Africa



Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent - Geography of Africa - Climate of Africa - Geography of African countries
History of Africa - Recent African origin of modern humans
Demographics of Africa - Ethnic groups of Africa - Languages of Africa

Colonisation of Africa - Belgian colonisation in Africa - Since 1843 Belgian colonial empire - British colonisation in Africa - Since 1497 British Empire - Dutch colonisation in Africa - Since 1543 Dutch Empire - French colonisation in Africa - Since 1534 French colonial empire - German colonisation in Africa - Since 1884 German colonial empire - Italian colonisation in Africa - Since 1869 Italian colonial empire - Portuguese colonisation in Africa - Since 1415 Portuguese Empire - Spanish colonisation in Africa - Since 15th century Spanish Empire - Since 1650 Swedish colony 'Swedish Gold Coast' in present-day Ghana in Africa - Since 1658 Danish colony 'Danish Gold Coast', roughly present-day southeast Ghana - 1821–1957 British colony 'British Gold Coast', 1850 incorporation of the 'Danish Gold Coast', 1872 incorporation of the 'Dutch Gold Coast', since 1957 the independent nation of Ghana - Scramble for Africa, the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914 - Colonies in Africa
European Atlantic slave trade mainly by the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish from the 16th through to the 19th centuries bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets

African resistance to colonialism

List of African countries by population - Ethnic groups in Africa by country, following the colonization and decolonization
List of conflicts in Africa including colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence, and global conflicts in which Africa was and is a theatre of war - Terrorism in Africa
2016: 3 October 2016: Governance across Africa has seen minimal improvement over the past decade since 2006, held back by widespread deterioration in safety and rule of law, according to the Ibrahim index of African governance
2006/2009: 1996/2009 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba and named after South Africa's main Nuclear Research Centre, the location where South Africa's atomic bombs of the 1970s were developed, constructed and subsequently stored

Human rights in Africa - the United Nations System, international law and the African Union have all contributed to the establishment of a human rights system in Africa - African society by country - African society by subject
Slavery in contemporary Africa: Slavery in contemporary Africa
Women and women's rights in Africa: Women in Africa - Women in Africa by country - Women's rights in Africa by country and subject - Violence against women in Africa by country and subject - Sexism in Africa
Gender, marriage, and ages of consent in Africa: Gender in Africa by contry and subject - The age of consent in Africa for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across the continent, ranging from age 12 to age 18 - Polygamy by country - Polygyny in Islam - Islamic marital jurisprudence - Marriage in Islam - Divorce in Islam - Women in Islam - Women in Arab societies - Women's rights in Islam - Islam and domestic violence
Women's organizations in Africa: Women's organizations in Africa by country
Childhood and youth in Africa by country: Childhood in Africa - Youth in Africa by country
Child labour in Africa: Child labour in Africa - Africa has the world's highest incidence rates of child labour especially in sub-saharan Africa where more than 40% of all children aged 5–14 labour for survival, or about 48 million children
Child soldiers in Africa: Child soldiers in Africa

Education in Africa - Education in Africa by region and subject - History of education in Africa - History of female education in Africa - Women and education in Africa
Universities and colleges in Africa: Universities and colleges in Africa by country - Lists of universities and colleges in Africa by country

Economy of Africa - Economic history of Africa - Economic variants, indicators and GDP of African nations
Poverty in Africa: Poverty in Africa
2013/2014: 21 April 2013: Fast-paced African countries may have growth rates that are the envy of developed economies, but the continent's boom has failed in recent years to significantly dent poverty levels, IMF says - 11 May 2014: More than $60bn illegally siphoned out of Uganda, Ghana, Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania over 10 years, with most of it squirrelled away in tax havens, according to a GFI report - 8 July 2014: More sub-Saharan Africans are living in extreme poverty now than in 1990, a major UN report says
2015: 31 July 2015: Rich get richer even as poverty and inequality deepen, South African market research firm's 'Africa wealth report 2015' says, criticising development strategies
2016: 5 avril 2016: La croissance économique moyenne sur le continent africain sera de 4,3% en 2016 et de 4,4% en 2017, insuffisant pour espérer réduire significativement la pauvreté, selon l'ONU - 5 October 2016: Nearly half of all children in sub-Saharan Africa are living in extreme poverty, according to Unicef-World Bank report
2017: 7 March 2017: South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria and Arabian Peninsula's Yemen are on the brink of catastrophe, thanks to drought, conflict, and a failure in international response
Agriculture in Africa - Water scarcity in Africa - 16 October 2011: Trees 'boost African crop yields and food security' researchers say - 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report - 30 December 2015: Aid agencies warn that tens of millions of people in Africa, the Caribbean and Asia face severe hunger in the next six months following failed harvests, stunted crops and soaring prices of staple foods
Health in Africa - Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa - Water purification in Africa

Environment of Africa by country - Environmental Issues in Africa
Water scarcity in Africa
Environmental impact of mining - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Environmental impact of nuclear power
Air pollution in Africa - Air pollution is a major challenge in Africa, aoccording to United Nations Environment Programme
2016: 20 October 2016: The human and financial cost of the continent’s pollution suggests dirty air could be killing 712,000 people a year prematurely, compared with approximately 542,000 from unsafe water, 275,000 from malnutrition and 391,000 from unsafe sanitation, OECD study says - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe
Environmental impact of war
Poaching, the illegal hunting, killing, or capturing of wild animals - Illegal wildlife trade over the world - Wildlife smuggling
2016: 31 August 2016: First ever continent-wide survey of the species 'Elephant' finds nearly one-third of African continent’s largest elephants were wiped out between 2007-2014, largely due to poaching for ivory

East Africa - Sub-Saharan Africa - Recent African origin of modern humans
List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa - Indigenous peoples of East Africa
Since 2011: 2011-2012 East Africa drought - 25 June 2011: Severe drought hits East Africa - 28 June 2011: Horn of Africa sees 'worst drought in 60 years' - 4 July 2011: UN warns of a looming catastrophe in Somalia because of drought and hunger - 9 July 2011: UN refugee chief calls for drought aid inside Somalia - 11 July 2011: UNHCR chief Antonio Guterres urges Kenya to open a new camp for fleeing people - 25 July 2011: UN's food agency and G-20 - talks on Africa drought crisis - 16 August 2011: Ethiopia refugee camp child death rates alarming UN says - 25. August 2011: Dürre, Hunger- und Flüchtlingskrise weiten sich trotz Hilfsaktionen aus - 5 September 2011: UN says famine spreads to sixth region of Somalia - 4 February 2012: Rain and food deliveries end famine conditions, but food stocks could run out in May and leave millions in need of aid, UN says
Sahel - Sahel drought - 2010 Sahel famine - 11. Mai 2012: Erneut droht in der Sahelzone eine grosse Hungersnot
2014: 3 February 2014: Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis', UN says - 1 May 2014: Aid operations need urgent funding in Sahel region where five million children face acute malnutrition, UN says - 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report
2017: 15 March 2017: The Disasters Emergency Committee calls for urgent response to humanitarian emergency unfolding in east Africa, with 16 million people facing hunger
Southern Africa - History of Southern Africa - Early history of South Africa
Demographics of Southern Africa
List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa
2016: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure - 27 November 2016: Southern Africa cries for help as El Niño and climate change savage maize harvest
Central Africa - Central African countries
Demographics of Central Africa
Geography of Central Africa - Fauna of Central Africa
2016: 31 August 2016: Forest-dwelling elephants are likely to face extinction far more quickly than previously assumed because their sluggish reproduction rate cannot keep pace with rampant poaching and habitat loss, a new study has found
West Africa - History of West Africa
List of ethnic groups in West Africa - Indigenous peoples of West Africa
North Africa - Prehistoric North Africa - North African climate cycles, research of climate history comprising millions of years - Abbassia Pluvial - Mousterian Pluvial - Neolithic Subpluvial, extended period from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa - History of North Africa - Sahara punp theory and human migration
List of ethnic groups in North Africa

Natural disasters in Africa
Tropical cyclones in Africa: Tropical cyclones in Africa
Cyclones in Madagascar
Cyclones in Mozambique
Tropical cyclones in Somalia
List of West Africa hurricanes
Floods in Africa: Floods in Africa
2007 African floods: 2007 African floods
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods
2010–2011 Southern Africa floods: 2010–2011 Southern Africa floods
2012 Nigeria floods: 2012 Nigeria floods
2015 Southeast Africa floods: 2015 Southeast Africa floods
Droughts in Africa: Droughts in Africa
2011 East Africa drought: 2011 East Africa drought
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought
2016: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure
2017: 9 mai 2017: L'Est et le Nord-est de l'Afrique font face à la pire sécheresse depuis des décennies dans la région et le nombre de déplacés depuis début janvier en Afrique dépasse désormais un million, selon l'ONU
Earthquakes and eruptions in Africa: Earthquakes in Africa - African Plate - Somali Plate - East African Rift - West and Central African Rift System
1986 Lake Nyos disaster: 1986 Lake Nyos disaster
2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake: 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake
2008 Lake Kivu earthquake: 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
2011 Nabro eruption: 2011 Nabro eruption
September 2016 Tanzanian and East Africa earthquake: September 2016 Tanzanian earthquake - 10 September 2016: At least 11 people confirmed dead and more than 192 injured following an earthquake that hit Kagera and Mwanza regions

African Union
2012: 15 juillet 2012: La Sud-Africaine Dlamini-Zuma élue présidente de la Commission de l'UA - 16 juillet 2012: Au sommet de l'UA Kigali et Kinshasa s'accordent sur une force 'neutre', les Soudans se réchauffent
2013: 28 January 2013: African Union summit in Ethiopia to continue in private among heads of states, according to a delegate from DR Congo, after talks break down over DR Congo crisis - 12 octobre 2013: L'UA a demandé d'ajourner les procédures de la Cour pénale internationale contre les présidents en exercice
2016: 17 juillet 2016: Le nouveau sommet de l'Union africaine se penchera dès dimanche sur la situation au Soudan du Sud, mais aussi au Burundi
2017: 22-25 January 2017 1st ever African Youth Conference on African Unity and Development in Addis Ababa - 30 January 2017: African heads of state gather in the Ethiopian capital for a two-day African Union summit - 3 July 2017: 29th Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union focuses on unemployment and conflicts

Trade unions in Africa by country - List of federations of trade unions in Africa - ITUC Regional Organisation for Africa is a regional organisation of the International Trade Union Confederation, representing trade unions from African countries with 56 national trade union federations affiliated to ITUC-Africa from 45 countries



Angola - Geography of Angola - Precolonial history of Angola until 15th-17th century - History of Angola - Demographics of Angola
Economy of Angola: Economy of Angola - main industries include petroleum, uranium, diamonds, gold, bauxite, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, metal products, fish processing, food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar, textiles, commercial ship repair
Mining industry of Angola: Mining industry of Angola - Cassinga iron mine located in south-western Angola in Huíla Province - Mining companies of Angola
Diamond mining and mines in Angola: Diamond mining in Angola - Diamond mines in Angola - Catoca diamond mine, the fourth largest diamond mine in the world, located in Angola the mine is owned by a consortium of international mining interests, including Endiama (the state mining company of Angola, 32.8% ownership), Alrosa of Russia (32.8%), Odebrecht of Brazil (16.4%), and the Diamond Finance CY BV Group (16.8%) - Since 2005 Fucauma Diamond Mine, under construction in the Lunda Norte Province, owned by a consortium of diamond mining companies, the two largest holders being Endiama (40%) and Trans Hex (35%)
Energy in Angola: Energy in Angola - biomass accounts for 58% of the country's energy consumption, oil accounts for 35%, gas 4% and hydroelectric power 3%
Fossil fuels in Angola: Fossil fuels in Angola - Oil and gas companies of Angola
Petroleum and oil fields of Angola: Petroleum in Angola - ranking second in crude oil production in sub-Saharan Africa, oil has been Angola’s chief export since 1973 and accounts for half the gross domestic product - Oil fields of Angola
Electric power in Angola: Electric power in Angola - List of power stations in Angola, gas turbines and hydroelectric
Hydroelectric power stations in Angola: Hydroelectric power stations in Angola - Angola has extensive hydroelectric power resources that far exceed its present needs
Agriculture in Angola: Agriculture in Angola - products include coffee and maize, sisal, bananas, tobacco and cassava - Land tenure in Angola
Coffee production in Angola: Coffee production in Angola since the 1830s, a cash crop formerly grown on approximately 2000 Angolan plantations, owned mostly by the Portuguese, in the 1970s, Angola was one of the largest coffee-producing countries in Africa
Forestry in Angola: Forestry in Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Fishing in Angola: Fishing in Angola, mainly performed by foreign fleets and fishing agreements were reached with several countries, including Spain, Japan, and Italy
Transport in Angola: Transport in Angola - Rail transport in Angola consists of three separate Cape gauge lines that do not connect, the northern Luanda Railway, the central Benguela Railway, and the southern Moçâmedes Railway, each connecting the Atlantic coast to the interior of the country - Road transport in Angola - Water transport in Angola - Ports and harbors - Angolan government plans to build a deep-water port at Barra do Dande, north of Luanda, in Bengo province near Caxito - Aviation in Angola - List of airports in Angola
Retailing in Angola: Retailing in Angola - List of supermarket chains in Angola
Foreign trade of Angola: Foreign trade of Angola - the vast majority of Angola's exports, 92% in 2004, are petroleum products, nearly all of Angola's oil goes to the USA, making it the eighth largest supplier of oil to the USA
Banks and banking in Angola: Banks in Angola - National Bank of Angola, the central bank of Angola is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder
2009: In 2009 the Central Bank of Angola was victim in a fraud case of about $160 million that were transferred to overseas accounts, revealed by the Portuguese newspaper Diário de Notícias in 2011 several supects were sentenced up to eight years in prison and there are still investigations going on in Portugal and Angola
Tourism in Angola: Tourism in Angola - Tourist attractions in Angola - National parks of Angola
Angolan Armed Forces: Angolan Armed Forces since 1991 - Military history of Angola - People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola, disbanded in 1993
1961-1974: 1961-1974 Angolan War of Independence against the Portuguese colonial rulers began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation and became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement, also seen as part of the wider Portuguese Colonial and Overseas War, which also included the independence wars of Guinea-Bissau and of Mozambique
1975-1988: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War - May 1978 Operation Reindeer, South Africa's second major military operation in Angola, carried out under the Apartheid regime - May 1978 Kassinga Massacre, South African airborne attack on a South West Africa People's Organization SWAPO military base at the former town of Cassinga in Angola - August/September 1981 Operation Protea, about 5,000 SADF soldiers occupied Cunene province in Angola - November 1981 Operation Daisy, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola against SWAPO - November 1981 Operation Kerslig military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military special forces on an oil refinery outside Luanda in Angola - May-June 1988 Operation Excite/Hilti was a set of military operations by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola during the Angolan Civil War - April 1989 Operation Merlyn, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military against SWAPO
Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces: Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces
Politics of Angola: Politics of Angola - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Political parties in Angola: Political parties in Angola - MPLA People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975, fighting against the Portuguese army in the Angolan War of Independence of 1961–74, and defeating the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola Unita and the National Liberation Front of Angola FNLA in the Angolan Civil War of 1975–2002 - Trade unions in Angola
January 1975 Alvor Agreement: January 1975 Alvor Agreement granted Angola independence from Portugal on 11 November, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to the Angolan Civil War
1975-2002 Angolan Civil War: 1975-2002 Angolan Civil War - Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
December 1988 Tripartite Accord: December 1988 Agreement among the People's Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa (Tripartite Accord) granted independence to Namibia from South Africa and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War
1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I: 1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I during Angolan civil war, as South Africa's apartheid regime and the USA backed the 'União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola' UNITA
1991 Bicesse Accords: 1991 Bicesse Accords (Estoril Accords) laid out a transition to multi-party democracy in Angola under the supervision of the United Nations' UNAVEM II mission, on 31 May 1991 President José Eduardo dos Santos of the MPLA and Jonas Savimbi of Unita signed the accord, but Unita rejected the official results of the 1992 presidential election as rigged and renewed their guerrilla war
1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II: 1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II, consisted of military observers, civilian police, electoral observers, paramedics and both local and international staff, ccoming from 25 countries in five continents
1992 Halloween massacre: 30 October - 1 November 1992 Halloween massacre (Three Day War) in Luanda as part of the Angolan Civil War
1994 Lusaka Protocol: October 1994 Lusaka Protocol attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and starting national reconciliation, both sides signed a ceasefire as part of the protocol on November 20
Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III: Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III
1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA: 1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA, the last peacekeeping mission in Angola
Elections in Angola: Elections in Angola
August 1980 Angolan legislative election: 23 August 1980 Angolan legislative election
September 1992 Angolan general election: 29/30 September 1992 Angolan general election, multi-party elections monitored by the United Nations, the UN declared the presidential election generally 'free and fair'
September 2008 Angolan legislative election: 5 September 2008 Angolan legislative election
August 2012 Angolan legislative election: 31 August 2012 Angolan legislative election
September 2012: 26 September 2012: Angola's Dos Santos sworn in, pledging social improvements, saying stability and poverty reduction are main goals
December 2016: 3 December 2016: Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos, who has been in power since 1979, will not stand for re-election at national polls due to be held in 2017 - 4 December 2016: João Lourenço to take over party leadership from Angola’s dos Santos - João Lourenço , Secretary-General of the MPLA from 1998 to 2003 and Vice-President since 2016
August 2017 Angolan legislative election: 27 August 2017 Angolan legislative election - 24 August 2017: MPLA claims a widely expected election victory, setting the stage for a change of leadership after decades of dos Santos rule
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Angola: Angolan society
Human rights in Angola: Human rights in Angola
Subdivisions, provinces and municipalities of Angola: Subdivisions of Angola, divided into eighteen provinces and 163 municipalities - 18 Provinces of Angola - 163 Municipalities of Angola - 618 communes of Angola
Luanda province and city: Luanda province with an area of 2,417 square kilometres and a population of 6,542,942 in 2014, subdivided into seven municipalities, namely Luanda, Belas, Cacuaco, Cazenga, Icolo e Bengo, Quiçama and Viana, and further subdivided into 47 Communes - Luanda city, the capital and largest city in Angola and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre
Demographics and ethnic groups in Angola: Demographics of Angola - Ethnic groups in in Angola
Culture and languages of Angola: Culture of Angola - Languages of Angola
Women and women's rights in Angola: Women in Angola - Women's rights in Angola
Education in Angola: Education in Angola
Schools in Angola: List of schools in Angola
Universities in Angola: List of universities in Angola
Science and technology in Angola: Science and technology in Angola - in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 24% of college and university enrolments
Health in Angola: Health in Angola
Maternal health in Angola: Maternal health in Angola
Media of Angola: Media of Angola
Telecommunications in Angola: Telecommunications in Angola
Internet in Angola: Internet in Angola
Crime in Angola: Crime in Angola
Corruption in Angola: Corruption in Angola
Corruption, oil and diamond mining in Angola: Corruption in the oil and diamond mining industries in Angola
Human trafficking in Angola: Human trafficking in Angola
Slavery, forced labour and human trafficking in Angola before and after independence from Portugal in 1975
Angolan law: Angolan law - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Judiciary of Angola: Judiciary of Angola
Foreign relations of Angola: Foreign relations of Angola
Treaties of Angola: Treaties of Angola
Angola's membership in international organizations:
Since 2001/2002 African Union: Since 2001/2002 'African Union', continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, replacing the Organisation of African Unity founded in 1963 and rising with post-colonial independence, the most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting
Southern African Development Community: Southern African Development Community since 1992, an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Botswana's Gaborone aiming to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states and complementing the role of the African Union
Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa since 1973, a non-profit, inter-governmental organization made up of Port Operators, Government Line Ministries, Logistics and Maritime Service Providers and other port and shipping stakeholders from the Eastern, Western and Southern African and Indian Ocean regions, offering an appropriate framework for exchange of information and cooperation among members to create an enabling environment whereby member can interface with one another in the port, transport and trade arenas
South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986: South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986, with the aim of promoting cooperation and the maintenance of peace and security in the South Atlantic region, dedicating particular attention to the question of preventing the geographical proliferation of nuclear weapons and of reducing and eventually eliminating the military presence of countries from other regions
African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty since 1996/2009: African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, signed in 1996 and coming into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009, establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa
United Nations membership: Permanent Mission of the Republic of Angola to the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Angola: Bilateral relations of Angola
Angola/Algeria relations: Angola/Algeria relations
Angola/Cape Verde relations: Angola/Cape Verde relations, refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship between the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Cape Verde, now are based on their shared experiences as Portuguese colonies, both before, after and during the struggle for independence
Angola/France relations: Angola/France relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
In the 1990s secret sale and shipment of arms: In the 1990s Mitterrand–Pasqua affair, an international political scandal over the secret sale and shipment of arms from Central Europe to the government of Angola by the Government of France
Angola/Namibia relations: Angola/Namibia relations
1966-1990 South African Border War in South-West Africa and Angola: South African Border War 1966-1990 in South-West Africa and Angola, between South African apartheid regime's military and its allied forces (mainly Angola' UNITA) on the one side and the Angolan government, the South-West Africa People's Organisation SWAPO and their allies on the other side
Angola/Netherlands relations: Angola/Netherlands relations
1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola: 1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola, the name for the possessions of the Dutch West India Company in contemporary Angola and the Republic of the Congo
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Angola/Portugal relations: Angola/Portugal relations
1482-1975 colonial history of Angola: The colonial history of Angola is considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Cão in 1482, settlement since Novais's establishment of São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575, the Portuguese government formally incorporated Angola as a colony in 1655
Slavery in Angola: Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola: 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1961-1974 War of Liberation and Angolan War of Indepencence: Angolan War of Indepencence 1961-1974 - 1961-1974 'Portuguese Colonial War', in the former colonies 'War of Liberation', was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies, the Portuguese regime in Portugal itself was overthrown by a military coup in 1974 and the change in government brought the conflict to an end
2011: 16 November 2011: Portugal seeks Angola investment - PM Coelho visit
2014: 28 July 2014: It was announced that the Angolan state takes over the majority of Banco Espirito Angola, as its Angolan partners inject fresh capital of about US$3 billion into the Angolan bank
Angola/South Africa relations: Angola/South Africa relations
1975-1976: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Angola/USA relations: Angola/USA relations
Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola and military support of Unita: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Since 2008 joint venture of Chevron Corporation and Sonangol: Angola LNG was formed as a joint project in 2008 involving Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation (36.4%), Sonangol (22.8%), BP (13.6%), Eni (13.6%) and Total (13.6%), Sonangol and Chevron serve as co-project leaders, the shareholders will provide associated gas from their respective offshore oil fields - 17 March 2016: Cabinda gulf oil and gas exploitation in Angola - 16 June 2016: Angola LNG's production resumed at its liquefaction plant at Soyo, following the recent plant incident and shutdown April/May 2014
Angola/Vietnam relations: Angola/Vietnam relations since 1971, four years before Angola gained its independence, and when future President of Angola Agostinho Neto visited Vietnam
Environment of Angola: Environment of Angola - Natural history of Angola - Climate of Angola
Ecoregions in Angola: List of ecoregions in Angola - Protected areas of Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Natural disasters in Angola: Natural disasters in Angola
Floods in Angola: Floods in Angola
2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods: March-April 2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods
Droughts in Angola:
2016 Angola and southern Africa drought: 2016 southern Africa drought is affecting 1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces


Burkina Faso - Geography of Burkina Faso - History of Burkina Faso - Demographics of Burkina Faso
Economy of Burkina Faso: Economy of Burkina Faso - main industries include cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold - List of companies based in Burkina Faso
Mining industry of Burkina Faso: Mining industry of Burkina Faso - gold, manganese and zinc - Bissa gold mine - Kiaka gold mine - Tambao manganese mine
Energy in Burkina Faso: Energy in Burkina Faso
Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso: Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso - Bagre Dam since 1992 is a multipurpose dam on the White Volta located near Bagré Village in Burkina Faso
Agriculture in Burkina Faso: Agriculture in Burkina Faso employs the vast majority of the work force - principal subsistence crops are sorghum, millet, corn, and rice - commercial crops include cottonseed, groundnuts, cotton fiber, and sesame
Water, rivers and lakes in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso - Rivers of Burkina Faso Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic - Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists - The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana - Lakes of Burkina Faso
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Tourism in Burkina Faso: Tourism in Burkina Faso - Visitor attractions in Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Banking in Burkina Faso: Banks in Burkina Faso
Poverty in Burkina Faso: Poverty in Burkina Faso
Military of Burkina Faso: Military of Burkina Faso - Coups d'état in Burkina Faso
1966: On 3 January 1966 a general strike gives power to General Sangoulé Lamizana on the demand of demonstrators
1980/1982 military coups d'état: 25 November 1980 and 7 November 1982 military coup d'état
1983/1984 -1987 coups d'état: 1984 coup d'état - A coup d'état organised by Blaise Compaoré on 4 August 1983 was supported by Libya, on 15 October 1987 Compaoré took power in a coup that murdered Thomas Sankara - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
2014: 31 October 2014: Assuming power General Traoré stated that a new election will take place in 60-90 days - 1 novembre 2014: Lieutenant-colonel Yacouba Issac Zida fait sa déclaration officielle de prise de pouvoir sur des chaînes privées
2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 26 September 2015: Burkina Faso government disbands presidential guard military unit, that took the president and PM hostage in failed coup
Taxation and budget in Burkina Faso: Taxation in Burkina Faso - 22 novembre 2013: 47% du budget du Burkina Faso, fixé à 1664 milliards de FCFA pour 2014, est affecté aux investissements publics, 20% aux infrastructures, 4,4% à l'agriculture, 1,6% à l'élevage et 0,1% à l'environnement
Politics of Burkina Faso: Politics of Burkina Faso - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
Political parties in Burkina Faso: Political parties in Burkina Faso
Trade unions in Burkina Faso: Trade unions in Burkina Faso
Elections and politics in Burkina Faso: Elections in Burkina Faso
December 2012 Burkinabé parliamentary election: Burkinabé parliamentary election 2 December 2012
2014: 11 August 2014: Burkina Faso’s next elections are not due until November 2015, but political tensions have risen in the past year owing to suspicions that President Compaoré is looking to prolong his 27-year rule by contesting the polls - 31 October 2014: Burkina Faso's Compaoré refuses to resign in face of protests and deadly clashes, saying he will lead transitional government after parliament is disolved by an announcement of army general Traore - 31 October: As tens of thousands of protesters demand that he quit immediately Burkina president steps down, calling for elections within 90 days - 31 October: Burkina Faso's army chief Traore says he is taking power as head of state - 1 November: Saying Traoré’s claim is 'obsolete', Lieutenant Colonel Zida declares himself to be president - 31 octobre/1 novembre 2014: De Blaise Compaoré à Yacouba Isaac Zida, trois chefs de l’Etat en une journée - 1 November: As Burkina’s deposed president flees to Ivory Coast, as the country needs snap elections and as opposition parties and civil society organisations reject the army’s takeover, the military backs Isaac Zida as interim leader - 2 November: Burkina Faso's opposition and civil society leaders warn against a military takeover, and call for a mass rally after the army stepped into the power vacuum left by Compaore's ouster
2015: 23 August 2015: An ex-prime minister and several ministers among 22 candidates who registered for Burkina Faso's October election
16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 17 September 2015: Street protests and UN condemnation after forces loyal to Blaise Compaore bundle away Michel Kafando and PM Isaac Zida - 17 September 2015: Confirming military coup Burkina Faso's military dissolves transitional government - 19 September: Burkina Faso will return to civilian rule and an interim government led by Michel Kafando will be reinstated, reversing the military coup, Benin’s president Yayi says in Ouagadougou, as unrest and protests continue - 23 September: Burkina Faso's Michel Kafando resumes power after week-long coup
November 2015: 8 November 2015: 14 presidential candidates in Burkina Faso kick off campaigning for a general election meant to restore democratic rule and choose a successor to longtime leader Blaise Compaore
29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election: 29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election - 29 November: Burkina Faso votes to choose first new president in decades - 1 December 2015: Kabore wins Burkina Faso presidential election
Social movements and protests in Burkina Faso: Protests in Burkina Faso
2011 Burkinabè protests: 22 February 2011 – 9 June 2011 Burkinabè protests over police brutality, high food prices, low wages, economic repression and autocracy
2014 Burkinabé uprising: Burkinabé uprising is a series of demonstrations in Burkina Faso in October 2014 due to attempts at changing the constitution to allow President Compaoré to run again and extend his 27-year term
30 October 2014: Tens of thousands of protesters demanding the ousting of Burkina Faso's veteran President Compaore faced off with security forces outside the presidential palace after burning parliament and ransacking state television - 2 November: Thousands gather in the centre of Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou to denounce 'military coup' of Presidential Guard's Zida, as UN's Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the renewed army’s seizure of power - 19 September 2015: Hundreds of protesters burnt tyres and erected barricades in the streets of Ouagadougou in a third day of unrest and deadly clashes since the military coup ousted the country's interim government
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burkina Faso: Society of Burkina Faso
Human rights in Burkina Faso: Human rights in Burkina Faso
2014: 11 June 2014: In Burkina Faso, getting children out of the gold mines
Regions, provinces and departments of Burkina Faso: 13 Regions of Burkina Faso - 45 Provinces of Burkina Faso, list of provinces by region - 351 Departments of Burkina Faso, list of departments by region and by province
Cities in Burkina Faso: List of cities in Burkina Faso
Centre region and Ouagadougou: Centre region, the most populous and urbanised region in Burkina Faso, in 2006 11.1% of Burkina's population lived in Centre (2,136,581 in 2011) - Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural and economic centre of the nation - Timeline of Ouagadougou - Economy of Ouagadougou
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burkina Faso: Demographics of Burkina Faso - Ethnic groups in Burkina Faso
Bobo people: Bobo people, the second largest ethnic group with about one million people, are mostly farmers, artisans, and metalworkers living in the southwest around Bobo-Dioulasso although the area occupied by the Bobo extends north into Mali, where the Bobo number about 110,000 people
Fula people: Fula people are one of the largest and a widely dispersed ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa
Gurunsi peoples: Gurunsi peoples, 750,000 people in Burkina Faso or 5% of Burkina Faso's population
Lobi people: Lobi people, an ethnic group that originated in what is today Ghana and migrated into southern Burkina Faso and later into Côte d'Ivoire
Mossi people: Mossi people in central Burkina Faso, living mostly in the villages of the Nazinon and Nakanbe River Basin, and the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting more than 40% of the population or about 6.2 million people
Senufo people: Senufo people, a West African ethnolinguistic group consisting of diverse subgroups living in a region spanning the northern Ivory Coast, the southeastern Mali and the western Burkina Faso
Culture and languages of Burkina Faso: Culture of Burkina Faso - Languages of Burkina Faso - Mossi language, a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language, and the most widely spoken language in the country, with 48% of Burkinabes being speakers as of 2008 - Religion in Burkina Faso - Freedom of religion in Burkina Faso
Women and women’s rights in Burkina Faso: Women’s rights in Burkina Faso
Education in Burkina Faso: Education in Burkina Faso
Schools in Burkina Faso: Schools in Burkina Faso
Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso: Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso - University of Ouagadougou - Since 2005 University of Koudougou - Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso
Health in Burkina Faso: Health in Burkina Faso
African meningitis belt: The African meningitis belt is a region in sub-Saharan Africa, consisting of the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, where the rate of incidence of meningitis is very high
2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak: 2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak
Media of Burkina Faso: Media of Burkina Faso - Communications in Burkina Faso
2015: 15 January 2015: Ruling overturning jail sentence of reporter Konaté in Burkina Faso, who published articles raising questions about corrupt practices
Internet in Burkina Faso: Internet in Burkina Faso
Lefaso.net, l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet: Lefaso.net - l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet
Crime in Burkina Faso: Crime in Burkina Faso
Terrorism in Burkina Faso:
2016: 15/16 January 2016 Ouagadougou attack - 16 January 2016: At least 20 people were killed, at least 60 hostages freed and at least 20 were wounded after Islamic Al-Qaida terrorists attacked a hotel in Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou
2017: 13/14 August 2017 Ouagadougou attack - 14 August 2017: At least 17 people killed in attack on restaurant, as suspected Islamic extremists open fire on Turkish eatery popular with foreigners in Burkina Faso's capital of Ouagadougou
Human trafficking in Burkina Faso: Human trafficking in Burkina Faso
Droit burkinabè: Droit burkinabè, appliqué au Burkina Faso depuis l'indépendance de la France le 5 août 1960 (Burkinabé law) - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - Human rights in Burkina Faso
Law enforcement in Burkina Faso: Law enforcement in Burkina Faso
Foreign relations of Burkina Faso: Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
Treaties of Burkina Faso: Treaties of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/United Nations relations: Burkina Faso/United Nations relations - 2 November 2014: The head of the UN office for west Africa Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the army’s seizure of power by Presidential Guard's Zida
Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso: Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/Canada relations: Burkina Faso/Canada relations - Endeavour gold mines producing more than 400,000 ounces per year in Mali, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire - SEMAFO Inc. Canadian-based gold mining company with activities in West Africa
Burkina Faso/Denmark relations: Burkina Faso/Denmark relations
Burkina Faso/France relations: Burkina Faso/France relations
Late 19th century French conquest of West Africa and Volta region: 11th century–1896 Mossi Kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years, but after the French troops of Kimberly conquered the area in late 19th century, Mossi resistance ended with the capture of their capital at Ouagadougou in 1919
1896 Ouagadougou taken by French military: 5 September 1896: Ouagadougou taken by French forces and the city burned
Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities: Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities, sent out to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa, armed with artillery, machine guns, hundreds of rifles and millions of rounds of ammunition
1895-1958 (1960) French colonial territories 'French West Africa': 1895-1958 (1960) French West Africa federation of eight French colonial territories, including Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger
1914-1939 Upper Volta as labour reservoir for the French: 1914-1939 French colonial authorities perceived Upper Volta as the most important labour reservoir in French West Africa, various types of colonial labour policies are examined including forced labour in its forms of annual ‘prestations’ and longer-term, large-scale recruiting for major public works, as well as military conscription
1915-1917 resistance against French rule and Volta-Bani War: Volta-Bani War was an anti-colonial rebellion and war which took place in what is now Burkina Faso and Mali (then parts of French West Africa) and was fought between an indigenous African army resulting from a heterogeneous coalition including people of different ethnicities and the French Army, after about a year and several setbacks, the French army defeated the insurgents and jailed or executed their leaders but resistance continued until 1917
1939 (1940) - 1945 Vichy France: In World War II 1939-1945 French West Africa remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France in 1940
1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta: 1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta - until after World War II almost all the Africans living in French colonies were not citizens of France, rather they were 'French Subjects', lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote - Since 1955 Social Party for the Emancipation of the African Masses - Since 1957 Voltaic Solidarity - 31 March 1957 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election - African Regroupment Party including the African Convention and the African Socialist Movement and advocating full independence - 30 March 1959 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election
1958–1984: 1958–1984 Republic of Upper Volta self-governing colony within the French Community, attaining full independence from France in 1960
Burkina Faso/Ghana relations: Burkina Faso/Ghana relations
Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations: Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations
Burkina Faso/Mali relations: Burkina Faso/Mali border - Banifing River - Agacher Strip War December 1985
Burkina Faso/Niger relations: Burkina Faso/Niger relations - Liptako–Gourma Authority regional organization to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger
Burkina Faso/Russia relations: Burkina Faso/Russia relations - Nord Gold N.V. gold mining company with assets in Russia, Kazakhstan, Burkina Faso and Guinea - Bissa gold mine
Burkina Faso/Sierra Leone relations: Burkina Faso's involvement in Sierra Leone's Civil War 1991-2002
Burkina Faso/USA relations: Burkina Faso/USA relations
Environment of Burkina Faso: Environment of Burkina Faso
Ecoregions of Burkina Faso: Ecoregions of Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Water, rivers and lakes in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso - Rivers of Burkina Faso Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic - Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists - The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana - Lakes of Burkina Faso
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso: Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso
Natural disasters in Burkina Faso: Natural disasters in Burkina Faso
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods


Burundi - Geography of Burundi - History of Burundi - Colonial rule since 19th century - Burundi part of German colony 'German East Africa' 1891–1919 - 'Ruanda-Urundi' under Belgian military occupation since 1916 - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundi Civil War 1993-2005 - Demographics of Burundi
Economy of Burundi: Economy of Burundi - main industries are light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap, assembly of imported components, public works construction, food processing - List of companies based in Burundi
Mining industry of Burundi: Mining industry of Burundi - production of columbium (niobium), tantalum ore, tin ore, tungsten ore, and some deposits of gold - resources of copper, cobalt, nickel, feldspar, phosphate rock and quartzite
Energy in Burundi: Energy in Burundi - Power stations in Burundi
Agriculture in Burundi: Agriculture in Burundi - about 90% of the population depends on agriculture for a living and most agriculture consists of subsistence farming - crops are manioc, beans, bananas, sweet potatoes, corn, and sorghum - export crops are coffee, cotton and tea
Poverty and rural poverty in Burundi: Poverty in Burundi - Rural poverty in Burundi
2012: 11 October 2012: Hunger and malnutrition remain 'extremely alarming' in countries such as Eritrea and Burundi, the Global Hunger Index says
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative
Tourism in Burundi: Tourism in Burundi - Visitor attractions in Burundi - Lakes of Burundi
Banking in Burundi: Banks in Burundi - Bank of the Republic of Burundi - Bank of Africa with banking operations in 14 sub-Saharan Countries
2015: 11 December 2015: Surge in bank withdrawals sends Burundi's economy into sharp downward spiral as Burundians flee violence and threat of civil war
Military of Burundi: Military of Burundi - 1987 Burundian coup d'état - 1996 Burundian coup d'état
Politics of Burundi: Politics of Burundi - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War and 2004-2007 ONUB Peacekeeping Mission: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005 - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003 - United Nations ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 to ensure the continuation of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement signed on 28 August 2000
Since 1994 CNDD–FDD, the current ruling party in Burundi: Since 1994 National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Forces for the Defense of Democracy
Parliament of Burundi: Parliament of Burundi
Political parties in Burundi: Political parties in Burundi
Trade unions in Burundi: Trade unions in Burundi
Elections and politics in Burundi: Elections in Burundi
28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum: Burundian constitutional referendum 2005 - composition of the National Assembly of Burundi: 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi - National Assembly of Burundi
June 2010 Burundian presidential and legislative election: Burundian presidential election 28 June 2010, boycotted by opposition parties - Burundian legislative election 23 July 2010, boycotted by opposition parties
26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest: 26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest
Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état: 13 Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état - 14 May 2015: Fighting between rival Burundi troops reported around building of state broadcaster as claims over success of coup are made - 15 May: Burundi's authorities say they arrested three generals behind coup bid as General Niyombare admits failure - 30 May: Vice president of Burundi's election commission Ndironkeye has fled the country ahead of the poll
June 2015: 7 June 2015: Burundi opposition leader Agathon Rwasa says a presidential election must be held by August at the latest, but a fair vote unlikely without security and a free media - 28 June: The head of Burundi’s parliament Pie Ntavyohanyuma has fled the country on the eve of key elections following weeks of violence, and described the president’s bid for a third term as 'illegal'
29 June 2015 Burundian parliamentary election: 29 June 2015 Parliamentary elections will be held in Burundi alongside local elections - 29 June 2015: Burundi goes to the polls with the president defiant in his controversial bid for a third term in power, despite weeks of unrest that forced thousands to flee and prompted international calls for a delay - 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation - 11 July: Burundi presidential poll delayed amid worsening violence - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks adjourned after government fails to appear mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
July 2015 Burundian presidential election: 15/21 July 2015 Burundian presidential election - 21 July 2015: Nkurunziza set to win disputed third term as president - 24 July: Nkurunziza wins third term in disputed election marred by violence and an opposition boycott - 4 August: Burundian human rights activist Mbonimpa, who openly opposed Nkurunziza's controversial bid for a third term in presidential office, was shot by motorcyclists and seriously injured
December 2015: 11 December 2015: Two soldiers, five attackers killed in Burundi fighting - 11 décembre: Des dizaines de morts dans des attaques à Bujumbura - 20 décembre: Le Burundi n'autorisera pas le déploiement sur son sol d'une mission de l'Union africaine qui serait considérée comme 'une force d'invasion et d'occupation' si l'UA passait outre le refus de Bujumbura
2016: 5 January 2016: As president Nkurunziza continues to cling to power, rights group documents arbitrary arrests, disappearances and deaths - 26 April 2016: President Nkurunziza has condemned the killing of brigadier general Athanase Kararuza, who was shot along with his wife and bodyguard in an attack that also wounded their child in Burundi's wave of deadly violence
2015 Burundian protests: 2015 Burundian protests
April 2015: 26 April 2015: Burundian police shot dead two protesters and wounded at least one other in demonstrations against president Nkurunziza seeking a third term which critics say would violate a constitutional limit of two terms - 27 April: Burundi police fire tear gas and water cannon at protesters on Monday in the second day of demonstrations against Nkurunziza's bid for a third term, after at least five people reportedly killed in protests on Sunday
May 2015: 1 May 2015: Hundreds of students from Burundi university shuttered by the government seeking refuge outside the USA embassy, amid unrest and escalating tensions ahead of the presidential vote - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 13 May: Burundi protesters celebrate as general launches coup attempt saying he is working to form transitional government - 19 May: Burundi police fire teargas at protesterss demanding Nkurunziza end his bid for a third term, as 110,000 flee country after at least 20 people have been killed in three weeks of clashes between security forces and protesters, failed coup d'état and repression - 24 May: Zedi Feruzi, the head of opposition party UPD, and his bodyguard shot dead in the capital by gunmen on Saturday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burundi: Burundian society
Human rights in Burundi: Human rights in Burundi - 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' reports and latest news on Burundi
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burundi: Demographics of Burundi - Ethnic groups in Burundi
Culture and languages of Burundi: Culture of Burundi - Languages of Burundi - Religion in Burundi - Freedom of religion in Burundi
Women in Burundi: Women in Burundi
Children' rights in Burundi: Children' rights in Burundi
Education in Burundi: Education in Burundi
Health in Burundi: Health in Burundi
Media of Burundi: Media of Burundi - Newspapers published in Burundi - List of newspapers in Burundi - Radio stations in Burundi - Radio Publique Africaine since 2001 - Burundi National Radio and Television
2015: 26 April 2015: Burundi police and two ministers forcefully entered a radio station and threatened to shut it down for broadcasting about protests against President Nkurunziza seeking a third term in office - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 16 May: As alleged plotters against President Nkurunziza appear in court, journalists are subjected to threats of arrest or death
Internet in Burundi: Internet in Burundi
Crime in Burundi: Crime in Burundi
Human trafficking in Burundi: Human trafficking in Burundi
Law in Burundi: Burundian law - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
Judiciary of Burundi: Judiciary of Burundi - Supreme Court of Burundi
Law enforcement and enforcement agencies of Burundi: Law enforcement in Burundi - Law enforcement agencies of Burundi
Foreign relations of Burundi: Foreign relations of Burundi
Treaties of Burundi: Treaties of Burundi
Burundi/African Union relations: Burundi/African Union relations - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003/2004
2015/2016: 26 May 2015: East African leaders to hold summit on Burundi on Sunday 31 May as violence continues - 30 janvier 2016: Le 26e sommet de l'Union africaine s'ouvre à Addis Abeba, mais les chefs d'Etats hésitent à envoyer des forces au Burundi pour maintenir la paix
Burundi/United Nations relations: Burundi/United Nations relations - ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 - UN resolutions concerning Burundi
2015: 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation
2016: 2 avril 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité vote l'envoi d'une police de l'ONU au Burundi pour apaiser les violences - 12 October 2016: Burundi politicians back international criminal court withdrawal, escalating a bitter dispute with the international community over the human rights situation in the east African country, which has experienced more than a year of deadly violence since its president Pierre Nkurunziza made a decision to pursue a third term
Bilateral relations of Burundi: Bilateral relations of Burundi
Burundi/Belgium relations: Burundi/Belgium relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Burundi/DR of the Congo relations: Burundi/DR of the Congo relations - Ruzizi River - First Congo War 1996-1997 - Second Congo War 1998-2003
Burundi/Germany relations: Burundi/Germany relations
1885–1919 Germany's 'East Africa' colonial territories and German 'Völkisch movement': German East Africa 1885–1919 - Founder of the German East Africa Company Carl Peters, a proponent of Social Darwinism and the 'Völkisch movement' - Evangelical Missionary Society for German East Africa
1914-1918 Burundi and German empire's World War I: German East Africa in 1914-1918 World War I, colony's military commander Lettow-Vorbeck's campaign inflicting upwards of 10,000 casualties - East African Campaign (World War I)
1939-1945 Burundi and German empire's World War II: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972 and 1993 Burundi genocide: Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Burundi/India relations: Burundi/India relations
Bilateral trade relations: Bilateral trade relations
Burundi/Kenya relations: Burundi/Kenya relations
Bilateral development cooperation: Bilateral development cooperation
Burundi/Rwanda relations: Burundi/Rwanda relations
Common history of Burundi and Rwanda since Urewe civilisation: History of Burundi and Rwanda - Burundi and Rwanda are two of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state - Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age
1916-1982 Ruanda-Urundi, Mandate of Belgium: Ruanda-Urundi, a territory in the African Great Lakes region and once part of German East Africa, was ruled by Belgium between 1916 (1922) and 1962, after the disestablishment of the League of Nations and World War II Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control, in 1962 the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Rwanda and Burundi
1939-1945: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972, 1990-1994 Burundian Genocide: Burundian Genocide 1972 - Burundian Genocide 1990-1994 - Arusha Accords 1993
Rwanda-Burundi border and Kagera River: Rwanda-Burundi border - The section of river named Kagera begins in Burundi, flowing out from Lake Rweru, then east along the Rwanda-Burundi and Rwanda-Tanzania borders to a confluence with the Ruvubu River - Lake Rweru - Nyabarongo River
Burundi/Somalia relations: Burundi/Somalia relations
Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia: Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia - African Union Mission to Somalia - Burundian deployment of troops
Burundi/Tanzania relations: Burundi/Tanzania relations - Lake Tanganyika - Kagera River - Malagarasi River
18 May 2015: Tens of thousands of Burundians lack adequate food and shelter at makeshift camp in Kagunga after fleeing Burundi in aftermath of failed coup on 13 Mai
Burundi/Uganda relations: Burundi/Uganda relations - 24 May 2015: Uganda says working with neighbors to resolve Burundi crisis - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks backed by the East African Community adjourned after government fails to appear for mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
Environment of Burundi: Environment of Burundi - Natural history of Burundi - Great Rift Valley
Ecoregions in Burundi: List of ecoregions in Burundi - List of protected areas of Burundi - National parks of Burundi
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative


Central African Republic - Geography of the Central African Republic - History of the Central African Republic - French colony 1894-1940 (1960) - French territory Ubangi-Shari 1903-1960 - Decolonisation 1940-1960 - Independence 1960 - Demographics of the Central African Republic
Economy of the Central African Republic: Economy of the Central African Republic - main industries are gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles - Companies of the Central African Republic by industry
Mining industry of the Central African Republic - 25 June 2013: At least 37 people were killed when a gold mine collapsed at Ndassima in the middle of the Central African Republic
Energy in the Central African Republic: Energy in the Central African Republic
Agriculture in the Central African Republic: Agriculture in the Central African Republic - cultivation of foodcrops such as yams, cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantains
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic
Rivers of the Central African Republic: List of rivers of the Central African Republic - The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone Rive - Lake Chad - Logone River - The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, located in Central Africa - Ubangi River, the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa, beginning at the confluence of the Mbomou and Uele Rivers and flowing west, forming the border between Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Tourism in the Central African Republic: Tourism in the Central African Republic - Visitor attractions in the Central African Republic - National parks of the CAR - World Heritage Sites in the CAR
Central African Armed Forces: Central African Armed Forces
Budget and taxation in the Central African Republic: Taxation in the CAR - CAR government budget 2002-2014 - deficit equal to 5.7% of the country's GDP in 2013
2014: 11 June 2014: CAR approves 2014 budget, 10% higher than that of 2013, with funds drawn mostly from external donations that aim to strengthen security and boost humanitarian assistance
Politics of the Central African Republic: Politics of the Central African Republic - Political parties in the Central African Republic - Trade unions in the Central African Republic
Elections in the Central African Republic: Elections in the Central African Republic - Central African Republic general election 2011 - National Convergence 'Kwa Na Kwa' and François Bozizé re-elected
2015: 10 May 2015: Central African Republic peace forum calls for transitional authorities to delay planned elections amid concerns - 19 June 2015: Central African Republic will hold presidential and parliamentary elections on October 18, spokesman says
December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum: 13 December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum - 13 décembre 2015: Des tirs à l'arme lourde ont frappé dimanche le quartier musulman PK5, où s'affrontaient partisans et opposants du référendum constitutionnel
2015/2016 Central African Republic general election: 27 December 2015 parliamentary election and first round of the presidential election and 31 January 2016 presidential runoff election will be held in the CAR after being postponed from 18 October 2015 due to violence and instability - 24 December 2015: Elections scheduled to take place in the CAR on Sunday postponed by three days until 30 December - 30 décembre 2015: Les Centrafricains votent pour une présidentielle et des législatives après trois ans de violences intercommunautaires - 31 décembre: La Centrafrique a voté dans le calme
2016: 2 janvier 2016: L'ancien PM Touadéra en tête de la présidentielle - 14 February 2016: Voters in the CAR are going to the polls for the second round of presidential elections, seen as step to restore peace, stability and democratic government - 20 February 2016: Ex-PM Touadera wins Central African Republic presidential vote
Violence, human rights and law enforcement in the Central African Republic: Human rights in the Central African Republic - Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007: Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007 - Rebel group 'Union of Democratic Forces for Unity' - 13 April 2007: Central African Republic and rebels sign peace deal
2012-2014 Central African Republic conflict: Central African Republic conflict 2012–present - 25 décembre: La coalition Séléka s’empare de Bambari - 25 December 2012: Rebels waging offensive in Central African Republic seize town of Kaga-Bandoro, bringing them closer to the capital - 27 December: As rebels advance on capital Francois Bozize appeals for help securing city of Bangui, as UN pulls out non-essential staff - 29 December: The government of the CAR and rebels agree to hold talks as heavy fighting is reported in Bambari seized by rebels and as ECCAS foreign ministers are due to discuss the crisis at a meeting - 30 December: Rebels have met with the head of the African Union and have said they are ready to consider a coalition offer, but added that their aim is not to join the government
January 2013: 2 January 2013: Rebels say they have halted their advance on the capital and would participate in dialogue, as head of regional African forces warned them against making further moves - 5 January: UN Security Council urges Seleka rebels to halt offensive in Central African Republic and retreat from captured towns - 5 January: Seleka rebels take control of Alindao shortly after UN's call - 5 janvier: Face à l'offensive du Séléka, les Centrafricains ont fui la ville de Damarra, proche de la capitale - 6 January 2013: Up to 400 armed South African soldiers have been deployed to the CAR while Chad has sent hundreds of forces and Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo have already sent an estimated 120 troops each - 11 January: Ceasefire agreement signed after Gabon talks including a national unity pact between the political opposition and government of President Bozize
March 2013: 22 March 2013: Rebels in the Central African Republic were advancing on the capital Bangui on Friday after defeating a multinational African force - 24 mars: Tirs et détonations à Bangui - 24 March: President Bozize fled the capital, hours after hundreds of armed rebels threatening to overthrow him invaded the city - 25 March: Armed groups reportedly carrying out widespread looting as Bangui residents remain in homes out of fear - 26 March: CAR rebel chief 'suspends constitution' and pledges to dissolve parliament - 29 March: Foreigners fleeing Bangui described scenes of terror during last weekend’s coup d’état - 29 March: The Red Cross says that it has 'found 78 bodies' in the streets of the capital Bangui since it was seized last weekend by the Seleka rebel coalition - 29 March: Coup leader Djotodia, who seized power last week, said he would review resource deals signed by the previous government and promised to step down at elections in 2016
April 2013: 18 April: ECCAS to send 2,000 peacekeepers to CAR
September 2013: 11 septembre: Des combats entre la Séléka et les pro-Bozizé font près de 100 morts - 13 September: CAR’s Djotodia dissolves Seleka rebel group
December 2013: 4 December: At least 12 people, including children and a pregnant woman, have been killed close to the capital Bangui by Christian vigilantes - 5 décembre: Des tirs à l'arme lourde dans plusieurs quartiers de Bangui, vote d’une résolution à l’ONU autorisant une opération militaire aujourd'hui - 5 décembre: L'ONU autorise une intervention française en Centrafrique - 6 décembre: L'opération française a commencé avec des patrouilles dans Bangui - 8 décembre: L'armée française chargée de désarmer 'tous les groupes armés' - 9 December: French troops to begin disarming CAR rebels - 11 décembre: Les soldats français, qui ont perdu lundi deux des leurs, poursuivent le périlleux désarmement des groupes armés à Bangui - 19 December: The death toll from a two-day rampage by mostly Muslim ex-rebels in the CAR capital Bangui two weeks ago reportedly was much higher than first thought - 21 December: Fresh sectarian clashes erupt in Bangui - 23 December: African Union troops fire on protesters in Bangui, reportedly killing one person - 26 décembre: 5 soldats tchadiens tués dans des combats à Bangui - 26 décembre: Coups de feu et panique à Bangui - 27 December: Dozens of bodies recovered in Bangui after fierce fighting in the last two days - 27 December: The UN says more than 200,000 have fled the fighting in Bangui
January 2014: 2 January: Clashes between Muslims and Christians in Bangui killed at least three people as angry residents reportedly threw grenades and torched homes - 7 January: Violence displaces one million people in Central African Republic, UN says - 9 janvier: Sommet extraordinaire des États d’Afrique centrale et rumeurs donnant le président centrafricain Djotodia sur le départ - 11 January: After CAR's interim President Djotodia resigned on Friday, stranded foreigners to be evacuated - 11 January: Celebrations in Bangui after Djotodia’s resignation - 12. Januar: Nach dem Rücktritt Djotodias sind bei Unruhen in Bangui mindestens acht Menschen getötet worden - 13 janvier: Des centaines de soldats de l'armée rejoignent le commandement - 19. Januar: Tödlicher Angriff auf muslimischen Flüchtlingskonvoi vor EU Entscheidung über Militärintervention - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to CAR to stop clashes - 19 January: Bodies burnt in street of Bangui - 21 January: Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza has been elected interim president of the CAR - 24 January: Former CAR health minister Kalite killed by Christian militia - 27 January: The security situation in the CAR is getting even worse despite the inauguration of a new leader, the UN human rights chief says - 29 January: UN security council authorises the deployment of a EU force to the CAR to bolster French and African troops trying to quell sectarian violence - 31 January: Fighting in Bangui reportedly left 43 people dead in four days
February-April 2014: 5 February: CAR soldiers reportedly lynched a man accused of being a Seleka rebel, as violence continues to afflict the country - 9 February: Clashes in Bangui leave at least ten people dead - 10 March: Christian militias reportedly take bloody revenge on Muslims in CAR, also targeting children - 29 March: Eleven people including three children killed after a grenade exploded among mourners gathered for a funeral in a Christian district of Bangui - 4 April 2014: Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than 300 in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 28 April: Peacekeepers have escorted more than 1,200 Muslims out of Bangui
May 2014: 1 May: EU force takes control of security at the CAR's main airport - 6 May: At least 28 people reportedly killed during several days of fighting between Muslim and Christian militias in Mala 300 km north of Bangui - 29 May: Suspected Muslim gunmen kill at least 30 people in an attack on a Christian church at a refugee camp in Bangui where hundreds of civilians had sought refuge from violence - 29/30 May: Mosque in Bangui destroyed following church attack, as international peacekeepers face criticism for slow response to deadly church raid
October 2014: 9 October 2014: At least 12 killed in violent clashes in Bangui, marking the most significant violence since UN force took over peacekeeping last month - 10 October 2014: A Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui
2015: 8 August 2015: A Rwandan soldier serving with the UN peacekeeping mission in CAR has shot dead four Rwandan troops and wounded eight others before killing himself - 27 September 2015: At least 21 people have been killed, following the killing of a Muslim man in Bangui, and about 100 others wounded as Muslims attacked a mainly Christian neighbourhood, a government spokesman says - 29 September: Hundreds break out of main jail in Bangui after days of violence that have seen about 30 deaths, as interim president Catherine Samba-Panza attends UN general assembly - 11 novembre 2015: De nationalité camerounaise un soldat de l'ONU tué dans des affrontements dans le nord de la Centrafrique
2016: 21 juillet 2016: La rébellion de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur a enlevé près de 350 personnes et 17 autres tué dans 122 attaques en Centrafrique au premier semestre 2016, un record depuis six ans, selon un rapport des ONG - 29 octobre 2016: Au moins 25 personnes, dont six gendarmes, ont été tuées en Centrafrique, lors de violences déclenchées par des groupes armés dans la ville de Bambari et ses environs, selon l'ONU - 24 November 2016: Two days of fighting between armed groups in Central African Republic's town of Bria have left 16 people dead, including civilians, while 10,000 have fled their homes, UN's peacekeeping mission Minusca says - 26 November 2016: United Nations’ genocide official says he has reports that militia fighters in the CAR hunted down and massacred members of the Fulani ethnic group during violence that killed 85 civilians this week
2017: 21 June 2017: Intense fighting in the Central African Republic killed at least 40 people on Tuesday and injured dozens more - 3 juillet 2017: Une quinzaine de personnes sont mortes dans la ville de Kaga-Bandoro lors d'échanges de tirs entre des éléments armés de l'ex-Séléka et les Casques bleus de la mission de l'ONU - 9 August 2017: At least 60 people have been killed in recent weeks in fighting between armed groups in Ngaoundaye and Batangafo in the north, Kaga-Bandoro in the centre and Alindao and Gambo to the south, witnesses say
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Central African Republic: Central African society
Human rights in the Central African Republic: Human rights in the Central African Republic
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Central African Republic: Demographics of the Central African Republic - Ethnic groups in the Central African Republic
Culture and languages of the Central African Republic: Central African Republic culture - Languages of the Central African Republic
Women's rights in the Central African Republic: Women's rights in the Central African Republic - Polygamy in the Central African Republic
Children's rights in the Central African Republic: Children's rights in the Central African Republic - 16 May 2015: More than 350 children released by armed groups under a UN-brokered deal to free thousands of young people who have been forced to work as soldiers, sex slaves and servants during CAR’s sectarian conflict
Education in the Central African Republic: Education in the Central African Republic - University of Bangui since the late 1960s, expanding the focus of study on agriculture to include scientific research, law, economics, rural development and liberal arts
Health in the Central African Republic: Health in the Central African Republic
Media in the Central African Republic: Media in the Central African Republic
13 May 2014: French photojournalist Camille Lepage has been killed while working in the Central African Republic
Religion in the Central African Republic: Religion in the Central African Republic - Freedom of religion in the Central African Republic
Crime in the Central African Republic: Crime in the Central African Republic
Human trafficking in the Central African Republic: Human trafficking in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic law: Central African Republic law - 2015 Constitution of the Central African Republic
Law enforcement in the Central African Republic: Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Foreign relations of the Central African Republic: Foreign relations of the Central African Republic
Treaties of the Central African Republic: Treaties of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/ECCAS relations: Economic Community of Central African States ECCAS - 3 avril 2013: Réunis à N'Djamena, les chefs d'État de la Communauté économique des États d'Afrique centrale demandent l'élection d'un président de transition - 18 April: African regional bloc ECCAS to send 2,000 peacekeepers to CAR
Central African Republic/United Nations relations: Central African Republic/United Nations relations - UN Security Council resolutions concerning the Central African Republic
2012: 27 décembre 2012: Alors que les rebelles du Séléka sont aux portes de Bangui les États-Unis et l'ONU rappellent leur personnel en Centrafrique
2013: 26 March 2013: The UN Security Council condemned the killing of South African troops in a rebel takeover in CAR and said it was ready to take 'further measures' - 19 November 2013: UN preparing for possible Central African Republic peacekeeping force
African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic since 5 December 2013 - 5 December: The UN security council authorises French and African troops to use force to protect civilians amid reports of dozens killed in Bangui and as the world races to prevent a sectarian war
2014: 6 January 2014: UN warns that Central African Republic is on the brink of a catastrophe - 28 janvier: Alors que l’ONU donne mandat à une future force européenne, la présidente Samba-Panza réclame une 'opération de maintien de la paix' - 6 February 2014: The UN envoy to the CAR has urged the country to 'make an example' of soldiers who lynched a man accused of being a rebel - 7 February: ICC opens CAR 'war crimes' preliminary investigation - 10 April 2014: UN votes to send peacekeeping force into the CAR, authorising the deployment of up to 10,000 troops in September and urging the CAR to hold free, fair, transparent and inclusive presidential and legislative elections no later than February 2015 - 16 September: UN taking over Central African Republic peacekeeping - 10 October 2014: Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui, bringing the death toll in 48 hours of fighting to at least nine
2015: 8 May 2015: UN's Aurélien Agbénonci expects that armed groups in CAR sign a disarmament agreement during this week’s peace forum, boosting efforts to improve security
Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic: Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/Benin relations: 11 January 2014: Ex-President Djotodia heads to Benin
Central African Republic/Cameroon relations: Central African Republic/Cameroon relations
Central African Republic/Canada relations: Central African Republic/Canada relations - Mining industry of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/Chad relations: Central African Republic/Chad relations - 26 décembre 2013: 5 soldats tchadiens tués dans des combats à Bangui - 4 April 2014: Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than 300 in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 4 April 2014: Chad starts pulling its African Union peacekeepers from CAR after its soldiers reportedly killed 30 civilians and wounded 300 in an attack in Bangui and civil society groups had collected 240,000 signatures for a petition seeking the withdrawal
Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/European Union relations: Central African Republic/European Union relations - The EU's relations with Central Africa - 10 April 2014: The first European Union troops arrive in the CAR, as new sectarian violence kills at least 30 people - 1 May: EU force takes control of security at the CAR's main airport
Central African Republic/France relations: Central African Republic/France relations
1894-1940 French colony and French Equatorial Africa: French colony 1894-1940 - French Equatorial Africa
2012/2013: 27 December 2012: Protest at Central Africa French embassy turns violent as angry demonstrators criticize a lack of help to deter rebels who have occupied a large swathe of the country - 25 mars 2013: La France a condamné lundi 'le recours à la force ayant abouti à la prise de pouvoir' en Centrafrique et a demandé l'arrêt des pillages ainsi que le rétablissement rapide de l'ordre à Bangui - 13 October 2013: France will send extra troops to the CAR by the year end as part of a forthcoming UN resolution aimed at ending violence in the country - 26 novembre 2013: La France annonce le déploiement d'environ un millier de soldats en Centrafrique en appui d'une force africaine
2014: 14 February 2014: France is to send an 400 additional troops to the CAR, raising its total deployment to 2,000 - 13 May 2014: French photojournalist Camille Lepage has been killed while working in the CAR
Central African Republic/South Sudan relations: Central African Republic/South Sudan relations
Central African Republic/Sudan relations: Central African Republic/Sudan relations
Central African Republic/South Africa relations: Central African Republic/South Africa relations - South African military assistance to the Central African Republic - 6 January 2013: South Africa latest country to send troops to Central African Republic as threat of rebel advance on capital looms - 25 mars 2013: Plusieurs militaires sud-africains déployés en CAR ont été tués dans des combats avec les rebelles qui se sont emparés de la capitale Bangui
Environment of the Central African Republic: Environment of the Central African Republic - Climate of the Central African Republic
Ecoregions in the Central African Republic: List of ecoregions in the Central African Republic - List of protected areas of the Central African Republic - National parks of the Central African Republic
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic
Rivers of the Central African Republic: List of rivers of the Central African Republic - The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone Rive - Lake Chad - Logone River - The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, located in Central Africa - Ubangi River, the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa, beginning at the confluence of the Mbomou and Uele Rivers and flowing west, forming the border between Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 2002 Lake Chad replenishment project: Lake Chad replenishment project, proposed major water diversion scheme that would involve damming the Ubangi River at Palambo in Central African Republic and channeling some of the water to Lake Chad through a navigable canal - Lake Chad Basin Commission including Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Algeria, the Central African Republic, Libya, and Sudan - concerned by shrinkage of the lake's area from 20,000 square kilometres in 1972 to 2,000 square kilometres in 2002, the countries met in January 2002 to discuss the Lake Chad replenishment project


