than 150,000 people reportedly displaced in the last few days from Syria’s Afrin town
July 2019 EU will sanction Turkey over gas drilling: 16 July 2019: EU agrees to sanction Turkey over gas drilling off Cypriot coast despite repeated warnings - 16 July 2019: Turkey says EU funding cuts won’t affect drilling off Cyprus, accusing bloc’s FMs of being ‘prejudiced and biased’ for sanctions in protest of Turkish operations in occupied waters
11 October 2019 Sweden demands EU weapons embargo against Turkey: 11 October 2019: Sweden will push for a EU weapons embargo against Turkey at an EU foreign ministers meeting on Monday, as FM Ann Linde condemnded Turkey's military offensive in northeastern Syria, saying 'it violates international law, destabilises the situation and risks having great humanitarian consequences'
17 October 2019 German arms exports to Turkey rising: 17 October 2019: German arms exports to Turkey at 14-year high, data shows, despite an EU resolution to limit arms sales to Turkey's regime, on track to top the list of countries buying German weapons
18 October 2019 Europe demanded to stop war against Kurds: 18 October 2019: An appeal to Europe to stop Turkish war against Kurds
February 2020: Greece and Bulgaria crack down on Turkish borders as refugees arrive: 28 February 2020: Greece and Bulgaria crack down on Turkish borders as refugees arrive following Russian and Assad's murderous offensive in north-west Syria
2 March 2020: Erdogan puts EU's failure to agree a common migration policy in spotlight: 2 March 2020: Erdogan puts EU's failure to agree a common migration policy in spotlight, the British 'Guardian' says, after 2016 EU-Turkey deal was 'celebrated by people who are dancing on the grave of refugee protection', according to Amnesty International
4 March 2020 Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria: 4 March 2020: Europe must stand with Turkey over Putin’s war crimes in Syria, as focusing on the refugee crisis Russia has created addresses symptoms not the cause, George Soros writes in the 'Financial Times'
5 March 2020 Turkey deploys police forces along its border with Greece to halt violent pushback of migrants: 5 March 2020: Turkey is deploying 1,000 special police forces along its border with Greece to halt the pushback of migrants towards its territory, Suleyman Soylu said, adding that 164 migrants had been wounded by Greek authorities
6 March 2020 unteachable EU critizised by human-rights organisations for crackdown on refugees: 6 March 2020: While Greek riot police have been using teargas and water cannon to repel refugees and migrants trying to get into the country, while Turkish police have been firing volleys of teargas towards Greece in return, the EU is critizised by 85 charities and human-rights organisations for accepting Greece’s decision to suspend asylum applications
9 March 2020 Erdogan holds talks with EU over border opening: 9 March 2020: Turkey's Erdogan holds talks with EU leaders over border opening, as EU will re-home up to 1,500 child refugees living in Greek camps
26 March 2020 Turkey’s two-level game in the refugee dispute: 26 March 2020: Turkey’s two-level game in the refugee dispute with the EU, as Turkey faces refugee and migrant pressure on a very large scale from a wide range of origins, including Africa, and as, according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Turkey is home to the world’s largest refugee population, with almost 3.6 million Syrians under temporary protection, shielding Europe influenced by Putin-backers and neo-fascist movements
European Union/Ukraine relations: European Union/Ukraine relations
2012/2013: 3. Mai 2012: Die EU-Kommission boykottiert die EM in der Ukraine - Plan on Priority Measures for European Integration of Ukraine for 2013 - 24 novembre: Des dizaines de milliers d'Ukrainiens manifestent pour un rapprochement avec l'UE - 28 November: Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in the shadow of Ukraine’s decision to scrap deal with the EU following pressure from Moscow - 29 novembre: L'Europe ne convainc pas le gouvernement de l'Ukraine de se tourner vers l'Ouest - 30 November: Tear gas fills Kiev's Liberty Square as critics of president's decision to block EU trade deal are dispersed by force - 1 December: Yanukovych government's bloody crackdown leads to call for sanctions - 10 décembre: Attendue à Kiev, Ashton redoute un 'déraillement' de la crise - 12 December: Ukraine diplomatic battle heats up over Yanukovych EU agreement claim
