Africa



Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent - Geography of Africa - Climate of Africa - Geography of African countries
History of Africa - Recent African origin of modern humans
October 2019 humanity’s homeland located in ancient Botswana: 29 October 2019: New study traces humanity’s homeland to ancient Botswana, as researchers use DNA samples combined with geographic distribution, archaeological and climate change data to come up with a genomic timeline
July 2020 Israel's desert a lush bridge out of Africa 1.8m years ago: 14 July 2020: Homo erectus is the first hominin known to have gone global, with fossils found from South Africa to Spain and Indonesia, as Israel's desert was a lush bridge out of Africa 1.8 million years ago, scientists prove
Demographics of Africa - Ethnic groups of Africa - Languages of Africa

Since first century Roman empire in Sub-Saharan Africa, a group of military expeditions and explorations to Lake Chad and western Africa, conducted by units of the Roman empire who moved across the Sahara and into the interior of Africa and its coast, between the first and the fourth century AD ahead of the decline of the slavery based empire

European Atlantic slave trade mainly by the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish from the 16th through to the 19th centuries bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets

Colonisation of Africa - Belgian colonisation in Africa - Since 1843 Belgian colonial empire - British colonisation in Africa - Since 1497 British Empire - Dutch colonisation in Africa - Since 1543 Dutch Empire - French colonisation in Africa - Since 1534 French colonial empire - German colonisation in Africa - Since 1884 German colonial empire - Italian colonisation in Africa - Since 1869 Italian colonial empire - Portuguese colonisation in Africa - Since 1415 Portuguese Empire - Spanish colonisation in Africa - Since 15th century Spanish Empire - Since 1650 Swedish colony 'Swedish Gold Coast' in present-day Ghana in Africa - Since 1658 Danish colony 'Danish Gold Coast', roughly present-day southeast Ghana - 1821–1957 British colony 'British Gold Coast', 1850 incorporation of the 'Danish Gold Coast', 1872 incorporation of the 'Dutch Gold Coast', since 1957 the independent nation of Ghana - Scramble for Africa, the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914 - Colonies in Africa

African resistance to colonialism - African independence movements - Decolonisation of Africa mainly in the mid-to-late 1950s and 1960s
Since 1847 timeline of decolonisation of Africa: Since 1847 timeline of the decolonisation of Africa
2006/2009 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone: 1996/2009 African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba and named after South Africa's main Nuclear Research Centre, the location where South Africa's atomic bombs of the 1970s were developed, constructed and subsequently stored - History of nuclear weapons amid World Wars since 1914 initiated by the German, other European and the Japanese empire
1 July 2020 demands to 'decolonise and rename’ streets and locations in Africa: 1 July 2020: 'Decolonise and rename’ streets of Uganda and Sudan, activists urge, as campaigners target statues of slave owners and roads named after imperial armies in pro-democracy and anti-racism protests spreading to Africa

Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation, following the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over other societies and territories, creating a colony, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically, as research suggests, the current conditions of postcolonial countries have roots in colonial actions and policies
Violence in Africa - Violence in Africa by country - Terrorism in Africa - Terrorism in Africa by country - Genocides in Africa
Violence, mass shootings and terrorism in Africa by decade: Mass shootings in Africa by decade
January 2020 conflict still Africa’s biggest challenge in 2020 'reliefweb' says: 6 January 2020: Conflict is still Africa’s biggest challenge in 2020, according to 'reliefweb'
SIPRI's 2020 overview of armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa: Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa, as there were at least 15 countries with active armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in 2019, including Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan, according to SIPRI Yearbook 2020
2020 mass shootings in Africa: 2020 mass shootings in Africa
16 June 2020 African countries demand UN inquiry into 'systemic racism' and 'police brutality' in the USA: 16 June 2020; African countries are lobbying to set up a UN inquiry into 'systemic racism' and 'police brutality' in the USA and elsewhere, aiming to defend the rights of people of African descent, a draft resolution shows circulating among diplomats in Geneva, voicing alarm at 'recent incidents of police brutality against peaceful demonstrators defending the rights of Africans and of people of African descent', due to be considered at an urgent debate of the UN Human Rights Council on Wednesday
27 November 2020 UN Sudan expert's links to Russian oligarch Prigozhin and mercenaries revealed: 27 November 2020: Leaked documents show links between an academic serving on a UN expert panel on Sudan, and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the Russian oligarch under USA sanctions who has led Russia’s recent push into Africa, as - according to the USA - Prigozhin runs the Wagner group, which has sent mercenaries to countries including Sudan, Libya and the Central African Republic, and is also behind a notorious internet troll factory that supported Donald Trump
11 December 2020 violence in Africa’s terrorist hotspots is getting worse: 11 December 2020: Violence in Africa’s terrorist hotspots is getting worse and the risk of attacks is rising in many countries across the region, including some previously considered safe, Verisk Maplecroft's latest Terrorism Intensity Index reveals, as the quarterly ranking of 198 countries shows sub-Saharan Africa is now home to 7 of the world’s 10 riskiest locations, making it the worst performing region globally
2020s mass shootings in Africa: 2020s mass shootings in Africa

List of African countries by population - Ethnic groups in Africa by country, following the slave trade, colonization, colonial wars and decolonization
List of conflicts in Africa including colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence, and global conflicts in which Africa was and is a theatre of war - Terrorism in Africa
African political history and democracy: African political history by country - Elections in Africa by country and by date, listing the most recent national elections in African countries - List of African Union member states by political system, including republicanism, monarchism, authoritarian rule, military dictatorship, and types of government systems and degree of self-governance - Democracy in Africa, measured by a variety of indexes primarily devised by Non-Governmental Organisations NGOs, such as Freedom House's Freedom in the World index, and the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World index, as both organisations measure a range of factors including human rights, property rights and free elections to determine the status of states as 'free', 'partially free', or 'not free'
2016 governance across Africa has seen minimal improvement over the past decade: 3 October 2016: Governance across Africa has seen minimal improvement over the past decade since 2006, held back by widespread deterioration in safety and rule of law, according to the Ibrahim index of African governance
November 2020 governance progress slowed across Africa for the first time in a decade: 17 November 2020: Governance progress slowed across Africa for the first time in a decade, with commitment to democracy and civil rights faltering, according to the Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance, published every two years and giving each country's government a score according to criteria including anti-corruption measures, protection of civil liberties and caring for the environment

Culture of Africa - African culture by country - Languages of Africa
African art: African art, the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture from native or indigenous Africans and the African continent, as the definition may also include the art of the African diasporas, such as African American, Caribbean or art in South American societies inspired by African traditions, and as despite this diversity, there are unifying artistic themes present, when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa
Music of Africa: Music of Africa
Music of Africa: Music of Africa by regional groups, including North Africa and the Horn of Africa and West, Central, Southeast and South Africa, also relationship to and influences on African music by language, the environment, a variety of cultures, politics, and population movement, all of which are intermingled. Each African group evolved in a different area of the continent, which means that they ate different foods, faced different weather conditions, and came in contact with different groups than other societies did. Each group moved at different rates and to different places than others, and thus each was influenced by different people and circumstances
Music of Africa by regions and countries: Music of Africa by the following regions including Central African music, East African music, North African music, Southern African music, West African music - African music by country, as emergence and history of countries was strongly influenced by colonial powers - Since 1954 'International Library of African Music', an organization dedicated to the preservation and study of African music. Seated in South Africa's Grahamstown, ILAM is attached to the Music Department at Rhodes University and coordinates its Ethnomusicology Programme which offers undergraduate and post-graduate degrees in Ethnomusicology that include training in performance of African music. ILAM, as the largest repository of indigenous African music, is particularly known for its study of the lamellophone mbira of Zimbabwe and Mozambique, as well as the Chopi people's Timbila, a variant of the marimba from southern Mozambique
Music education in Africa: Music education in Africa - Music schools in Africa, including music schools in South Africa, in Zanzibar, in Ghana, in Nigeria, and in Egypt, as in Uganda music education - an important part of the instructional system since the country won independence in October 1962 - is taught in public schools across the country

2019 African election calendar
December 2019 Africa's young leaders face a testing 2020: 31 December 2019: Africa's young leaders face a testing 2020, as younger generations supported by modern media face huge hurdles in sweeping away decades-old regimes
Since 2018/2019 Sudanese Revolution: Since 2018/2019 Sudanese Revolution, a major shift of political power in Sudan that started with street protests throughout Sudan on 19 December 2018
2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy: 2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy - Transitional Legislative Council of Sudan, an interim legislative body to be formed in Sudan as part of the 2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy
2020 elections in Africa: 2020 elections in Africa, including 2020 Algerian legislative election, 2020 Burkinabé general election, 2020 Burundian general election, 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election, 2020 Central African general election, 2020 Comorian legislative election, 2020 Egyptian parliamentary election, 2020 Ghanaian general election, 2020 Guinean legislative election, 2020 Guinean presidential election, 2020 Ivorian presidential election, 2020 Malawian presidential election, 2020 Malian parliamentary election, 2020 Namibian local and regional elections, 2020 Nigerien general election, 2020 Seychellois general election, 2020 Tanzanian general election, 2020 Togolese presidential election
22-24 October 2020 Seychellois general election: 22-24 October 2020 Seychellois general election
25 October 2020 Seychelles election marks first opposition victory in 44 years: 25 October 2020: Seychelles election marks first opposition victory in 44 years, also the first opposition victory since the Indian Ocean archipelago’s independence, as Wavel Ramkalawan wins presidency ousting incumbent United Seychelles party leader, winning 54.9% of the vote to Faure’s 43.5%, as opposition also won the legislative election that took place from Thursday to Saturday alongside the presidential poll, with Ramkalawan’s party taking 25 seats after economy has slowed significantly since the start of covid-19 pandemic and unemployment has risen to 6.3%, with about 40% of Seychellois living in poverty because of the high cost of living, according to the country's electoral commission
12 January 2021 no fewer than 10 presidential elections are planned in Africa for 2021: 12 January 2021: No fewer than 10 presidential elections are planned for 2021, in Benin, Cape Verde, Chad, The Gambia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, the Republic of the Congo and Zambia, as Ethiopia is also having all-important general elections
2022 Sudanese general election: 2022 Sudanese general election scheduled to be held in Sudan in late 2022 as part of the transition to democracy deal

Trade unions in Africa by country - List of federations of trade unions in Africa - ITUC Regional Organisation for Africa is a regional organisation of the International Trade Union Confederation, representing trade unions from African countries with 56 national trade union federations affiliated to ITUC-Africa from 45 countries

Human rights in Africa - the United Nations System, international law and the African Union have all contributed to the establishment of a human rights system in Africa - African society by country - African society by subject
Slavery in contemporary Africa: Slavery in contemporary Africa
Women and women's rights in Africa: Women in Africa - Women in Africa by country - Women's rights in Africa by country and subject - Violence against women in Africa by country and subject - Sexism in Africa
Gender, marriage, and ages of consent in Africa: Gender in Africa by contry and subject - The age of consent in Africa for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across the continent, ranging from age 12 to age 18 - Polygamy by country - Polygyny in Islam - Islamic marital jurisprudence - Marriage in Islam - Divorce in Islam - Women in Islam - Women in Arab societies - Women's rights in Islam - Islam and domestic violence
Women's organizations in Africa: Women's organizations in Africa by country
8 March 2021 on International Women's Day Africanews spoke to Denise Nyakeru Tshisekedi: 8 March 2021: On International Women's Day and marking the momentous occasion Africanews spoke to the First Lady of the D.R. of Congo Denise Nyakeru Tshisekedi, a champion defender of women's rights with the foundation that bears her name fighting against gender-based violence, as she told journalist Nathalie Wakam about the coronavirus pandemic, inspiring women to become the next leaders and the assassination of the Italian ambassador to the DRC

Economy of Africa
Economic history of Africa and crises: Economic history of Africa - Economic history of Africa by country - Economic variants, indicators and GDP of African nations
April 2020 AU study reveals millions of jobs at risk in Africa amid covid-19: 9 April 2020: African Union study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk on the continent as a result of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic, as most of its economies are projected to shrink this year due to the pandemic, and as African economies are already facing an impending global economic downturn, plummeting oil and commodity prices and an imploding tourism sector - 10 April 2020: Economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic on Africa's economy seized with major developments reported in many countries including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zimbabwe
30 December 2020 covid-19 takes its toll on African economies: 30 December 2020: The continent of Africa has so far been spared the worst of the covid-19 pandemic in terms of cases and deaths but its economies have not been so lucky, especially the poorer, smaller countries dependent on a single resource or sector, as IMF estimates that the economy of sub-Saharan Africa will shrink 3%, and as the spread of the disease has also picked up speed in recent weeks, stoking concerns that worse is to come
June 2021 $7.7 billion loss for African aviation in 2020: 25 June 2021: Africa lost an estimated $7.7 billion in the aviation sector in 2020 as restrictions put in place by governments to combat the spread of covid-19 led to a drop in traffic, the IATA said


Natural resources in Africa: Natural resources of Africa


Transport in Africa, by country: Transport in Africa - Transport in Africa by country
Rail transport in Africa, by country: Rail transport in Africa and rail transport in Africa by country - TransAfricaRail, a proposal dated 2009 to use raw materials of African countries to build a railway network from Sudan in the east to Cameroon in the west. The line would go via landlocked and rail-less Central African Republic.
1948-1977 East African Railways and Harbours Corporation, followed by East African Community: East African Railways and Harbours Corporation, a defunct company that operated railways and harbours in East Africa from 1948 to 1977. It was formed in 1948 for the new East African High Commission by merging the Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours with the Tanganyika Railway of the Tanganyika Territory. As well as running railways and harbours in the three territories it ran inland shipping services on Lake Victoria, Lake Kyoga, Lake Albert, the Victoria Nile and the Albert Nile - East African Community, an intergovernmental organisation composed of seven countries in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, as their issues include trade negotiations, poverty reduction, common market, and last but not least transport. The East African Community includes the D.R. Congo, the United Republic of Tanzania, the Republics of Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda.
Road transport in Africa, by country: Road transport in Africa and road transport in Africa by country
Trans-African Highway network: Trans-African Highway network comprises transcontinental road projects in Africa being developed by the UN Economic Commission for Africa, the African Development Bank, and the African Union in conjunction with regional international communities. They aim to promote trade and alleviate poverty in Africa through highway infrastructure development and the management of road-based trade corridors.
Trans–West African coastal transnational highway, project: Trans–West African Coastal Highway, a transnational highway project to link 12 West African coastal nations, from Mauritania in the north-west of the region to Nigeria in the east, with feeder roads already existing to two landlocked countries, Mali and Burkina Faso
Water transport in Africa, by country, ports and harbours: Water transport in Africa and water transport in Africa by country - Ports and harbours in Africa - Ports and harbours in Africa by country


Water in Africa: Water in Africa, an existentially important issue encompassing the sources, distribution and economic uses of the water resources on the continent. Overall, Africa has about 9% of the world's fresh water resources and 16% of the world's population. Among its rivers are the Congo, Nile, Zambezi, Niger and Lake Victoria, considered the world’s second largest lake. Yet the continent is the second driest in the world, with millions of Africans still suffering from water shortages throughout the year
Water in Africa by country: Water in Africa by country
Rivers and list rivers of Africa: Rivers of Africa - List of rivers of Africa
Water scarcity in Africa and impacts: Water scarcity in Africa, predicted to reach dangerously high levels by 2025. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the world's population may suffer from fresh water shortage by 2025. The main causes of water scarcity in Africa are physical and economic scarcity, rapid population growth, and climate change - Impacts of water scarcity in Africa
Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa
Water conflicts in Africa, by region and country: Water conflict in Africa, by region and country - Water permit systems in African regions and countries - Water purification in Africa
25 December 2021 six soldiers and at least 22 jihadists died in fighting in the Lake Chad region: 25 December 2021: Six soldiers and at least 22 jihadists died in fighting in the Lake Chad region of central Africa by a joint force describing the operation as a 'success' and saying it had benefited from 'decisive support by American partners', as the region around Lake Chad - an important and still existing water body - bordered by Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad has become a bolthole for Boko Haram and Islamic State-linked jihadists


Energy and renewable energy in Africa: Energy in Africa - energy production, consumption, and import - Energy infrastructure in Africa by country - Renewable energy in Africa - Renewable energy in Africa by country
Electric power in Africa by country: Electric power in Africa by country - Electric power infrastructure in Africa by country
September 2019 renewable energy initiative: 13 September 2019: Global renewable energy initiative aims to bring a billion people in from the dark and to end energy poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia by driving investment in new technology
5 January 2021 World Bank predicts extreme poverty and depressed economies in Africa: 5 January 2021: World Bank predicts extreme poverty and depressed economies in Africa, saying the decline in per capita income is expected to set average living standards back by a decade or more in a quarter of Sub-Saharan African economies
4 February 2021 covid-19 pandemic’s second wave sees a higher death rate in Africa: 4 February 2021: The covid-19 pandemic’s second wave sees a higher death rate in Africa, 'africanews' reports

Agriculture in Africa - Water scarcity in Africa
October 2011 trees 'boost African crop yields and food security' researchers say: 16 October 2011: Trees 'boost African crop yields and food security' researchers say
2014 smallholder farmers struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains: 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report
2015 failed harvests, stunted crops and soaring prices of staple foods: 30 December 2015: Aid agencies warn that tens of millions of people in Africa, the Caribbean and Asia face severe hunger in the next six months following failed harvests, stunted crops and soaring prices of staple foods
2019–2020 East Africa locust infestation and climate change: 2019–20 East Africa locust infestation - 31 January 2020: Africa’s worst locust plague in decades threatens millions, as UN sounds alarm over swarms consuming crops in five countries, threatening to spread further - 14 February 2020: Climate change may be to blame, as human activity has made an ocean circulation pattern misbehave, triggering a weird confluence of events that has caused the infestations, according to NGS's 'Science'
Since January 2020 East African nations struggling to cope with a swarm invasion: 13 January 2020: Several East African nations including Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are struggling to cope with a grasshopper swarm invasion that has lasted over a month, causing panic in the agriculture, aviation and public sectors, as the region is suffering its worst invasion for decades, called the 'worst situation in 25 years' by FAO
April 2020 second wave of young desert locusts even worse: 10 April 2020: A second wave of billions of young desert locusts are winging in from breeding grounds in Somalia in search of fresh vegetation springing up with seasonal rains, threatening East Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan and more countries - 13 April 2020: UN warns of ‘alarming and unprecedented threat’ to food security and livelihoods in the region, as second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse
17 August 2020 Kenya races to prevent new locust plague threat: 17 August 2020: Kenya is in a race to track locusts to prevent a new plague from forming in East Africa and eating all the greenery they find in their wake
20 August 2020 the Horn of Africa battling an unprecedented proliferation of locust crop pests for months: 20 August 2020: The Horn of Africa, battling an unprecedented proliferation of locust crop pests for months, is facing an exacerbated food shortage threat, with crops of farmers in Turkana county, Kenya, decimated by an infestation of desert locusts
22 September 2021 Africa is not a monoculture, we reject the plan to make it one according to AFSA: 22 September 2021: Africa is not a monoculture, we reject the plan to make it one, as efforts to impose industrial agriculture on African countries threaten the sustainability of African food production, General Coordinator of AFSA Million Belay says

Labor in Africa - Labor in Africa by country - Trade unions in Africa - Trade unions in Africa by country

Poverty in Africa: Poverty in Africa
2013/2014 continent's boom has failed in recent years to significantly dent poverty levels: 21 April 2013: Fast-paced African countries may have growth rates that are the envy of developed economies, but the continent's boom has failed in recent years to significantly dent poverty levels, IMF says - 11 May 2014: More than $60bn illegally siphoned out of Uganda, Ghana, Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania over 10 years, with most of it squirrelled away in tax havens, according to a GFI report - 8 July 2014: More sub-Saharan Africans are living in extreme poverty now than in 1990, a major UN report says
July 2015 rich get richer even as poverty and inequality deepen: 31 July 2015: Rich get richer even as poverty and inequality deepen, South African market research firm's 'Africa wealth report 2015' says, criticising development strategies
April 2016 insufficient economic growth: 5 avril 2016: La croissance économique moyenne sur le continent africain sera de 4,3% en 2016 et de 4,4% en 2017, insuffisant pour espérer réduire significativement la pauvreté, selon l'ONU - 5 October 2016: Nearly half of all children in sub-Saharan Africa are living in extreme poverty, according to Unicef-World Bank report
March 2017 eastern African countries endangered by drought, conflict, and a failure in international response: 7 March 2017: South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria and Arabian Peninsula's Yemen are on the brink of catastrophe, thanks to drought, conflict, and a failure in international response
March 2018 UN's target of ending childhood malnutrition failure: 1 March 2018: No African country is expected to reach the UN target of ending childhood malnutrition by 2030, according to a new study, identifying local hotspots for poor child nutrition and low education levels across 51 African countries
June 2019 60 millions children deprived of food despite continent’s economic growth: 5 June 2019: Nearly half of all child deaths in Africa stem from hunger, Addis Ababa-based study shows, as almost 60 million children deprived of food despite continent’s economic growth
30 July 2020 1,700 fleeing migrants died in 2018-2019 mostly by violence of Security forces: 30 July 2020: Hundreds of migrants have died after suffering from extreme abuse whilst crossing Africa, as, according to a report by the UNHCR and the Danish Refugee Council's Mixed Migration Centre, at least 1,700 people have died in 2018 and 2019, and as UNHCR Special Envoy for the Central Mediterranean Vincent Cochetel denounced that the violence was mostly perpetrated by Security forces

Since 2018/2019 African Continental Free Trade Area AfCFTA, a free trade area outlined in the African Continental Free Trade Agreement among 54 of the 55 African Union nations, and the largest in the world in terms of participating countries since the formation of the World Trade Organization
June 2019: 8 June 2019: African ministers of trade deliberate on the operationalization of AfCFTA ahead of Niamey Summit
7 July 2019: 7 July 2019: Several African heads of state gathered in Niger’s capital Niamey to launch continentwide free trade area AfCFTA that represents an estimated market of $3.4 trillion, aiming to create a single unified market for the continent’s 1.3 billion people and to boost economic development

Forests and woodlands of Africa by country - Forestry in Africa by country - Central African Forest Commission

Deforestation in Africa - Illegal logging in Africa
2008: 10 June 2008: Africa is suffering deforestation at twice the world rate, more than 4 million hectares of forest every year, and the continent’s few glaciers are shrinking fast, according to a UN atlas
2018: 11 May 2018: Time is running out to protect Africa's forests, according to World Economic Forum - 27 June 2018: Despite efforts to reduce tropical deforestation, tree cover loss has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, and in 2017 39 million acres, according to new data released by the research group World Resources Institute, as Brazil and the D.R. of the Congo lost the most - 7 December 2018: The cocoa industry is failing to meet a highly publicised pledge to stop deforestation in west Africa and eliminate tainted beans from supply chains, as tens of thousands of hectares cleared in Ghana and Ivory Coast, campaigning organisation Mighty Earth says

Protests in Africa - Demonstrations and protests in Africa by country, 'Wikipedia' website listing countries in alphabetical order - Protests in Africa by country - Revolutions in Africa - Since early 20th century general strikes in Africa - Environmental movements in Africa
20/21 October 2021 protests in Nigeria, Sudan, Libya amid ongoing political and economic crises: 20 October 2021: Nigerian protesters demand answers for deaths during the Lekki tollgate crackdown one year ago, as in Sudan amid political and ongoing economic crises democratic movement and groups pushing for civilian rule plan protests against rollback tendencies - 21 October 2021: Demonstrators protested in Libya's Tripoli in opposition to the country's rollback tendencies hostile to the transitional government as the war-torn country gears up for a landmark December election
21 octobre 2021 une journée de manifestation cruciale pour la transition démocratique au Soudan: 21 octobre 2021: Une journée déterminante pour la transition soudanaise, avec des mobilisations pro-civils et pro-militaires prévues jeudi, avec des appels au calme lancés tandis que les autorités intérimaires ont réitéré l'attachement à la transition démocratique amorcée il y a deux ans
21 October 2021 hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators march in Sudan cities: 21 October 2021: Hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators march in Khartoum and other cities

Childhood and youth in Africa by country: Childhood in Africa - Youth in Africa by country
7 February 2022 80% of 200 million women and girls globally in Africa have undergone FGM: 7 February 2022: An estimated 200 million women and girls around the world have undergone Female Gentile Mutilation, with 80% of the cases in Africa alone, as majority of the girls who have undergone this practice are below 15 years of age, as Unicef said Nigeria accounts for the third-highest number of women and girls who have undergone FGM globally with an estimated 19.9 million survivors, and as the situation is no different in Somalia
Child labour in Africa: Child labour in Africa - Africa has the world's highest incidence rates of child labour especially in sub-saharan Africa where more than 40% of all children aged 5–14 labour for survival, or about 48 million children
Child soldiers in Africa: Child soldiers in Africa

Education in Africa - Education in Africa by region and subject - History of education in Africa - History of female education in Africa - Women and education in Africa
Schools in Africa by country: Schools in Africa by country
August 2019 children out of school due to rising violence: 23 August 2019: More than 1.9 million children are forced out of school across west and central Africa due to rising violence and insecurity, putting them at higher risk of recruitment by armed groups, Unicef says, revealing that more than 9,000 schools have been shut down as of June this year in the eight countries of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Niger and Nigeria
9 July 2020 Kenya cancels 2020 school year, classes to resume next year: 9 July 2020: Kenya has declared the academic year of 2020 lost because of covid-19 pandemic, as all primary and secondary schools in the East Africa nation will remain closed until January 2021
Universities and colleges in Africa: Universities and colleges in Africa by country - Lists of universities and colleges in Africa by country

Media of Africa - Media of Africa by country
May 2019 African female sports journalists summit: 17 May 2019: Over 120 participants particularly female sports journalist across the continent from Ghana, DRC, Namibia, Zambia, Togo, Uganda and South Africa among others attended the first ever African female sports journalists in Ghana
3 May 2021 Africa lags behind on press freedom according to RSF: 3 May 2021: Africa lags behind on press freedom, according to Reporters Without Borders, as a world hit by covid-19 pandemic celebrates World Press Freedom Day on Monday 3 May
12 July 2021 RSF called for the immediate release of 12 journalists detained in Addis Ababa: 12 July 2021: Campaign group Reporters Without Borders called Monday for the immediate release of 12 journalists detained in a wave of arrests in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa, as most of the journalists, including one who runs a YouTube channel critical of the government, were arrested on June 30, according to RSF
15 February 2022 fake news is flooding Africa's conflict-ridden Sahel: 15 February 2022: Fake news is flooding Africa's conflict-ridden Sahel, according to experts, sowing discord and confusion in the increasingly volatile region, as militants are waging a brutal insurgency across much of the vast region, having first emerged in Mali in 2012 before spreading to Burkina Faso and Niger, and as thousands of people have died and around two million have been displaced by the conflict despite the presence of thousands of French troops, according to 'Africanews' with AFP
African newspapers: African newspapers by country - Digital newspapers published in Africa
Broadcasting in Africa: Broadcasting in Africa by country - Radio in Africa by country - Television in Africa by country
21 April 2021 Africanews' fifth anniversary: 21 April 2021: Africanews celebrates fifth anniversary, as the staff is proud to present the sole multilingual pan-African news media supporting citizens, and watched across the continent through its English and French platforms
Internet in Africa: Internet in Africa by country - African news websites
May 2019: 17 May 2019: Amid international controversy over social media abuse, Facebook removes fake accounts targeting Africa, saying the 265 social media accounts removed were focused on Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia

Health in Africa
Health disasters in Africa: Health disasters in Africa
Since late 20th century HIV/AIDS in Africa: Since late 20th century HIV/AIDS in Africa
December 2020 Africa steps up fight against HIV with trial of new combination vaccines: 18 December 2020: The first trial in Africa to test two new vaccines to protect against HIV got under way in Uganda this week, raising hopes of an end to the epidemic that affects millions of people across the continent, as African-led study expected to involve 1,600 people over next three years in Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa
2013-2016 Western African Ebola virus epidemic: 2013-2016 Western African Ebola virus epidemic - Responses to the West African Ebola virus epidemic - Ebola virus disease treatment research
2020 covid-19 origination from China outbreak in Africa: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Africa
February 2020 African countries stepping up measures to prevent the spread of covid-19 from China: 1 February 2020: African governments are stepping up measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, that has already claimed 259 lives in China - 28 February 2020: Coronavirus found in sub-Saharan Africa, as Nigeria’s health minister said the first case in the region was an Italian citizen who worked in Nigeria and had returned from Italy to Lagos, and as WHO says spread could 'get out of control', amid global spread of disease
16-19 March 2020 Chinese covid-19 spreads more rapidly across Africa: 16 March 2020: Countries across Africa have imposed wide-ranging and stringent new measures as Chinese coronavirus begins to spread more rapidly across the continent and disease will cause huge challenges for continent’s health services - 18 March 2020: There are now more than 400 confirmed cases of coronavirus across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic - 19 March 2020: More than 630 confirmed cases of coronavirus across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic
1/2 April 2020 5,856 cases, 201 deaths, and 430 recoveries of covid-19 pandemic in Africa: 1 April 2020: There are now 5,856 cases, 201 deaths, and 430 recoveries of coronavirus pandemic across the continent, with a number of African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic - 2 April 2020: Africa faces an 'existential threat' as virus cases spread to now above 6,000, health officials say
3/4 April 2020 medical aid marooned as Africa shuts borders: 3 April 2020: Medical aid marooned as Africa shuts borders amid coronavirus pandemic - 4 April 2020: There are now more than over 6,700 confirmed cases of covid-19 across Africa
7 April 2020 most covid-19 impacted nation per African region: 7 April 2020: Most impacted nation per African region, as southern South Africa reports 1,686 cases, 12 deaths, and as northern Africa's Algeria reports 1,423 cases and 173 deaths,, as Malawi records first death
8 April 2020 more than 10,700 confirmed cases of covid-19 in Africa and 534 deaths: 8 April 2020: There are now more than over 10,700 confirmed cases of covid-19, 534 deaths, and 1,192 recoveries across the continen
15 April 2020 virus choking off supply of food: 15 April 2020: Lockdowns in at least 33 of Africa’s 54 countries have blocked farmers from getting food to markets and threatened deliveries of food assistance to rural populations, as also informal markets where millions buy their food are shut
18 April 2020 covid-19 spreads: 18 April 2020: Africa now has more than 1,000 deaths from covid-19, with the overall number of cases more than 19,800, as 52 countries have reported the pandemic - 18 April 2020: As numbers of covid-19 cases across Africa, listed by region and country by 'africanews', continue to grow with each passing day, WHO's regional head warns that a spike is expected in the coming weeks
23 April 2020 Africa’s 43% jump in covid-19 cases in one week: 23 April 2020: Africa’s 43% jump in covid-19 cases in one week worries experts, with continent lacking adequate health services and testing capabilities
29 April 2020 polio campaign in Africa put on hold due to covid-19: 29 April 2020: Polio campaign in Africa put on hold during covid-19, as WHO official warns of fresh outbreaks and as jabs for 12 million children are delayed
1 May 2020 African countries report 38,825 covid-19 cases: 1 May 2020: African countries report 38,825 confirmed covid-19 cases, 1,634 deaths and 12,543 recoveries, as South Africa reports 5,647 confirmed covid-19 cases, and as Nigeria recorded about 1,000 new cases in a week
4 May 2020 now more than over 42,500 confirmed cases of covid-19 in Africa: 4 May 2020: There are now more than over 42,500 confirmed cases of covid-19 across the continent, with more African countries imposing a range of prevention and containment measures against the spread of the pandemic, as South Africa reports 6,336 cases
8 May 2020 WHO warns covid-19 could 'smoulder' in Africa for several years: 8 May 2020: Covid-19 could 'smoulder' in Africa for several years, WHO warns - 8 May 2020: New covid-19 entrants between April 22 and May 8 were Eswatini, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Togo, Zambia, Sierra Leone, Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, Chad, Benin and Uganda
13 May 2020 Lesotho's first covid-19 case: 13 May 2020: Lesotho recorded its first case of covid-19, the health ministry said, after conducting 81 tests for covid-19 from travellers from South Africa and Saudi Arabia, of which one was positive
15 May 2020 Africa facing a quarter of a billion covid-19 cases, WHO predicts: 15 May 2020: Africa facing a quarter of a billion covid-19 cases, WHO predicts, saying continent will have fewer deaths than Europe and USA because of its younger population and other lifestyle factors
31 May 2020 African nations fail to find covid-19 quarantine escapees: 31 May 2020: African nations fail to find covid-19 quarantine escapees who have escaped from unsanitary and uncomfortable quarantine centres, as police and health workers in Malawi told reporters they were unable to stop the escapees as they lacked adequate protective gear and as at least 46 escapees had tested positive for the virus, as more 26 people left the Mwanza border post while waiting for test results and eight others, all tested and shown to be infected, broke out of an isolation centre, as there has also been at least one mass breakout in Kenya, while individuals have also escaped from quarantine in Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda and Namibia
6 June 2020 covid-19 pandemic's impact on African elections and democracy: 6 June 2020: As Africa battles covid-19, experts believe the pandemic will have an impact on elections and democracy in various African countries, and some African countries are likely to postpone elections as they may face challenges made worse by increased costs and unplanned circumstances
11 June 2020 Africa passes 200,000 confirmed covid-19 cases: 11 June 2020: Africa passes 200,000 confirmed covid-19 cases, as pandemic is 'accelerating' across Africa amid shortage of test kits, according to WHO, also saying that the virus was spreading from capital cities where it arrived with travellers and that 10 countries now were bearing the brunt of Africa’s epidemic
17 June 2020 Africa reports 259,111 covid-19 cases: 17 June 2020: Africa reports 259,111 covid-19 cases, 7,016 deaths and 118,748 recoveries
9 July 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Africa reaching 'full speed': 9 July 2020: The covid-19 pandemic in Africa is reaching 'full speed', health official says, after South Africa preparing for the worst and confirmed cases across Africa surpass the half-million milestone with a total over 522,000 and climbing, with testing levels low and unknown real numbers, and as African Union said governments around the world should 'remove all obstacles' for a successful covid-19 vaccine and distribution - 9 July 2020: Covid-19 could push 50m Africans into extreme poverty, AfD Bank reports
23 July 2020 over 10,000 African health workers infected with covid-19: 23 July 2020: Over 10,000 African health workers infected with covid-19, according to WHO
25 July 2020 Africans share insight into their lives in the new normal of dangerous covid-19: 25 July 2020: Africans share insight into their lives as they embrace the new normal of dangerous covid-19 in unique stories of courage, determination and survival, presented by Africanews journalist Hawa Suleiman Brimah, as South Africa crosses 400,000 mark with schools closed amid virus 'storm'
6 August 2020 confirmed covid-19 cases in Africa pass 1 million: 6 August 2020: Total confirmed covid-19 cases in Africa pass 1 million, as WHO warns figure is 'the tip of the iceberg’ and that the true number could be much higher
10 August 2020 medical oxygen industry is failing African hospitals: 10 August 2020: How the medical oxygen industry is failing African hospitals, and doctors are being forced to make terrible choices, frequently having to choose who receives oxygen and who does not
7 October 2020 IMF approved new emergency aid for 22 African countries: 7 October 2020: IMF approved new emergency aid for 28 countries, 22 of which are African, as funds received will enable these nations to either pay back their debts or mitigate the debilitating impact of the covid-19 pandemic on their soil
January 2021 covid-19 in Africa: 1 janvier 2021: Le 1 janvier 2021, le continent africain compte 64 790 décès confirmés et 2 280 488 guérisons pour 2 728 602 cas enregistrés, selon l’Union africaine, mais les indices indiquant que ce bilan est fortement sous-estimé se multiplient, et l'Afrique du Sud est le pays le plus touché par l'épidémie avec 1 057 161 cas déclarés et 28 469 morts
10 January 2021 Africa passes the milestone of 3m confirmed covid-19 cases: 10 January 2021: Africa passes the milestone of 3m confirmed covid-19 cases, including more than 72,000 deaths, according to the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as South Africa accounts for more than 30% of the continent’s total with more than 1.2 million reported cases
19 January 2021 landlocked Lesotho faces food crisis amid covid-19 border closures: 19 January 2021: Landlocked Lesotho faces food crisis amid covid border closures, as food price increases and economic impact of lockdowns have left a quarter of the kingdom’s population reliant on food aid, UN warns
9 May 2021 WHO says nearly a dozen countries, many of them in Africa, are waiting to get any covid-19 jabs: 9 May 2021: WHO says nearly a dozen countries, many of them in Africa, are waiting to get any covid-19 jabs, as one of these 'vaccine deserts' is Chad in north-central Africa, where even health workers have no access to the vaccines
20 May 2021 Africa has only received 2% of global covid-19 vaccines: 20 May 2021: Africa has only received 2% of global covid-19 vaccines, UN says
15 July 2021 Africa recorded a 43% jump in covid-19 deaths last week: 15 July 2021: Africa recorded a 43% jump in covid-19 deaths last week as infections and hospital admissions have risen and countries face shortages of oxygen and intensive-care beds, the WHO said
2 December 2021 Ghana, Nigeria, more countries detect covid-19 'Omicron' variant, increase vaccination efforts: 2 December 2021: Ghana, Nigeria detect covid-19 'Omicron' variant, as Ghana's Health Service Patrick Kuma-Aboagye said the cases had come mainly from Nigeria and South Africa, as countries increase urgently needed vaccination efforts, as at public and private hospitals here in Zimbabwe, a new round of Covid 19 vaccination has begun, due to the discovery of new covid-19 variant 'Oomicron' in neighboring South Africa last week
21 June 2022 first African-owned covid-19 vaccine 'ready in three years', in times of aggravating crises: 21 June 2022: First African-owned Covid vaccine 'ready in three years', developers announced on Tuesday, as the BBC World Service Africa reports with live updates, also reporting - in times of aggravating crises especially in Africa that mining giant Glencore paid out millions in African oil bribes, as Egypt has signed a raft of deals with Saudi Arabia worth nearly $8bn during a visit to Cairo by the Gulf kingdom’s de facto ruler, murderous crown prince Mohammed bin Salman, as no-go zones created in Burkina Faso to 'protect civilians', as the USA says it's 'gravely concerned' by the killings of many ethnic minority civilians in Ethiopia’s Oromia region, as talks fail to end Zimbabwe health workers' strike, as nations seek ambitious 30% protected-status nature target, as long queues amid fuel shortage in Lagos, as corruption is 'eating away' at football in World Cup-bound Tunisia, says the president of a team at the centre of a match-fixing row.