Chad - Geography of Chad - History of Chad - Demographics of Chad
Economy of Chad: Economy of Chad - main industries are oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Mining industry of Chad: Mining industry of Chad
Energy in Chad: Energy in Chad - Petroleum in Chad - Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project
Agriculture in Chad: Agriculture in Chad - in 2006 approximately 80% of Chad's labor force was employed in the agricultural sector, that accounted for almost half of the GDP - crop rotation in the soudanian zone traditionally begins with sorghum or millet in the first year, mixed crops of sorghum and-or millet, with peanuts, legumes, or tubers, are then cultivated for approximately three years - Sorghum production in Chad is one of the country's most important subsistence crops - Livestock in Chad declined in the mid-1970s and again in the early 1980s because of drought and warfare across the sahelian zone
Cotton production in Chad: Cotton production in Chad - Cotontchad parastatal Chadian company operating in a monopoly regime that buys and exports all the cotton produced in Chad, a product which represents 40% of the country's exports
Forestry in Chad: Forestry in Chad - in the early 1980s, the country possessed between 135,000 and 160,000 square kilometres of forest and woodlands, representing a decline of almost 14% from the early 1960s
Water in Chad: Water in Chad - Bodies of water of Chad - Rivers of Chad
Lake Chad: Lake Chad - Threats of lake's disappearance and local Impacts
Fishing in Chad: Fishing in Chad - with the drought and diversion of the waters of some rivers, production declined in the 1980s
Tourism in Chad: Tourism in Chad - Tourist attractions in Chad - National parks of Chad - Zakouma National Park
Banking and banks in Chad: Banks of Chad - List of banks in Chad
Poverty and rural poverty in Chad: Rural poverty in Chad - in 2003 over 54% of the population were living below the poverty line, chronic food shortages are widespread, and malnutrition levels among young children were high - 2014 Rural poverty statistics in Chad
2015: 15 April 2015: 87% of Chad's rural population lives below the poverty line, Chad ranks 73rd out of 78 countries on the Global Hunger Index and 184th out of 187 countries on the 2014 UNDP Human Development Index, UN says
Chadian military: Chadian military - Chadian ground forces - Military history of Chad
Military coups in Chad: Military coups in Chad - 1975 Chadian coup d'état - Chadian Civil War 1965–1979
Wars involving Chad: Wars involving Chad
Taxation in Chad: Taxation in Chad
Politics of Chad: Politics of Chad - Constitution of Chad, amended in 2005
Political parties and trade unions in Chad: List of political parties in Chad - Trade unions in Chad
Elections and politics in Chad: Elections in Chad
June 2005 Chadian constitutional referendum: 6 June 2005 Chadian constitutional referendum - the amendments to the constitution include the removal of two-term limit on the President, the replacement of the Senate with a Cultural, Economic and Social Council and giving the President powers to amend the constitution
May 2006 Chadian presidential election: 3 May 2006 Chadian presidential election
February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election: 13 February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election
April 2011 Chadian presidential election: 25 April 2011 Chadian presidential election
2016: 14 February 2016: Chad appoints Albert Pahimi Padacke as PM following the resignation of his predecessor
April 2016 Chadian presidential and parliamentary election: 10 April 2016 Chadian presidential election - 2016 Chadian parliamentary election - 10 avril: 6.298.801 Tchadiens aux urnes ce dimanche - 23 April 2016: Idriss Deby re-elected, as opposition politicians say they will not recognize the outcome alleging ballot-stuffing
2017: 3 February 2017: Chadian President Idriss Déby Itno has postponed indefinitely the country’s parliamentary election claiming lack of resources, as Chad is facing the brunt of the fall in oil prices thereby relying on agriculture to support its economy - 23 juin 2017: Sommés par le front de l’opposition de quitter l’Assemblée, des députés refusent de démissionner - 2017 Chadian parliamentary election
Social movements and protests in Chad:
2016: 24 February 2016: Chad's opposition brought the country to a standstill on Wednesday in an act of defiance against the government and president Deby Itno, who has been in power for 25 years - 28 February 2016: Nationwide strikes brought Chad's biggest cities to a halt this week over president Deby Itno's planned bid for re-election - 28 February 2016: Chad teenager's gang-rape galvanises protests and opposition to president Deby, after the victim thought one of her five attackers was the son of a government minister, after the government announced a ban on protests and after a crackdown by the army left at least two students dead
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Chad: Chadian society - Human rights in Chad
23 regions and 61 departments of Chad: Administrative divisions of Chad have often changed since 1900, when the territory was first created by France as part of its colonial empire - Regions of Chad - the country is divided into 23 regions - The regions of Chad are divided into 61 departments - List of cities in Chad - Moundou, the second largest city in Chad, is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental - Sarh, the third largest city in Chad, is the capital of Moyen-Chari Region
N'Djamena: N’Djamena, the capital and largest city of Chad is also a special statute region, divided into 10 arrondissements, and a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad
Demographics and ethnic groups in Chad: Demographics of Chad - Ethnic groups in Chad
Sara people residing in southern Chad and Central African Republic and making up 27.7% of Chad's total population - Kanembu people located primarily in Chad's Lac Prefecture but also in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem prefectures - Maba people in Chad and Sudan, speaking Maba, a Nilo-Saharan language of the Maban branch
Culture and languages of Chad: Chadian culture - Languages of Chad
Religion and freedom of religion in Chad: Religion in Chad - according to the 1993 census Muslims make up 53.1%, Catholic Christians 20.1%, Protestant Christians 14.2%, animists 7.3%, and atheists 3.1% of the population - Freedom of religion in Chad
Women, women’s rights and polygamy in Chad: Women in Chad are the mainstay of its predominantly rural-based economy and they outnumber the men - Women’s rights in Chad - Polygamy is legal in Chad, and it is estimated that over a third of women live in polygamous marriages
2016: 22 March 2016: Chadian gang-rape victim 16-year-old Zouhoura demands justice for all women
Children, child labor and children in armed conflicts in Chad: Children and child labor in Chad
2014: According to USA department of labor, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in 2014, after the Government criminalized the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, and signed a protocol with the UN that includes protections for children associated with armed groups
Education in Chad: Education in Chad - in 2004, 39.6% of children ages 5 to 14 years were attending school, educational opportunities for girls are limited, mainly due to cultural traditions
Health and healthcare in Chad: Health and healthcare in Chad
Chadian media: Chadian media
Internet in Chad
Crime in Chad: Crime in Chad
Human trafficking in Chad: Human trafficking in Chad
Slavery in Chad: Slavery in Chad
Torture and war crimes in Chad:
1982-1990 Habré dictatorship, 2015: The Habré era in Chad 1982–1990 - 20 July 2015: The former Chadian leader, Hissène Habré, is to go on trial in Senegal accused of crimes against humanity, war crimes and torture committed during his brutal eight-year rule from 1982 to 1990
2016: 16 May 2016: Chadian torture documentary at Cannes film festival sheds light on one of Africa’s least-known mass killings, as some 40,000 people were murdered during Habré’s eight-year reign of terror between 1982 and 1990, while the west looked the other way
May 2016 Habré verdict:30 May 2016: Chad'´s former dictator Hissène Habré found guilty of crimes against humanity, summary execution, torture and rape at a landmark trial in Senegal and sentenced to life in prison
Terrorism in Chad:
2015: 11 July 2015: Chad suspected Boko Haram suicide bomber kills 15 people in market of N’Djamena and injures 80 - 10 October 2015: Boko Haram terrorists, sending five suicide bombers identified as two women, two children and a man, said to be behind two attacks at busy market and refugee camp in Lake Chad region near Nigeria, killing at least 36 people and wounding about 50 others - 5 décembre: Au moins 27 personnes ont été tuées et plus de 80 blessées samedi dans un triple attentat-suicide commis sur le marché de Loulou Fou, une île tchadienne du lac Tchad
Law and law enforcement in Chad: Chadian law - Law enforcement in Chad
Constitutional Council of Chad: Constitutional Council of Chad judges the constitutionality of legislation and treaties in Chad and consists of nine judges who are elected to 9-year terms
Supreme Court of Chad: Supreme Court of Chad
Foreign relations of Chad: Foreign relations of Chad
Treaties of Chad: Treaties of Chad
Chadian membership of international organizations: Chadian membership of international organizations
Since 1973: Since 1973 Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel CILSS, an international organization consisting of countries in the Sahel region of Africa
Since 1998: Since 1998 Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Chadian relations with other African and Arab states: Chadian relations with other African and Arab states
August 2017: 12 août 2017: La libre circulation des personnes et de biens en Afrique centrale vient d'avoir un écho favorable du côté du Tchad, dont les autorités viennent d'ouvrir les frontières aux citoyens des pays voisins et aux ressortissants de la Cémac
Bilateral relations of Chad: Bilateral relations of Chad
Chad/Cameroon relations: Chad/Cameroon relations - Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project
Chad/Central African Republic relations: Chad/Central African Republic relations - Bank of Central African States that serves six central African countries forming the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
Chad/France relations: Chad/France relations
Late 19th century French conquest of West Africa: Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities, sent out to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa, armed with artillery, machine guns, hundreds of rifles and millions of rounds of ammunition
1900-1960: French colonial Chad 1900-1960 - 1900 Battle of Kousséri originated in French plans to occupy the Chari-Baguirmi region in 1899-1901 - Administrative divisions of Chad have often changed since 1900, when the territory was first created by France as part of its colonial empire
1910-1958: 1910-1958 Federation of French colonies 'French Equatorial Africa', including Chad, Oubangui-Chari (currently Central African Republic), French Congo (currently Republic of the Congo), Gabon, French Cameroon (currently part of Cameroon)
Chad/Nigeria relations: Chad/Nigeria relations
2014/2015: Since 2014 cooperation on fighting Boko Haram - 26 May 2014: Cameroon, Chad Deploy Troops to Fight Boko Haram - 31 January 2015: Troops from Chad have driven Boko Haram fighters from a northern Nigeria border town seized late last year - 13 February: Boko Haram attacks Chadian village overnight killing several people - 8 March: Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria - 2 April 2015: After soldiers from Chad and Niger drove Boko Haram militants from Malam Fatori, Chad's forces killed hundreds of militants and lost nine of its own troops in clashes in northern Nigeria, Chad's army says - 28 July 2015: At least 13 suspected Boko Haram militants and three civilians killed in separate attacks after the terrorists raided several remote localities around Lake Chad
Chad/Senegal relations:
2013-2015: 13 February 2013: Extraordinary African Chambers in Senegal to try former Chad dictator Hissène Habré - 7 July 2015: The former Chadian dictator Hissène Habré goes on trial on 20 July 2015, almost 25 years after being toppled in a coup, charged with crimes against humanity, war crimes, and torture before a specially commissioned court in Senegal - 20 July 2015: Former Chad dictator Habré faces war crimes trial
May 2016 Habré verdict: 30 May 2016: Chad'´s former dictator Hissène Habré found guilty of crimes against humanity, summary execution, torture and rape at a landmark trial in Senegal and sentenced to life in prison
April 2017: 27 April 2017: Ex-Chad dictator Hissène Habré's conviction for crimes against humanity upheld by Dakar court
Chad/Sudan relations: Chad/Sudan relations
2005-2010: Chadian Civil War 2005–2010, since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan-Christians of the south - 2006 Tripoli Agreement - Mediation of the Chadian Civil War (2005–2010)
Environment of Chad: Environment of Chad - Climate of Chad
Water in Chad and Lake Chad: Water in Chad - Lake Chad shrank as much as 95% from about 1963 to 1998, showing improvement in 2007
Ecoregions in Chad: List of ecoregions in Chad - Elephant hunting in Chad - 2006 Zakouma elephant slaughter refers to a series of poaching massacres of African elephants in the vicinity of Zakouma National Park in southeastern Chad
Natural disasters in Chad:
2010 Sahel famine: 2010 Sahel famine
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought


Republic of the Congo - Geography of the Republic of the Congo - History of the Republic of the Congo - Demographics of the Republic of the Congo
Economy of the Republic of the Congo: Economy of the Republic of the Congo - main industries include petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes - List of companies based in the Republic of the Congo
Mining in the Republic of Congo: Mining in the Republic of Congo - Zanaga iron mine located in Zanaga, Lékoumou Department - Cominco Resources is developing the $2billion Hinda phosphate project located in The Republic of the Congo - Sundance Resources Limited is an Australian mining company, based in Perth, whose main assets are iron ore leases in Cameroon near Mbalam, and across the border in the Republic of Congo
Energy in the Republic of the Congo: Energy in the Republic of the Congo - Fossil fuels in the Republic of the Congo
Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo: Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo, accounting for 89% of the country’s exports in 2010 - 'Perenco' Anglo-French oil and gas company, headquarters in London and Paris, exploration and production activities in 16 countries around the globe, the North Sea, Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Belize, Tunisia, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Vietnam - 'Total' S.A. French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six 'Supermajor' oil companies in the world, covering the entire oil and gas chain from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading - 'Eni' S.p.A. Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome with operations in 79 countries, and currently the world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros - 'SOCO International' plc international oil and gas exploration and production company, headquartered in London, with operations in Vietnam, Thailand, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo
Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo: Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo
Hydroelectricity in the Republic of the Congo: Hydroelectric power stations in the Republic of the Congo - Since 2011 Imboulou Dam on the Léfini River, about 300 kilometers north of Brazzaville
Agriculture in the Republic of the Congo: Agriculture in the Republic of the Congo, subsistence agriculture is the country's most significant employer, and it is one of the three most important economic sectors - crops include sugarcane and tobacco, palm kernels, cacao, and coffee, the main consumption crops are bananas, manioc, peanuts, plantains, sugarcane, and yams, in 2010 the country imported about $300 million of food including wheat, rice, poultry meat, palm oil and milk products
Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo: Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo
Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo: Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo
Water in the Republic of the Congo: Water in the Republic of the Congo - Bodies of water of the Republic of the Congo
Rivers of the Republic of the Congo: List of rivers of the Republic of the Congo
Congo River: The Congo River, the second longest river in Africa after Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water after the Amazon - Tributaries of the Congo River - Congo Basin - Congo Basin Forest Partnership
Transport in the Republic of the Congo: Transport in the Republic of the Congo
Congo–Ocean Railway: Congo–Ocean Railway
Roads in the Republic of the Congo: Roads in the Republic of the Congo
Aviation in the Republic of the Congo: Aviation in the Republic of the Congo
Tourism in the Republic of the Congo: Tourism in the Republic of the Congo - Tourist attractions in the Republic of the Congo
Foreign trade of the Republic of the Congo: Foreign trade of the Republic of the Congo - in 2015 exports are led by Crude Petroleum which represent 69% of the total exports of the Republic of the Congo, followed by Refined Copper, which account for 15.4%
Military of the Republic of the Congo: Military of the Republic of the Congo - 1993/1994 First Republic of the Congo Civil War - 1997-1999 Second Republic of the Congo Civil War
Politics of the Republic of the Congo: Politics of the Republic of the Congo - The Constitution of the Republic of the Congo states that the republic is a pluralistic, multi-party democracy, after a 2015 constitutional referendum the right to run for president is extended to three terms, while simultaneously reducing the presidential term from seven to five years and also reinstating the position of the Prime Minister and moving the country to a semi-presidential system
Political parties and trade unions in the Republic of the Congo: Political parties in the Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Republic of the Congo
Elections in the Republic of the Congo: Elections in the Republic of the Congo
July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 12 July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election
July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 15 July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election
October 2015 Republic of the Congo constitutional referendum: 25 October 2015 Republic of the Congo constitutional referendum, allowing a person to be elected as President three times, eliminating an age limit of 70 years for candidates, and reducing the length of presidential terms from seven years to five years - 27 October 2015: More than 90% of people voting in a controversial referendum in the Republic of Congo approved a bid by President Nguesso to extend his 31-year stay in office
March 2016 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 20 March 2016 Republic of the Congo presidential election - 24 March 2016: According to Congo Republic's interior minister, president Denis Sassou Nguesso wins a new five-year term with more than 60% of the vote and will extend his decades-long rule over the oil-producing nation, as opposition candidates allege election fraud
July/August 2017 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 16/30 July 2017 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election - 17 July 2017: Voters went to the polls in legislative elections, the first since a violence-marred presidential poll last year - 4 août 2017: Les observateurs nationaux fustigent les violences dans cinq circonscriptions - 6 août 2017: Le Parti congolais du travail PCT conforte sa majorité avec 90 sièges et engage la procédure de sanction des candidats indisciplinés
Social movements and protests in the Republic of the Congo:
2015: 20 October 2015: At least four demonstrating people were killed when police opened fire as thousands of opposition supporters took to the streets against Sunday's referendum on removing constitutional term limits for president Nguesso in Congo Republic
2016: 25 March 2016: Police in Congo Republic fire teargas at opposition supporters and arrest around 10 of them ahead of a planned news conference by opposition candidates who say last weekend's presidential election was won fraudulently
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo society - Human rights in the Republic of the Congo
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo: Demographics of the Republic of the Congo - Ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo
Culture and languages in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo culture - Languages of the Republic of the Congo
Women in the Republic of the Congo: Women in the Republic of the Congo
2017: 6 août 2017: Treize femmes ont été choisies sur les 151 députés qui vont siéger à la nouvelle assemblée nationale
Education in the Republic of the Congo: Education in the Republic of the Congo
Health and healthcare in the Republic of the Congo: Health in the Republic of the Congo
Media of the Republic of the Congo: Media of the Republic of the Congo - Broadcasting in the Republic of the Congo
Internet in the Republic of the Congo: Internet in the Republic of the Congo
Crime in the Republic of the Congo: Crime in the Republic of the Congo
March-June 2017: 6 août 2017: Quelque 251 personnes dont 62 enfants ont été victimes d'exécutions sauvages entre mars et juin dans la région du Kasaï, perpétrées par des agents de l'État, des milices ou des rebelles, selon un rapport de l'ONU
Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo: Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo
Law and law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo law - Constitution of the Republic of the Congo
Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Republic of the Congo
Membership in international organizations: Republic of the Congo membership in international organizations includes the United Nations, Organisation of African Unity, African Development Bank, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Economic Commission for Central African States, Central African Customs and Economic Union, International Coffee Organization, Union of Central African States, INTELSAT, International Criminal Police Organization Interpol, Non-Aligned Movement, and Group of 77
Republic of the Congo/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council resolutions concerning the Republic of the Congo
Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo/China relations: Republic of the Congo/China relations
Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Republic of the Congo/France relations: Republic of the Congo/France relations
1882-1910 colony 'French Congo': 1882-1910 'French Congo', French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African Republic
1910-1958 'French Equatorial Africa': 1910-1958 'French Equatorial Africa', the federation of French colonial possessions in Central Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River to the Sahara
Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations: Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations
Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Environment of the Republic of the Congo: Environment of the Republic of the Congo - Natural history of the Republic of the Congo - Geology of the Republic of the Congo - Congo Craton - Climate of the Republic of the Congo
Ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo: List of ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo - Congolian forests are a broad belt of lowland tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome, which extends across the basin of the Congo River and its tributaries in Central Africa - Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests - Protected areas of the Republic of the Congo
Water in the Republic of the Congo: Water in the Republic of the Congo
Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo: Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo include the high level of air pollution from vehicle emissions, water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage, tap water not being potable, and deforestation