2014: 20 February 2014: EU and US consider sanctions against Yanukovich after Kiev crackdown - 21 février: Face aux violences à Kiev l'Union européenne annonce les premières sanctions - 24 February: European nations scramble to support Ukrainian democracy - 24 February 2014: USA and European allies warn Putin regime against Ukraine grab amid break-up fears - 4 March: USA-Europe rifts surfacing as Putin regime tightens Crimea grip and EU ministers spare trade sanctions - 5 March: EU offers Ukraine $15 billion, but help hinges on IMF deal - 6 March: EU leaders to hold emergency talks to decide how strongly they should respond to Russia's troop deployment in Ukraine's Crimea region - 6/7 March: USA and EU impose sanctions for Russia's 'violation of sovereignty' of Ukraine and warn Russia to seek a diplomatic solution - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU signs landmark association agreement with Ukraine - 7 April: Ukraine's president to address parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe over pro-Russian threats to the democratic institutions and attacks in eastern Ukraine - 17 April: EU to launch free trade with Ukraine on 1 November 2014 - 24 April: All persons illegally detained by armed groups in Eastern Ukraine must be immediately released and separatists must immediately hand in arms, EU says - 24 April: EU recognizes the right of the Ukrainian authorities to take security measures to protect the sovereignty of the state - 2 May: Ukraine, EU, Russia fail to agree on price for Russian gas for Ukraine - 8 May: Unauthorized local referenda have no democratic legitimacy and can only lead to further escalation in Ukraine, EU's Maja Kocijancic says - 13 May: EU has officially announced that it will not recognize 'illegal and illegitimate referenda' of separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine - 13 May: EU gives Ukraine 1 bln euros in macro-financial aid - 14 May: Pro-Russian separatists kill seven Ukrainian soldiers in a bloody ambush questioning new Europe push for Ukraine talks - 15 May: EU opens market for Ukrainian goods and services with about 98% of duties nullified - 23 June: EU to send security mission to Ukraine - 24 June: EU completed technical preparations for signing association deal with Ukraine on June 27 - 28 June: Ukraine signs historic trade and economic pact with EU - 12 July: EU imposes sanctions on A. Borodai, leader of Donetsk 'republic', and 10 others, facing travel bans and asset freezes, as clashes continue in east - 26 July: EU sends advisers to assist the Ukrainian government in imposing the rule of law in rebel areas - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: Expressing support for all defenders of Ukraine's sovereignty, EU Commissioner Stefan Fule asks Ukrainian authorities to support residents of Donbas - 7 October: EU sends in drones to save Ukraine truce - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 22 October: Ukraine to get about EUR 2 bln in EU financial assistance - 29 November: EU acts against pro-Russia separatists and their political parties with more sanctions
2015: 10 February 2015: A meeting of representatives of 'Norman Quartet' in Berlin has yielded 'some tangible results' for the negotiations of the leaders of the four states in Minsk on February 11 concerning eastern Ukraine, Ukraine's Andriy Melnyk says - 11 February: Ukraine's president Poroshenko to address EU summit on Thursday, EU's Donald Tusk says adding that the summit will assess the situation in Ukraine, relations with Russia and discuss 'appropriate actions' - 12 February: Ceasefire for eastern Ukraine agreed in Minsk - Minsk II - on 11/12 February 2015 Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany agreed in Minsk to a package of measures to alleviate the ongoing war in the Donbass region of Ukraine - 13 February: In Brussels European worries voiced about potential escalation of fighting before truce on Sunday - 17 February: French, Ukrainian presidents and German chancellor discussed ceasefire violations on telephone stressing that OSCE observers must have free access to the Donbas conflict zone, also calling Russia's Putin to withdraw heavy weapons from the frontline - 19 February: Ukraine and EU agree on immediate response to further Russian-backed aggression against Ukraine after brutal seizure of Debaltseve - 25 February: Partnership with Ukraine determined priority in new EU energy strategy - 3 March: New talks of the 'Normandy Four' in Berlin on March 6 suggested - 19 March: EP International Trade Committee approves allocation of EUR 1.8 billion to Ukraine - 21/22 May: 4th Summit of Eastern Partnership begins, as the EU's approach to the eastern partnership including Ukraine is high on agenda in Riga - 22 May: EU leaders and their colleagues of six former Soviet republics concluded Riga summit by issuing a joint declaration on maintaining their 'Eastern Partnership', but EU membership of eastern partners not considered in Riga - 21 September: EU's Federica Mogherini says Donbas elections must be organised by Ukraine - 3 October: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel address the press after so-called 'Normandy Four' Paris summit, saying France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine had agreed that local elections in eastern Ukraine planned by Russia-backed separatists on 18 October could not go ahead, as Ukraine's president Poroshenko and Russia's Murder-Putin leave Ukraine ceasefire talks in Paris without comment - 26 October: Ukraine's local elections are democratic, EU says - 9 November: EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini due in Ukraine for talks, saying that Ukraine remains top priority of the European agenda and re-affirming the EU's committment to sanctions on Russia - 12 November: An IMF mission and EU's commissioner for trade Cecilia Malmström in Kyiv to discuss Ukraine-EU free trade zone
