Africa



Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent - Geography of Africa - Climate of Africa - Geography of African countries
History of Africa - Recent African origin of modern humans
October 2019 humanity’s homeland located in ancient Botswana: 29 October 2019: New study traces humanity’s homeland to ancient Botswana, as researchers use DNA samples combined with geographic distribution, archaeological and climate change data to come up with a genomic timeline
July 2020 Israel's desert a lush bridge out of Africa 1.8m years ago: 14 July 2020: Homo erectus is the first hominin known to have gone global, with fossils found from South Africa to Spain and Indonesia, as Israel's desert was a lush bridge out of Africa 1.8 million years ago, scientists prove
Demographics of Africa - Ethnic groups of Africa - Languages of Africa

Since first century Roman empire in Sub-Saharan Africa, a group of military expeditions and explorations to Lake Chad and western Africa, conducted by units of the Roman empire who moved across the Sahara and into the interior of Africa and its coast, between the first and the fourth century AD ahead of the decline of the slavery based empire

European Atlantic slave trade mainly by the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish from the 16th through to the 19th centuries bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets

Colonisation of Africa - Belgian colonisation in Africa - Since 1843 Belgian colonial empire - British colonisation in Africa - Since 1497 British Empire - Dutch colonisation in Africa - Since 1543 Dutch Empire - French colonisation in Africa - Since 1534 French colonial empire - German colonisation in Africa - Since 1884 German colonial empire - Italian colonisation in Africa - Since 1869 Italian colonial empire - Portuguese colonisation in Africa - Since 1415 Portuguese Empire - Spanish colonisation in Africa - Since 15th century Spanish Empire - Since 1650 Swedish colony 'Swedish Gold Coast' in present-day Ghana in Africa - Since 1658 Danish colony 'Danish Gold Coast', roughly present-day southeast Ghana - 1821–1957 British colony 'British Gold Coast', 1850 incorporation of the 'Danish Gold Coast', 1872 incorporation of the 'Dutch Gold Coast', since 1957 the independent nation of Ghana - Scramble for Africa, the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914 - Colonies in Africa

African resistance to colonialism - African independence movements - Decolonisation of Africa mainly in the mid-to-late 1950s and 1960s
Since 1847 timeline of decolonisation of Africa: Since 1847 timeline of the decolonisation of Africa
2006/2009 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone: 1996/2009 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba and named after South Africa's main Nuclear Research Centre, the location where South Africa's atomic bombs of the 1970s were developed, constructed and subsequently stored - History of nuclear weapons amid World Wars since 1914 initiated by the German, other European and the Japanese empire
1 July 2020 demands to 'decolonise and rename’ streets and locations in Africa: 1 July 2020: 'Decolonise and rename’ streets of Uganda and Sudan, activists urge, as campaigners target statues of slave owners and roads named after imperial armies in pro-democracy and anti-racism protests spreading to Africa

Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation, following the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over other societies and territories, creating a colony, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically, as research suggests, the current conditions of postcolonial countries have roots in colonial actions and policies
16 June 2020 African countries demand UN inquiry into 'systemic racism' and 'police brutality' in the USA: 16 June 2020; African countries are lobbying to set up a UN inquiry into 'systemic racism' and 'police brutality' in the USA and elsewhere, aiming to defend the rights of people of African descent, a draft resolution shows circulating among diplomats in Geneva, voicing alarm at 'recent incidents of police brutality against peaceful demonstrators defending the rights of Africans and of people of African descent', due to be considered at an urgent debate of the UN Human Rights Council on Wednesday
27 November 2020 UN Sudan expert's links to Russian oligarch Prigozhin and mercenaries revealed: 27 November 2020: Leaked documents show links between an academic serving on a UN expert panel on Sudan, and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the Russian oligarch under USA sanctions who has led Russia’s recent push into Africa, as - according to the USA - Prigozhin runs the Wagner group, which has sent mercenaries to countries including Sudan, Libya and the Central African Republic, and is also behind a notorious internet troll factory that supported Donald Trump

List of African countries by population - Ethnic groups in Africa by country, following the slave trade, colonization, colonial wars and decolonization
List of conflicts in Africa including colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence, and global conflicts in which Africa was and is a theatre of war - Terrorism in Africa
African political history and democracy: African political history by country - Elections in Africa by country and by date, listing the most recent national elections in African countries - List of African Union member states by political system, including republicanism, monarchism, authoritarian rule, military dictatorship, and types of government systems and degree of self-governance - Democracy in Africa, measured by a variety of indexes primarily devised by Non-Governmental Organisations NGOs, such as Freedom House's Freedom in the World index, and the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World index, as both organisations measure a range of factors including human rights, property rights and free elections to determine the status of states as 'free', 'partially free', or 'not free'
2016 governance across Africa has seen minimal improvement over the past decade: 3 October 2016: Governance across Africa has seen minimal improvement over the past decade since 2006, held back by widespread deterioration in safety and rule of law, according to the Ibrahim index of African governance
November 2020 governance progress slowed across Africa for the first time in a decade: 17 November 2020: Governance progress slowed across Africa for the first time in a decade, with commitment to democracy and civil rights faltering, according to the Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance, published every two years and giving each country's government a score according to criteria including anti-corruption measures, protection of civil liberties and caring for the environment

2019 African election calendar
December 2019 Africa's young leaders face a testing 2020: 31 December 2019: Africa's young leaders face a testing 2020, as younger generations supported by modern media face huge hurdles in sweeping away decades-old regimes
2020 elections in Africa: 2020 elections in Africa, including 2020 Algerian legislative election, 2020 Burkinabé general election, 2020 Burundian general election, 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election, 2020 Central African general election, 2020 Comorian legislative election, 2020 Egyptian parliamentary election, 2020 Ghanaian general election, 2020 Guinean legislative election, 2020 Guinean presidential election, 2020 Ivorian presidential election, 2020 Malawian presidential election, 2020 Malian parliamentary election, 2020 Namibian local and regional elections, 2020 Nigerien general election, 2020 Seychellois general election, 2020 Tanzanian general election, 2020 Togolese presidential election
22-24 October 2020 Seychellois general election: 22-24 October 2020 Seychellois general election
25 October 2020 Seychelles election marks first opposition victory in 44 years: 25 October 2020: Seychelles election marks first opposition victory in 44 years, also the first opposition victory since the Indian Ocean archipelago’s independence, as Wavel Ramkalawan wins presidency ousting incumbent United Seychelles party leader, winning 54.9% of the vote to Faure’s 43.5%, as opposition also won the legislative election that took place from Thursday to Saturday alongside the presidential poll, with Ramkalawan’s party taking 25 seats after economy has slowed significantly since the start of covid-19 pandemic and unemployment has risen to 6.3%, with about 40% of Seychellois living in poverty because of the high cost of living, according to the country's electoral commission
Since 2018/2019 Sudanese Revolution: Since 2018/2019 Sudanese Revolution, a major shift of political power in Sudan that started with street protests throughout Sudan on 19 December 2018
2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy: 2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy - Transitional Legislative Council of Sudan, an interim legislative body to be formed in Sudan as part of the 2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy
2022 Sudanese general election: 2022 Sudanese general election scheduled to be held in Sudan in late 2022 as part of the transition to democracy deal

Trade unions in Africa by country - List of federations of trade unions in Africa - ITUC Regional Organisation for Africa is a regional organisation of the International Trade Union Confederation, representing trade unions from African countries with 56 national trade union federations affiliated to ITUC-Africa from 45 countries

Human rights in Africa - the United Nations System, international law and the African Union have all contributed to the establishment of a human rights system in Africa - African society by country - African society by subject
Slavery in contemporary Africa: Slavery in contemporary Africa
Women and women's rights in Africa: Women in Africa - Women in Africa by country - Women's rights in Africa by country and subject - Violence against women in Africa by country and subject - Sexism in Africa
Gender, marriage, and ages of consent in Africa: Gender in Africa by contry and subject - The age of consent in Africa for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across the continent, ranging from age 12 to age 18 - Polygamy by country - Polygyny in Islam - Islamic marital jurisprudence - Marriage in Islam - Divorce in Islam - Women in Islam - Women in Arab societies - Women's rights in Islam - Islam and domestic violence
Women's organizations in Africa: Women's organizations in Africa by country
Childhood and youth in Africa by country: Childhood in Africa - Youth in Africa by country
Child labour in Africa: Child labour in Africa - Africa has the world's highest incidence rates of child labour especially in sub-saharan Africa where more than 40% of all children aged 5–14 labour for survival, or about 48 million children
Child soldiers in Africa: Child soldiers in Africa

Education in Africa - Education in Africa by region and subject - History of education in Africa - History of female education in Africa - Women and education in Africa
Schools in Africa by country: Schools in Africa by country
August 2019 children out of school due to rising violence: 23 August 2019: More than 1.9 million children are forced out of school across west and central Africa due to rising violence and insecurity, putting them at higher risk of recruitment by armed groups, Unicef says, revealing that more than 9,000 schools have been shut down as of June this year in the eight countries of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Niger and Nigeria
9 July 2020 Kenya cancels 2020 school year, classes to resume next year: 9 July 2020: Kenya has declared the academic year of 2020 lost because of covid-19 pandemic, as all primary and secondary schools in the East Africa nation will remain closed until January 2021
Universities and colleges in Africa: Universities and colleges in Africa by country - Lists of universities and colleges in Africa by country

Media of Africa - Media of Africa by country
May 2019 African female sports journalists summit: 17 May 2019: Over 120 participants particularly female sports journalist across the continent from Ghana, DRC, Namibia, Zambia, Togo, Uganda and South Africa among others attended the first ever African female sports journalists in Ghana
African newspapers: African newspapers by country - Digital newspapers published in Africa
Broadcasting in Africa: Broadcasting in Africa by country - Radio in Africa by country - Television in Africa by country
Internet in Africa: Internet in Africa by country - African news websites
May 2019: 17 May 2019: Amid international controversy over social media abuse, Facebook removes fake accounts targeting Africa, saying the 265 social media accounts removed were focused on Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia

Economy of Africa
Economic history of Africa and crises: Economic history of Africa - Economic history of Africa by country - Economic variants, indicators and GDP of African nations
April 2020 AU study reveals millions of jobs at risk in Africa amid covid-19: 9 April 2020: African Union study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk on the continent as a result of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic, as most of its economies are projected to shrink this year due to the pandemic, and as African economies are already facing an impending global economic downturn, plummeting oil and commodity prices and an imploding tourism sector - 10 April 2020: Economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic on Africa's economy seized with major developments reported in many countries including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zimbabwe
Natural resources in Africa: Natural resources of Africa
Energy and renewable energy in Africa: Energy in Africa - energy production, consumption, and import - Energy infrastructure in Africa by country - Renewable energy in Africa - Renewable energy in Africa by country
Electric power in Africa by country: Electric power in Africa by country - Electric power infrastructure in Africa by country
September 2019 renewable energy initiative: 13 September 2019: Global renewable energy initiative aims to bring a billion people in from the dark and to end energy poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia by driving investment in new technology
Poverty in Africa: Poverty in Africa
2013/2014: 21 April 2013: Fast-paced African countries may have growth rates that are the envy of developed economies, but the continent's boom has failed in recent years to significantly dent poverty levels, IMF says - 11 May 2014: More than $60bn illegally siphoned out of Uganda, Ghana, Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania over 10 years, with most of it squirrelled away in tax havens, according to a GFI report - 8 July 2014: More sub-Saharan Africans are living in extreme poverty now than in 1990, a major UN report says
July 2015: 31 July 2015: Rich get richer even as poverty and inequality deepen, South African market research firm's 'Africa wealth report 2015' says, criticising development strategies
April 2016: 5 avril 2016: La croissance économique moyenne sur le continent africain sera de 4,3% en 2016 et de 4,4% en 2017, insuffisant pour espérer réduire significativement la pauvreté, selon l'ONU - 5 October 2016: Nearly half of all children in sub-Saharan Africa are living in extreme poverty, according to Unicef-World Bank report
March 2017: 7 March 2017: South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria and Arabian Peninsula's Yemen are on the brink of catastrophe, thanks to drought, conflict, and a failure in international response
March 2018: 1 March 2018: No African country is expected to reach the UN target of ending childhood malnutrition by 2030, according to a new study, identifying local hotspots for poor child nutrition and low education levels across 51 African countries
June 2019: 5 June 2019: Nearly half of all child deaths in Africa stem from hunger, Addis Ababa-based study shows, as almost 60 million children deprived of food despite continent’s economic growth
30 July 2020 1,700 migrants died in 2018-2019 mostly by violence of Security forces: 30 July 2020: Hundreds of migrants have died after suffering from extreme abuse whilst crossing Africa, as, according to a report by the UNHCR and the Danish Refugee Council's Mixed Migration Centre, at least 1,700 people have died in 2018 and 2019, and as UNHCR Special Envoy for the Central Mediterranean Vincent Cochetel denounced that the violence was mostly perpetrated by Security forces

Since 2018/2019 African Continental Free Trade Area AfCFTA, a free trade area outlined in the African Continental Free Trade Agreement among 54 of the 55 African Union nations, and the largest in the world in terms of participating countries since the formation of the World Trade Organization
June 2019: 8 June 2019: African ministers of trade deliberate on the operationalization of AfCFTA ahead of Niamey Summit
7 July 2019: 7 July 2019: Several African heads of state gathered in Niger’s capital Niamey to launch continentwide free trade area AfCFTA that represents an estimated market of $3.4 trillion, aiming to create a single unified market for the continent’s 1.3 billion people and to boost economic development

Agriculture in Africa - Water scarcity in Africa
2011: 16 October 2011: Trees 'boost African crop yields and food security' researchers say
2014: 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report
2015: 30 December 2015: Aid agencies warn that tens of millions of people in Africa, the Caribbean and Asia face severe hunger in the next six months following failed harvests, stunted crops and soaring prices of staple foods
2019–2020 East Africa locust infestation and climate change: 2019–20 East Africa locust infestation - 31 January 2020: Africa’s worst locust plague in decades threatens millions, as UN sounds alarm over swarms consuming crops in five countries, threatening to spread further - 14 February 2020: Climate change may be to blame, as human activity has made an ocean circulation pattern misbehave, triggering a weird confluence of events that has caused the infestations, according to NGS's 'Science'
Since January 2020 East African nations struggling to cope with a swarm invasion: 13 January 2020: Several East African nations including Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are struggling to cope with a grasshopper swarm invasion that has lasted over a month, causing panic in the agriculture, aviation and public sectors, as the region is suffering its worst invasion for decades, called the 'worst situation in 25 years' by FAO
April 2020 second wave of young desert locusts even worse: 10 April 2020: A second wave of billions of young desert locusts are winging in from breeding grounds in Somalia in search of fresh vegetation springing up with seasonal rains, threatening East Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan and more countries - 13 April 2020: UN warns of ‘alarming and unprecedented threat’ to food security and livelihoods in the region, as second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse
17 August 2020 Kenya races to prevent new locust plague threat: 17 August 2020: Kenya is in a race to track locusts to prevent a new plague from forming in East Africa and eating all the greenery they find in their wake
20 August 2020 the Horn of Africa battling an unprecedented proliferation of locust crop pests for months: 20 August 2020: The Horn of Africa, battling an unprecedented proliferation of locust crop pests for months, is facing an exacerbated food shortage threat, with crops of farmers in Turkana county, Kenya, decimated by an infestation of desert locusts

Forests and woodlands of Africa by country - Forestry in Africa by country - Central African Forest Commission

Deforestation in Africa - Illegal logging in Africa
2008: 10 June 2008: Africa is suffering deforestation at twice the world rate, more than 4 million hectares of forest every year, and the continent’s few glaciers are shrinking fast, according to a UN atlas
2018: 11 May 2018: Time is running out to protect Africa's forests, according to World Economic Forum - 27 June 2018: Despite efforts to reduce tropical deforestation, tree cover loss has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, and in 2017 39 million acres, according to new data released by the research group World Resources Institute, as Brazil and the D.R. of the Congo lost the most - 7 December 2018: The cocoa industry is failing to meet a highly publicised pledge to stop deforestation in west Africa and eliminate tainted beans from supply chains, as tens of thousands of hectares cleared in Ghana and Ivory Coast, campaigning organisation Mighty Earth says

Health in Africa
Health disasters in Africa: Health disasters in Africa
Since late 20th century HIV/AIDS in Africa: Since late 20th century HIV/AIDS in Africa
2013-2016 Western African Ebola virus epidemic: 2013-2016 Western African Ebola virus epidemic - Responses to the West African Ebola virus epidemic - Ebola virus disease treatment research
2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Africa: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Africa
February 2020 African countries stepping up measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus from China: 1 February 2020: African governments are stepping up measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, that has already claimed 259 lives in China - 28 February 2020: Coronavirus found in sub-Saharan Africa, as Nigeria’s health minister said the first case in the region was an Italian citizen who worked in Nigeria and had returned from Italy to Lagos, and as WHO says spread could 'get out of control', amid global spread of disease
16-19 March 2020 Chinese coronavirus spreads more rapidly across Africa: 16 March 2020: Countries across Africa have imposed wide-ranging and stringent new measures as Chinese coronavirus begins to spread more rapidly across the continent and disease will cause huge challenges for continent’s health services - 18 March 2020: There are now more than 400 confirmed cases of coronavirus across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic - 19 March 2020: More than 630 confirmed cases of coronavirus across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic
1/2 April 2020 5,856 cases, 201 deaths, and 430 recoveries of covid-19 pandemic in Africa: 1 April 2020: There are now 5,856 cases, 201 deaths, and 430 recoveries of coronavirus pandemic across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic - 2 April 2020: Africa faces an 'existential threat' as virus cases spread to now above 6,000, health officials say
3/4 April 2020 medical aid marooned as Africa shuts borders: 3 April 2020: Medical aid marooned as Africa shuts borders amid coronavirus pandemic - 4 April 2020: There are now more than over 6,700 confirmed cases of covid-19 across Africa
7 April 2020 most covid-19 impacted nation per African region: 7 April 2020: Most impacted nation per African region, as southern South Africa reports 1,686 cases, 12 deaths, and as northern Africa's Algeria reports 1,423 cases and 173 deaths,, as Malawi records first death
8 April 2020 more than 10,700 confirmed cases of covid-19 in Africa and 534 deaths: 8 April 2020: There are now more than over 10,700 confirmed cases of covid-19, 534 deaths, and 1,192 recoveries across the continen
15 April 2020 virus choking off supply of food: 15 April 2020: Lockdowns in at least 33 of Africa’s 54 countries have blocked farmers from getting food to markets and threatened deliveries of food assistance to rural populations, as also informal markets where millions buy their food are shut
18 April 2020 covid-19 spreads: 18 April 2020: Africa now has more than 1,000 deaths from covid-19, with the overall number of cases more than 19,800, as 52 countries have reported the pandemic - 18 April 2020: As numbers of covid-19 cases across Africa, listed by region and country by 'africanews', continue to grow with each passing day, WHO's regional head warns that a spike is expected in the coming weeks
23 April 2020 Africa’s 43% jump in covid-19 cases in one week: 23 April 2020: Africa’s 43% jump in covid-19 cases in one week worries experts, with continent lacking adequate health services and testing capabilities
29 April 2020 polio campaign in Africa put on hold due to covid-19: 29 April 2020: Polio campaign in Africa put on hold during covid-19, as WHO official warns of fresh outbreaks and as jabs for 12 million children are delayed
1 May 2020 African countries report 38,825 covid-19 cases: 1 May 2020: African countries report 38,825 confirmed covid-19 cases, 1,634 deaths and 12,543 recoveries, as South Africa reports 5,647 confirmed covid-19 cases, and as Nigeria recorded about 1,000 new cases in a week
4 May 2020 now more than over 42,500 confirmed cases of covid-19 in Africa: 4 May 2020: There are now more than over 42,500 confirmed cases of covid-19 across the continent, with more African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic, as South Africa reports 6,336 cases
8 May 2020 WHO warns covid-19 could 'smoulder' in Africa for several years: 8 May 2020: Covid-19 could 'smoulder' in Africa for several years, WHO warns - 8 May 2020: New covid-19 entrants between April 22 and May 8 were Eswatini, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Togo, Zambia, Sierra Leone, Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, Chad, Benin and Uganda
13 May 2020 Lesotho's first covid-19 case: 13 May 2020: Lesotho recorded its first case of covid-19, the health ministry said, after conducting 81 tests for covid-19 from travellers from South Africa and Saudi Arabia, of which one was positive
15 May 2020 Africa facing a quarter of a billion covid-19 cases, WHO predicts: 15 May 2020: Africa facing a quarter of a billion covid-19 cases, WHO predicts, saying continent will have fewer deaths than Europe and USA because of its younger population and other lifestyle factors
31 May 2020 African nations fail to find covid-19 quarantine escapees: 31 May 2020: African nations fail to find covid-19 quarantine escapees who have escaped from unsanitary and uncomfortable quarantine centres, as police and health workers in Malawi told reporters they were unable to stop the escapees as they lacked adequate protective gear and as at least 46 escapees had tested positive for the virus, as more 26 people left the Mwanza border post while waiting for test results and eight others, all tested and shown to be infected, broke out of an isolation centre, as there has also been at least one mass breakout in Kenya, while individuals have also escaped from quarantine in Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda and Namibia
6 June 2020 covid-19 pandemic's impact on African elections and democracy: 6 June 2020: As Africa battles covid-19, experts believe the pandemic will have an impact on elections and democracy in various African countries, and some African countries are likely to postpone elections as they may face challenges made worse by increased costs and unplanned circumstances
11 June 2020 Africa passes 200,000 confirmed covid-19 cases: 11 June 2020: Africa passes 200,000 confirmed covid-19 cases, as pandemic is 'accelerating' across Africa amid shortage of test kits, according to WHO, also saying that the virus was spreading from capital cities where it arrived with travellers and that 10 countries now were bearing the brunt of Africa’s epidemic
17 June 2020 Africa reports 259,111 covid-19 cases: 17 June 2020: Africa reports 259,111 covid-19 cases, 7,016 deaths and 118,748 recoveries
9 July 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Africa reaching 'full speed': 9 July 2020: The covid-19 pandemic in Africa is reaching 'full speed', health official says, after South Africa preparing for the worst and confirmed cases across Africa surpass the half-million milestone with a total over 522,000 and climbing, with testing levels low and unknown real numbers, and as African Union said governments around the world should 'remove all obstacles' for a successful covid-19 vaccine and distribution - 9 July 2020: Covid-19 could push 50m Africans into extreme poverty, AfD Bank reports
23 July 2020 over 10,000 African health workers infected with covid-19: 23 July 2020: Over 10,000 African health workers infected with covid-19, according to WHO
25 July 2020 Africans share insight into their lives in the new normal of dangerous covid-19: 25 July 2020: Africans share insight into their lives as they embrace the new normal of dangerous covid-19 in unique stories of courage, determination and survival, presented by Africanews journalist Hawa Suleiman Brimah, as South Africa crosses 400,000 mark with schools closed amid virus 'storm'
6 August 2020 confirmed covid-19 cases in Africa pass 1 million: 6 August 2020: Total confirmed covid-19 cases in Africa pass 1 million, as WHO warns figure is 'the tip of the iceberg’ and that the true number could be much higher
10 August 2020 medical oxygen industry is failing African hospitals: 10 August 2020: How the medical oxygen industry is failing African hospitals, and doctors are being forced to make terrible choices, frequently having to choose who receives oxygen and who does not
7 October 2020 IMF approved new emergency aid for 22 African countries: 7 October 2020: IMF approved new emergency aid for 28 countries, 22 of which are African, as funds received will enable these nations to either pay back their debts or mitigate the debilitating impact of the covid-19 pandemic on their soil

Famines in Africa: Famines in Africa
Since 2015 Malawian food crisis: Since 2015 Malawian food crisis
Since 2017 Somali food and water shortages and severe food insecurity: 2017 Somali drought, that has left more than 6 million people, or half the country's population, facing food shortages with several water supplies becoming undrinkable due to the possibility of infection
Since 2017 South Sudan famine and severe food insecurity: 2017 South Sudan famine following several years of instability in the country's food supply caused by war and drought, as the famine, largely focused in the northern part of the country, affected an estimated five million people and nearly 50% of the South Sudanese population, as later the famine was officially declared to have weakened to a state of severe food insecurity
5 September 2020 UN warns against risk of famines: 5 September 2020: UN warns that there is a risk of famine and widespread food insecurity in four countries affected by conflict, including D.R. Congo, Yemen, northeast Nigeria, and South Sudan, as UN's Mark Lowcock says that the economic fallout from the covid-19 pandemic including lockdowns, border closures and restrictions on movement have all had 'a big effect on food security and agricultural productivity'
Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa - Water purification in Africa

Environment of Africa by country - Environmental Issues in Africa
Water scarcity in Africa
Environmental impact of mining - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Environmental impact of nuclear power
Air pollution in Africa - Air pollution is a major challenge in Africa, aoccording to United Nations Environment Programme
2016: 20 October 2016: The human and financial cost of the continent’s pollution suggests dirty air could be killing 712,000 people a year prematurely, compared with approximately 542,000 from unsafe water, 275,000 from malnutrition and 391,000 from unsafe sanitation, OECD study says - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe
June 2018: 11 June 2018: Some of Africa’s oldest and biggest baobab trees aged between 1,100 and 2,500 years have abruptly died, wholly or in part, in the past decade, as demise of nine out of 13 of the ancient landmarks linked to climate change by researchers - 13 June 2018: Baobab trees becoming endangered species
Environmental impact of war
Poaching, the illegal hunting, killing, or capturing of wild animals - Illegal wildlife trade over the world - Wildlife smuggling
2016/2017: 31 August 2016: First ever continent-wide survey of the species 'Elephant' finds nearly one-third of African continent’s largest elephants were wiped out between 2007-2014, largely due to poaching for ivory - 24 October 2017: Elephant poaching drops in Africa but elephant populations continue to fall due to illegal killing and other human activities, while seizures of large-scale illegal ivory shipments were at record highs in 2016, 'Cites' report reveals

East Africa - Sub-Saharan Africa
List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa - Indigenous peoples of East Africa
African origin of modern humans: Recent African origin of modern humans - History of Africa by region - Economic history of Africa, as the continent has the longest and oldest economic history
History of East Africa: Political history of East Africa, since antiquity, Islam expansion, European explorations and colonization, era of colonies and protectorates, colonies and mandates, more or less autonomy, independence, and contemporary history - Man-made disasters in Africa by country
Since 2011 droughts, famine, man-made disasters and refugee crises: 2011-2012 East Africa drought - 25 June 2011: Severe drought hits East Africa - 28 June 2011: Horn of Africa sees 'worst drought in 60 years' - 4 July 2011: UN warns of a looming catastrophe in Somalia because of drought and hunger - 9 July 2011: UN refugee chief calls for drought aid inside Somalia - 11 July 2011: UNHCR chief Antonio Guterres urges Kenya to open a new camp for fleeing people - 25 July 2011: UN's food agency and G-20 - talks on Africa drought crisis - 16 August 2011: Ethiopia refugee camp child death rates alarming UN says - 25. August 2011: Dürre, Hunger- und Flüchtlingskrise weiten sich trotz Hilfsaktionen aus - 5 September 2011: UN says famine spreads to sixth region of Somalia - 4 February 2012: Rain and food deliveries end famine conditions, but food stocks could run out in May and leave millions in need of aid, UN says
2010s Sahel droughts and famine: Sahel - Sahel drought - 2010 Sahel famine - 11. Mai 2012: Erneut droht in der Sahelzone eine grosse Hungersnot
2014 Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis: 3 February 2014: Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis', UN says - 1 May 2014: Aid operations need urgent funding in Sahel region where five million children face acute malnutrition, UN says - 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report
2017 millions facing hunger in east Africa: 15 March 2017: The Disasters Emergency Committee calls for urgent response to humanitarian emergency unfolding in east Africa, with 16 million people facing hunger
Since March 2018 East Africa floods: Since March 2018 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Uganda
May 2018: 8 May 2018: Heavy rains and severe flash floods have left more than 300 people dead and displaced thousands of others across parts of east Africa, with Kenya and Rwanda being the worst hit
January 2020 Sahel faces surge in violence from terror attacks: 22 January 2020: Sahel faces surge in violence from terror attacks, as more than 4,000 reported dead last year amid fears region may slide into violent chaos - 29 janvier 2020: Les enfants subissent un niveau de violence sans précédent au Sahel central, des centaines d'entre eux y ont été tués, mutilés ou séparés de force de leurs parents en 2019, s'alarme l'Unicef dans un document publié mard
12 June 2020 hundreds of civilians reportedly killed by own governments in Sahel region: 12 June 2020: Hundreds of civilians have been killed by their own governments in Africa’s Sahel region since countries pledged a surge against militant groups at a regional meeting held by France in January, as rights group said it had documented 200 cases of unlawful state killings and forced disappearances in February and March in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, which are members of the internationally backed G5 force set up to fight militants in the Sahel
27 July 2020 East Africa summit to resolve Mali crisis: 27 juillet 2020: Les 15 présidents de la Cédéao ont entamé un sommet virtuel extraordinaire pour tenter de résoudre la crise socio-politique qui ébranle le Mali depuis juin
Since 2019 East Africa and Asia desert locus infestation: Since 2019 East Africa and Asia desert locus infestation, one of the most devastating migratory pests in the world, highly mobile and feeding on large quantities of any kind of green vegetation, including crops, pasture, and fodde
2019–2020 East Africa locust infestation and climate change: 2019–20 East Africa locust infestation - 31 January 2020: Africa’s worst locust plague in decades threatens millions, as UN sounds alarm over swarms consuming crops in five countries, threatening to spread further - 14 February 2020: Climate change may be to blame, as human activity has made an ocean circulation pattern misbehave, triggering a weird confluence of events that has caused the infestations, according to NGS's 'Science'
Since January 2020 East African nations struggling to cope with a swarm invasion: 13 January 2020: Several East African nations including Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are struggling to cope with a grasshopper swarm invasion that has lasted over a month, causing panic in the agriculture, aviation and public sectors, as the region is suffering its worst invasion for decades, called the 'worst situation in 25 years' by FAO
April 2020 second wave of young desert locusts even worse: 10 April 2020: A second wave of billions of young desert locusts are winging in from breeding grounds in Somalia in search of fresh vegetation springing up with seasonal rains, threatening East Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan and more countries - 13 April 2020: UN warns of ‘alarming and unprecedented threat’ to food security and livelihoods in the region, as second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse
June 2020 third wave of desert locusts: 19 juin 2020: Déjà affectée par l’épidémie de covid-19 et par des pluies diluviennes, l'Afrique de l'Est s’attend dans les semaines à venir à une troisième vague de criquets du désert, qui continuent de menacer sa sécurité alimentaire malgré l’épandage de pesticides
16 November 2020 Tigray war threatens Ethiopia's struggle against worst locust swarm: 16 November 2020: How war threatens Ethiopia's struggle against worst locust swarm in 25 years, as surveillance and spraying operations cease due to Tigray conflict, there are fears the existing food crisis could worsen
List of rivers in East and North Africa: List of rivers in East and North Africa
Blue Nile river: Blue Nile, a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and the major tributary of the Nile Basin Watershed and with the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile, supplying about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season
Since 2011/2020 Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile River: Since 2011/2020 Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a gravity dam on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia's Benishangul-Gumuz Region, about 15 km east of the border with Sudan
5 November 2020: Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan again failed to resolve dispute over Blue Nile River dam: 5 November 2020: Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan have once again failed to agree on a new negotiating approach to resolve a dispute over the dam that Addis Ababa is building on the Blue Nile River, after USA Trump's comments in which he said Cairo could end up 'blowing up the dam', prompting a strong protest from Ethiopia, and after in July, Ethiopia began filling the dam's reservoir, angering Egypt which fears that its water supply could face severe disruption
White Nile river: White Nile, a river in Africa and one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, as name comes from colouring due to clay carried in the water, flowing through Sudan, South Sudan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nile river major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa: Nile river, a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world, as the Nile is about 6,650 km long and as its drainage basin covers eleven countries including Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt, as in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan - Dams on the Nile
Water politics in the Nile Basin: Water politics in the Nile Basin, as Nile river is the world's longest river flowing 6,700 kilometers through ten countries in northeastern Africa including Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt with varying climates, and is subject to political interactions as the modern history of hydropolitics in the Nile basin is very complex and has had wide ramifications both for regional and global developments - Dams in the Nile basin
Lake Victoria: Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake by area and the world's second-largest fresh water lake by surface area containing about 2,424 km3 of water, as the lake's area is divided among three countries including Kenya with 6%, Uganda with 45%, and Tanzania with 49% - Fishing on Lake Victoria, as lake supports Africa's largest inland fishery, with the majority of the catch being the invasive Nile perch
Tributaries of Lake Victoria: Tributaries of Lake Victoria
Kagera River with source located in Lake Rweru in Rwanda: Kagera River, an East African river, forming part of the upper headwaters of the Nile, with a total length of 597 km from it source located in Lake Rweru in Rwanda
Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania: Mara River in Narok County (Kenya) and in Mara Region (Tanzania)
10 November 2020 fish driven to extinction in the Mara River basin: 10 November 2020: Fish are being driven to extinction in the Mara River basin, putting the livelihoods of more than a million people in Kenya and Tanzania in jeopardy, according to WWF
Simiyu River in Tanzania: Simiyu River in Tanzania, flowing into Lake Victoria in the African Great Lakes region, and one of the six main inlets to Lake Victoria