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Geography of the D.R. Congo - History of the D.R. Congo - Demographics of the D.R. Congo
Economy of the D.R. Congo: Economy of the D.R. Congo - main industries are mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods, beverages), metal products, lumber, cement, commercial ship repair
Mining industry in the D.R. Congo: Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Copper mining in the D.R. Congo - Uranium mining in the D.R. Congo
2016: 18 décembre 2016: Au moins 20 personnes sont mortes dans un éboulement survenu la nuit dans un carré minier à Makungu dans le sud du Sud-Kivu, selon le ministre des mines
Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the D.R. Congo: Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Canadian mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, tantalum (coltan), niobium, tin, tungsten, petroleum
Mining companies of the D.R. Congo - 'Africo Resources' Canadian mining company, whose main property is the copper and cobalt Kalukundi Mine - Afrimines Resources - Anvil Mining copper producer since 2002 - 'Central African Mining and Exploration Company' headquartered in London - 'Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation' Kazakhstan/Central African-focused multinational diversified natural resources company headquartered in London - 'Glencore' plc Anglo–Swiss multinational trading and mining company headquartered in Baar (Switzerland) with its registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey - 'Katanga Mining' Ltd mine complex in the Katanga Province, producing refined copper and cobalt and headquartered in Canada - Metorex mining company - Mwana Africa mining company based in Johannesburg and London
2017: 6 April 2017: The risk of human rights tainted tungsten, tin, tantalum and gold (3TG) entering the supply chains of tech firms is extending well beyond the traditional home of 'conflict minerals', DR Congo and the Great Lakes Region of Africa, according to new research from risk analysis firm Verisk Maplecroft
Child labour in the D.R. Congo: Child labour in the D.R. Congo
2016: 19 January 2016: Children as young as seven are working in perilous conditions in the D.R. Congo to mine cobalt that ends up in smartphones, cars and computers sold across the world, by household brands including Apple, Microsoft and Vodafone, according to a joint investigation of rights groups
Agriculture in the D.R. Congo: Agriculture in the D.R. Congo - principal crops cassava, yams, plantains, rice, maize and principal cash crops coffee, rubber, palm oil, cocoa, tea
Coffee production in the D.R. Congo: Coffee production in the D.R. Congo
Politics of the D.R. Congo: Politics of the D.R. Congo - Political parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
General election November 2011: DRC general election 28 November 2011 - 26 November: Deadly clashes in DRC capital ahead of vote on Monday - 27 November: DR Congo ban election rallies - 28 November: DR Congo votes amid fears of violence - 4 December: DR Congo elections - Kabila guards 'shot UDPS supporters' - 9 December: Kabila declared winner of DR Congo polls - 22 December 2011: DR Congo troops killed civilians after vote, Human Rights Watch says
2014: In July 2014 the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and United Nations forces launched an offensive against rebel groups in the Masisi and Walikale territories in the North Kivu province, resulting in the liberation of over twenty villages from rebel control, including a mine
Postponed November 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election: 27 November 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election - general elections were originally scheduled to be held on 27 November 2016 to determine a successor to president Kabila, but the election was postponed until early 2018 - 30 décembre 2016: Après quinze jours des discussions, la majorité et l'opposition sont arrivées à conclure un accord de sortie de la crise provoquée par le maintien au pouvoir du président Kabila, qui quittera le pouvoir après des élections en 2017
2017: 20 July 2017: The president Joseph Kabila currently clinging to power in the D.R. Congo and his family have a vast network of businesses thought to have generated hundreds of millions of dollars in revenues since 2003 and reaching into almost every sector of the country’s economy, according to a report
Social movements and protests in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Protests in the D.R. of the Congo
2012: 2 August 2012: Thousands take to streets denounce ongoing fighting in eastern region that has displaced hundreds of thousands
January 2015 Congolese protests: January 2015 Congolese protests led by students at the University of Kinshasa against proposed legislation that would allow the country's president Joseph Kabila to remain in power indefinitely until a national census was completed
2016: 26 April 2016: Congo police fire teargas, arrest opposition supporters - 20 September 2016: More than 50 people killed on Monday in clashes between protesters and security forces in the Congolese capital Kinshasa, after a rally, which the authorities cancelled, was called to demand the resignation of president Joseph Kabila - 19 October 2016: A general strike has begun in Kinshasa in protest at president Kabila’s plans to stay in power beyond the end of his term in December
December 2016 Congolese protests: December 2016 Congolese protests, after Joseph Kabila announced that he would not leave office despite the end of his constitutional term - 20 December 2016: Twenty people have been killed in confrontations between protesters and security forces in Kinshasa, according to UN officials, hours after the end of the second five-year term of the president Kabila - 21 December 2016: Despite calls from the USA, Britain, the European Union and the United Nations for authorities and security forces to respect human rights, police, paramilitaries and soldiers have rounded up demonstrators and opposition activists to prevent any further protests against the government of Joseph Kabila - 25 December 2016: Militias in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo killed at least 34 civilians over the weekend according to the army and local activists, as attacks have surged across the country in the past week alongside violent protests over president Joseph Kabila’s failure to step down
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the D.R. Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo society - Human rights the D.R. Congo
Demographics and ethnic groups in the D.R. Congo: Demographics of the D.R. Congo - Ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Culture and languages of the D.R. Congo: Culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Education in the D.R. Congo: Education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Universities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Health and healthcare in the D.R. Congo: Health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Timeline of healthcare in the D.R. Congo - Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Panzi Hospital in Bukavu specialized in treating survivors of violence founded in 1999
Since 1983 HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1983
2014 Ebola virus outbreak: 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak began in August 2014
2017: 12 May 2017: New Ebola outbreak declared in Democratic Republic of Congo
Women in the D.R. Congo: Women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Polygamy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Children in the D.R. Congo: Children in the D.R. Congo - Child soldiers in the D.R Congo - 17 août 2013: Plus de 80 enfants, âgés de 8 à 17 ans et recrutés de force dans l'est de la RD Congo, ont été retirés des mains de miliciens Maï-Maï, selon l'ONU
2016: 19 January 2016: Children as young as seven are working in perilous conditions in the D.R. Congo to mine cobalt that ends up in smartphones, cars and computers sold across the world, by household brands including Apple, Microsoft and Vodafone, according to a joint investigation of rights groups
Sport in the D.R. Congo: Sport in the D.R. Congo
Football in the D.R. Congo - 12 May 2014: Fifteen people were killed and 21 others injured after trouble broke out at a football match in Kinshasa, during which police fired tear gas at fans
Media of the D.R. Congo: Media of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Presse écrite de la République démocratique du Congo
Crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Corruption in the D.R. Congo: Corruption in the D.R. Congo continues to exceed corruption in most states - Resource Extraction Monitoring
Second Congo War 1998-2003 and ongoing Kivu conflict: Second Congo War 1998-2003 - Kivu conflict since 2004, ongoing - M23 rebellion (4 April 2012 – ongoing)
May/June 2012: 14. Mai 2012: Rebellen töten mindestens 20 Menschen im Osten Kongos - zwölf Uno-Blauhelme verletzt - 6 June: Soldiers and rebels clashed in the country's east, killing at least 19 people in the latest outbreak of violence that has forced tens of thousands to flee their homes
July 2012: 6 July: Some 600 Congolese soldiers have fled into Uganda, following clashes with rebels who have seized a border town - 8 July: 'M23 movement' takes Rutshuru and two other towns close to Ugandan border - 11 July: UN calls on Congo, Rwanda to 'defuse tensions' - 12 July: UN and government forces have bombarded rebel positions stationed around two villages in the eastern region of North-Kivu - 14 July: ICC issues warrants for DR Congo warlords
November/December 2012: 18 November: UN Security Council demands an immediate halt to fighting in eastern Congo, as rebels advance towards capital, Goma - 19 November: Ban Ki-moon vows peacekeepers will stay in threatened Goma - 19 November: M23 group is at the gates of Goma, causing panic in the city as government soldiers, officials flee - 19 November: DR Congo rejects M23 ultimatum on talks - 20 November: M23 rebels 'enter Goma city', reports say - 20 November: Calm returns to the main city of eastern DRC after days of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels - 22 November: Presidents of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda discuss Kivu crisis telling M23 rebels to quit Goma - 23 November: The head of the army in the D.R. Congo has been suspended pending an investigation into claims that he sold weapons to rebel groups - 23 November: M23 rebels march on strategic eastern town of Bukavu planning to head to Kisangani and the capital Kinshasa and causing fear in other parts of the country - 23 November: The UN warns of a growing humanitarian crisis in the D.R. Congo - 23/24 November: Congolese flee rebel advance on city of Sake in eastern DR Congo where M23 rebels have racked up military gains against government troops - 24 November: Regional leaders at Kampala summit have urged M23 rebels to cease fire, to stop threats to depose the government and to leave key eastern city of Goma - 26 November: The Kampala summit gives the armed group M23 until Monday to withdraw from Goma and other eastern areas - 26 November: Congo M23 rebels agree to pull out of eastern cities, says Uganda - 28 November: M23 group demands the release of political prisoners after it agrees to leave eastern city of Goma - 30 November: M23 group prepares to leave Goma - 30 November: Disagreement over abandoned Congolese army supplies that the M23 group wants to take with them - 30 November: DR Congo police arrive in Goma as M23 rebels delay pull-out
2017: 19 février 2017: Vingt cinq civils ont été tués lors d'une attaque menée par une milice de l'ethnie nande dans le village de Kyaghala et ses environs, une localité de l'Est de la République démocratique du Congo - 23 February 2017: Sixteen people have been killed in three days of fighting this week that pitted the Democratic Republic of Congo's army against a rebel militia, military spokesman says - 26 March 2017: A Congolese militia group has decapitated 42 policemen after ambushing them in Kasai Central where the UN is searching for missing American and Swedish investigators - 22 May 2017: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 922,000 people were displaced by violence and conflict in 2016, a 50% rise on the previous year, according to Norwegian Refugee Council report - 20 June 2017: After the UN reported serious concerns about the human rights violations and abuses committed by the Congolese army and police, and the Kamuina Nsapu militia, and after mass grave sites have been found in the region, Congo's Catholic Church reports that more than 3,000 people have been killed in the central Kasai region of the D.R. of Congo - 5 August 2017: UN report blames Bana Mura militia and government forces for murders, including of 62 children, and urges DRC to prevent escalation into wider ethnic cleansing
Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Law enforcement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Law enforcement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council Resolution 17 July 1960
Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations - Congo River - Republic of the Congo - French Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations - Lake Kivu - Ruzizi River
First Congo War 1996–1997: First Congo War 1996–1997
Second Congo War 1998-2003: Second Congo War 1998-2003
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations - Semliki River - Lake Albert - Lake Edward
Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations
Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Earthquakes in the DR of the Congo: Earthquakes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Floods in the DR of the Congo:


Côte d'Ivoire - Ivory Coast - Geography of Ivory Coast - History of Ivory Coast - Demographics of Ivory Coast
Mining industry of Ivory Coast: Mining industry of Ivory Coast - Endeavour Mining
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast
External trade and investment in Ivory Coast: External trade and investment
Military of Ivory Coast: Military of Ivory Coast
Political parties in Côte d'Ivoire: Political parties in Côte d'Ivoire
Elections in Ivory Coast by year: Elections in Ivory Coast by year
1999 Ivorian coup d'état and October 2000 Ivorian presidential election: 1999 Ivorian coup d'état - Ivorian presidential election October 2000
Since 2011 elections and politics in Ivory Coast: Elections in Ivory Coast
December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election: December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election
January-May 2017: 6 January 2017: Mutinous soldiers demanding pay and perks have seized control of three cities in Ivory Coast, raising fears of new instability - 8 January 2017: Rogue soldiers allowed Ivory Coast’s defence minister and dozens of others to leave a house where they had been trapped when some mutineers appeared to reject aspects of a deal intended to end a two-day revolt - 14 January 2017: After president Ouattara ordered major changes in the top security ranks, government and rebel troops, demanding bonuses, better pay and housing, reach a final deal at talks in Bouake at the close of a tense day, which saw outbreaks of gunfire at barracks across the country - 15 May 2017: Shooting heard in Bouaké and Abidjan as revolt by soldiers over delayed bonus payments enters fourth day
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ivory Coast: Ivorian society
Subdivisions of Ivory Coast: Subdivisions of Ivory Coast, since 1961 several reorganisations of the country's - and former French colony - administrative subdivisions - 14 Districts of Ivory Coast, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan, created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities, further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions - 31 Regions of Ivory Coast, since 2011 the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast, and each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast - 108 Departments of Ivory Coast (en français départements de Côte d'Ivoire), currently the third-level administrative subdivision of the country, as each department is divided into two or more sub-prefectures, which are the fourth-level subdivisions in Ivory Coast - 510 Sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast, created in 2011 when the administrative subdivisions of Ivory Coast were reorganised, the sub-prefectures contain more than 8,000 villages nationwide, multiple villages also combined into 197 communes - Currently 197 communes in the 510 sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast are a fifth-level administrative unit of administration in Ivory Coast, as sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast contain villages and in select instances more than one village is combined into a commune, after in 2012 the government abolished 1,126 communes on the grounds coming under the new jurisdiction of districts, regions, departments, and sub-prefectures
List of cities in Ivory Coast: List of cities in Ivory Coast
Yoruba people: Yoruba people
Culture and languages of Ivory Coast: Culture of Ivory Coast - Languages of Ivory Coast
Women and women's rights in Ivory Coast: Women in Ivory Coast - Women's rights in Ivory Coast
Youth in Ivory Coast: Youth in Ivory Coast
Health in Ivory Coast: Health in Ivory Coast
Crime in Ivory Coast: Crime in Ivory Coast
Human trafficking in Ivory Coast: Human trafficking in Ivory Coast
Terrorism in Ivory Coast: Terrorism in Ivory Coast
Foreign relations of Ivory Coast: Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire
Treaties of Ivory Coast: Treaties of Ivory Coast
Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast: Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations: Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations
Ivory Coast/Canada relations: Ivory Coast/Canada relations
Ivory Coast/France relations: Côte d'Ivoire/France relations
Ivory Coast/Liberia relations: Côte d'Ivoire/Liberia relations
Ivory Coast/Mali relations: Ivory Coast/Mali relations
Environment of Ivory Coast: Environment of Ivory Coast
List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast: List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast


Darfur - Geography of Darfur - History of Darfur - Demographics of Darfur
East Darfur: East Darfur
South Darfur: South Darfur
West Darfur: West Darfur
War in Darfur: War in Darfur
2012/2013: 3 June 2012: Dozens killed in northeastern Darfur clashes - 24 July: Sudan's Darfur region sees fresh clashes - 1 August: Eight people killed and 20 injured in anti-austerity rally in Darfur, with police accused of using live ammunition - 7 August: Four people have been killed after gunmen attacked a market and set fire to a police station during several days of violence in Sudan's Darfur region, peacekeepers say - 11 February 2013: Sudanese government and the Justice and Equality Movement sign ceasefire deal in Qatar - 26 February: Fighting over control of a gold mine in Sudan's Darfur region has killed more than 500 people and destroyed 68 villages since January, lawmaker Adam Sheikha for the El Sireaf area says - 14 July 2013: Seven peacekeepers were killed and 17 others injured in Sudan's Darfur, the UN says - 28 July: At least 94 people were killed on Friday and Saturday as rival tribes fought in southwestern Darfur, near the Chadian border - 16 November 2013: Fighting between rival Arab tribes in Sudan's Darfur region reportedly killed 100 people
International response to the War in Darfur: International response to the War in Darfur