2016: 1 February 2016: Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko urges Europe to keep sanctions in place until Russia 'gets out of Donbas' - 14 February: EU's Mogherini supports anti-Russian sanctions until Minsk deal fully implemented - 28 May: Representatives of the EU and the UN Development Programme have signed an agreement with the governors of Donetsk and Luhansk regions to allocate EUR 10mln for the restoration of effective management and development of local communities - 30 September 2016: EU Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström announces additional market access preferences for Ukraine - 15 October 2016: Ukrainian president Poroshenko believes that Russia will not terminate its policy of aggression until the world is united to stop Russian Putin regime, calling 'to make every effort to unmask the manifestation of Russian aggression wherever we only can – in Donbas, in the case of the downed MH17, and in Aleppo', emphasizing the importance of solidarity of the whole world in this issue and further extension of sanctions against Russia - 20 October 2016: 'Normandy Four' states agree to develop a 'road map' of the implementation of the Minsk agreements till November, Ukrainain president says, and Ukraine should regain control of its eastern border with Russia at the end of Minsk - 17 November 2016: EU states give conditional approval to visa-free travel for Ukraine
2017: 10 May 2017: The EU will announce the simplification of the visa regime with Ukraine in a few days, according to EU's Federica Mogherini also saying the EU would never recognize the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia
February 2018: 28 February 2018: The EU, EU Member States, the European Parliament and International Organizations were today in Brussels briefed on the dire humanitarian situation faced by 4.4 million conflict-affected people in eastern Ukraine
April 2018: 3 April 2018: Former Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko urges Europe to unite and wake up to Russia's 'medieval policy', following the Salisbury poisoning using 'novichok' - 3 April 2018: 'Normandy Four' summit reportedly may take place without Russia in May to discuss deployment of a UN peacekeeping mission in Donbas - 29 April 2018: Ukraine calls on international community to put more pressure on Russia over escalation in Donbas
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU Parliament supported the European Commission's proposal to allocate the fourth package of macro-financial assistance to Ukraine, amounting to EUR 1 billion
February 2019: 9 February 2019: Two EU states Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland allocate aid for Donbas, aiming to help the population affected by aggression and hostilities and marking the beginning of efforts to resolve key issues in Donetsk and Luhansk regions
18 June 2019: 18 June 2019: In an interview with a German newspapter Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky calls for tougher sanctions against the Russian Federation to liberate the occupied Ukrainian territories, namely Crimea and parts of Donbas
25 June 2019: 25 June 2019: Ukrainian president Zelensky is disappointed by the decision of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE to reinstate the voting rights of the Russian Federation's delegation, saying he 'tried to convince Mr. Macron and Mrs. Merkel that the return of the Russian delegation to the PACE is possible only after Russia fulfills the Assembly's fundamental requirements. It is a pity that our European partners haven't heard us' - 25 June 2019: Ukraine walks out of Europe human rights body as Russian regime returns
August 2019 EU against Russia's return to G7: 22 August 2019: EU against Russia's return to G7 world leaders' talks, official says
European Union/United Kingdom relations: European Union/United Kingdom relations
Since 1975: June 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum - Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom - United Kingdom and the euro
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and USA agencies - 2 June 2014: British PM Cameron accused of blackmail and threats as he tries to stop Jean-Claude Juncker becoming president of the European commission - 24 October 2014: EU demand for extra £1.7bn from UK prompts emergency meeting as PM Cameron says the demand is 'unacceptable' - 16 December 2015: Flirting with leaving the EU 'very dangerous', John Major says
2016: 15 mai 2016: Pour défendre une sortie de l'Europe l'ex-maire de Londres et chef de file du camp pro-Brexit Boris Johnson compare l'UE à Hitler
June 2016 'Brexit': 23 June 2016 UK EU membership referendum - United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union - 24 June 2016: We want Britain out as soon as possible, EU parliament leader says after UK 'Brexit' voting - 25 June 2016: Emergency meetings as EU pushes for UK to act on leave vote
March 2017: 25 March 2017: Britain’s decision to leave the EU has been described by the Italian PM Paolo Gentiloni as 'closed nationalism' that belongs in the past, during a summit in Rome, where prime ministers and presidents reaffirm commitment to unity - 29 March 2017: Leaked European parliament resolution and EU response to article 50 takes tough line on transitional deal with the UK