Famines in Africa: Famines in Africa
Since 2015 Malawian food crisis: Since 2015 Malawian food crisis
Since 2017 Somali food and water shortages and severe food insecurity: 2017 Somali drought, that has left more than 6 million people, or half the country's population, facing food shortages with several water supplies becoming undrinkable due to the possibility of infection
Since 2017 South Sudan famine and severe food insecurity: 2017 South Sudan famine following several years of instability in the country's food supply caused by war and drought, as the famine, largely focused in the northern part of the country, affected an estimated five million people and nearly 50% of the South Sudanese population, as later the famine was officially declared to have weakened to a state of severe food insecurity
5 September 2020 UN warns against risk of famines: 5 September 2020: UN warns that there is a risk of famine and widespread food insecurity in four countries affected by conflict, including D.R. Congo, Yemen, northeast Nigeria, and South Sudan, as UN's Mark Lowcock says that the economic fallout from the covid-19 pandemic including lockdowns, border closures and restrictions on movement have all had 'a big effect on food security and agricultural productivity'

Environment of Africa by country - Environmental Issues in Africa
Water scarcity in Africa
Environmental impact of mining - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Environmental impact of nuclear power
Air pollution in Africa - Air pollution is a major challenge in Africa, aoccording to United Nations Environment Programme
2016: 20 October 2016: The human and financial cost of the continent’s pollution suggests dirty air could be killing 712,000 people a year prematurely, compared with approximately 542,000 from unsafe water, 275,000 from malnutrition and 391,000 from unsafe sanitation, OECD study says - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe
June 2018: 11 June 2018: Some of Africa’s oldest and biggest baobab trees aged between 1,100 and 2,500 years have abruptly died, wholly or in part, in the past decade, as demise of nine out of 13 of the ancient landmarks linked to climate change by researchers - 13 June 2018: Baobab trees becoming endangered species
15 November 2021 at COP26 Africa's top priorities to effectively tackle climate emergency not achieved: 15 November 2021: Whilst the imperfect progress made at COP26 is welcome, some of Africa's top priorities when it comes to getting support and policies to effectively tackle the climate emergency were not achieved, France24 reports also taking a look at what's now on the agenda on the road to COP27 in Egypt next year

Environmental impact of war
Poaching, the illegal hunting, killing, or capturing of wild animals - Illegal wildlife trade over the world - Wildlife smuggling
2016/2017: 31 August 2016: First ever continent-wide survey of the species 'Elephant' finds nearly one-third of African continent’s largest elephants were wiped out between 2007-2014, largely due to poaching for ivory - 24 October 2017: Elephant poaching drops in Africa but elephant populations continue to fall due to illegal killing and other human activities, while seizures of large-scale illegal ivory shipments were at record highs in 2016, 'Cites' report reveals

East Africa - Sub-Saharan Africa
List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa - Indigenous peoples of East Africa
African origin of modern humans: Recent African origin of modern humans - History of Africa by region - Economic history of Africa, as the continent has the longest and oldest economic history
History of East Africa: Political history of East Africa, since antiquity, Islam expansion, European explorations and colonization, era of colonies and protectorates, colonies and mandates, more or less autonomy, independence, and contemporary history - Man-made disasters in Africa by country
April 2021 activists accused French and Chinese oil firms of ignoring huge environmental risks: 14 April 2021: Activists have accused French and Chinese oil firms of ignoring huge environmental risks after the signing of accords on the controversial construction of a £2.5bn oil pipeline, as Uganda, Tanzania and the oil companies Total and CNOOC signed three key agreements that pave the way for construction to start on the planned east African crude oil pipeline EACOP, and as on Tuesday a letter signed by 38 civil society organisations across both east African countries said the parties had failed to address environmental concerns over the pipeline and had steamrollered over court and parliamentary processes
Since 2011 droughts, famine, man-made disasters and refugee crises: 2011-2012 East Africa drought - 25 June 2011: Severe drought hits East Africa - 28 June 2011: Horn of Africa sees 'worst drought in 60 years' - 4 July 2011: UN warns of a looming catastrophe in Somalia because of drought and hunger - 9 July 2011: UN refugee chief calls for drought aid inside Somalia - 11 July 2011: UNHCR chief Antonio Guterres urges Kenya to open a new camp for fleeing people - 25 July 2011: UN's food agency and G-20 - talks on Africa drought crisis - 16 August 2011: Ethiopia refugee camp child death rates alarming UN says - 25. August 2011: Dürre, Hunger- und Flüchtlingskrise weiten sich trotz Hilfsaktionen aus - 5 September 2011: UN says famine spreads to sixth region of Somalia - 4 February 2012: Rain and food deliveries end famine conditions, but food stocks could run out in May and leave millions in need of aid, UN says
2010s Sahel droughts and famine: Sahel - Sahel drought - 2010 Sahel famine - 11. Mai 2012: Erneut droht in der Sahelzone eine grosse Hungersnot
2014 Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis: 3 February 2014: Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis', UN says - 1 May 2014: Aid operations need urgent funding in Sahel region where five million children face acute malnutrition, UN says - 15 September 2014: Smallholder farmers, who hold over 80 percent of all farms in sub-Saharan Africa, are struggling to adapt to rapidly rising temperature and erratic rains, according to the 2014 Africa Agriculture Status Report
2017 millions facing hunger in east Africa: 15 March 2017: The Disasters Emergency Committee calls for urgent response to humanitarian emergency unfolding in east Africa, with 16 million people facing hunger
Since March 2018 East Africa floods: Since March 2018 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Uganda
May 2018: 8 May 2018: Heavy rains and severe flash floods have left more than 300 people dead and displaced thousands of others across parts of east Africa, with Kenya and Rwanda being the worst hit
January 2020 Sahel faces surge in violence from terror attacks: 22 January 2020: Sahel faces surge in violence from terror attacks, as more than 4,000 reported dead last year amid fears region may slide into violent chaos - 29 janvier 2020: Les enfants subissent un niveau de violence sans précédent au Sahel central, des centaines d'entre eux y ont été tués, mutilés ou séparés de force de leurs parents en 2019, s'alarme l'Unicef dans un document publié mard
12 June 2020 hundreds of civilians reportedly killed by own governments in Sahel region: 12 June 2020: Hundreds of civilians have been killed by their own governments in Africa’s Sahel region since countries pledged a surge against militant groups at a regional meeting held by France in January, as rights group said it had documented 200 cases of unlawful state killings and forced disappearances in February and March in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, which are members of the internationally backed G5 force set up to fight militants in the Sahel
27 July 2020 East Africa summit to resolve Mali crisis: 27 juillet 2020: Les 15 présidents de la Cédéao ont entamé un sommet virtuel extraordinaire pour tenter de résoudre la crise socio-politique qui ébranle le Mali depuis juin
22 January 2021 Sahel violence displaces two million internally UN says: 22 January 2021: For the first time, more than two million people have been displaced in the Sahel within the borders of their countries, the UN's Refugee Agency reported on Friday, as the Sahel, which has been plagued by armed insurgent groups and criminal gangs since 2012, includes Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger
Since 2019 East Africa and Asia desert locus infestation: Since 2019 East Africa and Asia desert locus infestation, one of the most devastating migratory pests in the world, highly mobile and feeding on large quantities of any kind of green vegetation, including crops, pasture, and fodde
2019–2020 East Africa locust infestation and climate change: 2019–20 East Africa locust infestation - 31 January 2020: Africa’s worst locust plague in decades threatens millions, as UN sounds alarm over swarms consuming crops in five countries, threatening to spread further - 14 February 2020: Climate change may be to blame, as human activity has made an ocean circulation pattern misbehave, triggering a weird confluence of events that has caused the infestations, according to NGS's 'Science'
Since January 2020 East African nations struggling to cope with a swarm invasion: 13 January 2020: Several East African nations including Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are struggling to cope with a grasshopper swarm invasion that has lasted over a month, causing panic in the agriculture, aviation and public sectors, as the region is suffering its worst invasion for decades, called the 'worst situation in 25 years' by FAO
April 2020 second wave of young desert locusts even worse: 10 April 2020: A second wave of billions of young desert locusts are winging in from breeding grounds in Somalia in search of fresh vegetation springing up with seasonal rains, threatening East Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan and more countries - 13 April 2020: UN warns of ‘alarming and unprecedented threat’ to food security and livelihoods in the region, as second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse
June 2020 third wave of desert locusts: 19 juin 2020: Déjà affectée par l’épidémie de covid-19 et par des pluies diluviennes, l'Afrique de l'Est s’attend dans les semaines à venir à une troisième vague de criquets du désert, qui continuent de menacer sa sécurité alimentaire malgré l’épandage de pesticides
16 November 2020 Tigray war threatens Ethiopia's struggle against worst locust swarm: 16 November 2020: How war threatens Ethiopia's struggle against worst locust swarm in 25 years, as surveillance and spraying operations cease due to Tigray conflict, there are fears the existing food crisis could worsen
List of rivers in East and North Africa: List of rivers in East and North Africa
Blue Nile river: Blue Nile, a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and the major tributary of the Nile Basin Watershed and with the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile, supplying about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season
Since 2011/2020 Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile River: Since 2011/2020 Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a gravity dam on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia's Benishangul-Gumuz Region, about 15 km east of the border with Sudan
5 November 2020: Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan again failed to resolve dispute over Blue Nile River dam: 5 November 2020: Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan have once again failed to agree on a new negotiating approach to resolve a dispute over the dam that Addis Ababa is building on the Blue Nile River, after USA Trump's comments in which he said Cairo could end up 'blowing up the dam', prompting a strong protest from Ethiopia, and after in July, Ethiopia began filling the dam's reservoir, angering Egypt which fears that its water supply could face severe disruption
White Nile river: White Nile, a river in Africa and one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, as name comes from colouring due to clay carried in the water, flowing through Sudan, South Sudan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nile river major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa: Nile river, a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world, as the Nile is about 6,650 km long and as its drainage basin covers eleven countries including Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt, as in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan - Dams on the Nile
Water politics in the Nile Basin: Water politics in the Nile Basin, as Nile river is the world's longest river flowing 6,700 kilometers through ten countries in northeastern Africa including Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt with varying climates, and is subject to political interactions as the modern history of hydropolitics in the Nile basin is very complex and has had wide ramifications both for regional and global developments - Dams in the Nile basin
Lake Victoria: Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake by area and the world's second-largest fresh water lake by surface area containing about 2,424 km3 of water, as the lake's area is divided among three countries including Kenya with 6%, Uganda with 45%, and Tanzania with 49% - Fishing on Lake Victoria, as lake supports Africa's largest inland fishery, with the majority of the catch being the invasive Nile perch
17 February 2021 experts explain Lake Victoria fish deaths: 17 February 2021: Experts explain Lake Victoria fish deaths, as millions of people in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya depend on Lake Victoria for their livelihood
Tributaries of Lake Victoria: Tributaries of Lake Victoria
Kagera River with source located in Lake Rweru in Rwanda: Kagera River, an East African river, forming part of the upper headwaters of the Nile, with a total length of 597 km from it source located in Lake Rweru in Rwanda
Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania: Mara River in Narok County (Kenya) and in Mara Region (Tanzania)
10 November 2020 fish driven to extinction in the Mara River basin: 10 November 2020: Fish are being driven to extinction in the Mara River basin, putting the livelihoods of more than a million people in Kenya and Tanzania in jeopardy, according to WWF
Simiyu River in Tanzania: Simiyu River in Tanzania, flowing into Lake Victoria in the African Great Lakes region, and one of the six main inlets to Lake Victoria

Southern Africa - Early history of South Africa
Demographics of Southern Africa: Demographics of Southern Africa
Ethnic groups in Southeast Africa: List of ethnic groups in Southeast Africa
History of Southern Africa: History of Southern Africa
2016 droughts in southern and eastern Africa: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure - 27 November 2016: Southern Africa cries for help as El Niño and climate change savage maize harvest
16 January 2020 alarm over unprecedented levels of hunger in southern Africa: 16 January 2020: Southern Africa is in the throes of a climate emergency, with hunger levels in the region on a previously unseen scale, as years of drought, widespread flooding and economic disarray have left 45 million people facing severe food shortages, with women and children bearing the brunt of the crisis, according to WFP
30 January 2020 drought in Lesotho: 30 January 2020: Drought leaves tens of thousands in Lesotho ‘one step from famine’, as rural areas worst hit and as massive fall in food production causes severe hunger for a quarter of country’s population
28 May 2021 a woman died after being shot during clashes between factory workers and police in Lesotho: 28 May 2021: A woman has died after being shot during violent clashes between factory workers and police in Lesotho as trade unions say they have lost control over angry protests over pay, as demonstrations spilled over into violence in what is the second week of industrial action, with looting and damage to several businesses in the capital Maseru, as Lesotho’s 50,000 factory workers are demanding a 20% salary increase for the lowest paid employees, who take home the local equivalent of £113.73 a month, andd as employers say they can only pay a 5% increase
13 June 2021 marks the 7th International Albinism Awareness Day: 13 June 2021: This June 13th marks the 7th International Albinism Awareness Day, as tne international event aiming at ending violence and discrimination against people with albinism, as according to the UN 1 person in 20 000 lives with the condition, most of them in the Sub-Saharan Africa, as in countries like Zimbabwe, Tanzania or Mozambique, where the biggest albino people community can be found, they still face daily discrimination, and as over the past decade, hundreds of cases of attacks and killings were documented in at least 28 countries south of the Sahara
Since 20 June 2021 Eswatini pro-democracy protests against the monarchy: Since 20 June 2021 Eswatini protests, a series of ongoing protests against the monarchy and for democraticisation, starting as a peaceful protest on 20 June, then escalating the government took a hardline stance against the demonstrations and prohibited the delivery of petitions
29 June 2021 armed forces open fire in crackdown on anti-monarchy protests in Eswatini (Swaziland): 29 June 2021: Armed forces open fire in crackdown on anti-monarchy protests in Eswatini, as teargas used against protesters in African kingdom with an overnight curfew imposed in Eswatini, Africa’s last absolute monarchy which is still commonly known as Swaziland, as political parties are banned, but violent anti-monarchy demonstrations have erupted in parts of the country
12 January 2022 Southern Africa bloc SADC extends Mozambique mission: 12 January 2022: Southern Africa bloc SADC extends Mozambique mission, as regional body says progress made against Islamic State-linked fighters in Cabo Delgado province since troops deployed last year, operating alongside Mozambican troops, Malcolm Webb reports from Mozambique

Central Africa - Central African countries
Demographics of Central Africa
Geography of Central Africa - Water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa - Fauna of Central Africa
2016: 31 August 2016: Forest-dwelling elephants are likely to face extinction far more quickly than previously assumed because their sluggish reproduction rate cannot keep pace with rampant poaching and habitat loss, a new study has found
September 2018 Lake Chad basin crisis: 4 September 2018: Nine years into a crisis that shows no sign of abating, 11 million people in the Lake Chad basin are in need of urgent help, a high-level conference has heard
August 2019 children out of school due to rising violence: 23 August 2019: More than 1.9 million children are forced out of school across west and central Africa due to rising violence and insecurity, putting them at higher risk of recruitment by armed groups, Unicef says, revealing that more than 9,000 schools have been shut down as of June this year in the eight countries of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Niger and Nigeria
2 January 2021 Tillabéri attacks near Niger's border with Mali: 2 January 2021 Tillabéri attacks near Niger's border with Mali, as two villages in the Tillabéri Region of northwestern Niger, Tchombangou and Zaroumdareye
23 November 2021 world’s highest child soldier numbers in West, Central Africa, UNICEF says: 23 November 2021: World’s highest child soldier numbers in West, Central Africa, as more than 21,000 children recruited by government forces and armed groups in conflict-hit region during past five years, UNICEF says

West Africa - History of West Africa
Since 1445 European contact and enslavement: Since 1445 European contact and enslavement, after Portuguese traders began establishing settlements along the coast in 1445, followed by the French, English, Spanish, Danish and Dutch, the African slave trade began not long after, which over the following centuries would debilitate the region's economy and population, and as the slave trade also encouraged the formation of states such as the Bono State, Bambara Empire and Dahomey, whose economic activities include but not limited to exchanging slaves for European firearm
Since 19th century the French and British continued to advance: In the 19th century the French and British continued to advance in the Scramble for Africa, subjugating kingdom after kingdom, and most West African military resistance to colonial rule resulted in failure, as Britain controlled the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, and Nigeria throughout the colonial era, while France dominated Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Ivory Coast, and Niger into French West Africa. Portugal founded the colony of Guinea-Bissau, while Germany claimed Togoland, but was forced to divide it between France and Britain following World War I due to the Treaty of Versailles, as only Liberia retained its independence due to American revolutions, at the price of major territorial concessions
Following WWII social and political African movements achieved colonies' independence but 'heritage' remaining: Following World War II social and political African movements arose across West Africa. and in 1957, Ghana became the first sub-Saharan colony to achieve its independence, followed the next year by France's colonies (Guinea in 1958), but since the end of colonialism and its immediate domination and servitude, the region has been the stage for some brutal conflicts, including Nigerian Civil War, First Liberian Civil War, Second Liberian Civil War, Guinea-Bissau Civil War, Ivorian Civil War, Sierra Leone Rebel War

Since 1975 'Economic Community of West African States' ECOWAS: Since 1975 'Economic Community of West African States' ECOWAS, the regional political and economic union of 15 countries including Cabo Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone (Zone A), and Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Nigeria, Togo (Zone B)
1 March 2022 West African regional bloc ECOWAS condemns Russia’s invasion of Ukraine: 1 March 2022: West African regional bloc ECOWAS has condemned Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, urging to agree to a ceasefire and to resolve the crisis through dialogue amid brutal escalation of Putin regime's aggression against the Ukrainian people
26 March 2022 ECOWAS will uphold the regional sanctions imposed on Mali: 26 March 2022: West African regional bloc ECOWAS said it would uphold the regional sanctions imposed on Mali in January after Mali's military leaders said they would stay in power for four more years instead of holding an election in February
1 May 2022 West African countries agree on strategy against global warming: 1 May 2022: The leaders of the Community of West African States ECOWAS agreed Friday on a regional strategy to deal with global warming over the next 10 years, as members - in agreement with the European Union - plan to spend $294 billion (€278 billion) over the next 10 years to meet the challenges of climate change
Economic integration of West African community's member states: Economic integration of West African community's member states, s below
Since 2014 G5 Sahel framework for coordination of regional cooperation: Since February 2014 G5 Sahel, an institutional framework for coordination of regional cooperation in development policies and security matters in west Africa, formed in Nouakchott at a summit of the five Sahel countries Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger, and adopted a convention of establishment in December 2014, permanently seated in Mauritania
Transport in West Africa: Transport in West Africa, including rail, road, air and water transport, also required for internal and foreign trade
Demographics and languages of the population of West Africa, estimated at 381 million people as of 2018 - Culture and a variety of cultures in West Africa, from Nigeria through to Senegal, as there are general similarities, as long history of cultural exchange predates the colonization era of the region
List of ethnic groups in West Africa: List of ethnic groups in West Africa - Indigenous peoples of West Africa
Regional organizations and social movements: Economic and regional organizations
Since 2000 Women's peace movement: Women's peace movement, as since the adoption of a UN Security Council Resolution 2000 women have been engaged in rebuilding war-torn Africa, starting with the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace and Women in Peacebuilding Network, the peace movement has grown to include women across West Africa
Since May 2006 'Women Peace and Security Network Africa': Since May 2006 'Women Peace and Security Network Africa', established under the laws of the Republic of Ghana as a women-focused, women-led Pan-African Non-Governmental Organization with the core mandate to promote women's strategic participation and leadership in peace and security governance in Africa
Cities and major cities in West Africa including the capitals of ECOWAS members: Cities and major cities in West Africa including the capitals of ECOWAS member states
Health, healthcare, medicine, diseases and conflicts in Westafrica: Health, healthcare, medicine and diseases in Westafrica
2017/2018 Ebola disease and accountalitiy: 18 December 2017: Ebola survivors and the Centre for Accountability and Rule of Law file a human rights violation complaint against Sierra Leone's government in the first international court case intended to throw light on what happened to some of the millions of dollars siphoned off from funding to help fight the disease
Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in also in West Africa: Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in also in West Africa
May 2020 43m people at risk of food insecurity in West Africa UN says: 6 May 2020: Over 40 million people across West Africa could face desperate food shortages in the coming months, twice as many as before the covid-19 pandemic, the World Food Programme said
List of conflicts in West Africa: List of conflicts in West Africa since colonial times including in modern days reinforced Islamist violence due to multiple crises
Since January 2021 Niger attacks by militants on civilians: Since January 2021 Niger attacks, an ongoing series of attacks by militants on civilians in Niger, mainly in the western region of Tillabéri, as the attacks until March have left 230 dead and at least 78 injured
18 January 2021 Sweden's armed unit ready for disposal by 31 December 2021: 18 January 2021: Sweden's government has decided to make an armed unit ready for disposal by 31 December 2021, following a request by Mali for a contribution to the multinational special forces Task Force Takuba in Mali, also able to operate on Niger territory following a request by Niger, as Sweden’s participation together with other nations is part of the commitment to promote security in Mali
22 January 2021 Sahel violence displaces two million internally UN says: 22 January 2021: For the first time, more than two million people have been displaced in the Sahel within the borders of their countries, the UN's Refugee Agency reported on Friday, as the Sahel, which has been plagued by armed insurgent groups and criminal gangs since 2012, includes Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger
16 February 2021 summit of G5 Sahel as France has no immediate plans to adjust its military presence in Africa's Sahel: 16 February 2021: France has no immediate plans to adjust its military presence in Africa's Sahel region, and any changes will depend on other countries contributing troops, president Macron told a news conference speaking after virtual summit of G5 Sahel countries
16 February 2021 Chad will send 1,200 troops to combat jihadists in a flashpoint Sahel border zone: 16 February 2021: Chad will send 1,200 troops to combat jihadists in a flashpoint Sahel border zone, its president said Monday, as France looks to reduce its longstanding military presence in the vast, volatile region, and as Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and France are holding talks on the future of their campaign against insurgencies raging in the Sahel
6 March 2021 deadly Niger/Nigeria border region attack: 6 mars 2021: Des hommes armés ont tué 16 personnes et en ont blessé neuf dans un village dans l’État de Sokoto du nord-ouest du Nigeria situé près de la frontière avec le Niger, ont rapporté vendredi un responsable local et un habitant
22 March 2021 armed men killed at least 60 people in southwestern Niger: 22 March 2021: Armed men killed at least 60 people in southwestern Niger on Sunday, local government officials said on Monday, revising the toll up a previous estimate of about 22, as the attackers raided three villages in the Tahoua region, which borders Mali, and as a security source blamed Islamic State, whose local affiliate is active in the zone

Since May 1975 'The Economic Community of West African States' ECOWAS (CEDEAO): Established since May 1975 'The Economic Community of West African States' ECOWAS (CEDEAO in French), a regional political and economic union of 15 countries located in West Africa, as these countries collectively comprise an area of 5,114,162 km2 with an estimated population of over 349 million in 2015
3 June 2021 West African bloc suspends Mali over coup, but no new sanctions: 31 May 2021: West African regional bloc ECOWAS on Sunday suspended Mali's membership in response to last week's coup and said authorities must stick to a timetable for a return to democracy, but stopped short of imposing new sanctions
West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA and West African Monetary Zone: West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA - West African Monetary Zone
Since 1981 Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group: Since 1981 Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group
Since 2001/2002 ECOWAS court: Since 2001 ECOWAS Court with jurisdiction over four general types of disputes, those relating to the interpretation, application, or legality of ECOWAS regulations, those that arise between ECOWAS and its employees, those relating to liability for or against ECOWAS, and those that involve a violation of human rights committed by a member state
ECOWAS Community Court of Justice in Abuja: ECOWAS Community Court of Justice in Abuja (Nigeria), examining cases of failure by Member States to honour their obligations under the Community law - ECOWAS Community Court of Justice website - Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa IHRDA - website
2004-2017 Ecowas CCJ cases: 2004-2017 List of decided ECOWAS CCJ cases
Environment and environmental issues in Westafrica: Environment and environmental issues in Westafrica
Natural resources of West Africa: Natural resources of West Africa
Environmental issues in Westafrica: Environmental issues in Westafrica including deforestation, overfishing, resource depletion and climate change

North Africa - Prehistoric North Africa - North African climate cycles, research of climate history comprising millions of years - Abbassia Pluvial - Mousterian Pluvial - Neolithic Subpluvial, extended period from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa - History of North Africa - Sahara punp theory and human migration
List of ethnic groups in North Africa


African Union
2012: 15 juillet 2012: La Sud-Africaine Dlamini-Zuma élue présidente de la Commission de l'UA - 16 juillet 2012: Au sommet de l'UA Kigali et Kinshasa s'accordent sur une force 'neutre', les Soudans se réchauffent
2013: 28 January 2013: African Union summit in Ethiopia to continue in private among heads of states, according to a delegate from DR Congo, after talks break down over DR Congo crisis - 12 octobre 2013: L'UA a demandé d'ajourner les procédures de la Cour pénale internationale contre les présidents en exercice
2016: 17 juillet 2016: Le nouveau sommet de l'Union africaine se penchera dès dimanche sur la situation au Soudan du Sud, mais aussi au Burundi
2017: 22-25 January 2017 1st ever African Youth Conference on African Unity and Development in Addis Ababa - 30 January 2017: African heads of state gather in the Ethiopian capital for a two-day African Union summit - 3 July 2017: 29th Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union focuses on unemployment and conflicts
November 2017: 29 November 2017: 5th African Union - European Union summit in Abidjan, youth, unemployment, migration, terrorism on agenda - 30 November 2017: Focus on Libya 'slave auctions' at AU-EU summit, as EU and AU leaders each condemned the practice
December 2017: 6 December 2017: AU to help evacuate 15,000 migrants from Libya this year, as between 400,000 and 700,000 African migrants are in dozens of camps across Libya, often under inhumane conditions, according to media sources
January 2018 protest against Trump administration: 12/13 January 2018: African Union 'frankly alarmed' after USA president denounces 'shithole countries' sending migrants to America, as group of 54 African ambassadors to the UN demands that USA's Trump retract and apologize for his reported denunciation of immigration from 'shithole' nations, saying they are 'concerned at the continuing and growing trend from the US administration toward Africa and people of African descent to denigrate the continent and people of color'
7 June 2019 Sudan suspended over violence: 7 June 2019: African Union suspends Sudan over violence against protestors, after more than 100 people were killed when Sudanese military junta's forces raided pro-democracy camps
January/February 2020 African Union summit 'Silencing the guns': January/February 2020 African Union summit in Addis Ababa 'Silencing the guns - creating conducive conditions for Africa's development'
12 March 2020 African Union-led Contact Group meeting on Libya: 12 March 2020: African Union-led Contact Group meeting on Libya is taking place in the Republic of Congo today, as Ramaphosa bemoaned the continued military offensive in the North African country, since the last AU summit without changing anything, now saying 'the ongoing strife in Libya has dangerous repercussions for the security and stability of the region and the continent in general'
9 April 2020 AU study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk in Africa: 9 April 2020: African Union study reveals that about 20 million jobs are at risk on the continent as a result of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, as most of its economies are projected to shrink this year due to the pandemic, and as African economies are already facing an impending global economic downturn, plummeting oil and commodity prices and an imploding tourism sector
11 April 2020 AU demands China action on abuse of Africans: 11 April 2020: AU demands China action on abuse of Africans, protests Chinese mistreatment with Nigeria in the lead
15 April 2020 Europe and Africa call for massive help for Africa: 15 April 2020: As AU appointed special envoys to mobilize support and created a platform to help the continent’s 54 countries, nearly 20 European and African leaders have made a joint appeal for a massive international effort to boost Africa’s coronavirus response, saying that 'only a global victory that fully includes Africa can bring this pandemic to an end'
9 December 2020 'Africa and Europe must unite against covid-19' as vaccines and reducing public debt are key issues: 9 December 2020: Africa and Europe must unite against the covid-19 pandemic, as vaccines and reducing public debt are the key issues that European Union and African Union leaders will discuss at a virtual meeting Wednesday ahead of next year's 6th summit postponed in light of the covid-19 pandemic
26 January 2021 AU urges Kenya, Somalia to calm tensions along their borders: 26 January 2021: African Union urges Kenya, Somalia to calm tensions along their borders, urging 'the two neighbors to exercise restraint and engage in dialogue in conformity with the IGAD-led process'
27 October 2021 AU suspends Sudan over coup until civilian-led transitional government is restored: 27 October 2021: The African Union suspended Sudan from all its activities after the country’s military overthrew the civilian-led transitional government in a coup.saying the suspension will be in place until the civilian-led transitional government is restored
6 February 2022 AU holds two-day summit in Addis Ababa amid crises over coups and covid-19: 27 October 2021: The African Union suspended Sudan from all its activities after the country’s military overthrew the civilian-led transitional government in a coup.saying the suspension will be in place until the civilian-led transitional government is restored
5 May 2022 AU pays its respcts to Burundi for the loss of 10 peacekeepers in Somalia: 5 May 2022: African Union pays its respcts to Burundi for the loss of 10 peacekeepers killed in an extremist attack in Somalia. The raid is the deadliest to have targetted AU forces there since 2015
1 August 2022 African nations expected to make case for big rise in fossil fuel output: 1 August 2022: Leaders of African countries are likely to use the next UN climate summit in November to push for massive new investment in fossil fuels in Africa, as new exploration for gas, and the exploitation of Africa’s vast reserves of oil, would make it close to impossible for the world to limit global heating to 1.5C above pre-industrial levels. However, soaring gas prices have made the prospect of African supplies even more attractive, and developed countries, including EU members, have indicated they would support such developments in the current gas shortage.


Natural disasters in Africa
Tropical cyclones in Africa: Tropical cyclones in Africa
March/April 2019 Cyclone Idai in southern Africa: March 2019 Cyclone Idai - 19 March 2019: Cyclone Idai, the tropical storm ravaging southern Africa, is possibly the worst weather-related disaster to hit the southern hemisphere, with 1.7 million people in affected Mozambique and 920,000 in Malawi, UN officials have said - 24 mars 2019: Les centaines de milliers de personnes affectées par le cyclone Idai en Afrique australe sont désormais menacées par une épidémie de maladies transmises par l'eau comme le choléra - 10 April 2019: South Africa sent material relief to its neighbours hit by the devastating cyclone that ravaged parts of southern Africa, as devastating cost and impact of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi, continues to rise and hundreds of thousands of people are in need of food, water and shelter
April 2019 Tropical Cyclone Kenneth and Mozambique: April 2019 Tropical Cyclone Kenneth, the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mozambique since modern records began, as the cyclone also caused significant damage in the Comoro Islands and Tanzania
January 2021 Cyclone Eloise and Southeast Africa: January 2021 Cyclone Eloise, affecting Madagascar, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland)
28 January 2022 tropical storm Ana: January 2022 Tropical Storm Ana of the 2021-22 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season - 28 janvier 2022: La tempête tropicale Ana, qui a démarré la semaine dernière sur la côte bordant l'océan Indien, a fait au moins 77 morts à Madagascar, au Mozambique et au Malawi, et des dizaines de milliers d'habitants ont été forcés de quitter leurs foyers
January/February 2022 intense tropical Cyclone Batsirai: January/February 2022 intense tropical Cyclone Batsirai, currently on 3 February threatening Madagascar, the first tropical cyclone and the first intense tropical cyclone of the 2021–22 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seaso - 3 février 2022: À La Réunion, le cyclone Batsirai fait 12 blessés, mais 'le pire n’est pas passé' selon le préfet
March 2022 strong tropical cyclone Gombe: March 2022 Cyclone Gombe, a strong tropical cyclone, eighth tropical storm, fourth tropical cyclone and fourth intense tropical cyclone of the 2021–22 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season - 6 February 2022: Amid cyclone Batsirai whole villages swept away in Madagascar as at least six people have been killed and nearly 50,000 displaced after cyclone brought strong winds and rain to Madagascar on Saturday evening - 17 March 2022: Tropical Cyclone Gombe hits countries in south-east Africa, as damaging winds and torrential rainfall strike Madagascar, Mozambique and Malawi
Cyclones in Madagascar: Cyclones in Madagascar, list of 40 recent cyclones
Cyclones in Mozambique: Cyclones in Mozambique, list of 19 recent cyclones
List of Horn of Africa tropical cyclones and cyclones in Somalia: List of Horn of Africa tropical cyclones - Tropical cyclones in Somalia
List of West Africa hurricanes: List of West Africa hurricanes
Floods in Africa: Floods in Africa
2007 African floods: 2007 African floods
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods
2010–2011 Southern Africa floods: 2010–2011 Southern Africa floods
2012 Nigeria floods: 2012 Nigeria floods
2015 Southeast Africa floods: 2015 Southeast Africa floods
August 2017 DR Congo severe flooding and landslide: August 2017 DR Congo landslide, as severe flooding caused a mountainside to collapse, triggering a landslide which affected a fishing village in the D.R. Congo's Ituri province. The disaster killed at least 200 people. Much of the damage is attributed to poorly regulated housing in vulnerable mountainous regions and heavy deforestation.
Since March 2018 East Africa floods: Since March 2018 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Uganda
March-May 2020 East Africa floods: March-May 2020 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people. They began when excessive rains began falling in March, leading to massive flooding and landslides. They caused more than 430 deaths, notably in Kenya and Rwanda.
August-September 2020 African Sahel floods: August-September 2020 African Sahel floods, extreme floods that struck numerous West, East, and Central African countries due to extreme rainfall, as over 760,000 people in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo Republic, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Senegal, and Tunisia were affected and hundreds killed
March-May 2020 East Africa floods: March-May 2020 East Africa floods in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people. They began when excessive rains began falling in March, leading to massive flooding and landslides. They caused more than 430 deaths, notably in Kenya and Rwanda.
Droughts in Africa: Droughts in Africa
2011 East Africa drought: 2011 East Africa drought
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought
2016 second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa: 22 May 2016: A second year of deep drought in much of southern and eastern Africa has ravaged crops, disrupted water supplies and driven up food prices, leaving 31 million people needing food now, and 20 million more likely to run out this year - 26 July 2016: 15 southern African countries have launched an emergency appeal to help millions of people hit by one of the worst regional droughts, as 23 million people require urgent humanitarian assistance and a further 13 million are food insecure
2017 East and north-east African drought period since decennies: 9 mai 2017: L'Est et le Nord-est de l'Afrique font face à la pire sécheresse depuis des décennies dans la région et le nombre de déplacés depuis début janvier en Afrique dépasse désormais un million, selon l'ONU
2018–2021 Southern Africa drought, an ongoing period of drought: 2018–2021 Southern Africa drought, an ongoing period of drought taking place in Southern Africa. The drought began in late October 2018, and is negatively affecting food security in the region. As of mid-August 2019, the drought is classified as a level 2 Red-Class event by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System.[1] The alert level was reduced to the Orange-1.7 by 12 December 2019, as the new wet season had started. As of September 2020, the drought is classified as a level 2 Red-Class event. The drought continued into early 2021
9 June 2022 unprecedented drought brings threat of starvation to millions in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia: 9 June 2022: Unprecedented drought brings threat of starvation to millions in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia
Earthquakes and eruptions in Africa: Earthquakes in Africa - African Plate - Somali Plate - East African Rift - West and Central African Rift System
1986 Lake Nyos disaster: 1986 Lake Nyos disaster
2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake: 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake
2008 Lake Kivu earthquake: 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
2011 Nabro eruption: 2011 Nabro eruption
August 2015 earthquake struck the D.R. Congo: August 2015 magnitude 5.8 earthquake struck the D.R. Congo 35 km north northeast of Kabare at a depth of 11.0 km as one policeman was killed in Bukavu. Several houses collapsed and people were also injured in neighboring Rwanda
January 2016 Alborian Sea earthquake north northeast of Al Hoceïma in Morocco: January 2016 Alborian Sea earthquake north northeast of Al Hoceïma in Morocco in the Strait of Gibraltar as the strongest earthquake measured 6.3 - 6.4 on the moment magnitude scale, asa the earthquake caused one fatality, at least 30 injuries, and moderate damage in Morocco and Spain
September 2016 Tanzanian and East Africa earthquake: September 2016 Tanzanian earthquake - 10 September 2016: At least 11 people confirmed dead and more than 192 injured following an earthquake that hit Kagera and Mwanza regions
April 2017 Botswana earthquake: April 2017 Botswana earthquake, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in the Central District of Botswana that injured 36 people, the second largest earthquake recorded in Botswana next to the 6.7 magnitude earthquake in Maun which occurred in 1952