Egypt - Geography of Egypt - History of Egypt - Ancient Egyptian agriculture - Recent History of Egypt - Demographics of Egypt
Egyptian military industry: Egyptian military industry
Transport in Egypt: Transport in Egypt
Telecommunications in Egypt: Telecommunications in Egypt
Irrigation in Egypt: Irrigation in Egypt
Aswan Dam, Lake Nasser, irrigation projects: Aswan Dam - Aswan Low Dam
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Egypt: Egyptian society
Human rights in Egypt: Human rights in Egypt
Demographics of Egypt: Demographics of Egypt
Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt: Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt
12 November 2013: Sexual harassment, high rates of female genital cutting and a surge in violence and Islamist feeling after the Arab Spring uprisings have made Egypt the worst country in the Arab world to be a woman, a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey says - 14 March 2014: A doctor and the father of 13-year-old Sohair al-Bata'a are the first to be prosecuted in Egypt for deadly practice of FGM - 6 June 2014: Egypt makes sexual harassment of women a crime for the first time but campaigners remain concerned about whether the law will be enforced by police - 16 July 2014: Egyptian court jails 7 men for life for sexually assaulting several women during a rally in Tahrir Square on 8 June - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says
Healthcare in Egypt: Healthcare in Egypt
Religion and freedom of religion in Egypt: Religion in Egypt - Freedom of religion in Egypt
Freedom of speech and repression in Egypt: Freedom of speech in Egypt
2013/2014: 9 July 2013: Qatari-owned media company Al-Jazeera saw 22 members of its staff in Egypt resign on Monday over biased Egypt coverage - 11 February 2014: Al-Jazeera correspondent's trial set for next week, charged with having links to the Muslim Brotherhood and airing false news - 5 June 2014: Egyptian prosecutors seek 15-year prison sentence for Al Jazeera journalists - 16 June: Egypt to free Al Jazeera journalist on hunger strike - 23 June: Egypt court sentences Qatar-based Al-Jazeera journalists to seven years for 'publishing lies' - 2 November 2014: Several hundred Egyptian journalists reject declaration by newspaper editors pledging support to government and banning criticism of police and army - 29 December 2014: Protests outside Egyptian embassy in London against imprisonment of journalists one year behind bars
2015: 1 January 2015: Egyptian court cancels jail sentences against three Al Jazeera journalists - 1 February: Australian journalist Greste released from a Cairo jail and left Egypt for his native country - 25 June: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990 - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says - 29 August 2015: Australian journalist Greste as well as his two Qatar-based Al Jazeera colleagues Canadian-Egyptian Fahmy and Baher Mohamed found guilty and sentenced to at least three years jail for broadcasting material harmful to Egypt and operating with no press license
Crime in Egypt: Crime in Egypt
Human trafficking in Egypt: Human trafficking in Egypt
2013: May 2013 hostage crisis - 22 May 2013: After the intervention of tribal leaders, heavily armed kidnappers released three Egyptian policemen and four soldiers captured last week in the Sinai peninsula - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 6 July: Coptic priest killed in Sinai - 10 juillet: Des attaques dans le Sinaï font deux morts - 15 July: Militants killed at least three people and wounded 17 when they fired on a bus carrying workers in the North Sinai town of Al-Arish - 22 July: Six Egyptians were killed and 11 others wounded in several attacks by militants in the Sinai peninsula near Egypt's borders with Israel and the Palestinian Gaza strip - 24 July: A car bomb exploded near a police base and two soldiers were killed in separate, multiple attacks in the Sinai peninsula - 19 August: Militants kill 24 Egyptian policemen in Sinai - 8 septembre: L'attentat du Caire auquel a échappé le ministre de l'Intérieur revendiqué par des djihadistes du Sinaï - 8 septembre: L'armée égyptienne poursuit ses opérations au Sinaï - 11 September: At least three soldiers were killed and at least 10 others were wounded when a suicide car bomb targeted an intelligence outpost in Egypt’s Sinai - 27 September: Gunmen kill policeman in Sinai - 10 October: Egypt troops killed in Sinai suicide bomb attack - 20 novembre: Un attentat à la voiture piégée a visé un convoi militaire dans le Sinaï et tué au moins 10 soldats
October 2014 Sinai attacks: October 2014 Sinai attacks - 24 October: Militants killed at least 26 people at a military checkpoint in the northern Sinai peninsula
2015: 5 January: Bomb wounds four policemen in Egypt's Sinai - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish - 30 January: 'Islamic State' affiliate claims responsibility for coordinated attacks that struck more than a dozen army and other targets in the three Sinai towns of el-Arish, Sheik Zuwayid and Rafah, killing at least 26 security officers - 1 February: Three women killed as violence continues in Sinai - 6 March: Egyptian military air strikes reportedly killed 25 Islamist militants in Northern Sinai near the town of Sheikh Zuweid over the last two days - 10 March: 25 Egyptian policemen wounded by suicide car bomber targeting compound in the city of el-Arish - 2 April: Gunmen attacked several checkpoints in Sinai, killing at least five soldiers - 12 April: An explosion targeting a military vehicle kills five soldiers near Sheikh Zuweid on Sunday - 20 April: Three Egyptian soldiers killed in blast claimed by ISIS affiliate in Rafah - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 1/2 July: At least 70 Egyptians including soldiers and civilians killed in Islamic State terrorists' offensive in Sinai, as ties to Hamas’ military wing suspected - 9 July: 20 Egyptian policemen wounded in Sinai bombing in the provincial capital of el-Arish - 18 July: 'Islamic State' terrorists in Sinai attacked two Egypt military checkpoints, killing five soldiers and wounding at least seven near town of Sheikh Zuweid - 23 July: Four Egyptian soldiers killed in Sinai bombing claimed by Islamic State loyalists - 15 October: A roadside bomb by unknown assailants in the northern Sinai city of el-Arishhas has left one civilian and one soldier dead, also injuring six policemen - 4 November: At least 3 Egyptian police killed in Sinai bombing, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 15 November 2015: Egyptian police found the bodies of 15 African migrants who appeared to have been shot dead in northern Sinai near the border with Israel
Judiciary of Egypt: Judiciary of Egypt
Courts in Egypt: Courts in Egypt
Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
Law enforcement and law enforcement agencies of Egypt: Law enforcement in Egypt - Law enforcement agencies of Egypt - Egyptian Police - Central Security Forces
Military industry and budget in Egypt: Military budget rank 41 - Egyptian military industry
International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état: International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
Domestic responses to the Egyptian revolution - elections 2011- 2015: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
July 2011: 8. Juli 2011: Unzufriedene Aufständische protestieren in Kairo und anderen Städten am 8. Juli - 10. Juli 2011: Ägyptische Regierung macht Demonstranten Zugeständnisse - 13 July 2011: Egyptian protesters call for end to army rule - 15. Juli 2011: Proteste gegen Ägyptens Militärregierung auch am 15. Juli - 16. Juli 2011: Demonnstranten vertreiben General Mahdi (Mitglied des regierenden Obersten Militärrats) vom Tahrir-Platz - 17. Juli: Ägyptens Außenminister tritt zurück - 17. Juli 2011: Verwirrspiel um Mubaraks Gesundheit - nach Schlaganfall im Koma? - New cabinet sworn in amid continuing protests 21 July - 24. Juli: Angriffe auf Demonstration der Demokratiebewegung am 23. Juli - 28. Juli 2011: Mubarak ab 3. August vor Gericht in Kairo - Friday 29 July: Islamists lead Tahrir Square rally in Cairo
November 2011: 1. November: Demonstration in Kairo für verhafteten Blogger - 18 November: Tens of thousands protest in Egypt demanding to hand power to promised civilian government - 20 November: Deadly clashes follow Egyptian protests against military rule, deaths and hundreds of protesters injured ahead of elections - 20 November: Thousands of protesters are regrouping in central Cairo after day of clashes - 21 November: Egypt protesters against military rulers in Cairo's Tahrir Square for third day, after the deaths of at least 13 people over the weekend - 21 November: Egypt cabinet resigns as protests intensify - 22 November: Activists demanding end to military rule call for a mass demonstration - 22 novembre: L'armée promet une élection présidentielle avant juillet 2012 - 22 November: Ruling generals say being prepared to hold a referendum on power transfer if people demand it - 23 November: Egypt protesters reject military concessions - 23 November: Riot police break ceasefire in Cairo as crowd swells in demand for end to military rule - 24 novembre: Sixième nuit de mobilisation et d'affrontements sur le place Tahrir - 24 November: Egypt army apologises for the deaths of demonstrators and vows to hold elections beginning on Monday - 24 novembre: Nouvel appel aussi des syndicats à une grande manifestation vendredi place Tahrir pour réclamer le transfert du pouvoir - 25 November: Egypt activists keep up pressure on military calling for another mass protest today - 26 November: Mass rally in Cairo against military rule on Friday - 26. November: Demonstrant in Cairo von Polizeiwagen überfahren und getötet - 27 November: Activist killed near Tahrir Square as death toll rises to 42 in another week of opposition against military rule, now ahead of elections - ElBaradei 'willing' to head Egypt's interim cabinet - 28 November: Polls open in Egypt's landmark elections as protests continue across the country - 28 November: Large numbers, including a high turnout of women, go to the polls on the first day of post-Mubarak elections - 29 November: Egypt votes in Alexandria, Cairo and seven more provinces continue after big turnout on day one
December 2011: 1 décembre: Le parti Liberté et Justice PLJ affirme avoir obtenu plus de 40% des voix aux législatives - 2 December: Turnout reaches 62 per cent in Egypt poll - Freedom and Justice Party followed by Al-Nour and the Egyptian Bloc - 5 December: Egypt vote turnout downgraded to 52 per cent - 7 December: Rights group condemns US arms sales to Egypt - 8 December: Egypt's army asserts constitutional control - 14 December: Polls open in Egypt's second wave of parliamentary elections - 14. Dezember: 2 Jahre Haft für ägyptischen Blogger Maikel Nabil wegen angeblicher Verleumdung der Streitkräfte - Welle von rund 12.000 Militärgerichtsverfahren - 16 December: Deadly clashes in Cairo sparked by army move to shut down sit-in outside cabinet offices - 18 December: Violence continues on Cairo streets for a third day - 20 December: Dawn raid in Tahrir Square amid clashes - 21 December: Egyptians protest against beating of women by soldiers - 24 December: Egyptians stage mass rally against army - 28 December: Mubarak trial resumes in Cairo - 29 December: Military and police raid the offices of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cairo - 31. Dezember: Ägypten sichert Ende von Razzien in NGO-Büros zu
March/April 2012: 24 March: Parliamentarians meet to name 100-member panel to write constitution, but liberals say Islamists are dominating process - 10. April: Der frühere Chef der IAEA Mohammed al-Baradei will mit weiteren Vertretern der ägyptischen Opposition eine neue Partei gründen - 10 April: Egypt court suspends constitutional panel after political groups charged that 100-member panel did not represent Egypt's diversity - 13 April: Cairo protests against Mubarak-era candidates for the presidential election - 15 April: Election panel excludes 10 presidential hopefuls, including Muslim Brotherhood candidate and ex-spy chief Omar Suleiman - 20 April: Tahrir rally calls for end to military rule - 24 April: Egypt's ruling military has approved a law that bans top Mubarak-era officials from running for the presidency - 25 April: Egypt ex-PM Ahmed Shafiq allowed back into poll
May 2012: 2 May: At least 20 killed as attackers target Cairo protest - 2 mai: En raison des violences certains candidats à la présidentielle suspendent leur campagne - 4 May: Scores injured and arrested as new protests emerge against recent deadly attacks on protesters - 5 mai: Les dirigeants militaires ont imposé un couvre-feu au Caire - 7 May: Curfew remains imposed for 3rd night in a Cairo district - 20. Mai: Ägyptischer Präsidentschaftskandidat Chaled Ali schliesst sich Hungerstreik aus Protest gegen die Inhaftierung hunderter Demonstranten an - 23 May: First Presidential elections in Egypt after revolution - 25 May: Egypt counts votes, Muslim Brotherhood claims to be ahead - 26 May: Hamdin Sabbahi, who is said to have come third, seeks recount in Egypt's election, citing many 'violations' - 29 May: Thousands demonstrate in Cairo to protest the outcome of the presidential election as some protesters torch HQ of presidential candidate Shafiq
June 2012: 2 June: Egypt's ex-president Mubarak and his interior minister given life term for protester deaths - 3 June: Mubarak sentenced, the acquittal of police officers, the quashing of a set of corruption charges against Mubarak's sons evoke spate of protests - 4 June: Protesters return to Tahrir Square - 6 June: Thousands descend on Cairo square for the fourth straight night to demand Ahmed Shafiq's removal from presidential race - 8 June: Political parties agree to plan for 100-member body which will draft the country's new constitution - 9 June: Several thousand gather in Tahrir Square to oppose Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafiq's bid for presidency - 14 June: Egypt military police gets sweeping powers ahead of polls - 15 June: Constitutional court dissolves Muslim Brotherhood-led parliament and approves candidacy of Mubarak-era PM Ahmed Shafik
Egyptian presidential election, runoff 16-17 June 2012 - 16 juin: Les Égyptiens élisent leur président ce week-end - 16 June: Amid deep political uncertainty, without parliament and constitution Egyptians are voting in the first day of the presidential runoff - 17 June: Egyptians are voting in a presidential runoff that pits the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate against the last Mubarak prime minister - 18 June: Islamists claim victory in Egypt president vote and reject the military's interim constitution - 21 June: Egypt presidential poll result delayed as tensions rise - 22 June: Tahrir Square fills up as Egypt awaits result - 23 June: Protests on Tahrir Square continue against Egyptian military’s grip on power - 24 June: Mohammed Mursi is Egypt's new president - 25 June: Egypt's new president Mursi vows to unite the country and stand up for democracy - 26 juin: L'armée n'est plus autorisée à arrêter des civils - 28 June: Egypt’s ex-oil minister jailed for 15 years - 30 June: Mursi, received with applause by tens of thousands at Tahrir Square, vows to be president for all Egyptians promising a 'civilian state'
July 2012: 7 July 2012: Egypt's new elected president Mursi has ordered a review of investigations and trials related to the killing of about 1.000 protesters starting with the uprising against Mubarak - 9 July: Egypt's president orders return of parliament - 10 July: After the Supreme Constitutional Court rejected the President's order to reconvene the parliament, Egypt's military 'warns' President Mursi over parliament decision - 10 July: Egypt's Supreme Constitutional Court has overturned a decree by President Mohammed Mursi to recall parliament - 11 July: Thousands in Cairo protest high court ruling - 11 July: President Mursi seeks talks with other institutions to resolve constitutional crisis - 15 July: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton supports democratic transition - 17 July: Egypt court to rule on drafting of new constitution - 18 July: Around 23.000 employees of Misr Spinning and Weaving, Egypt's biggest textile company, took their strike for better pay into a fourth day and were joined by some 12.000 workers at other state firms - 24 July: Egypt's outgoing irrigation minister Hisham Qandil named as new Prime Minister
November 2012: 22 November: President Morsi sacks prosecutor general ordering new investigations into the deaths of protesters killed during last year's popular revolt and gives himself judicial powers on top of legislative ones - 23 November: Opposition calls for protests to denounce President Morsi after he sacks prosecutor general Mahmoud responsible for the failure of prosecutions and acquittals of Mubarak-era officials - 24 November: Egypt's president defends granting himself sweeping new powers, saying they would help root out corruption, as angry youths hurled rocks at security forces, burned a police truck and thousands gathered in central Cairo to protest at President Mursi's 22 November declaration and Muslim Brotherhood offices were torched in cities across Egypt in violent protests in Alexandria, Port Said and Suez - 24 November: 'Resistance fighter' sacked prosecutor general Mahmoud - discovering judicial independence - rejects the president's decree - 25 November: Signing an open letter Egyptian rights groups call on President Mursi to withdraw the decree granting himself extensive new powers as some hundred demonstrators outside the high court building in Cairo rallied against Morsi on Saturday - 26 November: President sticks by disputed decree after meeting judges, and rival forces plan a mass protest on Tuesday - 28 November: Protests in Cairo against President Morsi's decision to grant himself sweeping powers continue - 29 November: New constitution in final draft as protests sweep Egypt - 30 November: Egypt's constituent assembly approves articles of disputed new constitution, as opposition continue protests - 30 November: Thousands rally in Cairo against constitution
December 2012: 1 December: Supporters and opponents of Egypt's president are planning mass, rival rallies on Saturday over new draft constitution - 2 December: President Morsi announces a December 15 vote on new draft constitution amidst ongoing protests in Cairo - 2 December: Morsi supporters gather outside Egypt's top court - 3 December: Supreme Constitutional Court refuses to oversee the vote on the new draft constitution, to be held in two weeks - 3 December: Supreme Judicial Council has agreed to oversee the referendum on a draft constitution - 5 décembre: Au Caire, le palais présidentiel est toujours encerclé par les opposants - 5 December: Clashes outside Egypt's presidential palace - 6 December: At least five people have been killed and over 400 injured in overnight clashes outside the presidential palace in Cairo, in the morning at least four tanks were deployed - 7 décembre: Président Morsi a invité l'opposition à un dialogue le 8 décembre - 7 December: Activists denounce president's call for dialogue as he refuses to delay constitutional referendum - 8 December: Egypt delays early voting on new Constitution - 8 décembre: Vice-président Mahmoud Mekki laisse entrevoir l'éventualité d'un report du référendum sur la nouvelle Constitution - 8 December: President Morsi expected to press ahead with dialogue on ways to end crisis despite main factions vowing to stay away - 9 December: President Morsi has annulled the decree he issued last month expanding his powers - Opposition says President Morsi's decision to rescind controversial decree 'falls short of expectations' - 10 December: Coalition of opposition parties calls for demonstrations against President Morsi's plans for vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Rival rallies planned in Cairo over President Morsi's decision to go ahead with Saturday's vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Morsi approves army's unity talks as rival protests grow - 12 décembre: L'opposition appelle à voter 'non' au référendum - 14 December: Protesters clash over draft charter in Alexandria
2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt - Egyptian constitutional referendum 15 and 22 December 2012 - 16 December: Egypt referendum vote count under way - 18 December: Egypt's opposition has called for mass protests in Cairo and elsewhere over alleged polling violations - 20 December: Official overseeing referendum on draft constitution resigns amid allegations of irregularities - 20 December: Egypt's new public prosecutor Talaat Ibrahim retracts resignation offer - 22 December: Egyptians have begun voting in the second stage of the constitutional referendum that has sparked weeks of unrest - 22 December: Egypt vice-president Mekki resigns on final day of referendum - 23 December: Egyptians appear to have approved a controversial new constitution in a referendum as Egypt's Islamists claim victory with about 64% percent of voters - 24 December: Egypt set to declare constitutional poll result as the opposition is demanding to investigate the irregularities - 24 December: The result of a controversial referendum on Egypt's new constitution has been delayed as officials check allegations of fraud - 25 December: Charter drafted by Islamist supporters of President Morsi wins 63.8 percent of votes in two-round referendum - NZZ 25. Dezember: Mubarak-Vertrauter Ex-Senatspräsident Safwat al-Sherif kommt nach Gerichtsentscheidung auf Kaution frei - 26 December: President Morsi promises to take necessary steps to fix economy, as Shura Council convenes with full legislative powers until elections for a new lower house is called within two months - 28 December: Investigation ordered into accusations of treason by opposition leaders as country faces constitutional dispute
January 2013: 6 January: Finance portfolio and interior ministry, which controls police, change hands as part of measures to salvage economy - 13 January: At least 14 people have been injured when unknown assailants attacked opponents of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi who were camping outside the presidential palace in Cairo - 13 January: Egyptian court orders re-trial for Mubarak - 25 janvier: Dans une grave crise économique, l'opposition appelle à descendre dans la rue à l'occasion du 2e anniversaire de la révolution égyptienne - 25 January: Police and protesters clash as opposition groups call for rallies to mark second anniversary of 2011 revolution - 26 January: An Egyptian court has sentenced to death at least 20 defendants over clashes between rival football fans in which 74 people were killed last year - 26 January: Six people were killed in Suez and one in Ismailia as police clashed with protesters in several towns and cities - 26 janvier: L’armée égyptienne se déploie à Suez après de violentes manifestations - 27 January: At least 30 people have died in Port Said in clashes sparked by the sentencing to death of 21 local people over football riots in Egypt - 28 January: President Morsi declares state of emergency in Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, scenes of major and deadly protests in recent days - 28 January: Egypt’s main opposition coalition rejected President Morsi’s invitation to take part in talks amid ongoing unrest, calling instead for fresh protests nationwide - 29 January: Thousands of protesters have taken to the streets of the cities of Port Said, Ismailiyah and Suez in defiance of President Morsi's declaration of a curfew and a state of emergency after days of deadly unrest - 31 January: Egyptian parties and groups cutting across political lines condemn violence at meeting called by country's top Islamic scholar
February 2013: 2 February: Protesters denouncing Egypt's Islamist president hurled stones and firebombs through the gates of his palace gates on Friday, clashing with security forces who fired tear gas and water cannons, as President Morsi calls on all factions to condemn the violence - 2 February: Egypt's new 'bodyguards' - women and men - to protect women protesters and to end a surge in sexual assaults on women that activists say has become the darkest stain on the country's opposition street movement - 4 February: Egypt to probe controversial police brutality case of Hamada Saber, who says he was undressed by rioters and that army soldiers were helping him after he had been attacked by protesters who mistook him for police - 4 February: Egyptian Popular Current opposition party on Monday claimed police tortured Mohammed el-Gindy, one of its members, to death, electrocuting him and beating him repeatedly on the head - 7 February: Thousands of men and women march in Cairo against increasing instances of sexual harassment of female protesters - 12 February: Police fired tear gas and used water cannons at stone-throwing protesters outside the presidential palace as the opposition held rallies to mark the second anniversary of Mubarak's overthrow - 12 February: Protesters took to the street again on Tuesday to demand an end to sexual violence, as campaigns against the repeated attacks in central Cairo pick up steam - 17 February: Thousands of protesters have blocked access to the harbour and rallied outside state buildings in Port Said to demand justice over the deaths of dozens of people killed in riots last month - 21 February: Egypt will hold parliamentary elections in several stages beginning April 27
March 2013: 4 mars 2013: Un policier tué et un officier blessé, tous deux touchés par des coups de feu tirés par des inconnus à Port-Saïd, où des affrontements ont opposé les habitants à la police, faisant plusieurs dizaines de blessés - 7 March: Electoral commission cancels timetable for parliamentary elections following a court ruling that threw the entire polling process into confusion - 8 March: Government wants corruption cases settled out of court - 9 March: After a court confirmed the death sentences against 21 people for taking part in deadly soccer riot 2012 but acquitted seven police officials for their role in the violence, enraged suspected fans torched the soccer federation headquarters and a police club in Cairo - 10 March: Egypt raises alert level in Sinai - 14 March: Egyptian policemen were to blame for the deaths of more than 800 protesters during Egypt's 2011 uprising, according to a leaked report commissioned by president Morsi - 22 March: Dozens injured as protesters clashed with supporters of Muslim Brotherhood - 27 March: Egypt court reinstates fired prosecutor Mahmoud - 29 March: Protests and clashes in Cairo and two other cities between supporters and opponents of the Muslim Brotherhood
June 2013: 2 juin: Le Sénat et la commission constituante jugés illégaux - 8 June: President Morsi dismisses calls for early vote - 10 June: The Egyptian court retrying Hosni Mubarak for conspiracy to murder hundreds of demonstrators unsealed new evidence, including CCTV video and logbooks taken from Cairo security forces' armouries - 21 June: Egyptians rally on streets of Cairo to show solidarity with President ahead of planned protests against leader's rule - 28 juin: L'Egypte sous tension avant des manifestations pro et anti-Morsi - 28 juin: Un ressortissant américain et un Égyptien ont été tués à Alexandrie, lors d'affrontements entre pro et anti-Morsi - 29 June: Two Egyptians and a US citizen killed in protests and deadly clashes as Egypt's clerics warn of civil war - 29 June: At least eight Egypt MPs quit parliament in support of anti-Morsi movement, after 22 million signatures were collected to demand Morsi's departure and a snap presidential election
July 2013: July 2013 Egyptian protests - Tamarod collected more than 22 million signatures against Morsi as of 29 June 2013 - 1 July: At least seven people were killed and more than 600 wounded on Sunday in clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 1 July: Egypt's army gives Morsi 48 hours to meet the demands of the people or it would intervene with a roadmap - 3 July: Defiant president Morsi says he won't step down - 3 July: The death toll in violence involving Islamist supporters of President Morsi near Cairo University rose to 16 on Wednesday and 200 people were wounded - 4 July: Egypt's military has ousted Morsi, calling for early presidential election, suspending the Islamist-backed constitution and names an interim government presided by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 5 July: Islamist supporters of Morsi will rally to express their outrage at his overthrow and to reject an interim government backed by their liberal opponents - 6 July: Deadly clashes and fighting across Egypt after Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader told followers to continue protesting until return of ousted president Morsi - 6/7 July: The choice of Mohamed ElBaradei as interim PM following talks of the Tamarod campaign with interim president Mansour is thrown into doubt by Islamist objections - 7 July: Mohamed ElBaradei called for the Muslim Brotherhood to be included in Egypt's political future, in a media interview conducted before his candidacy as interim PM hit opposition - 8 July: A group of Egyptian activists on trial for inciting violence during protests against former President Morsi were acquitted by a court in Cairo - 8 juillet: Les salafistes d'Al-Nour se retirent des négociations pour mener la transition politique en Égypte - 8 juillet: Au moins 34 partisans de Morsi ont été tués par l’armée égyptienne devant le siège de la Garde républicaine au Caire, selon un responsable du ministère de la Santé - 8 July: Islamists call for uprising after at least 51 people were killed including an army officer - 9 juillet: Le président intérimaire Adly Mansour a fixé par décret un calendrier pour la tenue d'élections législatives avant la fin de 2013 - 9 July: Egypt's interim president named liberal economist Hazem al-Beblawi, a former finance minister, as the country's new prime minister - 10 juillet: El-Beblaoui va tendre la main aux Frères musulmans - 10 juillet: Les Frères musulmans rejettent le plan de transition politique, le FSN et le mouvement Tamarrod exigent que des amendements soient apportés à la 'déclaration constitutionnelle' - 11 juillet: Hazem Beblawi espère former un gouvernement d'ici la semaine prochaine - 11 July: Egypt's public prosecutor's office ordered the arrest of Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Badie on charges of inciting violence outside the Republican Guard headquarters where 51 people were killed - also other top leaders charged, investigation - 13 July: On Tahrir, thousands gathered to attend a celebration of Ramadan, as thousands of Morsi supporters marched along streets in Cairo and US seeks Morsi's release - 13 July: Egypt announces criminal investigation against Morsi including complaints of spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy - 13 July: Egypt PM edges closer to forming cabinet - 14 July: ElBaradei sworn in as Egypt's interim vice president for foreign relations - 16 July: Clashes return to streets of Cairo - 16 July: Egypt's interim president swears in new Cabinet by PM Hazem el-Beblawi, an economist - 18/19 July: Adly Mansour in first public address vows to protect the country against those who seek chaos and violence, hours before pro-Morsi rallies - 20 July: Three people killed and at least six others injured during clashes in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura as thousands rally in support of Morsi in Cairo and elsewhere and opponents also hold demonstrations - 21 July: New Egyptian PM Hazem el-Beblawi seeks dialogue to drive back the nation's divisions - 23 July: Rallies of supporters and opponents of Morsi turn violent and deadly, as interim president renews calls for reconciliation - 24 July: Unknown gunmen who shot at supporters of Morsi have killed at least one person, witnesses and health officials confirm - 24 July: A bomb exploded at a police station in Mansoura, the capital of Dakhalia province north of Cairo early on Wednesday, killing one person and wounding 17 others - 24 July: Egypt's army chief called for public rallies this week to give him a mandate to fight terrorism and violence - 26 July: Ousted President Morsi is under investigation for an array of charges including that he conspired with Hamas to flee jail during the 2011 uprising, killing some prisoners and officers, kidnapping soldiers and torching buildings - 27 July: Egypt suffers night of deadly violence as hundreds of thousands come out for rallies in a divided country - 27 July: Over 100 supporters of Morsi claimed dead as soldiers are accused of shoot-to-kill policy to clear protest urging his release - 28 July: Egypt's interior minister pledged to deal decisively with any attempts to destabilize the country, a thinly veiled warning to supporters of Morsi occupying two squares in Cairo in a month-long stand-off with the security forces - 29 July: At least 12 people have been killed in a fight in central Cairo caused by a dispute between street vendors over spaces - 30 July: Morsi in good health, has access to news and follows developments, says EU's Ashton - 31 July: Egypt's cabinet orders police to end pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo - 3 top Muslim Brotherhood leaders referred to court on charges of inciting violence
August 2013: 1 août: Les plaintes de voisinage pourraient justifier l'expulsion des pro-Morsi et les sit-ins - 2 August: Egypt's government tells pro-Morsi protesters to quit camps - 3 August: Rallies continue and clashes with police erupt in Egypt's capital even as foreign pressure to solve crisis mounts and rights groups demand an investigation into allegations that Morsi's supporters tortured opponents - 3 Augaust: Allies of deposed Egyptian President Morsi told mediators on Saturday they respected the popular will expressed in mass protests that led to his downfall - 4 August: Muslim Brotherhood leaders' trial on charges related to the killing of protesters to open on August 25 - 4/5 August: Efforts to resolve Egypt political crisis intensify as al-Sisi meets Islamist leaders and William Burns and Western and Arab envoys visit jailed Muslim Brotherhood leader El-Shater - 6 August: The EU's Bernardino Leon and US William Burns extend their stay in Cairo to hold a series of talks in the ongoing crisis - 8 August: On the eve of Eid interim President Mansour says that the government will press on with its own plan to hold new elections in nine months - 12 August: Islamist al-Nour Party to help shape new Egyptian constitution - 14 August: Egyptian troops swoop on pro-Morsi camps, many feared killed - 14 August: Egypt declares month-long state of emergency as scores confirmed dead - 15 August: Pessimism as Egypt counts its dead and Muslim Brotherhood vows revenge - 16 August: UN Security Council calls for 'maximum restraint' in Egypt and end to violence spreading across the country, also calling for national reconciliation - 17 August 2013: Egypt Islamists vow fresh marches and plan new actions as security forces surround the al-Fath mosque full of incited Morsi-supporters on Saturday, after new destructive street battles that left more than 80 dead on Friday - 17 August: Egyptian police exchanged gunfire Saturday with armed Islamist Morsi-supporters, surrounded in the al-Fath mosque - 18 August: After a gunbattle with followers of the Muslim Brotherhood - witnesses saw gunmen shoot from a window of the al-Fath mosque - on Saturday, security forces cleared the mosque, while Egypt's government considers banning the Islamist group and as Islamists announce fresh demonstrations for several days - 19 août: Au moins 36 prisonniers islamistes meurent lors d'un transfert en prison près du Caire dans des circonstances encore confuses - 20 August: Egypt arrests Muslim Brotherhood chief Mohamed Badie accused by authorities of inciting the violence causing the death of protesters - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief - 22 August: Egypt to put ex-leader Hosni Mubarak under house arrest - 23 August: On Friday some thousands in Egypt join fresh protests against Mohamed Morsi's ouster - 24 August: Mubarak and Brotherhood chiefs due in court - 27 August: Fugitive Muslim Brotherhood leader denies terror charges despite Morsi supporters attacked police stations, government buildings and churches - 29 August: Senior Muslim Brotherhood official Beltagi arrested - 30 August: On Friday once again thousands of supporters of Morsi marched through Cairo and cities across Egypt amid heavy security, but numbers less than hoped for
September 2013: 2 September: Deposed president Morsi is to stand trial on charges of inciting the killing of opponents protesting outside his palace while he was in office - 3 September: As a bomb attack on a police station hits central Cairo, a judicial panel supports a legal challenge to the status of the Muslim Brotherhood - 3 September: An Egyptian military court has sentenced 11 Muslim Brotherhood members to life in prison for violence targeting the army in the port city of Suez - 5 September: Egypt's interior minister Ibrahim survives an assassination attempt when a bomb targeted his convoy near his house in Cairo wounding many guards - 8 September: Sinai islamic militants claim bomb targeting Egypt minister - 13 September: Egypt extends state of emergency by two months - 13 September: Mohamed Morsi remanded to a further 30 days in custody on charges of jailbreak and espionage during the 2011 uprising - 16 septembre: L'armée égyptienne reprend Delga, ville tenue par les islamistes - 19 septembre: L'armée égyptienne donne l'assaut contre des islamistes près du Caire - 23 septembr: La justice a interdit les activités des Frères musulmans en Égypte et a ordonné la confiscation des biens de l'influente confrérie - 29 September 2013: Egypt's latest political transition, including presidential and parliamentary elections, will end 'by next spring', foreign minister Nabil Fahmy says at UN
November 2013: 4 November: On the eve of the trial of deposed president Morsi on Monday over the deaths of protesters, gunmen shot dead two policemen and injured a third near Ismailia on the west bank of the Suez Canal - 5 novembre: Entrant sous les applaudissements et aux cris de 'À bas le régime militaire', le procès de Mohamed Morsi a été ajourné au 8 janvier 2014 - 8 November: FM Nabil Fahmy says, Egypt would hold parliamentary elections between February and March 2014, followed by presidential polls in early summer, and that Freedom and Justice Party could take part - 13 novembre: L'Égypte lève l'état d'urgence en vigueur depuis trois mois - 20 November: Car bomb kills ten Egyptian soldiers in Sinai - 26 novembre: Dix membres du comité pour réviser la constitution ont suspendu leur participation pour protester contre l'arrestation de manifestants - 27 November: Egypt's new constitution is still in the drafting stage but has already disappointed rights groups and activists who had hoped it would curb the military's wide-ranging powers and privileges - 29 novembre: Un étudiant a été tué, lors d'une manifestation islamiste à l'Université du Caire après la condamnation des jeunes filles à 11 ans de prison - 29 November: Egypt police arrest nearly 200 protesters defying draconian protest ban - 30 November: Egypt panel votes on draft constitution that enshrines army's role in politics and bans religious parties
December 2013: 2 December: Egypt’s draft constitution approved for referendum - 8 décembre: Condamnées à 11 ans de prison pour avoir manifesté pour Morsi, 21 jeunes Égyptiennes ont été remises en liberté - 19 December: Egypt's public prosecutor charges Mohamed Morsi and 35 other top Islamists with conspiring with foreign groups to commit terrorist acts in Egypt - 22 December: New charges against Morsi in a third trial include spreading chaos and abducting police officers in collaboration with foreign militants - 24 December: A powerful car bomb at the police headquarters in Mansoura early Tuesday kills at least 14 people, mostly policemen, and wounds more than 100 people - 25 December: Egypt arrests Mohamed Morsi's ex-prime minister Hisham Kandil on his way to Sudan - 25 December: An Al-Qaeda-inspired group based in Sinai claims Mansura police headquarters suicide bombing - 26 décembre: Les Frères musulmans déclarés 'organisation terroriste' en Égypte - 26 December: Five people have been injured in Cairo bus bomb blast - 27 December: Police fired tear gas at stone-throwing Islamist protesters in two cities - 28 December: Four people killed, scores wounded in clashes across Egypt - 28/29 December: After student Muslim Brotherhood supporters stormed a faculty building at Cairo's Al-Azhar University where exams were being taken and set it on fire, an Islamist student was killed and scores were arrested in clashes with Egyptian police - 29 December: Blast damage military facility in north Egypt, wounding four people - 31 December: Egypt sentences 139 pro-Morsi protesters
18 January 2014: Egypt's new constitution gets 98% 'yes' vote, turnout 38.6% - 19 January: Morsi faces a fourth trial on charges of insulting the judiciary - 23 January: Five policemen have been killed in Egypt in an armed attack on a checkpoint in Beni Suef province south of Cairo - 24 January: A car bomb outside the police headquarters in Cairo followed by a second blast near a city metro station has killed at least five people and wounded dozens more on Friday - 25 January: A bomb exploded near Cairo police academy on Saturday, wounding one person - 26 January: At least 49 people reportedly killed in clashes on the third anniversary of the popular uprising in Egypt - 26 January: Egypt to hold presidential poll before parliamentary vote, the interim government says - 28 janvier: L'armée égyptienne donnne mandat à al-Sissi pour briguer la présidentielle - 30 janvier: Vingt journalistes d'Al-Jazira devant la justice égyptienne
March 2014: 8 March: Three protesters killed and dozens wounded as Islamists and police clashed across Egypt on Friday - 15 March: Six Egyptian military police killed as gunmen attack Cairo checkpoint - 17 March: Interim president Mansour says public opposes the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 March: Egyptian court sentences 17 people to 14 years in jail each on charges including assault and occupying public buildings during protests at Cairo's Al-Azhar University last year - 24 March: A court in southern Egyptian convicts 529 Morsi supporters, sentencing them to death on charges of murdering a policeman and attacking police - 24 March: Anger in Egypt as 529 Morsi supporters sentenced to death and fears for the integrity of Egypt's legal system deepened - 25 March: The wife of the policeman whose murder led to death sentences for 529 Egyptians has suggested that only two men may be responsible for his killing, who were still in hiding - 26 March: Egypt's Abdel Sisi to resign as minister and declares candidacy for presidency - 28 March: At least three people killed in Cairo as Brotherhood supporters protest following sentencing of over 500 Islamists to death, and the army chief announcing he will run for president - 30 March: An Egyptian court sentenced two supporters of Morsi to death for committing murder during violence that broke out in Alexandria last year
April/May 2014: 2 April: Two bombs targeting security posts near Cairo University killed a police general, followed by a third blast as police and journalists gathered - 7/8 April: An Egyptian appeals court upheld the jailing of three leading figures of the 2011 pro-democracy uprising, tightening a crackdown on secular activists opposed to the army-backed government - 16 April: An Egyptian court sentenced 119 supporters of Morsi to three years each in prison in connection with protests last October - 19 April: An explosion rocked a busy square in Cairo, killing one police officer, wounding three and causing panic - 19 April: Hamdeen Sabahi enters Egypt's presidential race - 27 April: 13 Morsi supporters sentenced to prison terms ranging from five to 88 years for rioting - 28 April: Death sentence for the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and 682 supporters - 29 April: Even the dead are sentenced to death by Egyptian courts - 2 May: A bomb blast in Cairo kills one policeman, wounds three, shortly after double suicide attack strikes Sinai Peninsula - 6 May: In first campaign TV interview al-Sissi says uncovered two assassination plots - 18 May: A bomb wounded at least three people at a Cairo election rally for al-Sissi on Saturday - 20 May: A drive-by shooting reportedly killed three policemen during a rally by Islamist students in Cairo - 21 May: Egyptian court sentences ousted president Mubarak and sons to 3 respectively 4 years in prison on charges of stealing public funds - 26 May: Egyptians go to the polls to elect new president
June 2014: 7 June: Egypt bans unauthorized preachers from giving sermons or teaching Islam in mosques and other public places - 8 January: Egyptian court sentenced ten Islamist supporters of Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood to death in absentia on charges of inciting violence and blocking a road last July as an appeals court overturned the sentences given to four police officers over the deaths of 37 detainees - 9 June: Al-Sisi promised to rule Egypt in an inclusive manner after he was sworn in as president but gave no indication he would reconcile with the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 June: Egyptian court confirms death sentence for Muslim Brotherhood leader Badie and at least 182 of his supporters - 24 June: Facing a huge unemployment problem and widening budget deficit, al-Sissi prepares Egyptians for austerity cutting own pay - 28 June: A girl reportedly killed and her mother wounded by the explosion of a homemade bomb on the outskirts of Cairo - 30 June: Days after militant group Ajnad Misr claimed planting bombs, blasts near Egypt's presidential palace kill 2 police officers
January 2015: 6 January: Gunmen kill 2 Egyptian policemen guarding Coptic church south of Cairo - 6 January: Egyptian police officer killed while trying to defuse a bomb outside a petrol station in Cairo, with jihadis claiming responsibility - 9 January: Egypt said it is to hold parliamentary elections from March 21 - 13 January: Egyptian court orders retrial in embezzlement case against Mubarak, dropping the only remaining conviction - 23 January: An Egyptian student killed on Friday during clashes between Muslim Brotherhood protesters and local residents in Alexandria - 25 January: At least 15 killed in Egypt protests marking 2011 uprising, gunmen in a car opened fire on a security checkpoint near the Pyramids, killing two policemen - 26 January: Images of killed Egypt protester revive criticism of police - 27 January: One person killed by a car bomb, parked near a police station by suspected Islamists in Alexandria - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish
March-June 2015: 1 March: A bomb went off near a police station and mosque in the southern city of Aswan, killing two civilians and wounding a soldier and four others - 1 March: Egypt parliamentary poll looks set for delay after court ruling - 14 March: One killed in Cairo bombing as Gulf leaders make $12 billion pledge - 21 April: Ousted Egyptian president Morsi gets 20 years in prison over conviction finding him responsible for deaths of protesters in 2012 - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 9 May: Mubarak sentenced to 3 years in prison for corruption after former Egyptian president and two sons convicted of embezzling millions of dollars of state funds over decade - 16 May: Islamists warn of backlash over Mohamed Morsi death sentence calling it an act of revenge by Egyptian regime - 9 June 2015: 11 men sentenced to death over 2012 football stadium killings in Egypt - 11 June: Egyptian police officer jailed for 15 years over death of protester Shaimaa el-Sabbagh at peaceful demonstration in Cairo in January - 16 June: Egypt's Morsi sentenced to death and 25 years in prison in two different cases along with Muslim Brotherhood spiritual leader - 29 June: Egypt's public prosecutor targeted by deadly car bomb
July-September 2015: 1 July 2015: At least 30 Egyptian soldiers killed in terror attacks as suspected Islamist militants attacked several military posts in Egypt's North Sinai area - 1 July: Egypt cabinet passes anti-terrorism laws amid deadliest Sinai battle in 40 years - 11 July 2015: At least one civilian killed, several others and at least two police officers wounded in explosion witnesses said caused massive destruction to Italian Consulate in Cairo - 17 August 2015: Egyptian President al-Sissi approved an anti-terrorism law that sets up special courts and provides protections to its enforcers - 30 August: Egypt will hold a long-awaited parliamentary election in two phases starting on 18-19 October and on 22-23 November - 12 September 2015: After authorities arrested Egypt’s agriculture minister over corruption allegations, Egypt’s cabinet resigns but will stay on in a caretaker role until a new government is formed - 14 September: After Egyptian security forces killed 12 Mexicans and Egyptians and injured 10, targeting Mexican tourist convoy in the country's western desert, Egyptian authorities claim tourist convoy was in area illegally
April/May 2016: 15 April 2016: Thousands in Egypt take to the streets of Cairo against el-Sissi’s decision to hand over two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia in first significant protest against government since Sissi’s takeover - 15 avril: La police égyptienne a fait usage de gaz lacrymogènes pour disperser au Caire et à Alexandrie des centaines de manifestants contre la rétrocession de deux îles à l'Arabie saoudite - 27 April: Around 100 Egyptian journalists staged a protest in Cairo against the arrest of colleagues for covering demonstrations opposing President al-Sisi - 8 May: Eight Egyptian policemen gunned down in the Helwan district south of Cairo - 15 mai: 152 manifestants sont condamnés à des peines de 2 à 5 ans de prison pour avoir protesté contre le régime et la cession par l'Egypte de deux îles de la mer Rouge à l'Arabie saoudite
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Egypt
Treaties of Egypt: Treaties of Egypt
Egypt/Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Bilateral relations of Egypt: Bilateral relations of Egypt
Egypt/European Union relations: Egypt/European Union relations
Since 2005 rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba: Rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba since 2005
History of Egypt/Israel relations since 2011: History of Egypt/Israel relations since 2011
Egypt/Italy relations: Egypt/Italy relations
Egypt/Jordan relations: Egypt/Jordan relations - 22 July 2012: Attack on Egypt-Israel-Jordan pipeline
Egypt/Libya relations: Egypt/Libya relations
Egypt/Mexico relations: Egypt/Mexico relations
Egypt/Sudan relations: Egypt/Sudan relations
Egypt/Syria relations: Egypt/Syria relations - 30 August 2012: Assad's delegation walks out after Egypt's president Morsi calls for 'solidarity with struggle' against 'oppressive regime' at NAM summit - 7 February 2013: At the summit of 57-member Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Egyptian in Cairo president Morsi urges Assad regime not to put its interests above those of the nation - 16 June 2013: President Morsi announces closure of embassies in Damascus and Cairo, calls for the imposition of a no-fly zone against the Assad regime and demands that Hezbollah must leave Syria - 28 September 2013: Egypt wants a Middle East region 'free from weapons of mass destruction, as well as from nuclear, chemical and biological weapons', says foreign minister Nabil Fahmy at UN - 17 October: Egypt denies it was mistreating Syrian refugees following a report by Amnesty International accusing authorities of unlawfully detaining and deporting hundreds of Syrians fleeing civil war - 23 December 2015: Thousands of Syrian children in Egypt have been forced to drop out of Egyptian schools with only a basic level of education
Egypt/Turkey relations: Egypt/Turkey relations
Egypt/USA relations: Egypt/USA relations - 7 December 2011: Rights group condemns US arms sales to Egypt - 19 June 2012: US urges ruling military to transfer full power to civilian government as Muslim Brotherhood calls for protests - 14 July: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urges democratic transition - 16 juillet: En visite en Egypte Hillary Clinton a rencontré le nouveau président Mohammed Morsi ainsi que des généraux - 13 September: Despite the Morsi government's call for calm, demonstrations over foreign film are ongoing outside the US embassy in Cairo - 19 September: Italy's highest court confirmes the guilty verdicts of 23 CIA agents tried in absentia for the 2003 abduction of Egyptian imam Osama Mustafa Hassan in Milan - 9 February 2013: A court in Egypt ordered that video-sharing website YouTube be blocked for a month for hosting the anti-Islam film that triggered deadly outrage across the Muslim world last year - 3 March: Arrived in Egypt on his first visit to Arab world US secretary of state Kerry releases $190m for Cairo and urges rival factions to unite - 5 June 2013: Egypt convicts 43, including Americans, in NGO case - 29 June: US warns against Egypt travel, after a US citizen died in deadly clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 19 July 2013: Ex-CIA Milan chief held in Panama over cleric Abu Omar abduction - 10 octobre: Les États-Unis ont gelé une partie de leur aide à l’Égypte - 13 February 2014: Egypt detained local USA Embassy staffer for nearly three weeks without charges
Ecoregions in Egypt: List of ecoregions in Egypt
Environmental issues in Egypt: Environmental issues in Egypt
Air pollution in Egypt: Air pollution in Egypt
Nile, Nile Basin Initiative and water politics in the Nile Basin: Nile - Nile Basin Initiative - Water politics in the Nile Basin
River regulation and dams in Egypt: River regulation in Egypt - Dams in Egypt
Water supply and water resources management in modern Egypt: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt - Water resources management in modern Egypt
Natural disasters in Egypt: Natural disasters in Egypt - Geography of Egypt