April 2017: 10 April 2017: In a letter to Holyrood signed by 26 MEPs as well as members of national and regional parliaments in Germany, Ireland, Greece, Spain and Belgium, European politicians say that Scotland would be 'most welcome' to rejoin the EU as a full member if it voted for independence - 28 April 2017: Europe could allow a united Ireland to join EU after Brexit
May 2017: 27 May 2017: We need deal with the EU to combat terror, experts tell UK prime minister Theresa May
Since 19 June 2017 Brexit negotiations: Brexit negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union - UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union - EU negotiating directives for Brexit - 20 June 2017: UK caves in to EU demand to agree Brexit divorce bill before trade talks - 23 June 2017: UK plan for EU citizens' rights is vague and inadequate, EU officials say, as May urged by campaign groups to match EU's offer on rights of Britons living in Europe - 8 December 2017: 'Progress' in Brexit talks announced after May's dash to Brussels
2 August 2018 EU worries about its future: 2 August 2018: UK's Brexit proposals threaten future of EU, EU negotiator says, as British PM May is cutting short the first leg of her holiday to meet France’s president Macron at the medieval fortress Fort de Brégançon on a Mediterranean islet, built in 1483 as part of the French monarchy's coastal defence efforts
November 2018: 20 November 2018: British PM May is to travel to Brussels to finalise a proposed Brexit deal in a meeting with the European commission president ahead of crucial European and British decisions - 25 November 2018: EU backs Theresa May's deal in Brussels, marking 'moment of deep sadness’, as Brexiters accuse May of betrayal after giving way to Spain’s demands over the future of Gibraltar, a disputed British overseas territory of the iberian peninsula, and as Brexiter Boris Johnson in a provocative speech warns at DUP conference in Belfast that the UK is 'on the verge of making a historic mistake'
February 2019: 24/25 February 2019: Brexit could be delayed until 2021, as EU reportedly determined to avoid uncertainty of three-month extension requests - 12 March 2019: Saying EU ‘has done everything it can', EU warns no-deal Brexit likely after UK Parliament shoots down May again
3 July 2019 Black MEP asked to leave: 3 July 2019: Black MEP Magid Magid, who represents Yorkshire and the Humber for the Green party, and former lord mayor of Sheffield, claims he was asked to leave the European parliament building in Strasbourg by an official on his first day
August 2019 EU citizens demand clarity on their status: 20 August 2019: Citizens from other EU member states living in Britain have called on the government to provide more clarity urgently on their status in the event of a sharp end to free movement following a no-deal Brexit
9 October 2019 Brexit talks come to a halt: 9 October 2019: Brexit talks in Brussels between EU and the UK come to a halt, as both sides confirm that no further negotiations are scheduled
15 October 2019 EU's Barnier demands UK's answer: 15 October 2019: EU's Barnier has set UK's Johnson a midnight deadline to concede to European Union demands and agree to a customs border in the Irish Sea or be left with nothing to take to the Commons, as Republic of Ireland says 'big step forward' needed today for deal to be agreed at EU summit
17 October 2019 Democratic Unionist party's refusal: 17 October 2019: UK PM announces 'great deal that takes back control’ despite refusal of DUP to back agreement
23 October 2019 EU leaders back call to grant Brexit delay: 23 October 2019: European leaders back call to grant Brexit delay to end of January 2020
28 October 2019 Brexit extension to 31 January agreed: 28 October 2019: EU agrees Brexit extension to 31 January
November 2019 EU launches legal action against UK: 14 November 2019: EU launches legal action after UK fails to nominate commission candidate
February 2020 EU coastal states with fishing interest seek tough stance on access to UK waters: 6 February 2020: EU countries and coastal states with strong fishing interest seek tough stance on access to UK waters
February 2020 EU demands UK keep chlorinated chicken ban to get trade deal: 25 February 2020: EU demands UK keep chlorinated chicken ban, to maintain 'health and product sanitary quality in the food and agriculture sector', to get trade deal
1 May 2020 migrant farm workers in Spain for UK supermarkets at crisis point: 1 May 2020: Migrant workers on Spanish farms that provide fruit and vegetables for UK supermarkets are trapped in dire conditions under lockdown, living in cardboard and plastic shelters without food or running water
2 May 2020 UK seeks access to EU health cooperation in light of covid-19: 2 May 2020: UK seeks access to EU health cooperation in light of covid-19, as government now wants close links with early warning system despite Brexit
4 August 2020 number of UK citizens emigrating to EU has risen by 30% since Brexit vote: 4 August 2020: Number of UK citizens emigrating to EU has risen by 30% since Brexit vote, as membership crisis has led to 500% increase in Britons taking up citizenship in an EU state
European Union/United Nations relations: European Union/United Nations relations