Southern Africa - History of Southern Africa - Early history of South Africa
Demographics of Southern Africa
List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa
2016 droughts: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure - 27 November 2016: Southern Africa cries for help as El Niño and climate change savage maize harvest
16 January 2020 alarm over unprecedented levels of hunger in southern Africa: 16 January 2020: Southern Africa is in the throes of a climate emergency, with hunger levels in the region on a previously unseen scale, as years of drought, widespread flooding and economic disarray have left 45 million people facing severe food shortages, with women and children bearing the brunt of the crisis, according to WFP
30 January 2020 drought in Lesotho: 30 January 2020: Drought leaves tens of thousands in Lesotho ‘one step from famine’, as rural areas worst hit and as massive fall in food production causes severe hunger for a quarter of country’s population

Central Africa - Central African countries
Demographics of Central Africa
Geography of Central Africa - Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa - Fauna of Central Africa
2016: 31 August 2016: Forest-dwelling elephants are likely to face extinction far more quickly than previously assumed because their sluggish reproduction rate cannot keep pace with rampant poaching and habitat loss, a new study has found
September 2018 Lake Chad basin crisis: 4 September 2018: Nine years into a crisis that shows no sign of abating, 11 million people in the Lake Chad basin are in need of urgent help, a high-level conference has heard
August 2019 children out of school due to rising violence: 23 August 2019: More than 1.9 million children are forced out of school across west and central Africa due to rising violence and insecurity, putting them at higher risk of recruitment by armed groups, Unicef says, revealing that more than 9,000 schools have been shut down as of June this year in the eight countries of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Niger and Nigeria

West Africa - History of West Africa
List of ethnic groups in West Africa - Indigenous peoples of West Africa
Since 1975 Economic Community of West African States: Since 1975 Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS, having 15 member states in 2017 - West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA - West African Monetary Zone
May 2020 43m people at risk of food insecurity in West Africa UN says: 6 May 2020: Over 40 million people across West Africa could face desperate food shortages in the coming months, twice as many as before the covid-19 pandemic, the World Food Programme said
Since 2001/2002 ECOWAS court: Since 2001 ECOWAS Court with jurisdiction over four general types of disputes, those relating to the interpretation, application, or legality of ECOWAS regulations, those that arise between ECOWAS and its employees, those relating to liability for or against ECOWAS, and those that involve a violation of human rights committed by a member state - ECOWAS Community Court of Justice in Abuja (Nigeria), examining cases of failure by Member States to honour their obligations under the Community law, website - 'Court of Justice of the Economic Community of West African States' in Nigeria, IHRDA website
2004-2017: 2004-2017 List of decided ECOWAS CCJ cases
2017/2018: 18 December 2017: Ebola survivors and the Centre for Accountability and Rule of Law file a human rights violation complaint against Sierra Leone's government in the first international court case intended to throw light on what happened to some of the millions of dollars siphoned off from funding to help fight the disease

North Africa - Prehistoric North Africa - North African climate cycles, research of climate history comprising millions of years - Abbassia Pluvial - Mousterian Pluvial - Neolithic Subpluvial, extended period from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa - History of North Africa - Sahara punp theory and human migration
List of ethnic groups in North Africa


African Union
2012: 15 juillet 2012: La Sud-Africaine Dlamini-Zuma élue présidente de la Commission de l'UA - 16 juillet 2012: Au sommet de l'UA Kigali et Kinshasa s'accordent sur une force 'neutre', les Soudans se réchauffent
2013: 28 January 2013: African Union summit in Ethiopia to continue in private among heads of states, according to a delegate from DR Congo, after talks break down over DR Congo crisis - 12 octobre 2013: L'UA a demandé d'ajourner les procédures de la Cour pénale internationale contre les présidents en exercice
2016: 17 juillet 2016: Le nouveau sommet de l'Union africaine se penchera dès dimanche sur la situation au Soudan du Sud, mais aussi au Burundi
2017: 22-25 January 2017 1st ever African Youth Conference on African Unity and Development in Addis Ababa - 30 January 2017: African heads of state gather in the Ethiopian capital for a two-day African Union summit - 3 July 2017: 29th Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union focuses on unemployment and conflicts
November 2017: 29 November 2017: 5th African Union - European Union summit in Abidjan, youth, unemployment, migration, terrorism on agenda - 30 November 2017: Focus on Libya 'slave auctions' at AU-EU summit, as EU and AU leaders each condemned the practice
December 2017: 6 December 2017: AU to help evacuate 15,000 migrants from Libya this year, as between 400,000 and 700,000 African migrants are in dozens of camps across Libya, often under inhumane conditions, according to media sources
January 2018 protest against Trump administration: 12/13 January 2018: African Union 'frankly alarmed' after USA president denounces 'shithole countries' sending migrants to America, as group of 54 African ambassadors to the UN demands that USA's Trump retract and apologize for his reported denunciation of immigration from 'shithole' nations, saying they are 'concerned at the continuing and growing trend from the US administration toward Africa and people of African descent to denigrate the continent and people of color'
7 June 2019 Sudan suspended over violence: 7 June 2019: African Union suspends Sudan over violence against protestors, after more than 100 people were killed when Sudanese military junta's forces raided pro-democracy camps
January/February 2020 African Union summit 'Silencing the guns': January/February 2020 African Union summit in Addis Ababa 'Silencing the guns - creating conducive conditions for Africa's development'
12 March 2020 African Union-led Contact Group meeting on Libya: 12 March 2020: African Union-led Contact Group meeting on Libya is taking place in the Republic of Congo today, as Ramaphosa bemoaned the continued military offensive in the North African country, since the last AU summit without changing anything, now saying 'the ongoing strife in Libya has dangerous repercussions for the security and stability of the region and the continent in general'
9 April 2020 AU study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk in Africa: 9 April 2020: African Union study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk on the continent as a result of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, as most of its economies are projected to shrink this year due to the pandemic, and as African economies are already facing an impending global economic downturn, plummeting oil and commodity prices and an imploding tourism sector
11 April 2020 AU demands China action on abuse of Africans: 11 April 2020: AU demands China action on abuse of Africans, protests Chinese mistreatment with Nigeria in the lead
15 April 2020 Europe and Africa call for massive help for Africa: 15 April 2020: As AU appointed special envoys to mobilize support and created a platform to help the continent’s 54 countries, nearly 20 European and African leaders have made a joint appeal for a massive international effort to boost Africa’s coronavirus response, saying that 'only a global victory that fully includes Africa can bring this pandemic to an end'


Natural disasters in Africa
Tropical cyclones in Africa: Tropical cyclones in Africa
March/April 2019 Cyclone Idai: March 2019 Cyclone Idai - 19 March 2019: Cyclone Idai, the tropical storm ravaging southern Africa, is possibly the worst weather-related disaster to hit the southern hemisphere, with 1.7 million people in affected Mozambique and 920,000 in Malawi, UN officials have said - 24 mars 2019: Les centaines de milliers de personnes affectées par le cyclone Idai en Afrique australe sont désormais menacées par une épidémie de maladies transmises par l'eau comme le choléra - 10 April 2019: South Africa sent material relief to its neighbours hit by the devastating cyclone that ravaged parts of southern Africa, as devastating cost and impact of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi, continues to rise and hundreds of thousands of people are in need of food, water and shelter
Cyclones in Madagascar
Cyclones in Mozambique
Tropical cyclones in Somalia
List of West Africa hurricanes
Floods in Africa: Floods in Africa
2007 African floods: 2007 African floods
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods
2010–2011 Southern Africa floods: 2010–2011 Southern Africa floods
2012 Nigeria floods: 2012 Nigeria floods
2015 Southeast Africa floods: 2015 Southeast Africa floods
Since March 2018 East Africa floods: Since March 2018 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Uganda
Droughts in Africa: Droughts in Africa
2011 East Africa drought: 2011 East Africa drought
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought
2016: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure
2017: 9 mai 2017: L'Est et le Nord-est de l'Afrique font face à la pire sécheresse depuis des décennies dans la région et le nombre de déplacés depuis début janvier en Afrique dépasse désormais un million, selon l'ONU
Earthquakes and eruptions in Africa: Earthquakes in Africa - African Plate - Somali Plate - East African Rift - West and Central African Rift System
1986 Lake Nyos disaster: 1986 Lake Nyos disaster
2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake: 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake
2008 Lake Kivu earthquake: 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
2011 Nabro eruption: 2011 Nabro eruption
September 2016 Tanzanian and East Africa earthquake: September 2016 Tanzanian earthquake - 10 September 2016: At least 11 people confirmed dead and more than 192 injured following an earthquake that hit Kagera and Mwanza regions




Angola - Geography of Angola - Precolonial history of Angola until 15th-17th century - History of Angola - Demographics of Angola
Economy of Angola: Economy of Angola - main industries include petroleum, uranium, diamonds, gold, bauxite, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, metal products, fish processing, food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar, textiles, commercial ship repair
Mining industry of Angola: Mining industry of Angola - Cassinga iron mine located in south-western Angola in Huíla Province - Mining companies of Angola
Diamond mining and mines in Angola: Diamond mining in Angola - Diamond mines in Angola - Catoca diamond mine, the fourth largest diamond mine in the world, located in Angola the mine is owned by a consortium of international mining interests, including Endiama (the state mining company of Angola, 32.8% ownership), Alrosa of Russia (32.8%), Odebrecht of Brazil (16.4%), and the Diamond Finance CY BV Group (16.8%) - Since 2005 Fucauma Diamond Mine, under construction in the Lunda Norte Province, owned by a consortium of diamond mining companies, the two largest holders being Endiama (40%) and Trans Hex (35%)
Energy in Angola: Energy in Angola - biomass accounts for 58% of the country's energy consumption, oil accounts for 35%, gas 4% and hydroelectric power 3%
Fossil fuels in Angola: Fossil fuels in Angola - Oil and gas companies of Angola
Petroleum and oil fields of Angola: Petroleum in Angola - ranking second in crude oil production in sub-Saharan Africa, oil has been Angola’s chief export since 1973 and accounts for half the gross domestic product - Oil fields of Angola
Electric power in Angola: Electric power in Angola - List of power stations in Angola, gas turbines and hydroelectric
Hydroelectric power stations in Angola: Hydroelectric power stations in Angola - Angola has extensive hydroelectric power resources that far exceed its present needs
Agriculture in Angola: Agriculture in Angola - products include coffee and maize, sisal, bananas, tobacco and cassava - Land tenure in Angola
Coffee production in Angola: Coffee production in Angola since the 1830s, a cash crop formerly grown on approximately 2000 Angolan plantations, owned mostly by the Portuguese, in the 1970s, Angola was one of the largest coffee-producing countries in Africa
Forestry in Angola: Forestry in Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Fishing in Angola: Fishing in Angola, mainly performed by foreign fleets and fishing agreements were reached with several countries, including Spain, Japan, and Italy
Transport in Angola: Transport in Angola - Rail transport in Angola consists of three separate Cape gauge lines that do not connect, the northern Luanda Railway, the central Benguela Railway, and the southern Moçâmedes Railway, each connecting the Atlantic coast to the interior of the country - Road transport in Angola - Water transport in Angola - Ports and harbors - Angolan government plans to build a deep-water port at Barra do Dande, north of Luanda, in Bengo province near Caxito - Aviation in Angola - List of airports in Angola
Retailing in Angola: Retailing in Angola - List of supermarket chains in Angola
Foreign trade of Angola: Foreign trade of Angola - the vast majority of Angola's exports, 92% in 2004, are petroleum products, nearly all of Angola's oil goes to the USA, making it the eighth largest supplier of oil to the USA
Banks and banking in Angola: Banks in Angola - National Bank of Angola, the central bank of Angola is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder
2009: In 2009 the Central Bank of Angola was victim in a fraud case of about $160 million that were transferred to overseas accounts, revealed by the Portuguese newspaper Diário de Notícias in 2011 several supects were sentenced up to eight years in prison and there are still investigations going on in Portugal and Angola
Tourism in Angola: Tourism in Angola - Tourist attractions in Angola - National parks of Angola
Angolan Armed Forces: Angolan Armed Forces since 1991 - Military history of Angola - People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola, disbanded in 1993
1961-1974: 1961-1974 Angolan War of Independence against the Portuguese colonial rulers began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation and became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement, also seen as part of the wider Portuguese Colonial and Overseas War, which also included the independence wars of Guinea-Bissau and of Mozambique
1975-1988: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War - May 1978 Operation Reindeer, South Africa's second major military operation in Angola, carried out under the Apartheid regime - May 1978 Kassinga Massacre, South African airborne attack on a South West Africa People's Organization SWAPO military base at the former town of Cassinga in Angola - August/September 1981 Operation Protea, about 5,000 SADF soldiers occupied Cunene province in Angola - November 1981 Operation Daisy, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola against SWAPO - November 1981 Operation Kerslig military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military special forces on an oil refinery outside Luanda in Angola - May-June 1988 Operation Excite/Hilti was a set of military operations by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola during the Angolan Civil War - April 1989 Operation Merlyn, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military against SWAPO
Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces: Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces
Politics of Angola: Politics of Angola - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Political parties in Angola: Political parties in Angola - MPLA People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975, fighting against the Portuguese army in the Angolan War of Independence of 1961–74, and defeating the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola Unita and the National Liberation Front of Angola FNLA in the Angolan Civil War of 1975–2002 - Trade unions in Angola
January 1975 Alvor Agreement: January 1975 Alvor Agreement granted Angola independence from Portugal on 11 November, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to the Angolan Civil War
1975-2002 Angolan Civil War: 1975-2002 Angolan Civil War - Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
December 1988 Tripartite Accord: December 1988 Agreement among the People's Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa (Tripartite Accord) granted independence to Namibia from South Africa and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War
1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I: 1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I during Angolan civil war, as South Africa's apartheid regime and the USA backed the 'União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola' UNITA
1991 Bicesse Accords: 1991 Bicesse Accords (Estoril Accords) laid out a transition to multi-party democracy in Angola under the supervision of the United Nations' UNAVEM II mission, on 31 May 1991 President José Eduardo dos Santos of the MPLA and Jonas Savimbi of Unita signed the accord, but Unita rejected the official results of the 1992 presidential election as rigged and renewed their guerrilla war
1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II: 1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II, consisted of military observers, civilian police, electoral observers, paramedics and both local and international staff, ccoming from 25 countries in five continents
1992 Halloween massacre: 30 October - 1 November 1992 Halloween massacre (Three Day War) in Luanda as part of the Angolan Civil War
1994 Lusaka Protocol: October 1994 Lusaka Protocol attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and starting national reconciliation, both sides signed a ceasefire as part of the protocol on November 20
Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III: Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III
1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA: 1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA, the last peacekeeping mission in Angola
Elections in Angola: Elections in Angola
August 1980 Angolan legislative election: 23 August 1980 Angolan legislative election
September 1992 Angolan general election: 29/30 September 1992 Angolan general election, multi-party elections monitored by the United Nations, the UN declared the presidential election generally 'free and fair'
September 2008 Angolan legislative election: 5 September 2008 Angolan legislative election
August 2012 Angolan legislative election: 31 August 2012 Angolan legislative election
September 2012: 26 September 2012: Angola's Dos Santos sworn in, pledging social improvements, saying stability and poverty reduction are main goals
December 2016: 3 December 2016: Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos, who has been in power since 1979, will not stand for re-election at national polls due to be held in 2017 - 4 December 2016: João Lourenço to take over party leadership from Angola’s dos Santos - João Lourenço , Secretary-General of the MPLA from 1998 to 2003 and Vice-President since 2016
August 2017 Angolan legislative election: 27 August 2017 Angolan legislative election - 24 August 2017: MPLA claims a widely expected election victory, setting the stage for a change of leadership after decades of dos Santos rule
January 2020 things fall apart for Angola's dos Santos family accused of plundering revenues: 17 January 2020: Angola’s president Joao Lourenco who took office in 2017 has systematically embarked on a mission to take down a patronage network that was championed by his predecessor Jose Eduardo dos Santos, with top positions in the government and in lucrative sectors ranging from banking, telecoms and media to oil, as today, law enforcement agencies are cracking down on the high profile family of former Angolan president, accused of plundering revenues from the country’s vast oil wealth
Social movements and protests in Angola: Trade unions, political organizations, social movements and protests in Angola
January-September 1961 protests and uprising against the Portuguese: January-September 1961 protests and uprising, as Baixa de Cassanje revolt is considered the first confrontation of the War of Independence in Angola and the Portuguese Colonial War throughout the colonies (then overseas provinces), as the uprising began on 3 January 1961 in the region of Baixa do Cassanje, district of Malanje, Portuguese Angola
Since 2011 protests in Angola suppressed by Angola's government: Since 2011 protests in Angola, as Human Rights Watch reported that Angola's government was 'targeting protest organizers for arbitrary arrest and detention in response to increasing demonstrations criticizing the government or its policies'
13 September 2020 Angola’s Doctors’ Union led around protesters in a march through Luanda: 13 September 2020: Angola’s Doctors’ Union led around 100 protesters in a march through the city centre in Luanda on Saturday to denounce police brutality and demand an investigation into the suspicious death of Silvio Dala in police custody after he was arrested for driving without a face mask on September 1
26 October 2020 protest in Luanda against corruption: 26 October 2020: About 100 people were arrested following anti-government protests this weekend in Luanda, as riot police fired tear gas and beat protesters to break up demonstrations involving about 2,000 people
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Angola: Angolan society
Human rights in Angola: Human rights in Angola
Subdivisions, provinces and municipalities of Angola: Subdivisions of Angola, divided into eighteen provinces and 163 municipalities - 18 Provinces of Angola - 163 Municipalities of Angola - 618 communes of Angola
Luanda province and city: Luanda province with an area of 2,417 square kilometres and a population of 6,542,942 in 2014, subdivided into seven municipalities, namely Luanda, Belas, Cacuaco, Cazenga, Icolo e Bengo, Quiçama and Viana, and further subdivided into 47 Communes - Luanda city, the capital and largest city in Angola and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre
Demographics and ethnic groups in Angola: Demographics of Angola - Ethnic groups in in Angola
Culture and languages of Angola: Culture of Angola - Languages of Angola
Women and women's rights in Angola: Women in Angola - Women's rights in Angola
Education in Angola: Education in Angola
Schools in Angola: List of schools in Angola
Universities in Angola: List of universities in Angola
Science and technology in Angola: Science and technology in Angola - in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 24% of college and university enrolments
Health in Angola: Health in Angola
Maternal health in Angola: Maternal health in Angola
Media of Angola: Media of Angola
Telecommunications in Angola: Telecommunications in Angola
Internet in Angola: Internet in Angola
Crime in Angola: Crime in Angola
Corruption in Angola: Corruption in Angola
Corruption, oil and diamond mining in Angola: Corruption in the oil and diamond mining industries in Angola
2018: 11 January 2018: Angola’s president João Lourenço has sacked the head of the country’s sovereign wealth fund Dos Santos, the son of Lourenço’s predecessor, two months after he was named in connection with the Paradise Papers, revealing how Dos Santos appointed a firm belonging to his friend Bastos to manage the fund’s capital, who then invested hundreds of millions of dollars in ventures in which he held a personal interest
Human trafficking in Angola: Human trafficking in Angola
Slavery, forced labour and human trafficking in Angola before and after independence from Portugal in 1975
Angolan law: Angolan law - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Judiciary of Angola: Judiciary of Angola
Foreign relations of Angola: Foreign relations of Angola
Treaties of Angola: Treaties of Angola
Angola's membership in international organizations:
Since 2001/2002 African Union: Since 2001/2002 'African Union', continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, replacing the Organisation of African Unity founded in 1963 and rising with post-colonial independence, the most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting
Southern African Development Community: Southern African Development Community since 1992, an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Botswana's Gaborone aiming to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states and complementing the role of the African Union
Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa since 1973, a non-profit, inter-governmental organization made up of Port Operators, Government Line Ministries, Logistics and Maritime Service Providers and other port and shipping stakeholders from the Eastern, Western and Southern African and Indian Ocean regions, offering an appropriate framework for exchange of information and cooperation among members to create an enabling environment whereby member can interface with one another in the port, transport and trade arenas
South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986: South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986, with the aim of promoting cooperation and the maintenance of peace and security in the South Atlantic region, dedicating particular attention to the question of preventing the geographical proliferation of nuclear weapons and of reducing and eventually eliminating the military presence of countries from other regions
African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty since 1996/2009: African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, signed in 1996 and coming into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009, establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa
United Nations membership: Permanent Mission of the Republic of Angola to the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Angola: Bilateral relations of Angola
Angola/Algeria relations: Angola/Algeria relations
Angola/Cape Verde relations: Angola/Cape Verde relations, refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship between the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Cape Verde, now are based on their shared experiences as Portuguese colonies, both before, after and during the struggle for independence
Angola/European Union relations: Angola/European Union relations
18 November 2020: Angola, EU debates Human Rights strategy amid covid-19: 18 November 2020: Angola, EU debates Human Rights strategy, as Angola's national human rights strategy, the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the management of fundamental human rights, gender equality and elections were some of issues that dominated the annual meeting between Angola and the AU Delegation
Angola/France relations: Angola/France relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
In the 1990s secret sale and shipment of arms: In the 1990s Mitterrand–Pasqua affair, an international political scandal over the secret sale and shipment of arms from Central Europe to the government of Angola by the Government of France
Angola/Namibia relations: Angola/Namibia relations
1966-1990 South African Border War in South-West Africa and Angola: South African Border War 1966-1990 in South-West Africa and Angola, between South African apartheid regime's military and its allied forces (mainly Angola' UNITA) on the one side and the Angolan government, the South-West Africa People's Organisation SWAPO and their allies on the other side
Angola/Netherlands relations: Angola/Netherlands relations
1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola: 1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola, the name for the possessions of the Dutch West India Company in contemporary Angola and the Republic of the Congo
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Angola/Portugal relations: Angola/Portugal relations
1482-1975 colonial history of Angola: The colonial history of Angola is considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Cão in 1482, settlement since Novais's establishment of São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575, the Portuguese government formally incorporated Angola as a colony in 1655
Slavery in Angola: Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola: 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1961-1974 War of Liberation and Angolan War of Indepencence: Angolan War of Indepencence 1961-1974 - 1961-1974 'Portuguese Colonial War', in the former colonies 'War of Liberation', was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies, the Portuguese regime in Portugal itself was overthrown by a military coup in 1974 and the change in government brought the conflict to an end
2011: 16 November 2011: Portugal seeks Angola investment - PM Coelho visit
2014: 28 July 2014: It was announced that the Angolan state takes over the majority of Banco Espirito Angola, as its Angolan partners inject fresh capital of about US$3 billion into the Angolan bank
Angola/South Africa relations: Angola/South Africa relations
1975-1976: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Angola/USA relations: Angola/USA relations
Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola and military support of Unita: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Since 2008 joint venture of Chevron Corporation and Sonangol: Angola LNG was formed as a joint project in 2008 involving Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation (36.4%), Sonangol (22.8%), BP (13.6%), Eni (13.6%) and Total (13.6%), Sonangol and Chevron serve as co-project leaders, the shareholders will provide associated gas from their respective offshore oil fields - 17 March 2016: Cabinda gulf oil and gas exploitation in Angola - 16 June 2016: Angola LNG's production resumed at its liquefaction plant at Soyo, following the recent plant incident and shutdown April/May 2014
Angola/Vietnam relations: Angola/Vietnam relations since 1971, four years before Angola gained its independence, and when future President of Angola Agostinho Neto visited Vietnam
Environment of Angola: Environment of Angola - Natural history of Angola - Climate of Angola
Ecoregions in Angola: List of ecoregions in Angola - Protected areas of Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Natural disasters in Angola: Natural disasters in Angola
Floods in Angola: Floods in Angola
2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods: March-April 2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods
January 2020 Angola floods: 9 janvier 2020: 41 personnes ont été tuées par des pluies torrentielles qui se sont abattues sur une grande partie de l'Angola en moins de 24 heures en début de semaine, ont annoncé jeudi les autorités de ce pays
Droughts in Angola:
2016 Angola and southern Africa drought: 2016 southern Africa drought is affecting 1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces
April 2019: 30 April 2019: A severe drought in Angola has plunged 2.3 million people into a food security crisis with thousands of children being treated for malnutrition, according to the United Nations children’s fund


Benin - Geography of Benin - History of Benin - Demographics of Benin
Economy of Benin: Economy of Benin - main industries include textiles, food processing, construction materials, and cement, as export goods include cotton, cashews, shea butter, textiles, palm products, seafood - List of companies of Benin
Mineral industry of Benin: Mineral industry of Benin
Energy in Benin: Energy in Benin, derived from multiple sources, including, oil and natural gas
Fossil fuels in Benin: Fossil fuels in Benin - Oil and gas companies of Benin - Société Nationale de Commercialisation des Produits Pétroliers, established in 1974 as a state owned enterprise after nationalization and merger of Beninese daughter companies of BP, Total S.A., Agip, Texaco, Shell, Mobil and DEPP, since 1994 SONACOP is a joint stock company
West African Gas Pipeline: West African Gas Pipeline, a natural gas pipeline to supply gas from Nigeria's Escravos region of Niger Delta area to Benin, Togo and Ghana
Electric power in Benin: Electric power in Benin
Agriculture in Benin: Agriculture au Bénin, qui contribue pour 32,7% en moyenne au PIB, 75% aux recettes d’exportation, 15% aux recettes de l’État et fournit environ 70% des emplois
Water in Benin: Water in Benin - Bodies of water of Benin
Rivers of Benin: List of rivers of Benin
Fishing in Benin: Fishing in Benin
Transport in Benin: Transport in Benin
Rail transport in Benin: Rail transport in Benin
Road transport in Benin: Road transport in Benin
Water transport in Benin: Water transport in Benin
Cotonou seaport: Economy of Cotonou, a transport hub and a crossroads of West African commerce, enabling trade with the countries of the African interior, such as Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, in addition to the port, there is a free trade zone in the interior of the city for use by the landlocked Saharan states
Porto-Novo: Porto-Novo, seaport and the capital of Benin with a population of 223,552 people in 2002
Tourism in Benin: Tourism in Benin - Tourist attractions in Benin - World Heritage Sites in Benin
Banks of Benin: Banks of Benin - List of banks in Benin
Central Bank of West African States: Central Bank of West African States
Economic history of Benin and economic cycles: Economic history of Benin and economic cycles
January 2019: 22 janvier 2019: Selon la Banque africaine de développement les perspectives de croissance économique du Bénin sont bonnes, mais restent vulnérables aux chocs extérieurs, soulignant également que la croissance du Produit intérieur brut réel devrait être de 6,3% en 2019 et de 6,8% en 2020
Labour and trade unions in Benin: Employees' rights in Benin - Trade unions in Benin
Military of Benin: Military of Benin
Military coups in Benin: 1963, 1972 and 1977 military coups in Benin
Politics of Benin: Politics of Benin, a presidential representative democratic republic, wherein the President of Benin is both head of state and head of government, with a multi-party system - 1956 Constitution of Benin, constitutional referendums and amendments
Political parties in Benin: List of political parties in Benin
National Assembly of Benin: National Assembly of Benin
Elections and politics in Benin: Elections and politics in Benin
September 1958 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum: 28 September 1958 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum
January 1964 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum: 5 January 1964 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum
December 1990 Beninese constitutional referendum: 2 December 1990 Beninese constitutional referendum
March 2016 Beninese presidential election: 6/20 March 2016 Beninese presidential election
April 2019 Beninese parliamentary election: 28 April 2019 Beninese parliamentary election - 28 April 2019: Benin’s legislative elections commenced on Sunday with no one contesting from the opposition parties, amid fears of media disruption and a very high level of absenteeism as a sign of protest - 30 April 2019: Concerns over Benin's democracy after poll boycott, 'africanews' reports
October 2019 MPs promote electoral reforms: 18 October 2019: Lawmakers in Benin announced that they would vote for electoral reforms 'as soon as possible', saying they would grant amnesty to those still in detention since the post-electoral violence in May, and that this will help to resolve the current political crisis in the West African nation
17 May 2020 local elections in Benin: 29 May 2020: After the recent local elections in Benin, a landslide victory for the incumbent Patrice Talon in 2021 seems inevitable
11 August 2020 Benin restores Ouidah Slave Fort to honour African ancestors: 11 August 2020: Benin touches upon the Transatlantic Slave Trade of the 1600s that lasted around 300 years as Ouidah, the nation’s coastal town, was a main port from where many Africans were captured and inhumanely shipped abroad, and Benin restores Ouidah Slave Fort to honour African ancestors
October 2020 civil society denounced the 6-month away presidential election without any credible opposition: 10 October 2020: Opponents and members of civil society in Benin have denounced the 6-month away presidential election which they claim could be held without any credible opposition candidate under questionable and dubious political circumstances orchestrated by the ruling government in light of an amendment to the electoral code and several court convictions against prominent politicians
March 2021 Benin presidential: March 2021 Benin presidential, as incumbent Patrice Talon will likely run for a second term, and he could be the only candidate on the ballot
Protests in Benin:
October 2017: 20 October 2017: Thousands of people took to the streets of Benin's commercial capital Cotonou on Friday to protest against President Patrice Talon's economic reforms and the high cost of living
April 2019: 26 April 2019: The wave of arbitrary arrests of political activists and journalists, and the crackdown on peaceful protests, have reached an alarming level in Benin, rights group said ahead of the country’s parliamentary elections on Sunday - 28 April 2019: Benin shuts down social media access amid poll-fueled protests
May 2019 protests: 2 May 2019: Protesters in Benin were locked in a tense standoff with police and soldiers Thursday after violence broke out following controversial parliamentary polls held without a single opposition candidate
June 2019: 16 June 2019: At least two people were killed in Savè in central Benin, as security forces tried to dislodge opponents, who have barricaded and blocked the national road since Tuesday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Benin: Beninese society - Human rights in Benin
Departments and communes of Benin: 12 departments of Benin - 77 communes of Benin
Cities in Benin: List of cities in Benin
Ouémé department: Ouémé, one of the twelve departments of Benin, subdivided into nine communes, each centered at one of the principal towns, namely, Adjarra, Adjohoun, Aguégués, Akpro-Missérété, Avrankou, Bonou, Dangbo, Porto-Novo and Sèmè-Kpodji
Porto-Novo city and seaport: Porto-Novo city, the capital of Benin, formerly the capital of French Dahomey, in 2002 with a population of 223,552 people
Timeline and history of Porto-Novo: Timeline and history of Porto-Novo
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
1861-1900 British bombardement and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
Littoral department: Littoral department of Benin, the smallest department of all of the twelve in the country, as well as the most cosmopolitan with its capital Cotonou, Benin's largest city
Cotonou city and seaport: Cotonou city, the largest city and economic centre of Benin with a population of 761,137 inhabitants in 2006
Economy of Cotonou and its seaport: Economy of Cotonou, a transport hub and a crossroads of West African commerce, enabling trade with the countries of the African interior, such as Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, in addition to the port, there is a free trade zone in the interior of the city for use by the landlocked Saharan states
Timeline of Cotonou: Timeline of Cotonou
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
1878 Cotonou ceded to France: 1878 Cotonou ceded to France
1883 French occupation: 1883 French occupation
Since 1970 University of Abomey-Calavi: Since 1970 University of Abomey-Calavi, the principal university in the country of Benin, composed of 19 institutions and six campuses - Abomey-Calavi city, located in the Atlantique Department of Benin and mainly suburban to the city of Cotonou with a population of 655,965 people
Since 1996 University of Science and Technology of Benin: Since 1996 University of Science and Technology of Benin
June 2000 Cotonou Agreement: June 2000 Cotonou Agreement, a treaty between the EU and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP countries), entering into force in 2003 and subsequently revised in 2005 and 2010
Atlantique department: Atlantique department in Benin, located in south central Benin along the Atlantic coast, between the Mono and Couffo in the west, Zou in the north, and Oueme in the east - Abomey-Calavi city, located in the Atlantique Department of Benin and mainly suburban to the city of Cotonou with a population of 655,965 people
Ouidah city: Ouidah city on the coast of the Republic of Benin with a population of 76,555 people in 2002
Since 1650 British fort and slave port: History of Ouidah city, which saw its role in international trade rise when the British built a fort in Ouidah in 1650, becoming the second largest slave port in the Triangular trade in the 18th century
Borgou department: Borgou, one of the twelve departments of Benin, bordering the country of Nigeria and the departments of Alibori, Atakora, Collines and Donga, its capital is Parakou
Alibori department: Alibori, the largest and northernmost département of Benin, bordering the countries of Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria, and also Benin's départments of Atakora and Borgou
Demographics of Benin: Demographics of Benin
Ethnic groups in Benin: Ethnic groups in Benin
Culture and languages of Benin: Culture of Benin - Languages of Benin including Fon, Yom, Yoruba, Bariba, Fulfulde, and more than 40 other indigenous languages considered national languages and French
Women and women's rights in Benin: Women in Benin - Women's rights in Benin
Gender in Benin: Gender in Benin
Children and children's rights in Benin: Children's rights in Benin
Education in Benin: Education in Benin
Schools in Benin: Schools in Benin
Universities and colleges in Benin: Universities and colleges in Benin - Science and technology in Benin
Health in Benin: Health in Benin
Healthcare in Benin: Medical and health organisations based in Benin - List of hospitals in Benin
Media in Benin: Media in Benin
Newspapers in Benin: List of newspapers in Benin
Broadcasting in Benin: Radio in Benin - Television in Benin
Internet in Benin: Internet in Benin
Crime in Benin: Crime in Benin
Human trafficking in Benin: Human trafficking in Benin
Law and legal history in Benin: Beninese law - 1956 Constitution of Benin, constitutional referendums and amendments - Human rights in Benin
Organisation juridictionnelle au Bénin: Organisation juridictionnelle au Bénin, tribunaux de première instance et cours d'appel
Cour suprême du Bénin: La Cour suprême est la plus haute juridiction de l'État du Bénin en matière administrative, judiciaire et des comptes de l'État, également compétente en ce qui concerne le contentieux des élections locales
Cour constitutionnelle du Bénin: La cour constitutionnelle du Bénin est la plus haute juridiction du pays en matière de constitutionnalité
Law enforcement in Benin: Law enforcement in Benin
Foreign relations of Benin: Foreign relations of Benin
Treaties of Benin: Treaties of Benin
Benin and the United Nations: Benin and the United Nations
UN Security Council resolutions concerning Benin
Bilateral relations of Benin: Bilateral relations of Benin
Benin/France relations: Benin/France relations
1861-1900 British bombardement of Porto-Novo and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War: February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War
1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War: 1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War
Since 1904 French Dahomey: Since 1904 French Dahomey, a French colony and a part of French West Africa from 1904 to 1958, after World War II, by the establishment of the French Fourth Republic in 1947, Dahomey became part of the French Union with an increased autonomy
August 1960 Dahomey's independence from France: On 1 August 1960 Dahomey declared independence from France
Benin/Haiti relations: Benin/Haiti relations
History of Benin/Haiti relations: History of Benin/Haiti relations, as the two countries share an extensive cultural history by way of the Atlantic slave trade
Benin/Kenya relations: Benin/Kenya relations
Benin-Kenya trade relations: Benin-Kenya trade relations
Benin/Nigeria relations: Benin/Nigeria relations
Bight of Benin: Bight of Benin or Bay of Benin is a bight in the Gulf of Guinea area on the western African coast, as historical associations with the Atlantic slave trade led to the region becoming known as the Slave Coast
Benin/Portugal relations:
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Benin's Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
Benin/Sudan relations: Benin/Sudan relations
Benin/Togo relations: Benin/Togo relations
Benin/United Kingdom relations: Benin/United Kingdom relations
1861-1900 British bombardement of Porto-Novo and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
Environment of Benin: Environment of Benin - Natural history of Benin - Geology of Benin - Climate of Benin
Landforms and ecoregions in Benin: Landforms of Benin - List of ecoregions in Benin - Eastern Guinean forests - Guinean forest-savanna mosaic
Natural disasters in Benin: Natural disasters in Benin
Floods in Benin: Floods in Benin
July-October 2008 Benin floods: July-October 2008 Benin floods
June-September 2009 West Africa floods: June-September 2009 West Africa floods