Angola - Geography of Angola - Precolonial history of Angola until 15th-17th century - History of Angola - Demographics of Angola
Economy of Angola: Economy of Angola - main industries include petroleum, uranium, diamonds, gold, bauxite, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, metal products, fish processing, food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar, textiles, commercial ship repair
Mining industry of Angola: Mining industry of Angola - Cassinga iron mine located in south-western Angola in Huíla Province - Mining companies of Angola
Diamond mining and mines in Angola: Diamond mining in Angola - Diamond mines in Angola - Catoca diamond mine, the fourth largest diamond mine in the world, located in Angola the mine is owned by a consortium of international mining interests, including Endiama (the state mining company of Angola, 32.8% ownership), Alrosa of Russia (32.8%), Odebrecht of Brazil (16.4%), and the Diamond Finance CY BV Group (16.8%) - Since 2005 Fucauma Diamond Mine, under construction in the Lunda Norte Province, owned by a consortium of diamond mining companies, the two largest holders being Endiama (40%) and Trans Hex (35%)
Energy in Angola: Energy in Angola - biomass accounts for 58% of the country's energy consumption, oil accounts for 35%, gas 4% and hydroelectric power 3%
Fossil fuels in Angola: Fossil fuels in Angola - Oil and gas companies of Angola
Petroleum and oil fields of Angola: Petroleum in Angola - ranking second in crude oil production in sub-Saharan Africa, oil has been Angola’s chief export since 1973 and accounts for half the gross domestic product - Oil fields of Angola
Electric power in Angola: Electric power in Angola - List of power stations in Angola, gas turbines and hydroelectric
Hydroelectric power stations in Angola: Hydroelectric power stations in Angola - Angola has extensive hydroelectric power resources that far exceed its present needs
Agriculture in Angola: Agriculture in Angola - products include coffee and maize, sisal, bananas, tobacco and cassava - Land tenure in Angola
Coffee production in Angola: Coffee production in Angola since the 1830s, a cash crop formerly grown on approximately 2000 Angolan plantations, owned mostly by the Portuguese, in the 1970s, Angola was one of the largest coffee-producing countries in Africa
Forestry in Angola: Forestry in Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Fishing in Angola: Fishing in Angola, mainly performed by foreign fleets and fishing agreements were reached with several countries, including Spain, Japan, and Italy
Transport in Angola: Transport in Angola - Rail transport in Angola consists of three separate Cape gauge lines that do not connect, the northern Luanda Railway, the central Benguela Railway, and the southern Moçâmedes Railway, each connecting the Atlantic coast to the interior of the country - Road transport in Angola - Water transport in Angola - Ports and harbors - Angolan government plans to build a deep-water port at Barra do Dande, north of Luanda, in Bengo province near Caxito - Aviation in Angola - List of airports in Angola
Retailing in Angola: Retailing in Angola - List of supermarket chains in Angola
Foreign trade of Angola: Foreign trade of Angola - the vast majority of Angola's exports, 92% in 2004, are petroleum products, nearly all of Angola's oil goes to the USA, making it the eighth largest supplier of oil to the USA
Banks and banking in Angola: Banks in Angola - National Bank of Angola, the central bank of Angola is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder
2009: In 2009 the Central Bank of Angola was victim in a fraud case of about $160 million that were transferred to overseas accounts, revealed by the Portuguese newspaper Diário de Notícias in 2011 several supects were sentenced up to eight years in prison and there are still investigations going on in Portugal and Angola
Tourism in Angola: Tourism in Angola - Tourist attractions in Angola - National parks of Angola
Angolan Armed Forces: Angolan Armed Forces since 1991 - Military history of Angola - People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola, disbanded in 1993
1961-1974: 1961-1974 Angolan War of Independence against the Portuguese colonial rulers began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation and became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement, also seen as part of the wider Portuguese Colonial and Overseas War, which also included the independence wars of Guinea-Bissau and of Mozambique
1975-1988: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War - May 1978 Operation Reindeer, South Africa's second major military operation in Angola, carried out under the Apartheid regime - May 1978 Kassinga Massacre, South African airborne attack on a South West Africa People's Organization SWAPO military base at the former town of Cassinga in Angola - August/September 1981 Operation Protea, about 5,000 SADF soldiers occupied Cunene province in Angola - November 1981 Operation Daisy, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola against SWAPO - November 1981 Operation Kerslig military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military special forces on an oil refinery outside Luanda in Angola - May-June 1988 Operation Excite/Hilti was a set of military operations by the South African apartheid regime's military in Angola during the Angolan Civil War - April 1989 Operation Merlyn, military operation conducted by the South African apartheid regime's military against SWAPO
Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces: Foreign deployments of Angolan Armed Forces
Politics of Angola: Politics of Angola - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Political parties in Angola: Political parties in Angola - MPLA People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975, fighting against the Portuguese army in the Angolan War of Independence of 1961–74, and defeating the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola Unita and the National Liberation Front of Angola FNLA in the Angolan Civil War of 1975–2002 - Trade unions in Angola
January 1975 Alvor Agreement: January 1975 Alvor Agreement granted Angola independence from Portugal on 11 November, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to the Angolan Civil War
1975-2002 Angolan Civil War: 1975-2002 Angolan Civil War - Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
December 1988 Tripartite Accord: December 1988 Agreement among the People's Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa (Tripartite Accord) granted independence to Namibia from South Africa and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War
1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I: 1989-1991 United Nations Angola Verification Mission I during Angolan civil war, as South Africa's apartheid regime and the USA backed the 'União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola' UNITA
1991 Bicesse Accords: 1991 Bicesse Accords (Estoril Accords) laid out a transition to multi-party democracy in Angola under the supervision of the United Nations' UNAVEM II mission, on 31 May 1991 President José Eduardo dos Santos of the MPLA and Jonas Savimbi of Unita signed the accord, but Unita rejected the official results of the 1992 presidential election as rigged and renewed their guerrilla war
1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II: 1991-1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission II, consisted of military observers, civilian police, electoral observers, paramedics and both local and international staff, ccoming from 25 countries in five continents
1992 Halloween massacre: 30 October - 1 November 1992 Halloween massacre (Three Day War) in Luanda as part of the Angolan Civil War
1994 Lusaka Protocol: October 1994 Lusaka Protocol attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and starting national reconciliation, both sides signed a ceasefire as part of the protocol on November 20
Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III: Since 1995 United Nations Angola Verification Mission III
1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA: 1997-1999 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola MONUA, the last peacekeeping mission in Angola
Elections in Angola: Elections in Angola
August 1980 Angolan legislative election: 23 August 1980 Angolan legislative election
September 1992 Angolan general election: 29/30 September 1992 Angolan general election, multi-party elections monitored by the United Nations, the UN declared the presidential election generally 'free and fair'
September 2008 Angolan legislative election: 5 September 2008 Angolan legislative election
August 2012 Angolan legislative election: 31 August 2012 Angolan legislative election
September 2012: 26 September 2012: Angola's Dos Santos sworn in, pledging social improvements, saying stability and poverty reduction are main goals
December 2016: 3 December 2016: Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos, who has been in power since 1979, will not stand for re-election at national polls due to be held in 2017 - 4 December 2016: João Lourenço to take over party leadership from Angola’s dos Santos - João Lourenço , Secretary-General of the MPLA from 1998 to 2003 and Vice-President since 2016
August 2017 Angolan legislative election: 27 August 2017 Angolan legislative election - 24 August 2017: MPLA claims a widely expected election victory, setting the stage for a change of leadership after decades of dos Santos rule
January 2020 things fall apart for Angola's dos Santos family accused of plundering revenues: 17 January 2020: Angola’s president Joao Lourenco who took office in 2017 has systematically embarked on a mission to take down a patronage network that was championed by his predecessor Jose Eduardo dos Santos, with top positions in the government and in lucrative sectors ranging from banking, telecoms and media to oil, as today, law enforcement agencies are cracking down on the high profile family of former Angolan president, accused of plundering revenues from the country’s vast oil wealth
25 July 2021 drought-stricken southern Angola battles food, water shortages: 25 July 2021: Drought-stricken southern Angola battles food, water shortages
24 August 2022 Angolan general election: 24 August 2022 Angolan general election to elect the president and National Assembly. Incumbent president João Lourenço is eligible for one more term. - Opinion polls for the August Angolan general election
Social movements and protests in Angola: Trade unions, political organizations, social movements and protests in Angola
January-September 1961 protests and uprising against the Portuguese: January-September 1961 protests and uprising, as Baixa de Cassanje revolt is considered the first confrontation of the War of Independence in Angola and the Portuguese Colonial War throughout the colonies (then overseas provinces), as the uprising began on 3 January 1961 in the region of Baixa do Cassanje, district of Malanje, Portuguese Angola
Since 2011 protests in Angola suppressed by Angola's government: Since 2011 protests in Angola, as Human Rights Watch reported that Angola's government was 'targeting protest organizers for arbitrary arrest and detention in response to increasing demonstrations criticizing the government or its policies'
13 September 2020 Angola’s Doctors’ Union led around protesters in a march through Luanda: 13 September 2020: Angola’s Doctors’ Union led around 100 protesters in a march through the city centre in Luanda on Saturday to denounce police brutality and demand an investigation into the suspicious death of Silvio Dala in police custody after he was arrested for driving without a face mask on September 1
26 October 2020 protest in Luanda against corruption: 26 October 2020: About 100 people were arrested following anti-government protests this weekend in Luanda, as riot police fired tear gas and beat protesters to break up demonstrations involving about 2,000 people
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Angola: Angolan society
Human rights in Angola: Human rights in Angola
Subdivisions, provinces and municipalities of Angola: Subdivisions of Angola, divided into eighteen provinces and 163 municipalities - 18 Provinces of Angola - 163 Municipalities of Angola - 618 communes of Angola
Luanda province: Luanda province with an area of 2,417 square kilometres and a population of 6,542,942 in 2014, subdivided into seven municipalities, namely Luanda, Belas, Cacuaco, Cazenga, Icolo e Bengo, Quiçama and Viana, and further subdivided into 47 Communes
Luanda city: Luanda city, the capital and largest city in Angola and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre
Economy of Luanda city: Economy of Luanda city and the country Angola
Timeline of Luanda since colonial 16th-18th centuries: Timeline of Luanda since colonial 16th-18th centuries, documented and written history
Zaire province: Zaire province, one of the 18 provinces of Angola in the north west of the country and with a population of 594,428 inhabitants in 2014. It is bordered on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the D.R. Congo, on the east by the Uíge Province, and on the south by the Bengo Province.
Municipalities and communes of Zaire province: Municipalities - containing the 6 municipalities of Cuimba, M'Banza Congo, Nóqui, N'zeto, Soyo, and Tomboco and also 7 communes
Economy of Zaire province: Zaire's industy and economy including/producing petroleum, mining: asphalt, iron, phosphates, lead, zinc, agriculture: cashew nuts, cassava, castor oil, citrus fruits, coffee, massambala, palm oil, pineapples, peanuts, rice, soybeans, sweet potatoes, cattle farming, fishing, production of construction materials, deposits: gold, silver, diamond
Mbanza-Kongo city: Mbanza-Kongo city, the capital of Angola's northwestern Zaire Province with a population of 148,000 citizens in 2014. Mbanza Kongo was founded some time before the arrival of the Portuguese in 1483 and was the capital of the Kilukeni dynasty ruling at that time. The site was temporarily abandoned during civil wars in the 17th century. It lies close to Angola's border with the D.R. Congo. In 2017, Mbanza Kongo was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
History and timeline of Mbanza Kongo city: History of Mbanza Kongo city, once the home of the Manikongo and the capital of the Kingdom of Kongo, which at its peak reached from southern Africa's Atlantic coast to the Nkisi River. The Manikongo was chosen by clan leaders ruling an area that today is part of several countries. The Portuguese who first reached it in 1491 travelled ten days to get there from the mouth of the Congo River.
October 1665 Battle of Mbwila: October 1665 Battle of Mbwila in which Portuguese forces defeated the forces of the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitated king António I of Kongo, also called Nvita a Nkanga
Demographics and ethnic groups in Angola: Demographics of Angola - Ethnic groups in in Angola
Culture and languages of Angola: Culture of Angola - Languages of Angola
Women and women's rights in Angola: Women in Angola - Women's rights in Angola
Education in Angola: Education in Angola
Schools in Angola: List of schools in Angola
Universities in Angola: List of universities in Angola
Science and technology in Angola: Science and technology in Angola - in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 24% of college and university enrolments
Health in Angola: Health in Angola
Maternal health in Angola: Maternal health in Angola
Media of Angola: Media of Angola
Telecommunications in Angola: Telecommunications in Angola
Internet in Angola: Internet in Angola
Crime in Angola: Crime in Angola
Corruption in Angola: Corruption in Angola
Corruption, oil and diamond mining in Angola: Corruption in the oil and diamond mining industries in Angola
2018: 11 January 2018: Angola’s president João Lourenço has sacked the head of the country’s sovereign wealth fund Dos Santos, the son of Lourenço’s predecessor, two months after he was named in connection with the Paradise Papers, revealing how Dos Santos appointed a firm belonging to his friend Bastos to manage the fund’s capital, who then invested hundreds of millions of dollars in ventures in which he held a personal interest
Human trafficking in Angola: Human trafficking in Angola
Slavery, forced labour and human trafficking in Angola before and after independence from Portugal in 1975
Angolan law: Angolan law - 1975, 1992 and 2010 Constitutions of Angola
Judiciary of Angola: Judiciary of Angola
Foreign relations of Angola: Foreign relations of Angola
Treaties of Angola: Treaties of Angola
Angola's membership in international organizations:
Since 2001/2002 African Union: Since 2001/2002 'African Union', continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, replacing the Organisation of African Unity founded in 1963 and rising with post-colonial independence, the most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting
Southern African Development Community: Southern African Development Community since 1992, an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Botswana's Gaborone aiming to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states and complementing the role of the African Union
Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa: Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa since 1973, a non-profit, inter-governmental organization made up of Port Operators, Government Line Ministries, Logistics and Maritime Service Providers and other port and shipping stakeholders from the Eastern, Western and Southern African and Indian Ocean regions, offering an appropriate framework for exchange of information and cooperation among members to create an enabling environment whereby member can interface with one another in the port, transport and trade arenas
South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986: South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone since 1986, with the aim of promoting cooperation and the maintenance of peace and security in the South Atlantic region, dedicating particular attention to the question of preventing the geographical proliferation of nuclear weapons and of reducing and eventually eliminating the military presence of countries from other regions
African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty since 1996/2009: African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, signed in 1996 and coming into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009, establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa
United Nations membership: Permanent Mission of the Republic of Angola to the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Angola: Bilateral relations of Angola
Angola/Algeria relations: Angola/Algeria relations
Angola/Cape Verde relations: Angola/Cape Verde relations, refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship between the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Cape Verde, now are based on their shared experiences as Portuguese colonies, both before, after and during the struggle for independence
Angola/European Union relations: Angola/European Union relations
18 November 2020: Angola, EU debates Human Rights strategy amid covid-19: 18 November 2020: Angola, EU debates Human Rights strategy, as Angola's national human rights strategy, the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the management of fundamental human rights, gender equality and elections were some of issues that dominated the annual meeting between Angola and the AU Delegation
Angola/France relations: Angola/France relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
In the 1990s secret sale and shipment of arms: In the 1990s Mitterrand–Pasqua affair, an international political scandal over the secret sale and shipment of arms from Central Europe to the government of Angola by the Government of France
Angola/Namibia relations: Angola/Namibia relations
1966-1990 South African Border War in South-West Africa and Angola: South African Border War 1966-1990 in South-West Africa and Angola, between South African apartheid regime's military and its allied forces (mainly Angola' UNITA) on the one side and the Angolan government, the South-West Africa People's Organisation SWAPO and their allies on the other side
24 March 2022 hunger forces thousands to cross from Angola into Namibia: 24 March 2022: Hunger forces thousands to cross from Angola into Namibia, as worst drought in 40 years has devastated crops and killed livestock across southern Angola, sending food prices soaring, with the threat of famine forcing people to migrate south to seek help across the border, as it happens again also in Europe in 2022
Angola/Netherlands relations: Angola/Netherlands relations
1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola: 1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola, the name for the possessions of the Dutch West India Company in contemporary Angola and the Republic of the Congo
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Angola/Portugal relations: Angola/Portugal relations
1482-1975 colonial history of Angola: The colonial history of Angola is considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Cão in 1482, settlement since Novais's establishment of São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575, the Portuguese government formally incorporated Angola as a colony in 1655
Slavery in Angola: Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola: 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1961-1974 War of Liberation and Angolan War of Indepencence: Angolan War of Indepencence 1961-1974 - 1961-1974 'Portuguese Colonial War', in the former colonies 'War of Liberation', was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies, the Portuguese regime in Portugal itself was overthrown by a military coup in 1974 and the change in government brought the conflict to an end
2011: 16 November 2011: Portugal seeks Angola investment - PM Coelho visit
2014: 28 July 2014: It was announced that the Angolan state takes over the majority of Banco Espirito Angola, as its Angolan partners inject fresh capital of about US$3 billion into the Angolan bank
Angola/South Africa relations: Angola/South Africa relations
1975-1976: 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Angola/USA relations: Angola/USA relations
Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola and military support of Unita: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
Since 2008 joint venture of Chevron Corporation and Sonangol: Angola LNG was formed as a joint project in 2008 involving Cabinda Gulf Oil Company, a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation (36.4%), Sonangol (22.8%), BP (13.6%), Eni (13.6%) and Total (13.6%), Sonangol and Chevron serve as co-project leaders, the shareholders will provide associated gas from their respective offshore oil fields - 17 March 2016: Cabinda gulf oil and gas exploitation in Angola - 16 June 2016: Angola LNG's production resumed at its liquefaction plant at Soyo, following the recent plant incident and shutdown April/May 2014
Angola/Vietnam relations: Angola/Vietnam relations since 1971, four years before Angola gained its independence, and when future President of Angola Agostinho Neto visited Vietnam
Environment of Angola: Environment of Angola - Natural history of Angola - Climate of Angola
Ecoregions in Angola: List of ecoregions in Angola - Protected areas of Angola
Water in Angola: Water in Angola - List of rivers of Angola - Dams in Angola
Natural disasters in Angola: Natural disasters in Angola
Floods in Angola: Floods in Angola
2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods: March-April 2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods
January 2020 Angola floods: 9 janvier 2020: 41 personnes ont été tuées par des pluies torrentielles qui se sont abattues sur une grande partie de l'Angola en moins de 24 heures en début de semaine, ont annoncé jeudi les autorités de ce pays
Droughts in Angola:
2016 Angola and southern Africa drought: 2016 southern Africa drought is affecting 1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces
April 2019: 30 April 2019: A severe drought in Angola has plunged 2.3 million people into a food security crisis with thousands of children being treated for malnutrition, according to the United Nations children’s fund
25 July 2021 drought-stricken southern Angola battles food, water shortages: 25 July 2021: Drought-stricken southern Angola battles food, water shortages


Benin - Geography of Benin - History of Benin - Demographics of Benin
Economy of Benin: Economy of Benin - main industries include textiles, food processing, construction materials, and cement, as export goods include cotton, cashews, shea butter, textiles, palm products, seafood - List of companies of Benin
Mineral industry of Benin: Mineral industry of Benin
Energy in Benin: Energy in Benin, derived from multiple sources, including, oil and natural gas
Fossil fuels in Benin: Fossil fuels in Benin - Oil and gas companies of Benin - Société Nationale de Commercialisation des Produits Pétroliers, established in 1974 as a state owned enterprise after nationalization and merger of Beninese daughter companies of BP, Total S.A., Agip, Texaco, Shell, Mobil and DEPP, since 1994 SONACOP is a joint stock company
West African Gas Pipeline: West African Gas Pipeline, a natural gas pipeline to supply gas from Nigeria's Escravos region of Niger Delta area to Benin, Togo and Ghana
Electric power in Benin: Electric power in Benin
Agriculture in Benin: Agriculture au Bénin, qui contribue pour 32,7% en moyenne au PIB, 75% aux recettes d’exportation, 15% aux recettes de l’État et fournit environ 70% des emplois
Water in Benin: Water in Benin - Bodies of water of Benin
Rivers of Benin: List of rivers of Benin
Fishing in Benin: Fishing in Benin
Transport in Benin: Transport in Benin
Rail transport in Benin: Rail transport in Benin
Road transport in Benin: Road transport in Benin
Water transport in Benin: Water transport in Benin
Cotonou seaport: Economy of Cotonou, a transport hub and a crossroads of West African commerce, enabling trade with the countries of the African interior, such as Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, in addition to the port, there is a free trade zone in the interior of the city for use by the landlocked Saharan states
Porto-Novo: Porto-Novo, seaport and the capital of Benin with a population of 223,552 people in 2002
Tourism in Benin: Tourism in Benin - Tourist attractions in Benin - World Heritage Sites in Benin
Banks of Benin: Banks of Benin - List of banks in Benin
Central Bank of West African States: Central Bank of West African States
Economic history of Benin and economic cycles: Economic history of Benin and economic cycles
January 2019: 22 janvier 2019: Selon la Banque africaine de développement les perspectives de croissance économique du Bénin sont bonnes, mais restent vulnérables aux chocs extérieurs, soulignant également que la croissance du Produit intérieur brut réel devrait être de 6,3% en 2019 et de 6,8% en 2020
Labour and trade unions in Benin: Employees' rights in Benin - Trade unions in Benin
Military of Benin: Military of Benin
Military coups in Benin: 1963, 1972 and 1977 military coups in Benin
Politics of Benin: Politics of Benin, a presidential representative democratic republic, wherein the President of Benin is both head of state and head of government, with a multi-party system - 1956 Constitution of Benin, constitutional referendums and amendments
Political parties in Benin: List of political parties in Benin
National Assembly of Benin: National Assembly of Benin
Elections and politics in Benin: Elections and politics in Benin
September 1958 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum: 28 September 1958 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum
January 1964 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum: 5 January 1964 Dahomeyan constitutional referendum
December 1990 Beninese constitutional referendum: 2 December 1990 Beninese constitutional referendum
March 2016 Beninese presidential election: 6/20 March 2016 Beninese presidential election
April 2019 Beninese parliamentary election: 28 April 2019 Beninese parliamentary election - 28 April 2019: Benin’s legislative elections commenced on Sunday with no one contesting from the opposition parties, amid fears of media disruption and a very high level of absenteeism as a sign of protest - 30 April 2019: Concerns over Benin's democracy after poll boycott, 'africanews' reports
October 2019 MPs promote electoral reforms: 18 October 2019: Lawmakers in Benin announced that they would vote for electoral reforms 'as soon as possible', saying they would grant amnesty to those still in detention since the post-electoral violence in May, and that this will help to resolve the current political crisis in the West African nation
17 May 2020 local elections in Benin: 29 May 2020: After the recent local elections in Benin, a landslide victory for the incumbent Patrice Talon in 2021 seems inevitable
11 August 2020 Benin restores Ouidah Slave Fort to honour African ancestors: 11 August 2020: Benin touches upon the Transatlantic Slave Trade of the 1600s that lasted around 300 years as Ouidah, the nation’s coastal town, was a main port from where many Africans were captured and inhumanely shipped abroad, and Benin restores Ouidah Slave Fort to honour African ancestors
October 2020 civil society denounced the 6-month away presidential election without any credible opposition: 10 October 2020: Opponents and members of civil society in Benin have denounced the 6-month away presidential election which they claim could be held without any credible opposition candidate under questionable and dubious political circumstances orchestrated by the ruling government in light of an amendment to the electoral code and several court convictions against prominent politicians
19 January 2021 president Talon's announcement of his candidacy: 19 January 2021: With less than 3 months to go before the presidential election in Benin, president Patrice Talon opened the election campaign with an announcement of his candidacy for a second term, supposedly in the spirit of strengthening good governance
7 April 2021 protests broke out in Benin: 7 April 2021: Protests broke out in Benin Tuesday in another day of tensions as opposition demonstrators burned property of pro-government deputies and blockaded roads, days before President Patrice Talon faces an election
11 April 2021 Beninese presidential election: 11 April 2021 Beninese presidential election March/April 2021 Benin presidential election, as incumbent Patrice Talon will likely run for a second term, and he could be the only candidate on the ballot - 11 April 2021: Benin awaits results of tense presidential election
14 April 2021 president Patrice Talon reelected: 14 avril 2021: Le président béninois Patrice Talon a été réélu pour un second mandat dès le premier tour de la présidentielle, selon les chiffres publiés par la commission électorale. 50,17 % de participation après la campagne pour cette élection s’était ouverte par les contestations de plusieurs opposants dont les candidatures avaient été rejetées par la Cena faute de parrainages, dont Joël Aïvo et Reckya Madougou
24 April 2021 Benin's court confirms president Talon's victory: 24 avril 2021: La Cour constitutionnelle confirme la victoire du duo Talon-Talata - Beninese presidential election results published by 'Wikipedia'
Protests in Benin:
October 2017: 20 October 2017: Thousands of people took to the streets of Benin's commercial capital Cotonou on Friday to protest against President Patrice Talon's economic reforms and the high cost of living
April 2019: 26 April 2019: The wave of arbitrary arrests of political activists and journalists, and the crackdown on peaceful protests, have reached an alarming level in Benin, rights group said ahead of the country’s parliamentary elections on Sunday - 28 April 2019: Benin shuts down social media access amid poll-fueled protests
May 2019 protests: 2 May 2019: Protesters in Benin were locked in a tense standoff with police and soldiers Thursday after violence broke out following controversial parliamentary polls held without a single opposition candidate
June 2019: 16 June 2019: At least two people were killed in Savè in central Benin, as security forces tried to dislodge opponents, who have barricaded and blocked the national road since Tuesday
7 April 2021 protests broke out in Benin: 7 April 2021: Protests broke out in Benin Tuesday in another day of tensions as opposition demonstrators burned property of pro-government deputies and blockaded roads, days before President Patrice Talon faces an election
8 April 2021 troops cleared protesters in a flashpoint town: 8 April 2021: One citizen killed, six injured in Benin protest
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Benin: Beninese society - Human rights in Benin
Departments and communes of Benin: 12 departments of Benin - 77 communes of Benin
Cities in Benin: List of cities in Benin
Ouémé department: Ouémé, one of the twelve departments of Benin, subdivided into nine communes, each centered at one of the principal towns, namely, Adjarra, Adjohoun, Aguégués, Akpro-Missérété, Avrankou, Bonou, Dangbo, Porto-Novo and Sèmè-Kpodji
Porto-Novo city and seaport: Porto-Novo city, the capital of Benin, formerly the capital of French Dahomey, in 2002 with a population of 223,552 people
Timeline and history of Porto-Novo: Timeline and history of Porto-Novo
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
1861-1900 British bombardement and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
Littoral department: Littoral department of Benin, the smallest department of all of the twelve in the country, as well as the most cosmopolitan with its capital Cotonou, Benin's largest city
Cotonou city and seaport: Cotonou city, the largest city and economic centre of Benin with a population of 761,137 inhabitants in 2006
Economy of Cotonou and its seaport: Economy of Cotonou, a transport hub and a crossroads of West African commerce, enabling trade with the countries of the African interior, such as Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, in addition to the port, there is a free trade zone in the interior of the city for use by the landlocked Saharan states
Timeline of Cotonou: Timeline of Cotonou
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
1878 Cotonou ceded to France: 1878 Cotonou ceded to France
1883 French occupation: 1883 French occupation
Since 1970 University of Abomey-Calavi: Since 1970 University of Abomey-Calavi, the principal university in the country of Benin, composed of 19 institutions and six campuses - Abomey-Calavi city, located in the Atlantique Department of Benin and mainly suburban to the city of Cotonou with a population of 655,965 people
Since 1996 University of Science and Technology of Benin: Since 1996 University of Science and Technology of Benin
June 2000 Cotonou Agreement: June 2000 Cotonou Agreement, a treaty between the EU and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP countries), entering into force in 2003 and subsequently revised in 2005 and 2010
Atlantique department: Atlantique department in Benin, located in south central Benin along the Atlantic coast, between the Mono and Couffo in the west, Zou in the north, and Oueme in the east - Abomey-Calavi city, located in the Atlantique Department of Benin and mainly suburban to the city of Cotonou with a population of 655,965 people
Ouidah city: Ouidah city on the coast of the Republic of Benin with a population of 76,555 people in 2002
Since 1650 British fort and slave port: History of Ouidah city, which saw its role in international trade rise when the British built a fort in Ouidah in 1650, becoming the second largest slave port in the Triangular trade in the 18th century
Borgou department: Borgou, one of the twelve departments of Benin, bordering the country of Nigeria and the departments of Alibori, Atakora, Collines and Donga, its capital is Parakou
Alibori department: Alibori, the largest and northernmost département of Benin, bordering the countries of Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria, and also Benin's départments of Atakora and Borgou
Demographics of Benin: Demographics of Benin
Ethnic groups in Benin: Ethnic groups in Benin
Culture and languages of Benin: Culture of Benin - Languages of Benin including Fon, Yom, Yoruba, Bariba, Fulfulde, and more than 40 other indigenous languages considered national languages and French
Women and women's rights in Benin: Women in Benin - Women's rights in Benin
December 2020 crossing borders with music: 22 December 2020: In west African country Benin, not everyone likes girls to play instruments, but group of seven musicians are ripping up those expectations with music cross linguistic and stylistic borders, taking in local Waama rhythms, Congolese rumba, highlife and Sierra Leonean bubu, and unfold in multiple languages including Waama, Peul, Ditammari, Bariba, Fon, French, saying 'when we play, everyone dances'
Gender in Benin: Gender in Benin
Children and children's rights in Benin: >Children's rights in Benin
Education in Benin: Education in Benin
Schools in Benin: Schools in Benin
Universities and colleges in Benin: Universities and colleges in Benin - Science and technology in Benin
Health in Benin: Health in Benin
Healthcare in Benin: Medical and health organisations based in Benin - List of hospitals in Benin
Media in Benin: Media in Benin
Newspapers in Benin: List of newspapers in Benin
Broadcasting in Benin: Radio in Benin - Television in Benin
Internet in Benin: Internet in Benin
Crime in Benin: Crime in Benin
Human trafficking in Benin: Human trafficking in Benin
Murder and massacres in Benin: Murder and massacres in Benin
1-2 December 2021 attack of military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department: On 1-2 December 2021, a group of unidentified militants attacked a military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department, northwestern Benin near its border with Burkina Faso, as during the attack, two soldiers were killed and several others wounded. One of the attackers was slain by military forces. It has been suggested that the militants could have come from Burkina Faso, which has been fighting a low-intensity conflict against salafi jihadists since 2015
8 February 2022 patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park badly damaged by land mines, killing 8 people: 8 February 2022, two African Parks patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park were badly damaged by land mines, killing eight people, as the incident, believed to have been perpetrated by Islamists, was one of the largest terrorist attacks in the country's history - Since 1954 W National Park, a major national park in West Africa around a meander in the River Niger shaped like the letter W. The park includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and is governed by the three governments
13 March 2022 5 soldiers reportedly killed by armed group: 13 March 2022: Five soldiers were killed in an attack by suspected an armed group possibly linked to ISIL or al-Qaeda in the Pendjari National Park in the north of Benin Republic, as the attack wounded several soldiers who are being treated at a nearby hospital, as soldiers were reportedly killed when an army convoy struck an improvised explosive device, in the latest in a string of deadly attacks in northern Benin, where groups linked to al-Qaeda and the ISIL armed group have spilled over from neighbouring Burkina Faso, the epicentre of conflict in the Sahel, and Niger
Law and legal history in Benin: Beninese law - 1956 Constitution of Benin, constitutional referendums and amendments - Human rights in Benin
Organisation juridictionnelle au Bénin: Organisation juridictionnelle au Bénin, tribunaux de première instance et cours d'appel
Cour suprême du Bénin: La Cour suprême est la plus haute juridiction de l'État du Bénin en matière administrative, judiciaire et des comptes de l'État, également compétente en ce qui concerne le contentieux des élections locales
Cour constitutionnelle du Bénin: La cour constitutionnelle du Bénin est la plus haute juridiction du pays en matière de constitutionnalité
Law enforcement in Benin: Law enforcement in Benin
Foreign relations of Benin: Foreign relations of Benin
Treaties of Benin: Treaties of Benin
Benin and the United Nations: Benin and the United Nations
UN Security Council resolutions concerning Benin
Bilateral relations of Benin: Bilateral relations of Benin
Benin/Burkina Faso relations: Benin/Burkina Faso relations
1-2 December 2021 attack of military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department: On 1-2 December 2021, a group of unidentified militants attacked a military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department, northwestern Benin near its border with Burkina Faso, as during the attack, two soldiers were killed and several others wounded. One of the attackers was slain by military forces. It has been suggested that the militants could have come from Burkina Faso, which has been fighting a low-intensity conflict against salafi jihadists since 2015
8 February 2022 patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park badly damaged by land mines, killing 8 people: 8 February 2022, two African Parks patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park were badly damaged by land mines, killing eight people, as the incident, believed to have been perpetrated by Islamists, was one of the largest terrorist attacks in the country's history - Since 1954 W National Park, a major national park in West Africa around a meander in the River Niger shaped like the letter W. The park includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and is governed by the three governments
13 March 2022 5 soldiers reportedly killed by armed group: 13 March 2022: Five soldiers were killed in an attack by suspected an armed group possibly linked to ISIL or al-Qaeda in the Pendjari National Park in the north of Benin Republic, as the attack wounded several soldiers who are being treated at a nearby hospital, as soldiers were reportedly killed when an army convoy struck an improvised explosive device, in the latest in a string of deadly attacks in northern Benin, where groups linked to al-Qaeda and the ISIL armed group have spilled over from neighbouring Burkina Faso, the epicentre of conflict in the Sahel, and Niger
Benin/France relations: Benin/France relations
1861-1900 British bombardement of Porto-Novo and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War: February-October 1890 First Franco-Dahomean War
1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War: 1892-1894 Second Franco-Dahomean War
Since 1904 French Dahomey: Since 1904 French Dahomey, a French colony and a part of French West Africa from 1904 to 1958, after World War II, by the establishment of the French Fourth Republic in 1947, Dahomey became part of the French Union with an increased autonomy
August 1960 Dahomey's independence from France: On 1 August 1960 Dahomey declared independence from France
Benin/Germany relations: Benin/Germany relations
19th/20th century European 'Scramble for Africa', looting: 'Benin Bronzes' sculptures which include elaborately decorated cast plaques, commemorative heads, animal and human figures, items of royal regalia, and personal ornaments, created from at least the 16th century onwards in the West African Kingdom of Benin. By the end of the 19th century, the Nigerian coast and its trade were largely dominated by the British. It is in the context of this aggressive expansion of colonial power and territorial land-grab by European empires known as the 'Scramble for Africa' that the Benin Bronzes came to the British Museum
1 July 2022 Germany hands over two Benin bronzes to Nigeria: 1 July 2022: Germany handed over two Benin bronzes and put more than 1,000 other items from its museums’ collections into Nigeria’s ownership, more than a century after they were looted by British soldiers from the once powerful kingdom in west Africa, after signing a restitution agreement with Nigerian officials Zubairu Dada and Lai Mohammed in Berlin - 1 July 2022: Germany, Nigeria sign accord for return of looted Benin Bronzes during the territorial land-grab by European empires known as the 'Scramble for Africa', 'Al Jazeera' reports
Benin/Haiti relations: Benin/Haiti relations
History of Benin/Haiti relations: History of Benin/Haiti relations, as the two countries share an extensive cultural history by way of the Atlantic slave trade
Benin/Kenya relations: Benin/Kenya relations
Benin-Kenya trade relations: Benin-Kenya trade relations
Benin/Nigeria relations: Benin/Nigeria relations
Bight of Benin: Bight of Benin or Bay of Benin is a bight in the Gulf of Guinea area on the western African coast, as historical associations with the Atlantic slave trade led to the region becoming known as the Slave Coast
Benin/Portugal relations:
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Benin's Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
Benin/Sudan relations: Benin/Sudan relations
Benin/Togo relations: Benin/Togo relations
Benin/United Kingdom relations: Benin/United Kingdom relations
1861-1900 British bombardement of Porto-Novo and French assault: In 1861, the British bombarded the city, which forced the Kingdom of Porto-Novo to accept French protection in 1863, as neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey objected to French involvement in the region it was assaulted by France and in 1883, Porto-Novo was incorporated into the French 'colony of Dahomey and its dependencies and became Dahomey's capital city in 1900
25 March 2021 University of Aberdeen to return Benin bronze sculpture looted from Benin: 25 March 2021: The University of Aberdeen is to return a Benin bronze sculpture looted from Benin city in 1897 after a review found the item had been acquired in an 'extremely immoral' manner, as the Nigerian government calls on other British museums to reassess their collections
9 April 2021 Church of England urged to open up its books concerning artefacts looted by British forces in 1897: 9 April 2021: The Church of England has been urged to open up its books on the full range of world artefacts in its possession after promising this week to repatriate two Benin bronzes, as move came amid a gathering sense of momentum around the issue of the disputed bronzes, most of which were looted by British forces in 1897
Environment of Benin: Environment of Benin - Natural history of Benin - Geology of Benin - Climate of Benin
Landforms and ecoregions in Benin: Landforms of Benin - List of ecoregions in Benin - Eastern Guinean forests - Guinean forest-savanna mosaic
National parks of Benin: National parks of Benin - Pendjari National Park in north western Benin, adjoining the Arli National Park in Burkina Faso. Named for the Pendjari River, the national park is known for its wildlife and is home to some of the last populations of big game like the African forest elephant, lion, hippopotamus, African buffalo, and various antelopes in West Africa. The park is also famous for its richness in birds. - W National Park - since 1996 listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site - includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, that in 2020 came under the full management of African Parks
11 February 2022 9 people incl. a Frenchman killed this week in attacks in national park: 11 February 2022: Nine people including a Frenchman were killed this week in attacks in a national park in Benin's remote north bordering troubled Niger and Burkina Faso, as the toll was the deadliest in recent attacks Benin has suffered as coastal West African states face spillover from Sahel countries battling jihadists
Natural disasters in Benin: Natural disasters in Benin
Floods in Benin: Floods in Benin
July-October 2008 Benin floods: July-October 2008 Benin floods
June-September 2009 West Africa floods: June-September 2009 West Africa floods