Since 1961 WEOG: Since 1961 Western European and Others Group WEOG with 28 member states, one of five unofficial Regional Groups in the UN that act as voting blocs and negotiation forums formed since 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from regional groups - List of members of the UN Security Council and members of Regional Groups
2014/2015: 8 April 2014: UN urges full inclusion of Roma people in decision-making in Europe, marking International Romani Day
2015/2016: 12 May 2015: EU urges UN to back its plan to confront the Mediterranean migrant crisis by using military force against smugglers - 27 May: Europe must do more to help migrants crossing the Mediterranean, UN's Ban Ki-moon says ahead of a visit to Brussels, as a planned EU naval operation awaits approval, adding that any approach should also look at the 'roots' of the problem in countries of origin - 17 September 2015: Hungary's treatment of refugees is shocking and unacceptable, UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon says - 17 November 2015: UN blasts Hungary for 'disgusting' demonisation of refugees - 22 November 2015: UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM criticise the newly imposed restrictions in the Balkans, saying that profiling of refugees and migrants on the basis of nationality is creating an increasingly untenable situation
2016: 27/28 February: UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees, as humanitarian challenges mount at Greek/Macedonian border and as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass following refusals of other European countries - 8 March 2016: The UN high commissioner for refugees Filippo Grandi questions the legality of an outline deal struck by the EU and Turkey saying he is very concerned that a hasty EU deal with Turkey could leave Syrian refugees unprotected and at risk of being sent back to a war zone
European Union and the International Criminal Court: European Union and the International Criminal Court
January 2020 'letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raises question who will do this for other citizens and children worldwide: 4 January 2020: South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham told TV news 'I really appreciate President Trump letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raising the question who will promise and do this for other citizens and children worldwide - 4 January 2020: Five children and four adults have been killed by a missile that hit a school and a camp for displaced people in Syria’s Idlib region, and 19 people were injured, including a teacher who is in a critical condition, the latest attack on civilian infrastructure in opposition held areas, as spokesman for the civil defence office in the town of Sarmin Mustafa Al Rashid said 'fortunately, most students had left only 10 minutes before the bombing, but there were some still playing in front of the school'
European Union/USA relations: European Union/USA relations
2012/2013: 13 December 2012: European Court of Human Rights rules that Khaled el-Masri was an innocent victim of extraordinary rendition, torture and ill-treatment by US CIA-agents - 7 June 2013: Europeans call for answers over US web spying - 8 June 2013: European Union concerned by US surveillance revelations showing the US government organising a huge dragnet of Internet and phone data, tapping servers of nine Internet giants - 30 June: US bugged European Union offices, computer networks, according to cited secret NSA documents calling the EU a 'target' - 30 June: Angry European Union demands answers over alleged US bugging - 2 July 2013: Amid reports that the US did not spare even its allies and friends from its spying operations, USA President Obama responds that all nations spy on each other - 4 July 2013: EU seeks dual talks on US surveillance, free trade deal - 6 septembre: Le secrétaire d'Etat américain John Kerry part pour l'Europe pour vanter auprès de ses homologues de l'UE le projet de frappes contre le régime d'Assad - 24 October: Immigration and US spying to dominate EU summit - 25 October: EU leaders warn USA 'spying' and damaged trust could harm fight against terror - 29 octobre 2013: Les Etats-Unis face à la colère des Européens visés par les opérations d'espionnage de l'administration Obama - 2 November: Europe's spies reportedly work together on mass surveillance - 20 December: GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies - 26 March 2014: EU-USA summit in Brussels - 20 January 2015: Rights group calls on European countries to admit CIA cooperation and to detail their roles in operations involving torture - 23 October 2015: EU appears to have broken a promise to reinforce environmental protections in a leaked draft negotiating text submitted in the latest round of TTIP talks in Miami
TTIP and TiSA: 'Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP' is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the USA - Trade in Services Agreement TiSA is a proposed international trade treaty between 23 Parties, including the EU and the USA