Equatorial Guinea - Geography of Equatorial Guinea - History of Equatorial Guinea - Demographics of Equatorial Guinea
Mining industry of Equatorial Guinea: Mining industry of Equatorial Guinea
Water and rivers in Equatorial Guinea: Water in Equatorial Guinea - Rivers of Equatorial Guinea
Muni River: Muni River
Transport in Equatorial Guinea: Transport in Equatorial Guinea
Military of Equatorial Guinea: Military of Equatorial Guinea
August 1979 Equatorial Guinea military backed coup d'état: 3 August 1979 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état, when deputy defense minister and former director of the infamous Black Beach prison Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, backed by the military, overthrew his uncle Francisco Macías Nguema in a bloody coup, fighting between loyalists and rebels continued until Macías Nguema was captured fleeing for Cameroon on 18 August and was then sentenced to death for the crime of genocide against the Bubi people and other crimes committed - Obiang, who joined the military during the colonial period and attended the Military Academy in Spain's Zaragoza, held various jobs including governor of Bioko, leader of the National Guard and head of 'Black Beach Prison', notorious for the severe torture of its inmates
Political parties in Equatorial Guinea: Political parties in Equatorial Guinea
Elections and politics in Equatorial Guinea: Elections in Equatorial Guinea
September 1968 Equatorial Guinean general electio: 22 September 1968 Equatorial Guinean general election
August 1982 Equatorial Guinean constitutional referendum: 15 August 1982 Equatorial Guinean constitutional referendum
May 2013 Equatorial Guinean legislative election: Equatorial Guinean legislative election 26 May 2013
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Equatorial Guinea: Society in Equatorial Guinea
Human rights in Equatorial Guinea: Human rights in Equatorial Guinea
Prisoners of conscience held by Equatorial Guinea: Prisoners of conscience held by Equatorial Guinea
Ethnic groups in Equatorial Guinea: Ethnic groups in Equatorial Guinea
Culture and languages of Equatorial Guinea: Culture of Equatorial Guinea - Languages of Equatorial Guinea
Education in Equatorial Guinea: Education in Equatorial Guinea
Health in Equatorial Guinea: Health in Equatorial Guinea
Crime in Equatorial Guinea: Crime in Equatorial Guinea
Human trafficking in Equatorial Guinea: Human trafficking in Equatorial Guinea
Equatoguinean law: Equatoguinean law
Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea: Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea
Treaties of Equatorial Guinea: Treaties of Equatorial Guinea
Bilateral relations of Equatorial Guinea: Bilateral relations of Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea/Cameroon relations: Equatorial Guinea/Cameroon relations
Equatorial Guinea/Gabon relations: Equatorial Guinea/Gabon relations
Equatorial Guinea/Nigeria relations: Equatorial Guinea/Nigeria relations
Equatorial Guinea/Portugal relations:
Equatorial Guinea/Spain relations: Equatorial Guinea/Spain relations
Equatorial Guinea/USA relations: Equatorial Guinea/USA relations


Eritrea - Geography of Eritrea - History of Eritrea - Regions of Eritrea - Demographics of Eritrea
Banking in Eritrea: Banking in Eritrea
Use of forced labor in Eritrea: 15 January 2013: Use of forced labor in Eritrea
Military of Eritrea: Military of Eritrea - Eritrean Army
Government budget in Eritrea: Government budget in Eritrea
Rebel groups and political parties in Eritrea: Rebel groups in Eritrea - Political parties in Eritrea
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Eritrea: Eritrean society - Religion and freedom of religion in Eritrea
Human rights in Eritrea: Human rights in Eritrea
Ethnic groups and languages in Eritrea: Ethnic groups in Eritrea - Languages of Eritrea
Education in Eritrea: Education in Eritrea
Health in Eritrea: Health in Eritrea
Internet and Internet censorship and surveillance in Eritrea: Internet and Internet censorship and surveillance in Eritrea
Crime in Eritrea: Crime in Eritrea
Corruption in Eritrea: Corruption in Eritrea
Human trafficking in Eritrea: Human trafficking in Eritrea
Prisoners of conscience held by Eritrea: Prisoners of conscience held by Eritrea
Judiciary of Eritrea: Judiciary and courts of Eritrea
High Court of Eritrea: High Court of Eritrea
Law enforcement in Eritrea: Law enforcement in Eritrea
Foreign relations of Eritrea: Foreign relations of Eritrea
Treaties of Eritrea: Treaties of Eritrea
Wars involving Eritrea: Wars involving Eritrea
Eritrean membership of international organizations: Eritrean membership of international organizations
Eritrea/United Nations relations:
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Bilateral relations of Eritrea: Bilateral relations of Eritrea
Eritrea/Canada relations: Eritrea/Canada relations
Eritrea/Djibouti relations: Eritrea/Djibouti relations
Djibouti–Eritrea border: Djibouti–Eritrea border
Eritrea/Ethiopia relations: Eritrea/Ethiopia relations - Mareb River
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Eritrea/Italy relations: Eritrea/Italy relations
Since 1848 Italian empire and Italian colonisation in Africa: Italian Empire since 1848 - Italian colonisation in Africa
1890-1936 Italian Eritrea: Italian Eritrea 1890-1936
1936-1941 Italian East Africa: Italian East Africa 1936-1941
Ecoregions in Eritrea: List of ecoregions in Eritrea
Water in Eritrea: Water in Eritrea


Ethiopia - Geography of Ethiopia - History of Ethiopia - Demographics of Ethiopia
Manufacturing in Ethiopia: Manufacturing in Ethiopia
Mining in Ethiopia: Mining in Ethiopia
Energy in Ethiopia: Energy in Ethiopia
Renewable energy in Ethiopia: Renewable energy in Ethiopia
Water, water supply, sanitation and rivers in Ethiopia: Water in Ethiopia - Water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia
Fishing in Ethiopia: Fishing in Ethiopia
Foreign trade of Ethiopia: Foreign trade of Ethiopia
Political parties in Ethiopia: List of political parties in Ethiopia
Trade unions in Ethiopia: Trade unions in Ethiopia
House of Peoples' Representatives: House of Peoples' Representatives - House of Federation
2013 Ethiopian presidential election: Ethiopian presidential election 7 October 2013
Protests in Ethiopia:
August 2016 Ethiopian protests: August 2016 Ethiopian protests, demanding social and political reforms and an end of human rights abuses, including government killings of civilians, mass arrests, government land seizures, and political marginalization of opposition groups - 8 August 2016: At least 33 people were shot dead by security forces in protests at the weekend across Ethiopia's central Oromiya region linked to an aborted government attempt to commandeer local land, according to opposition party officials - 9 August: Dozens of people were shot dead by security forces in protests across Ethiopia’s Oromiya and Amhara regions at the weekend over plans to allocate farmland surrounding the regional capital, also demanding the release of jailed opposition politicians, as rights group says the bloodshed in Bahir Dar may amount to 'extrajudicial killings'
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ethiopia: Ethiopian society
Human rights in Ethiopia: Human rights in Ethiopia
Languages and culture in Ethiopia: Culture of Ethiopia - Languages of Ethiopia - Religion in Ethiopia
Universities and colleges in Ethiopia: Universities and colleges in Ethiopia
Museums and Libraries in Ethiopia: Museums in Ethiopia - Libraries in Ethiopia
Health in Ethiopia: Health in Ethiopia
Health care and systems in Ethiopia: Health Systems in Ethiopia
Hospitals in Ethiopia: List of hospitals in Ethiopia
Media and freedom of the press in Ethiopia: Media in Ethiopia
Crime in Ethiopia: Crime in Ethiopia
Terrorism in Ethiopia: Terrorism in Ethiopia
Corruption in Ethiopia: Corruption in Ethiopia
Human trafficking in Ethiopia: Human trafficking in Ethiopia
Disasters in Ethiopia: Disasters in Ethiopia
Law enforcement in Ethiopia: Law enforcement in Ethiopia
Foreign relations of Ethiopia: Foreign relations of Ethiopia
Treaties of Ethiopia: Treaties of Ethiopia
Ethiopian membership in international organisations:
Bilateral relations of Ethiopia: Bilateral relations of Ethiopia
Ethiopia/Eritrea relations: Ethiopia/Eritrea relations
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Ethiopia/Italy relations: Ethiopia/Italy relations
Since 1848 Italian empire and Italian colonisation in Africa: Italian Empire since 1848 - Italian colonisation in Africa
1937 Italian Atrocities against the native population: !937 Italian Atrocities against the native population
Ethiopia/Somalia relations: Ethiopia/Somalia relations
2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden: 2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden
Ethiopia/South Sudan relations: Ethiopia/South Sudan relations
Ethiopia/Sudan relations: Ethiopia/Sudan relations
Ethiopia/United Kingdom relations: Ethiopia/United Kingdom relations
Ethiopia/USA relations: Ethiopia/USA relations
Environment of Ethiopia: Environment of Ethiopia - Climate of Ethiopia
Environmental issues in Ethiopia: Environmental issues in Ethiopia
Deforestation in Ethiopia: Deforestation in Ethiopia
Natural disasters in Ethiopia: Natural disasters in Ethiopia
Droughts and famines in Ethiopia: List of famines in Ethiopia since 16th century
1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia: 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia
2011 East Africa drought: 2011 East Africa drought
Earthquakes in Ethiopia: Earthquakes in Ethiopia


Gabon - Geography of Gabon - History of Gabon - Demographics of Gabon
Energy in Gabon: Energy in Gabon
Transport in Gabon: Transport in Gabon
Banks and banking in Gabon: Banks in Gabon
Military of Gabon: Military of Gabon
Trade unions in Gabon: Trade unions in Gabon
Elections in Gabon: Elections in Gabon
August 2009 Gabonese presidential election: 30 August 2009 Gabonese presidential election
December 2011 Gabonese legislative election: 17 December 2011 Gabonese legislative election
Social movements, protests and riots in Gabon:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Gabon: Gabonese society - Human rights in Gabon
Subdivisions of Gabon and list of cities: Subdivisions of Gabon - Departments of Gabon - List of cities in Gabon
Culture and languages of Gabon: Culture of Gabon - Languages of Gabon
Women in Gabon: Women in Gabon
Education in Gabon: Education in Gabon
Health and healthcare in Gabon: Health in Gabon
Media of Gabon: Media of Gabon
Internet in Gabon: Internet in Gabon
Crime in Gabon: Crime in Gabon
Human trafficking in Gabon: Human trafficking in Gabon
Law and law enforcement in Gabon: Gabonese law - Constitution of Gabon
Law enforcement in Gabon: Law enforcement in Gabon
Foreign relations of Gabon: Foreign relations of Gabon
Treaties of Gabon: Treaties of Gabon
Gabonese membership in international organisations: Gabonese membership in international organisations
African Union: African Union
Bilateral relations of Gabon: Bilateral relations of Gabon
Gabon/Cameroon relations: Gabon/Cameroon relations
Gabon/Republic of the Congo relations: Gabon/Republic of the Congo relations
Gabon/France relations: Gabon/France relations
Gabon/Germany relations: Gabon/Germany relations
June 1940: Le 7 juin 1940 les assassins de la 7e division blindée allemande sous les ordres d'Erwin Rommel, qui séparent alors les Africains des Européens, exécutent sommairement le capitaine N'Tchoréré, qui refuse d’être considéré comme un 'Untermensch', un 'sous-homme' - 1940 Execution of prisoners in France by Nazi Germany and by Rommel's 7th Panzer division alongside troops from 5th Panzer division, committing numerous atrocities against French and especially French-African soldiers, Rommel himself ordered the execution of one French officer, who did not have a gun - 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen
Gabon/United Kingdom relations: Gabon/United Kingdom relations
Gabon/USA relations: Gabon/USA relations
1964 USA Embassy in Libreville bombings: March 1964 USA Embassy in Libreville bombings


Gambia - Geography of the Gambia - History of the Gambia - Demographics of the Gambia
Water in the Gambia: Water in the Gambia
Tourism in the Gambia: Tourism in the Gambia
Military of the Gambia: Military of the Gambia
List of political parties and trade unions in the Gambia: List of political parties in the Gambia - Trade unions in the Gambia
Elections and politics in the Gambia: Elections in the Gambia
April 1970 Gambian republic referendum: April 1970 Gambian republic referendum
November 2011 Gambian presidential election: 24 November 2011 Gambian presidential election
March 2012 Gambian parliamentary election: 29 March 2012 Gambian parliamentary election
December 2014 Gambian coup d'état attempt: December 2014 Gambian coup d'état attempt
January 2017: 5 January 2017: Gambia army chief Ousman Badjie says forces will be 'unflinching loyal’ despite earlier backing election winner Adama Barrow - 15 January 2017: By request of Ecowas Senegal is hosting Adama Barrow, president-elect of neighbouring the Gambia, until his inauguration on 19 January, as the country’s Yahya Jammeh refuses to step down despite mediation efforts and calls from regional and international leaders - 18 January 2017: Gambia's Parliament extends Jammeh's stay in power 3 months, as thousands of people are fleeing the country, including a number of government ministers, after Jammeh declared state of emergency - 20 January 2017: West African leaders tell former president Jammeh to leave or be ousted as regional troops enter country to support successor - 21 January 2017: Jammeh leaves the Gambia after 22 years of rule, making way for Adama Barrow in Gambia’s first democratic transition of power, as some people who fled the Gambia return - 23 January: Exiled ruler Jammeh reportedly plundered state coffers and shipped out luxury vehicles by cargo plane in the weeks before he left office
April 2017 Gambian parliamentary election: 6 April 2017 Gambian parliamentary election
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Gambia: Gambian society - Human rights in the Gambia - Religion in the Gambia
Demographics of the Gambia: Demographics of the Gambia
Ethnic groups in the Gambia: Ethnic groups in the Gambia
Education in the Gambia: Education in the Gambia
List of schools in the Gambia: List of schools in the Gambia
Health and healthcare in the Gambia: Health and healthcare in the Gambia
Media of the Gambia: Media of the Gambia
Crime in the Gambia: Crime in the Gambia
Human trafficking in the Gambia: Human trafficking in the Gambia
Law and law enforcement in the Gambia: Gambian law - Law enforcement in the Gambia
Foreign relations of the Gambia: Foreign relations of the Gambia - Treaties of the Gambia
The Gambia member of the African Union: The Gambia member of the African Union
The Gambia/Senegal relations: The Gambia/Senegal relations
The Gambia/United Kingdom relations: The Gambia/United Kingdom relations
1964 Gambia Independence Act: 1964 Gambia Independence Act
1965-1970 The Gambia British Commonwealth realm: 1965-1970 The Gambia British Commonwealth realm
The Gambia/USA relations: The Gambia/USA relations
Environment of the Gambia: Environment of the Gambia


Ghana - Geography of Ghana - History of Ghana - Demographics of Ghana
Energy in Ghana: Energy in Ghana
Electricity sector in Ghana: Electricity sector in Ghana
Genetically modified food controversies in Ghana: Genetically modified food controversies in Ghana
Forestry in Ghana: Forestry in Ghana
Fishing in Ghana: Fishing in Ghana
Water in Ghana: Water in Ghana - Rivers of Ghana
Water supply and sanitation in Ghana: Water supply and sanitation in Ghana
Transport in Ghana: Transport in Ghana
Tourism in Ghana: Tourism in Ghana
Banking and banks in Ghana: Banking in Ghana - Banks of Ghana
Political parties in Ghana: List of political parties in Ghana
Trade unions in Ghana: Trade unions in Ghana
Elections in Ghana: Elections in Ghana
December 2012 Ghanaian general election: 7/8 December 2012 Ghanaian general election
1948 Accra riots: 1948 Accra riots
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ghana: Ghanaian society - Human rights in Ghana
Demographics and ethnic groups in Ghana: Demographics of Ghana - Ethnic groups in Ghana
Culture and languages of Ghana: Culture of Ghana - Languages of Ghana
Children in Ghana: Children in Ghana
Education in Ghana: Education in Ghana
Polytechnics in Ghana: Polytechnics in Ghana
Research institutes and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Ghana: Research institutes in Ghana - Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Ghana since 1968
Health in Ghana: Health in Ghana
Media of Ghana: Media of Ghana
Newspapers in Ghana: List of newspapers in Ghana
New media and Internet in Ghana: New media in Ghana - Internet in Ghana
Crime in Ghana: Crime in Ghana
Corruption in Ghana: Corruption in Ghana
Human trafficking in Ghana: Human trafficking in Ghana
Foreign relations of Ghana: Foreign relations of Ghana
Treaties of Ghana: Treaties of Ghana
Ghana/Burkina Faso relations: Ghana/Burkina Faso relations
Ghana/Ivory Coast relations: Ghana/Ivory Coast relations
Ghana/Portugal relations: Ghana/Portugal relations
Ghana/South Africa relations: Ghana/South Africa relations
Ghana/Togo relations: Ghana/Togo relations
Ghana/United Kingdom relations: Ghana/United Kingdom relations
1821-1957 British colony 'Gold Coast': 1824-1901 Anglo-Ashanti Wars, a series of five conflicts between the Ashanti Empire, in the Akan interior of the Gold Coast and now Ghana, and the invading British Empire and British-allied African states - List of conflicts in Ghana and British wars - 1821-1957 British colony 'Gold Coast' on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa that became the independent nation of Ghana in 1957 - 1867 Anglo-Dutch 'Gold Coast' treaty established a trade of forts among the Dutch and British Gold Coast, in order to produce a more coherent area of imperial influence there, all forts to the east of Fort Elmina (founded by the Portuguese) were awarded to Britain, and all forts to the west were awarded to the Netherlands - 'United Kingdom' treaties extended to the British colony 'Gold Coast'
Ghana Environmental Protection Agency: Ghana Environmental Protection Agency
Natural disasters in Ghana: Natural disasters in Ghana
2016 Accra floods: June 2016 Accra floods


Guinea - Geography of Guinea - History of Guinea - Demographics of Guinea
Mining in Guinea: Mining in Guinea
Agriculture in Guinea: Agriculture in Guinea
Water in Guinea: Water in Guinea - Rivers of Guinea
Tourism in Guinea: Tourism in Guinea
Military of Guinea: Military of Guinea
Elections and politics in Guinea: Elections in Guinea
Social movements and protests in Guinea: Protests in Guinea
2007 Guinean general strike: 2007 Guinean general strike
2009 Guinea protest: 2009 Guinea protest
2013 Guinea clashes: 2013 Guinea clashes
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Guinea: Guinean society - Human rights in Guinea - Demographics of Guinea - Religion in Guinea
Culture and languages in Guinea: Culture of Guinea - Languages of Guinea
Education in Guinea: Education in Guinea
Guinean media: Guinean media
Crime in Guinea: Crime in Guinea
Human trafficking in Guinea: Human trafficking in Guinea
Foreign relations of Guinea: Foreign relations of Guinea
Treaties of Guinea: Treaties of Guinea
South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone: South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone
Bilateral relations of Guinea: Bilateral relations of Guinea
Guinea/China relations: Guinea/China relations
Guinea/Israel relations: Guinea/Israel relations
Guinea/Ivory Coast relations: Guinea/Ivory Coast relations
Guinea/United Kingdom relations: Guinea/United Kingdom relations
Natural disasters in Guinea:


Guinea-Bissau - Geography of Guinea-Bissau - History of Guinea-Bissau - Demographics of Guinea-Bissau
Mining industry of Guinea-Bissau: Mining industry of Guinea-Bissau
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Guinea-Bissau: Guinea-Bissauan society - Demographics of Guinea-Bissau - Human rights in Guinea-Bissau
Culture and languages of Guinea-Bissau: Guinea-Bissauan culture - Languages of Guinea-Bissau
Education in Guinea-Bissau: Education in Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissauan media: Guinea-Bissauan media
Crime in Guinea-Bissau: Crime in Guinea-Bissau
Human trafficking in Guinea-Bissau: Human trafficking in Guinea-Bissau
Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau: Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau
Treaties of Guinea-Bissau: Treaties of Guinea-Bissau
Bilateral relations of Guinea-Bissau: Bilateral relations of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau/Guinea relations: Guinea-Bissau/Guinea relations
Guinea-Bissau/Portugal relations: Guinea-Bissau/Portugal relations
Since the 15the century Portuguese slave trade: Since the 15the century Portuguese era of the slave trade
1963-1974 Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence: Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence 1963-1974
Guinea-Bissau/Senegal relations: Guinea-Bissau/Senegal relations
Ecoregions of Guinea-Bissau: Ecoregions of Guinea-Bissau


Kenya - Geography of Kenya - History of Kenya - Demographics of Kenya
Energy in Kenya: Energy in Kenya
Buildings and structures in Kenya: Buildings and structures in Kenya
Environment, deforestation and environmental issues in Kenya: Environment of Kenya - Environmental issues in Kenya - Deforestation in Kenya - Kenya water crisis
Transport in Kenya: Transport in Kenya
Foreign economic relations of Kenya: Foreign economic relations of Kenya
Political parties in Kenya: Political parties in Kenya
Trade unions in Kenya: Trade unions in Kenya
National Assembly of Kenya: National Assembly of Kenya
Elections and politics in Kenya: Elections in Kenya
December 2007 Kenyan general election: 27 December 2007 Kenyan general election
2007-2008 Kenyan crisis: Kenyan crisis 2007-2008
March 2013 Kenya general election: Kenya parliamentary election 4 March 2013 - Kenya general election 4 March 2013 - 4 mars 2013: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour les élections générales - 4 March: As Kenyans stand patiently in long lines to elect a new president, four police officers on patrol in the Mombasa port city area were hacked to death by attackers - 5 mars: Les résultats provisoires de l'élection présidentielle au Kenya continuaient d'arriver très lentement alors que le scrutin a été marqué par une participation 'supérieure à 70%' - 9 March 2013: According to provisional figures Uhuru Kenyatta has won Kenya's presidential election with a slim margin of 50.03% - 25 March: Supreme Court orders counting of ballots in presidential election in 22 out of 291 constituencies, amid claims of fraud - 31 March: Supporters of Raila Odinga protest against a decision by the supreme court that dismissed an opposition petition challenging Kenyatta's victory - Cabinet of Kenya since 2013
Social movements and protests in Kenya:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Kenya: Kenyan society - Human rights in Kenya
Economy and companies based in Nairobi: Economy of Nairobi - Companies based in Nairobi
Housing in Nairobi: Housing in Nairobi
Demographics and ethnic groups in Kenya: Demographics of Kenya
Ethnic groups in Kenya: Ethnic groups in Kenya
Culture and languages of Kenya: Culture of Kenya - Languages of Kenya - Museums in Kenya
Gender disparities and ethnic, tribal, and family barriers in Kenyan education: Gender disparities in Kenyan education - Ethnic, tribal, and family barriers in Kenyan education
Schools in Kenya: Schools in Kenya
Crime in Kenya: Crime in Kenya
Corruption in Kenya: Corruption in Kenya
2011-2014 ICC investigation of 2007–2008 post-election violence: International Criminal Court investigation in Kenya into the responsibility for the 2007–2008 post-election violence in Kenya - 2007–2008 crisis and post-election violence - 25 August 2011: Education minister Ruto, accused by the ICC of leading the 2007/2008 post election violence, has been sacked - 10 September 2013: Kenya Vice President William Ruto's crimes against humanity trial begins at the International Criminal Court - 8 October 2014: Kenya’s Uhuru Kenyatta becomes first head of state to appear before ICC, charged with crimes against humanity for alleged role in 2007-08 post-election violence - 5 December 2014: ICC drops murder and rape charges against Kenyan president highlighting the tribunal’s difficulties in bringing to justice high-ranking officials
Domestic violence and violence against women in Kenya: Domestic violence in Kenya - Polygamy in Kenya
Religion and violence in Kenya: Religion in Kenya
2014: 31 March 2014: 6 people killed in blasts in Somali area of Kenya capital - 3 May 2014: No-one has admitted carrying out Saturday's blasts in Mombasa killing three people and wounding others - 4 May: Without a claim of responsibility and a day after the attacks in Mombasa twin bombs exploded in two buses on a busy highway in Nairobi killing at least two people and wounding dozens more - 16 May: Two blasts hit Nairobi, killing 10 people and injuring 70 more - 16 June: Somali extremists wielding automatic weapons attacked coastal town of Mpeketoni, assaulting the police station, setting two hotels on fire, and spraying bullets into the street, killing at least 48 people - 17 June: Islamists launch second night of attacks in the Poromoko area near Mpeketoni, killing at least eight people - 24 June: Five people reportedly killed in attack on Kenyan coast - 6 July: Al-Shabab terror attack on two coastal villages leaves 22 people dead - 2 December: At least 36 people are feared dead after gunmen staged an attack on a quarry near Mandera in north-east Kenya
Judiciary of Kenya: Judiciary of Kenya
Courts in Kenya: Courts in Kenya
Supreme Court of Kenya: Supreme Court of Kenya
Law enforcement in Kenya: Law enforcement in Kenya
Foreign relations of Kenya: Foreign relations of Kenya
Treaties of Kenya: Treaties of Kenya
Bilateral relations of Kenya: Bilateral relations of Kenya
Kenya/Angola relations: Kenya/Angola relations
Kenya/Iran relations: Kenya/Iran relations
Kenya/Somalia relations: Kenya/Somalia relations
Kenya/South Africa relations: Kenya/South Africa relations
Kenya/South Sudan relations: Kenya/South Sudan relations
Kenya/Sudan relations: Kenya/Sudan relations
Kenya/Tanzania relations: Kenya/Tanzania relations
2012/2013: 18 April 2012: Secret files from British colonial rule have been released by the government, one year after they came to light in a High Court challenge to disclose them - 17 July: The British government accepts that colonial forces in Kenya tortured and abused detainees during the Mau Mau rebellion - 5 October: Kenyans win UK torture ruling - 30 November: The fullest account yet of a massacre which took place during the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya in the 1950s, has been given in UK Foreign Office documents released by the National Archives - 6 juin 2013: Le ministre britannique des Affaires étrangères a exprimé les 'sincères regrets' aux Kényans victimes de mauvais traitements lors de l'insurrection Mau Mau contre l'autorité coloniale, en annonçant près de 20 millions de livres d'indemnisation
Ecoregions in Kenya: Ecoregions in Kenya Kenya
Deforestation in Kenya: Deforestation in Kenya
Natural disasters: Natural disasters in Kenya