Botswana - Geography of Botswana - History of Botswana - Demographics of Botswana
Economy of Botswana: Economy of Botswana - main products include diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver, beef processing, textiles - Companies of Botswana - Companies of Botswana by industry
Mining and mineral industry in Botswana: Mining and mineral industry has dominated Botswana's national economy since the 1970s, after diamond has been the leading component of the mineral sector since 1972, as copper, gold, nickel, and soda ash production also has held significant roles in the economy, as in 2005, mining accounted for about 38% of Botswana's real gross domestic product and more than 50% of government revenues were derived from mining and mineral-processing activity
Debswana Diamond Company Ltd: Debswana Diamond Company Ltd, a mining company located in Botswana and the world's leading producer of diamonds by value, a joint venture between the government of Botswana and the South African diamond company De Beers
List of mines in Botswana: Mines in Botswana by product - Surface mines in Botswana - List of mines in Botswana
Coal mines in Botswana: Coal mines in Botswana
Since 1973 Morupule Colliery coal mine: Since 1973 Morupule Colliery, a coal mine located in Palapye, Botswana, and owned and operated by Debswana, a partnership between the government of Botswana and De Beers - Debswana Diamond Company Ltd, a mining company located in Botswana and the world's leading producer of diamonds by value, a joint venture between the government of Botswana and the South African diamond company De Beers
Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield owned by Indian company: Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield, considered to be a western extension of the Waterberg Coalfield, owned by Indian 'Jindal Steel and Power' company
Energy in Botswana: Energy in Botswana - Fossil fuels in Botswana
Coal-fired power stations in Botswana: Coal-fired power stations in Botswana
Agriculture in Botswana: Agriculture in Botswana - more than half of Batswana live in rural areas and are dependent on subsistence crop and livestock farming, as agriculture meets only a small portion of food needs, contributes just 2.8% to GDP, but remains a social and cultural touchstone
Water in Botswana: Water in Botswana - Water Resources Management in Botswana
Rivers of Botswana: Rivers of Botswana - List of rivers of Botswana
Boteti River: Boteti River, a natural watercourse in Botswana, deriving flow from the core Okavango Delta through the Thamalakane River in Maun
Cuando River: Cuando River in south-central Africa flowing through Angola and Namibia's Caprivi Strip and into the Linyanti Swamp on the northern border of Botswana - Lake Makgadikgadi
Molopo River: Molopo River, one of the main rivers in Southern Africa with a length of approximately 960 kilometres and a catchment area of 367,201 km2 with Botswana, Namibia and South Africa sharing roughly about a third of the basin each
Okavango River: Okavango River in southwest Africa, the fourth-longest river system in southern Africa, running southeastward for 1,600 km, beginning in Angola, then forming part of the border between Angola and Namibia, and then flowing into Botswana, draining into the Moremi Game Reserve
Shashe River: Shashe River, a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe, rising northwest of Francistown and flowing into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet
Transport in Botswana: Transport in Botswana
Rail transport in Botswana: Rail transport in Botswana
Road transport in Botswana: Road transport in Botswana
Aviation in Botswana: Aviation in Botswana - List of airports in Botswana
Tourism in Botswana: Tourism in Botswana - Tourist attractions in Botswana - National parks of Botswana
Protected areas of Botswana: List of protected areas of Botswana - World Heritage Sites in Botswana
Banking and banks in Botswana: Banks of Botswana - List of banks in Botswana
Bank of Botswana: Bank of Botswana
Foreign trade of Botswana: Foreign trade of Botswana
Economic history of Botswana and economic cycles: Economic history of Botswana
Labour in Botswana: Labour in Botswana - Trade unions in Botswana
Military of Botswana: Military of Botswana
Politics of Botswana: Politics of Botswana - Constitution of Botswana since 1966
Political parties in Botswana: Political parties in Botswana - List of political parties in Botswana
Trade unions in Botswana: Trade unions in Botswana
Parliament of Botswana: Parliament of Botswana - National Assembly of Botswana - President of Botswana
Elections and politics in Botswana: Elections in Botswana
March 1965 Bechuanaland general election and 1966 independence: 1 March 1965 Bechuanaland general election, the country's first election under universal suffrage resulting in a landslide victory for the Bechuanaland Democratic Party and the country's independence as Botswana on 30 September 1966
October 2014 Botswana general election: 24 October 2014 Botswana general election
October 2019 Botswana general election: 23 October 2019 Botswana general election - October 2019 Botswana general election results - 25 October 2019: Botswana Democratic Party wins country's election with 52.8% of the vote
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Botswana: Botswana society
Human rights in Botswana: Human rights in Botswana
Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana: Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana
Districts and sub-districts of Botswana: 17 administrative districts of Botswana - Sub-districts of Botswana by district
Cities in Botswana: List of cities in Botswana
Gaborone: Gaborone, the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 inhabitants in 2011, about 10% of the total population of Botswana - History of Gaborone
Economy of Gaborone: Economy of Gaborone
Timeline of Gaborone: Timeline of Gaborone since 1890
1966 Gaberone capital of independent Botswana: 1960-1966 Gaberone becomes capital of independent Botswana
Since 1982 University of Botswana: Since 1982 University of Botswana with three campuses in the capital city Gaborone, in Francistown, and another in Maun, and divided into the six faculties of Business, Education, Engineering, Humanities, Science and Social Sciences
Since 1991 Botswana College of Agriculture: Since 1991 Botswana College of Agriculture
Since 2009 University of Botswana School of Medicine: Since 2009 University of Botswana School of Medicine
Francistown: Francistown, the second largest city in Botswana, with a population of about 100,079 and 150,800 inhabitants for its agglomeration at the 2011 census, located in eastern Botswana, about 400 kilometres north-northeast from the capital, Gaborone
History of Francistown: History of Francistown, as evidence of habitation by humans goes back around 10,000 years
Demographics of Botswana: Demographics of Botswana
Ethnic groups in Botswana: Ethnic groups in Botswana
Tswana people: Tswana people, a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa, making up approximately 85% of the population of Botswana in 2011
Kalanga people: Kalanga people, a southern Bantu ethnic group mainly inhabiting Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, with smaller numbers in northeastern Botswana, Gaza Province in Mozambique, and Limpopo Province in South Africa
San people: San are members of various Khoesan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa - Human rights of indigenous people in Botswana
Botswana culture: Culture of Botswana
Languages of Botswana: Languages of Botswana - official languages of Botswana are English and Tswana - Tswana language, a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about five million speakers
Women and women's rights in Botswana: Women in Botswana - Women's rights in Botswana
Childhood and youth in Botswana: Childhood in Botswana - Youth in Botswana
Education in Botswana: Education in Botswana
Schools in Botswana: Schools in Botswana - Schools in Botswana by type
Universities and colleges in Botswana: Universities and colleges in Botswana - List of universities in Botswana
Science and technology in Botswana: Science and technology in Botswana - Since 2005 Botswana International University of Science and Technology
October 2019 ancestral home region of living humans claimed in Botswana: 28 October 2019: Based on DNA samples, scientists claim to have traced the ancestral home region of all living humans to a vast wetland that sprawled over much of modern day Botswana and served as an oasis in an otherwise parched expanse of Africa
Health in Botswana: Health in Botswana
HIV/AIDS in Botswana: HIV/AIDS in Botswana, as the country is experiencing one of the most severe HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world
Healthcare in Botswana: Healthcare system in Botswana - List of hospitals in Botswana
Media of Botswana: Media of Botswana - Media in Botswana by city
Newspapers in Botswana: List of newspapers in Botswana
Broadcasting in Botswana: Radio in Botswana - TV in Botswana - Botswana National Broadcasting Board
Internet in Botswana: Internet in Botswana
Crime in Botswana: Crime in Botswana
Corruption in Botswana: Corruption in Botswana
Human trafficking in Botswana: Human trafficking in Botswana
Law and legal history in Botswana: Botswana law - Human rights in Botswana
2006 Botswana High Court recognized aboriginal title: 2006 Botswana High Court recognized aboriginal title in Sesana and Others v Attorney General, a case brought by named plaintiff Roy Sesana, which held that the San have the right to reside in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, which was violated by their 2001 eviction
Law enforcement in Botswana: Law enforcement in Botswana
Botswana prisons and prison service: Botswana prisons and prison service:
Capital punishment in Botswana: Capital punishment in Botswana
Foreign relations of Botswana: Foreign relations of Botswana
Treaties of Botswana: Treaties of Botswana
Since 1992 Southern African Development Community headquartered Gaborone: Since 1992 Southern African Development Community SADC, an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Botswana's Gaborone, aiming further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 16 southern African states
Botswana and the United Nations: Botswana and the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Botswana: Bilateral relations of Botswana
Botswana/China relations: Botswana/China relations
September 2018 loan for transport infrastructure: 9 September 2018: Botswana says China agreed to extend loan and cancel debt, after the ministry of finance said Botswana was seeking US$1 billion for transport infrastructure
Botswana/India relations: Botswana/India relations
Indians in Botswana: Indians in Botswana, an estimated 7,000-8,000 residents of Botswana of Indian origin in 2016, of which 3,000-4,000 are citizens of Botswana, as most Indians are employed in the retail, manufacturing, teaching and accounting professions
India-Botswana economic relations: India-Botswana economic relations - bilateral trade between Botswana and India totaled US$1.1 billion in 2014-15, as the primary commodity imported by India from Botswana is diamonds, and the major commodities exported by India to Botswana are items manufactured goods, metals, machinery and equipment, cotton yarn, fabrics, ready-made garments, pharmaceuticals, and transport equipment
Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield owned by Indian company: Since 2012 Mmamabula coalfield, considered to be a western extension of the Waterberg Coalfield, owned by Indian 'Jindal Steel and Power' company
Botswana/Israel relations: Botswana/Israel relations
Botswana/Kenya relations: Botswana/Kenya relations
Botswana-Kenya trade relations: Botswana-Kenya trade relations
Botswana/Namibia relations: Botswana/Namibia relations
Botswana-Namibia economic cooperation: Botswana-Namibia economic cooperation
June 2002 power corporation: 6 June 2002: Namibia-Botswana power corporations sign agreement
Botswana/South Africa relations: Botswana/South Africa relations
Botswana/United Kingdom relations: Botswana/United Kingdom relations
1885-1966 UK's Bechuanaland Protectorate: 1885-1966 Bechuanaland Protectorate of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa, becoming the Republic of Botswana on 30 September 1966
Botswana and the Commonwealth of Nations: Botswana and the Commonwealth of Nations
Botswana/USA relations: Botswana/USA relations
Environment of Botswana: Environment of Botswana - Natural history of Botswana - Geology of Botswana - Climate of Botswana is semi-arid, due to the short rain season, however, the relatively high altitude of the country and its continental situation gives it a subtropical climate
Ecoregions in Botswana: List of ecoregions in Botswana
Deserts of Botswana: Deserts of Botswana
Water in Botswana: Water in Botswana - Water Resources Management in Botswana
Rivers of Botswana: Rivers of Botswana - List of rivers of Botswana
Boteti River: Boteti River, a natural watercourse in Botswana, deriving flow from the core Okavango Delta through the Thamalakane River in Maun
Cuando River: Cuando River in south-central Africa flowing through Angola and Namibia's Caprivi Strip and into the Linyanti Swamp on the northern border of Botswana - Lake Makgadikgadi
Molopo River: Molopo River, one of the main rivers in Southern Africa with a length of approximately 960 kilometres and a catchment area of 367,201 km2 with Botswana, Namibia and South Africa sharing roughly about a third of the basin each
Okavango River: Okavango River in southwest Africa, the fourth-longest river system in southern Africa, running southeastward for 1,600 km, beginning in Angola, then forming part of the border between Angola and Namibia, and then flowing into Botswana, draining into the Moremi Game Reserve
Shashe River: Shashe River, a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe, rising northwest of Francistown and flowing into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet
Environmental issues in Botswana: Current environmental issues in Botswana are overgrazing, desertification and the existence of only limited fresh water resources
Natural disasters in Botswana: Natural disasters in Botswana
Earthquakes in Botswana: Earthquakes in Botswana
April 2017 Botswana earthquake: April 2017 Botswana earthquake
Floods in Botswana: Floods in Botswana
2010–11 Southern Africa floods: 2010–11 Southern Africa floods


Burkina Faso - Geography of Burkina Faso - History of Burkina Faso - Demographics of Burkina Faso
Economy of Burkina Faso: Economy of Burkina Faso - main industries include cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold - List of companies based in Burkina Faso
Mining and gold mining industry of Burkina Faso: Mining and gold industry of Burkina Faso, including gold, manganese and zinc - Bissa gold mine - Kiaka gold mine - Tambao manganese mine
November 2013, May 2019 children mining for gold in Burkina Faso and Sahel: November 2013: Children mining for gold in Burkina Faso, as they don’t just work in mines, they pick cotton, herd goats, and sometimes are forced to beg. 37% of kids there are engaged in child labor instead of going to school. - May 2019: Child labour in mining, global supply chains, as ILO research indicates that, in Burkina Faso and Niger, some 30-50% of the gold mine workforce is comprised of children, most are under the age of 15, and some work under conditions of forced labour, as a 2015 study also estimated that 20% of artisanal gold miners in Mali are children
4 October 2019 Dolmané gold mine attack near Madouji: 4 October 2019 Dolmané gold mine attack near Madouji, Arbinda Department in Soum Province, by suspected Islamic terrorists, not far from where a bridge linking two northern towns and that was blown up in mid-September. At least 20 persons, mostly people that worked in the gold mine, were killed and an unknown number of people were injured. Both Islamic State and al-Qaeda have affiliated groups in the region. It is unknown which of the two was responsible for this attack, as Burkina Faso is one of the biggest gold producers in Africa. Attacks against gold mines are causing a drop in the production of gold in the country. The goal of this attack was not only to terrorize, but also to damage the local economy.
30 April 2021 growth in Burkina Faso gold mining fuels human trafficking: 30 April 2021: Growth in Burkina Faso gold mining fuels human trafficking, as Burkina Faso is the fastest-growing gold producer in Africa, and currently the fifth largest on the continent after South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, and Mali. Gold is the nation’s most important export, as the industry employs about 1.5 million people and was worth about $2 billion in 2019. More than 70% of the industrial gold mined is sent to Switzerland, according to 2019 data from the UN Comtrade Database, and the vast majority of it is processed by Metalor Technologies, a Swiss-based refinery of precious metal and one of the largest in the world.
Energy in Burkina Faso: Energy in Burkina Faso
Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso: Hydroelectric power stations in Burkina Faso - Bagre Dam since 1992 is a multipurpose dam on the White Volta located near Bagré Village in Burkina Faso
Agriculture in Burkina Faso: Agriculture in Burkina Faso employs the vast majority of the work force - principal subsistence crops are sorghum, millet, corn, and rice - commercial crops include cottonseed, groundnuts, cotton fiber, and sesame
Shea nut and butter production in Burkina Faso: Shea nut and butter production in Burkina Faso
Water, rivers and lakes in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso - Rivers of Burkina Faso Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic - Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists - The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana - Lakes of Burkina Faso
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Tourism in Burkina Faso: Tourism in Burkina Faso - Visitor attractions in Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Banking in Burkina Faso: Banking and banks in Burkina Faso
Economic history of Burkina Faso and regions Économie du Burkina Faso, histoire
Regions of Burkina Faso by Human Development Index: List of regions of Burkina Faso by Human Development Index
Poverty in Burkina Faso: Poverty in Burkina Faso
Military of Burkina Faso: Military of Burkina Faso - Coups d'état in Burkina Faso
1966: On 3 January 1966 a general strike gives power to General Sangoulé Lamizana on the demand of demonstrators
1980/1982 military coups d'état: 25 November 1980 and 7 November 1982 military coup d'état
1983/1984 -1987 coups d'état: 1984 coup d'état - A coup d'état organised by Blaise Compaoré on 4 August 1983 was supported by Libya, on 15 October 1987 Compaoré took power in a coup that murdered Thomas Sankara - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
2014: 31 October 2014: Assuming power General Traoré stated that a new election will take place in 60-90 days - 1 novembre 2014: Lieutenant-colonel Yacouba Issac Zida fait sa déclaration officielle de prise de pouvoir sur des chaînes privées
2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 26 September 2015: Burkina Faso government disbands presidential guard military unit, that took the president and PM hostage in failed coup
Taxation and budget in Burkina Faso: Taxation in Burkina Faso - 22 novembre 2013: 47% du budget du Burkina Faso, fixé à 1664 milliards de FCFA pour 2014, est affecté aux investissements publics, 20% aux infrastructures, 4,4% à l'agriculture, 1,6% à l'élevage et 0,1% à l'environnement
Politics of Burkina Faso: Politics of Burkina Faso - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - 2 June 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso
Political parties in Burkina Faso: Political parties in Burkina Faso
Trade unions in Burkina Faso: Trade unions in Burkina Faso
Elections and politics in Burkina Faso: Elections in Burkina Faso
December 2012 Burkinabé parliamentary election: Burkinabé parliamentary election 2 December 2012
2014 struggle for elections amid tensions: 11 August 2014: Burkina Faso’s next elections are not due until November 2015, but political tensions have risen in the past year owing to suspicions that President Compaoré is looking to prolong his 27-year rule by contesting the polls - 31 October 2014: Burkina Faso's Compaoré refuses to resign in face of protests and deadly clashes, saying he will lead transitional government after parliament is disolved by an announcement of army general Traore - 31 October: As tens of thousands of protesters demand that he quit immediately Burkina president steps down, calling for elections within 90 days - 31 October: Burkina Faso's army chief Traore says he is taking power as head of state - 1 November: Saying Traoré’s claim is 'obsolete', Lieutenant Colonel Zida declares himself to be president - 31 octobre/1 novembre 2014: De Blaise Compaoré à Yacouba Isaac Zida, trois chefs de l’Etat en une journée - 1 November: As Burkina’s deposed president flees to Ivory Coast, as the country needs snap elections and as opposition parties and civil society organisations reject the army’s takeover, the military backs Isaac Zida as interim leader - 2 November 2014: Burkina Faso's opposition and civil society leaders warn against a military takeover, and call for a mass rally after the army stepped into the power vacuum left by Compaore's ouster
August 2015 23 candidates for Burkina Faso's October election: 23 August 2015: An ex-prime minister and several ministers among 22 candidates who registered for Burkina Faso's October election
16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état: 16 September 2015 Burkinabé coup d'état - 17 September 2015: Street protests and UN condemnation after forces loyal to Blaise Compaore bundle away Michel Kafando and PM Isaac Zida - 17 September 2015: Confirming military coup Burkina Faso's military dissolves transitional government - 19 September: Burkina Faso will return to civilian rule and an interim government led by Michel Kafando will be reinstated, reversing the military coup, Benin’s president Yayi says in Ouagadougou, as unrest and protests continue - 23 September: Burkina Faso's Michel Kafando resumes power after week-long coup
November 2015 14 presidential candidates: 8 November 2015: 14 presidential candidates in Burkina Faso kick off campaigning for a general election meant to restore democratic rule and choose a successor to longtime leader Blaise Compaore
29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election: 29 November 2015 Burkinabé general election - 29 November: Burkina Faso votes to choose first new president in decades - 1 December 2015: Kabore wins Burkina Faso presidential election
December 2018 'l'état d'urgence' in several provinces: 31 décembre 2018: En proie à des attaques djihadistes récurrentes et meurtrières, le Burkina Faso a décrété lundi l'état d'urgence dans plusieurs provinces
March 2019 Burkinabé constitutional referendum: 24 March 2019 Burkinabé constitutional referendum on proposed new constitution providing for a semi-presidential system, introducing a two-term limit for the Presidency and Speaker of the National Assembly, recognising the right to participate in civil disobedience, clean water and housing, and abolishing the death penalty
July 2019 Burkina Faso tightens press freedom: 14 July 2019: Burkina Faso tightens press freedom amid security crisis, as journalists who share information about military operations could face up to 10 years in jail and £7,000 fines under new law awaiting presidential approval
12 July 2020 Burkina Faso president’s party backed president Kabore to run for re-election: 12 July 2020: Burkina Faso president’s party backed president Kabore to run for re-election despite struggling to crush a bloody jihadist insurgency, as People’s Movement for Progress party's president Compaore made the announcement to cheering supporters at a stadium rally in the capital Ouagadougou
22 November 2020 Burkinabé general election: 22 November 2020 Burkinabé general election to elect the president and National Assembly - 22 November 2020: Burkinabe voters hope for peace and security, as election has raised high hopes for change and development in areas such as health, education, infrastructure, youth employment, and the tackling of the serious security and humanitarian crisis, 'africanews' reports
6 June 2021 Burkinabé citizens want reinforced national security after Solhan raid: 6 June 2021: Burkinabé citizens expressed concern on Saturday about what local analysts are calling the biggest massacre in the country's history, after gunmen killed around 160 people in Solhan village Friday night in the Sahel's Yagha province, and as the attackers also set the local market and several homes on fire toward the border of Niger
3 July 2021 protests demanding a tougher government response to a wave of jihadist attacks destabilising the West African country: 3 July 2021: Thousands protest in Burkina Faso over jihadist attacks
8 December 2021 Burkina Faso PM resigns following protests over jihadist violence: 8 December 2021: Burkina Faso’s PM and government resigned as protests mounted against officials’ inability to combat a wave of jihadist attacks that have killed thousands, as president Kabore, who had already changed his military leadership over the security crisis, accepted Dabire’s resignation
11 December 2021 Burkina Faso president picks former nuclear watchdog head Zerbo as PM: 11 December 2021 Burkina Faso president picks former nuclear watchdog head Zerbo as PM, France24 reports
26 décembre 2021 Burkina Faso décrète deux jours de deuil après une attaque de jihadistes: 26 décembre 2021: Le Burkina Faso décrète deux jours de deuil après une attaque de jihadistes présumés dans le nord du pays qui a fait 41 morts, trois jours auparavant.
23 January 2022 soldiers have mutinied at several barracks in the capital Ouagadougou: 23 January 2022: Soldiers have mutinied at several barracks in Burkina Faso's capital Ouagadougou to demand the sacking of military chiefs, and more resources to fight militant Islamists, as heavy gunfire rang out for hours from barracks in the capital and at a nearby air base, and as hundreds of people came out in support of the troops, and torched the ruling party's headquarters
24 janvier 2022 le président du Burkina Faso détenu par des soldats mutins: 24 janvier 2022: Le président du Burkina Faso, Roch Kaboré, est détenu par des soldats mutins dans un camp militaire, au lendemain d'une mutinerie dans plusieurs bases du pays et de violents échanges de tirs dimanche soir à Ouagadougou, la lutte contre les jihadistes au cœur des revendications
6 avril 2022 l'ex-président Blaise Compaoré condamné à la perpétuité: 6 avril 2022: L'ex-président du Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaoré, a été condamné à la perpétuité dans le cadre du procès Sankara, a le tribunal judiciaire de Ouagadougou
3 August 2022 Burkinabe army admits that civilians were killed in airstrikes: 3 August 2022: The Burkinabe army acknowledged on that civilians were killed in airstrikes against 'terrorist groups' in eastern Burkina Faso, as locals told the AFP that 'around 30' people were killed
Social movements and protests in Burkina Faso: Protests in Burkina Faso
2011 Burkinabè protests: 22 February 2011 – 9 June 2011 Burkinabè protests over police brutality, high food prices, low wages, economic repression and autocracy
2014 Burkinabé uprising: Burkinabé uprising is a series of demonstrations in Burkina Faso in October 2014 due to attempts at changing the constitution to allow President Compaoré to run again and extend his 27-year term
October 2014: 30 October 2014: Tens of thousands of protesters demanding the ousting of Burkina Faso's veteran President Compaore faced off with security forces outside the presidential palace after burning parliament and ransacking state television - 2 November: Thousands gather in the centre of Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou to denounce 'military coup' of Presidential Guard's Zida, as UN's Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the renewed army’s seizure of power
September 2015: 19 September 2015: Hundreds of protesters burnt tyres and erected barricades in the streets of Ouagadougou in a third day of unrest and deadly clashes since the military coup ousted the country's interim government
3 July 2021 thousands protest in Burkina Faso over jihadist attacks: 3 juillet 2021: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont manifesté, samedi, dans plusieurs villes du Burkina Faso, dont la capitale Ouagadougou, pour protester contre 'l'aggravation' de la situation sécuritaire et réclamer une réponse aux attaques jihadistes de plus en plus meurtrières
27 November 2021 tear gas fired at protesters as anger over Islamist attacks mounts in Burkina Faso: 27 November 2021: Police fired tear gas in Burkina Faso's capital Ouagadougou during a demonstration against the government's failure to stop a wave of violence by Islamist militants in Burkina Faso, including one by al Qaeda-linked militants that killed dozens of military police officers and four civilians
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burkina Faso: Society of Burkina Faso
Human rights in Burkina Faso: Human rights in Burkina Faso
2014: 11 June 2014: In Burkina Faso, getting children out of the gold mines
Regions, provinces and departments of Burkina Faso: 13 Regions of Burkina Faso - 45 Provinces of Burkina Faso, list of provinces by region - 351 Departments of Burkina Faso, list of departments by region and by province
Cities in Burkina Faso: List of cities in Burkina Faso
Centre region and Ouagadougou: Centre region, the most populous and urbanised region in Burkina Faso, in 2006 11.1% of Burkina's population lived in Centre (2,136,581 in 2011) - Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural and economic centre of the nation
Economy of Ouagadougou: Economy of Ouagadougou
Timeline of Ouagadougou: Timeline of Ouagadougou
23 January 2022 soldiers have mutinied at several barracks in the capital Ouagadougou: 23 January 2022: Soldiers have mutinied at several barracks in Burkina Faso's capital Ouagadougou to demand the sacking of military chiefs, and more resources to fight militant Islamists, as heavy gunfire rang out for hours from barracks in the capital and at a nearby air base, and as hundreds of people came out in support of the troops, and torched the ruling party's headquarters
Bam province: Bam province, one of the 45 provinces of Burkina Faso located in Centre-Nord Region as the capital of Bam is Kongoussi with a population of 473,955 citizens in 2019. It is a rural province with 420,314 of its residents living in the countryside, only 53,641 live in urban areas. Bam is divided into 9 departments.
Kongoussi city: Kongoussi city and the provincial capital in central Burkina Faso with a population of 53,641 citizens in 2019. Mooré, the language of the Mossi people, is spoken along with French, common among those who have attended school or spent time further afield in Kongoussi with deep roots in Mossi history and social relations. Kongoussi benefits from its Bam lakeside location, which is rare in the African Sahel. The 'Lac du Bam' is part of the upper reaches of the southward-flowing Volta system, permitting year-round lakeshore cultivation in an otherwise arid climate.
Lake Bam is located near the town of Kongoussi: Lake Bam is located near the town of Kongoussi in Burkina Faso, as the lake is slowly drying up, putting at risk the nearby village's agriculture, fish stocks, and cattle watering. The lake has been designated as a Ramsar site - wetland site designated to be of international importance under the Ramsar Convention - since 2009.
16 January 2022 at least 10 civilians jihadist on the village of Namssiguian in Bam province: 16 January 2022: At least 10 civilians have been killed in an attack blamed on jihadists in northern Burkina Faso, an area in the grip of a six-year insurgency, as 'unidentified armed individuals carried out an attack on the village of Namssiguian in Bam province', according to the 'Guardian Nigeria'
Seytenga département et village, dans la région Sahel: Seytenga département du Burkina Faso, située dans la province de Séno et dans la région Sahel. En 2006, le dernier recensement comptabilise 32,422 habitants. Le chef-lieu est le village de Seytenga situé dans la province du Séno à la frontière entre le Burkina Faso et le Niger
13 June 2022 at least 50 people died in an attack by terrorists on the village of Seytenga: 13 June 2022: At least 50 people have died in an attack by armed men on the village of Seytenga in north-eastern Burkina Faso, as attackers struck overnight between Saturday and Sunday in Seytenga commune, part of Seno province in borderlands where fighters linked to al-Qaeda and ISIL terrorists are embroiled in an armed uprising, as EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell said 'the method used by the terrorist group that carried out the attack, namely the systematic execution of anyone they encountered in the village, is appalling'
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burkina Faso: Demographics of Burkina Faso - Ethnic groups in Burkina Faso
Bobo people: Bobo people, the second largest ethnic group with about one million people, are mostly farmers, artisans, and metalworkers living in the southwest around Bobo-Dioulasso although the area occupied by the Bobo extends north into Mali, where the Bobo number about 110,000 people
Fula people: Fula people are one of the largest and a widely dispersed ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa
Gurunsi peoples: Gurunsi peoples, 750,000 people in Burkina Faso or 5% of Burkina Faso's population
Lobi people: Lobi people, an ethnic group that originated in what is today Ghana and migrated into southern Burkina Faso and later into Côte d'Ivoire
Mossi people: Mossi people in central Burkina Faso, living mostly in the villages of the Nazinon and Nakanbe River Basin, and the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting more than 40% of the population or about 6.2 million people
Senufo people: Senufo people, a West African ethnolinguistic group consisting of diverse subgroups living in a region spanning the northern Ivory Coast, the southeastern Mali and the western Burkina Faso
Culture and languages of Burkina Faso: Culture of Burkina Faso - Languages of Burkina Faso - Mossi language, a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language, and the most widely spoken language in the country, with 48% of Burkinabes being speakers as of 2008 - Religion in Burkina Faso - Freedom of religion in Burkina Faso
Women and women’s rights in Burkina Faso: Women’s rights in Burkina Faso
Education in Burkina Faso: Education in Burkina Faso
2 October 2020 schools and universities reopen in Burkina Faso after six month closure: 2 October 2020: Schools and universities reopened in Burkina Faso on Thursday after being closed for more than six months due to covid-19 pandemic
Schools in Burkina Faso: Schools in Burkina Faso
Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso: Universities and colleges in Burkina Faso - University of Ouagadougou - Since 2005 University of Koudougou - Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso
Health in Burkina Faso: Health in Burkina Faso
Medical outbreaks in Burkina Faso: Medical outbreaks in Burkina Faso - Health disasters in Burkina Faso - Endemic diseases in Burkina Faso
African meningitis belt: The African meningitis belt is a region in sub-Saharan Africa, consisting of the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, where the rate of incidence of meningitis is very high
2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak: 2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak
Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Burkina Faso: Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Burkina Faso
18 March 2020 Burkina Faso's first COVID-19 death: 18 March 2020: Burkina Faso has joined the list of African countries to have recorded Chinese corona-virus related death, as uthorities announced the first COVID-19 death on Wednesday
2 October 2020 schools and universities reopen in Burkina Faso after six month closure: 2 October 2020: Schools and universities reopened in Burkina Faso on Thursday after being closed for more than six months due to covid-19 pandemic
Healthcare in Burkina Faso: Healthcare in Burkina Faso - Medical and health organisations based in Burkina Faso
Maternal and child healthcare in Burkina Faso: Maternal and child healthcare in Burkina Faso
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso: Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso
Media of Burkina Faso: Media of Burkina Faso - Communications in Burkina Faso
January 2015 corruption reports: 15 January 2015: Ruling overturning jail sentence of reporter Konaté in Burkina Faso, who published articles raising questions about corrupt practices
Newspapers in Burkina Faso: Newspapers published in Burkina Faso
Broadcasting in Burkina Faso: Radio in Burkina Faso - Television stations in Burkina Faso
Internet in Burkina Faso: Internet in Burkina Faso
Lefaso.net, l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet: Lefaso.net - l'actualité du Burkina sur Internet
Crime in Burkina Faso: Crime in Burkina Faso
Terrorism in Burkina Faso: Terrorism in Burkina Faso
January 2016 Ouagadougou attack: 15/16 January 2016 Ouagadougou attack - 16 January 2016: At least 20 people were killed, at least 60 hostages freed and at least 20 were wounded after Islamic Al-Qaida terrorists attacked a hotel in Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou
August 2017 Ouagadougou attack: 13/14 August 2017 Ouagadougou attack - 14 August 2017: At least 17 people killed in attack on restaurant, as suspected Islamic extremists open fire on Turkish eatery popular with foreigners in Burkina Faso's capital of Ouagadougou
March 2018 Ouagadougou attack: 2 March 2018 Ouagadougou attack, targeting the French embassy and the headquarters of Burkina Faso's military - 2 March 2018: The French embassy in the Burkino Faso capital of Ouagadougou has been attacked by suspected jihadists in a coordinated assault that also hit the country’s army headquarters
December 2018: 31 décembre 2018: En proie à des attaques djihadistes récurrentes et meurtrières, le Burkina Faso a décrété lundi l'état d'urgence dans plusieurs provinces
January 2019: 2 janvier 2019: Au moins treize personnes ont été tuées mardi dans une attaque d'hommes armés, suivie de représailles intercommunautaires à Yirgou, un village de la commune de Barsalogo dans le centre-nord du Burkina Faso - 12 janvier 2019: Douze civils burkinabè ont été tués jeudi à Gasseliki, village de la région du Sahel, dans une 'attaque terroriste', selon le ministère de la Sécurité
29 April 2019 church attack: 29 April 2019: At least 5 killed in Burkina Faso church attack in Silgadji, 60 km from Djibo, the capital of Soum province
12 May 2019 church attack: 12 May 2019: Two days after French special forces freed four foreign hostages in the north of the country, gunmen killed a priest and five churchgoers during mass in an attack on a Catholic church in Burkina Faso's northern town of Dablo, as between 20 and 30 attackers opened fire after congregation tried to flee before setting fire to church, shops, a cafe, and looting a local health centre
August 2019: 20 August 2019: Burkina Faso’s military says extremists have killed at least 10 soldiers in the country’s north, adding that an air and land operation has been launched 'in reaction to the barbaric attack'
29/30 September 2019 deadly attacks in norther Burkina Faso: 29/30 September 2019: At least eight people were killed in two attacks in the north of Burkina Faso, security sources said on Sunday, following a series of attacks that claimed 17 lives Saturday
6 October 2019 deadly assault on gold mine: 6 October 2019: Around 20 people have been killed in an attack on a gold mining site in northern Burkina Faso, security sources said, the latest in a spate of violence blamed on a jihadist insurgency across the region
11 October 2019 Burkina Faso mosque attack: 11 October 2019 Burkina Faso mosque attack in northern Burkina Faso which left 16 people dead and two injured
November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso: November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso
25 December 2019 Arbinda terrorist attacks: 25 décembre 2019: Le Burkina Faso était en deuil mercredi, jour de Noël, après une nouvelle attaque djihadiste d'envergure, survenue mardi matin à Arbinda, près de la frontière malienne, faisant 42 morts, suivi d'un deuxième dans la nuit
5 January 2020 at least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device: 5 January 2020: At least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device in northwestern Burkina Faso's Tougan axis in the Boucle du Mouhoun region on the way back from a school break, according to a local official
28/29 January 2020 brutal Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Silgadji in Soum province: 28 January 2020: Suspected Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Burkina Faso's Silgadji in Soum province and killed more than 30 people over the weekend, authorities said, as the jihadists reportedly disabled the local phone network before the massacre near the country's troubled border with Mali - 29 janvier 2020: L'assaut d'un village burkinabè commis samedi par des djihadistes a fait 39 morts selon un communiqué du gouvernement
17 February 2020 about 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor: 17 February 2020: A group of about 20 'armed terrorists' attacked the peaceful local population and killed 24 men, including a church pastor. on Sunday in Burkina Faso, as the mayor of Boundore commune, Sihanri Osangola Brigadie, said the attack occurred in the town of Pansy in Yagha province
5 August 2021 thirty people killed in series of attacks in northern Burkina Faso: 5 August 2021: Thirty people killed in series of attacks in northern Burkina Faso
10 August 2021 several soldiers killed in northern Burkina Faso ambush: 10 August 2021: Several soldiers killed in northern Burkina Faso ambush, as at least eight other soldiers were wounded in the attack near the country’s border with Mali
Since 2015 Jihadist insurgency in Burkina Faso and timeline: Since August 2015 Jihadist insurgency in Burkina Faso, an ongoing war and violent campaign against Burkina Faso's government and the civilian population in different regions of the country, as 'Wikipedia' is listing the main periods 2015/2016, 2017,2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021 in a timeline
September 2018 new battlefront in eastern Burkina Faso: 20 September 2018: Since February 2018, a new battlefront has emerged in eastern Burkina Faso, situated along the borders with Niger, Benin, and Togo
March 2019 escalation of jihadist violence: 2 March 2019: Burkina Faso’s alarming escalation of jihadist violence
March/April 2019: 3 April 2019: More than 60 people have been killed in tit-for-tat clashes between communities in northern Burkina Faso in recent days, the government said on Wednesday, the latest in a bout of inter-communal violence afflicting West Africa’s Sahel region
April 2019 Burkina Faso's internal displacement because of violence: As Burkina Faso is facing massive internal displacement because of violence, it wreaks havoc on educators, children - 22 April 2019: Parts of east Burkina Faso fall to Islamic militants, as locals say they live in fear of violence and face harsh punishment for breaking rules
November 2019 UN warns of an 'escalating humanitarian crisis' in Burkina Faso: 20 November 2019: The UN food agency has warned of an 'escalating humanitarian crisis' in Burkina Faso, driven by growing extremist violence and the long-term impact of climate crisis in the arid central Sahel region, as children bear the brunt as extremism and climate crisis drive almost 500,000 people from their homes
November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso: November/December 2019 attacks on Burkina Faso
25 December 2019 Arbinda terrorist attacks: 25 décembre 2019: Le Burkina Faso était en deuil mercredi, jour de Noël, après une nouvelle attaque djihadiste d'envergure, survenue mardi matin à Arbinda, près de la frontière malienne, faisant 42 morts, suivi d'un deuxième dans la nuit
5 January 2020 at least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device: 5 January 2020: At least 14 civilians, mostly students, died after their bus hit an explosive device in northwestern Burkina Faso's Tougan axis in the Boucle du Mouhoun region on the way back from a school break, according to a local official
28/29 January 2020 brutal Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Silgadji in Soum province: 28 January 2020: Suspected Islamic extremists attacked a busy market in Burkina Faso's Silgadji in Soum province and killed more than 30 people over the weekend, authorities said, as the jihadists reportedly disabled the local phone network before the massacre near the country's troubled border with Mali - 29 janvier 2020: L'assaut d'un village burkinabè commis samedi par des djihadistes a fait 39 morts selon un communiqué du gouvernement
17 February 2020 about 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor: 17 February 2020: About 20 gunmen killed 24 men, including a church pastor, and kidnapped three others on Sunday in Burkina Faso, as the mayor of Boundore commune, Sihanri Osangola Brigadie, said the attack occurred in the town of Pansy in Yagha province, as more than 1,300 civilians were killed in targeted attacks last year in Burkina Faso, more than seven times the previous year, according to Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project
February 2020 more internal displacements because of violence: 21 février 2020: Les violences djihadistes et de groupes militants au Burkina Faso ont déplacé 150'000 personnes ces trois dernières semaines, lorsque le total s'approche désormais de 770'000, dont 90% ont fui depuis un an, a annoncé vendredi l'ONU à Genève
20 April 2020 HRW accuses security forces over killings: 20 avril 2020: HRW accuse les forces de l'ordre d'avoir tué 31 civils
July 2020 at least 180 civilians killed in recent months in northern town of Djibo: 9 July 2020: At least 180 civilians have been killed in recent months in northern town of Djibo, at the heart of jihadist conflict across north, central and eastern parts of Burkina Faso, says rights group, as Human Rights Watch suggests involvement of security forces in deaths over recent months
4 May 2021 at least 30 people killed in eastern Burkina Faso attack: 4 May 2021: At least 30 people were killed by gunmen in eastern Burkina Faso, according to the government, in the latest attack since two Spanish journalists and an Irish conservasionist were killed by jihadists a week ago, as the new attack occurred in Kodyel village in the Komandjari province near the border with Niger
5 June 2021 around 100 civilians killed in Burkina Faso's worst attack in recent years: 5 June 2021: Armed assailants killed around 100 civilians in an overnight raid on a village in northern Burkina Faso, the government said on Saturday, as the region faces a worsening wave of jihadist violence
15 June 2021 a 'dozen terrorists' killed during sweep operations after masscre: 15 June 2021: A 'dozen terrorists' were killed during sweep operations between June 7 and 13, after the massacre of at least 132 people in the village of Solhan, Burkina's armed forces announced Monday evening in a statement
24 June 2021 soldiers and civilian militia member killed in ambush and attack: 24 June 2021: Two Burkinabe soldiers were killed while looking for four missing policemen, following a deadly jihadist ambush, the government said Wednesday, after - according to the government of Burkina Faso - a member of a civilian militia helping the army fight jihadists had been killed in an attack Monday in the Nord region
19 August 2021 jihadist attack in Burkina Faso kills 47 people: 19 August 2021: Jihadist attack in Burkina Faso kills 47 people, as assault near northern town of Gorgadji leaves 47 dead, including 30 civilians, and 19 wounded
20 August 2021 death toll from an attack on civilians and the military in northern Burkina Faso has risen to 80 people: 20 August 2021: The death toll from an attack on civilians and the military in northern Burkina Faso has risen to 80 people, as the attack occurred on Wednesday when Islamist militants raided a civilian convoy that was being escorted by military police near the town of Arbinda, the latest in a spate of attacks across West Africa’s Sahel region this month
16 January 2022 at least 10 civilians jihadist on the village of Namssiguian in Bam province: 16 January 2022: At least 10 civilians have been killed in an attack blamed on jihadists in northern Burkina Faso, an area in the grip of a six-year insurgency, as 'unidentified armed individuals carried out an attack on the village of Namssiguian in Bam province', according to the 'Guardian Nigeria'
6 May 2022 ambushes leave 11 dead in northern Burkina Faso, army says: 6 May 2022: Seven soldiers and four civilian volunteer troops have been killed in two ambushes in Burkina Faso’s troubled north, as the first attack near the town of Solle on Thursday led to the deaths of two soldiers and four civilian volunteers helping the army while five paramilitary troops perished in another raid on the same day at Ouanobe
10 June 2022 eleven military policemen have been killed in northern Burkina Faso: 10 June 2022: Eleven military policemen have been killed in northern Burkina Faso after their post was attacked by armed men, as the West African country is battling armed groups, some linked to al-Qaeda and Isil terrorist group, that are waging a violent rebellion that has killed thousands across Burkina Faso and neighbouring Mali and Niger, and as the landlocked country has now replaced Mali, birthplace of the conflict in the Sahel, as the epicentre of the crisis
24 June 2022 Burkina Faso's military says 14 days to evacuate before vast army operation: 24 June 2022: Burkina Faso’s army has given civilians two weeks to evacuate vast areas in northern and southeastern regions of the country in advance of military operations against rebel fighters, as the military evacuation order follows after a major attack by rebels on June 11 that left at least 100 civilians dead and displaced thousands more
5 July 2022 armed attackers killed at least 22 civilians in northwest Burkina Faso: 5 July 2022: Armed attackers have killed at least 22 civilians in northwest Burkina Faso, as the latest attack occurred late on Sunday into early Monday morning, according to local officials, in the province of Kossi, about 55km from the border of restive central Mali
Human trafficking in Burkina Faso: Human trafficking in Burkina Faso
Droit burkinabè et histoire: Droit burkinabè, appliqué au Burkina Faso depuis l'indépendance de la France le 5 août 1960 (Burkinabé law) - 1991 Constitution du Burkina Faso, dernièrement amendée en juin 2012 - Human rights in Burkina Faso
11 October 2021 trial opens in Burkina Faso over killing of revolutionary hero Thomas Sankara: 11 October 2021: Trial opens in Burkina Faso over killing of revolutionary hero Thomas Sankara, as fourteen men, including an ex-president, on trial 34 years after assassination of icon of pan-Africanism
31 January 2022 Burkina Faso court suspends Sankara assassination trial following coup: 31 January 2022: Long-awaited trial in Burkina Faso over the 1987 assassination of revolutionary leader Thomas Sankara is being suspended until 'the restoration of the constitution', military court in Ouagadougou said Monday, a week after a military coup
Law enforcement in Burkina Faso: Law enforcement in Burkina Faso
July 2019: 15 juillet 2019: Onze personnes détenues dans les locaux de l'Unité antidrogue de Ouagadougou en garde à vue sont décédées dans la nuit de dimanche à lundi
Foreign relations of Burkina Faso: Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
Treaties of Burkina Faso: Treaties of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/United Nations, membership and relations: Burkina Faso/United Nations relations
November 2014 UN's Mohammed Ibn Chambas, USA and AU reject seizure of power by Burkina Faso's Zida: 2 November 2014: The head of the UN office for west Africa Mohammed Ibn Chambas joins the USA and the African Union in rejecting the army’s seizure of power by Presidential Guard's Zida
Burkina Faso's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Burkina Faso among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Burkina Faso's membership in the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS: Burkina Faso's membership in the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS (CEDEAO in French) established in May 1975, as ECOWAS also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region, with member states occasionally sending joint military forces to intervene in the bloc's member countries at times of political instability and unrest
3 February 2022 West African summit after wave of coups brings turmoil to region: 3 février 2022: Sommet à Accra de la Communauté économique des États d'Afrique de l'Ouest, déstabilisée par les putschs, alors que trois pays de cette région frappée par les jihadistes, le Mali, la Guinée et le Burkina Faso, et sont maintenant dirigés par des militaires putschistes, France24 correspondante Sarah Sakho informe
Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso: Bilateral relations of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/Benin relations: Burkina Faso/Benin relations
1-2 December 2021 attack of military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department: On 1-2 December 2021, a group of unidentified militants attacked a military outpost in Porga, Atakora Department, northwestern Benin near its border with Burkina Faso, as during the attack, two soldiers were killed and several others wounded. One of the attackers was slain by military forces. It has been suggested that the militants could have come from Burkina Faso, which has been fighting a low-intensity conflict against salafi jihadists since 2015
8 February 2022 patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park badly damaged by land mines, killing 8 people: 8 February 2022, two African Parks patrol vehicles in Benin's W National Park were badly damaged by land mines, killing eight people, as the incident, believed to have been perpetrated by Islamists, was one of the largest terrorist attacks in the country's history - Since 1954 W National Park, a major national park in West Africa around a meander in the River Niger shaped like the letter W. The park includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and is governed by the three governments
13 March 2022 5 soldiers reportedly killed by armed group: 13 March 2022: Five soldiers were killed in an attack by suspected an armed group possibly linked to ISIL or al-Qaeda in the Pendjari National Park in the north of Benin Republic, as the attack wounded several soldiers who are being treated at a nearby hospital, as soldiers were reportedly killed when an army convoy struck an improvised explosive device, in the latest in a string of deadly attacks in northern Benin, where groups linked to al-Qaeda and the ISIL armed group have spilled over from neighbouring Burkina Faso, the epicentre of conflict in the Sahel, and Niger
Burkina Faso/Canada relations: Burkina Faso/Canada relations - Endeavour gold mines producing more than 400,000 ounces per year in Mali, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire - SEMAFO Inc. Canadian-based gold mining company with activities in West Africa
Burkina Faso/Denmark relations: Burkina Faso/Denmark relations
Burkina Faso/France relations: Burkina Faso/France relations
Late 19th century French conquest of West Africa and Volta region: 11th century–1896 Mossi Kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years, but after the French troops of Kimberly conquered the area in late 19th century, Mossi resistance ended with the capture of their capital at Ouagadougou in 1919
1896 Ouagadougou taken by French military: 5 September 1896: Ouagadougou taken by French forces and the city burned
Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities: Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities, sent out to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa, armed with artillery, machine guns, hundreds of rifles and millions of rounds of ammunition
1895-1958 (1960) French colonial territories 'French West Africa': 1895-1958 (1960) French West Africa federation of eight French colonial territories, including Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger
1914-1939 Upper Volta as labour reservoir for the French: 1914-1939 French colonial authorities perceived Upper Volta as the most important labour reservoir in French West Africa, various types of colonial labour policies are examined including forced labour in its forms of annual ‘prestations’ and longer-term, large-scale recruiting for major public works, as well as military conscription
1915-1917 resistance against French rule and Volta-Bani War: Volta-Bani War was an anti-colonial rebellion and war which took place in what is now Burkina Faso and Mali (then parts of French West Africa) and was fought between an indigenous African army resulting from a heterogeneous coalition including people of different ethnicities and the French Army, after about a year and several setbacks, the French army defeated the insurgents and jailed or executed their leaders but resistance continued until 1917
1939 (1940) - 1945 Vichy France: In World War II 1939-1945 French West Africa remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France in 1940
1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta: 1919-1932, 1947-1958 French Upper Volta - until after World War II almost all the Africans living in French colonies were not citizens of France, rather they were 'French Subjects', lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote - Since 1955 Social Party for the Emancipation of the African Masses - Since 1957 Voltaic Solidarity - 31 March 1957 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election - African Regroupment Party including the African Convention and the African Socialist Movement and advocating full independence - 30 March 1959 Upper Voltan Territorial Assembly election
1958–1984, independence from France in 1960: 1958–1984 Republic of Upper Volta self-governing colony within the French Community, attaining full independence from France in 1960
March 2018 Ouagadougou terrorist attack against French embassy: 2 mars 2018 Attaque de Ouagadougou - 3 mars 2018: Les autorités burkinabés tentaient d'établir qui était à l'origine de la double attaque contre l'ambassade de France et l'état-major des forces armées du Burkina Faso qui a fait une trentaine de morts vendredi à Ouagadougou
May 2019 tribute to French soldiers who died during liberation raid in northern Burkina Faso: 12 May 2019: Burkinabe authorities and the former French and Korean hostages on Saturday paid tribute to the two French soldiers who died during a liberation raid in northern Burkina Faso
20 November 2021 French military convoy blocked by protesters against presence in the Sahel: 20 novembre 2021: Un convoi militaire français qui faisait route vers le Niger a été bloquévendredi à Kaya, dans la région Centre-Nord du Burkina Faso, par des manifestants qui protestent contre la présence de la France au Sahel, selon France24 - 20 November 2021: 4 protesters injured amid a 3-day standoff in Kaya, as French convoy was stopped by a blockade against activities of the former colonial power in the region aiding the fight against Islamist groups linked to al-Qaeda and the so-called 'Islamic State'
Burkina Faso/Ghana relations: Burkina Faso/Ghana relations
Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations: Burkina Faso/Ivory Coast relations
Burkina Faso/Mali relations: Burkina Faso/Mali border - Banifing River - Agacher Strip War December 1985
Burkina Faso/Niger relations: Burkina Faso/Niger relations - Liptako–Gourma Authority regional organization to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger
Burkina Faso/Russia relations: Burkina Faso/Russia relations
Russian 'Nord Gold S.E.' since 2007 gold mining in Burkina Faso: Russian 'Nord Gold S.E.' since 2007 gold mining in Burkina Faso with several mines including Bissa mine, Bouly mine and Taparko mine - Bissa gold mine
Economic geology of Burkina Faso: Economic geology of Burkina Faso, including economic geology
18 October 2016 gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso: 18 October 2016: Gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso/Sierra Leone relations: Burkina Faso's involvement in Sierra Leone's Civil War 1991-2002
Burkina Faso/Switzerland relations: Burkina Faso/Switzerland relations
30 April 2021 growth in Burkina Faso gold mining fuels human trafficking: 30 April 2021: Growth in Burkina Faso gold mining fuels human trafficking, as Burkina Faso is the fastest-growing gold producer in Africa, and currently the fifth largest on the continent after South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, and Mali. Gold is the nation’s most important export, as the industry employs about 1.5 million people and was worth about $2 billion in 2019. More than 70% of the industrial gold mined is sent to Switzerland, according to 2019 data from the UN Comtrade Database, and the vast majority of it is processed by Metalor Technologies, a Swiss-based refinery of precious metal and one of the largest in the world.
Burkina Faso/Taiwan relations: Burkina Faso/Taiwan relations
May 2018: 24 May 2018: China accused of 'dollar diplomacy' as Burkina Faso broke diplomatic ties with Taiwan, loosing second ally in a month
Burkina Faso/USA relations: Burkina Faso/USA relations
Environment of Burkina Faso: Environment of Burkina Faso - Geology of Burkina Faso, including economic geology
Landforms of Burkina Faso: Landforms of Burkina Faso
Ecoregions of Burkina Faso: Ecoregions of Burkina Faso - National parks of Burkina Faso
Water in Burkina Faso: Water in Burkina Faso
Rivers in Burkina Faso: Rivers of Burkina Faso
Komoé River in Burkina Faso: Komoé River originates on the Sikasso Plateau of Burkina Faso, flow through the Cascades de Karfiguéla, forms a short section of the border between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast until it enters Ivory Coast, where it is the major drainage for northeastern portion of that country before emptying into the Atlantic
Mékrou river, proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam: Mékrou River, a tributary of the Niger River forming part of the border between Benin and Burkina Faso and between Benin and Niger, the proposed construction of the Dyondyonga electricity dam on the river has caused concern among environmentalists
Oti international river in Burkina Faso: The Oti River, an international river in West-Central Africa, rises in Burkino Faso, flows through Benin and Togo, and joins the Volta River in Ghana
Black, red and white Volta: Black Volta - Red Volta - White Volta
Lakes in Burkina Faso: Lakes of Burkina Faso
Lake Bam is located near the town of Kongoussi: Lake Bam is located near the town of Kongoussi in Burkina Faso, as the lake is slowly drying up, putting at risk the nearby village's agriculture, fish stocks, and cattle watering. The lake has been designated as a Ramsar site - wetland site designated to be of international importance under the Ramsar Convention - since 2009.
Lake Dem is located north of Kaya: Lake Dem is a small lake in northern Burkina Faso, located to the north of Kaya, south of the Sahel Reserve and south-east of Lake Bam. It drains into the White Volta, designated as a Ramsar site since 2009
Lake Kompienga, a reservoir lake in Kompienga Province: Lake Kompienga, a reservoir lake in Kompienga Province in southeastern Burkina Faso, built in the 1980s to create the lake for economic purposes. The creation of the lake and dam had consequences on some villages along the basin which were either totally or partially flooded by the dam-created lake.
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso: Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso
Current environmental issues of Burkina Faso: Amid recurring droughts and floods as significant natural hazard, current environmental issues of the country include droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy, overgrazing, soil degradation, deforestation. Burkina Faso is party to international environmental agreements including biodiversity, climate change, desertification, endangered species, hazardous wastes, marine life conservation, ozone layer protection, wetlands
Natural disasters in Burkina Faso: Natural disasters in Burkina Faso
June 2020 Burkina Faso drought: 17 June 2020: Bad times for farmers in Burkina Faso, as the land on which they grow their crops is suffering from drought, compounded by the presence of herds accused of attacking plantations
Floods in Burkina Faso: Floods in Burkina Faso
2009 West Africa floods: 2009 West Africa floods
2010 West African floods: 2010 West African floods
2020 Sahel floods: 2020 Sahel floods, extreme floods that struck numerous West, East, and Central African countries in August and September of 2020 due to extreme rainfall, as over 760,000 people in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo Republic, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Senegal, and Tunisia were affected and hundreds killed