2016: 3 mars 2016: Des ONG portent plainte contre Monsanto et l'Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments pour distorsion d'analyses afin de prouver l'innocuité du pesticide glyphosate - 13 April 2016: Whistleblowers fear prosecution under new European Trade Secrets law - 1 May: Leaked negotiating texts for TTIP deal between Europe and the USA show USA's attempts to lower or circumvent EU protection for environment and public health, Greenpeace says - 20 September: Far-reaching global trade deal 'Trade in Services Agreement Tisa' being negotiated in secret could threaten the goals of the Paris climate deal by making it harder for governments to favour clean energy over fossil fuels, a leak of the latest negotiating text shows
2017: 2 February 2017: European parliament’s main political parties are making an unprecedented attempt to block USA's Trump’s likely choice as ambassador to the European Union from EU buildings, who said 'I helped bring down the Soviet Union', 'so maybe there’s another union that needs a little taming' - 3 February 2017: Arriving at a summit in Malta French president Hollande described recent comments by the USA's Trump as unacceptable and warned there would be no future for Europe’s relations with the USA 'if this future isn’t defined in common' - 3 February: Europeans critizise USA's Trump over his anti-EU rhetoric, accusing him of a lack of respect, as Theresa May’s attempts to position herself as a bridge with the new USA president were roundly rejected at a summit in Malta
June 2018 EU opens WTO case against steel and aluminium tariffs: 1 June 2018: EU opens WTO case against Trump's steel and aluminium tariffs
4 January 2020 'hunch up kicking down' EU fawns on Putin, Khamenei and Assad: 4 janvier 2020: Le secrétaire d'Etat des Etats-Unis Mike Pompeo a reproché aux Européens de ne pas avoir été 'aussi utiles' qu'ils auraient dû l'être dans l'affaire du général iranien Qassem Soleiman tué lors d'un raid en Irak, disant 'c'était une bonne chose pour le monde entier et nous appelons chacun dans le monde à soutenir l'action des Etats-Unis pour faire en sorte que la République islamique d'Iran se comporte simplement comme une nation normale' - 3 janvier 2020: La principale coalition de l'opposition syrienne en exil a salué la mort du général iranien, y voyant dans un communiqué 'la fin d'un des criminels de guerre les plus importants de Syrie et de la région' aprés son unité a joué un rôle incontournable pour soutenir et consolider le pouvoir de Bachar el-Assad depuis 2011, fort de ce soutien iranien, de l'appui de la Russie et du Hezbollah libanais
12 March 2020 amid Coronavirus crisis USA suspends European travel as global recession fears intensify: 12 March 2020: Trump suspends European travel as global recession fears intensify, and as Italy’s PM brings in further quarantine measures in wake of WHO declaring a pandemic
European Union/Venezuela relations: European Union/Venezuela relations
January/February 2019: 31 January 2019: EU parliament recognizes Guaido as Venezuelan interim president - 4 February 2019: EU countries recognise Juan Guaidó as interim Venezuelan leader after deadline for Maduro to call presidential elections expired - 7 février 2019: L'Union européenne, huit pays européens et cinq d'Amérique latine se réunissent dans la capitale uruguayenne pour tenter de trouver une issue négociée à la crise au Venezuela - 18 février 2019: Cinq députés européens qui se rendaient au Venezuela à l'invitation de Juan Guaido, reconnu par leurs pays respectifs comme président, ont dénoncé dimanche le refus des autorités vénézuéliennes de les laisser entrer - 24 février 2019: L'UE a condamné les actes de violence et le recours à des groupes armés par le régime au pouvoir au Venezuela pour empêcher l'entrée de l'aide humanitaire dans ce pays
European Union/Vietnam relations: European Union/Vietnam relations
October 2018 EU-Vietnam trade and investment agreements: 17 October 2018: EU-Vietnam trade and investment protection agreements
March 2019 children trafficking: 7 March 2019: Thousands of children trafficked from Vietnam to the UK are being abused and exploited in transit through Europe because governments are 'passing the buck' on their protection, research has found
June 2019 free-trade deal with Vietnam: 30 June 2019: Following deal with South American bloc 'Mercosur', EU has signed a landmark free-trade deal with Vietnam, the first of its kind with a developing country in Asia, paving the way for tariff cuts on almost all goods
Transatlantic relations and Nato: Transatlantic relations - North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
2013: 2 September 2013: NATO's secretary-general Rasmussen claimed he had seen evidence convincing him Assad regime was behind the deadly chemical weapons attack near Damascus and said it would send a dangerous signal to dictators if the world did not respond firmly