Botswana - Geography of Botswana - History of Botswana - Demographics of Botswana
Economy of Botswana: Economy of Botswana - main products include diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver, beef processing, textiles - Companies of Botswana - Companies of Botswana by industry
Mining and mineral industry in Botswana: Mining and mineral industry has dominated Botswana's national economy since the 1970s, after diamond has been the leading component of the mineral sector since 1972, as copper, gold, nickel, and soda ash production also has held significant roles in the economy, as in 2005, mining accounted for about 38% of Botswana's real gross domestic product and more than 50% of government revenues were derived from mining and mineral-processing activity
Debswana Diamond Company Ltd: Debswana Diamond Company Ltd, a mining company located in Botswana and the world's leading producer of diamonds by value, a joint venture between the government of Botswana and the South African diamond company De Beers
List of mines in Botswana: Mines in Botswana by product - Surface mines in Botswana - List of mines in Botswana
Coal mines in Botswana: Coal mines in Botswana
Since 1973 Morupule Colliery coal mine: Since 1973 Morupule Colliery, a coal mine located in Palapye, Botswana, and owned and operated by Debswana, a partnership between the government of Botswana and De Beers - Debswana Diamond Company Ltd, a mining company located in Botswana and the world's leading producer of diamonds by value, a joint venture between the government of Botswana and the South African diamond company De Beers
Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield owned by Indian company: Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield, considered to be a western extension of the Waterberg Coalfield, owned by Indian 'Jindal Steel and Power' company
Energy in Botswana: Energy in Botswana - Fossil fuels in Botswana
Coal-fired power stations in Botswana: Coal-fired power stations in Botswana
Agriculture in Botswana: Agriculture in Botswana - more than half of Batswana live in rural areas and are dependent on subsistence crop and livestock farming, as agriculture meets only a small portion of food needs, contributes just 2.8% to GDP, but remains a social and cultural touchstone
Water in Botswana: Water in Botswana - Water Resources Management in Botswana
Rivers of Botswana: Rivers of Botswana - List of rivers of Botswana
Boteti River: Boteti River, a natural watercourse in Botswana, deriving flow from the core Okavango Delta through the Thamalakane River in Maun
Cuando River: Cuando River in south-central Africa flowing through Angola and Namibia's Caprivi Strip and into the Linyanti Swamp on the northern border of Botswana - Lake Makgadikgadi
Molopo River: Molopo River, one of the main rivers in Southern Africa with a length of approximately 960 kilometres and a catchment area of 367,201 km2 with Botswana, Namibia and South Africa sharing roughly about a third of the basin each
Okavango River: Okavango River in southwest Africa, the fourth-longest river system in southern Africa, running southeastward for 1,600 km, beginning in Angola, then forming part of the border between Angola and Namibia, and then flowing into Botswana, draining into the Moremi Game Reserve
Shashe River: Shashe River, a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe, rising northwest of Francistown and flowing into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet
Transport in Botswana: Transport in Botswana
Rail transport in Botswana: Rail transport in Botswana
Road transport in Botswana: Road transport in Botswana
Aviation in Botswana: Aviation in Botswana - List of airports in Botswana
Tourism in Botswana: Tourism in Botswana - Tourist attractions in Botswana - National parks of Botswana
Protected areas of Botswana: List of protected areas of Botswana - World Heritage Sites in Botswana
Banking and banks in Botswana: Banks of Botswana - List of banks in Botswana
Bank of Botswana: Bank of Botswana
Foreign trade of Botswana: Foreign trade of Botswana
Economic history of Botswana and economic cycles: Economic history of Botswana
Labour in Botswana: Labour in Botswana - Trade unions in Botswana
Military of Botswana: Military of Botswana
Politics of Botswana: Politics of Botswana - Constitution of Botswana since 1966
Political parties in Botswana: Political parties in Botswana - List of political parties in Botswana
Trade unions in Botswana: Trade unions in Botswana
Parliament of Botswana: Parliament of Botswana - National Assembly of Botswana - President of Botswana
Elections and politics in Botswana: Elections in Botswana
March 1965 Bechuanaland general election and 1966 independence: 1 March 1965 Bechuanaland general election, the country's first election under universal suffrage resulting in a landslide victory for the Bechuanaland Democratic Party and the country's independence as Botswana on 30 September 1966
October 2014 Botswana general election: 24 October 2014 Botswana general election
October 2019 Botswana general election: 23 October 2019 Botswana general election - October 2019 Botswana general election results - 25 October 2019: Botswana Democratic Party wins country's election with 52.8% of the vote
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Botswana: Botswana society
Human rights in Botswana: Human rights in Botswana
Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana: Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana
Districts and sub-districts of Botswana: 17 administrative districts of Botswana - Sub-districts of Botswana by district
Cities in Botswana: List of cities in Botswana
Gaborone: Gaborone, the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 inhabitants in 2011, about 10% of the total population of Botswana - History of Gaborone
Economy of Gaborone: Economy of Gaborone
Timeline of Gaborone: Timeline of Gaborone since 1890
1966 Gaberone capital of independent Botswana: 1960-1966 Gaberone becomes capital of independent Botswana
Since 1982 University of Botswana: Since 1982 University of Botswana with three campuses in the capital city Gaborone, in Francistown, and another in Maun, and divided into the six faculties of Business, Education, Engineering, Humanities, Science and Social Sciences
Since 1991 Botswana College of Agriculture: Since 1991 Botswana College of Agriculture
Since 2009 University of Botswana School of Medicine: Since 2009 University of Botswana School of Medicine
Francistown: Francistown, the second largest city in Botswana, with a population of about 100,079 and 150,800 inhabitants for its agglomeration at the 2011 census, located in eastern Botswana, about 400 kilometres north-northeast from the capital, Gaborone
History of Francistown: History of Francistown, as evidence of habitation by humans goes back around 10,000 years
Demographics of Botswana: Demographics of Botswana
Ethnic groups in Botswana: Ethnic groups in Botswana
Tswana people: Tswana people, a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa, making up approximately 85% of the population of Botswana in 2011
Kalanga people: Kalanga people, a southern Bantu ethnic group mainly inhabiting Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, with smaller numbers in northeastern Botswana, Gaza Province in Mozambique, and Limpopo Province in South Africa
San people: San are members of various Khoesan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa - Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana
Botswana culture: Culture of Botswana
Languages of Botswana: Languages of Botswana - official languages of Botswana are English and Tswana - Tswana language, a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about five million speakers
Women and women's rights in Botswana: Women in Botswana - Women's rights in Botswana
Childhood and youth in Botswana: Childhood in Botswana - Youth in Botswana
Education in Botswana: Education in Botswana
Schools in Botswana: Schools in Botswana - Schools in Botswana by type
Universities and colleges in Botswana: Universities and colleges in Botswana - List of universities in Botswana
Science and technology in Botswana: Science and technology in Botswana - Since 2005 Botswana International University of Science and Technology
October 2019 ancestral home region of living humans claimed in Botswana: 28 October 2019: Based on DNA samples, scientists claim to have traced the ancestral home region of all living humans to a vast wetland that sprawled over much of modern day Botswana and served as an oasis in an otherwise parched expanse of Africa
Health in Botswana: Health in Botswana
HIV/AIDS in Botswana: HIV/AIDS in Botswana, as the country is experiencing one of the most severe HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world
Healthcare in Botswana: Healthcare system in Botswana - List of hospitals in Botswana
Media of Botswana: Media of Botswana - Media in Botswana by city
Newspapers in Botswana: List of newspapers in Botswana
Broadcasting in Botswana: Radio in Botswana - TV in Botswana - Botswana National Broadcasting Board
Internet in Botswana: Internet in Botswana
Crime in Botswana: Crime in Botswana
Corruption in Botswana: Corruption in Botswana
Human trafficking in Botswana: Human trafficking in Botswana
Law and legal history in Botswana: Botswana law - Human rights in Botswana
2006 Botswana High Court recognized aboriginal title: 2006 Botswana High Court recognized aboriginal title in Sesana and Others v Attorney General, a case brought by named plaintiff Roy Sesana, which held that the San have the right to reside in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, which was violated by their 2001 eviction
Law enforcement in Botswana: Law enforcement in Botswana
Botswana prisons and prison service: Botswana prisons and prison service:
Capital punishment in Botswana: Capital punishment in Botswana
Foreign relations of Botswana: Foreign relations of Botswana
Treaties of Botswana: Treaties of Botswana
Since 1992 Southern African Development Community headquartered Gaborone: Since 1992 Southern African Development Community SADC, an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Botswana's Gaborone, aiming further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 16 southern African states
Botswana and the United Nations: Botswana and the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Botswana: Bilateral relations of Botswana
Botswana/China relations: Botswana/China relations
September 2018 loan for transport infrastructure: 9 September 2018: Botswana says China agreed to extend loan and cancel debt, after the ministry of finance said Botswana was seeking US$1 billion for transport infrastructure
Botswana/India relations: Botswana/India relations
Indians in Botswana: Indians in Botswana, an estimated 7,000-8,000 residents of Botswana of Indian origin in 2016, of which 3,000-4,000 are citizens of Botswana, as most Indians are employed in the retail, manufacturing, teaching and accounting professions
India-Botswana economic relations: India-Botswana economic relations - bilateral trade between Botswana and India totaled US$1.1 billion in 2014-15, as the primary commodity imported by India from Botswana is diamonds, and the major commodities exported by India to Botswana are items manufactured goods, metals, machinery and equipment, cotton yarn, fabrics, ready-made garments, pharmaceuticals, and transport equipment
Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield owned by Indian company: Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield, considered to be a western extension of the Waterberg Coalfield, owned by Indian 'Jindal Steel and Power' company
Botswana/Israel relations: Botswana/Israel relations
Botswana/Kenya relations: Botswana/Kenya relations
Botswana-Kenya trade relations: Botswana-Kenya trade relations
Botswana/Namibia relations: Botswana/Namibia relations
Botswana-Namibia economic cooperation: Botswana-Namibia economic cooperation
June 2002 power corporation: 6 June 2002: Namibia-Botswana power corporations sign agreement
Botswana/South Africa relations: Botswana/South Africa relations
Botswana/United Kingdom relations: Botswana/United Kingdom relations
1885-1966 UK's Bechuanaland Protectorate: 1885-1966 Bechuanaland Protectorate of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa, becoming the Republic of Botswana on 30 September 1966
Botswana and the Commonwealth of Nations: Botswana and the Commonwealth of Nations
Botswana/USA relations: Botswana/USA relations
Environment of Botswana: Environment of Botswana - Natural history of Botswana - Geology of Botswana - Climate of Botswana is semi-arid, due to the short rain season, however, the relatively high altitude of the country and its continental situation gives it a subtropical climate
Ecoregions in Botswana: List of ecoregions in Botswana
Deserts of Botswana: Deserts of Botswana
Water in Botswana: Water in Botswana - Water Resources Management in Botswana
Rivers of Botswana: Rivers of Botswana - List of rivers of Botswana
Boteti River: Boteti River, a natural watercourse in Botswana, deriving flow from the core Okavango Delta through the Thamalakane River in Maun
Cuando River: Cuando River in south-central Africa flowing through Angola and Namibia's Caprivi Strip and into the Linyanti Swamp on the northern border of Botswana - Lake Makgadikgadi
Molopo River: Molopo River, one of the main rivers in Southern Africa with a length of approximately 960 kilometres and a catchment area of 367,201 km2 with Botswana, Namibia and South Africa sharing roughly about a third of the basin each
Okavango River: Okavango River in southwest Africa, the fourth-longest river system in southern Africa, running southeastward for 1,600 km, beginning in Angola, then forming part of the border between Angola and Namibia, and then flowing into Botswana, draining into the Moremi Game Reserve
Shashe River: Shashe River, a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe, rising northwest of Francistown and flowing into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet
Environmental issues in Botswana: Current environmental issues in Botswana are overgrazing, desertification and the existence of only limited fresh water resources
Natural disasters in Botswana: Natural disasters in Botswana
Earthquakes in Botswana: Earthquakes in Botswana
April 2017 Botswana earthquake: April 2017 Botswana earthquake
Floods in Botswana: Floods in Botswana
2010–11 Southern Africa floods: 2010–11 Southern Africa floods


Burkina Faso - Geography of Burkina Faso - History of Burkina Faso - Demographics of Burkina Faso
Economy of Burkina Faso: Economy of Burkina Faso - main industries include cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold - List of companies based in Burkina Faso
Mining industry of Burkina Faso: Mining industry of Burkina Faso - gold, manganese and zinc - Bissa gold mine - Kiaka gold mine - Tambao manganese mine
Energy in Burkina Faso: Energy in Burkina Faso
Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso: Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso - Bagre Dam since 1992 is a multipurpose dam on the White Volta located near Bagré Village in Burkina Faso
Agriculture in Burkina Faso: Agriculture in Burkina Faso employs the vast majority of the work force - principal subsistence crops are sorghum, millet, corn, and rice - commercial crops include cottonseed, groundnuts, cotton fiber, and sesame
Shea nut and butter production in Burkina Faso: Shea nut and butter production in Burkina Faso
Water, rivers and lakes in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso - Rivers of Burkina Faso Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic - Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists - The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana - Lakes of Burkina Faso
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Tourism in Burkina Faso: Tourism in Burkina Faso - Visitor attractions in Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Banking in Burkina Faso: Banks in Burkina Faso
Economic history of Burkina Faso and regions Économie du Burkina Faso et développement humain - List of regions of Burkina Faso by Human Development Index
Poverty in Burkina Faso: Poverty in Burkina Faso
Military of Burkina Faso: Military of Burkina Faso - Coups d'état in Burkina Faso
1966: On 3 January 1966 a general strike gives power to General Sangoulé Lamizana on the demand of demonstrators
1980/1982 military coups d'état: 25 November 1980 and 7 November 1982 military coup d'état
1983/1984 -1987 coups d'état: 1984 coup d'état - A coup d'état organised by Blaise Compaoré on 4 August 1983 was supported by Libya, on 15 October 1987 Compaoré took power in a coup that murdered Thomas Sankara - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
2014: 31 October 2014: Assuming power General Traoré stated that a new election will take place in 60-90 days - 1 novembre 2014: Lieutenant-colonel Yacouba Issac Zida fait sa déclaration officielle de prise de pouvoir sur des chaînes privées
2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 26 September 2015: Burkina Faso government disbands presidential guard military unit, that took the president and PM hostage in failed coup
Taxation and budget in Burkina Faso: Taxation in Burkina Faso - 22 novembre 2013: 47% du budget du Burkina Faso, fixé à 1664 milliards de FCFA pour 2014, est affecté aux investissements publics, 20% aux infrastructures, 4,4% à l'agriculture, 1,6% à l'élevage et 0,1% à l'environnement
Politics of Burkina Faso: Politics of Burkina Faso - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
Political parties in Burkina Faso: Political parties in Burkina Faso
Trade unions in Burkina Faso: Trade unions in Burkina Faso
Elections and politics in Burkina Faso: Elections in Burkina Faso
December 2012 Burkinabé parliamentary election: Burkinabé parliamentary election 2 December 2012
2014: 11 August 2014: Burkina Faso’s next elections are not due until November 2015, but political tensions have risen in the past year owing to suspicions that President Compaoré is looking to prolong his 27-year rule by contesting the polls - 31 October 2014: Burkina Faso's Compaoré refuses to resign in face of protests and deadly clashes, saying he will lead transitional government after parliament is disolved by an announcement of army general Traore - 31 October: As tens of thousands of protesters demand that he quit immediately Burkina president steps down, calling for elections within 90 days - 31 October: Burkina Faso's army chief Traore says he is taking power as head of state - 1 November: Saying Traoré’s claim is 'obsolete', Lieutenant Colonel Zida declares himself to be president - 31 octobre/1 novembre 2014: De Blaise Compaoré à Yacouba Isaac Zida, trois chefs de l’Etat en une journée - 1 November: As Burkina’s deposed president flees to Ivory Coast, as the country needs snap elections and as opposition parties and civil society organisations reject the army’s takeover, the military backs Isaac Zida as interim leader - 2 November: Burkina Faso's opposition and civil society leaders warn against a military takeover, and call for a mass rally after the army stepped into the power vacuum left by Compaore's ouster
2015: 23 August 2015: An ex-prime minister and several ministers among 22 candidates who registered for Burkina Faso's October election
16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 17 September 2015: Street protests and UN condemnation after forces loyal to Blaise Compaore bundle away Michel Kafando and PM Isaac Zida - 17 September 2015: Confirming military coup Burkina Faso's military dissolves transitional government - 19 September: Burkina Faso will return to civilian rule and an interim government led by Michel Kafando will be reinstated, reversing the military coup, Benin’s president Yayi says in Ouagadougou, as unrest and protests continue - 23 September: Burkina Faso's Michel Kafando resumes power after week-long coup
November 2015: 8 November 2015: 14 presidential candidates in Burkina Faso kick off campaigning for a general election meant to restore democratic rule and choose a successor to longtime leader Blaise Compaore
29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election: 29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election - 29 November: Burkina Faso votes to choose first new president in decades - 1 December 2015: Kabore wins Burkina Faso presidential election
December 2018: 31 décembre 2018: En proie à des attaques djihadistes récurrentes et meurtrières, le Burkina Faso a décrété lundi l'état d'urgence dans plusieurs provinces
March 2019 Burkinabé constitutional referendum: 24 March 2019 Burkinabé constitutional referendum on proposed new constitution providing for a semi-presidential system, introducing a two-term limit for the Presidency and Speaker of the National Assembly, recognising the right to participate in civil disobedience, clean water and housing, and abolishing the death penalty
July 2019: 14 July 2019: Burkina Faso tightens press freedom amid security crisis, as journalists who share information about military operations could face up to 10 years in jail and £7,000 fines under new law awaiting presidential approval
12 July 2020 Burkina Faso president’s party backed president Kabore to run for re-election: 12 July 2020: Burkina Faso president’s party backed president Kabore to run for re-election despite struggling to crush a bloody jihadist insurgency, as People’s Movement for Progress party's president Compaore made the announcement to cheering supporters at a stadium rally in the capital Ouagadougou
22 November 2020 Burkinabé general election: 22 November 2020 Burkinabé general election to elect the president and National Assembly - 22 November 2020: Burkinabe voters hope for peace and security, as election has raised high hopes for change and development in areas such as health, education, infrastructure, youth employment, and the tackling of the serious security and humanitarian crisis, 'africanews' reports
Social movements and protests in Burkina Faso: Protests in Burkina Faso
2011 Burkinabè protests: 22 February 2011 – 9 June 2011 Burkinabè protests over police brutality, high food prices, low wages, economic repression and autocracy
2014 Burkinabé uprising: Burkinabé uprising is a series of demonstrations in Burkina Faso in October 2014 due to attempts at changing the constitution to allow President Compaoré to run again and extend his 27-year term
October 2014: 30 October 2014: Tens of thousands of protesters demanding the ousting of Burkina Faso's veteran President Compaore faced off with security forces outside the presidential palace after burning parliament and ransacking state television - 2 November: Thousands gather in the centre of Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou to denounce 'military coup' of Presidential Guard's Zida, as UN's Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the renewed army’s seizure of power
September 2015: 19 September 2015: Hundreds of protesters burnt tyres and erected barricades in the streets of Ouagadougou in a third day of unrest and deadly clashes since the military coup ousted the country's interim government
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burkina Faso: Society of Burkina Faso
Human rights in Burkina Faso: Human rights in Burkina Faso
2014: 11 June 2014: In Burkina Faso, getting children out of the gold mines
Regions, provinces and departments of Burkina Faso: 13 Regions of Burkina Faso - 45 Provinces of Burkina Faso, list of provinces by region - 351 Departments of Burkina Faso, list of departments by region and by province
Cities in Burkina Faso: List of cities in Burkina Faso
Centre region and Ouagadougou: Centre region, the most populous and urbanised region in Burkina Faso, in 2006 11.1% of Burkina's population lived in Centre (2,136,581 in 2011) - Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural and economic centre of the nation - Timeline of Ouagadougou - Economy of Ouagadougou
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burkina Faso: Demographics of Burkina Faso - Ethnic groups in Burkina Faso
Bobo people: Bobo people, the second largest ethnic group with about one million people, are mostly farmers, artisans, and metalworkers living in the southwest around Bobo-Dioulasso although the area occupied by the Bobo extends north into Mali, where the Bobo number about 110,000 people
Fula people: Fula people are one of the largest and a widely dispersed ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa
Gurunsi peoples: Gurunsi peoples, 750,000 people in Burkina Faso or 5% of Burkina Faso's population
Lobi people: Lobi people, an ethnic group that originated in what is today Ghana and migrated into southern Burkina Faso and later into Côte d'Ivoire
Mossi people: Mossi people in central Burkina Faso, living mostly in the villages of the Nazinon and Nakanbe River Basin, and the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting more than 40% of the population or about 6.2 million people
Senufo people: Senufo people, a West African ethnolinguistic group consisting of diverse subgroups living in a region spanning the northern Ivory Coast, the southeastern Mali and the western Burkina Faso
Culture and languages of Burkina Faso: Culture of Burkina Faso - Languages of Burkina Faso - Mossi language, a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language, and the most widely spoken language in the country, with 48% of Burkinabes being speakers as of 2008 - Religion in Burkina Faso - Freedom of religion in Burkina Faso
Women and women’s rights in Burkina Faso: Women’s rights in Burkina Faso
Education in Burkina Faso: Education in Burkina Faso
2 October 2020 schools and universities reopen in Burkina Faso after six month closure: 2 October 2020: Schools and universities reopened in Burkina Faso on Thursday after being closed for more than six months due to covid-19 pandemic
Schools in Burkina Faso: Schools in Burkina Faso
Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso: Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso - University of Ouagadougou - Since 2005 University of Koudougou - Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso
Health in Burkina Faso: Health in Burkina Faso
Medical outbreaks in Burkina Faso: Medical outbreaks in Burkina Faso - Health disasters in Burkina Faso - Endemic diseases in Burkina Faso
African meningitis belt: The African meningitis belt is a region in sub-Saharan Africa, consisting of the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, where the rate of incidence of meningitis is very high
2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak: 2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak
Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Burkina Faso: Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Burkina Faso
18 March 2020 Burkina Faso's first COVID-19 death: 18 March 2020: Burkina Faso has joined the list of African countries to have recorded Chinese corona-virus related death, as uthorities announced the first COVID-19 death on Wednesday
2 October 2020 schools and universities reopen in Burkina Faso after six month closure: 2 October 2020: Schools and universities reopened in Burkina Faso on Thursday after being closed for more than six months due to covid-19 pandemic
Healthcare in Burkina Faso: Healthcare in Burkina Faso - Medical and health organisations based in Burkina Faso
Maternal and child healthcare in Burkina Faso: Maternal and child healthcare in Burkina Faso
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso: Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso
Media of Burkina Faso: Media of Burkina Faso - Communications in Burkina Faso
January 2015 corruption reports: 15 January 2015: Ruling overturning jail sentence of reporter Konaté in Burkina Faso, who published articles raising questions about corrupt practices
Newspapers in Burkina Faso: Newspapers published in Burkina Faso
Broadcasting in Burkina Faso: Radio in Burkina Faso - Television stations in Burkina Faso
Internet in Burkina Faso: Internet in Burkina Faso
Lefaso.net, l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet: Lefaso.net - l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet
Crime in Burkina Faso: Crime in Burkina Faso
Terrorism in Burkina Faso: Terrorism in Burkina Faso
January 2016 Ouagadougou attack: 15/16 January 2016 Ouagadougou attack - 16 January 2016: At least 20 people were killed, at least 60 hostages freed and at least 20 were wounded after Islamic Al-Qaida terrorists attacked a hotel in Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou
August 2017 Ouagadougou attack: 13/14 August 2017 Ouagadougou attack - 14 August 2017: At least 17 people killed in attack on restaurant, as suspected Islamic extremists open fire on Turkish eatery popular with foreigners in Burkina Faso's capital of Ouagadougou
March 2018 Ouagadougou attack: 2 March 2018 Ouagadougou attack, targeting the French embassy and the headquarters of Burkina Faso's military - 2 March 2018: The French embassy in the Burkino Faso capital of Ouagadougou has been attacked by suspected jihadists in a coordinated assault that also hit the country’s army headquarters
December 2018: 31 décembre 2018: En proie à des attaques djihadistes récurrentes et meurtrières, le Burkina Faso a décrété lundi l'état d'urgence dans plusieurs provinces
January 2019: 2 janvier 2019: Au moins treize personnes ont été tuées mardi dans une attaque d'hommes armés, suivie de représailles intercommunautaires à Yirgou, un village de la commune de Barsalogo dans le centre-nord du Burkina Faso - 12 janvier 2019: Douze civils burkinabè ont été tués jeudi à Gasseliki, village de la région du Sahel, dans une 'attaque terroriste', selon le ministère de la Sécurité
29 April 2019 church attack: 29 April 2019: At least 5 killed in Burkina Faso church attack in Silgadji, 60 km from Djibo, the capital of Soum province
12 May 2019 church attack: 12 May 2019: Two days after French special forces freed four foreign hostages in the north of the country, gunmen killed a priest and five churchgoers during mass in an attack on a Catholic church in Burkina Faso's northern town of Dablo, as between 20 and 30 attackers opened fire after congregation tried to flee before setting fire to church, shops, a cafe, and looting a local health centre
August 2019: 20 August 2019: Burkina Faso’s military says extremists have killed at least 10 soldiers in the country’s north, adding that an air and land operation has been launched 'in reaction to the barbaric attack'
29/30 September 2019 deadly attacks in norther Burkina Faso: 29/30 September 2019: At least eight people were killed in two attacks in the north of Burkina Faso, security sources said on Sunday, following a series of attacks that claimed 17 lives Saturday
6 October 2019 deadly assault on gold mine: 6 October 2019: Around 20 people have been killed in an attack on a gold mining site in northern Burkina Faso, security sources said, the latest in a spate of violence blamed on a jihadist insurgency across the region
11 October 2019 Burkina Faso mosque attack: 11 October 2019 Burkina Faso mosque attack in northern Burkina Faso which left 16 people dead and two injured
November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso: November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso
25 December 2019 Arbinda terrorist attacks: 25 décembre 2019: Le Burkina Faso était en deuil mercredi, jour de Noël, après une nouvelle attaque djihadiste d'envergure, survenue mardi matin à Arbinda, près de la frontière malienne, faisant 42 morts, suivi d'un deuxième dans la nuit
5 January 2020 at least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device: 5 January 2020: At least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device in northwestern Burkina Faso's Tougan axis in the Boucle du Mouhoun region on the way back from a school break, according to a local official
28/29 January 2020 brutal Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Silgadji in Soum province: 28 January 2020: Suspected Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Burkina Faso's Silgadji in Soum province and killed more than 30 people over the weekend, authorities said, as the jihadists reportedly disabled the local phone network before the massacre near the country's troubled border with Mali - 29 janvier 2020: L'assaut d'un village burkinabè commis samedi par des djihadistes a fait 39 morts selon un communiqué du gouvernement
17 February 2020 about 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor: 17 February 2020: A group of about 20 'armed terrorists' attacked the peaceful local population and killed 24 men, including a church pastor. on Sunday in Burkina Faso, as the mayor of Boundore commune, Sihanri Osangola Brigadie, said the attack occurred in the town of Pansy in Yagha province
Violence in Burkina Faso:
September 2018 new battlefront in eastern Burkina Faso: 20 September 2018: Since February 2018, a new battlefront has emerged in eastern Burkina Faso, situated along the borders with Niger, Benin, and Togo
March 2019 escalation of jihadist violence: 2 March 2019: Burkina Faso’s alarming escalation of jihadist violence
March/April 2019: 3 April 2019: More than 60 people have been killed in tit-for-tat clashes between communities in northern Burkina Faso in recent days, the government said on Wednesday, the latest in a bout of inter-communal violence afflicting West Africa’s Sahel region
April 2019 Burkina Faso's internal displacement because of violence: As Burkina Faso is facing massive internal displacement because of violence, it wreaks havoc on educators, children - 22 April 2019: Parts of east Burkina Faso fall to Islamic militants, as locals say they live in fear of violence and face harsh punishment for breaking rules
November 2019 UN warns of an 'escalating humanitarian crisis' in Burkina Faso: 20 November 2019: The UN food agency has warned of an 'escalating humanitarian crisis' in Burkina Faso, driven by growing extremist violence and the long-term impact of climate crisis in the arid central Sahel region, as children bear the brunt as extremism and climate crisis drive almost 500,000 people from their homes
November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso: November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso
25 December 2019 Arbinda terrorist attacks: 25 décembre 2019: Le Burkina Faso était en deuil mercredi, jour de Noël, après une nouvelle attaque djihadiste d'envergure, survenue mardi matin à Arbinda, près de la frontière malienne, faisant 42 morts, suivi d'un deuxième dans la nuit
5 January 2020 at least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device: 5 January 2020: At least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device in northwestern Burkina Faso's Tougan axis in the Boucle du Mouhoun region on the way back from a school break, according to a local official
28/29 January 2020 brutal Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Silgadji in Soum province: 28 January 2020: Suspected Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Burkina Faso's Silgadji in Soum province and killed more than 30 people over the weekend, authorities said, as the jihadists reportedly disabled the local phone network before the massacre near the country's troubled border with Mali - 29 janvier 2020: L'assaut d'un village burkinabè commis samedi par des djihadistes a fait 39 morts selon un communiqué du gouvernement
17 February 2020 about 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor: 17 February 2020: About 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor, and kidnapped three others on Sunday in Burkina Faso, as the mayor of Boundore commune, Sihanri Osangola Brigadie, said the attack occurred in the town of Pansy in Yagha province, as more than 1,300 civilians were killed in targeted attacks last year in Burkina Faso, more than seven times the previous year, according to Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project
February 2020 more internal displacements because of violence: 21 février 2020: Les violences djihadistes et de groupes militants au Burkina Faso ont déplacé 150'000 personnes ces trois dernières semaines, lorsque le total s'approche désormais de 770'000, dont 90% ont fui depuis un an, a annoncé vendredi l'ONU à Genève
20 April 2020 HRW accuses security forces over killings: 20 avril 2020: HRW accuse les forces de l'ordre d'avoir tué 31 civils
July 2020 at least 180 civilians killed in recent months in northern town of Djibo: 9 July 2020: At least 180 civilians have been killed in recent months in northern town of Djibo, at the heart of jihadist conflict across north, central and eastern parts of Burkina Faso, says rights group, as Human Rights Watch suggests involvement of security forces in deaths over recent months
Human trafficking in Burkina Faso: Human trafficking in Burkina Faso
Droit burkinabè et histoire: Droit burkinabè, appliqué au Burkina Faso depuis l'indépendance de la France le 5 août 1960 (Burkinabé law) - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - Human rights in Burkina Faso
Law enforcement in Burkina Faso: Law enforcement in Burkina Faso
July 2019: 15 juillet 2019: Onze personnes détenues dans les locaux de l'Unité antidrogue de Ouagadougou en garde à vue sont décédées dans la nuit de dimanche à lundi
Foreign relations of Burkina Faso: Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
Treaties of Burkina Faso: Treaties of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/United Nations relations: Burkina Faso/United Nations relations - 2 November 2014: The head of the UN office for west Africa Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the army’s seizure of power by Presidential Guard's Zida
Burkina Faso's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Burkina Faso among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso: Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/Canada relations: Burkina Faso/Canada relations - Endeavour gold mines producing more than 400,000 ounces per year in Mali, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire - SEMAFO Inc. Canadian-based gold mining company with activities in West Africa
Burkina Faso/Denmark relations: Burkina Faso/Denmark relations
Burkina Faso/France relations: Burkina Faso/France relations
Late 19th century French conquest of West Africa and Volta region: 11th century–1896 Mossi Kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years, but after the French troops of Kimberly conquered the area in late 19th century, Mossi resistance ended with the capture of their capital at Ouagadougou in 1919
1896 Ouagadougou taken by French military: 5 September 1896: Ouagadougou taken by French forces and the city burned
Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities: Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities, sent out to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa, armed with artillery, machine guns, hundreds of rifles and millions of rounds of ammunition
1895-1958 (1960) French colonial territories 'French West Africa': 1895-1958 (1960) French West Africa federation of eight French colonial territories, including Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger
1914-1939 Upper Volta as labour reservoir for the French: 1914-1939 French colonial authorities perceived Upper Volta as the most important labour reservoir in French West Africa, various types of colonial labour policies are examined including forced labour in its forms of annual ‘prestations’ and longer-term, large-scale recruiting for major public works, as well as military conscription
1915-1917 resistance against French rule and Volta-Bani War: Volta-Bani War was an anti-colonial rebellion and war which took place in what is now Burkina Faso and Mali (then parts of French West Africa) and was fought between an indigenous African army resulting from a heterogeneous coalition including people of different ethnicities and the French Army, after about a year and several setbacks, the French army defeated the insurgents and jailed or executed their leaders but resistance continued until 1917
1939 (1940) - 1945 Vichy France: In World War II 1939-1945 French West Africa remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France in 1940
1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta: 1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta - until after World War II almost all the Africans living in French colonies were not citizens of France, rather they were 'French Subjects', lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote - Since 1955 Social Party for the Emancipation of the African Masses - Since 1957 Voltaic Solidarity - 31 March 1957 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election - African Regroupment Party including the African Convention and the African Socialist Movement and advocating full independence - 30 March 1959 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election
1958–1984: 1958–1984 Republic of Upper Volta self-governing colony within the French Community, attaining full independence from France in 1960
March 2018 Ouagadougou attack: 2 mars 2018 Attaque de Ouagadougou - 3 mars 2018: Les autorités burkinabés tentaient d'établir qui était à l'origine de la double attaque contre l'ambassade de France et l'état-major des forces armées du Burkina Faso qui a fait une trentaine de morts vendredi à Ouagadougou
May 2019: 12 May 2019: Burkinabe authorities and the former French and Korean hostages on Saturday paid tribute to the two French soldiers who died during a liberation raid in northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/Ghana relations: Burkina Faso/Ghana relations
Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations: Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations
Burkina Faso/Mali relations: Burkina Faso/Mali border - Banifing River - Agacher Strip War December 1985
Burkina Faso/Niger relations: Burkina Faso/Niger relations - Liptako–Gourma Authority regional organization to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger
Burkina Faso/Russia relations: Burkina Faso/Russia relations - Nord Gold N.V. gold mining company with assets in Russia, Kazakhstan, Burkina Faso and Guinea - Bissa gold mine
Burkina Faso/Sierra Leone relations: Burkina Faso's involvement in Sierra Leone's Civil War 1991-2002
Burkina Faso/Taiwan relations: Burkina Faso/Taiwan relations
May 2018: 24 May 2018: China accused of 'dollar diplomacy' as Burkina Faso broke diplomatic ties with Taiwan, loosing second ally in a month
Burkina Faso/USA relations: Burkina Faso/USA relations
Environment of Burkina Faso: Environment of Burkina Faso
Ecoregions of Burkina Faso: Ecoregions of Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Water, rivers and lakes in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso - Rivers of Burkina Faso Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic - Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists - The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana - Lakes of Burkina Faso
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso: Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso
Natural disasters in Burkina Faso: Natural disasters in Burkina Faso
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods
June 2020 Burkina Faso drought: 17 June 2020: Bad times for farmers in Burkina Faso, as the land on which they grow their crops is suffering from drought, compounded by the presence of herds accused of attacking plantations