Burundi - Geography of Burundi - History of Burundi - Colonial rule since 19th century - Burundi part of German colony 'German East Africa' 1891–1919 - 'Ruanda-Urundi' under Belgian military occupation since 1916 - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundi Civil War 1993-2005 - Demographics of Burundi
Economy of Burundi: Economy of Burundi - main industries are light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap, assembly of imported components, public works construction, food processing - List of companies based in Burundi
Mining industry of Burundi: Mining industry of Burundi - production of columbium (niobium), tantalum ore, tin ore, tungsten ore, and some deposits of gold - resources of copper, cobalt, nickel, feldspar, phosphate rock and quartzite
Energy in Burundi: Energy in Burundi - Power stations in Burundi
Agriculture in Burundi: Agriculture in Burundi - about 90% of the population depends on agriculture for a living and most agriculture consists of subsistence farming - crops are manioc, beans, bananas, sweet potatoes, corn, and sorghum - export crops are coffee, cotton and tea
Poverty and rural poverty in Burundi: Poverty in Burundi - Rural poverty in Burundi
2012: 11 October 2012: Hunger and malnutrition remain 'extremely alarming' in countries such as Eritrea and Burundi, the Global Hunger Index says
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative
Tourism in Burundi: Tourism in Burundi - Visitor attractions in Burundi - Lakes of Burundi
Banking in Burundi: Banks in Burundi - Bank of Africa with banking operations in 14 sub-Saharan Countries
2015 bank withdrawals: 11 December 2015: Surge in bank withdrawals sends Burundi's economy into sharp downward spiral as Burundians flee violence and threat of civil war
Bank of the Republic of Burundi: Since 1966 Bank of the Republic of Burundi, the central bank of Burundi - Currencies of Burundi
Economic history of Burundi and economic cycles: Economic history of Burundi
August 2018: 31 août 2018: Dans le sillage de la crise politique et sécuritaire en cours au Burundi depuis 2015, l’économie s’est brutalement contractée, et les progrès économiques et sociaux réalisés depuis la fin de la guerre civile risquent d’être balayés
Military of Burundi: Military of Burundi - 1987 Burundian coup d'état - 1996 Burundian coup d'état
Politics of Burundi: Politics of Burundi - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War and 2004-2007 ONUB Peacekeeping Mission: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005 - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003 - United Nations ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 to ensure the continuation of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement signed on 28 August 2000
Since 1994 CNDD–FDD, the current ruling party in Burundi: Since 1994 National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Forces for the Defense of Democracy
Parliament of Burundi: Parliament of Burundi
Political parties in Burundi: Political parties in Burundi
Trade unions in Burundi: Trade unions in Burundi
Elections and politics in Burundi: Elections in Burundi
28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum: Burundian constitutional referendum 2005 - composition of the National Assembly of Burundi: 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi - National Assembly of Burundi
June 2010 Burundian presidential and legislative election: Burundian presidential election 28 June 2010, boycotted by opposition parties - Burundian legislative election 23 July 2010, boycotted by opposition parties
26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest: 26 April 2015–present Burundian unrest
Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état: 13 Mai 2015 Burundian coup d'état - 14 May 2015: Fighting between rival Burundi troops reported around building of state broadcaster as claims over success of coup are made - 15 May: Burundi's authorities say they arrested three generals behind coup bid as General Niyombare admits failure - 30 May: Vice president of Burundi's election commission Ndironkeye has fled the country ahead of the poll
June 2015: 7 June 2015: Burundi opposition leader Agathon Rwasa says a presidential election must be held by August at the latest, but a fair vote unlikely without security and a free media - 28 June: The head of Burundi’s parliament Pie Ntavyohanyuma has fled the country on the eve of key elections following weeks of violence, and described the president’s bid for a third term as 'illegal'
29 June 2015 Burundian parliamentary election: 29 June 2015 Parliamentary elections will be held in Burundi alongside local elections - 29 June 2015: Burundi goes to the polls with the president defiant in his controversial bid for a third term in power, despite weeks of unrest that forced thousands to flee and prompted international calls for a delay - 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation - 11 July: Burundi presidential poll delayed amid worsening violence - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks adjourned after government fails to appear mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
July 2015 Burundian presidential election: 15/21 July 2015 Burundian presidential election - 21 July 2015: Nkurunziza set to win disputed third term as president - 24 July: Nkurunziza wins third term in disputed election marred by violence and an opposition boycott - 4 August: Burundian human rights activist Mbonimpa, who openly opposed Nkurunziza's controversial bid for a third term in presidential office, was shot by motorcyclists and seriously injured
December 2015: 11 December 2015: Two soldiers, five attackers killed in Burundi fighting - 11 décembre: Des dizaines de morts dans des attaques à Bujumbura - 20 décembre: Le Burundi n'autorisera pas le déploiement sur son sol d'une mission de l'Union africaine qui serait considérée comme 'une force d'invasion et d'occupation' si l'UA passait outre le refus de Bujumbura
2016: 5 January 2016: As president Nkurunziza continues to cling to power, rights group documents arbitrary arrests, disappearances and deaths - 26 April 2016: President Nkurunziza has condemned the killing of brigadier general Athanase Kararuza, who was shot along with his wife and bodyguard in an attack that also wounded their child in Burundi's wave of deadly violence
November 2017: 2 novembre 2017: Les instruments de musique sont désormais 'interdits' aux femmes et leur usage sera rigoureusement encadré par les autorités, selon un décret présidentiel
February 2018: 2 February 2018: Burundi's opposition says only 'Yes’ campaigning is allowed on referendum to extend president’s rule
May 2018: 14 May 2018: After a campaign marked by allegations of widespread human rights abuses and hate speech, members of Burundi’s divided and weakened opposition see little chance of any serious resistance to Nkurunziza’s efforts to secure his future at the head of the impoverished state - 14 May 2018: With tensions running before a referendum that would allow Pierre Nkurunziza to prolong his hold on power, even those Burundians who have fled to Rwanda are scared
May 2018 Burundian constitutional referendum: 17 May 2018 Burundian constitutional referendum - 19 May 2018: Opposition groups in Burundi say Thursday’s referendum on extending the president’s power was undemocratic as the country awaits the electoral commission’s announcement of the results, also saying there was proof of intimidation, arrests of perceived opponents and threats of assassination
June 2018: 7 June 2018: Burundi's Nkurunziza says he will not run for president in 2020
August 2018: 14 August 2018: The Burundian government has moved to join fellow East African counterparts on the list of countries that have outlawed the use of plastics, beginning in early 2020
27 April 2020 election campaign for the 20 May general election in Burundi: 27 April 2020: The campaign for the 20 May presidential, legislative and municipal elections in Burundi began on Monday, in a climate of mistrust towards the government for its management of the covid-19 pandemic and repression of the opposition
14 May 2020 Burundi kicks out the WHO’s top official: 14 May 2020: Burundi is kicking out the WHO’s top official Mulombo and 3 more WHO experts in the country just days before the presidential election and after the WHO raised concerns about crowded political rallies
16 May 2020 more than 145 opposition party members arrested: 16 May 2020: More than 145 opposition party CNL members have been arrested since campaigning began on April 27, according to SOS Medias Burundi, a group of independent journalists, as police spokesman has accused one party member, party leader Rwasa, of making 'incendiary and defamatory' remarks
May 2020 Burundian general election: 20 May 2020 Burundian general election - 20 May 2020: Burundi opens crucial presidential election amid covid-19 pandemic
Social movements and protests in Burundi: Trade unions in Burundi - Anti-corruption and Economic Malpractice Observatory, an independent, non-governmental anti-corruption watchdog group based in Burundi and known to be critical of the government of Burundi and its policies - Political movements in Burundi
2015 Burundian protests: 2015 Burundian protests
April 2015: 26 April 2015: Burundian police shot dead two protesters and wounded at least one other in demonstrations against president Nkurunziza seeking a third term which critics say would violate a constitutional limit of two terms - 27 April: Burundi police fire tear gas and water cannon at protesters on Monday in the second day of demonstrations against Nkurunziza's bid for a third term, after at least five people reportedly killed in protests on Sunday
May 2015: 1 May 2015: Hundreds of students from Burundi university shuttered by the government seeking refuge outside the USA embassy, amid unrest and escalating tensions ahead of the presidential vote - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 13 May: Burundi protesters celebrate as general launches coup attempt saying he is working to form transitional government - 19 May 2015: Burundi police fire teargas at protesterss demanding Nkurunziza end his bid for a third term, as 110,000 flee country after at least 20 people have been killed in three weeks of clashes between security forces and protesters, failed coup d'état and repression - 24 May: Zedi Feruzi, the head of opposition party UPD, and his bodyguard shot dead in the capital by gunmen on Saturday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Burundi: Burundian society
Human rights in Burundi: Human rights in Burundi
2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' report: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' reports and latest news on Burundi
Provinces, communes and collines of Burundi: 18 Provinces of Burundi - List of Burundian provinces by population - List of Burundian provinces by area - 119 Communes of Burundi - The Communes of Burundi are divided into 2,639 collines
Bujumbura city: Bujumbura city is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi with 1,155,678 inhabitants in 2020
Economy of Bujumbura: Économie de Bujumbura
Timeline of Bujumbura: Timeline of Bujumbura since 19th century
1899 Germans established military settlement at Usumbura in colonial German East Africa: 1899 Germans establish military settlement at village of Usumbura in colonial German East Africa
Since 1964 University of Burundi: Since 1964 University of Burundi in Bujumbura, comprising eight faculties and five institutes with an enrollment of approximately 13,000 students in 2017, and Burundi's only publicly funded university - Inter-University Council for East Africa, an institution of the inter-governmental organisation East African Community, to foster collaboration between universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and South Sudan
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: 1993-2005 Burundian Civil War, the result of long standing ethnic divisions between the Hutu and the Tutsi ethnic groups in Burundi incited by colonial powers, and later following multi-party elections in the country since independence from Belgium in 1962
2003/2004 AU Mission in Burundi: 2003/2004 African Union Mission in Burundi
2018/2019 Burundi moved its capital from Bujumbura to Gitega: In December 2018 Burundian president Nkurunziza announced that he would follow on a 2007 promise to return Gitega its former political capital status, with Bujumbura remaining as economic capital and centre of commerce
Gitega city: Gitega city, the capital of Burundi, located in the centre of the country in the Burundian central plateau and roughly 62 kilometres southeast of Bujumbura, as Gitega is Burundi's second largest city
History of Gitega: History of Gitega
Demographics and ethnic groups in Burundi: Demographics of Burundi - Ethnic groups in Burundi
Culture and languages of Burundi: Culture of Burundi - Languages of Burundi - Religion in Burundi - Freedom of religion in Burundi
Women in Burundi: Women in Burundi
>November 2017: 2 novembre 2017: Les instruments de musique sont désormais 'interdits' aux femmes et leur usage sera rigoureusement encadré par les autorités, selon un décret présidentiel
Children' rights in Burundi: Children' rights in Burundi
Education in Burundi: Education in Burundi
Schools in Burundi: Schools in Burundi - Schools in Bujumbura
Universities in Burundi: Universities in Burundi - List of universities in Burundi
Libraries in Burundi: Libraries in Burundi
Health in Burundi: Health in Burundi
Healthcare in Burundi: Medical and health organisations based in Burundi
Media of Burundi: Media of Burundi
November 2017 missing journalist since 2016: 2 November 2017: As the world marks the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists, Bigirimana’s colleagues, friends and family have launched a relentless search to find Bigirimana who worked with Iwacu newspaper and went missing in July 2016 after reportedly leaving his home in Bujumbura
April/May 2015 threats against journalists: 26 April 2015: Burundi police and two ministers forcefully entered a radio station and threatened to shut it down for broadcasting about protests against President Nkurunziza seeking a third term in office - 4 May 2015: Burundian journalists mark World Press Freedom Day with protests in the capital - 16 May 2015: As alleged plotters against President Nkurunziza appear in court, journalists are subjected to threats of arrest or death
January 2020 Burundi arrests journalist over corruption report: 17 January 2020: Burundi arrests journalist over corruption report - 18 January 2020: EU’s parliament has urged Burundi to release four journalists and who have been jailed since October
Newspapers in Burundi: Newspapers published in Burundi - List of newspapers in Burundi
Broadcasting in Burundi: Radio stations in Burundi - Burundi National Radio and Television
Since 2001 Radio Publique Africaine: Radio Publique Africaine since 2001
April 2015 government's threats against radio station: 26 April 2015: Burundi police and two ministers forcefully entered a radio station and threatened to shut it down for broadcasting about protests against President Nkurunziza seeking a third term in office
Internet in Burundi: Internet in Burundi
Crime in Burundi: Crime in Burundi
May 2018 23 people killed in attack on village: 12 mai 2018: Des inconnus armés ont tué au moins 23 personnes dans la nuit de vendredi à samedi lors d'une attaque contre un village dans le nord-ouest du Burundi, selon un responsable local
20 March 2021 Burundi's Truth and Reconciliation Commission presented some results: 20 March 2021: Burundi's Truth and Reconciliation Commission presented results of its activities in Bururi in the south, where investigations, hearings and exhumations of victims of the 1972 ethnic crisis are ongoing, saying 'the TRC has verified 68 mass graves', and 'it is only in 11 of these mass graves that we exhumed 1,455 victims of the 1972 crisis', as 'the images of the mass graves show the unheard-of barbarity with which the victims were tortured and murdered'
Human trafficking in Burundi: Human trafficking in Burundi
Law and legal history in Burundi: Burundian law - Burundi's Constitution of 2005 - 28 February 2005 Burundian constitutional referendum
Judiciary of Burundi: Judiciary of Burundi - Supreme Court of Burundi
Law enforcement and enforcement agencies of Burundi: Law enforcement in Burundi - Law enforcement agencies of Burundi
Foreign relations of Burundi: Foreign relations of Burundi
Treaties of Burundi: Treaties of Burundi
Burundi/African Union relations: Burundi/African Union relations - African Union Mission in Burundi 2003/2004
2015/2016: 26 May 2015: East African leaders to hold summit on Burundi on Sunday 31 May as violence continues - 30 janvier 2016: Le 26e sommet de l'Union africaine s'ouvre à Addis Abeba, mais les chefs d'Etats hésitent à envoyer des forces au Burundi pour maintenir la paix
Burundi/United Nations relations: Burundi/United Nations relations - ONUB Peacekeeping Mission 2004-2007 - UN resolutions concerning Burundi
2015: 3 July 2015: UN declares Burundi elections not free or credible, urging president to delay further polls as post-election violence leaves six dead in an atmosphere of fear and intimidation
2016: 2 avril 2016: Le Conseil de sécurité vote l'envoi d'une police de l'ONU au Burundi pour apaiser les violences - 12 October 2016: Burundi politicians back international criminal court withdrawal, escalating a bitter dispute with the international community over the human rights situation in the east African country, which has experienced more than a year of deadly violence since its president Pierre Nkurunziza made a decision to pursue a third term
2017: 27 October 2017: Burundi’s request to withdraw from the International Criminal Court has elapsed the one year period making the country the first in history to officially withdraw from the Rome Statute
September 2020 Human rights violations still being committed in Burundi, UN says: 17 September 2020: Human rights violations are still being committed in Burundi, including sexual violence and murder, a report by a UN watchdog said, as hopes had been pinned on new president Evariste Ndayishimiye, who was elected in May
Burundi's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Burundi among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Burundi: Bilateral relations of Burundi
Burundi/Belgium relations: Burundi/Belgium relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993 - Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
5 January 2022 new evidence of Belgian complicity in 1961 killing of Burundian PM: 5 January 2022: New evidence of Belgian complicity in 1961 killing of Burundian PM, as new book by Flemish sociologist Ludo De Witte explores unseen archive papers relating to Prince Rwagasore’s murder, which led to years of unrest
Burundi/DR of the Congo relations: Burundi/DR of the Congo relations - Ruzizi River - First Congo War 1996-1997 - Second Congo War 1998-2003
Burundi/Germany relations: Burundi/Germany relations
1881-1914 'Scramble for Africa': 'Scramble for Africa' invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1881 and 1914
1885–1919 Germany's 'East Africa' colonial territories and German 'Völkisch movement': German East Africa 1885–1919 - Founder of the German East Africa Company Carl Peters, a proponent of Social Darwinism and the 'Völkisch movement' - Evangelical Missionary Society for German East Africa
1914-1918 Burundi and German empire's World War I: German East Africa in 1914-1918 World War I, colony's military commander Lettow-Vorbeck's campaign inflicting upwards of 10,000 casualties - East African Campaign (World War I)
1939-1945 Burundi and German empire's World War II: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972 and 1993 Burundi genocide: Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
1993-2005 Burundian Civil War: Burundian Civil War 1993-2005
Burundi/India relations: Burundi/India relations
Bilateral trade relations: Bilateral trade relations
Burundi/Kenya relations: Burundi/Kenya relations
Bilateral development cooperation: Bilateral development cooperation
Burundi/Rwanda relations: Burundi/Rwanda relations
Common history of Burundi and Rwanda since Urewe civilisation: History of Burundi and Rwanda - Burundi and Rwanda are two of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state - Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age
1916-1982 Ruanda-Urundi, Mandate of Belgium: Ruanda-Urundi, a territory in the African Great Lakes region and once part of German East Africa, was ruled by Belgium between 1916 (1922) and 1962, after the disestablishment of the League of Nations and World War II Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control, in 1962 the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Rwanda and Burundi
1939-1945: Ruzagayura famine during World War II
1972, 1990-1994 Burundian Genocide: Burundian Genocide 1972 - Burundian Genocide 1990-1994 - Arusha Accords 1993
Rwanda-Burundi border and Kagera River: Rwanda-Burundi border - The section of river named Kagera begins in Burundi, flowing out from Lake Rweru, then east along the Rwanda-Burundi and Rwanda-Tanzania borders to a confluence with the Ruvubu River - Lake Rweru - Nyabarongo River
Burundi/Somalia relations: Burundi/Somalia relations
Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia: Since 2007 African Union Mission to Somalia - African Union Mission to Somalia - Burundian deployment of troops
Burundi/Tanzania relations: Burundi/Tanzania relations - Lake Tanganyika - Kagera River - Malagarasi River
18 May 2015: Tens of thousands of Burundians lack adequate food and shelter at makeshift camp in Kagunga after fleeing Burundi in aftermath of failed coup on 13 Mai
Burundi/Uganda relations: Burundi/Uganda relations - 24 May 2015: Uganda says working with neighbors to resolve Burundi crisis - 20 July 2015: Burundi talks backed by the East African Community adjourned after government fails to appear for mediation aimed at ending unrest caused by Nkurunziza’s controversial bid for a third term, Ugandan mediator Crispus Kiyonga says
Environment of Burundi: Environment of Burundi - Natural history of Burundi - Great Rift Valley
Ecoregions in Burundi: List of ecoregions in Burundi - List of protected areas of Burundi - National parks of Burundi
Water in Burundi: Water in Burundi - Rivers of Burundi - Nile Basin Initiative
Natural disasters in Burundi: Natural disasters in Burundi
December 2019 Burundi landslides: December 2019 Burundi landslides
March-May 2020 East Africa floods: March-May 2020 East Africa floods, a natural disaster in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people
15 May 2021 floods displace hundreds in Burundi: 15 May 2021: In Burundi, entire villages in the west of the city of Bujumbura have been inundated by water, after days of torrential rains caused water bodies to burst their banks, as floods have caused dispalcement, with families abandoning their homes to look for dry ground