2014: 2 March 2014: NATO meets on Ukraine, says Russia risks destabilizing Europe - 15 March: NATO's Anders Fogh Rasmussen says a planned referendum in Ukraine's Crimea region would violate international law - 16 March: Hackers calling itself 'cyber berkut' in Russian rather than Ukrainian brought down several public NATO websites with cyber-attacks on Saturday - 29 March: Norway's Stoltenberg to become next NATO chief - 1 April: NATO to bolster its military presence in eastern Europe as it sees no sign that Putin regime is withdrawing tens of thousands of troops from the Ukrainian border - 2 April: NATO suspends cooperation with Russia over its annexation of Crimea and will draft measures to strengthen its defences and reassure Eastern European countries - 8 April: NATO's chief warned Russian regime that it would be committing a historic mistake if it intervened further in Ukraine, urging it to step back after pro-Kremlin militants seized government buildings in several cities in the east - 10 April: As Russian military amassing near Ukraine border are 'ready to go,' NATO's Europe commander says USA troops may be sent to alliance member states in Eastern Europe now feeling at risk - 11 April: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 24 July: NATO continues to see evidence of weapons being moved into Ukraine from Russia since the downing of Malaysian MH17 airliner - 8 August: NATO ready to help Ukraine reform defense - 20/21 September: NATO's General Breedlove hopeful about Saturday's announced agreement saying that Ukraine ceasefire is 'in name only' and Russian forces still operating in Ukraine - 24 September: Situation in Ukraine will be a priority for new NATO secretary general Stoltenberg in October - 30 September: Over half of Ukrainians see Ukraine in NATO, poll says - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law - 30 October: Nato jets intercept Russian warplanes following 'unusual level of air activity' over Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Black Sea - 2 December: NATO, Ukraine concerned about build-up of Russia's military presence in Black Sea - 3 December: NATO steps up actions to deal with Ukraine crisis, announcing the establishment of an interim spearhead force
2015: 22 January 2015: NATO confirms Russian troops shift to Ukraine - 5 February: Russian-backed separatists trying to occupy new territories in Donbas, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg says - 7 February: Nato's Philip Breedlove not ruling out delivery of weapons and military equipment by member states to Ukraine - 20 February: Ceasefire in Ukraine observed 'in name only' and Russian regime has created a formidable army in eastern Ukraine, says Nato's Philip Breedlove, as leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia speak on the phone once again and discuss the crumbling ceasefire once more - 9 March: Nato's Philip Breedlove warns that Russian army is still in Ukraine despite Minsk peace deal - 21 March: NATO ready to consider Ukraine's bid for membership, if Ukraine decides to submit it - 24 April: No third party has the right to interfere in a decision for membership, Nato says, repeating that it is ready to consider Ukraine's bid - 23 June: USA pledges support for NATO rapid response force to protect Europe - 23 November: Today Inter-Parliamentary Council Ukraine-NATO will discuss the escalation of the security situation in Ukraine, as well as challenges created by Russia by its hybrid warfare technology faced by NATO Member States and its partner countries, and will consider further political and practical support to counter Russian aggression in Ukraine - 1 December 2015: NATO invites Montenegro to join security alliance
2016: 31 May 2016: Defence spending by Europe's NATO states reportedly set to rise for the first time in nearly a decade, figures show, as fears over Russian aggression and the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean stoke anxiety over security across the continent - 22 June 2016: Nato's Jens Stoltenberg says UK staying in the EU is key to fighting terrorism
2017: 25 May 2017: Video shows Montenegro PM at Nato photocall in the new headquarters in Brussels pushed aside by USA's Trump
February 2018: 1 February 2018: 'The silence of the Nato members is unacceptable when one of their members is killing civilians by the dozens', Afrin's Syrian Democratic Council's Ilham Ahmad says after Turkish regime’s assault, criticized as illegal under international law also by German lawmakers, has killed dozens of civilians, including women and children, wounded several hundred, and led thousands of locals and displaced refugees to flee - 2 February 2018: Syrian Kurds outraged over Turkish and allied Islamic forces' mutilation of female fighter Barin Kobani, who took part in a USA-backed campaign to drive the Islamic State terrorists from the northern town of Kobani
March 2018: 18 March 2018: NATO eyes changes at July summit in Brussels after novichok nerve agent attack in Salisbury blamed on a 'more aggressive' Russian regime showing 'a pattern we’ve observed for some years'
April 2018: 14 April 2018: All NATO allies have expressed their full support for last night's military actions to degrade the Syrian regime's chemical weapons capability, according to Jens Stoltenberg
11/12 July 2018 Brussels NATO Summit: 11/12 July 2018 Brussels NATO Summit - 10/11 July 2018: Europe worries as USA's Trump heads to NATO Summit ahead of his upcoming sit-down with 'Novichok'-Putin, as Trump slams German government, saying 'Germany is a captive of Russia', and as European politicians and energy experts believe Nord Stream 2 will make Europe dependent on Russian gas
October 2018: 2 October 2018: NATO accuses Russia of violating nuclear treaty - 24 October 2018: Jens Stoltenberg says European NATO-members are unlikely to deploy new nuclear weapons on their soil in response to the alleged Russian breach of medium-range missiles treaty - 24 October 2018: Nato allies to meet over USA plan to leave nuclear missile treaty