Liberia - Geography of Liberia - History of Liberia - Demographics of Liberia
Mining industry of Liberia: Mining industry of Liberia
Iron mines in Liberia: Iron mines in Liberia - Bong mine
Energy in Liberia: Energy in Liberia
Road transport in Liberia: Road transport in Liberia
1989-1997 First Liberian Civil War: First Liberian Civil War 1989-1997
1999-2003 Second Liberian Civil War: Second Liberian Civil War 1999-2003
Political parties in Liberia: Political parties in Liberia
Trade unions in Liberia: Trade unions in Liberia
Elections and politics in Liberia: Elections in Liberia
1847 Liberian constitutional referendum and general election: Constitutional referendum 27 September 1847 - Liberian general election 5 October 1847
August 2011 Liberian constitutional referendum: 23 August 2011 Liberian constitutional referendum
October/November 2011 Liberian general election: Liberian general election 11 October and 8 November 2011
October 2017 Liberian general election: 10 October 2017 Liberian general election
Social movements and protests in Liberia: Trade unions in Liberia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Liberia: Society in Liberia - Human rights in Liberia
Cities in Liberia: List of cities in Liberia
Culture and languages of Liberia: Culture of Liberia - Languages of Liberia
Women and women's rights in Liberia: Women in Liberia - Women's rights in Liberia
Children and children's rights in Liberia: Children's rights in Liberia - Youth in Liberia
Education in Liberia: Education in Liberia
Health in Liberia: Health in Liberia
Media in Liberia: Media in Liberia
Internet in Liberia: Internet in Liberia
Crime in Liberia: Crime in Liberia
Corruption in Liberia: Corruption in Liberia
Human trafficking in Liberia: Human trafficking in Liberia
Liberian judiciary: Liberian judiciary
Supreme Court of Liberia: Supreme Court of Liberia
Foreign relations of Liberia: Foreign relations of Liberia
Treaties of Liberia: Treaties of Liberia
Liberia's membership in international organisations: Liberia's membership in international organisations
Liberia/United Nations relations: Liberia/United Nations relations
Bilateral relations of Liberia: Bilateral relations of Liberia
Liberia/Bangladesh relations: Liberia/Bangladesh relations
Liberia/Indonesia relations: Liberia/Indonesia relations
Liberia/Ivory Coast relations: Liberia/Ivory Coast relations
Liberia/Kenya relations: Liberia/Kenya relations
2014 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa: 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa
Liberia/United Kingdom relations: Liberia/United Kingdom relations
Liberia/USA relations: Liberia/USA relations
Environment of Liberia: Environment of Liberia
Ecoregions of Liberia: Ecoregions of Liberia


Libya - Geography of Libya - History of Libya - Post World War II - Cyrenaica - Fezzan - Tripolitania - Demographics of Libya
Energy in Libya: Energy in Libya
Oil reserves in Libya: Oil reserves in Libya
External trade and finance: External trade and finance
Taxation in Libya: Taxation in Libya
Politics of Libya: Politics of Libya
United Nations Support Mission in Libya since 2011: United Nations Support Mission in Libya since September 2011
Elections in Libya: Elections in Libya
Libyan Constituent Assembly election 20 February 2014: Libyan Constituent Assembly election 20 February 2014
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Libya: Libyan society - Demographics of Libya
Religion and women in Libya: Religion in Libya - Women in Libya
Human rights in Libya: Human rights in Libya
Education and culture in Libya: Education in Libya - Culture of Libya
Newspapers and TV in Libya: Newspapers in Libya - TV in Libya
Crime in Libya: Crime in Libya
Racism in Libya: Racism in Libya
Human trafficking in Libya: Human trafficking in Libya
Law enforcement in Libya: Law enforcement in Libya
Foreign relations of Libya: Foreign relations of Libya
Libyan membership in intergovernmental organisations: Libyan membership in intergovernmental organisations
Treaties of Libya: Treaties of Libya
2015: 18 January 2015: UN Security Council threatens sanctions over Libya turmoil - 2 March 2015: Libya's elected House of Representatives agreed to go back to UN-brokered peace talks with rival government, a week after they pulled out over a militant suicide bombing - 8 March: UN says talks among warring Libyan factions make progress toward a unity government, and a Libyan delegate said they would resume discussions next week - 23 March: UN says Libya talks extended despite clashes - 8 June 2015: Officials say UN talks are the only hope of forming a unity government and halting the fighting among factions allied to either government, as UN to host new rounds of Libya talks in Morocco - 18 June: UN Security Council urges all Libyan parties to accept peace deal that requires the internationally recognized government to share power with rival Islamists who control Tripolis - 10 October 2015: As the UN's proposed national unity government to end the war between the internationally recognised government and a competing self-declared administration faces resistance in Tripoli, Western countries are backing the proposal - 3 November: UN urges Libya's warring factions to agree on a unity government after they were offered proposals to ease concerns over regional distribution in a UN-backed power-sharing deal - 14 December 2015: International conference endorses UN-backed deal for unity government in Libya as Libyan factions declare readiness to sign - 23 décembre 2015: Le Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU a adopté à l'unanimité une résolution pour soutenir le futur gouvernement libyen d'union nationale, demandant aux pays membres de l'aider à restaurer la stabilité en Libye
Bilateral relations of Libya: Bilateral relations of Libya
Libya/Bangladesh relations: Libya/Bangladesh relations
Libya/European Union relations: Libya/European Union relations
Libya/India relations: Libya/India relations
Bilateral Indian-Libyan economic relations: Bilateral Indian-Libyan economic relations
Libya/Netherlands relations: Libya/Netherlands relations
Libya/United Kingdom relations: Libya/United Kingdom relations - National Transitional Council/United Kingdom relations
Libya/USA relations: Libya/USA relations - 2 September 2011: NTC must deal with Lockerbie bomber, Hillary Clinton says - 3. September 2011: Enge Kooperation von amerikanischem CIA und britischem MI-6 Geheimdienst mit Gaddafis Verbrecherregime von 2002-2007 durch gefundene Dokumente aufgedeckt - Human Rights Watch 6 September 2012: US Bush government tortured opponents of Muammar Gaddafi, then transferred them to mistreatment in Libya, according to accounts by former detainees and recently uncovered CIA and UK Secret Service documents - 12 September: USA diplomat killed in Libyan consulate attack in the city of Benghazi - 13 September: USA to investigate consulate attack in Benghazi - Libyans protest in Benghazi condemning the attack - 13 September: USA president says killing of ambassador and staff in Benghazi will not break the bonds between the two countries - 'How could this happen in a country we helped liberate, in a city we helped save from destruction,' Hillary Clinton asks the Islamists - 15 September: USA drones over the eastern city of Benghazi and militia forces firing toward the crafts prompt authorities to close the airport for several hours - 16 October 2012: The USA administration has won congressional approval to devote $8 million to helping Libya develop a commando force to fight terrorist groups - 6 October 2013: USA commando raids hit terror targets in Libya and Somalia - 7 October: Libya demands explanation for 'kidnapping' of citizen by USA forces
September 2012: 6 September: Gaddafi's spy chief in custody in Tripoli after extradition from Mauritania - 12 September: An employee of the US consulate in Benghazi has died following fierce clashes over amateur film deemed offensive to Prophet Muhammad - NZZ 13. September: Mustafa Abu Shagur zum neuen Ministerpräsidenten gewählt - 21 September: Large pro-peace 'Save Benghazi' march of tens of thousands of Libyans seeking to disband Islamist militias coincides with smaller Ansar al-Sharia protest - 22 September: Demonstrators in Libya have stormed the headquarters of the Islamist Ansar al-Sharia group and evicted its fighters from the site in a sweep of militia bases in the eastern city of Benghazi - 23 September: Two groups in eastern city of Derna announce they will lay down arms, as Tripoli bans all non-state-sanctioned militias - 30 September: Hundreds of Libyans turn in weapons
November/December 2013: 8 novembre: Suite à la mort du chef d'une milice, des violents affrontements ont eu lieu jeudi soir à Tripoli, faisant au moins un mort et douze blessés - 9 November: A string of attacks in the eastern towns of Derna and Benghazi killed a public prosecutor and three members of the security forces in less than 24 hours - 15 November: Militiamen attacked thousands of peaceful protesters demanding the disbanding of the country's rampant armed groups, killing at least 22 people as they opened fire on the march - 16 November: Fresh clashes erupt in Tripoli, as the death toll from the anti-militia protest rises above 40 and the government is contended with appeals for restraint - 17 November: State of emergency declared in Tripoli - 18 novembre: Grève générale de trois jours à Tripoli après les affrontements entre Tripolitains et miliciens qui ont fait plus de 40 morts - 23. November 2013: Grosse Milizen aus Misrata und Zintan haben nach Demonstrationen der Bürger die libysche Hauptstadt Tripolis verlassen - 25 November: At least three people reportedly killed in clashes between the Libyan army and an Islamist militia in Benghazi - 22 December: Suicide attack on a security checkpoint near Libya's Benghazi kills seven people
April-June 2014: 13 April: Less than a week after parliament tasked him with forming a new cabinet, Libya's PM Abdullah al-Thani stepped down, saying he and his family had been the victims of a 'traitorous' armed attack the previous day - 13 April: Amid security fears Gaddafi sons' war crimes trial begins in Tripoli facing accusations of masterminding campaign of murder and torture during civil war - 19 May: Tripoli tense a day after forces loyal to a renegade general stormed the parliament challenging the legitimacy of the weak central government - 21 May: Libyan Interior Ministry reportedly backs ex-general in fight with Islamists - 25 May: Libya's Maiteeq wins congress confidence vote after militia threats - 26 May: Gunmen shot dead a newspaper editor in Benghazi who was an outspoken critic of Islamists - 2 June: Ansar al-Shariah and Khalifa Haftar's fighters clash in Benghazi - 4 June: Libya's Khalifa Haftar survived an assassination attempt in Benghazi, where he has been leading an offensive against Islamist militants - 7 June: Libyan warplanes raid Islamists in Benghazi as supporters and opponents of Khalifa Haftar scuffle in Tripoli's Martyrs' Square
September-December 2014: 11 September: CDA plans to publish draft constitution in December - 30 September: Amid the country's spiralling security, UN dialogue seeks to end Libya crisis - 3 October: Thirty-six soldiers were killed in car bomb attacks and fighting between the army and Islamists around Benghazi airport - 18 October: At least 17 people killed in Benghazi where pro-government forces backed by locals are fighting Islamists, rival Libyan governments claim to control oil policy - 2 November: Libya pro-government forces recapture parts of Benghazi - 11 December 2014: Libya's recognized government continues military campaign to claim back the capital Tripoli - 26 December: Islamists have killed at least 22 soldiers using speedboats and firing rockets in failed attempt to seize oil terminal
2015: 16 January: Libyan factions agree on 'agenda' for unity government - 27 January: Car bomb explodes outside hotel in Tripoli - 28 January: At least nine people killed, including four Europeans and a USA security contractor, in Tripoli hotel terrorist attack - 17 February: UN security council resolution demanded on international intervention in Libya - 8 March: Around 10 foreigners are missing after an attack on Al-Ghani oil field - 28 March: Forces loyal to rival government controlling Tripoli have withdrawn from frontline bases near the country's biggest oil ports, raising hopes the ports might soon be reopened - 2 May 2015: A rocket hit a medical centre for dispatching ambulances in Libya's eastern Benghazi on Friday, killing three people and wounding seven - 21 May: Ten people killed and almost 40 wounded when Libya's two rival governments clashed with Islamist fighters in the cities of Benghazi and Misrata - 30 May: Rocket attack in Libya's Benghazi targeting a residential district leaves 8 people dead, 8 wounded - 12 June: Seven people were shot dead on Friday at a protest against 'Islamic State' terrorists in the eastern Libyan city of Derna - 12 July: Tripoli parliament stays away from signing of Libya peace agreement - 29 August 2015: Libyans protest against smugglers after up to 200 refugees drown off coast - 5 September: Libyan deal on a unity government possible 'in coming days', UN envoy Leon says - 19 October: Internationally recognized parliament refuses to sign agreement over amendments added to UN proposal for a power-sharing arrangement by Islamist authorities without lawmakers’ consent - 20 October: Warplanes reportedly carried out air strikes on the Libyan city of Sirte targeting areas controlled by fighters loyal to Islamic State terrorists - 23 October: At least nine people were reported killed and dozens more injured in Benghazi on Friday when mortar shells fell on people protesting against a UN proposal for a unity government to end a political crisis - 27 October: Several military commanders from Libya’s self-styled government in Tripoli have been killed after their helicopter was shot down by another of the country’s armed factions, triggering clashes west of the capital between armed brigades - 11 novembre 2015: Au moins 13 soldats gouvernementaux tués par des attaques dans l'Est libyen - 6/7 décembre 2015: Les responsables des parties prenantes annoncent un accord en vue d'un règlement du conflit en Libye - 11 décembre: Le 16 décembre, les représentants des Parlements rivaux en Libye accepteront un texte pour sortir le pays de la crise politique
2016: 19 January 2016: Libyan factions have announced a unity government aimed at stemming the chaos that has engulfed the country since 2011 uprising toppled Gaddafi - 15 février 2016: Soutenu par les Nations unies, un gouvernement libyen d'union nationale est composé de factions rivales - 12/13 March: As Libya's UN-backed Presidential Council calls on the international community to stop dealing with any rival powers within Libya, Libyan unity government moves to start work - 2 April 2016: Libya's UN-backed unity government won the support of guards who secure the country's key oil terminals, the latest pledge of loyalty for a cabinet facing strong opposition from rival political forces - 17 avril 2016: Premiers affrontements depuis le nouveau gouvernement ont eu lieu dans la capital libyenne après une visite des ministres français et allemand des Affaires étrangères pour soutenir le gouvernement d'union nationale - 9 June 2016: After three-week offensive to enter the coastal city of Sirte Libyan forces claim to have ousted Islamic State terrorists from final stronghold - 25 juin 2016: Quatre civils ont été tués et 14 autres blessés vendredi par l'explosion d'une voiture piégée devant un hôpital de Benghazi - 2 August: A car bomb targeting security forces in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi reportedly killed 22 people and wounded 20 amid Libya clashes - 10 August 2016: Libyan forces battling to oust Islamic State terrorists from Sirte say they have made significant advances, gaining control of a large convention centre
2017: 7 March 2017: Libya falls back into civil war as rival sides fight to control oil terminals - 15 March 2017: Libya national army recaptures oil ports at Sidra and Ras Lanuf - 29 March 2017: Power struggle for control of Libya’s oil is threatening to deepen splits in the country and undermine the fragile authority of the UN-backed Libyan Government of National Accord - 24 April 2017: Libya's warring sides reach diplomatic breakthrough in Rome, that has the potential to bring the two main warring sides together in a new political agreement after years of division, fighting and economic misery - 25 July 2017: In an agreement Libyan PM Fayez al-Sarraj and General Hifter have committed themselves to a ceasefire, working towards presidential and parliamentary elections next year and finding a roadmap to secure the country against terrorism and trafficking of all kinds


Madagascar - Geography of Madagascar - History of Madagascar - Demographics of Madagascar
Food security in Madagascar: Food security in Madagascar
Military of Madagascar: Military of Madagascar
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Madagascar: Malagasy society - Malagasy people - Demographics of Madagascar - Human rights in Madagascar
Culture and education in Madagascar: Culture of Madagascar - Languages of Madagascar - Malagasy language
Women in Madagascar: Women in Madagascar
Telecommunications in Madagascar: Telecommunications in Madagascar
Illegal logging, corruption and violence: Corruption and violence - Illegal logging in Madagascar
Madagascar/India relations: Madagascar/India relations
Natural disasters in Madagascar: Natural disasters in Madagascar
Cyclones in Madagascar: Cyclones in Madagascar
Floods in Madagascar: Floods in Madagascar
Droughts in Madagascar:
2013 Madagascar locust infestation: March 2013 Madagascar locust infestation


Malawi - Geography of Malawi - History of Malawi - Demographics of Malawi
Malawi general election 2009: Malawi general election 2009
Culture and languages in Malawi: Malawian culture - Languages of Malawi
Education in Malawi: Education in Malawi
Healthcare in Malawi: Healthcare in Malawi
Media of Malawi: Media of Malawi
Foreign relations of Malawi: Foreign relations of Malawi
Malawi/Zambia relations: Malawi/Zambia relations
Malawi/Zimbabwe relations: Malawi/Zimbabwe relations
Natural disasters in Malawi: Natural disasters in Malawi - Earthquakes in Malawi


Mali - Geography of Mali - History of Mali - African slave trade - Arab slave trade - French Colonization 1892-1960 - 'French Sudan': Mali - Tuareg people - Colonial and post colonial era - Demographics of Mali
Elections in Mali: Elections in Mali
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Mali: Malian society - Demographics of Mali - Ethnic groups in Mali - Human rights in Mali
Women and children's rights in Mali: Women in Mali - Children's rights in Mali
Education in Mali: Education in Mali
Health in Mali: Health in Mali
Internet and internet freedom in Mali: Internet in Mali - Internet Freedom in Mali
Crime in Mali: Crime in Mali
Human trafficking and slavery in Mali: Human trafficking in Mali - Slavery in Mali
March 2012: Malian coup d'état 21 March 2012 (ongoing) - 22 March: Mutinying soldiers say they have ended the rule of President Toure after claiming to have seized control of the presidential palace and the state television station - 23 March: African Union suspends Mali over military coup - Tuareg rebels pressed on Friday with an offensive in the north - 25 March: Mali coup leader calls for end to looting amid reports of sporadic gunfire and lawlessness in capital Bamako - 25 March: Relative calm returns to Mali capital - 27 March: Mali's ruling military junta calls on Tuareg fighters advancing in the north of the country to halt their campaign and hold talks - 29 mars: Le président Touré affirme se trouver à Bamako, en bonne santé et libre - 30 March: Mali's junta seeks help against Tuareg rebels - 30 mars: Inquiétudes pour des journalistes couvrant les suites du putsch au Mali - 31 March: Thousands rally in support of army as Tuareg rebels seize more towns, but ECOWAS rejects coup leader's appeal for help
April 2012: 1 April: Tuareg rebels enter key Malian town of Gao - 2 April: Junta reinstates constitution as rebels seize Timbuktu - 2 April: City of Timbuktu falls to rebels in the north, as pressure mounts on leader of last week's coup to hand over power - 2 April: West African leaders have said they will impose severe sanctions on Mali, as the UN Security Council plans to hold a meeting to discuss the crisis there and as Tuareg rebels increase pressure in north - 4 April: Mali coup leaders announce transitional talks as Tuaregs extend gains in north - 6 April: Tuareg rebels proclaim 'independence of Azawad' following gains in northern Mali - 7 April: Mali's ruling military junta and the West African bloc ECOWAS announced a deal Friday to return to constitutional rule under an interim leader - 8 avril: Le futur président de transition Dioncounda Traoré à Bamako pour assumer le pouvoir - NZZ 8. April: Amadou Toumani Touré übergibt Rücktrittsschreiben als Präsident, Parlamentspräsident Dioucunda Traoré kann Übergangspräsident werden - 26 April: Mali PM Diarra forms new government consisting of nonpolitical experts, including women, and soldiers
January 2013: 10 décembre: Les islamistes du nord du Mali tentent une percée vers le sud - 10 January: Islamist armed group Ansar Dine seizes town of Konna, amid protests against president in capital Bamako and Kati - 12 January: Malian troops drove back Islamist militants from Konna after France intervened with air strikes to halt advances by the militants - 13 janvier: La France, intervenant en soutien à l'armée malienne, a stoppé samedi l'avancée des islamistes dans le centre du Mali - 13 janvier: Quatre avions Rafale ont conduit des frappes aériennes près de Gao, détruisant des camps d'entraînement et des dépôts logistiques des groupes islamistes armés - 15 janvier: Les Touareg du MNLA ont annoncé leur soutien à l’armée française pour lutter contre les groupes islamistes armés dans le nord - 16 janvier: La France a engagé des troupes au sol, notamment pour reprendre la ville de Diabali - 17 January: French special forces battle Islamist fighters in central Mali - 18 January: Mali troops with French assistance regain control of two strategic towns of Konna and Diabaly - 19 janvier: Réunion à Abidjan, soldats français et maliens progressent vers le Nord - 21 janvier: L'armée française a consolidé ses positions au Mali, avec le but de la reconquête du pays - 23 janvier: L'aviation française bombarde des positions d'Aqmi à Tombouctou - 24 January: African forces were moving towards Mali's centre, as pressure grew on Malian troops over summary killings and rights abuses in a French-led assault on Al Qaeda-linked groups - 24 January: Islamic Movement for Azawad is splitting from Ansar Dine 'and wants talks' - 25 January 2013: Malian army probes summary executions claim - 26 January: The Malian army backed up by French troops moved into the town of Hombori, in their farthest push east towards the Islamist stronghold of Gao - 26 January: French-led forces in Mali retake Gao - 27 January: Malian and French troops move on Timbuktu - 28 January: France-backed Malian soldiers recapture airport of key northern city Timbuktu - 29 January: Welcomed Malian and French troops have taken control of Timbuktu, after Islamist occupiers fled the town and torched several buildings, including a priceless manuscript library - 29 January: Welcomed Mali and Niger forces retake northern Malian town of Ansongo - 31 janvier: Président Traoré rejette toute négociation avec les islamistes
February 2013: 3 February: French air strikes target Islamist bases in northern Mali close to the Algerian border - 4 February: A leader of Ansar al-Dine reportedly detained near the Algerian border - 5 February: Malian forces capture eight suspected al-Qaeda-linked fighters, as French jets target fuel depots near Algerian border - 5 février: Environ 1.800 soldats tchadiens ont sécurisé Kidal - 10 February: Malian troops foiled a second suicide bomber attack in the town of Gao, highlighting fragile security in zones recaptured by the French-led offensive - 11 February: A fresh explosion rocked the city of Gao following street battles between Islamists and French and Malian troops - 22 February: French and Malian troops battle rebel fighters on the streets of Gao - 23 February: At least 13 Chadian soldiers and 65 Islamist rebels were killed in clashes in northern Mali on Friday - 23 February: Fighting continues in northern Mali desert as Tuareg militias battle Arab rebels on Saturday - 27 février: Attentat-suicide contre un check-point à Kidal
2015: 18 January: Islamists attack UN base in Mali, killing peacekeeper - 7 March 2015: Gunmen attacked a restaurant in Bamako and killed four people including two Europeans and two Malians - 8 March: Two civilians and a UN peacekeeper killed and four civilians and eight soldiers wounded as militants attacked a barracks used by the UN’s Minusma force in Kidal in northern Mali with rockets - 3 August 2015: Unidentified gunmen killed 10 Malian soldiers at the Gourma Rharous base in northern Mali - 8 August: 5 foreigners evacuated and hostages freed after they were trapped by gunmen in a hotel standoff with soldiers in Sevare in central Mali that left 12 people dead, including five soldiers, three hostages and four terrorists - 13 September 2015: Armed men ambushed a police post in the central Mopti region of Mali on Saturday, killing two police officers - 20 November: At least three people killed, when gunmen take 170 hostages at Bamako hotel, reportedly releasing hostages who are able to quote the Qur’an - 21 November: African jihadi group claims responsibility for attack in which 170 people were taken hostage and at least 21 people were killed, including two militants - 29 November: Two UN peacekeepers from Guinea and a civilian contractor killed on Saturday in a rocket attack on a UN base in Kidal in northeastern Mali claimed by militant group
2017: 18 janvier 2017: Un kamikaze a tué mercredi des dizaines d'anciens rebelles et membres de groupes armés progouvernementaux à Gao, au nord du Mali - 6 mars 2017: Onze militaires maliens ont été tués et cinq blessés tôt dimanche matin au cours d'une attaque djihadiste contre la base militaire de Boulikessi, dans le centre du Mali - 9 June 2017: Three UN peacekeepers killed in attack in Kidal - 18 June 2017: At least two people have been killed after a tourist resort near Bamako, the capital of Mali - 14 August 2017: One UN peacekeeper killed, another injured in coordinated attack on mission base in central Mali's Douenza, Mopti region - 14 August 2017: Gunmen reportedly attacked a UN peacekeeping base in northern Mali's Timbuktu, killing seven people, including five Malian security guards, a gendarme and civilian
Law enforcement in Mali: Law enforcement in Mali
Foreign relations of Mali: Foreign relations of Mali
Bilateral relations of Mali: Bilateral relations of Mali
Mali/France relations: Mali/France relations - 5 octobre 2012: La France déposera une résolution pour préparer un mandat de l'ONU - 11 January 2013: Mali seeks France help against rebel advances - 11 January: President Hollande confirms French forces are supporting Bamako's counter-offensive against al-Qaeda-linked fighters - 13 janvier: La France, intervenant en soutien à l'armée malienne, a stoppé samedi l'avancée des islamistes dans le centre du Mali - 14 January: French FM Laurent Fabius says military operation in Mali will be completed within weeks - 16 janvier: La France engage des troupes au sol - 31 January: Following capture of Kidal France calls for Mali peace talks as Mali's president Traoré rules out talks with Islamist groups - 2 février: François Hollande en visite au Mali, où il a été accueilli par une foule en liesse, a déclaré que 'le combat n'est pas terminé' - 6 février: La France souhaite la mise en place d'une opération de l'ONU en avril - 3 mars 2013: Un troisième soldat français tué dans des combats au Mali - 16 juillet 2013: La France a confirmé la mort de Philippe Verdon, géologue français enlevé avec l'un de ses collègues le 24 novembre 2011 par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb - 19 septembre: À Bamako où il a assisté à l'investiture du nouveau président malien Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, François Hollande a promis que 'la France restera aux côtés du Mali tant qu'il sera menacé' - 2 November: The French journalists Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Verlon abducted by gunmen in the northern Malian town of Kidal have been killed, the French foreign ministry says
Mali/Niger relations: Mali/Niger relations
Mali/United Nations relations: Mali/United Nations relations - UN resolutions concerning Mali
Environmental issues in Mali: Environmental issues in Mali


Mozambique - Geography of Mozambique - History of Mozambique - Portuguese Mozambique 1498-1975 - Mozambican War of Independence 1964-1974 (1975 independence) - Demographics of Mozambique
Mineral industry of Mozambique: Mineral industry of Mozambique
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Mozambique: Mozambican society - Demographics of Mozambique - Human rights in Mozambique
Culture and education in Mozambique: Culture of Mozambique - Languages of Mozambique
Health in Mozambique: Health in Mozambique
Foreign relations of Mozambique: Foreign relations of Mozambique
Mozambique/PR of China relations: Mozambique/PR of China relations - Trade and investment
Mozambique/Malawi relations: Mozambique/Malawi relations - Lake Malawi - Shire River - Zambezi
Mozambique/Portugal relations: Mozambique/Portugal relations
Mozambique/South Africa relations: Mozambique/South Africa relations - Nkomati Accord 1984
Mozambique/Tanzania relations: Mozambique/Tanzania relations
Mozambique/USA relations: Mozambique/USA relations
Natural disasters in Mozambique: Natural disasters in Mozambique