Cameroon - Geography of Cameroon - History of Cameroon - Demographics of Cameroon
Economy of Cameroon: Economy of Cameroon - main industries include petroleum production and refining, aluminium production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Mining industry of Cameroon: Mining industry of Cameroon - mineral resources include bauxite, cobalt, gold from lode deposits, granite, iron ore, nepheline syenite, nickel, and rutile - Iron mines in Cameroon - Mbalam mine since 2010 - Diamond mines in Cameroon - Mobilong diamond mine
Energy in Cameroon: Energy in Cameroon
Fossil fuels in Cameroon: Fossil fuels in Cameroon
Petroleum in Cameroon: Petroleum in Cameroon
Electric power in Cameroon: Electric power in Cameroon, the mix of energy production of Cameroon consists of 57% of hydraulic power source, 21% of thermal springs in the gas, 10% of heat source to light fuel oil and 13% of heat source to heavy fuel oil - Hydroelectric power stations in Cameroon
Agriculture in Cameroon: Agriculture in Cameroon, principal occupation of 56% of the economically active population in 2003 - the most important cash crops include cocoa, coffee, cotton, bananas, rubber, palm oil and kernels, peanuts, the main food crops include plantains, cassava, corn, millet, and sugarcane
Agriculture and economy in Cameroon's South region: Agriculture and economy in Cameroon's South region, the most economically robust areas due to its numerous plantations and the tourism generated by its scenic beaches, as the area's economic stronghold is the port of Kribi, which services the Gulf of Guinea, as Campo, near the border with Equatorial Guinea, is another important port
Coffee production in Cameroon: Coffee production in Cameroon, dates to 1884, during the German colonial era, remaining very important for the economy of Cameroon - National Cocoa and Coffee Board, an autonomous Cameroonian government establishment created in 1991 to oversee the sustainability, marketing, quality control, information-dissemination
Palm oil production in Cameroon: Palm oil production in Cameroon
Water in Cameroon: Water in Cameroon - Rivers of Cameroon - List of rivers of Cameroon by drainage basin - Lakes of Cameroon
Logone River: Logone River, a major tributary of the Chari River, located in the western Central African Republic, northern Cameroon, and southern Chad - Chari River, flowing from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone River
Benue River: Benue River, the major tributary of the Niger River
Wouri river: Wouri river, formed at the confluence of the rivers Nkam and Makombé, flowing about 160 km southeast to the Wouri estuary at Douala, the chief port and industrial city in the southwestern part of Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea
Sanaga River: Sanaga River forms a boundary between two tropical moist forest ecoregions
Sangha River: Sangha River, formed at the confluence of the Mambéré River and the Kadéï River at Nola in the western Central African Republic. flowing along the border of Cameroon with the Central African Republic, and then the Republic of Congo
Lake Ossa west of Edéa in the lower basin of the Sanaga River: Lake Ossa west of Edéa, Cameroon's largest natural lake in the Littoral Province, forming together with the smaller lakes Mevia to the northeast and Mwembe to the southwest the Lake Ossa complex, as the lake complex covers an area of 39.27 km², having a dissected shape, with numerous inlets and islands, 7 km wide at its widest point, as the lakes are in the lower basin of the Sanaga River
4 January 2021 Cameroon’s lake Ossa is under attack by a giant plant: 4 January 2021: Cameroon’s lake Ossa is under attack by a giant plant, threatening both the aquatic wildlife and livelihoods of local fishermen, as the income of the fishermen in the region who depend on the lake has fallen by 80%
Transport in Cameroon: Transport in Cameroon
Rail transport in Cameroon: Rail transport in Cameroon
Road transport in Cameroon: Road transport in Cameroon
Road incidents in Cameroon: Road incidents in Cameroon
27 December 2020 people killed and seriously injured after tragical bus crash: 27 December 2020: More than 37 people are dead and 18 others seriously injured after a bus crash in Cameroon's western village of Nemale, as the bus was on its way to the capital Yaounde from the western town of Foumban when it crashed into a truck while trying to avoid a crowd of people on the road
27 January 2021 many died of burns after passenger bus collided with truck carrying adulterated fuel: 27 January 2021: At least 53 people died of burns when a passenger bus collided with a truck carrying adulterated fuel in western Cameroon, after collision led to the two vehicles going up in flames, governor said
Water transport in Cameroon: Water transport in Cameroon - Waterways, seaports and harbors in Cameroon
Douala: Douala port, the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region, home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, CAR and Cameroon - Timeline of Douala - Economy of Douala
Tourism in Cameroon: Tourism in Cameroon - Tourist attractions in Cameroon
Foreign trade of Cameroon: Foreign trade of Cameroon - 2010-2015 exports of Cameroon have decreased at an annualized rate of -0.7% to $4.73B in 2015, the most recent exports are led by Crude Petroleum which represent 35.5% of the total exports of Cameroon, followed by Cocoa Beans, which account for 12.2%, as the country's trade balance remains negative in 2016 and the main customers are Spain, China, Netherlands, India, and Italy in 2014
Banking in Cameroon: Banking in Cameroon - Banks of Cameroon - Bank of Central African States, a central bank that serves six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa - Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
Economic history of Cameroon and economic cycles: Economic history of Cameroon
Since 1987 economic crisis of Cameroon: From the mid-1980s to the early 2000s Cameroonian economic crisis was a downturn in the economy of Cameroon from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s, resulting in rising prices in Cameroon, trade deficits, and loss of government revenue
2009: 2 November 2009: Cameroon hit by global economic crisis, as World Bank says the global economic crisis is hurting Africa by slowing outside investment, depressing prices for commodity exports and slashing remittances from Africans working abroad
2017: 13 February 2017: Cameroon's economy reportedly losing billions due to Anglophone crisis - 7 November 2017: Cameroon’s economy is losing billions due to the ongoing Anglophone crisis that also includes ghost town operations, according to French language daily 'Le Quotidien de l’economie'
Taxation and budget of Cameroon: Fiscalité du Cameroun
2017: 27 December 2017: Cameroon’s economy minister Motaze says the World Bank loan of FCFA 112.83 billion, procured under the country’s budget support programme, will boost growth and sustainable development in the country
National Social Security Fund in Cameroon: Caisse nationale de prévoyance sociale au Cameroun
Cameroonian Armed Forces: Cameroonian Armed Forces - Military history of Cameroon
Politics of Cameroon: Politics of Cameroon - 1972 Constitution of Cameroon
Political parties in Cameroon: List of political parties in Cameroon, Cameroon is a one party dominant state with the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement in power
Trade unions in Cameroon: Trade unions in Cameroon
Elections and politics in Cameroon: Elections in Cameroon
October 2011 Cameroonian presidential election: 9 October 2011 Cameroonian presidential election - Biya, who assumed office on 6 November 1982, was re-elected with 78% of the vote
September 2013 Cameroonian parliamentary election: 30 September 2013 Cameroonian parliamentary election
October 2017: 1 October 2017: Soldiers shot dead at least eight people and wounded others in Cameroon’s restless English-speaking regions during protests by activists calling for its independence from the majority francophone nation - 11 October 2017: Cameroon government refutes reports of massacre in Anglophone regions, as Cameroon’s anglophone areas', that are facing a serious social and political crisis since 2016, attempted symbolic independence declaration on 1 October 2017 was met with heavy security crackdown which led to official deaths of eight people
December 2017: 21 December 2017: In August 2017, International Crisis Group sounded the alarm about the risk of an insurrection in Cameroon’s Anglophone region unless a genuine dialogue, complete with strong measures to defuse tensions, was initiated
January 2018: 3 January 2018: Amid an escalation of the language related crisis in which dozens of people have died, hundreds have been imprisoned and thousands have escaped across the border to Nigeria, the entire country could be destabilised ahead of elections in the autumn if the situation is not defused through dialogue, according to the International Crisis Group
July 2018: 13 July 2018: Footage showing two women, a child and a baby being shot dead by armed men in Cameroon has led to accusations by rights group that the country’s army may be carrying out killings, denied by government but triggering an investigation
September 2018: 17 September 2018: After elections governing body published a list of 9 candidates including incumbent president Biya who is seeking to extend his 35 years in power, decision to organize the presidential election on 7 October 2018 announced by Biya, removing all doubts as to whether the violence-gripped nation would make it to the polls
October 2018 Cameroonian presidential election: 7 October 2018 Cameroonian presidential election - 7 October 2018: Red carpet as Biya votes, gunshots in Bamenda - 10 October 2018: AU chairperson calls for restraint as Cameroon awaits official poll results - 23 October 2018: Cameroon’s president Biya wins the October elections with 71.28% of votes while his opposition challenger Maurice Kamto, who refuses to acknowledge the results, is in second place with 14.23% of the votes
January 2019: 29 January 2019: Police arrested Maurice Kamto along with several other opposition figures, including one who was pulled out of his hospital bed where he was recovering from gunshot wounds sustained at a protest against the central African country’s longtime president, Paul Biya
June 2019 mandates of MPs to be extended until February 2020: 19 June 2019: Mandates of Councillors, MPs to be extended until February 2020
29 December 2019 ahead of Cameroon's 60th anniversary of independence from brutal and bloody France: 29 December 2019: On 1 January 2020 Cameroon will marks its 60th anniversary of independence, the first of 17 African countries that became free from their colonial masters in 1960, as Cameroon's fight for independence was brutal and bloody because French colonial troops sought to repress nationalist voices and fighters
February 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election: 9 February 2020 Cameroonian parliamentary election - 9 February 2020: Cameroon votes Sunday in polls overshadowed by a partial opposition boycott and separatist violence which has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, as elections taking place for the first time in 7 years, unlikely to ruffle the enduring rule of Paul Biya, one of the world’s oldest and longest-serving leaders
11 August 2020 Ebo logging decree sparks anger in Cameroon: 11 August 2020: A Cameroonian government decree allowing logging in a forest that is home to some of the world’s most endangered species has sparked outrage among local communities and conservation groups
September 2020 ahead of Cameroon regional elections in December: 8 September 2020: Ahead of Cameroon regional elections in December, opposition leader Maurice Kamto and government draw battle line - 22 September 2020: Camerooen regional elections candidacies
2 November 2020 'for the sake of Cameroon, life-president Paul Biya must be forced out': 2 November 2020: For the sake of Cameroon, life-president Paul Biya must be forced out, freelance writer Vava Tampa focusing on Africa’s decolonisation and culture says, explaining that the country should be rich, but millions live in dire poverty, and France must stop supporting Africa’s oldest serving leader in power since 1982 and his electoral ploys
23 December 2021 Cameroon inflation dampens end of year celebrations amid poverty of millions:: 23 December 2021: Cameroon inflation dampens end of year celebrations, as spike in the price of basic goods is making the Christmas holidays difficult for Cameroon's low-income families, as inflation, partially fueled by the pandemic, has even increased fears of social unrest, and as some 8 million Cameroonians live below the poverty line
div>12 January 2022 Cameroonian senator and soldier killed in restive anglophone regions: 12 January 2022: Cameroonian senator and soldier killed in restive anglophone regions, as opposition's Henry Kemende - a senator for the Social Democratic Front party - was shot dead in Bamenda city in the north-west region. His party, who blamed separatist fighters for the attack, said gunmen forced him from his car and shot him in the chestand a soldier killed with an explosive device in separate attacks, intensifying security concerns as the country hosts the Africa Cup of Nations football tournament.
div>9 March 2022 women hold the key to peace and their voices must be heard: 9 March 2022: Women are suffering in Cameroon’s war, but they also hold the key to peace, as anglophone separatists continue their conflict with the government, and as women’s voices must be heard to find a solution, according to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Comfort Ero
Social movements and protests in Cameroon: Protests in Cameroon
February 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests: February 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests, following a strike by transport workers, who were opposing high fuel prices and poor working conditions, also caused by President Paul Biya's announcement that he wanted the constitution to be amended to remove term limits
2016–2017 Cameroonian protests: 2016–2017 Cameroonian protests were a series of protests that occurred following the appointment of Francophone judges in English-speaking areas of the Republic of Cameroon, in October 2016 protests began in two primarily English-speaking regions, the Northwest Region and the Southwest Region
June 2019 protests and mass arrests: 4 June 2019: Hundreds of members of Cameroon’s main opposition party are being held in custody after the country’s security forces carried out mass arrests during a series of anti-government protests over the weekend
25 October 2020 protest against deadly school attack in Kumba: 25 October 2020: Escorted by security forces, hundreds of people held a procession through Kumba town in southwest Cameroon, the site of a school attacked by gunmen on Saturday, where at least seven children were killed in the raid according to officials, as people now carried placards denouncing the attack, while calling for an end to the violence which has gripped the region since 2017
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cameroon: Cameroonian society
Human rights in Cameroon: Human rights in Cameroon
Regions, departments and communes of Cameroon: Subdivisions of Cameroon - 10 Regions of Cameroon - 55 Departments of Cameroon - Communes of Cameroon and alphabetical list
Municipalities and cities of Cameroon: List of cities, towns, and villages in the country of Cameroon and 10 largest cities
Adamawa Region: Adamawa Region, a constituent region of the Republic of Cameroon, bordering the Centre and East regions to the south, the Northwest and West regions to the southwest, Nigeria to the west, and the Central African Republic to the east
History of Adamawa Region: History of Adamawa Region, German and French colony and since 1960 post-independence history
Economy of Adamawa Region: Economy of Adamawa Region, based almost entirely on cattle, a Fulbe monopoly, and nearly all farming in the province is done at the sustenance level, as millet is the mainstay, though maize, and manioc are also important, and other crops include cocoyams, yams, and groundnuts
Ngaoundéré city: Ngaoundéré city, the capital of the Adamawa Region of Cameroon, with a population of 152,700 at the 2005 census rapidly risen to 1,000,000 in 2016 owing to mass immigration from the Central African Republic and the perceived danger from Boko Haram in northern Cameroon
Centre Region: The Centre Region, bordered to the north by the Adamawa Region, to the south by the South Region, to the east by the East Region, and to the West by the Littoral and West Regions, with major ethnic groups including the Bassa, Ewondo, and Vute, and with the capital of Cameroon Yaoundé, drawing people from the rest of the country to live and work there, as the entre region's towns are also important industrial centres, especially for timber, and as agriculture is another important economic factor, especially with regard to the province's most important cash crop cocoa
Economy, plantation agriculture and industry of Centre region: Economy, plantation agriculture and industry of Centre region, one of Cameroon's strongest economic zones due in great part to the presence of the capital city
Yaoundé city: Yaoundé city, the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of approximately 2.5 million, the second largest city in the country after the port city Douala, located in the Centre Region of the nation at an elevation of about 750 metres - History of Yaoundé
Timeline of Yaoundé: Timeline of Yaoundé
1888 'Jaunde' settlement founded: 1888 'Jaunde' settlement founded by a German empire's colonial service-man in colonial Kamerun
1909 'Yaoundé' capital of German colonial Kamerun: 1909 'Yaoundé' town designated capital of German colonial Kamerun
1961 'Yaoundé' becomes capital of independent Republic of Cameroon: 1961 'Yaoundé' becomes capital of independent Republic of Cameroon
Since 1962 University of Yaoundé: Since 1962 University of Yaoundé with the languages French and English - Since 1993 University of Yaoundé I, public university in Cameroon - Since 1993 University of Yaoundé II, a public university in Cameroon formed in 1993 following a university reform that split the country's oldest university
2004 UN Development Fund for Women regional office headquartered in Yaounde: 2004 United Nations Development Fund for Women regional office headquartered in Yaounde
2/3 November 2020 9 people injured in blast of an artisanal bomb in a Yaoundé bar: 2/3 November 2020: 9 people were injured on Sunday in the blast of an artisanal bomb in a Yaoundé bar, as government said it was the fourth in a series of attacks of this kind in less than five months in the capital, and as no one claimed responsibility for the attack
25 Jsnuary 2022 Yaoundé stade d'Olembé stampede: 25 janvier 2022: Une bousculade a coûté la vie à au moins huit personnes au stade d'Olembé de Yaoundé avant le match de la CAN-2022 entre le Cameroun et les Comores, selon RFI-France24
East Region: East Region, the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon, bordering to the east the Central African Republic, to the south the Congo, to the north the Adamawa Region, and to the west the Centre and South Regions
Economy of East Region: As the vast majority of the inhabitants of the region are subsistence farmers with crops including maize, bananas, groundnuts, cocoyams, manioc, pineapples, oranges, mangoes, and yams, the major industry of the East is forestry with vast tracts of forest and European and African companies have exploited these heavily
Littoral Region: Littoral Region with its capital Douala, with a population of 3,174,437 inhabitants, as its name is due to the region being largely littoral, associated with the sea coast
Douala cíty: Douala city, the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region, home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, CAR and Cameroon
Economy of Douala: Economy of Douala, a city with a modest oil resource in Africa, but in excellent agricultural condition. It has one of best economies in Africa. However, it also faces problems like other cities in underdeveloped countries such as heavy civil service and bad climate (flood, tornado, storm) - Économie de Douala
Douala port: Port autonome de Douala, une entreprise propriétaire du premier port en activité du Cameroun le port de Douala. Cette entreprise appartient à l'État Camerounais. Il est situé dans l'estuaire du Wouri sur la côte littorale et donne sur l'Océan Atlantique.
Wouri river and Cameroon's chief port of the industrial city of Douala: Wouri river in Cameroon, as the country has two major rivers, the Sanaga, the longest at about 525km long and the Wouri, the largest formed at the confluence of the rivers Nkam and Makombé 32km northeast of the city of Yabassi, then flowing about 160km southeast to the Wouri estuary at Douala, the chief port and industrial city in the southwestern part of Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea. The river is navigable about 64km upriver from Douala.
Timeline of Douala: Timeline of Douala
Since 1472 timeline of Douala prior to 20th century: Since 1472 timeline of Douala prior to 20th century
1472 the Portuguese visit the area: 1472 the Portuguese visit the area during the Age of exploration and empires
Since 1868 German Woermann-Linie in Cameroon, 1884 Cameroon becomes a German colony: Since 1868 company Woermann-Linie in Cameroon, 1881 Woermann-Linie receives the authorization to build a factory (trading post) in Deido, 1884 Germans in power (the treaty between the Douala and Germans is signed; Cameroon becomes a German protectorate)
20th century timeline of Douala: 20th century timeline of Douala:
September 1945 'Settlers, Strikers and Sans-Travail' in Douala: September 1945 'Settlers, Strikers and Sans-Travail', Douala strkes and riots, after rapid pace of political change ushered in by Germsn empire's World War II sparked developments within the colonial territories themselves, Richard A. Joseph explains published online by Cambridge University Press on 22 January 2009 - During World War I, the German empire's 'protectorate' was occupied by British and French troops, later mandated to each country by the League of Nations in 1922. The British mandate was them known as British Cameroons and the French mandate as French Cameroon. Following World War II each of the mandate territories was made a UN Trust Territory. In 1955 an insurrection headed by Ruben Um Nyobé and the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon erupted, strongly repressed by the French Fourth Republic. In January 1960 French Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroon and in October 1961 the southern part of British Cameroons joined it to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The Muslim northern part of British Cameroons had opted for union with Nigeria in May the same year. The conflict with the UPC lasted until the 1970s
Since 1993 University of Douala, one of the 8 public universities of Cameroon: Since 1993 (1977) University of Douala, one of the eight public universities of Cameroon
21st century timeline of Douala: 21st century timeline of Douala
2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests, strike against high prices and poor working conditions: 2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests, following on the heels of a strike by transport workers, who were opposing high fuel prices and poor working conditions, as further political turmoil had been caused by president Paul Biya's announcement that he wanted the constitution to be amended to remove term limits
January/February 2022 'Africa Cup of Nations' amid covid-19, hosted by Cameroon and beginning in Douala: 9 January – 6 February 2022 Africa Cup of Nations organised by the Confederation of African Football CAF, scheduled to be hosted by Cameroon and beginning in Douala, postponed due to the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic since January 2020 also in Africa, and now during lasting pandemic
9 January 2022 Afcon issues new covid-19 policies as cases spike among players: 9 January 2022: Afcon issues new covid-19 policies as cases spike among players, as i.e. Burkina Faso confirm 5 cases
North Region: North Region, neighbouring the Far North Region to the north, the Adamawa Region to the south, Nigeria to the west, Chad to the east, and Central African Republic to the southeast, as the city of Garoua is both the political and industrial capital, and alsö Cameroon's third largest port
Economy of North Region: As many of the North's ethnic groups farm on small plots for subsistence, and as cotton grows in the North's river valleys and constitutes the major cash crop under the management of the 'Société de Développement du Coton', Garoua is the industrial heart of all of Cameroon's Grand North, with goods produced in Garoua including beer and soft drinks, soap, cotton products such as textiles and cottonseed oil, construction materials, processed foods, and shoes, as Figuil's factories produce cement and textiles, and those of Pitoa produce oils from groundnuts and cottonseeds
Garoua city: Garoua city, a port city, the capital of the North Region of Cameroon, lying on the Benue River, and a thriving centre of the textiles and cotton industries, with approximately 436,899 inhabitants in 2018
Northwest Region of Cameroon: Northwest Region of Cameroon, part of the territory of the Southern Cameroons, found in the western highlands of Cameroon and bordered to the southwest by the Southwest Region, to the south by the West Region, to the east by the Adamawa Region, and to the north by the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as Bamenda is the capital of the region
Bamenda city: Bamenda city in northwestern Cameroon and capital of the Northwest Region, with a population of about 2 million people
History and timeline of Bamenda: History of Bamenda, as the city in 1884 was colonized by Germany until 1916 when it became a colony administered by Great Britain and France, becoming only British in 1919 with the Northwest Region, joinging the independent Cameroon in 1961, as many of the city's inhabitants are English-speaking (Cameroonian Pidgin English) since colonial periods
Since March 2019 Southern Cameroons Liberation Council SCLC: Since March 2019 Southern Cameroons Liberation Council SCLC, an Ambazonian umbrella movement, aiming to unite all Anglophone groups on a common front, and consisting of seven movements
Since 1961 Southern Cameroons and SCAPO since 2006: Southern Cameroons, the southern part of the British Mandate territory of British Cameroons in West Africa, and since 1961 part of the Republic of Cameroon, where it makes up the Northwest Region and Southwest Region, as since 1994, pressure groups in the territory have sought independence from the Republic of Cameroon, and the Republic of Ambazonia was declared by the Southern Cameroons Peoples Organisation SCAPO on 31 August 2006
Since 2017 Southern Cameroons and 'Anglophone Crisis': Ambazonia, a proto-state in the territory also known as Southern Cameroons, as in 2017, the Southern Cameroons Ambazonia Consortium United Front SCACUF declared Ambazonia to be an independent nation, while the Cameroonian government stated that the declaration has no legal weight, followed by violence and war ensued to the declaration and this is known as the 'Anglophone Crisis' - Since September 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem
Since May 2019 Ambazonian leadership crisis: Since May 2019 Ambazonian leadership crisis, an ongoing internal conflict within the Interim Government of Ambazonia, after the dissolution of the caretaker cabinet led by Samuel Ikome Sako and the restoration of its predecesso
2020 timeline of the Anglophone Crisis since 2017: 2020 timeline of the Anglophone Crisis since 2017
14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre: 14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre, when 6 Cameroonian soldiers, accompanied by armed Mbororos and Ambazonian detractors, carried out a massacre in Ngarbuh, a neighborhood in the town of Ntumbo in the Northwest Region, killing at least 22 people including 14 children, 9 of whom were younger than 5
18 February 2020 UN wants punishment for perpetrators of Ngarbuh killings: 18 February 2020: UN wants punishment for perpetrators of Ngarbuh killings
21 February 2020 memorial ceremony in Kumbo for victims of the Ngarbuh massacre: 21 February 2020 memorial ceremony held at the Saint Theresia Cathedral in Kumbo in Cameroon's North-West region for victims of the Ngarbuh massacre
24/25 February 2020 Ngarbuh whistleblower arrested: 24/25 February 2020: Special team from Yaounde arrived in Ntumbaw, arresting Mallam Danjuma, who is suspected of granting the first interview to the UN after the February 14, 2020 massacre of civilians by government forces
25 February 2020 HRW accuses government forces: 25 février 2020: Le meurtre d'une vingtaine de civils, dont 13 enfants, le 14 février au Cameroun anglophone, a été perpétré par les 'forces gouvernementales' et une milice peule alliée, a accusé mardi Human Rights Watch
8 March 2020 armed separatists attacked the village of Galim in western region killing at least 7 people: 8 March 2020: Armed separatists attacked a village in Cameroon's western French-speaking region on Sunday, killing at least seven people, according to a top offical and a resident
West Region: West Region, bordering the Northwest Region to the northwest, the Adamawa Region to the northeast, the Centre Region to the southeast, the Littoral Region to the southwest, and the Southwest Region to the west, the smallest of Cameroon's ten regions in area, having the highest population density
Bafoussam city: Bafoussam city, the capital and largest city of the West Region of Cameroon located in the Bamboutos Mountains, the 3rd most important (financially) city in Cameroon, after Yaounde and Douala
Southwest Region: Southwest Region, a region in Cameroon with its capital is Buea, and one of the two anglophone regions of Cameroon, including the six departments of Fako, Koupé-Manengouba, Lebialem, Manyu, Meme, and Ndian
Buea city: Buea city, the capital of the Southwest Region of Cameroon located on the eastern slopes of Mount Cameroon and with a population of 300,000 inhabitants in 2013
Kumba city: Kumba city in the Meme department in the Southwest Region, the most developed and largest city in the Meme department, as Kumba has attracted people from the neighbouring villages like Mbonge, Ekondo Titi and has an estimated population of about 400,000 inhabitants with about three quarters of this population falling within the youthful age group
Economy of Kumba: Economy of Kumba, a trade centre for cocoa, palm oil and rubber, with a timber industry as well, as Kumba is a local road junction, making it the main commercial town in anglophone Cameroon with two main markets, Kumba Market and Fiango Market, and several smaller markets created by farmers who bring food directly from their farms, as most of the people in Kumba are farmers making Kumba one of the leading towns in Cameroon that provides foodstuff to its neighbouring towns and cities and also to some neighbouring countries including Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Chad - Lake Barombi Mbo
History and timeline of Kumba: History and timeline of Kumba
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
25 October 2020 protest against deadly school attack in Kumba: 25 October 2020: Escorted by security forces, hundreds of people held a procession through Kumba town in southwest Cameroon, the site of a school attacked by gunmen on Saturday, where at least seven children were killed in the raid, as people now carried placards denouncing the attack, while calling for an end to the violence which has gripped the region since 2017
Demographics of Cameroon: Demographics of Cameroon
Ethnic groups in Cameroon: Ethnic groups in Cameroon - Cameroon's population consists of approximately 250 ethnic groups, as Cameroon Highlanders constitute the plurality at 38% of the total population, including the Bamileke and the Bamoun, the coastal tropical forest peoples, including the Bassa, Douala, and many smaller entities account for about 12% of the population, in the southern tropical forest, ethnic groups include the Ewondo, Bulu, Fang, the Maka and Pygmies (officially called Bakas), accounting for about 18% of the population, the Fulani account for about 14% of the population and the Kirdi account for about 18%
Culture and languages of Cameroon: Culture of Cameroon
Nearly 250 languages in Cameroon: Languages of Cameroon - Cameroon is home to nearly 250 languages, including 55 Afro-Asiatic languages, 2 Nilo-Saharan languages, 4 Ubangian languages, and 169 Niger–Congo languages
'Anglophone problem' in Cameroon: 'The Anglophone Problem', as it is commonly referred to in Cameroon, is a socio-political issue rooted in Cameroon's colonial legacies from the Germans, British, and the French
Since 2017/2018 'Anglophone' Crisis: Since 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem - 3 January 2018: What began as a simple request for English to be used in the courtrooms and public schools of the country’s two anglophone regions has escalated into a crisis in which dozens of people have died, hundreds have been imprisoned and thousands have escaped across the border to Nigeria
November 2018: 5 November 2018: Armed separatists reportedly kidnapped at least 79 students and three staff members from a Presbyterian school in the troubled English-speaking region of Cameroon - 7 November 2018: Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing amid a conflict raging in the English-speaking regions of the majority francophone central African country
February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre: 14 February 2020 Ngarbuh massacre, when 6 Cameroonian soldiers, accompanied by armed Mbororos and Ambazonian detractors, carried out a massacre in Ngarbuh, a neighborhood in the town of Ntumbo in the Northwest Region, killing at least 22 people including 14 children, 9 of whom were younger than 5 - 25 février 2020: Le meurtre d'une vingtaine de civils, dont 13 enfants, le 14 février au Cameroun anglophone, a été perpétré par les 'forces gouvernementales' et une milice peule alliée, a accusé mardi Human Rights Watch
8 March 2020 armed separatists attacked the village of Galim in western region killing at least 7 people: 8 March 2020: Armed separatists attacked a village in Cameroon's western French-speaking region on Sunday, killing at least seven people, according to a top offical and a resident
Women in Cameroon: Women in Cameroon
div>9 March 2022 women hold the key to peace and their voices must be heard: 9 March 2022: Women are suffering in Cameroon’s war, but they also hold the key to peace, as anglophone separatists continue their conflict with the government, and as women’s voices must be heard to find a solution, according to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Comfort Ero
Education in Cameroon: Education in Cameroon
Schools in Cameroon: Schools in Cameroon
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
24 November 2021 three children and teacher killed in Ekondo Titi school attack: 24 November 2021: Unidentified gunmen have attacked a school in Ekondo Titi in Cameroon’s Southwest Region, killing at least three students and one teacher, as CHRDA said in a statement that several others were wounded in the attack, identifying the slain students as being aged 12, 16 and 17 and the fourth victim as a French language teacher
Universities and colleges in Cameroon: Universities and colleges in Cameroon - Universities in Cameroon
Health in Cameroon: Health in Cameroon
Medical outbreaks in Cameroon: Medical outbreaks in Cameroon - Man-made disasters in Cameroon
2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Cameroon: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Cameroon
March 2020 Cameroon, Togo confirm first cases of Chinese coronavirus: 6 March 2020: Cameroon, Togo confirm first cases of Chinese coronavirus
8 April 2020 Cameroon's covid-19 cases reached 1,017 and 22 deaths: 18 April 2020: Cameroon's covid-19 cases reached 1,017 as of April 18, with 22 deaths and 117 recoveries, as social media push for president Biya to address the nation did not pay off
9 January 2022 Cameroon reported 109,666 confirmed covid-19 cases and confirmed 1,853 deaths: 9 January 2022: Cameroon reported 109,666 confirmed covid-19 cases and confirmed 1,853 deaths
Health care and hospitals in Cameroon: Hospitals in Cameroon - List of hospitals in Cameroon by region
February 2008 Kousseri vaccination campaign: February 2008 Kousseri vaccination campaign, as over 35,000 infants and children were vaccinated against measles, poliomyelitis or both in Cameroon's north-eastern district of Kousséri, in an operation led by the Ministry of Health, the UN, and non-governmental organizations
Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon: Media and freedom of the press in Cameroon
November 2018: 2 November 2018: Authorities in Cameroon should halt their intimidation of journalist Mimi Mefo and ensure that she can work safely without fear of reprisal, the Committee to Protect Journalists said today - 10 November 2018: Cameroonians online are celebrating the release of the English-speaking journalist Mimi Mefo, who had been detained at the New Bell prison since Wednesday charged by a military court of committing a 'state security’ offence
Newspapers in Cameroon: List of newspapers in Cameroon
Broadcasting in Cameroon: Radio in Cameroon - Television in Cameroon
18 June 2021 refugees in Cameroon use the power of media to highlight their plights: 18 June 2021: Refugees in Cameroon use the power of media to highlight their plights, as a Chadian refugee and his classmate Coradie Mabelle arrive at the Cirtef studios in Yaoundé, as another student is already in the radio studio for the recording of a program, and after securing a small grant from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR, they committed themselves to run the radio program that would talk about the plights of refugees
Internet in Cameroon: Internet in Cameroon - Internet censorship and surveillance in Cameroon
Crime in Cameroon: Crime in Cameroon
Terrorism in Cameroon: Terrorism in Cameroon - Boko Haram in Cameroon
January 2015 deadly Boko Haram bus attack: 3 January 2015 Cameroon bus attack when Boko Haram attacked a bus in northern Cameroon, killing at least 15 people
February 2015 Boko Haram Fotokol attack: 4/5 February 2015 Fotokol attack, when Boko Haram militants killed at least 91 people by shooting and burning, and injured over 500 in Fotokol, also torching mosques and churches of the town
November 2017 5 children killed and more wounded in suicide attack: 1 novembre 2017: Cinq enfants ont été tués mardi soir et deux autres blessés après l'explosion d'une jeune kamikaze dans le nord du Cameroun
24 October 2020 gunmen kill children in attack on school in Kumba: 24 October 2020 Kumba school massacre at Mother Francisca International Bilingual Academy in Kumba - 24 October 2020: Gunmen stormed a school in Cameroon on Saturday and opened fire indiscriminately, killing at least six children and wounding about eight more in the city of Kumba in the Southwest Region, where separatist insurgents operate, officials and parents said, a grim new low in a region that since 2017 has seen hundreds die and thousands displaced because of the conflict, with many children unable to attend school
4 January 2021 Boko Haram kills three vigilantes in northern Cameroon: 4 January 2021: 3 members of a self-defense group were shot dead on Monday by suspected members of the Islamist group Boko Haram in the north of Cameroon, as local authorities reported that the casualties were members of the Kaliari Vigilant committee, and as these self-defense groups are usually composed of civilians and are responsible for providing information or serve as scouts to soldiers
Violence in Cameroon:
November 2018 dozens of pupils kidnapped: 7 November 2018: Dozens of pupils kidnapped from a Presbyterian boarding school in Cameroon three days ago have been released, according to school and church authorities, as the principal and a teacher are still missing
Since 2017/2018 'Anglophone' Crisis: Since 2017 Anglophone Crisis, a conflict in the Southern Cameroons region of Cameroon, part of the long-standing Anglophone problem
Corruption in Cameroon: Corruption in Cameroon
2016: The Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 by Transparency International ranked Cameroon 145 out of 176 countries
Human trafficking in Cameroon: Human trafficking in Cameroon
Law in Cameroon: Droit camerounais - Cameroonian law - 1972 Constitution of Cameroon - Human rights in Cameroon
Judiciary of Cameroon: Organisation judiciaire au Cameroun - Tribunal au Cameroun
18 December 2020 Cameroon seeks justice for massacre in Ntumbaw as trial kicks off: 18 December 2020: The trial of three soldiers accused of orchestrating a massacre, murdering 13 civilians including 10 children in Ntumbaw village in Cameroon in mid-February kicked off on Thursday in Yaounde military court
Tribunaux de première et grande instance au Cameroun: Tribunal de première instance au Cameroun - Tribunal de grande instance au Cameroun
Courts of Appeal of Cameroon: Courts of Appeal of Cameroon
High Court of Justice in Cameroon: High Court of Justice in Cameroon
Supreme Court of Cameroon: Supreme Court of Cameroon
Criticism of the Cameroonian judiciary: Critiques du système judiciaire, en 2003 les aspects suivants: Corruption (conséquence de la faible rémunération des magistrats), concentrations des avocats sur Douala et Yaoundé, manque d’indépendance de la justice du pouvoir exécutif, conseil supérieur de la magistrature sans pouvoir propre, encombrement des tribunaux de Douala et Yaoundé faute de magistrats
Law enforcement in Cameroon: Law enforcement in Cameroon
Foreign relations of Cameroon: Foreign relations of Cameroon
Treaties of Cameroon: Treaties of Cameroon
Multilateral relations of Cameroon: Multilateral relations of Cameroon
Economic Community of Central African States: Economic Community of Central African States
Cameroon's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Cameroon among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Cameroon: Bilateral relations of Cameroon
Cameroon/Central African Republic relations: Cameroon/Central African Republic relations
Refugees in Cameroon: Refugees in Cameroon - between 2004 and 2013, 92,000 refugees from the Central African Republic fled to Cameroon 'to escape rebel groups and bandits in the north of their country'
16 January 2021 CAR refugees flee to Cameroon to escape violence: 16 January 2021: CAR refugees flee to Cameroon to escape violence, as Gado Refugee camp in Cameroon has become home to may escaping the increasing violence in the neighbouring country, and as about 60,000 people have fled over the last few weeks since six powerful rebel groups launched an offensive in CAR
Cameroon/Chad relations: Cameroon/Chad relations
17 August 2021 thousands flee deadly ethnic clashes to Chad according to UN: 17 August 2021: At least 10,000 people, mostly women and children, have fled into Chad from northern Cameroon this week after deadly clashes between herding and fishing communities, the UN said Sunday, as twelve people were killed and dozens wounded in the violence, which erupted Tuesday in the Far North region, a tongue of land wedged between Nigeria to the west and Chad to the east
Cameroon/France relations: Cameroon/France relations
1918-1960 French Cameroons: 1918-1960 French Cameroons was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Equatorial Africa, now forming part of the independent country of Cameroon
Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon: Since 1947 Union of the Peoples of Cameroon
December 1956 Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election: 23 December 1956 Cameroonian Territorial Assembly election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence party Cameroonian Union, which won 30 of the 70 seats - Cameroonian Union
September 1958 killing of Ruben Um Nyobé: 13 September 1958 killing of anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader Ruben Um Nyobé, slain by the French army near his natal village of Boumnyebel
November 1960 assassinaton of Félix-Roland Moumié: 3 November 1960 assassinaton of anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader Félix-Roland Moumié in Geneva by the French secret services SDECE with thallium, following official independence from France earlier that year
29 December 2019 ahead of Cameroon's 60th anniversary of independence from brutal and bloody France: 29 December 2019: On 1 January 2020 Cameroon will marks its 60th anniversary of independence, the first of 17 African countries that became free from their colonial masters in 1960, as Cameroon's fight for independence was brutal and bloody because French colonial troops sought to repress nationalist voices and fighters
Cameroon/Germany relations:
1881-1914 'Scramble for Africa': 'Scramble for Africa' invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1881 and 1914
1884–1916 'German Cameroon' African colony of the German Empire: 1884–1916 'German Cameroon' was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon, also including northern parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad and far eastern parts of Nigeria - German West Africa - Since 1885 German West African Company
1911-1916 'Neukamerun': 1911-1916 'Neukamerun' was the name of Central African territories ceded by France to Germany in 1911
1914-1916 Kamerun Campaign during World War I: 1914-1916 Kamerun Campaign during World War I, ending in a defeat for the German empire and the partition of its former colony between France and Britain
Cameroon/Nigeria relations: Cameroon/Nigeria relations
Border Dispute: Cameroon-Nigeria Border Dispute
Cooperation on fighting Boko Haram: Cooperation on fighting Boko Haram
Cameroon/United Kingdom relations: Cameroon/United Kingdom relations
1922-1961 British Cameroons: 1922-1961 British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa
February 1961 British Cameroons referendum: 11 February 1961 British Cameroons referendum
December 1961 British Cameroons parliamentary election: 30 December 1961 British Cameroons parliamentary election, resulting in a victory for the pro-independence Kamerun National Democratic Party, which won 24 of the 37 seats in the House of Assembly
Cameroon/USA relations: Cameroon/USA relations
9 November 2020 USA to send asylum seekers home to Cameroon despite 'death plane' warnings: 9 November 2020: The USA is expected to fly Cameroonian asylum seekers back to their home country on Tuesday despite fears that their lives will be at risk and reports that deportees repatriated last month are now missing, as some of the deportees are activists from the country’s anglophone minority, who face arrest warrants for their political activities from government forces with a well documented record of extrajudicial killings
Environment of Cameroon: Environment of Cameroon - Natural history of Cameroon - Geology of Cameroon - Volcanoes of Cameroon
Climate of Cameroon: Climate of Cameroon
Landforms and ecoregions of Cameroon: Landforms of Cameroon - Ecoregions of Cameroon - List of ecoregions in Cameroon
Forests of Cameroon: Forests of Cameroon
Mountain ranges of Cameroon: Mountain ranges of Cameroon - Mandara Mountains, a volcanic range extending about 190 km along the northern part of the Cameroon–Nigeria border, from the Benue River in the south to the north-west of Maroua in the north. The highest elevation is the summit of Mount Oupay, at 1,494m above sea level - Bakossi Mountains, a mountain range that forms part of the Cameroon line of active and extinct volcanoes in western Cameroon, covering about 230,000 square kilometres. The mountains lie in the regions of Littoral and the Southwest. The highest peak in this range is Mount Kupe at 2,064m, as they contain a large area of cloud forest, and have considerable ecological interest - Rumpi Hills are an undulating mountain range with its highest peak, Mount Rata about 1,800m, located between the villages of Dikome Balue and Mofako Balue, Ndian division in the Southwest region of Cameroon
Water in Cameroon: Water in Cameroon -
Rivers of Cameroon: Rivers of Cameroon - List of rivers of Cameroon
Benue River: Benue River known as the Chadda River or Tchadda, is the major tributary of the Niger River. The river is approximately 1,400 kilometres long and is almost entirely navigable during the summer months. As a result, it is an important transportation route in the regions through which it flows
Cross/Oyono River: Cross/Oyono River (native name Oyono), the main river in southeastern Nigeria and gives its name to Cross River State. It originates in Cameroon, where it takes the name of the Manyu River. Although not long by African standards its catchment has high rainfall and it becomes very wide. Over its last 80 kilometres to the sea its flows through swampy rainforest with numerous creeks and forms an inland delta near its confluence with the Calabar River
Rio del Rey: Rio del Rey, an estuary of a drainage basin in West Africa in Cameroon, located in the eastern area of the Niger River system. The Cameroon volcanic line separates Rio Del Rey from the Douala basin
Mungo River: Mungo River, a large river in Cameroon that drains the mountains in the southern portion of the Cameroon line of active and extinct volcanoes
Wouri river: Wouri river in Cameroon, as the country has two major rivers as longest the Sanaga and as largest the Wouri. The Wouri forms at the confluence of the rivers Nkam and Makombé, 32km northeast of the city of Yabassi. It then flows about 160km southeast to the Wouri estuary at Douala, the chief port and industrial city in southwestern Cameroon
Cameroon's four patterns of drainage: Cameroon has has four patterns of drainage. In the south, the principal rivers flow southwestward or westward directly to the Gulf of Guinea - including the Wouri, and lesser Dibamba, Bimbia and Mungo to the Cameroon estuary near Douala, Sanaga, Nyong, and Ntem further south along the coast, north of the coast Akwayafe and Manyu (which joins Nigerian Cross), and the lesser Ndian and Meme. The Dja and Kadeï, however, drain southeastward into the Congo River. In northern Cameroon, the Benoué River (Benue) runs north and west, eventually into the Niger, while the Logone River flows northward into Lake Chad
Natural disasters in Cameroon: Natural disasters in Cameroon
Volcanoes of Cameroon and country's and oceanic volcanic line: Volcanoes of Cameroon - List of volcanoes in Cameroon - Cameroon line, a 1,600km chain of volcanoes, including islands in the Gulf of Guinea and mountains that extend along the border region of eastern Nigeria and the Westen region of Cameroon, from Mount Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea north and east towards Lake Chad
Mount Cameroon as most recent eruption occurred in February 2012: Mount Cameroon, an active volcano in the South West region of Cameroon next to the city of Buea near the Gulf of Guinea. Mount Cameroon is also known as 'Mongo ma Ndemi', its indigenous name (Mountain of Greatness). It is the highest point in sub-Saharan western and central Africa, the fourth-most prominent peak in Africa, and the 31st-most prominent in the world, as the mountain is part of the area of volcanic activity known as the Cameroon Volcanic Line, which also includes Lake Nyos, the site of a disaster in 1986. The most recent eruption occurred in February 2012
August 1984 Lake Monoun disaster: 15 August 1984 Lake Monoun disaster, when the lake exploded in a limnic eruption, which resulted in the release of a large amount of carbon dioxide that killed 37 people
August 1986 Lake Nyos disaster: 21 August 1986 Lake Nyos disaster, when a limnic eruption at Lake Nyos, in northwestern Cameroon, produced a large cloud of carbon dioxide, which descended onto nearby villages, killing 1,746 people and 3,500 livestock
Floods in Cameroon:
October 2019 floods: 29 October 2019: Cameroon has deployed rescue workers and its military to search the wreckage of houses after a torrential downpour caused floods and a landslide that killed at least 13 people overnight in the western village of Bamoungoum near Bafoussam
August-September 2020 African Sahel floods: August-September 2020 African Sahel floods, affecting in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo Republic, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Senegal, and Tunisia, and killing hundreds of citizens
29 August 2021 Cameroon's main port city battles mounting flood peril: 29 August 2021: Cameroon's main port city battles mounting flood peril