Burundi - Geography of Burundi - History of Burundi - Colonial rule since 19th century - Burundi part of German colony 'German East Africa' 1891–1919 - 'Ruanda-Urundi' under Belgian military occupation since 1916 - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundi Civil War 1993-2005 - Demographics of Burundi
Economy of Burundi: Economy of Burundi - main industries are light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap, assembly of imported components, public works construction, food processing - List of companies based in Burundi
Mining industry of Burundi: Mining industry of Burundi - production of columbium (niobium), tantalum ore, tin ore, tungsten ore, and some deposits of gold - resources of copper, cobalt, nickel, feldspar, phosphate rock and quartzite
Energy in Burundi: Energy in Burundi - Power stations in Burundi
Agriculture in Burundi: Agriculture in Burundi - about 90% of the population depends on agriculture for a living and most agriculture consists of subsistence farming - crops are manioc, beans, bananas, sweet potatoes, corn, and sorghum - export crops are coffee, cotton and tea
Poverty and rural poverty in Burundi: Poverty in Burundi - Rural poverty in Burundi
2012: 11 October 2012: Hunger and malnutrition remain 'extremely alarming' in countries such as Eritrea and Burundi, the Global Hunger Index says
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative
Tourism in Burundi: Tourism in Burundi - Visitor attractions in Burundi - Lakes of Burundi
Banking in Burundi: Banks in Burundi - Bank of Africa with banking operations in 14 sub-Saharan Countries
2015 bank withdrawals: 11 December 2015: Surge in bank withdrawals sends Burundi's economy into sharp downward spiral as Burundians flee violence and threat of civil war
Bank of the Republic of Burundi: Since 1966 Bank of the Republic of Burundi, the central bank of Burundi - Currencies of Burundi
Economic history of Burundi and economic cycles: Economic history of Burundi
August 2018: 31 août 2018: Dans le sillage de la crise politique et sécuritaire en cours au Burundi depuis 2015, l’économie s’est brutalement contractée, et les progrès économiques et sociaux réalisés depuis la fin de la guerre civile risquent d’être balayés
Military of Burundi: Military of Burundi - 1987 Burundian coup d'état - 1996 Burundian coup d'état
Politics of Burundi: Politics of Burundi - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War and 2004-2007 ONUB Peacekeeping Mission: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005 - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003 - United Nations ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 to ensure the continuation of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement signed on 28 August 2000
Since 1994 CNDD–FDD, the current ruling party in Burundi: Since 1994 National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Forces for the Defense of Democracy
Parliament of Burundi: Parliament of Burundi
Political parties in Burundi: Political parties in Burundi
Trade unions in Burundi: Trade unions in Burundi
Elections and politics in Burundi: Elections in Burundi
28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum: Burundian constitutional referendum 2005 - composition of the National Assembly of Burundi: 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi - National Assembly of Burundi
June 2010 Burundian presidential and legislative election: Burundian presidential election 28 June 2010, boycotted by opposition parties - Burundian legislative election 23 July 2010, boycotted by opposition parties
26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest: 26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest
Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état: 13 Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état - 14 May 2015: Fighting between rival Burundi troops reported around building of state broadcaster as claims over success of coup are made - 15 May: Burundi's authorities say they arrested three generals behind coup bid as General Niyombare admits failure - 30 May: Vice president of Burundi's election commission Ndironkeye has fled the country ahead of the poll
June 2015: 7 June 2015: Burundi opposition leader Agathon Rwasa says a presidential election must be held by August at the latest, but a fair vote unlikely without security and a free media - 28 June: The head of Burundi’s parliament Pie Ntavyohanyuma has fled the country on the eve of key elections following weeks of violence, and described the president’s bid for a third term as 'illegal'
29 June 2015 Burundian parliamentary election: 29 June 2015 Parliamentary elections will be held in Burundi alongside local elections - 29 June 2015: Burundi goes to the polls with the president defiant in his controversial bid for a third term in power, despite weeks of unrest that forced thousands to flee and prompted international calls for a delay - 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation - 11 July: Burundi presidential poll delayed amid worsening violence - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks adjourned after government fails to appear mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
July 2015 Burundian presidential election: 15/21 July 2015 Burundian presidential election - 21 July 2015: Nkurunziza set to win disputed third term as president - 24 July: Nkurunziza wins third term in disputed election marred by violence and an opposition boycott - 4 August: Burundian human rights activist Mbonimpa, who openly opposed Nkurunziza's controversial bid for a third term in presidential office, was shot by motorcyclists and seriously injured
December 2015: 11 December 2015: Two soldiers, five attackers killed in Burundi fighting - 11 décembre: Des dizaines de morts dans des attaques à Bujumbura - 20 décembre: Le Burundi n'autorisera pas le déploiement sur son sol d'une mission de l'Union africaine qui serait considérée comme 'une force d'invasion et d'occupation' si l'UA passait outre le refus de Bujumbura
2016: 5 January 2016: As president Nkurunziza continues to cling to power, rights group documents arbitrary arrests, disappearances and deaths - 26 April 2016: President Nkurunziza has condemned the killing of brigadier general Athanase Kararuza, who was shot along with his wife and bodyguard in an attack that also wounded their child in Burundi's wave of deadly violence
November 2017: 2 novembre 2017: Les instruments de musique sont désormais 'interdits' aux femmes et leur usage sera rigoureusement encadré par les autorités, selon un décret présidentiel
February 2018: 2 February 2018: Burundi's opposition says only 'Yes’ campaigning is allowed on referendum to extend president’s rule
May 2018: 14 May 2018: After a campaign marked by allegations of widespread human rights abuses and hate speech, members of Burundi’s divided and weakened opposition see little chance of any serious resistance to Nkurunziza’s efforts to secure his future at the head of the impoverished state - 14 May 2018: With tensions running before a referendum that would allow Pierre Nkurunziza to prolong his hold on power, even those Burundians who have fled to Rwanda are scared
May 2018 Burundian constitutional referendum: 17 May 2018 Burundian constitutional referendum - 19 May 2018: Opposition groups in Burundi say Thursday’s referendum on extending the president’s power was undemocratic as the country awaits the electoral commission’s announcement of the results, also saying there was proof of intimidation, arrests of perceived opponents and threats of assassination
June 2018: 7 June 2018: Burundi's Nkurunziza says he will not run for president in 2020
August 2018: 14 August 2018: The Burundian government has moved to join fellow East African counterparts on the list of countries that have outlawed the use of plastics, beginning in early 2020
27 April 2020 election campaign for the 20 May general election in Burundi: 27 April 2020: The campaign for the 20 May presidential, legislative and municipal elections in Burundi began on Monday, in a climate of mistrust towards the government for its management of the covid-19 pandemic and repression of the opposition
14 May 2020 Burundi kicks out the WHO’s top official: 14 May 2020: Burundi is kicking out the WHO’s top official Mulombo and 3 more WHO experts in the country just days before the presidential election and after the WHO raised concerns about crowded political rallies
16 May 2020 more than 145 opposition party members arrested: 16 May 2020: More than 145 opposition party CNL members have been arrested since campaigning began on April 27, according to SOS Medias Burundi, a group of independent journalists, as police spokesman has accused one party member, party leader Rwasa, of making 'incendiary and defamatory' remarks
May 2020 Burundian general election: 20 May 2020 Burundian general election - 20 May 2020: Burundi opens crucial presidential election amid covid-19 pandemic
Social movements and protests in Burundi: Trade unions in Burundi - Anti-corruption and Economic Malpractice Observatory, an independent, non-governmental anti-corruption watchdog group based in Burundi and known to be critical of the government of Burundi and its policies - Political movements in Burundi
2015 Burundian protests: 2015 Burundian protests
April 2015: 26 April 2015: Burundian police shot dead two protesters and wounded at least one other in demonstrations against president Nkurunziza seeking a third term which critics say would violate a constitutional limit of two terms - 27 April: Burundi police fire tear gas and water cannon at protesters on Monday in the second day of demonstrations against Nkurunziza's bid for a third term, after at least five people reportedly killed in protests on Sunday
May 2015: 1 May 2015: Hundreds of students from Burundi university shuttered by the government seeking refuge outside the USA embassy, amid unrest and escalating tensions ahead of the presidential vote - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 13 May: Burundi protesters celebrate as general launches coup attempt saying he is working to form transitional government - 19 May 2015: Burundi police fire teargas at protesterss demanding Nkurunziza end his bid for a third term, as 110,000 flee country after at least 20 people have been killed in three weeks of clashes between security forces and protesters, failed coup d'état and repression - 24 May: Zedi Feruzi, the head of opposition party UPD, and his bodyguard shot dead in the capital by gunmen on Saturday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burundi: Burundian society
Human rights in Burundi: Human rights in Burundi
2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' report: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' reports and latest news on Burundi
Provinces, communes and collines of Burundi: 18 Provinces of Burundi - List of Burundian provinces by population - List of Burundian provinces by area - 119 Communes of Burundi - The Communes of Burundi are divided into 2,639 collines
Bujumbura city: Bujumbura city is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi with 1,155,678 inhabitants in 2020
Economy of Bujumbura: Économie de Bujumbura
Timeline of Bujumbura: Timeline of Bujumbura since 19th century
1899 Germans established military settlement at Usumbura in colonial German East Africa: 1899 Germans establish military settlement at village of Usumbura in colonial German East Africa
Since 1964 University of Burundi: Since 1964 University of Burundi in Bujumbura, comprising eight faculties and five institutes with an enrollment of approximately 13,000 students in 2017, and Burundi's only publicly funded university - Inter-University Council for East Africa, an institution of the inter-governmental organisation East African Community, to foster collaboration between universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and South Sudan
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: 1993-2005 Burundian Civil War, the result of long standing ethnic divisions between the Hutu and the Tutsi ethnic groups in Burundi incited by colonial powers, and later following multi-party elections in the country since independence from Belgium in 1962
2003/2004 AU Mission in Burundi: 2003/2004 African Union Mission in Burundi
2018/2019 Burundi moved its capital from Bujumbura to Gitega: In December 2018 Burundian president Nkurunziza announced that he would follow on a 2007 promise to return Gitega its former political capital status, with Bujumbura remaining as economic capital and centre of commerce
Gitega city: Gitega city, the capital of Burundi, located in the centre of the country in the Burundian central plateau and roughly 62 kilometres southeast of Bujumbura, as Gitega is Burundi's second largest city
History of Gitega: History of Gitega
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burundi: Demographics of Burundi - Ethnic groups in Burundi
Culture and languages of Burundi: Culture of Burundi - Languages of Burundi - Religion in Burundi - Freedom of religion in Burundi
Women in Burundi: Women in Burundi
>November 2017: 2 novembre 2017: Les instruments de musique sont désormais 'interdits' aux femmes et leur usage sera rigoureusement encadré par les autorités, selon un décret présidentiel
Children' rights in Burundi: Children' rights in Burundi
Education in Burundi: Education in Burundi
Schools in Burundi: Schools in Burundi - Schools in Bujumbura
Universities in Burundi: Universities in Burundi - List of universities in Burundi
Libraries in Burundi: Libraries in Burundi
Health in Burundi: Health in Burundi
Healthcare in Burundi: Medical and health organisations based in Burundi
Media of Burundi: Media of Burundi
November 2017 missing journalist since 2016: 2 November 2017: As the world marks the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists, Bigirimana’s colleagues, friends and family have launched a relentless search to find Bigirimana who worked with Iwacu newspaper and went missing in July 2016 after reportedly leaving his home in Bujumbura
April/May 2015 threats against journalists: 26 April 2015: Burundi police and two ministers forcefully entered a radio station and threatened to shut it down for broadcasting about protests against President Nkurunziza seeking a third term in office - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 16 May 2015: As alleged plotters against President Nkurunziza appear in court, journalists are subjected to threats of arrest or death
January 2020 Burundi arrests journalist over corruption report: 17 January 2020: Burundi arrests journalist over corruption report - 18 January 2020: EU’s parliament has urged Burundi to release four journalists and who have been jailed since October
Newspapers in Burundi: Newspapers published in Burundi - List of newspapers in Burundi
Broadcasting in Burundi: Radio stations in Burundi - Burundi National Radio and Television
Since 2001 Radio Publique Africaine: Radio Publique Africaine since 2001
April 2015 government's threats against radio station: 26 April 2015: Burundi police and two ministers forcefully entered a radio station and threatened to shut it down for broadcasting about protests against President Nkurunziza seeking a third term in office
Internet in Burundi: Internet in Burundi
Crime in Burundi: Crime in Burundi
May 2018: 12 mai 2018: Des inconnus armés ont tué au moins 23 personnes dans la nuit de vendredi à samedi lors d'une attaque contre un village dans le nord-ouest du Burundi, selon un responsable local
Human trafficking in Burundi: Human trafficking in Burundi
Law and legal history in Burundi: Burundian law - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
Judiciary of Burundi: Judiciary of Burundi - Supreme Court of Burundi
Law enforcement and enforcement agencies of Burundi: Law enforcement in Burundi - Law enforcement agencies of Burundi
Foreign relations of Burundi: Foreign relations of Burundi
Treaties of Burundi: Treaties of Burundi
Burundi/African Union relations: Burundi/African Union relations - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003/2004
2015/2016: 26 May 2015: East African leaders to hold summit on Burundi on Sunday 31 May as violence continues - 30 janvier 2016: Le 26e sommet de l'Union africaine s'ouvre à Addis Abeba, mais les chefs d'Etats hésitent à envoyer des forces au Burundi pour maintenir la paix
Burundi/United Nations relations: Burundi/United Nations relations - ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 - UN resolutions concerning Burundi
2015: 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation
2016: 2 avril 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité vote l'envoi d'une police de l'ONU au Burundi pour apaiser les violences - 12 October 2016: Burundi politicians back international criminal court withdrawal, escalating a bitter dispute with the international community over the human rights situation in the east African country, which has experienced more than a year of deadly violence since its president Pierre Nkurunziza made a decision to pursue a third term
2017: 27 October 2017: Burundi’s request to withdraw from the International Criminal Court has elapsed the one year period making the country the first in history to officially withdraw from the Rome Statute
September 2020 Human rights violations still being committed in Burundi, UN says: 17 September 2020: Human rights violations are still being committed in Burundi, including sexual violence and murder, a report by a UN watchdog said, as hopes had been pinned on new president Evariste Ndayishimiye, who was elected in May
Burundi's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Burundi among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Burundi: Bilateral relations of Burundi
Burundi/Belgium relations: Burundi/Belgium relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Burundi/DR of the Congo relations: Burundi/DR of the Congo relations - Ruzizi River - First Congo War 1996-1997 - Second Congo War 1998-2003
Burundi/Germany relations: Burundi/Germany relations
1881-1914 'Scramble for Africa': 'Scramble for Africa' invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1881 and 1914
1885–1919 Germany's 'East Africa' colonial territories and German 'Völkisch movement': German East Africa 1885–1919 - Founder of the German East Africa Company Carl Peters, a proponent of Social Darwinism and the 'Völkisch movement' - Evangelical Missionary Society for German East Africa
1914-1918 Burundi and German empire's World War I: German East Africa in 1914-1918 World War I, colony's military commander Lettow-Vorbeck's campaign inflicting upwards of 10,000 casualties - East African Campaign (World War I)
1939-1945 Burundi and German empire's World War II: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972 and 1993 Burundi genocide: Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Burundi/India relations: Burundi/India relations
Bilateral trade relations: Bilateral trade relations
Burundi/Kenya relations: Burundi/Kenya relations
Bilateral development cooperation: Bilateral development cooperation
Burundi/Rwanda relations: Burundi/Rwanda relations
Common history of Burundi and Rwanda since Urewe civilisation: History of Burundi and Rwanda - Burundi and Rwanda are two of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state - Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age
1916-1982 Ruanda-Urundi, Mandate of Belgium: Ruanda-Urundi, a territory in the African Great Lakes region and once part of German East Africa, was ruled by Belgium between 1916 (1922) and 1962, after the disestablishment of the League of Nations and World War II Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control, in 1962 the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Rwanda and Burundi
1939-1945: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972, 1990-1994 Burundian Genocide: Burundian Genocide 1972 - Burundian Genocide 1990-1994 - Arusha Accords 1993
Rwanda-Burundi border and Kagera River: Rwanda-Burundi border - The section of river named Kagera begins in Burundi, flowing out from Lake Rweru, then east along the Rwanda-Burundi and Rwanda-Tanzania borders to a confluence with the Ruvubu River - Lake Rweru - Nyabarongo River
Burundi/Somalia relations: Burundi/Somalia relations
Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia: Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia - African Union Mission to Somalia - Burundian deployment of troops
Burundi/Tanzania relations: Burundi/Tanzania relations - Lake Tanganyika - Kagera River - Malagarasi River
18 May 2015: Tens of thousands of Burundians lack adequate food and shelter at makeshift camp in Kagunga after fleeing Burundi in aftermath of failed coup on 13 Mai
Burundi/Uganda relations: Burundi/Uganda relations - 24 May 2015: Uganda says working with neighbors to resolve Burundi crisis - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks backed by the East African Community adjourned after government fails to appear for mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
Environment of Burundi: Environment of Burundi - Natural history of Burundi - Great Rift Valley
Ecoregions in Burundi: List of ecoregions in Burundi - List of protected areas of Burundi - National parks of Burundi
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative


Cameroon - Geography of Cameroon - History of Cameroon - Demographics of Cameroon
Economy of Cameroon: Economy of Cameroon - main industries include petroleum production and refining, aluminium production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Mining industry of Cameroon: Mining industry of Cameroon - mineral resources include bauxite, cobalt, gold from lode deposits, granite, iron ore, nepheline syenite, nickel, and rutile - Iron mines in Cameroon - Mbalam mine since 2010 - Diamond mines in Cameroon - Mobilong diamond mine
Energy in Cameroon: Energy in Cameroon
Fossil fuels in Cameroon: Fossil fuels in Cameroon
Petroleum in Cameroon: Petroleum in Cameroon
Electric power in Cameroon: Electric power in Cameroon, the mix of energy production of Cameroon consists of 57% of hydraulic power source, 21% of thermal springs in the gas, 10% of heat source to light fuel oil and 13% of heat source to heavy fuel oil - Hydroelectric power stations in Cameroon
Agriculture in Cameroon: Agriculture in Cameroon, principal occupation of 56% of the economically active population in 2003 - the most important cash crops include cocoa, coffee, cotton, bananas, rubber, palm oil and kernels, peanuts, the main food crops include plantains, cassava, corn, millet, and sugarcane
Coffee production in Cameroon: Coffee production in Cameroon, dates to 1884, during the German colonial era, remaining very important for the economy of Cameroon - National Cocoa and Coffee Board, an autonomous Cameroonian government establishment created in 1991 to oversee the sustainability, marketing, quality control, information-dissemination
Palm oil production in Cameroon: Palm oil production in Cameroon
Water in Cameroon: Water in Cameroon - Rivers of Cameroon - List of rivers of Cameroon by drainage basin - Lakes of Cameroon
Logone River: Logone River, a major tributary of the Chari River, located in the western Central African Republic, northern Cameroon, and southern Chad - Chari River, flowing from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone River
Benue River: Benue River, the major tributary of the Niger River
Wouri river: Wouri river, formed at the confluence of the rivers Nkam and Makombé, flowing about 160 km southeast to the Wouri estuary at Douala, the chief port and industrial city in the southwestern part of Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea
Sanaga River: Sanaga River forms a boundary between two tropical moist forest ecoregions
Sangha River: Sangha River, formed at the confluence of the Mambéré River and the Kadéï River at Nola in the western Central African Republic. flowing along the border of Cameroon with the Central African Republic, and then the Republic of Congo
Transport in Cameroon: Transport in Cameroon
Rail transport in Cameroon: Rail transport in Cameroon
Water transport in Cameroon: Water transport in Cameroon - Waterways, seaports and harbors in Cameroon
Douala: Douala, the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region, home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, CAR and Cameroon - Timeline of Douala - Economy of Douala
Tourism in Cameroon: Tourism in Cameroon - Tourist attractions in Cameroon
Foreign trade of Cameroon: Foreign trade of Cameroon - 2010-2015 exports of Cameroon have decreased at an annualized rate of -0.7% to $4.73B in 2015, the most recent exports are led by Crude Petroleum which represent 35.5% of the total exports of Cameroon, followed by Cocoa Beans, which account for 12.2%, as the country's trade balance remains negative in 2016 and the main customers are Spain, China, Netherlands, India, and Italy in 2014
Banking in Cameroon: Banking in Cameroon - Banks of Cameroon - Bank of Central African States, a central bank that serves six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa - Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
Economic history of Cameroon and economic cycles: Economic history of Cameroon
Since 1987 economic crisis of Cameroon: From the mid-1980s to the early 2000s Cameroonian economic crisis was a downturn in the economy of Cameroon from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s, resulting in rising prices in Cameroon, trade deficits, and loss of government revenue
2009: 2 November 2009: Cameroon hit by global economic crisis, as World Bank says the global economic crisis is hurting Africa by slowing outside investment, depressing prices for commodity exports and slashing remittances from Africans working abroad
2017: 13 February 2017: Cameroon's economy reportedly losing billions due to Anglophone crisis - 7 November 2017: Cameroon’s economy is losing billions due to the ongoing Anglophone crisis that also includes ghost town operations, according to French language daily 'Le Quotidien de l’economie'
Taxation and budget of Cameroon: Fiscalité du Cameroun
2017: 27 December 2017: Cameroon’s economy minister Motaze says the World Bank loan of FCFA 112.83 billion, procured under the country’s budget support programme, will boost growth and sustainable development in the country
National Social Security Fund in Cameroon: Caisse nationale de prévoyance sociale au Cameroun
Cameroonian Armed Forces: Cameroonian Armed Forces - Military history of Cameroon
Politics of Cameroon: Politics of Cameroon - 1972 Constitution of Cameroon
Political parties in Cameroon: List of political parties in Cameroon, Cameroon is a one party dominant state with the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement in power
Trade unions in Cameroon: Trade unions in Cameroon
Elections and politics in Cameroon: Elections in Cameroon
October 2011 Cameroonian presidential election: 9 October 2011 Cameroonian presidential election - Biya, who assumed office on 6 November 1982, was re-elected with 78% of the vote
September 2013 Cameroonian parliamentary election: 30 September 2013 Cameroonian parliamentary election
October 2017: 1 October 2017: Soldiers shot dead at least eight people and wounded others in Cameroon’s restless English-speaking regions during protests by activists calling for its independence from the majority francophone nation - 11 October 2017: Cameroon government refutes reports of massacre in Anglophone regions, as Cameroon’s anglophone areas', that are facing a serious social and political crisis since 2016, attempted symbolic independence declaration on 1 October 2017 was met with heavy security crackdown which led to official deaths of eight people
December 2017: 21 December 2017: In August 2017, International Crisis Group sounded the alarm about the risk of an insurrection in Cameroon’s Anglophone region unless a genuine dialogue, complete with strong measures to defuse tensions, was initiated
January 2018: 3 January 2018: Amid an escalation of the language related crisis in which dozens of people have died, hundreds have been imprisoned and thousands have escaped across the border to Nigeria, the entire country could be destabilised ahead of elections in the autumn if the situation is not defused through dialogue, according to the International Crisis Group
July 2018: 13 July 2018: Footage showing two women, a child and a baby being shot dead by armed men in Cameroon has led to accusations by rights group that the country’s army may be carrying out killings, denied by government but triggering an investigation
September 2018: 17 September 2018: After elections governing body published a list of 9 candidates including incumbent president Biya who is seeking to extend his 35 years in power, decision to organize the presidential election on 7 October 2018 announced by Biya, removing all doubts as to whether the violence-gripped nation would make it to the polls
October 2018 Cameroonian presidential election: 7 October 2018 Cameroonian presidential election - 7 October 2018: Red carpet as Biya votes, gunshots in Bamenda - 10 October 2018: AU chairperson calls for restraint as Cameroon awaits official poll results - 23 October 2018: Cameroon’s president Biya wins the October elections with 71.28% of votes while his opposition challenger Maurice Kamto, who refuses to acknowledge the results, is in second place with 14.23% of the votes
January 2019: 29 January 2019: Police arrested Maurice Kamto along with several other opposition figures, including one who was pulled out of his hospital bed where he was recovering from gunshot wounds sustained at a protest against the central African country’s longtime president, Paul Biya
June 2019 mandates of MPs to be extended until February 2020: 19 June 2019: Mandates of Councillors, MPs to be extended until February 2020
29 December 2019 ahead of Cameroon's 60th anniversary of independence from brutal and bloody France: 29 December 2019: On 1 January 2020 Cameroon will marks its 60th anniversary of independence, the first of 17 African countries that became free from their colonial masters in 1960, as Cameroon's fight for independence was brutal and bloody because French colonial troops sought to repress nationalist voices and fighters
February 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election: 9 February 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election - 9 February 2020: Cameroon votes Sunday in polls overshadowed by a partial opposition boycott and separatist violence which has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, as elections taking place for the first time in 7 years, unlikely to ruffle the enduring rule of Paul Biya, one of the world’s oldest and longest-serving leaders
11 August 2020 Ebo logging decree sparks anger in Cameroon: 11 August 2020: A Cameroonian government decree allowing logging in a forest that is home to some of the world’s most endangered species has sparked outrage among local communities and conservation groups
September 2020 ahead of Cameroon regional elections in December: 8 September 2020: Ahead of Cameroon regional elections in December, opposition leader Maurice Kamto and government draw battle line - 22 September 2020: Camerooen regional elections candidacies
2 November 2020 'for the sake of Cameroon, life-president Paul Biya must be forced out': 2 November 2020: For the sake of Cameroon, life-president Paul Biya must be forced out, freelance writer Vava Tampa focusing on Africa’s decolonisation and culture says, explaining that the country should be rich, but millions live in dire poverty, and France must stop supporting Africa’s oldest serving leader in power since 1982 and his electoral ploys
Social movements and protests in Cameroon: Protests in Cameroon
February 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests: February 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests, following a strike by transport workers, who were opposing high fuel prices and poor working conditions, also caused by President Paul Biya's announcement that he wanted the constitution to be amended to remove term limits
2016–2017 Cameroonian protests: 2016–2017 Cameroonian protests were a series of protests that occurred following the appointment of Francophone judges in English-speaking areas of the Republic of Cameroon, in October 2016 protests began in two primarily English-speaking regions, the Northwest Region and the Southwest Region
June 2019 protests and mass arrests: 4 June 2019: Hundreds of members of Cameroon’s main opposition party are being held in custody after the country’s security forces carried out mass arrests during a series of anti-government protests over the weekend
25 October 2020 protest against deadly school attack in Kumba: 25 October 2020: Escorted by security forces, hundreds of people held a procession through Kumba town in southwest Cameroon, the site of a school attacked by gunmen on Saturday, where at least seven children were killed in the raid according to officials, as people now carried placards denouncing the attack, while calling for an end to the violence which has gripped the region since 2017
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cameroon: Cameroonian society
Human rights in Cameroon: Human rights in Cameroon
Regions, departments and communes of Cameroon: Subdivisions of Cameroon - 10 Regions of Cameroon - 55 Departments of Cameroon - Communes of Cameroon and alphabetical list
Municipalities and cities of Cameroon: List of cities, towns, and villages in the country of Cameroon and 10 largest cities
Adamawa Region: Adamawa Region, a constituent region of the Republic of Cameroon, bordering the Centre and East regions to the south, the Northwest and West regions to the southwest, Nigeria to the west, and the Central African Republic to the east
History of Adamawa Region: History of Adamawa Region, German and French colony and since 1960 post-independence history
Economy of Adamawa Region: Economy of Adamawa Region, based almost entirely on cattle, a Fulbe monopoly, and nearly all farming in the province is done at the sustenance level, as millet is the mainstay, though maize, and manioc are also important, and other crops include cocoyams, yams, and groundnuts
Ngaoundéré city: Ngaoundéré city, the capital of the Adamawa Region of Cameroon, with a population of 152,700 at the 2005 census rapidly risen to 1,000,000 in 2016 owing to mass immigration from the Central African Republic and the perceived danger from Boko Haram in northern Cameroon
Centre Region: The Centre Region, bordered to the north by the Adamawa Region, to the south by the South Region, to the east by the East Region, and to the West by the Littoral and West Regions, with major ethnic groups including the Bassa, Ewondo, and Vute, and with the capital of Cameroon Yaoundé, drawing people from the rest of the country to live and work there, as the entre region's towns are also important industrial centres, especially for timber, and as agriculture is another important economic factor, especially with regard to the province's most important cash crop cocoa
Economy, plantation agriculture and industry of Centre region: Economy, plantation agriculture and industry of Centre region, one of Cameroon's strongest economic zones due in great part to the presence of the capital city
Yaoundé city: Yaoundé city, the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of approximately 2.5 million, the second largest city in the country after the port city Douala, located in the Centre Region of the nation at an elevation of about 750 metres - History of Yaoundé
Timeline of Yaoundé: Timeline of Yaoundé
1888 'Jaunde' settlement founded: 1888 'Jaunde' settlement founded by a German empire's colonial service-man in colonial Kamerun
1909 'Yaoundé' capital of German colonial Kamerun: 1909 'Yaoundé' town designated capital of German colonial Kamerun
1961 'Yaoundé' becomes capital of independent Republic of Cameroon: 1961 'Yaoundé' becomes capital of independent Republic of Cameroon
Since 1962 University of Yaoundé: Since 1962 University of Yaoundé with the languages French and English - Since 1993 University of Yaoundé I, public university in Cameroon - Since 1993 University of Yaoundé II, a public university in Cameroon formed in 1993 following a university reform that split the country's oldest university
2004 UN Development Fund for Women regional office headquartered in Yaounde: 2004 United Nations Development Fund for Women regional office headquartered in Yaounde
2/3 November 2020 9 people injured in blast of an artisanal bomb in a Yaoundé bar: 2/3 November 2020: 9 people were injured on Sunday in the blast of an artisanal bomb in a Yaoundé bar, as government said it was the fourth in a series of attacks of this kind in less than five months in the capital, and as no one claimed responsibility for the attack
East Region: East Region, the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon, bordering to the east the Central African Republic, to the south the Congo, to the north the Adamawa Region, and to the west the Centre and South Regions
Economy of East Region: As the vast majority of the inhabitants of the region are subsistence farmers with crops including maize, bananas, groundnuts, cocoyams, manioc, pineapples, oranges, mangoes, and yams, the major industry of the East is forestry with vast tracts of forest and European and African companies have exploited these heavily
Littoral Region: Littoral Region with its capital Douala, with a population of 3,174,437 inhabitants, as its name is due to the region being largely littoral, associated with the sea coast
Douala cíty: Douala city, the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region, home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, CAR and Cameroon - Timeline of Douala
Timeline of Douala: Timeline of Douala
1472 the Portuguese visit the area: 1472 the Portuguese visit the area during the Age of exploration and empires
Since 1868 German Woermann-Linie in Cameroon, 1884 Cameroon becomes a German colony: Since 1868 company Woermann-Linie in Cameroon, 1881 Woermann-Linie receives the authorization to build a factory (trading post) in Deido, 1884 Germans in power (the treaty between the Douala and Germans is signed; Cameroon becomes a German protectorate)
2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests: 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests, following on the heels of a strike by transport workers, who were opposing high fuel prices and poor working conditions, as further political turmoil had been caused by president Paul Biya's announcement that he wanted the constitution to be amended to remove term limits
North Region: North Region, neighbouring the Far North Region to the north, the Adamawa Region to the south, Nigeria to the west, Chad to the east, and Central African Republic to the southeast, as the city of Garoua is both the political and industrial capital, and alsö Cameroon's third largest port
Economy of North Region: As many of the North's ethnic groups farm on small plots for subsistence, and as cotton grows in the North's river valleys and constitutes the major cash crop under the management of the 'Société de Développement du Coton', Garoua is the industrial heart of all of Cameroon's Grand North, with goods produced in Garoua including beer and soft drinks, soap, cotton products such as textiles and cottonseed oil, construction materials, processed foods, and shoes, as Figuil's factories produce cement and textiles, and those of Pitoa produce oils from groundnuts and cottonseeds
Garoua city: Garoua city, a port city, the capital of the North Region of Cameroon, lying on the Benue River, and a thriving centre of the textiles and cotton industries, with approximately 436,899 inhabitants in 2018
Northwest Region of Cameroon: Northwest Region of Cameroon, part of the territory of the Southern Cameroons, found in the western highlands of Cameroon and bordered to the southwest by the Southwest Region, to the south by the West Region, to the east by the Adamawa Region, and to the north by the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as Bamenda is the capital of the region
Bamenda city: Bamenda city in northwestern Cameroon and capital of the Northwest Region, with a population of about 2 million people
History and timeline of Bamenda: History of Bamenda, as the city in 1884 was colonized by Germany until 1916 when it became a colony administered by Great Britain and France, becoming only British in 1919 with the Northwest Region, joinging the independent Cameroon in 1961, as many of the city's inhabitants are English-speaking (Cameroonian Pidgin English) since colonial periods
Since March 2019 Southern Cameroons Liberation Council SCLC: Since March 2019 Southern Cameroons Liberation Council SCLC, an Ambazonian umbrella movement, aiming to unite all Anglophone groups on a common front, and consisting of seven movements
Since 1961 Southern Cameroons and SCAPO since 2006: Southern Cameroons, the southern part of the British Mandate territory of British Cameroons in West Africa, and since 1961 part of the Republic of Cameroon, where it makes up the Northwest Region and Southwest Region, as since 1994, pressure groups in the territory have sought independence from the Republic of Cameroon, and the Republic of Ambazonia was declared by the Southern Cameroons Peoples Organisation SCAPO on 31 August 2006
Since 2017 Southern Cameroons and 'Anglophone Crisis': Ambazonia, a proto-state in the territory also known as Southern Cameroons, as in 2017, the Southern Cameroons Ambazonia Consortium United Front SCACUF declared Ambazonia to be an independent nation, while the Cameroonian government stated that the declaration has no legal weight, followed by violence and war ensued to the declaration and this is known as the 'Anglophone Crisis' - Since September 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem
Since May 2019 Ambazonian leadership crisis: Since May 2019 Ambazonian leadership crisis, an ongoing internal conflict within the Interim Government of Ambazonia, after the dissolution of the caretaker cabinet led by Samuel Ikome Sako and the restoration of its predecesso
2020 timeline of the Anglophone Crisis since 2017: 2020 timeline of the Anglophone Crisis since 2017
14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre: 14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre, when 6 Cameroonian soldiers, accompanied by armed Mbororos and Ambazonian detractors, carried out a massacre in Ngarbuh, a neighborhood in the town of Ntumbo in the Northwest Region, killing at least 22 people including 14 children, 9 of whom were younger than 5
18 February 2020 UN wants punishment for perpetrators of Ngarbuh killings: 18 February 2020: UN wants punishment for perpetrators of Ngarbuh killings
21 February 2020 memorial ceremony in Kumbo for victims of the Ngarbuh massacre: 21 February 2020 memorial ceremony held at the Saint Theresia Cathedral in Kumbo in Cameroon's North-West region for victims of the Ngarbuh massacre
24/25 February 2020 Ngarbuh whistleblower arrested: 24/25 February 2020: Special team from Yaounde arrived in Ntumbaw, arresting Mallam Danjuma, who is suspected of granting the first interview to the UN after the February 14, 2020 massacre of civilians by government forces
25 February 2020 HRW accuses government forces: 25 février 2020: Le meurtre d'une vingtaine de civils, dont 13 enfants, le 14 février au Cameroun anglophone, a été perpétré par les 'forces gouvernementales' et une milice peule alliée, a accusé mardi Human Rights Watch
8 March 2020 armed separatists attacked the village of Galim in western region killing at least 7 people: 8 March 2020: Armed separatists attacked a village in Cameroon's western French-speaking region on Sunday, killing at least seven people, according to a top offical and a resident
West Region: West Region, bordering the Northwest Region to the northwest, the Adamawa Region to the northeast, the Centre Region to the southeast, the Littoral Region to the southwest, and the Southwest Region to the west, the smallest of Cameroon's ten regions in area, having the highest population density
Bafoussam city: Bafoussam city, the capital and largest city of the West Region of Cameroon located in the Bamboutos Mountains, the 3rd most important (financially) city in Cameroon, after Yaounde and Douala
Southwest Region: Southwest Region, a region in Cameroon with its capital is Buea, and one of the two anglophone regions of Cameroon, including the six departments of Fako, Koupé-Manengouba, Lebialem, Manyu, Meme, and Ndian
Buea city: Buea city, the capital of the Southwest Region of Cameroon located on the eastern slopes of Mount Cameroon and with a population of 300,000 inhabitants in 2013
Kumba city: Kumba city in the Meme department in the Southwest Region, the most developed and largest city in the Meme department, as Kumba has attracted people from the neighbouring villages like Mbonge, Ekondo Titi and has an estimated population of about 400,000 inhabitants with about three quarters of this population falling within the youthful age group
Economy of Kumba: Economy of Kumba, a trade centre for cocoa, palm oil and rubber, with a timber industry as well, as Kumba is a local road junction, making it the main commercial town in anglophone Cameroon with two main markets, Kumba Market and Fiango Market, and several smaller markets created by farmers who bring food directly from their farms, as most of the people in Kumba are farmers making Kumba one of the leading towns in Cameroon that provides foodstuff to its neighbouring towns and cities and also to some neighbouring countries including Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Chad - Lake Barombi Mbo
History and timeline of Kumba: History and timeline of Kumba
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
25 October 2020 protest against deadly school attack in Kumba: 25 October 2020: Escorted by security forces, hundreds of people held a procession through Kumba town in southwest Cameroon, the site of a school attacked by gunmen on Saturday, where at least seven children were killed in the raid, as people now carried placards denouncing the attack, while calling for an end to the violence which has gripped the region since 2017
Demographics of Cameroon: Demographics of Cameroon
Ethnic groups in Cameroon: Ethnic groups in Cameroon - Cameroon's population consists of approximately 250 ethnic groups, as Cameroon Highlanders constitute the plurality at 38% of the total population, including the Bamileke and the Bamoun, the coastal tropical forest peoples, including the Bassa, Douala, and many smaller entities account for about 12% of the population, in the southern tropical forest, ethnic groups include the Ewondo, Bulu, Fang, the Maka and Pygmies (officially called Bakas), accounting for about 18% of the population, the Fulani account for about 14% of the population and the Kirdi account for about 18%
Culture and languages of Cameroon: Culture of Cameroon
Nearly 250 languages in Cameroon: Languages of Cameroon - Cameroon is home to nearly 250 languages, including 55 Afro-Asiatic languages, 2 Nilo-Saharan languages, 4 Ubangian languages, and 169 Niger–Congo languages
'Anglophone problem' in Cameroon: 'The Anglophone Problem', as it is commonly referred to in Cameroon, is a socio-political issue rooted in Cameroon's colonial legacies from the Germans, British, and the French
Since 2017/2018 'Anglophone' Crisis: Since 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem - 3 January 2018: What began as a simple request for English to be used in the courtrooms and public schools of the country’s two anglophone regions has escalated into a crisis in which dozens of people have died, hundreds have been imprisoned and thousands have escaped across the border to Nigeria
November 2018: 5 November 2018: Armed separatists reportedly kidnapped at least 79 students and three staff members from a Presbyterian school in the troubled English-speaking region of Cameroon - 7 November 2018: Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing amid a conflict raging in the English-speaking regions of the majority francophone central African country
February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre: 14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre, when 6 Cameroonian soldiers, accompanied by armed Mbororos and Ambazonian detractors, carried out a massacre in Ngarbuh, a neighborhood in the town of Ntumbo in the Northwest Region, killing at least 22 people including 14 children, 9 of whom were younger than 5 - 25 février 2020: Le meurtre d'une vingtaine de civils, dont 13 enfants, le 14 février au Cameroun anglophone, a été perpétré par les 'forces gouvernementales' et une milice peule alliée, a accusé mardi Human Rights Watch
8 March 2020 armed separatists attacked the village of Galim in western region killing at least 7 people: 8 March 2020: Armed separatists attacked a village in Cameroon's western French-speaking region on Sunday, killing at least seven people, according to a top offical and a resident
Women in Cameroon: Women in Cameroon
Education in Cameroon: Education in Cameroon
Schools in Cameroon: Schools in Cameroon
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
Universities and colleges in Cameroon: Universities and colleges in Cameroon - Universities in Cameroon
Health in Cameroon: Health in Cameroon
Medical outbreaks in Cameroon: Medical outbreaks in Cameroon - Man-made disasters in Cameroon
2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Cameroon: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Cameroon
March 2020 Cameroon, Togo confirm first cases of Chinese coronavirus: 6 March 2020: Cameroon, Togo confirm first cases of Chinese coronavirus
8 April 2020 Cameroon's covid-19 cases reached 1,017 and 22 deaths: 18 April 2020: Cameroon's covid-19 cases reached 1,017 as of April 18, with 22 deaths and 117 recoveries, as social media push for president Biya to address the nation did not pay off
Health care and hospitals in Cameroon: Hospitals in Cameroon - List of hospitals in Cameroon by region
February 2008 Kousseri vaccination campaign: February 2008 Kousseri vaccination campaign, as over 35,000 infants and children were vaccinated against measles, poliomyelitis or both in Cameroon's north-eastern district of Kousséri, in an operation led by the Ministry of Health, the UN, and non-governmental organizations
Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon: Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon
November 2018: 2 November 2018: Authorities in Cameroon should halt their intimidation of journalist Mimi Mefo and ensure that she can work safely without fear of reprisal, the Committee to Protect Journalists said today - 10 November 2018: Cameroonians online are celebrating the release of the English-speaking journalist Mimi Mefo, who had been detained at the New Bell prison since Wednesday charged by a military court of committing a 'state security’ offence
Newspapers in Cameroon: List of newspapers in Cameroon
Broadcasting in Cameroon: Radio in Cameroon - TV in Cameroon
Internet in Cameroon: Internet in Cameroon - Internet censorship and surveillance in Cameroon
Crime in Cameroon: Crime in Cameroon
Terrorism in Cameroon: Terrorism in Cameroon - Boko Haram in Cameroon
January 2015 deadly Boko Haram bus attack: 3 January 2015 Cameroon bus attack when Boko Haram attacked a bus in northern Cameroon, killing at least 15 people
February 2015 Boko Haram Fotokol attack: 4/5 February 2015 Fotokol attack, when Boko Haram militants killed at least 91 people by shooting and burning, and injured over 500 in Fotokol, also torching mosques and churches of the town
November 2017 5 children killed and more wounded in suicide attack: 1 novembre 2017: Cinq enfants ont été tués mardi soir et deux autres blessés après l'explosion d'une jeune kamikaze dans le nord du Cameroun
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
Violence in Cameroon:
November 2018 dozens of pupils kidnapped: 7 November 2018: Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing
Since 2017/2018 'Anglophone' Crisis: Since 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem
Corruption in Cameroon: Corruption in Cameroon
2016: The Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 by Transparency International ranked Cameroon 145 out of 176 countries
Human trafficking in Cameroon: Human trafficking in Cameroon
Law in Cameroon: Droit camerounais - Cameroonian law - 1972 Constitution of Cameroon - Human rights in Cameroon
Judiciary of Cameroon: Organisation judiciaire au Cameroun - Tribunal au Cameroun
Tribunaux de première et grande instance au Cameroun: Tribunal de première instance au Cameroun - Tribunal de grande instance au Cameroun
Courts of Appeal of Cameroon: Courts of Appeal of Cameroon
High Court of Justice in Cameroon: High Court of Justice in Cameroon
Supreme Court of Cameroon: Supreme Court of Cameroon
Criticism of the Cameroonian judiciary: Critiques du système judiciaire, en 2003 les aspects suivants: Corruption (conséquence de la faible rémunération des magistrats), concentrations des avocats sur Douala et Yaoundé, manque d’indépendance de la justice du pouvoir exécutif, conseil supérieur de la magistrature sans pouvoir propre, encombrement des tribunaux de Douala et Yaoundé faute de magistrats
Law enforcement in Cameroon: Law enforcement in Cameroon
Foreign relations of Cameroon: Foreign relations of Cameroon
Treaties of Cameroon: Treaties of Cameroon
Multilateral relations of Cameroon: Multilateral relations of Cameroon
Economic Community of Central African States: Economic Community of Central African States
Cameroon's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Cameroon among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Cameroon: Bilateral relations of Cameroon
Cameroon/Central African Republic relations: Cameroon/Central African Republic relations
Refugees in Cameroon: Refugees in Cameroon - between 2004 and 2013, 92,000 refugees from the Central African Republic fled to Cameroon 'to escape rebel groups and bandits in the north of their country'
Cameroon/Chad relations: Cameroon/Chad relations
Cameroon/France relations: Cameroon/France relations
1918-1960 French Cameroons: 1918-1960 French Cameroons was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Equatorial Africa, now forming part of the independent country of Cameroon
Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon: Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon
December 1956 Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election: 23 December 1956 Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence party Cameroonian Union, which won 30 of the 70 seats - Cameroonian Union
September 1958 killing of Ruben Um Nyobé: 13 September 1958 killing of anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader Ruben Um Nyobé, slain by the French army near his natal village of Boumnyebel
November 1960 assassinaton of Félix-Roland Moumié: 3 November 1960 assassinaton of anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader Félix-Roland Moumié in Geneva by the French secret services SDECE with thallium, following official independence from France earlier that year
29 December 2019 ahead of Cameroon's 60th anniversary of independence from brutal and bloody France: 29 December 2019: On 1 January 2020 Cameroon will marks its 60th anniversary of independence, the first of 17 African countries that became free from their colonial masters in 1960, as Cameroon's fight for independence was brutal and bloody because French colonial troops sought to repress nationalist voices and fighters
Cameroon/Germany relations:
1881-1914 'Scramble for Africa': 'Scramble for Africa' invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1881 and 1914
1884–1916 'German Cameroon' African colony of the German Empire: 1884–1916 'German Cameroon' was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon, also including northern parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad and far eastern parts of Nigeria - German West Africa - Since 1885 German West African Company
1911-1916 'Neukamerun': 1911-1916 'Neukamerun' was the name of Central African territories ceded by France to Germany in 1911
1914-1916 Kamerun Campaign during World War I: 1914-1916 Kamerun Campaign during World War I, ending in a defeat for the German empire and the partition of its former colony between France and Britain
Cameroon/Nigeria relations: Cameroon/Nigeria relations
Border Dispute: Cameroon-Nigeria Border Dispute
Cooperation on fighting Boko Haram: Cooperation on fighting Boko Haram
Cameroon/United Kingdom relations: Cameroon/United Kingdom relations
1922-1961 British Cameroons: 1922-1961 British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa
February 1961 British Cameroons referendum: 11 February 1961 British Cameroons referendum
December 1961 British Cameroons parliamentary election: 30 December 1961 British Cameroons parliamentary election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence Kamerun National Democratic Party, which won 24 of the 37 seats in the House of Assembly
Cameroon/USA relations: Cameroon/USA relations
9 November 2020 USA to send asylum seekers home to Cameroon despite 'death plane' warnings: 9 November 2020: The USA is expected to fly Cameroonian asylum seekers back to their home country on Tuesday despite fears that their lives will be at risk and reports that deportees repatriated last month are now missing, as some of the deportees are activists from the country’s anglophone minority, who face arrest warrants for their political activities from government forces with a well documented record of extrajudicial killings
Environment of Cameroon: Environment of Cameroon - Natural history of Cameroon - Geology of Cameroon - Volcanoes of Cameroon
Ecoregions of Cameroon: Ecoregions of Cameroon - List of ecoregions in Cameroon
Forests of Cameroon: Forests of Cameroon
Water in Cameroon: Water in Cameroon
Natural disasters in Cameroon: Natural disasters in Cameroon
August 1984 Lake Monoun disaster: 15 August 1984 Lake Monoun disaster, when the lake exploded in a limnic eruption, which resulted in the release of a large amount of carbon dioxide that killed 37 people
August 1986 Lake Nyos disaster: 21 August 1986 Lake Nyos disaster, when a limnic eruption at Lake Nyos, in northwestern Cameroon, produced a large cloud of carbon dioxide, which descended onto nearby villages, killing 1,746 people and 3,500 livestock
Floods in Cameroon:
October 2019 floods: 29 October 2019: Cameroon has deployed rescue workers and its military to search the wreckage of houses after a torrential downpour caused floods and a landslide that killed at least 13 people overnight in the western village of Bamoungoum near Bafoussam