November 2018: 29 November 2018: Ukrainian president Poroshenko is urging NATO to deploy naval ships to the Sea of Azov amid a standoff with Russia, as USA calls on European allies to consider further sanctions against Russia
August 2019: 2 August 2019: Key international nuclear disarmament INF treaty has formally collapsed amid mutual recriminations between the west and Russia, and with Nato pledging to boost Europe’s military defences
20 November 2019 NATO foreign ministers gathering in Brussels: 20 November 2019: NATO foreign ministers are gathering in Brussels to prepare a leaders’ summit in two weeks amid tensions over France's Macron’s complaints about the 'brain death' of the alliance
28 February 2020 Nato will consider strengthening Turkey’s air defences but will not establish a no-fly zone: 28 February 2020: Nato allies will consider strengthening Turkey’s air defences in response to the strike that killed 33 Turkish troops in rebel-held Syria overnight, seeking shelter, and alliance could strengthen reconnaissance missions to limit threat from Russian murderous planes, but despite Turkey has called to establish a no-fly zone, that would also protect hundreds of thousands of civilians, Nato sources stressed that this project, which could lead to direct conflict with the Russian air force, was not seriously discussed
3 July 2020 Saudi officials on Istanbul trial in absentia over Khashoggi killing 2018 in attack of Nato member: 3 July 2020: 20 Saudi officials will go on trial in absentia in Turkey accused of the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, almost two years after his disappearance in Istanbul shocked the world and irreparably tarnished the image of Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman as a liberal reformer, and as fiancee of late journalist hopes Istanbul trial reveals circumstances of death and location of remains
25 July 2020 NATO’s at war with itself as al-Sisi calls for Beijing to help stop Turkey support for UN-backed Libya: 25 July 2020: NATO’s at war with itself, as Turkey’s Erdogan is mercurial and bombastic at the best of times, but France's Macron has not let his own rhetoric fall below the bar set in Ankara - 25 July 2020: Egypt's al-Sisi regime calls for Beijing regime to help stop Turkey support for UN-backed Libya government

Common Security and Defence Policy of the EU, involving the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter - European External Action Service, the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU, led by the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is also President of the Foreign Affairs Council and Vice-President of the European Commission, and carries out the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, including the Common Security and Defence Policy
Defence forces of the European Union: Defence forces of the European Union - Military history of the European Union
Since 1992/1995 European Corps (Eurocorps): Since 1992/1995 European Corps (Eurocorps), an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg in France, with five countries participating in the corps as member nations and five associated nations
Since 2004 EU Military Staff: Since 2004 EU Military Staff
Since 2005/2007 EU Battlegroup: Since 2005/2007 EU Battlegroup, a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union
Since 2017 European Defence Fund: Since 2017 European Defence Fund
History and planning of the EU's defence policy: History and planning of EU's Common Security and Defence Policy
Since June 2017 'Military Planning and Conduct Capability': Since June 2017 'Military Planning and Conduct Capability', a permanent operational headquarters at the military strategic level for military operations of up to 2500 troops (i.e. the size of one battle group) deployed as part of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union by the end of 2020
June 2018 Macron's military project and EU members: 25 juin 2018: La France et 7 autres pays européens (l'Allemagne, la Belgique, le Danemark, les Pays-Bas, l'Estonie, le Portugal, l'Espagne) vont lancer lundi un nouveau mécanisme de coopération européenne de défense
March 2020 France dramatically increased major arms exports as Haftar supporting UAE received arms also from Spain and Sweden: 9 March 2020: USA and France dramatically increased major arms exports during the past five years, when USA, Russia, France, Germany and China were the largest exporters and the flow of arms to the Middle East, facing brutal and endless wars, has increased, as war crimes committing Russia came to Syrian with its own arms, as Saudi Arabia, India and Egypt are the largest arms importers, and as in 2019, when foreign military involvement in Libya was condemned by the UN Security Council, the UAE had major arms import deals ongoing with Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the UK and the USA, says SIPRI






Internationale Organisationen, Institutionen etc. zur Intervention, Krisenverhinderung und Krisenbewältigung (aktualisierte Version hier aufzurufen)









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