Canary Islands - Canary Islands in pre-colonial times - Physiccal geography of the Canary Islands
Macaronésia islands collection of volcanic archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean: Macaronesia - Portuguese Macaronésia -, a collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean, off continental coasts. Each archipelago is made up of a number of Atlantic oceanic islands, which are formed by seamounts on the ocean floor and have peaks above the ocean's surface. Some of the Macaronesian islands belong politically today to Portugal, some belong to Spain, as the southern islands constitute the independent 'Republic of Cabo Verde'. Politically, the islands belonging to Portugal and Spain, today part of the EU. Geologically, Macaronesia is part of the African tectonic plate. Some of its islands – the Azores – are situated along the edge of that plate at the point where it abuts the Eurasian and North American plates. According to the European Environment Agency, the three European archipelagos constitute a unique bioregion, known as the 'Macaronesian Biogeographic Region'


Geology, geography, demographics, economy and agriculture of the Canary Islands: Geology of the Canary Islands, dominated by volcanic rock. The Canary Islands and some seamounts to the north-east form the Canary Volcanic Province whose volcanic history started about 70 million years ago. The Canary Islands region is still volcanically active. The most recent volcanic eruption on land occurred in 2021 and the most recent underwater eruption was in 2011-12. The Canary Islands are a 450 km long, east-west trending, archipelago of volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, 100–500 km off the coast of Northwest Africa. The islands are located on the African tectonic plate. The Canary Islands are an example of intraplate volcanism because they are located far (more than 600 km) from the edges of the African Plate
Volcanism of the Canary Islands: Volcanism of the Canary Islands
Volcanoes of the Canary Islands: Volcanoes of the Canary Islands
Cumbre Vieja mountain range and active volcano: Cumbre Vieja mountain range and an active volcano on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. The ridge of the Cumbre Vieja trends in an approximate north-south direction and covers the southern two-thirds of the island. Several volcanic craters are located on the summit ridge and flanks. It erupted twice in the 20th century, in 1949 (Volcán San Juan) and again in 1971 (Volcán Teneguía). The latest eruption started on 19 September 2021 and is currently ongoing
July 1949 volcano Cumbre Vieja eruption: July 1949 volcano Cumbre Vieja eruption
Since 19 September 2021 ongoing fissure eruption of the volcano Cumbre Vieja: Since 19 September 2021 La Palma eruption is an ongoing fissure eruption of the volcano Cumbre Vieja, one of the most active volcanos in the Canary Islands, Spain, on the island of La Palma - Impact of and reactions to the September 2021 volcano Cumbre Vieja eruption
3 October 2021 new eruptions from 'La Palma' island's Cumbre Vieja volcano: 3 October 2021: New eruptions from La Palma island's volcano as two new vents are causing further eruptions from the Cumbre Vieja volcano, and as authorities have advised people to limit their time outdoors on certain parts of the island
10 October 2021 new lava river threatens more buildings in La Palma: 10 October 2021: New lava river threatens more buildings in La Palma, as new lava stream follows a path down the Cumbre Vieja ridge towards the western shore of the island
15 October 2021 fast-flowing river of lava pours from La Palma volcano: 15 October 2021: Fast-flowing river of lava pours from La Palma volcano in Canary Islands pictured in video
Geography of the Canary Islands: Geographie der Kanarischen Inseln
Demographics of the Canary Islands: Demographics of the Canary Islands
Since 5th century BC 'antiguos canarios' social communities and extermination by European royal conquerors: Altkanarier - antiguos canarios - sind die sozialen Gemeinschaften, die vor der europäischen Eroberung im 15. Jahrhundert auf den Kanarischen Inseln lebten. Sie kamen vermutlich in mehreren Wellen zwischen dem 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. und dem 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr. aus dem Umkreis der Straße von Gibraltar. Nach dem 4. Jahrhundert lebten die Altkanarier bis in das 14. Jahrhundert in etwa steinzeitlichen Verhältnissen ohne Kontakt zur Außenwelt, abgeschieden auf den einzelnen Inseln. Nach dem Abschluss der Eroberung der Kanarischen Inseln im Auftrag der katholischen Könige von Kastilien am Ende des 15. Jahrhunderts führten Maßnahmen der Eroberer - gewissermaßen als 'Generalprobe' für die Eroberung Amerikas - dazu, dass die Altkanarier am Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts nicht länger als ethnische Gruppen existierten. - 'Aborígenes canarios' se aplica genéricamente a los diversos pueblos de origen bereber que habitaban las islas Canarias antes de la conquista y colonización castellana, que ocurrió entre 1402 y 1496
1402-1496 Castilian conquest of the Canary Islands: 1402-1496 Conquest of the Canary Islands by the royal regime of Castille that took place in the 15th century and can be divided into two periods, including the 'Conquista señorial', carried out by Castilian nobility in exchange for a covenant of allegiance to the crown, and the 'Conquista realenga', carried out by the Spanish crown itself, during the reign of the 'Catholic Monarchs'
Economy of the Canary Islands: Economy of the Canary Islands
Environment of the Canary Islands: Economy and environment of the Canary Islands
Agriculture of the Canaries islands: Gran Canaria agriculture is unique among the Canaries islands in that it was traditionally dominated by plantations, with much of these being grains as well as sugarcane, rather than by stock-breeding. The caves of Valerón (a property of cultural interest in the 'archaeological site' category) in the municipality of Santa María de Guía bears testimony of it by being the largest pre-Hispanic collective granary of the Canaries


'El Hierro' island: 'El Hierro', die westlichste der Kanarischen Inseln im Atlantischen Ozean. Sie gehört zur spanischen Provinz Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Mit 3,59 Prozent Anteil an der Landfläche des Archipels ist sie die kleinste der sieben traditionellen Hauptinseln. El Hierro ist 1.458 Kilometer vom spanischen Festland (Cádiz) entfernt, hat eine Fläche von 268,71 km² und 10.968 Einwohner (1. Januar 2019


'La Palma' island: La Palma - La Isla de San Miguel de La Palma - ist die nordwestlichste der Kanarischen Inseln im Atlantischen Ozean und gehört zur spanischen Provinz Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Ihre Hauptstadt ist Santa Cruz de La Palma, und ihre größte Gemeinde ist Los Llanos de Aridane. La Palma ist eine der geologisch jüngsten Inseln der Kanaren, deren Vulkanismus an vielen Kratern und Lavaströmen entlang der Vulkanroute auf der Cumbre Vieja und dem großen Krater der Caldera de Taburiente noch sichtbar ist. Sie ist mit 40 % Waldbedeckung im Vergleich zu den anderen Kanarischen Inseln die waldreichste und wird daher auch 'Isla Verde' genannt. Da La Palma vom Massentourismus verschont geblieben ist, haben viele Orte der Insel ihren ursprünglichen Charakter erhalten.
'Benahoaritas' people since 3rd century BC: Benahoaritas oder Auaritas waren die ersten bekannten Bewohner der Kanarischen Insel La Palma. Dauerhafte Siedlungen auf der Insel und Beziehungen zum Mittelmeerraum sind aus dem 3. Jahrhundert v. Chr. nachgewiesen. Ab dem 4. Jahrhundert n. Chr. lebten die Altkanarier ohne Kontakte zu den anderen Inseln. In den folgenden etwa 1000 Jahren entwickelten sie eine eigene Kultur. Nach der Eroberung der Kanarischen Inseln im Auftrag der Krone von Kastilien im 15. Jahrhundert wurden die Benahoaritas durch verschiedene Maßnahmen der Eroberer als eigenständige Ethnie ausgelöscht - Benahoarita, el término con el que se conoce al pueblo aborigen de la isla de 'La Palma' que habitaba la misma antes de la conquista europea a finales del siglo xv. Se trata de uno de los pueblos aborígenes de Canarias entroncados genética y culturalmente con los bereberes del norte de África - Modo de vida, economía y subsistencia: Los benahoaritas poseían una economía fundamentalmente ganadera, basada en la cría de cabras, ovejas y cerdos que habían traído consigo desde el continente junto con el perro, que ayudaba al pastor en su trabajo, y el gato
Berichte über Fahrten ins 'Äußere Meer' aus dem 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. von karthagischen Seefahrern: Erste historisch glaubhafte Berichte über Fahrten durch die Straße von Gibraltar ins 'Äußere Meer', gemeint ist der Atlantik, stammen aus dem 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. von den karthagischen Seefahrern Hanno und Himilkon, von der Küstenbeschreibung (Periplus) des Pseudo-Skylax sowie bei Herodot über den Griechen Pytheas - a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geschichte_der_Kanarischen_Inseln">Die Unterwerfung der Kanarischen Inseln unter die Herrschaft der Krone von Kastilien fand zwischen 1403 und 1496 statt. Man kann bei diesem Vorgang zwei Zeitabschnitte unterscheiden: Die herrschaftliche Eroberung der 'Islas de Señorío' (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, El Hierro und La Gomera) die im Rahmen einer Lehensherrschaft durchgeführt wurde, und die Eroberung der 'Islas de Realengo' (Gran Canaria, La Palma und Teneriffa), die direkt im Auftrag der Krone zur Zeit der Katholischen Könige stattfand
14. Jahrhundert 'Wiederentdeckung' der Kanarischen Inseln im 14. Jahrhundert durch spanisch/portugiesische Seefahrer: Im 14. Jahrhundert 'Wiederentdeckung' der Kanarischen Inseln im 14. Jahrhundert durch Seefahrer der spanisch/portugiesischen Königreiche
15. Jahrhundert Unterwerfungsversuche durch Europäer uns Eroberung: Im 15. Jahrhundert Unterwerfungsversuche durch Europäer, 'Rechtsgutachten' zu den Eigentums- und Herrschaftsrechten an den kanarischen Inseln zur Vorbereitung der Eroberung, Ende des Jahrhunderts Eroberung, Verteilung der Land- und Wasserrechte unter neuen Herrschaftsverhältnissen, Eingliederung 'La Palmas' in die Reiche der Krone von Kastilien
1492-1493 Eroberung der Insel La Palma durch kastilische Truppen: 1492-1493 Eroberung der Insel La Palma durch kastilische Truppen, die begann mit der Landung von 700 Soldaten in der Nähe der heutigen Stadt Tazacorte am 29. September 1492 und mit der Gefangennahme Tanausús, des Herrschers des Gebietes Aceró im Mai 1493 endete. Die Unterwerfung der Benahoaritas, der Ureinwohner der Insel, bereitete den Kastiliern nur in einem der zwölf Herrschaftsgebieten Probleme, bis die Insel am Ende des 15. Jahrhunderts aufgeteilt war
Seit 1500 Kolonialzeit und sich entwiekelnder Welthandel: Kolonialzeit und Entwicklung bis ins 18. Jahrhundert, La Palma wurde für die Spanier zu einer wichtigen Zwischenstation auf dem Weg nach Westindien. Im 16. Jahrhundert bekam La Palma nach Antwerpen und Sevilla das Privileg, mit Amerika Handel zu treiben. Schnell entwickelte sich Santa Cruz de La Palma zu einem der wichtigsten Häfen des spanischen Reiches der katholischen Könige
Cities and municipalities in La_Palma: Municipalities in La_Palma
Santa Cruz de La Palma city: Santa Cruz de La Palma, die Hauptstadt der Kanarischen Insel La Palma und eine Gemeinde. In der Hauptstadt selbst leben 15.711 Einwohner in 2016. Die Gemeinde liegt unterhalb der bewaldeten Berghänge der Cumbres - Cumbre Nueva und Cumbre Vieja - auf der östlichen Seite der Insel. Zwischen Küste und Cumbres liegt ein nur schmaler Uferstreifen, so dass sich die Bebauung an den Berghängen hinauf erstreckt
Timeline and history of Santa Cruz de La Palma city: History of Santa Cruz de La Palma city and timweline since the early period of transcontinental foreign trade between Europe and the Americas in the 16th century
25 September 2021 residents warned of Cumbre Vieja ‘evolution of volcanic emergency’: 25 September 2021: People evacuated from three more towns on the Spanish island of La Palma have been told they will not be able to return to their homes to retrieve their belongings because of the Cumbre Vieja 'evolution of the volcanic emergency', as rivers of lava raced down the volcano and exploded high into the air on Friday night and the airport was closed as an eruption intensified and entered its most explosive phase so far
26 September 2021 Cumbre Vieja eruption live: 26 de septiembre de 2021: Erupción del volcán Cumbre Vieja de La Palma, en vivo
15 October 2021 fast-flowing river of lava pours from La Palma volcano: 15 October 2021: Fast-flowing river of lava pours from La Palma volcano in Canary Islands pictured in video, as lava continues to gush from the volcano, as emergency crews gave people living between the towns of Tazacorte and La Laguna a few hours to collect their belongings and pets and go to a meeting point. Nearly 600 hectares of land and more than 1,000 homes have been destroyed since the eruption began in September


'La Gomera' island: 'La Gomera', nach El Hierro die zweitkleinste der sieben Hauptinseln des Kanarischen Archipels im Atlantischen Ozean. La Gomera liegt rund 1300 Kilometer vom spanischen und 300 Kilometer vom afrikanischen Festland entfernt. Die Entfernung vom nächstgelegenen Fährhafen Los Cristianos auf Teneriffa beträgt 38 Kilometer. Bei einer Fläche von 369,76 km² hat die Insel einen Flächenanteil an der Gesamtfläche aller Kanaren von 4,94 Prozent. Im Jahr 2013 hatte La Gomera 21.503 Einwohner.


'Teneriffa' island: 'Teneriffa', die größte der Kanarischen Inseln - Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, a province of Spain, consisting of the western part of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. It consists of about half of the Atlantic archipelago. including the islands of Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro, and La Palma. It occupies an area of 3,381 km2, also includng a series of adjacent roques (those of Salmor, Fasnia, Bonanza, Garachico and Anaga). Its capital is the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife


'Gran Canaria' island: 'Gran Canaria', die drittgrößte der Kanarischen Inseln - Gran Canaria, the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, and an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. As of 2019 the island had a population of 851,231 inhabitants that constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, capital city of this province and of the island of Gran Canaria, is the largest city in the Canary Islands.


'Fuerteventura' island: 'Fuerteventura', die zweitgrößte Insel des Archipels - Fuerteventura of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, part of the North Africa region, and politically part of Spain. At 1,660 square kilometres it is the second largest of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife. As at the start of 2019, Fuerteventura had 116,886 inhabitants, the least populated of the Province of Las Palmas. It was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in May 2009. Its capital is Puerto del Rosario


'Lanzarote' island: 'Lanzarote', die nordöstlichste der acht bewohnten Kanarischen Inseln - Lanzarote island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, located approximately 125 kilometres off the north coast of Africa and 1,000 kilometres from the Iberian Peninsula. Covering 845.94 square kilometres, Lanzarote is the fourth-largest of the islands in the archipelago. With 152,289 inhabitants at the start of 2019, it is the third most populous Canary Island, after Tenerife and Gran Canaria




Cape Verde
Geography of Cape Verde: Geography of Cape Verde, a group of arid Atlantic islands located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean some 450km off the west coast of the continent of Africa, that constitute the unique Cape Verde Islands dry forests ecoregion which are home to distinct communities of plants, birds, and reptiles. The archipelago consists of ten islands and five islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The six islands in the Barlavento group are Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, and Boa Vista. The islands in the Sotavento group are Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava. All but Santa Luzia are inhabited in 2021. Three islands – Sal, Boa Vista, and Maio – generally are level and lack natural water supplies. Mountains higher than 1,280 metres - including active volcanoes - are found on Santiago, Fogo, Santo Antão, and São Nicolau.
History of Cape Verde begins possibly going back around 2000 years: Recorded history of Cape Verde begins with Portuguese discovery in 1456. Possible early references go back around 2000 years
Economy and agriculture of Cape Verde: Economy of Cape Verde, a service-oriented economy that is focused on commerce, trade, transport and public services. Cape Verde is a small archipelagic nation that lacks resources and has experienced severe droughts. Agriculture is made difficult by lack of rain and is restricted to only four islands for most of the year. Cape Verde's economy has been steadily growing since the late 1990s, and it is now officially considered a country of average development, being only the second African country to have achieved such transition
Politics and elections in Cape Verde: Politics of Cape Verde - Elections in Cape Verde, as president is elected for a five-year term by the people, and as the National Assembly has 72 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. Cape Verde has a two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party.
18 April 2021 Cape Verdean parliamentary election: 18 April 2021 Cape Verdean parliamentary election
15 October 2021 voters in the island nation of Cape Verde are set to cast ballots on Sunday: 15 October 2021: Voters in the island nation of Cape Verde are set to cast ballots on Sunday to elect the country’s next president, as the polls mark the end of the second and last mandate of fourth president in Cape Verde’s history Jorge Carlos Fonseca since the country’s independence from Portugal in 1975. A second round of voting is provisionally scheduled for October 31, if no single candidate receives a majority
17 October 2021 Cape Verdean presidential election: 17 October 2021 Cape Verdean presidential election - 17 October 2021: Cape Verdeans are heading to the polls in their general election, with seven presidential candidates in the running, including former PMs Carlos Veiga and José Maria Neves, as country has struggled to revive its tourism-driven economy in the midst of covid-19 pandemic, and has been hit by inflation according to AFP
18 October 2021 opposition candidate Jose Neves wins Cape Verde election: 18 October 2021: Opposition candidate and former PM 2000-2016 Jose Maria Neves won Cape Verde’s presidential election on Sunday with 51.7% of the vote, as the ruling party’s flagbearer Carlos Veiga conceded defeat, as Neves will inherit the responsibility for stabilising the Atlantic archipelago nation’s tourism-driven economy after the covid-19 pandemic drove it deep into recession, and as transfer of power will be the fourth between the MpD and Paicv since independence from Portugal in 1975, consolidating Cape Verde’s status as one of Africa’s most stable democracies
Barlavento Islands: Barlavento Islands, the northern group of the Cape Verde archipelago. It presents as two sub-groups including in the west Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santa Luzia and islets Branco and Raso are volcanic and somewhat rocky yet quite widely capable of supporting semi-arid agriculture, and in the east Sal and Boa Vista, lightly-hilled, desert islands whose economies were based on salt and rely on fishing and tourism, having more in common with the Sotavento island Maio
Sotavento Islands: Sotavento Islands, the southern island group of the Cape Verde archipelago. There are four main islands. The western three islands, Brava, Fogo and Santiago, are rocky and volcanic agricultural islands, with the longest histories of human habitation. The fourth and easternmost island Maio is a flat desert island whose economy was primarily based on salt, giving it more in common with the Barlavento islands Sal and Boa Vista.
Santiago island: Santiago island, the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation's population. Part of the Sotavento Islands, it lies between the islands of Maio 26 km to the east and Fogo 55 kilometres to the west. It was the first of the islands to be settled: the town of Ribeira Grande (now Cidade Velha and a UNESCO World Heritage Site was founded in 1462. Santiago is home to the nation's capital city of Praia
History of Santiago island: History of Santiago island
Since 15th century town of Ribeira Grande platform for the Atlantic trade of enslaved African persons: At the end of the 15th century Ribeira Grande was the first European colonial town to be built in the tropics, marking a decisive step in European expansion towards Africa and the Atlantic area. Ribeira Grande was subsequently, in the 16th and 17th centuries, a key port of call for Portuguese colonisation and its administration. It was an exceptional centre in the routes for international maritime trade, included in the routes between Africa and the Cape, Brazil and the Caribbean. Its insular position, isolated but close to the coasts of Africa, made it an essential platform for the Atlantic trade of enslaved persons of modern times, a place of concentration of enslaved persons and the inhuman practices of the trade of enslaved persons
April 1781 Battle of Porto Praya during the American Revolutionary War: April 1781 Battle of Porto Praya, a naval battle that took place during the American Revolutionary War between a British squadron and a French squadron
Cidade Velha, from city to village: Cidade Velha city/village in the southern part of the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Founded in 1462, it is the oldest settlement in Cape Verde and its former capital.
Praia city: Praia city, the capital and largest city of Cape Verde. Located on the southern coast of Santiago island, within the Sotavento Islands group, the city is the seat of the Praia Municipality. Praia is the economic, political, and cultural center of Cape Verde.
Economy of Praia and 21st century's poverty: Economy of Praia, including are extensive commerce, services (health care, education, tourism, restaurants and hotels, public functions, etc.), and other activities of a liberal character. Praia is one of the most economically viable cities in the Cape Verde archipelago, but about one third of the city's population lives below the poverty line today (2014
Foreign relations of Cape Verde: Foreign relations of Cape Verde