Central African Republic - Geography of the Central African Republic - History of the Central African Republic - French colony 1894-1940 (1960) - French territory Ubangi-Shari 1903-1960 - Decolonisation 1940-1960 - Independence 1960 - Demographics of the Central African Republic
Economy of the Central African Republic: Economy of the Central African Republic - main industries are gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles - Companies of the Central African Republic by industry
Mining industry of the Central African Republic - 25 June 2013: At least 37 people were killed when a gold mine collapsed at Ndassima in the middle of the Central African Republic
Energy in the Central African Republic: Energy in the Central African Republic
Agriculture in the Central African Republic: Agriculture in the Central African Republic - cultivation of foodcrops such as yams, cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantains
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic
Rivers of the Central African Republic: List of rivers of the Central African Republic - The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone Rive - Lake Chad - Logone River - The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, located in Central Africa - Ubangi River, the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa, beginning at the confluence of the Mbomou and Uele Rivers and flowing west, forming the border between Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Tourism in the Central African Republic: Tourism in the Central African Republic - Visitor attractions in the Central African Republic - National parks of the CAR - World Heritage Sites in the CAR
Central African Armed Forces: Central African Armed Forces
Budget and taxation in the Central African Republic: Taxation in the CAR - CAR government budget 2002-2014 - deficit equal to 5.7% of the country's GDP in 2013
2014: 11 June 2014: CAR approves 2014 budget, 10% higher than that of 2013, with funds drawn mostly from external donations that aim to strengthen security and boost humanitarian assistance
Politics of the Central African Republic: Politics of the Central African Republic - Political parties in the Central African Republic - Trade unions in the Central African Republic
Elections in the Central African Republic: Elections in the Central African Republic - Central African Republic general election 2011 - National Convergence 'Kwa Na Kwa' and François Bozizé re-elected
2015: 10 May 2015: Central African Republic peace forum calls for transitional authorities to delay planned elections amid concerns - 19 June 2015: Central African Republic will hold presidential and parliamentary elections on October 18, spokesman says
December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum: 13 December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum - 13 décembre 2015: Des tirs à l'arme lourde ont frappé dimanche le quartier musulman PK5, où s'affrontaient partisans et opposants du référendum constitutionnel
2015/2016 Central African Republic general election: 27 December 2015 parliamentary election and first round of the presidential election and 31 January 2016 presidential runoff election will be held in the CAR after being postponed from 18 October 2015 due to violence and instability - 24 December 2015: Elections scheduled to take place in the CAR on Sunday postponed by three days until 30 December - 30 décembre 2015: Les Centrafricains votent pour une présidentielle et des législatives après trois ans de violences intercommunautaires - 31 décembre: La Centrafrique a voté dans le calme
2016: 2 janvier 2016: L'ancien PM Touadéra en tête de la présidentielle - 14 February 2016: Voters in the CAR are going to the polls for the second round of presidential elections, seen as step to restore peace, stability and democratic government - 20 February 2016: Ex-PM Touadera wins Central African Republic presidential vote
February 2019: 3 février 2019: Le gouvernement de Centrafrique et 14 groupes armés sont sur le point de finaliser un accord de consensus afin de stabiliser la région - 5 février 2019: Nouvel accord de paix signé
June 2019: 21 juin 2019: Des violations de l'accord de paix pour la Centrafrique conclu le 6 février sont commises chaque jour par des groupes armés, a indiqué jeudi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour ce pays, Mankeur Ndiaye
Violence, human rights and law enforcement in the Central African Republic: Human rights in the Central African Republic - Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007: Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007 - Rebel group 'Union of Democratic Forces for Unity' - 13 April 2007: Central African Republic and rebels sign peace deal
2012-2014 Central African Republic conflict: Central African Republic conflict 2012–present - 25 décembre: La coalition Séléka s’empare de Bambari - 25 December 2012: Rebels waging offensive in Central African Republic seize town of Kaga-Bandoro, bringing them closer to the capital - 27 December: As rebels advance on capital Francois Bozize appeals for help securing city of Bangui, as UN pulls out non-essential staff - 29 December: The government of the CAR and rebels agree to hold talks as heavy fighting is reported in Bambari seized by rebels and as ECCAS foreign ministers are due to discuss the crisis at a meeting - 30 December: Rebels have met with the head of the African Union and have said they are ready to consider a coalition offer, but added that their aim is not to join the government
January 2013: 2 January 2013: Rebels say they have halted their advance on the capital and would participate in dialogue, as head of regional African forces warned them against making further moves - 5 January: UN Security Council urges Seleka rebels to halt offensive in Central African Republic and retreat from captured towns - 5 January: Seleka rebels take control of Alindao shortly after UN's call - 5 janvier: Face à l'offensive du Séléka, les Centrafricains ont fui la ville de Damarra, proche de la capitale - 6 January 2013: Up to 400 armed South African soldiers have been deployed to the CAR while Chad has sent hundreds of forces and Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo have already sent an estimated 120 troops each - 11 January: Ceasefire agreement signed after Gabon talks including a national unity pact between the political opposition and government of President Bozize
March 2013: 22 March 2013: Rebels in the Central African Republic were advancing on the capital Bangui on Friday after defeating a multinational African force - 24 mars: Tirs et détonations à Bangui - 24 March: President Bozize fled the capital, hours after hundreds of armed rebels threatening to overthrow him invaded the city - 25 March: Armed groups reportedly carrying out widespread looting as Bangui residents remain in homes out of fear - 26 March: CAR rebel chief 'suspends constitution' and pledges to dissolve parliament - 29 March: Foreigners fleeing Bangui described scenes of terror during last weekend’s coup d’état - 29 March: The Red Cross says that it has 'found 78 bodies' in the streets of the capital Bangui since it was seized last weekend by the Seleka rebel coalition - 29 March: Coup leader Djotodia, who seized power last week, said he would review resource deals signed by the previous government and promised to step down at elections in 2016
April 2013: 18 April: ECCAS to send 2,000 peacekeepers to CAR
September 2013: 11 septembre: Des combats entre la Séléka et les pro-Bozizé font près de 100 morts - 13 September: CAR’s Djotodia dissolves Seleka rebel group
December 2013: 4 December: At least 12 people, including children and a pregnant woman, have been killed close to the capital Bangui by Christian vigilantes - 5 décembre: Des tirs à l'arme lourde dans plusieurs quartiers de Bangui, vote d’une résolution à l’ONU autorisant une opération militaire aujourd'hui - 5 décembre: L'ONU autorise une intervention française en Centrafrique - 6 décembre: L'opération française a commencé avec des patrouilles dans Bangui - 8 décembre: L'armée française chargée de désarmer 'tous les groupes armés' - 9 December: French troops to begin disarming CAR rebels - 11 décembre: Les soldats français, qui ont perdu lundi deux des leurs, poursuivent le périlleux désarmement des groupes armés à Bangui - 19 December: The death toll from a two-day rampage by mostly Muslim ex-rebels in the CAR capital Bangui two weeks ago reportedly was much higher than first thought - 21 December: Fresh sectarian clashes erupt in Bangui - 23 December: African Union troops fire on protesters in Bangui, reportedly killing one person - 26 décembre: 5 soldats tchadiens tués dans des combats à Bangui - 26 décembre: Coups de feu et panique à Bangui - 27 December: Dozens of bodies recovered in Bangui after fierce fighting in the last two days - 27 December: The UN says more than 200,000 have fled the fighting in Bangui
January 2014: 2 January: Clashes between Muslims and Christians in Bangui killed at least three people as angry residents reportedly threw grenades and torched homes - 7 January: Violence displaces one million people in Central African Republic, UN says - 9 janvier: Sommet extraordinaire des États d’Afrique centrale et rumeurs donnant le président centrafricain Djotodia sur le départ - 11 January: After CAR's interim President Djotodia resigned on Friday, stranded foreigners to be evacuated - 11 January: Celebrations in Bangui after Djotodia’s resignation - 12. Januar: Nach dem Rücktritt Djotodias sind bei Unruhen in Bangui mindestens acht Menschen getötet worden - 13 janvier: Des centaines de soldats de l'armée rejoignent le commandement - 19. Januar: Tödlicher Angriff auf muslimischen Flüchtlingskonvoi vor EU Entscheidung über Militärintervention - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to CAR to stop clashes - 19 January: Bodies burnt in street of Bangui - 21 January: Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza has been elected interim president of the CAR - 24 January: Former CAR health minister Kalite killed by Christian militia - 27 January: The security situation in the CAR is getting even worse despite the inauguration of a new leader, the UN human rights chief says - 29 January: UN security council authorises the deployment of a EU force to the CAR to bolster French and African troops trying to quell sectarian violence - 31 January: Fighting in Bangui reportedly left 43 people dead in four days
February-April 2014: 5 February: CAR soldiers reportedly lynched a man accused of being a Seleka rebel, as violence continues to afflict the country - 9 February: Clashes in Bangui leave at least ten people dead - 10 March: Christian militias reportedly take bloody revenge on Muslims in CAR, also targeting children - 29 March: Eleven people including three children killed after a grenade exploded among mourners gathered for a funeral in a Christian district of Bangui - 4 April 2014: Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than 300 in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 28 April: Peacekeepers have escorted more than 1,200 Muslims out of Bangui
May 2014: 1 May: EU force takes control of security at the CAR's main airport - 6 May: At least 28 people reportedly killed during several days of fighting between Muslim and Christian militias in Mala 300 km north of Bangui - 29 May: Suspected Muslim gunmen kill at least 30 people in an attack on a Christian church at a refugee camp in Bangui where hundreds of civilians had sought refuge from violence - 29/30 May: Mosque in Bangui destroyed following church attack, as international peacekeepers face criticism for slow response to deadly church raid
October 2014: 9 October 2014: At least 12 killed in violent clashes in Bangui, marking the most significant violence since UN force took over peacekeeping last month - 10 October 2014: A Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui
2015: 8 August 2015: A Rwandan soldier serving with the UN peacekeeping mission in CAR has shot dead four Rwandan troops and wounded eight others before killing himself - 27 September 2015: At least 21 people have been killed, following the killing of a Muslim man in Bangui, and about 100 others wounded as Muslims attacked a mainly Christian neighbourhood, a government spokesman says - 29 September: Hundreds break out of main jail in Bangui after days of violence that have seen about 30 deaths, as interim president Catherine Samba-Panza attends UN general assembly - 11 novembre 2015: De nationalité camerounaise un soldat de l'ONU tué dans des affrontements dans le nord de la Centrafrique
2016: 21 juillet 2016: La rébellion de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur a enlevé près de 350 personnes et 17 autres tué dans 122 attaques en Centrafrique au premier semestre 2016, un record depuis six ans, selon un rapport des ONG - 29 octobre 2016: Au moins 25 personnes, dont six gendarmes, ont été tuées en Centrafrique, lors de violences déclenchées par des groupes armés dans la ville de Bambari et ses environs, selon l'ONU - 24 November 2016: Two days of fighting between armed groups in Central African Republic's town of Bria have left 16 people dead, including civilians, while 10,000 have fled their homes, UN's peacekeeping mission Minusca says - 26 November 2016: United Nations’ genocide official says he has reports that militia fighters in the CAR hunted down and massacred members of the Fulani ethnic group during violence that killed 85 civilians this week
2017: 21 June 2017: Intense fighting in the Central African Republic killed at least 40 people on Tuesday and injured dozens more - 3 juillet 2017: Une quinzaine de personnes sont mortes dans la ville de Kaga-Bandoro lors d'échanges de tirs entre des éléments armés de l'ex-Séléka et les Casques bleus de la mission de l'ONU - 9 August 2017: At least 60 people have been killed in recent weeks in fighting between armed groups in Ngaoundaye and Batangafo in the north, Kaga-Bandoro in the centre and Alindao and Gambo to the south, witnesses say - 13 November 2017: 7 people killed in grenade attack at peace concert in Central African Republic’s capital Bangui - 27 November 2017: Suspected Christian militias killed an Egyptian UN peacekeeper and wounded three others in an attack in southern Central African Republic on Sunday, UN says
March-May 2018: 1 mars 2018: Six travailleurs humanitaires, dont un de l'Unicef, ont été tués dans le nord-ouest de la Centrafrique - 9 March 2018: Militia committed mass rape in Central African Republic, according to Medecins Sans Frontieres - 11 avril 2018: Une centaine de blessés, un Casque bleu tué dans une nouvelle vague de violences qui secoue Bangui depuis dimanche - 1 May 2018: UN's Najat Rochdi condemns the new wave of violence in Bangui that led to the deaths of several civilians - 1/2 May 2018: At least 15 people including a priest were killed and scores wounded in CAR’s capital Bangui on Tuesday when unidentified gunmen attacked a church - 8 May 2018: At least two people were killed and ten injured in shooting exchanges in Bangui, according to hospital
November 2018 CAR risks sliding into full-scale war: 16 November 2018: Central African Republic risks sliding into full-scale war, after the UN security council failed to agree terms for extending a peacekeeping mission in the country, Norwegian Refugee Council's Jan Egeland has warned, saying international efforts to solve the crisis were failing and civilians were routinely being targeted, calling for an urgent review of the humanitarian response in 2019, ahead of the country’s 2020 elections, which it is feared may lead to a further escalation of violence
June 2019 peace deal violations: 21 juin 2019: Des violations de l'accord de paix pour la Centrafrique conclu le 6 février sont commises chaque jour par des groupes armés, a indiqué jeudi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour ce pays, Mankeur Ndiaye
July 2019 deadly clashes in Bangui: 12 July 2019: Four people have been killed in fresh deadly clashes in Bangui, as 26 others were injured during clashes between shopkeepers and militiamen
27 December 2019 many killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in Banu district: 27 December 2019: At least 30 people were killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in a restive district of the capital Bangui
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Central African Republic: Central African society
Human rights in the Central African Republic: Human rights in the Central African Republic
Prefectures and sub-prefectures of the Central African Republic: 16 Prefectures of the Central African Republic - 71 Sub-prefectures of the Central African Republic
Cities in the Central African Republic: List of cities in the Central African Republic
Bangui: Bangui, the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic with an estimated population of 734,350 inhabitants in 2012 - Timeline of Bangui
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Central African Republic: Demographics of the Central African Republic - Ethnic groups in the Central African Republic
Culture and languages of the Central African Republic: Central African Republic culture - Languages of the Central African Republic
Women's rights in the Central African Republic: Women's rights in the Central African Republic - Polygamy in the Central African Republic
Children's rights in the Central African Republic: Children's rights in the Central African Republic - 16 May 2015: More than 350 children released by armed groups under a UN-brokered deal to free thousands of young people who have been forced to work as soldiers, sex slaves and servants during CAR’s sectarian conflict
Education in the Central African Republic: Education in the Central African Republic - University of Bangui since the late 1960s, expanding the focus of study on agriculture to include scientific research, law, economics, rural development and liberal arts
Health in the Central African Republic: Health in the Central African Republic
Healthcare in the Central African Republic: Medical and health organisations based in Central African Republic - Hôpital en République centrafricaine - Centre national hospitalier universitaire de Bangui
August 2018: 19 août 2018: L'aide humanitaire, une activité de plus en plus risquée et la République centrafricaine se trouve dans une situation particulièrement grave, selon le centre de recherches indépendant Humanitarian Outcomes
Media in the Central African Republic: Media in the Central African Republic
Newspapers in the Central African Republic: List of newspapers in the Central African Republic
May 2014: 13 May 2014: French photojournalist Camille Lepage has been killed while working in the Central African Republic
Religion in the Central African Republic: Religion in the Central African Republic - Freedom of religion in the Central African Republic
Crime in the Central African Republic: Crime in the Central African Republic
Human trafficking in the Central African Republic: Human trafficking in the Central African Republic
Law enforcement in the Central African Republic: Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Foreign relations of the Central African Republic: Foreign relations of the Central African Republic
Treaties of the Central African Republic: Treaties of the Central African Republic
2014: 6 January 2014: UN warns that Central African Republic is on the brink of a catastrophe - 28 janvier: Alors que l’ONU donne mandat à une future force européenne, la présidente Samba-Panza réclame une 'opération de maintien de la paix' - 6 February 2014: The UN envoy to the CAR has urged the country to 'make an example' of soldiers who lynched a man accused of being a rebel - 7 February: ICC opens CAR 'war crimes' preliminary investigation - 10 April 2014: UN votes to send peacekeeping force into the CAR, authorising the deployment of up to 10,000 troops in September and urging the CAR to hold free, fair, transparent and inclusive presidential and legislative elections no later than February 2015 - 16 September: UN taking over Central African Republic peacekeeping - 10 October 2014: Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui, bringing the death toll in 48 hours of fighting to at least nine
Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic: Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/Benin relations: 11 January 2014: Ex-President Djotodia heads to Benin
Central African Republic/Cameroon relations: Central African Republic/Cameroon relations
Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/France relations: Central African Republic/France relations
1894-1940 French colony and French Equatorial Africa: French colony 1894-1940 - French Equatorial Africa
Central African Republic/Russia relations: Central African Republic/Russia relations
Central African Republic/South Sudan relations: Central African Republic/South Sudan relations
Central African Republic/Sudan relations: Central African Republic/Sudan relations
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic


Chad - Geography of Chad - History of Chad - Demographics of Chad
Mining industry of Chad: Mining industry of Chad
Banking and banks in Chad: Banks of Chad - List of banks in Chad
Wars involving Chad: Wars involving Chad
Taxation in Chad: Taxation in Chad
Political parties and trade unions in Chad: List of political parties in Chad - Trade unions in Chad
Elections and politics in Chad: Elections in Chad
May 2006 Chadian presidential election: 3 May 2006 Chadian presidential election
February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election: 13 February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election
April 2011 Chadian presidential election: 25 April 2011 Chadian presidential election
November 2018 Chadian parliamentary election: November 2018 Chadian parliamentary election
First quarter of 2020 Chadian parliamentary election: First quarter of 2020 Chadian parliamentary election
Social movements and protests in Chad:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Chad: Chadian society - Human rights in Chad
Demographics and ethnic groups in Chad: Demographics of Chad - Ethnic groups in Chad
Culture and languages of Chad: Chadian culture - Languages of Chad
Children, child labor and children in armed conflicts in Chad: Children and child labor in Chad
Health and healthcare in Chad: Health and healthcare in Chad
Chadian media: Chadian media
Crime in Chad: Crime in Chad
Human trafficking in Chad: Human trafficking in Chad
Slavery in Chad: Slavery in Chad
Torture and war crimes in Chad:
Since 15 June 2015 Boko Haram N'Djamena bombings: Since 15 June 2015 Boko Haram N'Djamena bombings before and during Ramadan
Law and law enforcement in Chad: Chadian law - Law enforcement in Chad
Supreme Court of Chad: Supreme Court of Chad
Foreign relations of Chad: Foreign relations of Chad
Treaties of Chad: Treaties of Chad
Chadian membership of international organizations: Chadian membership of international organizations
Chadian relations with other African and Arab states: Chadian relations with other African and Arab states
Chad's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Chad among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Chad: Bilateral relations of Chad
Chad/France relations: Chad/France relations
Chad-France trade relations: Chad-France trade relations
Chad/Nigeria relations: Chad/Nigeria relations
2014/2015: Since 2014 cooperation on fighting Boko Haram - 26 May 2014: Cameroon, Chad Deploy Troops to Fight Boko Haram - 31 January 2015: Troops from Chad have driven Boko Haram fighters from a northern Nigeria border town seized late last year - 13 February: Boko Haram attacks Chadian village overnight killing several people - 8 March: Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria - 2 April 2015: After soldiers from Chad and Niger drove Boko Haram militants from Malam Fatori, Chad's forces killed hundreds of militants and lost nine of its own troops in clashes in northern Nigeria, Chad's army says - 28 July 2015: At least 13 suspected Boko Haram militants and three civilians killed in separate attacks after the terrorists raided several remote localities around Lake Chad
Chad/Senegal relations:
Chad/Sudan relations: Chad/Sudan relations
Environment of Chad: Environment of Chad - Climate of Chad
Natural disasters in Chad:
2010 Sahel famine: 2010 Sahel famine
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought


Comoros - Geography of the Comoros - History of the Comoros - Demographics of the Comoros
Transport in the Comoros: Transport in the Comoros
Tourism in the Comoros: Tourism in the Comoros
External trade of the Comoros: External trade of the Comoros
Assembly of the Union of the Comoros: Assembly of the Union of the Comoros
Elections and politics in the Comoros: Elections in the Comoros
February/April 2016 Comorian presidential election: 21 February and 10 April 2016 Comorian presidential election
Social movements and protests in the Comoros: Trade unions in the Comoros
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Comoros: Comorian society
Culture and languages of the Comoros: Culture of the Comoros - Languages of the Comoros
Women in the Comoros: Women in the Comoros
Education in the Comoros: Education in the Comoros
Health in the Comoros: Health in the Comoros
Media of the Comoros: Media of the Comoros
Crime in the Comoros: Crime in the Comoros
Law enforcement in the Comoros: Law enforcement in the Comoros
Foreign relations of the Comoros: Foreign relations of the Comoros
Treaties of the Comoros: Treaties of the Comoros
Bilateral relations of the Comoros: Bilateral relations of the Comoros
Comoros/France relations: Comoros/France relations
1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros: 1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros
Comoros/India relations: Comoros/India relations
Comoros/Madagascar relations: Comoros/Madagascar relations
Comoros/USA relations: Comoros/USA relations
Landforms of the Comoros: Landforms of the Comoros
Comoros forests: Comoros forests
Water in the Comoros: Water in the Comoros
Natural disasters of the Comoros:


Republic of the Congo - Geography of the Republic of the Congo - History of the Republic of the Congo - Demographics of the Republic of the Congo
Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo: Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo, accounting for 89% of the country’s exports in 2010 - 'Perenco' Anglo-French oil and gas company, headquarters in London and Paris, exploration and production activities in 16 countries around the globe, the North Sea, Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Belize, Tunisia, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Vietnam - 'Total' S.A. French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six 'Supermajor' oil companies in the world, covering the entire oil and gas chain from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading - 'Eni' S.p.A. Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome with operations in 79 countries, and currently the world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros - 'SOCO International' plc international oil and gas exploration and production company, headquartered in London, with operations in Vietnam, Thailand, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo
Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo: Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo
Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo: Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo
Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo: Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo
Rivers of the Republic of the Congo: List of rivers of the Republic of the Congo
Transport in the Republic of the Congo: Transport in the Republic of the Congo
Congo–Ocean Railway: Congo–Ocean Railway
Roads in the Republic of the Congo: Roads in the Republic of the Congo
Aviation in the Republic of the Congo: Aviation in the Republic of the Congo
Political parties and trade unions in the Republic of the Congo: Political parties in the Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Republic of the Congo
Elections in the Republic of the Congo: Elections in the Republic of the Congo
July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 12 July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election
July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 15 July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election
Social movements and protests in the Republic of the Congo:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo society - Human rights in the Republic of the Congo
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo: Demographics of the Republic of the Congo - Ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo
Culture and languages in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo culture - Languages of the Republic of the Congo
Women in the Republic of the Congo: Women in the Republic of the Congo
Education in the Republic of the Congo: Education in the Republic of the Congo
Health in the Republic of the Congo: Health in the Republic of the Congo
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in the Republic of the Congo: Medical outbreaks in the Republic of the Congo - Man-made disasters in the Republic of the Congo
Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of the Congo: Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of the Congo
Healthcare in the Republic of the Congo: Healthcare in the Republic of the Congo
Internet in the Republic of the Congo: Internet in the Republic of the Congo
Crime in the Republic of the Congo: Crime in the Republic of the Congo
Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo: Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo
Law and law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo law - Constitution of the Republic of the Congo
Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Republic of the Congo
Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo/China relations: Republic of the Congo/China relations
Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Republic of the Congo/France relations: Republic of the Congo/France relations
Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations: Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations
Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Water in the Republic of the Congo: Water in the Republic of the Congo


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Geography of the D.R. Congo - History of the D.R. Congo - Demographics of the D.R. Congo
Mining companies of the D.R. Congo: Mining companies of the D.R. Congo - 'Africo Resources' Canadian mining company, whose main property is the copper and cobalt Kalukundi Mine - Afrimines Resources - Anvil Mining copper producer since 2002 - 'Central African Mining and Exploration Company' headquartered in London - 'Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation' Kazakhstan/Central African-focused multinational diversified natural resources company headquartered in London - 'Glencore' plc Anglo–Swiss multinational trading and mining company headquartered in Baar (Switzerland) with its registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey - 'Katanga Mining' Ltd mine complex in the Katanga Province, producing refined copper and cobalt and headquartered in Canada - Metorex mining company - Mwana Africa mining company based in Johannesburg and London
Child labour in the D.R. Congo: Child labour in the D.R. Congo
Coffee production in the D.R. Congo: Coffee production in the D.R. Congo
List of rivers of the D.R. Congo: List of rivers of the D.R. Congo
Water crisis in the D.R. Congo: Water crisis in the D.R. Congo
Rail transport in the D.R. Congo: Rail transport in the D.R. Congo
Road transport in the D.R. Congo: Road transport in the D.R. Congo
Water transport in the D.R. Congo: Water transport in the D.R. Congo
Ports and harbors in the D.R. Congo: Ports and harbors in the D.R. Congo
Aviation in the D.R. Congo: Aviation in the D.R. Congo
Aviation accidents and incidents in the D.R. Congo: Aviation accidents and incidents in the D.R. Congo
Economic history of the D.R. Congo and economic cycles: Economic history of the D.R. Congo
1980–2017 main economic indicators in the D.R. Congo: Main economic indicators in 1980–2017 in the D.R. Congo
December 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election: 23/30 December 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election - 27 December 2018: Protests rocked the city of Beni following the decision of the electoral commission to delay elections to March 2019 in that city, along with Butembo and Yumbi, as soldiers and police fired in the air to disperse demonstrators who barricaded roads and burned tires to protest against the decision to exclude them from the presidential election on Sunday - 29 December 2018: The elections body CENI confirmed that the December 30 general elections will take place after the initial date of December 23 was pushed forward by a week during which period CENI announced a 'no vote' for three cities considered opposition strongholds – Beni, Butembo and Yumbi - 31 December 2018: Most mobile internet connections in Kinshasa (and partly in Goma) were down on Monday, residents said, the day after a presidential election that both camps suggested they had won - 31 décembre 2018: La mission d'observation de l'Église catholique a fait état d'anomalies dans le dépouillement des résultats des élections générales de la veille en RDC, et l'accès à internet et aux réseaux sociaux a été coupé
10-12 January 2019: 10 January 2019: Felix Tshisekedi, the leader of the D.R. Congo’s main opposition party, has been declared the surprise winner of the 30 December presidential election - 12 janvier 2019: La Commission électorale a donné les résultats des législatives qui donnent la majorité à l'Assemblée nationale aux alliés de l'actuel président Kabila - 12 January 2019: Opposition politician Martin Fayulu has filed an appeal at the country’s Constitutional Court challenging results of the December 30 polls, as France, the USA, and the United Kingdom have called for clarity over the results released by CENI - 13 January 2019: Southern African Development Community, which includes 16 states, calls for recount in DRC election, also urging government of national unity to ease crisis after poll result contested
Social movements, protests and repression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Protests in the D.R. of the Congo
December 2016 Congolese protests: December 2016 Congolese protests, after Joseph Kabila announced that he would not leave office despite the end of his constitutional term - 20 December 2016: Twenty people have been killed in confrontations between protesters and security forces in Kinshasa, according to UN officials, hours after the end of the second five-year term of the president Kabila - 21 December 2016: Despite calls from the USA, Britain, the European Union and the United Nations for authorities and security forces to respect human rights, police, paramilitaries and soldiers have rounded up demonstrators and opposition activists to prevent any further protests against the government of Joseph Kabila - 25 December 2016: Militias in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo killed at least 34 civilians over the weekend according to the army and local activists, as attacks have surged across the country in the past week alongside violent protests over president Joseph Kabila’s failure to step down
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the D.R. Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo society
Provinces, districts and territories of the D.R. Congo: 25 provinces of the D.R. Congo - Districts of the D.R. Congo - 192 territories of the D.R. Congo
Demographics and ethnic groups in the D.R. Congo: Demographics of the D.R. Congo
Women's rights in the D.R. Congo: Women's rights in the D.R. Congo
Children, children's rights, child labour and soldiers in the D.R. Congo: Children in the D.R. Congo - Child soldiers in the D.R Congo
Ebola outbreaks in the D.R. of the Congo: Ebola outbreaks in the D.R. of the Congo
Since 2018 Ebola virus outbreak in the D.R. of the Congo: 2018 D.R. of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak - Since August 2018 Kivu Ebola epidemic
Since early 2019 measles outbreak in the D.R. Congo: 2019–2020 measles outbreak in the D.R. of the Congo
Healthcare in the D.R. Congo: Healthcare in the D.R. Congo timeline
Sport in the D.R. Congo: Sport in the D.R. Congo
Human rights the D.R. Congo: Human rights the D.R. Congo
December 2013 Kinshasa attacks: 30 December 2013 Kinshasa attacks
December 2017 Semuliki attack: 7 December 2017 Semuliki attack
November/December 2012: 18 November: UN Security Council demands an immediate halt to fighting in eastern Congo, as rebels advance towards capital, Goma - 19 November: Ban Ki-moon vows peacekeepers will stay in threatened Goma - 19 November: M23 group is at the gates of Goma, causing panic in the city as government soldiers, officials flee - 19 November: DR Congo rejects M23 ultimatum on talks - 20 November: M23 rebels 'enter Goma city', reports say - 20 November: Calm returns to the main city of eastern DRC after days of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels - 22 November: Presidents of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda discuss Kivu crisis telling M23 rebels to quit Goma - 23 November: The head of the army in the D.R. Congo has been suspended pending an investigation into claims that he sold weapons to rebel groups - 23 November: M23 rebels march on strategic eastern town of Bukavu planning to head to Kisangani and the capital Kinshasa and causing fear in other parts of the country - 23 November: The UN warns of a growing humanitarian crisis in the D.R. Congo - 23/24 November: Congolese flee rebel advance on city of Sake in eastern DR Congo where M23 rebels have racked up military gains against government troops - 24 November: Regional leaders at Kampala summit have urged M23 rebels to cease fire, to stop threats to depose the government and to leave key eastern city of Goma - 26 November: The Kampala summit gives the armed group M23 until Monday to withdraw from Goma and other eastern areas - 26 November: Congo M23 rebels agree to pull out of eastern cities, says Uganda - 28 November: M23 group demands the release of political prisoners after it agrees to leave eastern city of Goma - 30 November: M23 group prepares to leave Goma - 30 November: Disagreement over abandoned Congolese army supplies that the M23 group wants to take with them - 30 November: DR Congo police arrive in Goma as M23 rebels delay pull-out
2017: 19 février 2017: Vingt cinq civils ont été tués lors d'une attaque menée par une milice de l'ethnie nande dans le village de Kyaghala et ses environs, une localité de l'Est de la République démocratique du Congo - 23 February 2017: Sixteen people have been killed in three days of fighting this week that pitted the Democratic Republic of Congo's army against a rebel militia, military spokesman says - 26 March 2017: A Congolese militia group has decapitated 42 policemen after ambushing them in Kasai Central where the UN is searching for missing American and Swedish investigators - 22 May 2017: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 922,000 people were displaced by violence and conflict in 2016, a 50% rise on the previous year, according to Norwegian Refugee Council report - 20 June 2017: After the UN reported serious concerns about the human rights violations and abuses committed by the Congolese army and police, and the Kamuina Nsapu militia, and after mass grave sites have been found in the region, Congo's Catholic Church reports that more than 3,000 people have been killed in the central Kasai region of the D.R. of Congo - 5 August 2017: UN report blames Bana Mura militia and government forces for murders, including of 62 children, and urges DRC to prevent escalation into wider ethnic cleansing - 8 December 2017: Heavily armed Islamists killed at least 15 UN peacekeepers and five soldiers in DRC, as more than 50 peacekeepers were left wounded after fighters from a local Islamist extremist group overran a remote base in the east of the country and as most of the dead and wounded are believed to be from Tanzania
July 2010 Kasai River disaster: 29 July 2010 Kasai River disaster
Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council Resolution 17 July 1960
Democratic Republic of the Congo and the International Criminal Court:
March 2016 ICC conviction of Jean-Pierre Bemba: 21 March 2016 ICC conviction of Jean-Pierre Bemba
Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Belgium relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Belgium relations
Since 1885 Belgian atrocities, Red Rubber system and forced labour in the 'Congo Free State': 1885-1908 Atrocities in the 'Congo Free State' - Red Rubber system and forced labour
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations - Congo River - Republic of the Congo - French Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations - Lake Kivu - Ruzizi River
First Congo War 1996–1997: First Congo War 1996–1997
Second Congo War 1998-2003: Second Congo War 1998-2003
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations - Semliki River - Lake Albert - Lake Edward
Since 1987 'Lord's Resistance Army' insurgency: 'Lord's Resistance Army' insurgency 1987–present
25–27 December 2008 Christmas massacres: 25–27 December 2008 Christmas massacres
November 2013 DR Congo M23 rebel forces surrender: 7 November 2013: DR Congo M23 rebel forces surrender to Uganda
D.R. Congo/United Kingdom relations: D.R. Congo/United Kingdom relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations
List of rivers of the D.R. Congo: List of rivers of the D.R. Congo
Water crisis in the D.R. Congo: Water crisis in the D.R. Congo
Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Earthquakes in the DR of the Congo: Earthquakes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Floods in the DR of the Congo:


Côte d'Ivoire - Ivory Coast - Geography of Ivory Coast - History of Ivory Coast - Demographics of Ivory Coast
Mining industry of Ivory Coast: Mining industry of Ivory Coast - Endeavour Mining
Child labour in Ivory Coast's cocoa industry: Child labour in Ivory Coast's cocoa industry - Children in cocoa production
Banana production in Ivory Coast: Banana production in Ivory Coast
Coffee production in Ivory Coast: Coffee production in Ivory Coast
Pineapple production in Ivory Coast: Pineapple production in Ivory Coast
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast
External trade and investment in Ivory Coast: External trade and investment
Economic history of Ivory Coast and economic cycles: Economic history of Ivory Coast
Trade unions in Ivory Coast: Trade unions in Ivory Coast
Wars involving Ivory Coast's miliary: Wars involving Ivory Coast's miliary
2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War: 2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War
2004 French–Ivorian clashes and aftermath: 2004 French–Ivorian clashes
2008 Ivorian New Forces unrest: 2008 Ivorian New Forces unrest
2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War: 2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War
Trade unions in Ivory Coast: Trade unions in Ivory Coast
Elections and politics in Ivory Coast by year: Elections in Ivory Coast by year
1999 Ivorian coup d'état and October 2000 Ivorian presidential election: 1999 Ivorian coup d'état - Ivorian presidential election October 2000
Since 2011 elections and politics in Ivory Coast: Elections in Ivory Coast
December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election: December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election
January-May 2017: 6 January 2017: Mutinous soldiers demanding pay and perks have seized control of three cities in Ivory Coast, raising fears of new instability - 8 January 2017: Rogue soldiers allowed Ivory Coast’s defence minister and dozens of others to leave a house where they had been trapped when some mutineers appeared to reject aspects of a deal intended to end a two-day revolt - 14 January 2017: After president Ouattara ordered major changes in the top security ranks, government and rebel troops, demanding bonuses, better pay and housing, reach a final deal at talks in Bouake at the close of a tense day, which saw outbreaks of gunfire at barracks across the country - 15 May 2017: Shooting heard in Bouaké and Abidjan as revolt by soldiers over delayed bonus payments enters fourth day
21 October 2020 opposition accused of violent tactics by Ivorian ruling party: 21 October 2020: Opposition accused of violent tactics by Ivorian ruling party
31 October 2020 Ivorian presidential election: 31 October 2020 Ivorian presidential election
1 November 2020 ruling party hails vote success, opposition says 12 dead: 1 November 2020: Ruling party hails vote success in Ivorian presidential election, opposition says 12 dead
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ivory Coast: Ivorian society
Human rights and freedom of speech in Ivory Coast: Human rights in Ivory Coast
Districts, regions, departments and communes of Ivory Coast: Subdivisions of Ivory Coast, since 1961 several reorganisations of the country's - and former French colony - administrative subdivisions - 14 Districts of Ivory Coast, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan, created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities, further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions - 31 Regions of Ivory Coast, since 2011 the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast, and each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast - 108 Departments of Ivory Coast (en français départements de Côte d'Ivoire), currently the third-level administrative subdivision of the country, as each department is divided into two or more sub-prefectures, which are the fourth-level subdivisions in Ivory Coast - 510 Sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast, created in 2011 when the administrative subdivisions of Ivory Coast were reorganised, the sub-prefectures contain more than 8,000 villages nationwide, multiple villages also combined into 197 communes - Currently 197 communes in the 510 sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast are a fifth-level administrative unit of administration in Ivory Coast, as sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast contain villages and in select instances more than one village is combined into a commune, after in 2012 the government abolished 1,126 communes on the grounds coming under the new jurisdiction of districts, regions, departments, and sub-prefectures
List of cities in Ivory Coast: List of cities in Ivory Coast
1898 village of Abidjan founded: 1898 village of Abidjan founded
1960 Abidjan capital of independent Republic of Côte d'Ivoire: 1960 Abidjan becomes capital of independent Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
Since 1968 National Library of Ivory Coast in Abidjan: Since 1968 National Library of Ivory Coast located in Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Since 1996 Université d'Abobo-Adjamé: Since 1996 Université d'Abobo-Adjamé
Since 2009 University of Science and Technology of Ivory Coast: Since 2009 University of Science and Technology of Ivory Coast
History of Bouaké: History of Bouaké
Yoruba people: Yoruba people
Culture and languages of Ivory Coast: Culture of Ivory Coast - Languages of Ivory Coast
Women and women's rights in Ivory Coast: Women in Ivory Coast - Women's rights in Ivory Coast
Gender equality in the Ivory Coast: Gender equality in the Ivory Coast
Youth in Ivory Coast: Youth in Ivory Coast
Health in Ivory Coast: Health in Ivory Coast
Media of Ivory Coast: Media of Ivory Coast
Freedom of speech in Ivory Coast: Freedom of speech in Ivory Coast
Newspapers in Ivory Coast: Newspapers in Ivory Coast
Internet in Ivory Coast: Internet in Ivory Coast
Crime in Ivory Coast: Crime in Ivory Coast
2003-2017 corruption in Ivory Coast: Development of corruption in Ivory Coast 2003-2017
Violence in Ivory Coast:
2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War: 2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War
2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War: 2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War
Human trafficking in Ivory Coast: Human trafficking in Ivory Coast
Terrorism in Ivory Coast: Terrorism in Ivory Coast
Judiciary of Ivory Coast:
Law enforcement in Ivory Coast: Law enforcement in Ivory Coast
Foreign relations of Ivory Coast: Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire
Treaties of Ivory Coast: Treaties of Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast/United Nations relations: United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast: Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations: Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations
Ivory Coast/Canada relations: Ivory Coast/Canada relations
Ivory Coast/France relations: Côte d'Ivoire/France relations
Ivory Coast/Liberia relations: Côte d'Ivoire/Liberia relations
Ivory Coast/Mali relations: Ivory Coast/Mali relations
List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast: List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast
Natural disasters in Ivory Coast:


Egypt - Geography of Egypt - History of Egypt - Ancient Egyptian agriculture - Recent History of Egypt - Demographics of Egypt
Egyptian military industry: Egyptian military industry
Transport in Egypt: Transport in Egypt
Telecommunications in Egypt: Telecommunications in Egypt
Irrigation in Egypt: Irrigation in Egypt
Aswan Dam, Lake Nasser, irrigation projects: Aswan Dam - Aswan Low Dam
Central Bank of Egypt and currency: Central Bank of Egypt and currency
Economic history and economic cycles in Egypt: Economic history of Egypt
Since 2007/2008 global financial crisis and Egypt's response: Global financial crisis since 2007/2008 and Egypt's response
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Egypt: Egyptian society
Demographics of Egypt: Demographics of Egypt
Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt: Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt
12 November 2013: Sexual harassment, high rates of female genital cutting and a surge in violence and Islamist feeling after the Arab Spring uprisings have made Egypt the worst country in the Arab world to be a woman, a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey says - 14 March 2014: A doctor and the father of 13-year-old Sohair al-Bata'a are the first to be prosecuted in Egypt for deadly practice of FGM - 6 June 2014: Egypt makes sexual harassment of women a crime for the first time but campaigners remain concerned about whether the law will be enforced by police - 16 July 2014: Egyptian court jails 7 men for life for sexually assaulting several women during a rally in Tahrir Square on 8 June - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says
Education in Egypt: Education in Egypt
Schools in Egypt: List of schools in Egypt
Universities in Egypt: Universities in Egypt
Health in Egypt: Health in Egypt
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Egypt: Medical outbreaks in Egypt - Man-made disasters in Egypt
2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Egypt: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Egypt
641–1517 medieval Egypt after Muslim conquest of Egypt: 641–1517 medieval Egypt after Muslim conquest of Egypt
Hospitals, medical and health organisations based in Egypt: List of hospitals in Egypt - Medical and health organisations based in Egypt
Freedom of speech and repression in Egypt: Freedom of speech in Egypt
June 2015 jailed journalists: 25 June 2015: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990
Newspapers in Egypt: Newspapers in Egypt
2013/2014: 9 July 2013: Qatari-owned media company Al-Jazeera saw 22 members of its staff in Egypt resign on Monday over biased Egypt coverage - 11 February 2014: Al-Jazeera correspondent's trial set for next week, charged with having links to the Muslim Brotherhood and airing false news - 5 June 2014: Egyptian prosecutors seek 15-year prison sentence for Al Jazeera journalists - 16 June: Egypt to free Al Jazeera journalist on hunger strike - 23 June: Egypt court sentences Qatar-based Al-Jazeera journalists to seven years for 'publishing lies' - 2 November 2014: Several hundred Egyptian journalists reject declaration by newspaper editors pledging support to government and banning criticism of police and army - 29 December 2014: Protests outside Egyptian embassy in London against imprisonment of journalists one year behind bars
2015: 1 January 2015: Egyptian court cancels jail sentences against three Al Jazeera journalists - 1 February: Australian journalist Greste released from a Cairo jail and left Egypt for his native country - 25 June: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990 - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says - 29 August 2015: Australian journalist Greste as well as his two Qatar-based Al Jazeera colleagues Canadian-Egyptian Fahmy and Baher Mohamed found guilty and sentenced to at least three years jail for broadcasting material harmful to Egypt and operating with no press license
Religion and freedom of religion in Egypt: Religion in Egypt - Freedom of religion in Egypt
Crime in Egypt: Crime in Egypt
Murder in Egypt: Murder in Egypt
Religiously motivated violence and suicide bombings in Egypt: Religiously motivated violence in Egypt
2013: May 2013 hostage crisis - 22 May 2013: After the intervention of tribal leaders, heavily armed kidnappers released three Egyptian policemen and four soldiers captured last week in the Sinai peninsula - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 6 July: Coptic priest killed in Sinai - 10 juillet: Des attaques dans le Sinaï font deux morts - 15 July: Militants killed at least three people and wounded 17 when they fired on a bus carrying workers in the North Sinai town of Al-Arish - 22 July: Six Egyptians were killed and 11 others wounded in several attacks by militants in the Sinai peninsula near Egypt's borders with Israel and the Palestinian Gaza strip - 24 July: A car bomb exploded near a police base and two soldiers were killed in separate, multiple attacks in the Sinai peninsula - 19 August: Militants kill 24 Egyptian policemen in Sinai - 8 septembre: L'attentat du Caire auquel a échappé le ministre de l'Intérieur revendiqué par des djihadistes du Sinaï - 8 septembre: L'armée égyptienne poursuit ses opérations au Sinaï - 11 September: At least three soldiers were killed and at least 10 others were wounded when a suicide car bomb targeted an intelligence outpost in Egypt’s Sinai - 27 September: Gunmen kill policeman in Sinai - 10 October: Egypt troops killed in Sinai suicide bomb attack - 20 novembre: Un attentat à la voiture piégée a visé un convoi militaire dans le Sinaï et tué au moins 10 soldats
October 2014 Sinai attacks: October 2014 Sinai attacks - 24 October: Militants killed at least 26 people at a military checkpoint in the northern Sinai peninsula
2015: 5 January: Bomb wounds four policemen in Egypt's Sinai - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish - 30 January: 'Islamic State' affiliate claims responsibility for coordinated attacks that struck more than a dozen army and other targets in the three Sinai towns of el-Arish, Sheik Zuwayid and Rafah, killing at least 26 security officers - 1 February: Three women killed as violence continues in Sinai - 6 March: Egyptian military air strikes reportedly killed 25 Islamist militants in Northern Sinai near the town of Sheikh Zuweid over the last two days - 10 March: 25 Egyptian policemen wounded by suicide car bomber targeting compound in the city of el-Arish - 2 April: Gunmen attacked several checkpoints in Sinai, killing at least five soldiers - 12 April: An explosion targeting a military vehicle kills five soldiers near Sheikh Zuweid on Sunday - 20 April: Three Egyptian soldiers killed in blast claimed by ISIS affiliate in Rafah - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 1/2 July: At least 70 Egyptians including soldiers and civilians killed in Islamic State terrorists' offensive in Sinai, as ties to Hamas’ military wing suspected - 9 July: 20 Egyptian policemen wounded in Sinai bombing in the provincial capital of el-Arish - 18 July: 'Islamic State' terrorists in Sinai attacked two Egypt military checkpoints, killing five soldiers and wounding at least seven near town of Sheikh Zuweid - 23 July: Four Egyptian soldiers killed in Sinai bombing claimed by Islamic State loyalists - 15 October: A roadside bomb by unknown assailants in the northern Sinai city of el-Arishhas has left one civilian and one soldier dead, also injuring six policemen - 4 November: At least 3 Egyptian police killed in Sinai bombing, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 15 November 2015: Egyptian police found the bodies of 15 African migrants who appeared to have been shot dead in northern Sinai near the border with Israel
Human trafficking in Egypt: Human trafficking in Egypt
Judiciary of Egypt: Judiciary of Egypt
Courts in Egypt: Courts in Egypt
Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
Law enforcement and law enforcement agencies of Egypt: Law enforcement in Egypt - Law enforcement agencies of Egypt - Egyptian Police - Central Security Forces
Military of Egypt: Military of Egypt
Military history of Egypt: Military history of Egypt
Wars and conflicts involving Egypt: List of conflicts in Egypt - List of wars involving Egypt
Military industry and budget in Egypt: Military budget rank 41 - Egyptian military industry
International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état: International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
Domestic responses to the Egyptian revolution - elections 2011- 2015: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
July 2011: 8. Juli 2011: Unzufriedene Aufständische protestieren in Kairo und anderen Städten am 8. Juli - 10. Juli 2011: Ägyptische Regierung macht Demonstranten Zugeständnisse - 13 July 2011: Egyptian protesters call for end to army rule - 15. Juli 2011: Proteste gegen Ägyptens Militärregierung auch am 15. Juli - 16. Juli 2011: Demonnstranten vertreiben General Mahdi (Mitglied des regierenden Obersten Militärrats) vom Tahrir-Platz - 17. Juli: Ägyptens Außenminister tritt zurück - 17. Juli 2011: Verwirrspiel um Mubaraks Gesundheit - nach Schlaganfall im Koma? - New cabinet sworn in amid continuing protests 21 July - 24. Juli: Angriffe auf Demonstration der Demokratiebewegung am 23. Juli - 28. Juli 2011: Mubarak ab 3. August vor Gericht in Kairo - Friday 29 July: Islamists lead Tahrir Square rally in Cairo
November 2011: 1. November: Demonstration in Kairo für verhafteten Blogger - 18 November: Tens of thousands protest in Egypt demanding to hand power to promised civilian government - 20 November: Deadly clashes follow Egyptian protests against military rule, deaths and hundreds of protesters injured ahead of elections - 20 November: Thousands of protesters are regrouping in central Cairo after day of clashes - 21 November: Egypt protesters against military rulers in Cairo's Tahrir Square for third day, after the deaths of at least 13 people over the weekend - 21 November: Egypt cabinet resigns as protests intensify - 22 November: Activists demanding end to military rule call for a mass demonstration - 22 novembre: L'armée promet une élection présidentielle avant juillet 2012 - 22 November: Ruling generals say being prepared to hold a referendum on power transfer if people demand it - 23 November: Egypt protesters reject military concessions - 23 November: Riot police break ceasefire in Cairo as crowd swells in demand for end to military rule - 24 novembre: Sixième nuit de mobilisation et d'affrontements sur le place Tahrir - 24 November: Egypt army apologises for the deaths of demonstrators and vows to hold elections beginning on Monday - 24 novembre: Nouvel appel aussi des syndicats à une grande manifestation vendredi place Tahrir pour réclamer le transfert du pouvoir - 25 November: Egypt activists keep up pressure on military calling for another mass protest today - 26 November: Mass rally in Cairo against military rule on Friday - 26. November: Demonstrant in Cairo von Polizeiwagen überfahren und getötet - 27 November: Activist killed near Tahrir Square as death toll rises to 42 in another week of opposition against military rule, now ahead of elections - ElBaradei 'willing' to head Egypt's interim cabinet - 28 November: Polls open in Egypt's landmark elections as protests continue across the country - 28 November: Large numbers, including a high turnout of women, go to the polls on the first day of post-Mubarak elections - 29 November: Egypt votes in Alexandria, Cairo and seven more provinces continue after big turnout on day one
December 2011: 1 décembre: Le parti Liberté et Justice PLJ affirme avoir obtenu plus de 40% des voix aux législatives - 2 December: Turnout reaches 62 per cent in Egypt poll - Freedom and Justice Party followed by Al-Nour and the Egyptian Bloc - 5 December: Egypt vote turnout downgraded to 52 per cent - 7 December: Rights group condemns US arms sales to Egypt - 8 December: Egypt's army asserts constitutional control - 14 December: Polls open in Egypt's second wave of parliamentary elections - 14. Dezember: 2 Jahre Haft für ägyptischen Blogger Maikel Nabil wegen angeblicher Verleumdung der Streitkräfte - Welle von rund 12.000 Militärgerichtsverfahren - 16 December: Deadly clashes in Cairo sparked by army move to shut down sit-in outside cabinet offices - 18 December: Violence continues on Cairo streets for a third day - 20 December: Dawn raid in Tahrir Square amid clashes - 21 December: Egyptians protest against beating of women by soldiers - 24 December: Egyptians stage mass rally against army - 28 December: Mubarak trial resumes in Cairo - 29 December: Military and police raid the offices of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cairo - 31. Dezember: Ägypten sichert Ende von Razzien in NGO-Büros zu
March/April 2012: 24 March: Parliamentarians meet to name 100-member panel to write constitution, but liberals say Islamists are dominating process - 10. April: Der frühere Chef der IAEA Mohammed al-Baradei will mit weiteren Vertretern der ägyptischen Opposition eine neue Partei gründen - 10 April: Egypt court suspends constitutional panel after political groups charged that 100-member panel did not represent Egypt's diversity - 13 April: Cairo protests against Mubarak-era candidates for the presidential election - 15 April: Election panel excludes 10 presidential hopefuls, including Muslim Brotherhood candidate and ex-spy chief Omar Suleiman - 20 April: Tahrir rally calls for end to military rule - 24 April: Egypt's ruling military has approved a law that bans top Mubarak-era officials from running for the presidency - 25 April: Egypt ex-PM Ahmed Shafiq allowed back into poll
May 2012: 2 May: At least 20 killed as attackers target Cairo protest - 2 mai: En raison des violences certains candidats à la présidentielle suspendent leur campagne - 4 May: Scores injured and arrested as new protests emerge against recent deadly attacks on protesters - 5 mai: Les dirigeants militaires ont imposé un couvre-feu au Caire - 7 May: Curfew remains imposed for 3rd night in a Cairo district - 20. Mai: Ägyptischer Präsidentschaftskandidat Chaled Ali schliesst sich Hungerstreik aus Protest gegen die Inhaftierung hunderter Demonstranten an - 23 May: First Presidential elections in Egypt after revolution - 25 May: Egypt counts votes, Muslim Brotherhood claims to be ahead - 26 May: Hamdin Sabbahi, who is said to have come third, seeks recount in Egypt's election, citing many 'violations' - 29 May: Thousands demonstrate in Cairo to protest the outcome of the presidential election as some protesters torch HQ of presidential candidate Shafiq
June 2012: 2 June: Egypt's ex-president Mubarak and his interior minister given life term for protester deaths - 3 June: Mubarak sentenced, the acquittal of police officers, the quashing of a set of corruption charges against Mubarak's sons evoke spate of protests - 4 June: Protesters return to Tahrir Square - 6 June: Thousands descend on Cairo square for the fourth straight night to demand Ahmed Shafiq's removal from presidential race - 8 June: Political parties agree to plan for 100-member body which will draft the country's new constitution - 9 June: Several thousand gather in Tahrir Square to oppose Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafiq's bid for presidency - 14 June: Egypt military police gets sweeping powers ahead of polls - 15 June: Constitutional court dissolves Muslim Brotherhood-led parliament and approves candidacy of Mubarak-era PM Ahmed Shafik
Egyptian presidential election, runoff 16-17 June 2012 - 16 juin: Les Égyptiens élisent leur président ce week-end - 16 June: Amid deep political uncertainty, without parliament and constitution Egyptians are voting in the first day of the presidential runoff - 17 June: Egyptians are voting in a presidential runoff that pits the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate against the last Mubarak prime minister - 18 June: Islamists claim victory in Egypt president vote and reject the military's interim constitution - 21 June: Egypt presidential poll result delayed as tensions rise - 22 June: Tahrir Square fills up as Egypt awaits result - 23 June: Protests on Tahrir Square continue against Egyptian military’s grip on power - 24 June: Mohammed Mursi is Egypt's new president - 25 June: Egypt's new president Mursi vows to unite the country and stand up for democracy - 26 juin: L'armée n'est plus autorisée à arrêter des civils - 28 June: Egypt’s ex-oil minister jailed for 15 years - 30 June: Mursi, received with applause by tens of thousands at Tahrir Square, vows to be president for all Egyptians promising a 'civilian state'
July 2012: 7 July 2012: Egypt's new elected president Mursi has ordered a review of investigations and trials related to the killing of about 1.000 protesters starting with the uprising against Mubarak - 9 July: Egypt's president orders return of parliament - 10 July: After the Supreme Constitutional Court rejected the President's order to reconvene the parliament, Egypt's military 'warns' President Mursi over parliament decision - 10 July: Egypt's Supreme Constitutional Court has overturned a decree by President Mohammed Mursi to recall parliament - 11 July: Thousands in Cairo protest high court ruling - 11 July: President Mursi seeks talks with other institutions to resolve constitutional crisis - 15 July: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton supports democratic transition - 17 July: Egypt court to rule on drafting of new constitution - 18 July: Around 23.000 employees of Misr Spinning and Weaving, Egypt's biggest textile company, took their strike for better pay into a fourth day and were joined by some 12.000 workers at other state firms - 24 July: Egypt's outgoing irrigation minister Hisham Qandil named as new Prime Minister
November 2012: 22 November: President Morsi sacks prosecutor general ordering new investigations into the deaths of protesters killed during last year's popular revolt and gives himself judicial powers on top of legislative ones - 23 November: Opposition calls for protests to denounce President Morsi after he sacks prosecutor general Mahmoud responsible for the failure of prosecutions and acquittals of Mubarak-era officials - 24 November: Egypt's president defends granting himself sweeping new powers, saying they would help root out corruption, as angry youths hurled rocks at security forces, burned a police truck and thousands gathered in central Cairo to protest at President Mursi's 22 November declaration and Muslim Brotherhood offices were torched in cities across Egypt in violent protests in Alexandria, Port Said and Suez - 24 November: 'Resistance fighter' sacked prosecutor general Mahmoud - discovering judicial independence - rejects the president's decree - 25 November: Signing an open letter Egyptian rights groups call on President Mursi to withdraw the decree granting himself extensive new powers as some hundred demonstrators outside the high court building in Cairo rallied against Morsi on Saturday - 26 November: President sticks by disputed decree after meeting judges, and rival forces plan a mass protest on Tuesday - 28 November: Protests in Cairo against President Morsi's decision to grant himself sweeping powers continue - 29 November: New constitution in final draft as protests sweep Egypt - 30 November: Egypt's constituent assembly approves articles of disputed new constitution, as opposition continue protests - 30 November: Thousands rally in Cairo against constitution
December 2012: 1 December: Supporters and opponents of Egypt's president are planning mass, rival rallies on Saturday over new draft constitution - 2 December: President Morsi announces a December 15 vote on new draft constitution amidst ongoing protests in Cairo - 2 December: Morsi supporters gather outside Egypt's top court - 3 December: Supreme Constitutional Court refuses to oversee the vote on the new draft constitution, to be held in two weeks - 3 December: Supreme Judicial Council has agreed to oversee the referendum on a draft constitution - 5 décembre: Au Caire, le palais présidentiel est toujours encerclé par les opposants - 5 December: Clashes outside Egypt's presidential palace - 6 December: At least five people have been killed and over 400 injured in overnight clashes outside the presidential palace in Cairo, in the morning at least four tanks were deployed - 7 décembre: Président Morsi a invité l'opposition à un dialogue le 8 décembre - 7 December: Activists denounce president's call for dialogue as he refuses to delay constitutional referendum - 8 December: Egypt delays early voting on new Constitution - 8 décembre: Vice-président Mahmoud Mekki laisse entrevoir l'éventualité d'un report du référendum sur la nouvelle Constitution - 8 December: President Morsi expected to press ahead with dialogue on ways to end crisis despite main factions vowing to stay away - 9 December: President Morsi has annulled the decree he issued last month expanding his powers - Opposition says President Morsi's decision to rescind controversial decree 'falls short of expectations' - 10 December: Coalition of opposition parties calls for demonstrations against President Morsi's plans for vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Rival rallies planned in Cairo over President Morsi's decision to go ahead with Saturday's vote on draft constitution - 11 December: Morsi approves army's unity talks as rival protests grow - 12 décembre: L'opposition appelle à voter 'non' au référendum - 14 December: Protesters clash over draft charter in Alexandria
2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt - Egyptian constitutional referendum 15 and 22 December 2012 - 16 December: Egypt referendum vote count under way - 18 December: Egypt's opposition has called for mass protests in Cairo and elsewhere over alleged polling violations - 20 December: Official overseeing referendum on draft constitution resigns amid allegations of irregularities - 20 December: Egypt's new public prosecutor Talaat Ibrahim retracts resignation offer - 22 December: Egyptians have begun voting in the second stage of the constitutional referendum that has sparked weeks of unrest - 22 December: Egypt vice-president Mekki resigns on final day of referendum - 23 December: Egyptians appear to have approved a controversial new constitution in a referendum as Egypt's Islamists claim victory with about 64% percent of voters - 24 December: Egypt set to declare constitutional poll result as the opposition is demanding to investigate the irregularities - 24 December: The result of a controversial referendum on Egypt's new constitution has been delayed as officials check allegations of fraud - 25 December: Charter drafted by Islamist supporters of President Morsi wins 63.8 percent of votes in two-round referendum - NZZ 25. Dezember: Mubarak-Vertrauter Ex-Senatspräsident Safwat al-Sherif kommt nach Gerichtsentscheidung auf Kaution frei - 26 December: President Morsi promises to take necessary steps to fix economy, as Shura Council convenes with full legislative powers until elections for a new lower house is called within two months - 28 December: Investigation ordered into accusations of treason by opposition leaders as country faces constitutional dispute
January 2013: 6 January: Finance portfolio and interior ministry, which controls police, change hands as part of measures to salvage economy - 13 January: At least 14 people have been injured when unknown assailants attacked opponents of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi who were camping outside the presidential palace in Cairo - 13 January: Egyptian court orders re-trial for Mubarak - 25 janvier: Dans une grave crise économique, l'opposition appelle à descendre dans la rue à l'occasion du 2e anniversaire de la révolution égyptienne - 25 January: Police and protesters clash as opposition groups call for rallies to mark second anniversary of 2011 revolution - 26 January: An Egyptian court has sentenced to death at least 20 defendants over clashes between rival football fans in which 74 people were killed last year - 26 January: Six people were killed in Suez and one in Ismailia as police clashed with protesters in several towns and cities - 26 janvier: L’armée égyptienne se déploie à Suez après de violentes manifestations - 27 January: At least 30 people have died in Port Said in clashes sparked by the sentencing to death of 21 local people over football riots in Egypt - 28 January: President Morsi declares state of emergency in Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, scenes of major and deadly protests in recent days - 28 January: Egypt’s main opposition coalition rejected President Morsi’s invitation to take part in talks amid ongoing unrest, calling instead for fresh protests nationwide - 29 January: Thousands of protesters have taken to the streets of the cities of Port Said, Ismailiyah and Suez in defiance of President Morsi's declaration of a curfew and a state of emergency after days of deadly unrest - 31 January: Egyptian parties and groups cutting across political lines condemn violence at meeting called by country's top Islamic scholar
February 2013: 2 February: Protesters denouncing Egypt's Islamist president hurled stones and firebombs through the gates of his palace gates on Friday, clashing with security forces who fired tear gas and water cannons, as President Morsi calls on all factions to condemn the violence - 2 February: Egypt's new 'bodyguards' - women and men - to protect women protesters and to end a surge in sexual assaults on women that activists say has become the darkest stain on the country's opposition street movement - 4 February: Egypt to probe controversial police brutality case of Hamada Saber, who says he was undressed by rioters and that army soldiers were helping him after he had been attacked by protesters who mistook him for police - 4 February: Egyptian Popular Current opposition party on Monday claimed police tortured Mohammed el-Gindy, one of its members, to death, electrocuting him and beating him repeatedly on the head - 7 February: Thousands of men and women march in Cairo against increasing instances of sexual harassment of female protesters - 12 February: Police fired tear gas and used water cannons at stone-throwing protesters outside the presidential palace as the opposition held rallies to mark the second anniversary of Mubarak's overthrow - 12 February: Protesters took to the street again on Tuesday to demand an end to sexual violence, as campaigns against the repeated attacks in central Cairo pick up steam - 17 February: Thousands of protesters have blocked access to the harbour and rallied outside state buildings in Port Said to demand justice over the deaths of dozens of people killed in riots last month - 21 February: Egypt will hold parliamentary elections in several stages beginning April 27
March 2013: 4 mars 2013: Un policier tué et un officier blessé, tous deux touchés par des coups de feu tirés par des inconnus à Port-Saïd, où des affrontements ont opposé les habitants à la police, faisant plusieurs dizaines de blessés - 7 March: Electoral commission cancels timetable for parliamentary elections following a court ruling that threw the entire polling process into confusion - 8 March: Government wants corruption cases settled out of court - 9 March: After a court confirmed the death sentences against 21 people for taking part in deadly soccer riot 2012 but acquitted seven police officials for their role in the violence, enraged suspected fans torched the soccer federation headquarters and a police club in Cairo - 10 March: Egypt raises alert level in Sinai - 14 March: Egyptian policemen were to blame for the deaths of more than 800 protesters during Egypt's 2011 uprising, according to a leaked report commissioned by president Morsi - 22 March: Dozens injured as protesters clashed with supporters of Muslim Brotherhood - 27 March: Egypt court reinstates fired prosecutor Mahmoud - 29 March: Protests and clashes in Cairo and two other cities between supporters and opponents of the Muslim Brotherhood
June 2013: 2 juin: Le Sénat et la commission constituante jugés illégaux - 8 June: President Morsi dismisses calls for early vote - 10 June: The Egyptian court retrying Hosni Mubarak for conspiracy to murder hundreds of demonstrators unsealed new evidence, including CCTV video and logbooks taken from Cairo security forces' armouries - 21 June: Egyptians rally on streets of Cairo to show solidarity with President ahead of planned protests against leader's rule - 28 juin: L'Egypte sous tension avant des manifestations pro et anti-Morsi - 28 juin: Un ressortissant américain et un Égyptien ont été tués à Alexandrie, lors d'affrontements entre pro et anti-Morsi - 29 June: Two Egyptians and a US citizen killed in protests and deadly clashes as Egypt's clerics warn of civil war - 29 June: At least eight Egypt MPs quit parliament in support of anti-Morsi movement, after 22 million signatures were collected to demand Morsi's departure and a snap presidential election
July 2013: July 2013 Egyptian protests - Tamarod collected more than 22 million signatures against Morsi as of 29 June 2013 - 1 July: At least seven people were killed and more than 600 wounded on Sunday in clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 1 July: Egypt's army gives Morsi 48 hours to meet the demands of the people or it would intervene with a roadmap - 3 July: Defiant president Morsi says he won't step down - 3 July: The death toll in violence involving Islamist supporters of President Morsi near Cairo University rose to 16 on Wednesday and 200 people were wounded - 4 July: Egypt's military has ousted Morsi, calling for early presidential election, suspending the Islamist-backed constitution and names an interim government presided by the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 5 July: Islamist supporters of Morsi will rally to express their outrage at his overthrow and to reject an interim government backed by their liberal opponents - 6 July: Deadly clashes and fighting across Egypt after Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader told followers to continue protesting until return of ousted president Morsi - 6/7 July: The choice of Mohamed ElBaradei as interim PM following talks of the Tamarod campaign with interim president Mansour is thrown into doubt by Islamist objections - 7 July: Mohamed ElBaradei called for the Muslim Brotherhood to be included in Egypt's political future, in a media interview conducted before his candidacy as interim PM hit opposition - 8 July: A group of Egyptian activists on trial for inciting violence during protests against former President Morsi were acquitted by a court in Cairo - 8 juillet: Les salafistes d'Al-Nour se retirent des négociations pour mener la transition politique en Égypte - 8 juillet: Au moins 34 partisans de Morsi ont été tués par l’armée égyptienne devant le siège de la Garde républicaine au Caire, selon un responsable du ministère de la Santé - 8 July: Islamists call for uprising after at least 51 people were killed including an army officer - 9 juillet: Le président intérimaire Adly Mansour a fixé par décret un calendrier pour la tenue d'élections législatives avant la fin de 2013 - 9 July: Egypt's interim president named liberal economist Hazem al-Beblawi, a former finance minister, as the country's new prime minister - 10 juillet: El-Beblaoui va tendre la main aux Frères musulmans - 10 juillet: Les Frères musulmans rejettent le plan de transition politique, le FSN et le mouvement Tamarrod exigent que des amendements soient apportés à la 'déclaration constitutionnelle' - 11 juillet: Hazem Beblawi espère former un gouvernement d'ici la semaine prochaine - 11 July: Egypt's public prosecutor's office ordered the arrest of Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Badie on charges of inciting violence outside the Republican Guard headquarters where 51 people were killed - also other top leaders charged, investigation - 13 July: On Tahrir, thousands gathered to attend a celebration of Ramadan, as thousands of Morsi supporters marched along streets in Cairo and US seeks Morsi's release - 13 July: Egypt announces criminal investigation against Morsi including complaints of spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy - 13 July: Egypt PM edges closer to forming cabinet - 14 July: ElBaradei sworn in as Egypt's interim vice president for foreign relations - 16 July: Clashes return to streets of Cairo - 16 July: Egypt's interim president swears in new Cabinet by PM Hazem el-Beblawi, an economist - 18/19 July: Adly Mansour in first public address vows to protect the country against those who seek chaos and violence, hours before pro-Morsi rallies - 20 July: Three people killed and at least six others injured during clashes in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura as thousands rally in support of Morsi in Cairo and elsewhere and opponents also hold demonstrations - 21 July: New Egyptian PM Hazem el-Beblawi seeks dialogue to drive back the nation's divisions - 23 July: Rallies of supporters and opponents of Morsi turn violent and deadly, as interim president renews calls for reconciliation - 24 July: Unknown gunmen who shot at supporters of Morsi have killed at least one person, witnesses and health officials confirm - 24 July: A bomb exploded at a police station in Mansoura, the capital of Dakhalia province north of Cairo early on Wednesday, killing one person and wounding 17 others - 24 July: Egypt's army chief called for public rallies this week to give him a mandate to fight terrorism and violence - 26 July: Ousted President Morsi is under investigation for an array of charges including that he conspired with Hamas to flee jail during the 2011 uprising, killing some prisoners and officers, kidnapping soldiers and torching buildings - 27 July: Egypt suffers night of deadly violence as hundreds of thousands come out for rallies in a divided country - 27 July: Over 100 supporters of Morsi claimed dead as soldiers are accused of shoot-to-kill policy to clear protest urging his release - 28 July: Egypt's interior minister pledged to deal decisively with any attempts to destabilize the country, a thinly veiled warning to supporters of Morsi occupying two squares in Cairo in a month-long stand-off with the security forces - 29 July: At least 12 people have been killed in a fight in central Cairo caused by a dispute between street vendors over spaces - 30 July: Morsi in good health, has access to news and follows developments, says EU's Ashton - 31 July: Egypt's cabinet orders police to end pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo - 3 top Muslim Brotherhood leaders referred to court on charges of inciting violence
August 2013: 1 août: Les plaintes de voisinage pourraient justifier l'expulsion des pro-Morsi et les sit-ins - 2 August: Egypt's government tells pro-Morsi protesters to quit camps - 3 August: Rallies continue and clashes with police erupt in Egypt's capital even as foreign pressure to solve crisis mounts and rights groups demand an investigation into allegations that Morsi's supporters tortured opponents - 3 Augaust: Allies of deposed Egyptian President Morsi told mediators on Saturday they respected the popular will expressed in mass protests that led to his downfall - 4 August: Muslim Brotherhood leaders' trial on charges related to the killing of protesters to open on August 25 - 4/5 August: Efforts to resolve Egypt political crisis intensify as al-Sisi meets Islamist leaders and William Burns and Western and Arab envoys visit jailed Muslim Brotherhood leader El-Shater - 6 August: The EU's Bernardino Leon and US William Burns extend their stay in Cairo to hold a series of talks in the ongoing crisis - 8 August: On the eve of Eid interim President Mansour says that the government will press on with its own plan to hold new elections in nine months - 12 August: Islamist al-Nour Party to help shape new Egyptian constitution - 14 August: Egyptian troops swoop on pro-Morsi camps, many feared killed - 14 August: Egypt declares month-long state of emergency as scores confirmed dead - 15 August: Pessimism as Egypt counts its dead and Muslim Brotherhood vows revenge - 16 August: UN Security Council calls for 'maximum restraint' in Egypt and end to violence spreading across the country, also calling for national reconciliation - 17 August 2013: Egypt Islamists vow fresh marches and plan new actions as security forces surround the al-Fath mosque full of incited Morsi-supporters on Saturday, after new destructive street battles that left more than 80 dead on Friday - 17 August: Egyptian police exchanged gunfire Saturday with armed Islamist Morsi-supporters, surrounded in the al-Fath mosque - 18 August: After a gunbattle with followers of the Muslim Brotherhood - witnesses saw gunmen shoot from a window of the al-Fath mosque - on Saturday, security forces cleared the mosque, while Egypt's government considers banning the Islamist group and as Islamists announce fresh demonstrations for several days - 19 août: Au moins 36 prisonniers islamistes meurent lors d'un transfert en prison près du Caire dans des circonstances encore confuses - 20 August: Egypt arrests Muslim Brotherhood chief Mohamed Badie accused by authorities of inciting the violence causing the death of protesters - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief - 22 August: Egypt to put ex-leader Hosni Mubarak under house arrest - 23 August: On Friday some thousands in Egypt join fresh protests against Mohamed Morsi's ouster - 24 August: Mubarak and Brotherhood chiefs due in court - 27 August: Fugitive Muslim Brotherhood leader denies terror charges despite Morsi supporters attacked police stations, government buildings and churches - 29 August: Senior Muslim Brotherhood official Beltagi arrested - 30 August: On Friday once again thousands of supporters of Morsi marched through Cairo and cities across Egypt amid heavy security, but numbers less than hoped for
September 2013: 2 September: Deposed president Morsi is to stand trial on charges of inciting the killing of opponents protesting outside his palace while he was in office - 3 September: As a bomb attack on a police station hits central Cairo, a judicial panel supports a legal challenge to the status of the Muslim Brotherhood - 3 September: An Egyptian military court has sentenced 11 Muslim Brotherhood members to life in prison for violence targeting the army in the port city of Suez - 5 September: Egypt's interior minister Ibrahim survives an assassination attempt when a bomb targeted his convoy near his house in Cairo wounding many guards - 8 September: Sinai islamic militants claim bomb targeting Egypt minister - 13 September: Egypt extends state of emergency by two months - 13 September: Mohamed Morsi remanded to a further 30 days in custody on charges of jailbreak and espionage during the 2011 uprising - 16 septembre: L'armée égyptienne reprend Delga, ville tenue par les islamistes - 19 septembre: L'armée égyptienne donne l'assaut contre des islamistes près du Caire - 23 septembr: La justice a interdit les activités des Frères musulmans en Égypte et a ordonné la confiscation des biens de l'influente confrérie - 29 September 2013: Egypt's latest political transition, including presidential and parliamentary elections, will end 'by next spring', foreign minister Nabil Fahmy says at UN
November 2013: 4 November: On the eve of the trial of deposed president Morsi on Monday over the deaths of protesters, gunmen shot dead two policemen and injured a third near Ismailia on the west bank of the Suez Canal - 5 novembre: Entrant sous les applaudissements et aux cris de 'À bas le régime militaire', le procès de Mohamed Morsi a été ajourné au 8 janvier 2014 - 8 November: FM Nabil Fahmy says, Egypt would hold parliamentary elections between February and March 2014, followed by presidential polls in early summer, and that Freedom and Justice Party could take part - 13 novembre: L'Égypte lève l'état d'urgence en vigueur depuis trois mois - 20 November: Car bomb kills ten Egyptian soldiers in Sinai - 26 novembre: Dix membres du comité pour réviser la constitution ont suspendu leur participation pour protester contre l'arrestation de manifestants - 27 November: Egypt's new constitution is still in the drafting stage but has already disappointed rights groups and activists who had hoped it would curb the military's wide-ranging powers and privileges - 29 novembre: Un étudiant a été tué, lors d'une manifestation islamiste à l'Université du Caire après la condamnation des jeunes filles à 11 ans de prison - 29 November: Egypt police arrest nearly 200 protesters defying draconian protest ban - 30 November: Egypt panel votes on draft constitution that enshrines army's role in politics and bans religious parties
December 2013: 2 December: Egypt’s draft constitution approved for referendum - 8 décembre: Condamnées à 11 ans de prison pour avoir manifesté pour Morsi, 21 jeunes Égyptiennes ont été remises en liberté - 19 December: Egypt's public prosecutor charges Mohamed Morsi and 35 other top Islamists with conspiring with foreign groups to commit terrorist acts in Egypt - 22 December: New charges against Morsi in a third trial include spreading chaos and abducting police officers in collaboration with foreign militants - 24 December: A powerful car bomb at the police headquarters in Mansoura early Tuesday kills at least 14 people, mostly policemen, and wounds more than 100 people - 25 December: Egypt arrests Mohamed Morsi's ex-prime minister Hisham Kandil on his way to Sudan - 25 December: An Al-Qaeda-inspired group based in Sinai claims Mansura police headquarters suicide bombing - 26 décembre: Les Frères musulmans déclarés 'organisation terroriste' en Égypte - 26 December: Five people have been injured in Cairo bus bomb blast - 27 December: Police fired tear gas at stone-throwing Islamist protesters in two cities - 28 December: Four people killed, scores wounded in clashes across Egypt - 28/29 December: After student Muslim Brotherhood supporters stormed a faculty building at Cairo's Al-Azhar University where exams were being taken and set it on fire, an Islamist student was killed and scores were arrested in clashes with Egyptian police - 29 December: Blast damage military facility in north Egypt, wounding four people - 31 December: Egypt sentences 139 pro-Morsi protesters
18 January 2014: Egypt's new constitution gets 98% 'yes' vote, turnout 38.6% - 19 January: Morsi faces a fourth trial on charges of insulting the judiciary - 23 January: Five policemen have been killed in Egypt in an armed attack on a checkpoint in Beni Suef province south of Cairo - 24 January: A car bomb outside the police headquarters in Cairo followed by a second blast near a city metro station has killed at least five people and wounded dozens more on Friday - 25 January: A bomb exploded near Cairo police academy on Saturday, wounding one person - 26 January: At least 49 people reportedly killed in clashes on the third anniversary of the popular uprising in Egypt - 26 January: Egypt to hold presidential poll before parliamentary vote, the interim government says - 28 janvier: L'armée égyptienne donnne mandat à al-Sissi pour briguer la présidentielle - 30 janvier: Vingt journalistes d'Al-Jazira devant la justice égyptienne
March 2014: 8 March: Three protesters killed and dozens wounded as Islamists and police clashed across Egypt on Friday - 15 March: Six Egyptian military police killed as gunmen attack Cairo checkpoint - 17 March: Interim president Mansour says public opposes the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 March: Egyptian court sentences 17 people to 14 years in jail each on charges including assault and occupying public buildings during protests at Cairo's Al-Azhar University last year - 24 March: A court in southern Egyptian convicts 529 Morsi supporters, sentencing them to death on charges of murdering a policeman and attacking police - 24 March: Anger in Egypt as 529 Morsi supporters sentenced to death and fears for the integrity of Egypt's legal system deepened - 25 March: The wife of the policeman whose murder led to death sentences for 529 Egyptians has suggested that only two men may be responsible for his killing, who were still in hiding - 26 March: Egypt's Abdel Sisi to resign as minister and declares candidacy for presidency - 28 March: At least three people killed in Cairo as Brotherhood supporters protest following sentencing of over 500 Islamists to death, and the army chief announcing he will run for president - 30 March: An Egyptian court sentenced two supporters of Morsi to death for committing murder during violence that broke out in Alexandria last year
April/May 2014: 2 April: Two bombs targeting security posts near Cairo University killed a police general, followed by a third blast as police and journalists gathered - 7/8 April: An Egyptian appeals court upheld the jailing of three leading figures of the 2011 pro-democracy uprising, tightening a crackdown on secular activists opposed to the army-backed government - 16 April: An Egyptian court sentenced 119 supporters of Morsi to three years each in prison in connection with protests last October - 19 April: An explosion rocked a busy square in Cairo, killing one police officer, wounding three and causing panic - 19 April: Hamdeen Sabahi enters Egypt's presidential race - 27 April: 13 Morsi supporters sentenced to prison terms ranging from five to 88 years for rioting - 28 April: Death sentence for the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and 682 supporters - 29 April: Even the dead are sentenced to death by Egyptian courts - 2 May: A bomb blast in Cairo kills one policeman, wounds three, shortly after double suicide attack strikes Sinai Peninsula - 6 May: In first campaign TV interview al-Sissi says uncovered two assassination plots - 18 May: A bomb wounded at least three people at a Cairo election rally for al-Sissi on Saturday - 20 May: A drive-by shooting reportedly killed three policemen during a rally by Islamist students in Cairo - 21 May: Egyptian court sentences ousted president Mubarak and sons to 3 respectively 4 years in prison on charges of stealing public funds - 26 May: Egyptians go to the polls to elect new president
June 2014: 7 June: Egypt bans unauthorized preachers from giving sermons or teaching Islam in mosques and other public places - 8 January: Egyptian court sentenced ten Islamist supporters of Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood to death in absentia on charges of inciting violence and blocking a road last July as an appeals court overturned the sentences given to four police officers over the deaths of 37 detainees - 9 June: Al-Sisi promised to rule Egypt in an inclusive manner after he was sworn in as president but gave no indication he would reconcile with the Muslim Brotherhood - 21 June: Egyptian court confirms death sentence for Muslim Brotherhood leader Badie and at least 182 of his supporters - 24 June: Facing a huge unemployment problem and widening budget deficit, al-Sissi prepares Egyptians for austerity cutting own pay - 28 June: A girl reportedly killed and her mother wounded by the explosion of a homemade bomb on the outskirts of Cairo - 30 June: Days after militant group Ajnad Misr claimed planting bombs, blasts near Egypt's presidential palace kill 2 police officers
January 2015: 6 January: Gunmen kill 2 Egyptian policemen guarding Coptic church south of Cairo - 6 January: Egyptian police officer killed while trying to defuse a bomb outside a petrol station in Cairo, with jihadis claiming responsibility - 9 January: Egypt said it is to hold parliamentary elections from March 21 - 13 January: Egyptian court orders retrial in embezzlement case against Mubarak, dropping the only remaining conviction - 23 January: An Egyptian student killed on Friday during clashes between Muslim Brotherhood protesters and local residents in Alexandria - 25 January: At least 15 killed in Egypt protests marking 2011 uprising, gunmen in a car opened fire on a security checkpoint near the Pyramids, killing two policemen - 26 January: Images of killed Egypt protester revive criticism of police - 27 January: One person killed by a car bomb, parked near a police station by suspected Islamists in Alexandria - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish
March-June 2015: 1 March: A bomb went off near a police station and mosque in the southern city of Aswan, killing two civilians and wounding a soldier and four others - 1 March: Egypt parliamentary poll looks set for delay after court ruling - 14 March: One killed in Cairo bombing as Gulf leaders make $12 billion pledge - 21 April: Ousted Egyptian president Morsi gets 20 years in prison over conviction finding him responsible for deaths of protesters in 2012 - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 9 May: Mubarak sentenced to 3 years in prison for corruption after former Egyptian president and two sons convicted of embezzling millions of dollars of state funds over decade - 16 May: Islamists warn of backlash over Mohamed Morsi death sentence calling it an act of revenge by Egyptian regime - 9 June 2015: 11 men sentenced to death over 2012 football stadium killings in Egypt - 11 June: Egyptian police officer jailed for 15 years over death of protester Shaimaa el-Sabbagh at peaceful demonstration in Cairo in January - 16 June: Egypt's Morsi sentenced to death and 25 years in prison in two different cases along with Muslim Brotherhood spiritual leader - 29 June: Egypt's public prosecutor targeted by deadly car bomb
July-September 2015: 1 July 2015: At least 30 Egyptian soldiers killed in terror attacks as suspected Islamist militants attacked several military posts in Egypt's North Sinai area - 1 July: Egypt cabinet passes anti-terrorism laws amid deadliest Sinai battle in 40 years - 11 July 2015: At least one civilian killed, several others and at least two police officers wounded in explosion witnesses said caused massive destruction to Italian Consulate in Cairo - 17 August 2015: Egyptian President al-Sissi approved an anti-terrorism law that sets up special courts and provides protections to its enforcers - 30 August: Egypt will hold a long-awaited parliamentary election in two phases starting on 18-19 October and on 22-23 November - 12 September 2015: After authorities arrested Egypt’s agriculture minister over corruption allegations, Egypt’s cabinet resigns but will stay on in a caretaker role until a new government is formed - 14 September: After Egyptian security forces killed 12 Mexicans and Egyptians and injured 10, targeting Mexican tourist convoy in the country's western desert, Egyptian authorities claim tourist convoy was in area illegally
April/May 2016: 15 April 2016: Thousands in Egypt take to the streets of Cairo against el-Sissi’s decision to hand over two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia in first significant protest against government since Sissi’s takeover - 15 avril: La police égyptienne a fait usage de gaz lacrymogènes pour disperser au Caire et à Alexandrie des centaines de manifestants contre la rétrocession de deux îles à l'Arabie saoudite - 27 April: Around 100 Egyptian journalists staged a protest in Cairo against the arrest of colleagues for covering demonstrations opposing President al-Sisi - 8 May: Eight Egyptian policemen gunned down in the Helwan district south of Cairo - 15 mai: 152 manifestants sont condamnés à des peines de 2 à 5 ans de prison pour avoir protesté contre le régime et la cession par l'Egypte de deux îles de la mer Rouge à l'Arabie saoudite
20-22 April 2019 Egypt constitutional referendum: 20-22 April 2019 Egypt constitutional referendum, as the proposed changes would allow president and former army chief Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who came in power in the military July 2013 coup d'état, to remain in power until 2030, under the existing constitution he would be barred from contesting the next elections, which are due in 2022 - 23 April 2019: Turnout is just 44% as Egyptians approve extending Sissi’s rule until 2030, as critics warn move will cement authoritarian rule eight years after a pro-democracy uprising - 24 April 2019: Egyptian referendum was held in an 'unfair and unfree' environment and has 'no pretense to legitimacy', according to Human Rights Watch, saying constitutional referendum was 'marred by serious flaws', including reports of citizens being forced or bribed to vote with food and money
2020 Egyptian Senate election: 11/12 August 2020 Egyptian Senate election
November 2020 Egyptian parliamentary election: November 2020 Egyptian parliamentary election
Foreign relations of Egypt: Foreign relations of Egypt
Treaties of Egypt: Treaties of Egypt
Egypt/Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Bilateral relations of Egypt: Bilateral relations of Egypt
Egypt/Ethiopia relations: Egypt/Ethiopia relations
Egypt/European Union relations: Egypt/European Union relations
Egypt/Iran relations: Egypt/Iran relations
Egypt/Ireland relations: Egypt/Ireland relations
Since 2005 rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba: Rocket attacks on Eilat and Aqaba since 2005
Since 2011 history of Egypt/Israel relations: History of Egypt/Israel relations since 2011
Egypt/Italy relations: Egypt/Italy relations
Egypt/Jordan relations: Egypt/Jordan relations - 22 July 2012: Attack on Egypt-Israel-Jordan pipeline
Egypt/North Korea relations: Egypt/North Korea relations
Egypt/Libya relations: Egypt/Libya relations
25 July 2020 al-Sisi calls for Beijing to help stop Turkey support for UN-backed Libya: 25 July 2020: Egypt's al-Sisi regime calls for Beijing regime to help stop Turkey support for UN-backed Libya government
Egypt/Mexico relations: Egypt/Mexico relations
Egypt/Saudi-Arabia relations: Egypt/Saudi-Arabia relations
Egypt/Spain relations: Egypt/Spain relations
Egypt/Sudan relations: Egypt/Sudan relations
Egypt/Switzerland relations: Egypt/Switzerland relations
Egypt/Syria relations: Egypt/Syria relations - 30 August 2012: Assad's delegation walks out after Egypt's president Morsi calls for 'solidarity with struggle' against 'oppressive regime' at NAM summit - 7 February 2013: At the summit of 57-member Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Egyptian in Cairo president Morsi urges Assad regime not to put its interests above those of the nation - 16 June 2013: President Morsi announces closure of embassies in Damascus and Cairo, calls for the imposition of a no-fly zone against the Assad regime and demands that Hezbollah must leave Syria - 28 September 2013: Egypt wants a Middle East region 'free from weapons of mass destruction, as well as from nuclear, chemical and biological weapons', says foreign minister Nabil Fahmy at UN - 17 October: Egypt denies it was mistreating Syrian refugees following a report by Amnesty International accusing authorities of unlawfully detaining and deporting hundreds of Syrians fleeing civil war - 23 December 2015: Thousands of Syrian children in Egypt have been forced to drop out of Egyptian schools with only a basic level of education
Egypt/Turkey relations: Egypt/Turkey relations
Egypt/United Kingdom relations: Egypt/United Kingdom relations
1956 Suez Crisis: Suez Crisis 1956
2012 UK 'fails to freeze' Mubarak-era assets: 3 September 2012: UK 'fails to freeze' Mubarak-era assets
Egypt/USA relations: Egypt/USA relations - 7 December 2011: Rights group condemns US arms sales to Egypt - 19 June 2012: US urges ruling military to transfer full power to civilian government as Muslim Brotherhood calls for protests - 14 July: Visiting Egypt US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urges democratic transition - 16 juillet: En visite en Egypte Hillary Clinton a rencontré le nouveau président Mohammed Morsi ainsi que des généraux - 13 September: Despite the Morsi government's call for calm, demonstrations over foreign film are ongoing outside the US embassy in Cairo - 19 September: Italy's highest court confirmes the guilty verdicts of 23 CIA agents tried in absentia for the 2003 abduction of Egyptian imam Osama Mustafa Hassan in Milan - 9 February 2013: A court in Egypt ordered that video-sharing website YouTube be blocked for a month for hosting the anti-Islam film that triggered deadly outrage across the Muslim world last year - 3 March: Arrived in Egypt on his first visit to Arab world US secretary of state Kerry releases $190m for Cairo and urges rival factions to unite - 5 June 2013: Egypt convicts 43, including Americans, in NGO case - 29 June: US warns against Egypt travel, after a US citizen died in deadly clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi - 19 July 2013: Ex-CIA Milan chief held in Panama over cleric Abu Omar abduction - 10 octobre: Les États-Unis ont gelé une partie de leur aide à l’Égypte - 13 February 2014: Egypt detained local USA Embassy staffer for nearly three weeks without charges
Air pollution in Egypt: Air pollution in Egypt
Nile, Nile Basin Initiative and water politics in the Nile Basin: Nile - Nile Basin Initiative - Water politics in the Nile Basin
River regulation and dams in Egypt: River regulation in Egypt - Dams in Egypt
Water supply and water resources management in modern Egypt: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt - Water resources management in modern Egypt
Natural disasters in Egypt: Natural disasters in Egypt
Weather events in Egypt:
Floods and storms in Egypt:
October 2016 Egypt flood: October 2016 Egypt flood