Namibia - Geography of Namibia - History of Namibia - Demographics of Namibia
Water supply and sanitation in Namibia: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia
Namibia Defence Force: Namibia Defence Force
Elections and politics in Namibia: Elections in Namibia
November 2010 Namibian local and regional elections: Namibian local and regional elections 26/27 November 2010
Protests and social movements in Namibia: 2008 Skorpion Zinc Strike
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Namibia: Namibian society - Human rights in Namibia - Demographics of Namibia - Languages of Namibia
Culture and languages in Namibia: Namibian culture - Languages of Namibia
Education in Namibia: Education in Namibia
Health in Namibia: Health in Namibia
Crime in Namibia: Crime in Namibia
Namibia/Angola relations: Namibia/Angola relations
Namibia/Cuba relations: Namibia/Cuba relations
Namibia/South Africa relations: Namibia/South Africa relations
1914-1915 conquest and occupation of 'German South West Africa' by forces from the 'Union of South Africa' acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government: South-West Africa Campaign 1914-1915 was the conquest and occupation of 'German South West Africa' by forces from the 'Union of South Africa' acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government
1915-1990 Namibia 'South-West Africa' mandate of South Africa: Namibia 'South-West Africa' mandate of South Africa 1915-1990 - Apartheid in South-West Africa
Namibia/Zambia relations: Namibia/Zambia relations


Niger - Geography of Niger - History of Niger - Demographics of Niger
2009-2010 Nigerien constitutional crisis: 2009-2010 Nigerien constitutional crisis - 2010 Nigerien coup d'état
January and March 2011 Nigerien parliamentary and presidential election: Nigerien parliamentary election January 2011 - Nigerien presidential election January and March 2011
Social movements and protests in Niger: Protests in Niger
2009-2010 Nigerien constitutional crisis and protests: 2009-2010 Nigerien constitutional crisis and protests
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Niger: Nigerien society - Demographics of Niger - Ethnic groups in Niger
Human rights in Niger: Human rights in Niger
Culture and languages of Niger: Culture of Niger - Languages of Niger
Religion in Niger: Religion in Niger - Islam in Niger
Women in Niger: Women in Niger
Education in Niger: Education in Niger
Health in Niger: Health in Niger
Media in Niger: Media of Niger
Crime in Niger: Crime in Niger
Terrorism, kidnapping and incendiarism in Niger: 4 November 2012: Five members of aid organizations freed but their colleague Aime Soulembaye died of wounds after kidnapping by unidentified gunmen - 23 May 2013: Islamist militants staged twin suicide car bombings on an army base and a French-run uranium mine, killing at least 20 people and taking several trainee officers hostage - 17 January 2015: At lease five people killed as armed rioters torch churches and attack French firms in Niamey on the second day of protests against French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 23 December 2015: Boko Haram militants kill two soldiers and three civilians in Niger's southern border town of Abadam in an overnight raid as group's regional attacks mount - 18 March 2016: Just days before Niger votes in the second round of presidential election gunmen believed to be linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb shot dead three policemen in a market in Dolbel and four suspected Boko Haram suicide bombers attacked a military convoy, killing the local military commander and injuring two others near the border with Nigeria
Human trafficking in Niger: Human trafficking in Niger
Foreign relations of Niger: Foreign relations of Niger
Niger/Algeria relations: Niger/Algeria relations
Niger/Chad relations: Niger/Chad relations
Niger/Mali relations: Niger/Mali relations
Niger/USA relations: Niger/USA relations
Environment of Niger: Environment of Niger
Natural disasters: Natural disasters in Niger


Nigeria - Geography of Nigeria - History of Nigeria - British West Africa from the late 1780s until the 1960s - Colonial Nigeria
Electric power and infrastructure in Nigeria: Electric power in Nigeria and Electric power infrastructure in Nigeria
Renewable energy in Nigeria: Renewable energy in Nigeria
Water supply and sanitation in Nigeria: Water supply and sanitation in Nigeria
Economic history and economic cycles in Nigeria: Economic history of Nigeria
Child labour in Nigeria: Child labour in Nigeria
Military of Nigeria: Military of Nigeria - Military history of Nigeria - Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98
Political parties and trade unions in Nigeria: List of political parties in Nigeria - Trade unions in Nigeria
Since 1999 fourth Nigerian Republic: Fourth Nigerian Republic since 1999
Elections and politcs in Nigeria: Elections in Nigeria
28 March 2015 Nigerian general election: 28 March 2015 Nigerian general election (scheduled to be held on 14 February 2015) - 8 February: As troops of neighbouring countries forced to fight against Islamist threat of Nigeria based Boko Haram and Nigeria's president Goodluck Jonathan fights to stay in power, poll postponed over Boko Haram - 28 March 2015: Nigerians vote in delayed general election as poverty, corruption and insecurity remain main issues - 29 March: Millions voted across Nigeria Saturday, Boko Haram extremists killed 41 people, including a legislator, and scared hundreds of people from polling stations in the northeast, polling will continue Sunday in some areas - 31 March: Opposition candidate Muhammadu Buhari took a significant lead over the Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan with three-quarters of states counted - 1 April: Nigeria’s new president-elect Muhammadu Buhari unveils plan of action pledging to end Boko Haram, corruption
February 2019 Nigerian general election: 16 February 2019 Nigerian general election
Social movements and protests in Nigeria: Protests in Nigeria
Society, demographics, culture, religion and human rights in Nigeria: Nigerian society
Culture and languages of Nigeria: Culture of Nigeria - Languages of Nigeria
Women and women's rights in Nigeria: Women in Nigeria - Women's rights in Nigeria
Female education in Nigeria: Female education in Nigeria
Child sexual abuse in Nigeria: Child sexual abuse in Nigeria
Education in Nigeria: Education in Nigeria
Universities and colleges in Nigeria: Universities and colleges in Nigeria
Health in Nigeria: Health in Nigeria
Health disasters and medical outbreaks in Nigeria: Health disasters in Nigeria - Medical outbreaks in Nigeria
Healthcare by city of Nigeria: Healthcare by city of Nigeria
Newspapers in Nigeria: Newspapers in Nigeria
Human rights, religion and violence in Nigeria: Human rights in Nigeria
June 2012: 3 June: Reports of several killed and dozens injured in bomb attack outside church in northern city of Bauchi - 4 June: Boko Haram group claims responsibility for Sunday's blast - 6 June: Deadly gunfight in Kano and Maiduguri cities in Nigeria's northeast - 10 June: Deadly attacks on churches in the city of Jos and in Biu in Borno state - 10 juin: La secte Boko Haram revendique les attaques anti-chrétiennes meurtrières dimanche - 17 June: Suicide bombers targeted four churches in a series of attacks in northern Nigeria on Sunday, killing at least 25 people, many of them children, and prompting reprisal attacks - 19 June: Officials in northern Nigeria's Kaduna state have imposed a ban on movements following fresh rioting in the cities of Kaduna and Damaturu - 25 June: Fighters from armed group Boko Haram broke into jail in northeastern Yobe state and freed 40 prisoners, police says
October 2012: 2 octobre: Au moins 26 personnes ont été tuées dans l'attaque par des hommes armés d'une résidence d'étudiants dans l'État d'Adamawa - 8 October: Nigerian troops target Boko Haram in Damaturu in northeastern Yobe state - 8 October: More than 30 people shot dead in northeastern city of Maiduguri after an army lieutenant was killed - 10 October: Nigerian army denies killing civilians in Maiduguri - 14 October: Gunmen kill at least 20 people in Kaduna State - 16 October: Officials said that at least 24 people were killed after Maiduguri shaken by 'Boko Haram' blasts - 20 October: At least 23 people killed and several buildings destroyed after suspected Boko Haram attack in Potiskum - 28 October: At least three people killed and several injured after a suicide bomber drives into a church in the city of Kaduna
January-April 2014: 14 January: A Boko Haram car bomb exploded in the north-eastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri, killing at least 17 people - 27 January: Boko Haram attacks in Kawuri village in Borno and in Waga Chakawa village in Adamawa state leave scores dead - 13 February: Boko Haram gunmen killed 43 people and razed scores of homes when they stormed two villages in Borno - 16 February: Suspected Boko Haram islamist militants have raided Nigerian Izge village and murdered dozens - 25 February: At least 29 students killed after suspected Boko Haram militants attacked a boarding school in Buni Yadi - 27 February: Soldiers abandoned into the bush, leaving five villages and a town at the mercy of Islamic extremists who killed at least 13 people - 27 February: Nearly 300,000 people, more than half of them children, displaced in northeast Nigeria by Islamist group Boko Haram - 1/2 April: 15 civilians killed in a suspected Boko Haram attack in northeast Nigeria
15 April: Nigeria Islamists kill 68 people in two attacks in Kala Balge and Dikwa
April 2014: 15 April 2014 Chibok kidnapping - 15 April: Heavily armed Boko Haram Islamists kidnapped more than 100 girls from a school in the Chibok area of Borno, sparking a search by soldiers to track down the attackers - 17 April: Scores of female students kidnapped by Islamic militants reportedly freed - 18 April: Nigeria admits most kidnapped schoolgirls still missing - 19 April: 24 more Nigerian schoolgirls abducted by Islamic extremists have escaped and 85 still are missing, an education official says - 19 April: Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the deadliest attack ever in Abuja on 14 April, as the search continued for 85 schoolgirls still missing after a mass abduction by the Islamists - 25 April: Nigeria's government vows to do all it can to rescue some 190 girls abducted from their school last week - 30 April/1 May: Scores of kidnapped school girls reportedly forced to marry their Islamic extremist abductors, as parents demand their rescue and plead for help
May 2014: 2 May: Just days before Abuja hosts the World Economic Forum on Africa another car bomb at a bus station kills at least a dozen people near site of the city's deadliest attack on 14 April - 4 May: As no group says it carried out the recent bomb attack Nigerian security forces detain several people in Abuja - 6 May: Islamist militant group 'Boko Haram' threatens to sell more than 200 schoolgirls kidnapped last month - 7 May: After 'Boko Haram' kidnapped eight more girls, aged between eight and 15, USA and UK offer help to hunt down the Islamist group - 8 May: After terrorists terribly attacked Gamboru Ngala on the border with Cameroon and Buji-Buji, also in Borno state, more countries offer support and join in the search for the schoolgirls abducted by 'Boko Haram' amid global outrage over the kidnapping and terror attacks - 10 May: Nigeria's president for weeks refused international help to search for the girls abducted from a school by Islamic terrorists - 11 May: Islamic terrorists blew up a bridge, killed an unknown number of people and abducted the wife and two children of a retired police officer in northeast Nigeria - 11 May: Nigerian student tells of kidnap ordeal after escaping Boko Haram captors - 13 May: Nigeria rejects Boko Haram prisoner swap for hostage schoolgirls - 16 May: Dozens of gunmen in northern Bauchi state stormed the neighbouring villages of Shadarki and Yelwan Darazo, setting two primary schools ablaze - 19 May: Four people killed, including a young girl, in a suicide car bomb attack in Kano - 21 May: At least 118 people were killed in a car bomb attack in the central Nigerian city of Jos - 21 May: Dozens killed in twin Boko Haram attacks near Chibok - 23 May: Boko Haram raided three villages and killed those they accused of being anti-Boko Haram vigilantes, residents say - 26 May: Suspected Islamist gunmen opened fire on civilians in the village of Kamuyya, killing 20 people as they gathered to trade in its open air market
June 2014: 2 June: Bomb blast in Gavan in the Mubi area of Adamawa state kills at least 14 people and injures 12 - 5 June: Boko Haram militants dressed as soldiers slaughtered at least 200 civilians in three communities in northeastern Nigeria and the military failed to intervene even though it was warned - 10 June: Suspected Islamist Boko Haram militants kidnapped up to 30 women from nomadic settlements in Nigeria's northeast, close to where the group abducted more than 200 schoolgirls - 17 June: Nigerian army arrests 486 alleged Boko Haram members - 18 June: Boko Haram bomb World Cup viewing venue in Damaturu killing several people, as Nigeria's military promises increased security - 23 June: At least eight people killed and 20 wounded by an explosion at a college campus in Kano - 24 June: 91 more people reportedly abducted, including toddlers as young as 3, in weekend attacks on villages in Nigeria - 25 June: Deadly blast hits shopping mall in Abuja - 29 June: Suspected Boko Haram militants kill 10 people in attack on Nigerian village near Chibok
October 2014: 17 October: Nigeria's government and Boko Haram have agreed to an immediate cease-fire but the fate of schoolgirls abducted by the terrorists six months ago remains unclear - 18 October: Suspected Boko Haram terrorists kill several people in two attacks on the villages Abadam and Dzur after Nigeria 'ceasefire' - 19 October: Anxious wait for Nigeria girls after Boko Haram 'deal' - 23 October: Sixty more women and girls kidnapped from two towns in north-east Nigeria and five people killed by a bomb blast at a bus station in Azare in Bauchi state - 27 October: As Boko Haram reportedly killed 17 people and terrorists kidnapped about 30 children, including girls as young as 11, in Borno state at the weekend, rights group outlines testimony from dozens of former hostages who documented abuse
November/December 2014: 1 November: Boko Haram denies ceasefire claims saying kidnapped schoolgirls had converted to Islam and had been married off since being captured - 1 November: Families of kidnapped Nigerian girls shocked at marriage claims - 27 November: An explosion at a bus station kills more than 30 people, inclduing five soldiers, in Adamawa state - 28 November: Dozens killed in series of bombs at Nigeria mosque in Kano where emir has spoken out against Boko Haram - 24 December: 14-year-old Nigerian girl Zahra’u Babangida, arrested with explosives strapped to her body, told journalists that Boko Haram islamists and her parents urged her to take part in a suicide attack - 28 December: The Nigerian government has 'tried to make us shut up', says Bring Back Our Girls co-founder Obiageli Ezekwesili
2015: January 2015 Malari kidnapping - 3 January 2015: Suspected Boko Haram gunmen kidnapped 40 boys and young men in Malari village in Borno state on New Year's Eve, resorted residents say - January 2015 Baga massacre - 4/5 January: Boko Haram seizes Baga army base in northeast Nigeria, killing scores of soldiers and civilians - 10 January: Nigerian forces reportedly fight to reclaim town of Baga from Boko Haram - 10 January: At least 19 people killed in a bomb blast at a crowded market in Maiduguri, with some reports suggesting a young girl of about 10 was the source of the explosion - 12 January: Three people killed and 26 wounded in Yobe state, as two suspected child suicide bombers attack market - 14 January: A suicide bomber blew himself up outside a mosque in Gombe in northeastern Nigeria, killing at least two other people and wounding 14 - 15 January: Satellite images reveal devastation of Boko Haram massacre in northeastern Nigeria - 17 January: Another suicide bomber blew himself up at a market in Gombe on Friday, killing at least six people and wounding 10 - 25 January: Suspected Boko Haram militants attack major Nigeria northern city of Maiduguri - 31 January: Chad army retakes Nigerian town from Boko Haram - 1 February: Boko Haram launches deadly attack on northeast Nigeria's biggest city Maiduguri - 4 February: Boko Haram killed more than 100 people during an attack on the north Cameroon town of Fotokol, murdering residents inside their homes and in a mosque, - 8 February: African nations pledge 8,700 soldiers, policemen and civilians for anti-Boko Haram force - 15 February: A teenage suicide bomber blew herself up at a crowded bus station in Damaturu, the capital of Yobe state, killing at least 16 people most of them children and wounding 30 others - 18 February: As regional neighbours pounded Boko Haram militants, Nigerian forces recapture 11 towns and villages in a counter offensive ahead of elections - 20 February: Deadly Boko Haram raids destroy two Nigerian villages Thlaimakalama and Gatamarwa - 22 February 2015: A girl thought to be as young as seven kills herself and five others in a suicide bombing attack on a market in the north-eastern town of Potiskum, as Goodluck Jonathan, the country’s president, admits in an interview that his government underestimated the Islamists who have overrun north-east Nigeria over the past six years - 1 March: Teenage girl accused of planning to be a suicide bomber brutally beaten to death in north-east city of Bauchi after crowd at market reportedly find two bottles strapped to her body - 7 March: Three suspected Boko Haram bombings, including one by a female suicide attacker, killed at least 58 people and wounded at least 139 others in markets and bus station in Maiduguri - 8 March: Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria - 23 March: Chadian helicopters bomb Boko Haram on Nigeria-Niger border, Niger's army official says - 4 April 2015: Gunmen killed nine people and injured two in a shooting spree in Obrikom and the nearby village of Obor, in oil-producing Rivers state, and the house of APC's Vincent Ogbagu was set on fire - 13 April 2015: Fighting following Boko Haram attacks in north-eastern Nigeria has forced around 800,000 children from their homes over the past year, according to Unicef - 1 May 2015: Niger ordered the evacuation of its inhabited islands on Lake Chad following a deadly attack there by Boko Haram militants killing at least 74 Nigerien soldiers and civilians - 2 May: The Nigerian army rescued 234 girls and women from Boko Haram camps in Sambisa Forest, bringing the total number of women and children rescued this week to over 677 - 15 mai 2015: Au moins 55 civils tués lors de deux attaques de Boko Haram près de Maiduguri - 16 May: Nigerian child suicide bomber kills several at crowded bus station in Damaturu - 31 May: At least 30 people killed in suspected Boko Haram suicide bombing, grenade attack in Maiduguri - 5 June: Female suicide bomber in Nigeria's Maiduguri kills two near checkpoint - 25 June 2015: After an attack by Boko Haram in south-east Niger that killed 38 civilians, most of them women and children, Niger’s army says it killed 15 Boko Haram militants in land and air operations also taking 20 prisoners and destroying vehicles - 28 June: Suicide bombers kill at least three in Borno state - 3 July: Suspected Boko Haram militants killed nearly 150 people in villages in Borno state, mowing down men and even children between four and 12 years old while they prayed in mosques and shooting women preparing food at home - 3 July: Twelve people reportedly killed at a mosque in Malari village in northeastern Nigeria when a young female suicide bomber blew herself up - 6 July: Two bombs blamed on the Islamic terrorists Boko Haram exploded at a crowded mosque and a Muslim restaurant in Nigeria’s central city of Jos, killing 44 people and injuring 67 - 16 July: Two explosions in Nigerian city of Gombe leave dozens dead, as Nigerian president promises again to tackle Boko Haram - 23 July: At least 29 people died and 60 were wounded in multiple bomb blasts at two bus stations in the northern Nigerian city of Gombe on Wednesday evening - 25 July: At least 21 people were killed in a new attack by suspected Boko Haram terrorists in Maikadiri in Borno state, causing many to flee - 3 August: Nigeria's army claims to have freed nearly 180 hostages - including more than 100 children - held by Boko Haram jihadists south of Maiduguri - 12 August: At least 47 people were killed and dozens wounded in a bomb blast targeting the market in the village of Sabon Gari south of Borno state capital Maiduguri frequently targeted by Boko Haram terrorists - 25 August: A female teenage suicide bomber kills six people in Damaturu in northeast Nigeria - 31 August: Boko Haram Islamist extremists kill 56 people in Baanu village in Nigeria's north-east - 5 October 2015: Suicide bombings near the Nigerian capital Abuja, which killed at least 15 people, claimed by militants affiliated to 'Islamic State' terrorists - 10 October 2015: Boko Haram terrorists, sending five suicide bombers identified as two women, two children and a man, said to be behind two attacks at busy market and refugee camp in Lake Chad region near Nigeria, killing at least 36 people and wounding about 50 others - 16 October 2015: Dozens of worshippers were killed after two suicide bombers blew themselves up in a mosque in the north-eastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri, witnesses say reporting that all the people in the mosque died - 23 October: At least 10 people were killed and 11 wounded on Friday in a suicide attack at a mosque in northeastern Nigeria's Borno state - 24 October: Two bomb blasts ripped through mosques in northeast Nigeria's Maiduguri and Yola on Friday, killing at least 55 people and injuring more than 100, as Boko Haram fighters briefly seized the town of Kerawa in neighboring Cameroon - 28 October: Suspected Boko Haram terrorists killed at least 14 people in an overnight attack on the village of Ala in the Diffa region near the Nigerian border in southeastern Niger - 18 November: More than 30 people were killed and about 80 injured by a bomb blast targeting a market area in Yola in northeast Nigeria, just days after President Buhari declared that Boko Haram were close to defeat - 18 November: At least 15 people have been killed after two female suicide bombers, one said to be aged as young as 11, blew themselves up at a busy mobile phone market in Kano in northeast Nigeria - 27 November 2015: At least 21 people killed and many wounded after suicide bomber targets Shia Muslim procession in Dakasoye near Kano - 16 décembre 2015: Au moins 30 personnes ont été tuées et une vingtaine blessées dans des attaques contre trois villages du nord-est du Nigeria, attribuées à Boko Haram - 22 December: Boko Haram keeping a million children out of school, UNICEF says - 26 décembre 2015: Au moins 14 personnes tuées et plusieurs autres blessées par Boko Haram, lors d'une attaque vendredi contre le village Kimba du nord-est du Nigeria - 28 décembre 2015: Boko Haram a de nouveau frappé Maiduguri en attaquant l'une de ses banlieues
2016: 31 January 2016: Boko Haram terrorists murder 86 people in Nigerian Northeast's Maiduguri, leaving another 60 people wounded after shooting, burning and explosions from three suicide bombers - 10 February 2016: Two suspected Boko Haram female suicide bombers have blown themselves up in a refugee camp in Dikwa in north-east Nigeria for people fleeing Boko Haram terrorists, killing at least 56 people and wounding dozens - 17 March 2016: More than 20 people were killed and many were injured after an suspected Boko Haram attack by two suicide bombers on a mosque on the outskirts of Maiduguri, condemned by UN's Ban Ki-moon - 25 mars: Seize femmes ont été kidnappées par des hommes armés du groupe islamiste Boko Haram près du village de Sabon Garin Madagali dans le nord-est - 25 mars: Les troupes nigérianes ont libéré 829 otages retenus par le groupe islamiste Boko Haram, après avoir délogé les insurgés de plusieurs villages du nord-est, a annoncé l'armée - 14 April: Fifteen girls, who are among more than 200 still missing, appear on a video shown to Chibok parents and made almost four months ago, urging the government to help reunite them with families - 20 May 2016: Serah Luka, a second Chibok schoolgirl abducted by Boko Haram more than two years ago has been found, the Nigerian army says - 20 May 2016: Chibok parent group says military did not verify Serah Luka’s name with them and she is not on list of missing schoolgirls - 11 juin 2016: Une quinzaine de membres du groupe Boko Haram a attaqué Mairari, un village isolé situé à 80 kilomètres de Maiduguri, et tué quatre femmes - 17 June: Boko Haram militants have killed 24 people, mostly women, as they mourned at a funeral in a village in northern Nigeria, looting and burning their houses down, also attacking a village in Niger - 23 June 2016: More than 1,200 people have died of starvation and illness at an aid camp in Bama in north-east Nigeria that houses people fleeing the Islamist militant group Boko Haram, according to Médecins Sans Frontières - 23 June 2016: Nigeria’s 'Bring Back Our Girls' movement and family members are demanding that the government provide news of the only schoolgirl Amina Ali Nkeki among 219 kidnapped to escape the clutches of Boko Haram terrorists, as relatives say they don’t understand why the government wants to keep her family away more than one month since Amina was rescued - 10 juillet 2016: Sept morts dans une attaque de Boko Haram et des habitants de la ville de Rann au nord-est en fuite - 14 July 2016: Médecins Sans Frontières says UN agencies failed to respond to warnings after Boko Haram devastated food production in Borno state, also accusing Nigerian authorities, who maintain tight control over humanitarian and media access to the region, of deliberate negligence and attempting to conceal the scale of the crisis - 14 August: Fifty girls believed to be among the Nigerian schoolchildren kidnapped at gunpoint two years ago have appeared in a video released by Boko Haram, now demanding the release of imprisoned terrorists - 13 September 2016: Nigerian officials have been accused of stealing food from desperate people who are living in camps after fleeing the terrorist group Boko Haram - 17 October 2016: Chibok families reunited with 21 girls kidnapped by Boko Haram in April 2014, as parents travel from Chibok to capital Abuja where girls have received medical attention and counselling after partial release in deal with Islamic State-affiliated faction
Crime in Nigeria: Crime in Nigeria
Terrorist incidents in Nigeria by year and timeline of Boko Haram attacks: Terrorist incidents in Nigeria by year - Timeline of Boko Haram attacks in Nigeria
Violence against women and domestic violence in Nigeria: Domestic violence in Nigeria
Child sexual abuse in Nigeria: Child sexual abuse in Nigeria
Child labour in Nigeria: Child labour in Nigeria
Human trafficking in Nigeria: Human trafficking in Nigeria
'Economic and Financial Crimes Commission' and 'Independent Corrupt Practices Commission': Economic and Financial Crimes Commission since 2003 - Independent Corrupt Practices Commission
Judiciary of Nigeria: Judiciary of Nigeria
Law enforcement in Nigeria: Law enforcement in Nigeria - Nigeria Police Force
Foreign relations of Nigeria: Foreign relations of Nigeria
Treaties of Nigeria: Treaties of Nigeria
Nigeria, the liberation of Africa and the African Union: Nigeria, the liberation of Africa and the African Union since 1960
Since 1960 Nigeria/African Union relations: Nigeria/African Union relations
Nigeria's membership in international organisations: Nigeria's membership in international organisations
Since 1986 South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone: South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986
Since 1996 African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty: Since 1996 African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
Bilateral relations of Nigeria: Bilateral relations of Nigeria
Nigeria/Angola relations: Nigeria/Angola relations
Nigeria/Cameroon relations: Nigeria/Cameroon relations
2015: 19 January 2015: Boko Haram kidnaps at least 60 people, most of them women and children, in deadly northern Cameroon attack - 20 January: Cameroon's army has freed 24 of some 80 hostages kidnapped during a cross-border attack by suspected Boko Haram Islamists based in neighboring Nigeria - 4 February: Boko Haram killed more than 100 people during an attack on the north Cameroon town of Fotokol, murdering residents inside their homes and in a mosque - 10 July: Cameroon's army repulsed an attack by Boko Haram and killed three of the Nigerian terrorists in heavy fighting in the northern region - 26 July 2015: At least 14 people killed by a suicide bomber in Maroua in northern Cameroon, just three days after twin attacks there by suspected members of Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram - 22 November 2015: Eight people dead after three female suspected Boko Haram suicide bombers and one man blew themselves up in an attack on house of traditional chief in village of Nigue - 29 November 2015: Suspected Boko Haram militants detonated two suicide bombs in the village of Dabanga in northern Cameroon on Saturday, killing at least five people including a woman and her children - 2 December: Suspected Boko Haram militants detonated two suicide bombs in north Cameroon overnight, killing at least three people
Nigeria/Chad relations: Nigeria/Chad relations
2014/2015 cooperation on fighting Boko Haram: Since 2014 cooperation on fighting Boko Haram - 26 May 2014: Cameroon, Chad Deploy Troops to Fight Boko Haram - 31 January 2015: Troops from Chad have driven Boko Haram fighters from a northern Nigeria border town seized late last year - 13 February: Boko Haram attacks Chadian village overnight killing several people - 8 March: Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria - 2 April 2015: After soldiers from Chad and Niger drove Boko Haram militants from Malam Fatori, Chad's forces killed hundreds of militants and lost nine of its own troops in clashes in northern Nigeria, Chad's army says - 28 July 2015: At least 13 suspected Boko Haram militants and three civilians killed in separate attacks after the terrorists raided several remote localities around Lake Chad - 10 October 2015: Boko Haram terrorists, sending five suicide bombers identified as two women, two children and a man, said to be behind two attacks at busy market and refugee camp in Lake Chad region near Nigeria, killing at least 36 people and wounding about 50 others
Nigeria/PR of China relations: Nigeria/PR of China relations
Nigeria/Brazil relations: Nigeria/Brazil relations
Nigeria/Germany relations: Nigeria/Germany relations
Nigeria/India relations: Nigeria/India relations
Nigeria/Indonesia relations: Nigeria/Indonesia relations
Nigeria/Niger relations: Nigeria/Niger relations - Yobe River - Lake Chad
Nigeria/Pakistan relations: Nigeria/Pakistan relations
Nigeria/South Africa relations: Nigeria/South Africa relations
Nigeria/United Kingdom relations: Nigeria/United Kingdom relations
Late 1780s until the 1960s British West Africa and Colonial Nigeria: British West Africa from the late 1780s until the 1960s - Colonial Nigeria - Provinces of Nigeria
Environment of Nigeria: Environment of Nigeria
Ecoregions of Nigeria: Ecoregions of Nigeria
Environmental issues in Nigeria: Environmental issues in Nigeria
Since 1980 Nigeria gully erosion crisis: Since 1980 Nigeria gully erosion crisis
Environmental issues in the Niger Delta: Environmental issues in the Niger Delta
Conflict in the Niger Delta: Conflict in the Niger Delta