Equatorial Guinea - Geography of Equatorial Guinea - History of Equatorial Guinea - Demographics of Equatorial Guinea
Mining industry of Equatorial Guinea: Mining industry of Equatorial Guinea
Water and rivers in Equatorial Guinea: Water in Equatorial Guinea - Rivers of Equatorial Guinea
Muni River: Muni River
Transport in Equatorial Guinea: Transport in Equatorial Guinea
Military of Equatorial Guinea: Military of Equatorial Guinea
August 1979 Equatorial Guinea military backed coup d'état: 3 August 1979 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état, when deputy defense minister and former director of the infamous Black Beach prison Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, backed by the military, overthrew his uncle Francisco Macías Nguema in a bloody coup, fighting between loyalists and rebels continued until Macías Nguema was captured fleeing for Cameroon on 18 August and was then sentenced to death for the crime of genocide against the Bubi people and other crimes committed - Obiang, who joined the military during the colonial period and attended the Military Academy in Spain's Zaragoza, held various jobs including governor of Bioko, leader of the National Guard and head of 'Black Beach Prison', notorious for the severe torture of its inmates
Political parties in Equatorial Guinea: Political parties in Equatorial Guinea
Elections and politics in Equatorial Guinea: Elections in Equatorial Guinea
September 1968 Equatorial Guinean general electio: 22 September 1968 Equatorial Guinean general election
August 1982 Equatorial Guinean constitutional referendum: 15 August 1982 Equatorial Guinean constitutional referendum
May 2013 Equatorial Guinean legislative election: Equatorial Guinean legislative election 26 May 2013
Social movements and protests in Equatorial Guinea:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Equatorial Guinea: Society in Equatorial Guinea
Human rights in Equatorial Guinea: Human rights in Equatorial Guinea
Prisoners of conscience held by Equatorial Guinea: Prisoners of conscience held by Equatorial Guinea
Ethnic groups in Equatorial Guinea: Ethnic groups in Equatorial Guinea
Culture and languages of Equatorial Guinea: Culture of Equatorial Guinea - Languages of Equatorial Guinea
Education in Equatorial Guinea: Education in Equatorial Guinea
Health in Equatorial Guinea: Health in Equatorial Guinea
Crime in Equatorial Guinea: Crime in Equatorial Guinea
Human trafficking in Equatorial Guinea: Human trafficking in Equatorial Guinea
Equatoguinean law: Equatoguinean law
Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea: Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea
Treaties of Equatorial Guinea: Treaties of Equatorial Guinea
Bilateral relations of Equatorial Guinea: Bilateral relations of Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea/Brazil relations: Relações entre Brasil e Guiné Equatorial
Equatorial Guinea/Cameroon relations: Equatorial Guinea/Cameroon relations
Equatorial Guinea/France relations: Equatorial Guinea/France relations
Equatorial Guinea/Gabon relations: Equatorial Guinea/Gabon relations
Equatorial Guinea/Nigeria relations: Equatorial Guinea/Nigeria relations
Equatorial Guinea/Portugal relations:
Equatorial Guinea/Spain relations: Equatorial Guinea/Spain relations
Equatorial Guinea/USA relations: Equatorial Guinea/USA relations


Eritrea - Geography of Eritrea - History of Eritrea - Regions of Eritrea - Demographics of Eritrea
Banking in Eritrea: Banking in Eritrea
Use of forced labor in Eritrea: 15 January 2013: Use of forced labor in Eritrea
Military of Eritrea: Military of Eritrea - Eritrean Army
Government budget in Eritrea: Government budget in Eritrea
Rebel groups and political parties in Eritrea: Rebel groups in Eritrea - Political parties in Eritrea
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Eritrea: Eritrean society - Religion and freedom of religion in Eritrea
Human rights in Eritrea: Human rights in Eritrea
Ethnic groups and languages in Eritrea: Ethnic groups in Eritrea - Languages of Eritrea
Education in Eritrea: Education in Eritrea
Health in Eritrea: Health in Eritrea
Internet and Internet censorship and surveillance in Eritrea: Internet and Internet censorship and surveillance in Eritrea
Crime in Eritrea: Crime in Eritrea
Corruption in Eritrea: Corruption in Eritrea
Human trafficking in Eritrea: Human trafficking in Eritrea
Prisoners of conscience held by Eritrea: Prisoners of conscience held by Eritrea
Judiciary of Eritrea: Judiciary and courts of Eritrea
High Court of Eritrea: High Court of Eritrea
Law enforcement in Eritrea: Law enforcement in Eritrea
Foreign relations of Eritrea: Foreign relations of Eritrea
Treaties of Eritrea: Treaties of Eritrea
Wars involving Eritrea: Wars involving Eritrea
Eritrean membership of international organizations: Eritrean membership of international organizations
Eritrea/United Nations relations:
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Bilateral relations of Eritrea: Bilateral relations of Eritrea
Eritrea/Canada relations: Eritrea/Canada relations
Eritrea/Djibouti relations: Eritrea/Djibouti relations
Djibouti–Eritrea border: Djibouti–Eritrea border
Eritrea/Ethiopia relations: Eritrea/Ethiopia relations - Mareb River
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Eritrea/Italy relations: Eritrea/Italy relations
Since 1848 Italian empire and Italian colonisation in Africa: Italian Empire since 1848 - Italian colonisation in Africa
1890-1936 Italian Eritrea: Italian Eritrea 1890-1936
1936-1941 Italian East Africa: Italian East Africa 1936-1941
Ecoregions in Eritrea: List of ecoregions in Eritrea
Water in Eritrea: Water in Eritrea


Ethiopia - Geography of Ethiopia - History of Ethiopia - Demographics of Ethiopia
Manufacturing in Ethiopia: Manufacturing in Ethiopia
Mining in Ethiopia: Mining in Ethiopia
Energy in Ethiopia: Energy in Ethiopia
Renewable energy in Ethiopia: Renewable energy in Ethiopia
Water, water supply, sanitation and rivers in Ethiopia: Water in Ethiopia - Water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia
Fishing in Ethiopia: Fishing in Ethiopia
Cotton production in Ethiopia: Cotton production in Ethiopia
Transport in Ethiopia: Transport in Ethiopia
Rail transport in Ethiopia: Rail transport in Ethiopia
Road transport in Ethiopia: Road transport in Ethiopia
Aviation accidents and incidents in Ethiopia: Aviation accidents and incidents in Ethiopia
Foreign trade of Ethiopia: Foreign trade of Ethiopia
Foreign aid to Ethiopia: Foreign aid to Ethiopia
Banks and banking in Ethiopia: Banks of Ethiopia
Economic history of Ethiopia and economic cycles: Economic history of Ethiopia
2017 overview of Ethiopia's economy: 2017 overview of Ethiopia's economy
Attempted coups in Ethiopia: Attempted coups in Ethiopia
Political parties in Ethiopia: List of political parties in Ethiopia
Trade unions in Ethiopia: Trade unions in Ethiopia
House of Peoples' Representatives: House of Peoples' Representatives - House of Federation
2013 Ethiopian presidential election: Ethiopian presidential election 7 October 2013
January 2020 Ethiopia amends anti-terrorism law that banned protests: 5 January 2020: Ethiopia amends controversial anti-terrorism law that banned protests
August 2020 delayed Ethiopian general election due to the covid-19 pandemic: 29 August 2020 Ethiopian general election, delayed due to the covid-19 pandemic
Protests in Ethiopia:
August 2016 Ethiopian protests: August 2016 Ethiopian protests, demanding social and political reforms and an end of human rights abuses, including government killings of civilians, mass arrests, government land seizures, and political marginalization of opposition groups - 8 August 2016: At least 33 people were shot dead by security forces in protests at the weekend across Ethiopia's central Oromiya region linked to an aborted government attempt to commandeer local land, according to opposition party officials - 9 August: Dozens of people were shot dead by security forces in protests across Ethiopia’s Oromiya and Amhara regions at the weekend over plans to allocate farmland surrounding the regional capital, also demanding the release of jailed opposition politicians, as rights group says the bloodshed in Bahir Dar may amount to 'extrajudicial killings'
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ethiopia: Ethiopian society
Human rights in Ethiopia: Human rights in Ethiopia
Demographics and ethnic groups in Oromia region: Demographics and ethnic groups in Oromia region
Society and culture of the Oromo people: Society and culture of the Oromo people
Demographics of Tigray Region: Demographics of Tigray Region
Agriculture and economy of Tigray Region: Agriculture and economy of Tigray Region
Timeline of Addis Ababa: Timeline of Addis Ababa since 1529
1936 aerial bombing occupation of Addis Ababa by Italian fascists: 1936 aerial bombing occupation of Addis Ababa by Italian fascist forces
Since 1950 Addis Ababa University: Since 1950 Addis Ababa University
Languages and culture in Ethiopia: Culture of Ethiopia - Languages of Ethiopia - Religion in Ethiopia
Universities and colleges in Ethiopia: Universities and colleges in Ethiopia
Museums and Libraries in Ethiopia: Museums in Ethiopia - Libraries in Ethiopia
Health in Ethiopia: Health in Ethiopia
Disease outbreaks in Ethiopia: Disease outbreaks in Ethiopia
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Ethiopia: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Ethiopia
3 November 2020 97,502 confirmed covid-19 cases and 1,494 deaths in Ethiopia: On 3 November 2020 97,502 confirmed covid-19 cases and 1,494 deaths in Ethiopia
Maternal health in Ethiopia: Maternal health in Ethiopia
Health care and systems in Ethiopia: Healthcare and systems in Ethiopia
Hospitals in Ethiopia: List of hospitals in Ethiopia
Media and freedom of the press in Ethiopia: Media in Ethiopia - Media in Ethiopia by city
Newspapers in Ethiopia: List of newspapers in Ethiopia
Broadcasting in Ethiopia: Radio in Ethipia - Television in Ethiopia
2018 Ethiopians worried about internet censorship: 7 April 2018: Ethiopians worried about internet censorship
15 July 2020 Ethiopia partially restores internet: 15 July 2020: Ethiopia partially restores internet after two week outage
Crime in Ethiopia: Crime in Ethiopia
Corruption in Ethiopia: Corruption in Ethiopia
Human trafficking in Ethiopia: Human trafficking in Ethiopia
Disasters and man-made disasters in Ethiopia: Disasters in Ethiopia - Man-made disasters in Ethiopia
Wars involving Ethiopia: Wars involving Ethiopia
Terrorist incidents in Ethiopia: Terrorist incidents in Ethiopia
Transport disasters in Ethiopia: Transport disasters in Ethiopia
Aviation accidents and incidents in Ethiopia: Aviation accidents and incidents in Ethiopia
Road incidents in Ethiopia: Road incidents in Ethiopia
Federal Supreme Court of Ethiopia: Federal Supreme Court of Ethiopia
Law enforcement in Ethiopia: Law enforcement in Ethiopia
Ethiopian Federal Police: Ethiopian Federal Police
Foreign relations of Ethiopia: Foreign relations of Ethiopia
Treaties of Ethiopia: Treaties of Ethiopia
Ethiopian membership in international organisations:
Ethiopia's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Ethiopia among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Ethiopia: Bilateral relations of Ethiopia
Ethiopia/Algeria relations: Ethiopia/Algeria relations
Ethiopia/Djibouti relations: Ethiopia/Djibouti relations
Ethiopia/Eritrea relations: Ethiopia/Eritrea relations
2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea: 2000-2008 United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Ethiopia/Italy relations: Ethiopia/Italy relations
Since 1848 Italian empire and Italian colonisation in Africa: Italian Empire since 1848 - Italian colonisation in Africa
1937 Italian Atrocities against the native population: !937 Italian Atrocities against the native population
Ethiopia/Libya relations: Ethiopia/Libya relations
Ethiopia/Netherlands relations: Ethiopia/Netherlands relations
Ethiopia/Somalia relations: Ethiopia/Somalia relations
2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden: 2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden
Ethiopia/South Sudan relations: Ethiopia/South Sudan relations
Ethiopia/Sudan relations: Ethiopia/Sudan relations
Ethiopia/United Kingdom relations: Ethiopia/United Kingdom relations
Ethiopia/USA relations: Ethiopia/USA relations
Environment of Ethiopia: Environment of Ethiopia -