Central African Republic - Geography of the Central African Republic - History of the Central African Republic - French colony 1894-1940 (1960) - French territory Ubangi-Shari 1903-1960 - Decolonisation 1940-1960 - Independence 1960 - Demographics of the Central African Republic
Economy of the Central African Republic: Economy of the Central African Republic - main industries are gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles - Companies of the Central African Republic by industry
Mining industry of the CAR: Mining industry of the Central African Republic - 25 June 2013: At least 37 people were killed when a gold mine collapsed at Ndassima in the middle of the Central African Republic
Energy in the Central African Republic: Energy in the Central African Republic
Agriculture in the Central African Republic: Agriculture in the Central African Republic - cultivation of foodcrops such as yams, cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantains
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic
Rivers of the Central African Republic: List of rivers of the Central African Republic - The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone Rive - Logone River - The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, located in Central Africa - Ubangi River, the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa, beginning at the confluence of the Mbomou and Uele Rivers and flowing west, forming the border between Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Lake Chad: Lake Chad
Tourism in the CAR: Tourism in the Central African Republic - Visitor attractions in the Central African Republic - National parks of the CAR - World Heritage Sites in the CAR
Banking and banks of Central African States: Bank of Central African States
Since 1960 CAR's economic history and economic cycles: Since 1960 independence CAR's economic history and development
1980–2017 macroeconomic development and overview: 1980–2017 macroeconomic development and overview, showing main economic indicators
Labour and trade unions in the CAR: Trade unions in the Central African Republic
Central African Armed Forces: Central African Armed Forces
Budget and taxation in the Central African Republic: Taxation in the CAR - CAR government budget 2002-2014 - deficit equal to 5.7% of the country's GDP in 2013
2014 budget: 11 June 2014: CAR approves 2014 budget, 10% higher than that of 2013, with funds drawn mostly from external donations that aim to strengthen security and boost humanitarian assistance
Politics of the Central African Republic: Politics of the Central African Republic - Since 1964 Constitution of the Central African Republic and amendments
Political parties in the CAR: Political parties in the Central African Republic
Trade unions in the CAR: Trade unions in the Central African Republic
Elections in the Central African Republic: Elections in the Central African Republic
2011 CAR general election: Central African Republic general election 2011 - National Convergence 'Kwa Na Kwa' and François Bozizé re-elected
2012/2013-2014 Central African Republic conflict: 2012/2013-2014 Central African Republic conflict - Since December 2012 Central African Republic Civil War
Since December 2012 timeline of the CAR Civil War: Since December 2012 timeline of the Central African Republic Civil War
May 2015 CAR peace forum calls for transitional authorities to delay planned elections amid concerns: 10 May 2015: Central African Republic peace forum calls for transitional authorities to delay planned elections amid concerns - 19 June 2015: Central African Republic will hold presidential and parliamentary elections on October 18, spokesman says
December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum: 13 December 2015 Central African constitutional referendum - 13 décembre 2015: Des tirs à l'arme lourde ont frappé dimanche le quartier musulman PK5, où s'affrontaient partisans et opposants du référendum constitutionnel
2015/2016 CAR general election: 27 December 2015 parliamentary election and first round of the presidential election and 31 January 2016 presidential runoff election will be held in the CAR after being postponed from 18 October 2015 due to violence and instability - 24 December 2015: Elections scheduled to take place in the CAR on Sunday postponed by three days until 30 December - 30 décembre 2015: Les Centrafricains votent pour une présidentielle et des législatives après trois ans de violences intercommunautaires - 31 décembre: La Centrafrique a voté dans le calme
February 2016 ex-PM Touadera wins CAR presidential vote: 2 janvier 2016: L'ancien PM Touadéra en tête de la présidentielle - 14 February 2016: Voters in the CAR are going to the polls for the second round of presidential elections, seen as step to restore peace, stability and democratic government - 20 February 2016: Ex-PM Touadera wins Central African Republic presidential vote
February 2019: 3 février 2019: Le gouvernement de Centrafrique et 14 groupes armés sont sur le point de finaliser un accord de consensus afin de stabiliser la région - 5 février 2019: Nouvel accord de paix signé
June 2019: 21 juin 2019: Des violations de l'accord de paix pour la Centrafrique conclu le 6 février sont commises chaque jour par des groupes armés, a indiqué jeudi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour ce pays, Mankeur Ndiaye
19 December 2020 CAR government denounces president’s 'coup d’état attempt': 19 December 2020: President Bozizé has been accused of an 'attempted coup d’etat in the middle of an election period' by the CAR government after announcing the formation of the 'Coalition of Patriots for Change' comprised of three armed groups that is conducting an offensive in several localities in the west of the country
19 December 2020 UN deploys peacekeepers to thwart election disruption attempts: 19 December 2020: UN deploys peacekeepers to thwart election disruption attempts amid growing political tensions
20 December 2020 UN deployed peacekeeping forces in Bossemptélé and Bossembélé: 20 December 2020: UN deployed peacekeeping forces on Friday in Bossemptélé and Bossembélé v two localities reportedly seized in the Ombella-M'Poko region by armed elements of the 3R, the MPC and anti-Balaka
21 December 2020 UN says situation in CAR 'under control': 21 décembre 2020: La situation est 'sous contrôle' en Centrafrique, a assuré dimanche soir à l’AFP le porte-parole de la force de l’ONU dans le pays après le début d’une offensive de rebelles et après les rebelles ont été bloqués ou repoussés dans plusieurs localités
23 December 2020 CAR opposition seeks to replace the incumbent in Sunday's poll: 23 December 2020: Political pressure reportedly mounting both in the opposition camps and the ruling party as both sides wrestle to take control of the government through the ballot, as with the support of former president Bozizé, Anicet-Georges Dologuélénow appears as the most capable opposition candidate against Faustin Archange Touadera, who is the favorite in the poll on December 27 with a total of 1.8 million voters
24 December 2020 people marched in the capital of the CAR to demand peace as rebel groups declare ceasefire: 24 December 2020: Hundreds of people marched in the capital Bangui of the CAR to demand peace three days before the presidential election takes place, as rebel groups declare ceasefire ahead of CAR's tense election
26 December 2020 UN peacekeepers killed as CAR election chaos escalates: 26 December 2020: Three UN peacekeepers killed as CAR election chaos escalates despite people's demands and condemnation of violence in their country, and after president Touadera held his closing campaign rally in Bangui on Friday, flanked by murderous Putin regime's (from Russia), Rwandan and UN guards
27 December 2020 Central African Republic general elections: 27 December 2020 Central African Republic general elections to elect the president and National Assembly, as - if no presidential candidate receives more than 50% of the vote - a second round of the presidential elections will take place on 14 February 2021
27 December 2020 gun shots, attacks as Central Africans vote: 27 December 2020: Gun shots, attacks as Central Africans vote, as Touadera was keen to show his nervous compatriots that the vote was being held despite renewed rebel violence in the countryside, as Africa News' Thierry Nzam said there was a very unusual security presence in Bangui on Sunday, adding that 'people went out to vote but the exercise was disrupted by armed groups', and as opposition parties had expressed fears that voting would not be possible outside Bangui where armed groups and militias exert control
28 December 2020 locals air mixed feelings in the aftermath of CAR general election: 28 December 2020: Locals air mixed feelings in the aftermath of CAR general election
31 December 2020 CAR's incumbent president reportedly on track to win the elections: 31 December 2020: CAR's incumbent president Touadera is on track to win the elections, his party said on Thursday despite the initial results of Sunday's elections only just coming in
27 December 2019 many killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in Banu district: 27 December 2019: At least 30 people were killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in a restive district of the capital Bangui
3 January 2021 several armed groups attacked and took over Bangassou amid series of attacks: 3 January 2021: Several armed groups attacked and took over Bangassou town, located more than 700 kilometers from Bangui in the CAR, on early Sunday morning, a day after the first presidential results were announced, as attack came a day after armed groups waged a dawn assault on the town of Damara, around 70 kilometres north of the capital Bangui, and as since 19 December a coalition of rebel groups, which occupies two thirds of the CAR, has been carrying out offensive to disrupt the presidential and legislative elections that took place on December 27
14 February 2021 Central African general election second round: 2020–21 Central African general election second round of the legislative elections on 14 February 2021, as voting in the first round was not able to take place in many areas of the country controlled by armed groups and as some 800 of the country's polling stations, 14% of the total, were closed due to violence and voting was unable to take place in 29 of the 71 sub-prefectures, while six others only managed to partially vote before being shut down due to voter intimidation, while preliminary results on 4 January 2021 showed that president Touadera won reelection with 54% of the vote and turnout was 76.3% of registered voters
15 January 2021 60,000 people fled CAR violence in one week says UNHCR: 15 January 2021: The number of people who have fled violence in the CAR since December 'doubled in one week' to reach 60,000 people, according to UNHCR
16 January 2021 CAR refugees flee to Cameroon: 16 January 2021: CAR refugees flee to Cameroon to escape violence, as Gado Refugee camp in Cameroon has become home to may escaping the increasing violence in the neighbouring country, and as about 60,000 people have fled over the last few weeks since six powerful rebel groups launched an offensive in CAR
21 January 2021 CAR declares state of emergency: 21 January 2021: CAR declares state of emergency for the next 15 days throughout the country as a coalition of armed groups seeks to overthrow re-elected president
22 January 2021 insecurity is affecting humanitarian workers in the CAR: 22 January 2021: Over a hundred humanitarian workers of several organisations have abandoned their offices, finding refuge within the United Nations MISSA since the occupation of Bangassou city by elements of the Coalition of Patriots for Change
25 January 2021 CAR suffers food shortages as rebels cut off capital: 25 January 2021: Central African Republic suffers food shortages as rebels cut off capital, and as state of emergency declared after armed opposition forces attack convoy carrying supplies and blockade the city of Bangui
February 2020–21 Central African general election second round: 14 February 2020–21 Central African general election second round
16 February 2021 city of Bangassou now a ghost town: 16 February 2021: When rebels came to the CAR city of Bangassou, the area's top official Pierrette Benguere was forced to hole up in a UN base for a month, as now Bangassou, formerly home to around 30,000 people, is a ghost town, its plight symbolic not only of the recent rebellion but also of a long-running struggle to reassert the presence of the state in a country where most of the territory is lawless
14 March 2021 second round Central African general election: 14 March 2021 second round Central African general election, as on 13 February 2021 president Touadéra announced a second round of elections in some areas and a new first round in areas that were controlled by rebels during the December elections, respective elections for all areas will be held
15 December 2021 EU suspends mission because Putin regime's 'Wagner' paramilitary organization: 15 décembre 2021: L'Union européenne a annoncé mettre temporairement fin à ses missions de formation de soldats en Centrafrique. Celles-ci pourront reprendre quand l'UE aura reçu 'l'assurance que les militaires centrafricains formés ne seront pas employés par les mercenaires de Wagner'.
14 mai 2022 plusieurs civils tués dans l'attaque d'un village par des rebelles: 14 mai 2022: Dix civils ont été tués la semaine passée, dans l'attaque du village de Bokolobo situé à 400 km au nord-est de Bangui selon la Mission des Nations unies Minusca, qui accuse le groupe rebelle 'Unité pour la Paix en Centrafrique UPC'
Protests, social and political movements in the CAR: Protests, social and political movements in the CAR
24 December 2020 people marched in the capital of the CAR to demand peace as rebel groups declare ceasefire: 24 December 2020: Hundreds of people marched in the capital Bangui of the CAR to demand peace three days before the presidential election takes place, as rebel groups declare ceasefire ahead of CAR's tense election
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Central African Republic: Central African society
Human rights in the Central African Republic: Human rights in the Central African Republic
Since 19th/20th century colonial exploitation, violence, conflicts, human rights and law enforcement in the CAR: Since 19th/20th century Human Rights violations in the Central African Republic - Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007: Central African Republic Bush War 2004–2007 - Rebel group 'Union of Democratic Forces for Unity' - 13 April 2007: Central African Republic and rebels sign peace deal
2012-2014 Central African Republic conflict: Central African Republic conflict 2012–present - 25 décembre: La coalition Séléka s’empare de Bambari - 25 December 2012: Rebels waging offensive in Central African Republic seize town of Kaga-Bandoro, bringing them closer to the capital - 27 December: As rebels advance on capital Francois Bozize appeals for help securing city of Bangui, as UN pulls out non-essential staff - 29 December: The government of the CAR and rebels agree to hold talks as heavy fighting is reported in Bambari seized by rebels and as ECCAS foreign ministers are due to discuss the crisis at a meeting - 30 December: Rebels have met with the head of the African Union and have said they are ready to consider a coalition offer, but added that their aim is not to join the government
January 2013: 2 January 2013: Rebels say they have halted their advance on the capital and would participate in dialogue, as head of regional African forces warned them against making further moves - 5 January: UN Security Council urges Seleka rebels to halt offensive in Central African Republic and retreat from captured towns - 5 January: Seleka rebels take control of Alindao shortly after UN's call - 5 janvier: Face à l'offensive du Séléka, les Centrafricains ont fui la ville de Damarra, proche de la capitale - 6 January 2013: Up to 400 armed South African soldiers have been deployed to the CAR while Chad has sent hundreds of forces and Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo have already sent an estimated 120 troops each - 11 January: Ceasefire agreement signed after Gabon talks including a national unity pact between the political opposition and government of President Bozize
March 2013: 22 March 2013: Rebels in the Central African Republic were advancing on the capital Bangui on Friday after defeating a multinational African force - 24 mars: Tirs et détonations à Bangui - 24 March: President Bozize fled the capital, hours after hundreds of armed rebels threatening to overthrow him invaded the city - 25 March: Armed groups reportedly carrying out widespread looting as Bangui residents remain in homes out of fear - 26 March: CAR rebel chief 'suspends constitution' and pledges to dissolve parliament - 29 March: Foreigners fleeing Bangui described scenes of terror during last weekend’s coup d’état - 29 March: The Red Cross says that it has 'found 78 bodies' in the streets of the capital Bangui since it was seized last weekend by the Seleka rebel coalition - 29 March: Coup leader Djotodia, who seized power last week, said he would review resource deals signed by the previous government and promised to step down at elections in 2016
April 2013: 18 April: ECCAS to send 2,000 peacekeepers to CAR
September 2013: 11 septembre: Des combats entre la Séléka et les pro-Bozizé font près de 100 morts - 13 September: CAR’s Djotodia dissolves Seleka rebel group
December 2013: 4 December: At least 12 people, including children and a pregnant woman, have been killed close to the capital Bangui by Christian vigilantes - 5 décembre: Des tirs à l'arme lourde dans plusieurs quartiers de Bangui, vote d’une résolution à l’ONU autorisant une opération militaire aujourd'hui - 5 décembre: L'ONU autorise une intervention française en Centrafrique - 6 décembre: L'opération française a commencé avec des patrouilles dans Bangui - 8 décembre: L'armée française chargée de désarmer 'tous les groupes armés' - 9 December: French troops to begin disarming CAR rebels - 11 décembre: Les soldats français, qui ont perdu lundi deux des leurs, poursuivent le périlleux désarmement des groupes armés à Bangui - 19 December: The death toll from a two-day rampage by mostly Muslim ex-rebels in the CAR capital Bangui two weeks ago reportedly was much higher than first thought - 21 December: Fresh sectarian clashes erupt in Bangui - 23 December: African Union troops fire on protesters in Bangui, reportedly killing one person - 26 décembre: 5 soldats tchadiens tués dans des combats à Bangui - 26 décembre: Coups de feu et panique à Bangui - 27 December: Dozens of bodies recovered in Bangui after fierce fighting in the last two days - 27 December: The UN says more than 200,000 have fled the fighting in Bangui
January 2014: 2 January: Clashes between Muslims and Christians in Bangui killed at least three people as angry residents reportedly threw grenades and torched homes - 7 January: Violence displaces one million people in Central African Republic, UN says - 9 janvier: Sommet extraordinaire des États d’Afrique centrale et rumeurs donnant le président centrafricain Djotodia sur le départ - 11 January: After CAR's interim President Djotodia resigned on Friday, stranded foreigners to be evacuated - 11 January: Celebrations in Bangui after Djotodia’s resignation - 12. Januar: Nach dem Rücktritt Djotodias sind bei Unruhen in Bangui mindestens acht Menschen getötet worden - 13 janvier: Des centaines de soldats de l'armée rejoignent le commandement - 19. Januar: Tödlicher Angriff auf muslimischen Flüchtlingskonvoi vor EU Entscheidung über Militärintervention - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to CAR to stop clashes - 19 January: Bodies burnt in street of Bangui - 21 January: Bangui mayor Catherine Samba-Panza has been elected interim president of the CAR - 24 January: Former CAR health minister Kalite killed by Christian militia - 27 January: The security situation in the CAR is getting even worse despite the inauguration of a new leader, the UN human rights chief says - 29 January: UN security council authorises the deployment of a EU force to the CAR to bolster French and African troops trying to quell sectarian violence - 31 January: Fighting in Bangui reportedly left 43 people dead in four days
February-April 2014: 5 February: CAR soldiers reportedly lynched a man accused of being a Seleka rebel, as violence continues to afflict the country - 9 February: Clashes in Bangui leave at least ten people dead - 10 March: Christian militias reportedly take bloody revenge on Muslims in CAR, also targeting children - 29 March: Eleven people including three children killed after a grenade exploded among mourners gathered for a funeral in a Christian district of Bangui - 4 April 2014: Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than 300 in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 28 April: Peacekeepers have escorted more than 1,200 Muslims out of Bangui
May 2014: 1 May: EU force takes control of security at the CAR's main airport - 6 May: At least 28 people reportedly killed during several days of fighting between Muslim and Christian militias in Mala 300 km north of Bangui - 29 May: Suspected Muslim gunmen kill at least 30 people in an attack on a Christian church at a refugee camp in Bangui where hundreds of civilians had sought refuge from violence - 29/30 May: Mosque in Bangui destroyed following church attack, as international peacekeepers face criticism for slow response to deadly church raid
October 2014: 9 October 2014: At least 12 killed in violent clashes in Bangui, marking the most significant violence since UN force took over peacekeeping last month - 10 October 2014: A Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui
2015: 8 August 2015: A Rwandan soldier serving with the UN peacekeeping mission in CAR has shot dead four Rwandan troops and wounded eight others before killing himself - 27 September 2015: At least 21 people have been killed, following the killing of a Muslim man in Bangui, and about 100 others wounded as Muslims attacked a mainly Christian neighbourhood, a government spokesman says - 29 September: Hundreds break out of main jail in Bangui after days of violence that have seen about 30 deaths, as interim president Catherine Samba-Panza attends UN general assembly - 11 novembre 2015: De nationalité camerounaise un soldat de l'ONU tué dans des affrontements dans le nord de la Centrafrique
2016: 21 juillet 2016: La rébellion de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur a enlevé près de 350 personnes et 17 autres tué dans 122 attaques en Centrafrique au premier semestre 2016, un record depuis six ans, selon un rapport des ONG - 29 octobre 2016: Au moins 25 personnes, dont six gendarmes, ont été tuées en Centrafrique, lors de violences déclenchées par des groupes armés dans la ville de Bambari et ses environs, selon l'ONU - 24 November 2016: Two days of fighting between armed groups in Central African Republic's town of Bria have left 16 people dead, including civilians, while 10,000 have fled their homes, UN's peacekeeping mission Minusca says - 26 November 2016: United Nations’ genocide official says he has reports that militia fighters in the CAR hunted down and massacred members of the Fulani ethnic group during violence that killed 85 civilians this week
2017: 21 June 2017: Intense fighting in the Central African Republic killed at least 40 people on Tuesday and injured dozens more - 3 juillet 2017: Une quinzaine de personnes sont mortes dans la ville de Kaga-Bandoro lors d'échanges de tirs entre des éléments armés de l'ex-Séléka et les Casques bleus de la mission de l'ONU - 9 August 2017: At least 60 people have been killed in recent weeks in fighting between armed groups in Ngaoundaye and Batangafo in the north, Kaga-Bandoro in the centre and Alindao and Gambo to the south, witnesses say - 13 November 2017: 7 people killed in grenade attack at peace concert in Central African Republic’s capital Bangui - 27 November 2017: Suspected Christian militias killed an Egyptian UN peacekeeper and wounded three others in an attack in southern Central African Republic on Sunday, UN says
March-May 2018: 1 mars 2018: Six travailleurs humanitaires, dont un de l'Unicef, ont été tués dans le nord-ouest de la Centrafrique - 9 March 2018: Militia committed mass rape in Central African Republic, according to Medecins Sans Frontieres - 11 avril 2018: Une centaine de blessés, un Casque bleu tué dans une nouvelle vague de violences qui secoue Bangui depuis dimanche - 1 May 2018: UN's Najat Rochdi condemns the new wave of violence in Bangui that led to the deaths of several civilians - 1/2 May 2018: At least 15 people including a priest were killed and scores wounded in CAR’s capital Bangui on Tuesday when unidentified gunmen attacked a church - 8 May 2018: At least two people were killed and ten injured in shooting exchanges in Bangui, according to hospital
November 2018 CAR risks sliding into full-scale war: 16 November 2018: Central African Republic risks sliding into full-scale war, after the UN security council failed to agree terms for extending a peacekeeping mission in the country, Norwegian Refugee Council's Jan Egeland has warned, saying international efforts to solve the crisis were failing and civilians were routinely being targeted, calling for an urgent review of the humanitarian response in 2019, ahead of the country’s 2020 elections, which it is feared may lead to a further escalation of violence
June 2019 peace deal violations: 21 juin 2019: Des violations de l'accord de paix pour la Centrafrique conclu le 6 février sont commises chaque jour par des groupes armés, a indiqué jeudi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour ce pays, Mankeur Ndiaye
July 2019 deadly clashes in Bangui: 12 July 2019: Four people have been killed in fresh deadly clashes in Bangui, as 26 others were injured during clashes between shopkeepers and militiamen
27 December 2019 many killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in Banu district: 27 December 2019: At least 30 people were killed in fighting between militiamen and traders in a restive district of the capital Bangui
3 January 2021 several armed groups attacked and took over Bangassou amid series of attacks: 3 January 2021: Several armed groups attacked and took over Bangassou town, located more than 700 kilometers from Bangui in the CAR, on early Sunday morning, a day after the first presidential results were announced, as attack came a day after armed groups waged a dawn assault on the town of Damara, around 70 kilometres north of the capital Bangui, and as since 19 December a coalition of rebel groups, which occupies two thirds of the CAR, has been carrying out offensive to disrupt the presidential and legislative elections that took place on December 27
13 January 2021 security forces repelled attacks by rebels trying to seize Bangui: 13 January 2021: Security forces in CAR repelled attacks by rebels trying to seize the capital early Wednesday after intense fighting on the city's outskirts, as rebels are protesting the re-election of president Touadera, and after they said they had also taken towns in other parts of the country before the election
15 January 2021 60,000 people fled CAR violence in one week says UNHCR: 15 January 2021: The number of people who have fled violence in the CAR since December 'doubled in one week' to reach 60,000 people, according to UNHCR
5 February 2021 displaced citizens find refuge in a school as violence escalates in CAR: 5 February 2021: Some 2,000 displaced people in the CAR are seeking refuge at a school in the capital Bangui as violence rips through the country following the presidential elections, and as residents say 'there is no drinking water, we have serious health problems, and we are afraid to return home because the rebels are scattered everywhere. We want peace'
10 February 2021 humanitarian convoys gain passage in Bangui: 10 February 2021: Humanitarian convoys have made way in the CAR's capital Bangui after rebel groups losing ground to pro-government forces temporarily allowed passage
26 June 2021 MSF convoy attacked in CAR, a woman killed by armed man: 26 June 2021: MSF convoy attacked in Central African Republic, as medical charity says a female caretaker killed and three others wounded in an ambush by armed men, as the victim was accompanying a patient being transported by MSF staff near Batangafo, northern CAR
31 July 2021 militants killed 6 civilians and wounded several others Saturday: 31 July 2021: Militants killed six civilians and wounded several others Saturday in an attack on a village in the northeast of the volatile CAR, the UN peacekeeping mission said
29 April 2022 six soldiers killed in an attack on a military outpost in CAR's southeast: 29 April 2022: Militants have killed at least six soldiers in an attack on a military outpost in southeast Central African Republic, the latest reported incident in a decade-long conflict, a local official and a hospital director have said
14 mai 2022 plusieurs civils tués dans l'attaque d'un village par des rebelles: 14 mai 2022: Dix civils ont été tués la semaine passée, dans l'attaque du village de Bokolobo situé à 400 km au nord-est de Bangui selon la Mission des Nations unies Minusca, qui accuse le groupe rebelle 'Unité pour la Paix en Centrafrique UPC'
Prefectures and sub-prefectures of the Central African Republic: 16 Prefectures of the Central African Republic - 71 Sub-prefectures of the Central African Republic
Cities in the Central African Republic: List of cities in the Central African Republic
Bangui city: Bangui city, the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic with an estimated population of 734,350 inhabitants in 2012
Economy of Bangui: Economy of Bangui, serving as an administrative, trade, and commercial centre, after during World War II the country exported rubber, cotton, coffee, uranium and diamonds, and as after the war, the employment of local people in mainstream administration led to the development of the country's infrastructure, which also increased trade
Since ancient period and 19th century timeline of Bangui: Timeline of Bangui, French colonial capital since 19th century
Since Iron Age pre-European history of Bangui: Archaeological studies in and around Bangui have yielded at least 26 ancient Iron Age sites that contain many metallurgical tools and objects, illuminating the pre-European history of the city and surrounding area, as archaeological sites were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in 2006
1904 Bangui becomes administrative seat of French colonial Ubangi-Shari: July 1904 Bangui becomes administrative seat of French colonial Ubangi-Shari, a 1903–1960 French colony in central Africa, a part of French Equatorial Africa, after French activity in the area began in 1889 with the establishment of the outpost Bangi at the head of navigation on the Ubangi
1960 Bangui city becomes part of independent CAR: 1960 Bangui city becomes part of independent Central African Republic, in 1964 Bangui becomes a commune autonome
Since 1969 University of Bangui: Since 1969 University of Bangui, a public university located in Bangui
21st century in Bangui: 21st century in Bangui
2013-2014 Catherine Samba-Panza mayor of Bangui: 2013-2014 Central African politician Catherine Samba-Panza, who served as interim president of the Republic from 2014 to 2016, mayor of Bangui
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Central African Republic: Demographics of the Central African Republic - Ethnic groups in the Central African Republic
Culture and languages of the Central African Republic: Central African Republic culture - Languages of the Central African Republic
Women's rights in the Central African Republic: Women's rights in the Central African Republic - Polygamy in the Central African Republic
Children's rights in the Central African Republic: Children's rights in the Central African Republic - 16 May 2015: More than 350 children released by armed groups under a UN-brokered deal to free thousands of young people who have been forced to work as soldiers, sex slaves and servants during CAR’s sectarian conflict
Education in the Central African Republic: Education in the Central African Republic - University of Bangui since the late 1960s, expanding the focus of study on agriculture to include scientific research, law, economics, rural development and liberal arts
Health in the Central African Republic: Health in the Central African Republic
Disease outbreaks in the CAR: Disease outbreaks in the Central African Republic
Since March 2020 covid-19 in the CAR: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Central African Republic
Healthcare in the Central African Republic: Medical and health organisations based in Central African Republic - Hôpital en République centrafricaine - Centre national hospitalier universitaire de Bangui
August 2018: 19 août 2018: L'aide humanitaire, une activité de plus en plus risquée et la République centrafricaine se trouve dans une situation particulièrement grave, selon le centre de recherches indépendant Humanitarian Outcomes
Media in the Central African Republic: Media in the Central African Republic
Internet censorship and surveillance in the CAR: Internet censorship and surveillance in the CAR
May 2014 photojournalist Camille Lepage killed: 13 May 2014: French photojournalist Camille Lepage has been killed while working in the Central African Republic
August 2018 journalists killed near Sibut researching criminal actions of the Russian military firm Wagner: 1 August 2018: Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre', also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there
Newspapers in the Central African Republic: List of newspapers in the Central African Republic
Broadcasting in the CAR: Broadcasting, radio and TV in the CAR
Radio stations in the CAR: List of radio stations in the CAR
TV in the CAR: List of television stations in the CAR
Internet in the CAR: Internet in the Central African Republic
15 December 2020 Russian and French disinformation campaigns in the CAR: 15 December 2020: Russian and French disinformation campaigns have sought to deceive and influence internet users in the CAR ahead of December presidential election, Facebook said
Religion in the Central African Republic: Religion in the Central African Republic - Freedom of religion in the Central African Republic
Crime in the Central African Republic: Crime in the Central African Republic
Human trafficking in the Central African Republic: Human trafficking in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic law: Central African Republic law - 2015 Constitution of the Central African Republic
Law enforcement in the Central African Republic: Law enforcement in the Central African Republic
Foreign relations of the Central African Republic: Foreign relations of the Central African Republic
Treaties of the Central African Republic: Treaties of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/ECCAS relations: Economic Community of Central African States ECCAS - 3 avril 2013: Réunis à N'Djamena, les chefs d'État de la Communauté économique des États d'Afrique centrale demandent l'élection d'un président de transition - 18 April: African regional bloc ECCAS to send 2,000 peacekeepers to CAR
Central African Republic/United Nations relations: Central African Republic/United Nations relations - UN Security Council resolutions concerning the Central African Republic
2012: 27 décembre 2012: Alors que les rebelles du Séléka sont aux portes de Bangui les États-Unis et l'ONU rappellent leur personnel en Centrafrique
2013: 26 March 2013: The UN Security Council condemned the killing of South African troops in a rebel takeover in CAR and said it was ready to take 'further measures' - 19 November 2013: UN preparing for possible Central African Republic peacekeeping force
December 2013: African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic since 5 December 2013 - 5 December: The UN security council authorises French and African troops to use force to protect civilians amid reports of dozens killed in Bangui and as the world races to prevent a sectarian war
2014: 6 January 2014: UN warns that Central African Republic is on the brink of a catastrophe - 28 janvier: Alors que l’ONU donne mandat à une future force européenne, la présidente Samba-Panza réclame une 'opération de maintien de la paix' - 6 February 2014: The UN envoy to the CAR has urged the country to 'make an example' of soldiers who lynched a man accused of being a rebel - 7 February: ICC opens CAR 'war crimes' preliminary investigation - 10 April 2014: UN votes to send peacekeeping force into the CAR, authorising the deployment of up to 10,000 troops in September and urging the CAR to hold free, fair, transparent and inclusive presidential and legislative elections no later than February 2015 - 16 September: UN taking over Central African Republic peacekeeping - 10 October 2014: Pakistani UN peacekeeper killed in an ambush in Bangui, bringing the death toll in 48 hours of fighting to at least nine
2015: 8 May 2015: UN's Aurélien Agbénonci expects that armed groups in CAR sign a disarmament agreement during this week’s peace forum, boosting efforts to improve security
2017: 25 October 2017: UN's Guterres in C.A.R. promises to strengthen peacekeeping efforts - 27 November 2017: Suspected Christian militias killed an Egyptian UN peacekeeper and wounded three others in an attack in southern CAR on Sunday, UN says
May 2018: 29 May 2018: A special criminal court to try the worst crimes committed in the CAR is due to start its formal investigations next week, the UN’s deputy representative in the country said
November 2018: 16 November 2018: CAR risks sliding into full-scale war, after the UN security council failed to agree terms for extending a peacekeeping mission in the country, Norwegian Refugee Council's Jan Egeland has warned, saying international efforts to solve the crisis were failing and civilians were routinely being targeted, calling for an urgent review of the humanitarian response in 2019, ahead of the country’s 2020 elections, which it is feared may lead to a further escalation of violence
19 November 2018: 19 November 2018: Christian militia's Alfred Yekatom, a sitting member of parliament, was surrendered to the ICC by the authorities of the CAR, after the ICC had issued an arrest warrant for Yekatom on November 11 'for his alleged criminal responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in western CAR between December 2013 and August 2014'
January 2019: 26 January 2019: Central African Republic’s top soccer executive Ngaissona appears before ICC judges, days after being handed over by France to face allegations of war crimes against the Muslim population of his country
June 2019: 21 juin 2019: Des violations de l'accord de paix pour la Centrafrique conclu le 6 février sont commises chaque jour par des groupes armés, a indiqué jeudi au Conseil de sécurité l'émissaire de l'ONU pour ce pays, Mankeur Ndiaye
September 2019 ICC pretrial hearing: 19 September 2019: ICC pretrial hearing starts in Central African Republic Case
10 December 2020 CAR preparing December 2020 elections should ease tensions UN says: 10 December 2020: As CAR prepares December 2020 elections, essential for the country's stability, president, government and opposition should ease tensions, international partners should support credible elections and regional actors should encourage armed groups to abstain from violence during the electoral period, UN says
28 June 2021 Russian instructors behind abuses in CAR, UN report says: 28 June 2021: Russian instructors sent to the Central African Republic have carried out 'indiscriminate killings', lootings, and occupied schools, according to an annual UN report, though Putin regime says they are unarmed and not involved in fighting, as the testimonies detail excessive force which amounts to violations of international humanitarian law, the report by UN experts submitted to the Security Council recently and seen by AFP on Monday said
Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic: Bilateral relations of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/Benin relations: 11 January 2014: Ex-President Djotodia heads to Benin
Central African Republic/Cameroon relations: Central African Republic/Cameroon relations
16 January 2021 CAR refugees flee to Cameroon to escape violence: 16 January 2021: CAR refugees flee to Cameroon to escape violence, as Gado Refugee camp in Cameroon has become home to may escaping the increasing violence in the neighbouring country, and as about 60,000 people have fled over the last few weeks since six powerful rebel groups launched an offensive in CAR
Central African Republic/Canada relations: Central African Republic/Canada relations - Mining industry of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic/Chad relations: Central African Republic/Chad relations - 26 décembre 2013: 5 soldats tchadiens tués dans des combats à Bangui - 4 April 2014: Chadian soldiers killed 30 civilians and seriously wounded more than 300 in an indiscriminate attack on a market in Bangui, UN says - 4 April 2014: Chad starts pulling its African Union peacekeepers from CAR after its soldiers reportedly killed 30 civilians and wounded 300 in an attack in Bangui and civil society groups had collected 240,000 signatures for a petition seeking the withdrawal
Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations: Central African Republic/Republic of the Congo relations
Central African Republic/European Union relations: Central African Republic/European Union relations - The EU's relations with Central Africa - 10 April 2014: The first European Union troops arrive in the CAR, as new sectarian violence kills at least 30 people - 1 May: EU force takes control of security at the CAR's main airport
Central African Republic/France relations: Central African Republic/France relations
1894-1940 French colony and French Equatorial Africa: French colony 1894-1940 - French Equatorial Africa
2012/2013: 27 December 2012: Protest at Central Africa French embassy turns violent as angry demonstrators criticize a lack of help to deter rebels who have occupied a large swathe of the country - 25 mars 2013: La France a condamné lundi 'le recours à la force ayant abouti à la prise de pouvoir' en Centrafrique et a demandé l'arrêt des pillages ainsi que le rétablissement rapide de l'ordre à Bangui - 13 October 2013: France will send extra troops to the CAR by the year end as part of a forthcoming UN resolution aimed at ending violence in the country - 26 novembre 2013: La France annonce le déploiement d'environ un millier de soldats en Centrafrique en appui d'une force africaine
2014: 14 February 2014: France is to send an 400 additional troops to the CAR, raising its total deployment to 2,000 - 13 May 2014: French photojournalist Camille Lepage has been killed while working in the CAR
Central African Republic/Russia relations: Central African Republic/Russia relations
December 2017 Russian regime supported by UN to send more weapons to CAR despite embargo: 15 décembre 2017: Autorisée par l’ONU, la Russie s’apprête à livrer des armes à la Centrafrique, malgré l’embargo imposé au pays depuis 2013 - 23 décembre 2017: La Russie a obtenu du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU une exemption à l’embargo sur les armes imposé à la Centrafrique - Since 2014 Wagner Group, a Russian paramilitary organisation and Putin-linked military company, whose contractors take part in various conflicts, including operations in Assad's war against the Syrian people, in the War in Donbass against the Ukrainian people and since 2017/2018 in the Central African Republic
February 2018 more Russian military sent to CAR: 12 février 2018: Depuis la fin du mois de décembre 2017, ce sont presque 200 instructeurs russes, parfois avec des passeports falsifiés et pour la plupart sous couverture d'une société privée, qui se sont installés avec armes et bagages en Centrafrique avec la bénédiction de l'ONU
March 2018: 24 mars 2018: Après de longues tractations à l'ONU, des instructeurs venus de Russie ont pris possession d'une demeure de l'ex-président Jean-Bedel Bokassa près de Bangui
4 April 2018: 23 April 2018: Russian presence in the Central African Republic confirmed by the Russian regime
August 2018 journalists killed near Sibut researching criminal actions of the Russian military firm Wagner: 1 August 2018: Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre', also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there - 4 August 2018: As murdered journalists were chasing Russian regime's mercenaries in the CAR, deaths put spotlight on Russia's murky activities in Africa - 8 August 2018: Russian TV Dozhd's Vasily Polonsky says the three Russian journalists who were killed in the CAR managed to record videos of bases of the Russian Wagner mercenaries, adding that other journalists agree that it was not robbery or an attack by thieves and local criminals but a planned attack
23 August 2018 Russian mounting influence in CAR: 23 August 2018: CAR spokesman Ange-Maxime Kazagui denied any government involvement in talks of a parallel mediation including the Russian regime in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, reaffirming Bangui’s strong support for the African Union mediation, leading a peace process
September 2018 Russian journalists in Africa eliminated by Russia's military company: 29 September 2018: Russian journalists in Africa reportedly eliminated by Russia's military company PMC Patriot connected with Russian regime's 'Defense Ministry'
October 2019 proposed Russian military base: 25 October 2019: Central African Republic's Faustin-Archange Touadéra has said his country would consider hosting a Russian military base, as war criminal Vladimir Putin woos dozens of African leaders in an effort to spread Russian regime’s influence at an investment summit in southern Russia
24 October 2020 Russian neo-Nazi linked Putin regime sends more military equipment to CAR: 24 October 2020: Russian Putin regime sends more military equipment to CAR, as regime has opened a representative office in the central African country, bringing ten more armoured vehicles after solidifying its presence in the CAR in recent years, sending weapons and contractors and political 'advisors', and has been growing its role on the continent overall as part of a renewed push for global influence
15 December 2020 Russian and French disinformation campaigns in the CAR: 15 December 2020: Russian and French disinformation campaigns have sought to deceive and influence internet users in the CAR ahead of December presidential election, Facebook said
30 March 2021 Russian mercenaries behind human rights abuses in CAR, say UN experts: 30 March 2021: Russian mercenaries from the Putin-linked military contractor Wagner group, have committed human rights abuses in the Central African Republic while fighting alongside government forces, according to a group of independent UN experts, as UN working group said it was 'deeply disturbed' by the connections between Russian mercenaries and a series of violent attacks that have taken place in the CAR since elections in December
16 May 2021 new film shines light on Russian military contractors in CAR: 16 May 2021: New film shines light on Russian military contractors in CAR, a further sign of the deepening ties between Russia and the Central African Republic, which have become the envy of former colonial ruler France
28 October 2021 UN experts urge CAR above all to cut ties with Russia's mercenaries: 28 octobre 2021: Un groupe d'experts de l'ONU a appelé le gouvernement centrafricain à 'mettre fin à toutes relations' avec les paramilitaires russes, en particulier le groupe privé de sécurité Wagner, accusés de harceler et d'intimider 'violemment' des civils. Paramilitaires russes du groupe Wagner, selon l'ONU et la France, ont mené depuis le début de l'année une vaste contre-offensive contre des groupes rebelles. Moscou ne reconnaît officiellement la présence que de 1 135 'instructeurs non armés'.
21 June 2022 Russian mercenaries accused of deadly attacks on mines on Sudan-CAR border: 21 June 2022: Russian mercenaries accused of deadly attacks on mines on Sudan-CAR border, as dozens of people said to have been killed in attacks allegedly involving Wagner Group fighters
Central African Republic/South Sudan relations: Central African Republic/South Sudan relations
Central African Republic/Sudan relations: Central African Republic/Sudan relations
Central African Republic/South Africa relations: Central African Republic/South Africa relations - South African military assistance to the Central African Republic - 6 January 2013: South Africa latest country to send troops to Central African Republic as threat of rebel advance on capital looms - 25 mars 2013: Plusieurs militaires sud-africains déployés en CAR ont été tués dans des combats avec les rebelles qui se sont emparés de la capitale Bangui
Environment of the Central African Republic: Environment of the Central African Republic - Climate of the Central African Republic
Ecoregions in the Central African Republic: List of ecoregions in the Central African Republic - List of protected areas of the Central African Republic - National parks of the Central African Republic
Water in the Central African Republic: Water in the Central African Republic
Rivers of the Central African Republic: List of rivers of the Central African Republic - The Chari River flows from the Central African Republic through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone Rive - Lake Chad - Logone River - The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, located in Central Africa - Ubangi River, the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa, beginning at the confluence of the Mbomou and Uele Rivers and flowing west, forming the border between Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 2002 Lake Chad replenishment project: Lake Chad replenishment project, proposed major water diversion scheme that would involve damming the Ubangi River at Palambo in Central African Republic and channeling some of the water to Lake Chad through a navigable canal - Lake Chad Basin Commission including Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Algeria, the Central African Republic, Libya, and Sudan - concerned by shrinkage of the lake's area from 20,000 square kilometres in 1972 to 2,000 square kilometres in 2002, the countries met in January 2002 to discuss the Lake Chad replenishment project


Chad - Geography of Chad - History of Chad - Demographics of Chad
Economy of Chad: Economy of Chad - main industries are oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Mining industry of Chad: Mining industry of Chad
September 2019 gold mine collapse: 26 September 2019: A landslide at an illegal gold mine in Chad has killed about 30 people, as mine in the Tibesti region near the Libyan border collapsed early on Tuesday and as more victims might still be buried in the rubble, according to officials
16 June 2021 gold miners killed in northern Chad when their vehicle jumped on a mine: 16 June 2021: Eight gold miners were killed Sunday in northern Chad when their vehicle jumped on a mine, hidden during conflicts involving Chad and Libya, as governor of Tibesti province said 'a vehicle carrying 10 gold miners strayed into a minefield in Tanoua and hit a mine, killing eight and burning two', as 'two burned gold miners were taken to hospital (...) one in a serious condition and the other less worrying'
Energy in Chad: Energy in Chad - Petroleum in Chad - Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project
Agriculture in Chad: Agriculture in Chad - in 2006 approximately 80% of Chad's labor force was employed in the agricultural sector, that accounted for almost half of the GDP - crop rotation in the soudanian zone traditionally begins with sorghum or millet in the first year, mixed crops of sorghum and-or millet, with peanuts, legumes, or tubers, are then cultivated for approximately three years - Sorghum production in Chad is one of the country's most important subsistence crops - Livestock in Chad declined in the mid-1970s and again in the early 1980s because of drought and warfare across the sahelian zone
Cotton production in Chad: Cotton production in Chad - Cotontchad parastatal Chadian company operating in a monopoly regime that buys and exports all the cotton produced in Chad, a product which represents 40% of the country's exports
Forestry in Chad: Forestry in Chad - in the early 1980s, the country possessed between 135,000 and 160,000 square kilometres of forest and woodlands, representing a decline of almost 14% from the early 1960s
Water in Chad: Water in Chad - Bodies of water of Chad - Rivers of Chad
Lake Chad: Lake Chad - Threats of lake's disappearance and local Impacts
Fishing in Chad: Fishing in Chad - with the drought and diversion of the waters of some rivers, production declined in the 1980s
Tourism in Chad: Tourism in Chad - Tourist attractions in Chad - National parks of Chad - Zakouma National Park
Banking and banks in Chad: Banks of Chad - List of banks in Chad
Poverty and rural poverty in Chad: Rural poverty in Chad - in 2003 over 54% of the population were living below the poverty line, chronic food shortages are widespread, and malnutrition levels among young children were high - 2014 Rural poverty statistics in Chad
2015 87% of Chad's rural population below the poverty line: 15 April 2015: 87% of Chad's rural population lives below the poverty line, Chad ranks 73rd out of 78 countries on the Global Hunger Index and 184th out of 187 countries on the 2014 UNDP Human Development Index, UN says
Chadian military: Chadian military - Chadian ground forces - Military history of Chad
Military coups in Chad: Military coups in Chad - 1975 Chadian coup d'état - Chadian Civil War 1965–1979
Wars involving Chad: Wars involving Chad
Taxation in Chad: Taxation in Chad
Politics of Chad: Politics of Chad - Constitution of Chad, amended in 2005
Political parties and trade unions in Chad: List of political parties in Chad - Trade unions in Chad
Elections and politics in Chad: Elections in Chad
June 2005 Chadian constitutional referendum: 6 June 2005 Chadian constitutional referendum - the amendments to the constitution include the removal of two-term limit on the President, the replacement of the Senate with a Cultural, Economic and Social Council and giving the President powers to amend the constitution
May 2006 Chadian presidential election: 3 May 2006 Chadian presidential election
February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election: 13 February 2011 Chadian parliamentary election
April 2011 Chadian presidential election: 25 April 2011 Chadian presidential election
2016: 14 February 2016: Chad appoints Albert Pahimi Padacke as PM following the resignation of his predecessor
April 2016 Chadian presidential and parliamentary election: 10 April 2016 Chadian presidential election - 2016 Chadian parliamentary election - 10 avril: 6.298.801 Tchadiens aux urnes ce dimanche - 23 April 2016: Idriss Deby re-elected, as opposition politicians say they will not recognize the outcome alleging ballot-stuffing
2017: 3 February 2017: Chadian President Idriss Déby Itno has postponed indefinitely the country’s parliamentary election claiming lack of resources, as Chad is facing the brunt of the fall in oil prices thereby relying on agriculture to support its economy - 23 juin 2017: Sommés par le front de l’opposition de quitter l’Assemblée, des députés refusent de démissionner
November 2018 Chadian parliamentary election: November 2018 Chadian parliamentary election
25 January 2021 Chad under strain ahead of election: 25 January 2021: Chad under strain ahead of election, as opposition cries foul as covid-19 restrictions cut off incomes and health care in country where two-thirds live in severe poverty
6 February 2021: Chad's president Idriss Deby Itno has been in power for 30 years, he may now stay for even longer after Chad's ruling party endorsed him for a sixth term in the April 11 election, possible after he pushed through a new constitution in 2018 allowing him to run again
11 April 2021 Chadian presidential election: 11 April 2021 Chadian presidential election - 11 April 2021: Chad is waiting for the results of a presidential election that is expected to extend incumbent Idriss Deby's 30-year rule, as polling stations were quiet on Sunday after the opposition called for a boycott, and as the electoral body has yet to announce voter turnout results
16 April 2021 voter turnout low in one district: 16 April 2021: Voter turnout was low in one district in Chad's presidential election amid calls for a boycott by the opposition, as INEC of Chad announced only 108,000 cast their ballots in the eighth district in the province of N'Djamena
20 April 2021 Chad's president Idriss Deby has died of injuries suffered on frontline: 20 April 2021: Chadian president Idriss Déby, who has been in power for 30 years, reportedly died on Tuesday from injuries sustained while commanding his army in fighting against rebels in the north over the weekend, a spokesman announced
24 April 2021 AU calls for the restoration of civilian rule in Chad: 24 April 2021: The African Union called Friday evening for the restoration of civilian rule in Chad, where General Mahamat Idriss Déby took power this week following the death of his father Idriss Déby Itno
30 April 2021 families mourn crackdown victims: 30 April 2021: Families mourn crackdown victims, killed by Chadian military forces as they tried to stop demonstrations against army rule, as team from the African Union arrived Thursday in N’Djamena on a seven-day Fact-Finding Mission to assess the situation in country and examine ways of a speedy return to democratic rule
30 April 2021 unemployed youth the real threat to Chad’s military rulers: 30 April 2021: The real threat to Chad’s military rulers: unemployed youth
1 May 2021 family buries teen slain in protests against military council: 1 May 2021: The family and friends of 19-year-old student Synna Garandi Noullah who died during a demonstration against the junta in Chad, gather in a cemetery in N'Djamena for the funeral, as at least six people died Tuesday during banned protests against Chad's new military junta, with its leader pledging national dialogue as generals take charge following the shock battlefield death of his father and veteran ruler Idriss
3 May 2021 Chad's ruling junta appoints transitional government: 3 May 2021: Two weeks after the death of Chadian president Idriss the ruling junta, led by his son Mahamat Idriss Deby, appointed a transitional government on Sunday to address international and domestic concerns
4 June 2021 Chad's difficult situation: 4 juin 2021: La situation humanitaire se dégrade au Tchad. et la famine menace 4,6 millions de personnes, dont quatre millions de très jeunes enfants
13 June 2021 Chad in the search: 13 juin 2021: Le parti du défunt président temporise avant de lui trouver un successeur
21 August 2021 Chad regroups its soldiers for cooperation and security matters in west Africa: 21 août 2021: La Tchad a retiré 600 soldats de la force du G5 Sahel sur les 1,200 déployés en février dans le cadre de la force antijihadiste du G5 Sahel, dans la 'zone des trois frontières' aux confins du Mali, du Niger et du Burkina Faso, a annoncé le gouvernement tchadien son décision prise pour 'pour s'adapter au mieux à l'organisation des terroristes'
24 October 2021 Chadian parliamentary election: 24 October 2021 Chadian parliamentary election (postponed first quarter of 2020 Chadian parliamentary election)
Social movements and protests in Chad: February 2021 - May 2021 ongoing protests in Chad against the dictatorial regime of Mahamat Déby and Idriss Deby, and the results of the presidential election
February 2016 protest against government: 24 February 2016: Chad's opposition brought the country to a standstill on Wednesday in an act of defiance against the government and president Deby Itno, who has been in power for 25 years - 28 February 2016: Nationwide strikes brought Chad's biggest cities to a halt this week over president Deby Itno's planned bid for re-election - 28 February 2016: Chad teenager's gang-rape galvanises protests and opposition to president Deby, after the victim thought one of her five attackers was the son of a government minister, after the government announced a ban on protests and after a crackdown by the army left at least two students dead
2 May 2021 at least four injured by police at youth protests in southern Chad: 2 May 2021: At least four injured by police at youth protests in southern Chad
February-May 2021 ongoing protests in Chad: February 2021 - May 2021 ongoing protests in Chad against the dictatorial regime of Mahamat Déby and Idriss Deby, and the results of the presidential election
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Chad: Chadian society - Human rights in Chad
23 regions and 61 departments of Chad: Administrative divisions of Chad have often changed since 1900, when the territory was first created by France as part of its colonial empire - Regions of Chad - the country is divided into 23 regions - The regions of Chad are divided into 61 departments - List of cities in Chad - Moundou, the second largest city in Chad, is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental - Sarh, the third largest city in Chad, is the capital of Moyen-Chari Region
N'Djamena city: N’Djamena city, the capital and largest city of Chad is also a special statute region, divided into 10 arrondissements, and a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad
History and timeline of N'Djamena since 1900: History and timeline of N'Djamena, after city was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on 29 May 1900
Since 1971 University of N'Djamena: Since 1971 University of N'Djamena, the leading institution of higher education in Chad
April 2006 Battle of N'Djamena, a battle between the forces of the 'United Front for Democratic Change' and the military of Chad that occurred on 13 April 2006 when rebel forces launched an assault on the capital of Chad in the pre-dawn hours, attempting to overthrow the government of President Idriss Déby Itno from their bases an estimated thousand miles east , as the battle occurred just months after serious Chad-Sudan tensions ended with the signing of the Tripoli Agreement
2005-2010 Chadian Civil War, tensions between Christian southerners and Muslim northerners: 2005-2010 Chadian Civil War, as since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan-Christians of the south. As a result, leadership and presidency in Chad drifted back and forth between the Christian southerners and Muslim northerners. When one side was in power, the other side usually started a revolutionary war to counter it. France, the former colonial power, and Chad's northern neighbour Libya have both become involved at various times throughout the civil war. In tbe paper 'Combatting the Political-Military Rebellion in Chad 2005-2010' - and some months before the 'Arab Spring' revolutions began - Mahamat Mamadou Adam and USA's Prof. George E. Teague say military dimension of power is not always sufficient to achieve victory. In the case at hand, diplomacy and economy have also played a decisive role. A 'lasting peace' will not be preserved if appropriate measures are not implemented.
Demographics and ethnic groups in Chad: Demographics of Chad - Ethnic groups in Chad
Sara people residing in southern Chad and Central African Republic and making up 27.7% of Chad's total population - Kanembu people located primarily in Chad's Lac Prefecture but also in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem prefectures - Maba people in Chad and Sudan, speaking Maba, a Nilo-Saharan language of the Maban branch
Culture and languages of Chad: Chadian culture - Languages of Chad
Religion and freedom of religion in Chad: Religion in Chad - according to the 1993 census Muslims make up 53.1%, Catholic Christians 20.1%, Protestant Christians 14.2%, animists 7.3%, and atheists 3.1% of the population - Freedom of religion in Chad
Women, women’s rights and polygamy in Chad: Women in Chad are the mainstay of its predominantly rural-based economy and they outnumber the men - Women’s rights in Chad - Polygamy is legal in Chad, and it is estimated that over a third of women live in polygamous marriages
2016: 22 March 2016: Chadian gang-rape victim 16-year-old Zouhoura demands justice for all women
Children, child labor and children in armed conflicts in Chad: Children and child labor in Chad
2014: According to USA department of labor, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in 2014, after the Government criminalized the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, and signed a protocol with the UN that includes protections for children associated with armed groups
Education in Chad: Education in Chad - in 2004, 39.6% of children ages 5 to 14 years were attending school, educational opportunities for girls are limited, mainly due to cultural traditions - History of education in Chad
Schools in Chad: Schools in Chad
Universities in Chad: Universities in Chad
Health in Chad: Health in Chad
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Chad: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Chad, part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2
Healthcare in Chad: Healthcare in Chad - Medical and health organisations based in Chad
19 October 2021 WHO's International Day against breast cancer and Chad: 19 October 2021: WHO's access to healthcare in Chad is still at an embryonic stage, as the country has limited data on cancer and no department dedicated to its care, meaning those who are diagnosed are often referred to hospitals abroad. WHO's representative to Chad Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo remains optimistic about the country's political will to fight cancer, as authorities plans to build a national treatment centre, France24 reports
List of hospitals in Chad: List of hospitals containing names, location based in Chad
Chadian media: Chadian media
Newspapers in Chad: List of newspapers in Chad
Broadcasting in Chad: Radio in Chad - Television in Chad
Internet in Chad: Internet in Chad
Crime in Chad: Crime in Chad
Human trafficking in Chad: Human trafficking in Chad
Slavery in Chad: Slavery in Chad
Torture and war crimes in Chad:
1982-1990 Habré dictatorship, 2015: The Habré era in Chad 1982–1990 - 20 July 2015: The former Chadian leader, Hissène Habré, is to go on trial in Senegal accused of crimes against humanity, war crimes and torture committed during his brutal eight-year rule from 1982 to 1990
2016: 16 May 2016: Chadian torture documentary at Cannes film festival sheds light on one of Africa’s least-known mass killings, as some 40,000 people were murdered during Habré’s eight-year reign of terror between 1982 and 1990, while the west looked the other way
May 2016 Habré verdict:30 May 2016: Chad's former dictator Hissène Habré found guilty of crimes against humanity, summary execution, torture and rape at a landmark trial in Senegal and sentenced to life in prison
February 2018: 9 February 2018: A trust fund has been established for victims of the former Chadian dictator Hissène Habré, who have waited three decades without receiving compensation, after it 'took 25 years of relentless campaigning by Hissène Habré’s victims before he was finally brought to trial' and a Chadian commission of inquiry said more than 40,000 people were killed and 54,000 imprisoned during Habré’s rule from 1982 to 1990
Terrorism in Chad: Terrorism in Chad - Terrorist incidents in Chad - Boko Haram in Chad - Boko Haram's use of women and children in suicide attacks
Since 15 June 2015 Boko Haram N'Djamena bombings: Since 15 June 2015 Boko Haram N'Djamena bombings before and during Ramadan
July 2015 Boko Haram suicide attacks: 11 July 2015: Chad suspected Boko Haram suicide bomber kills 15 people in market of N’Djamena and injures 80
October-December 2015: 10 October 2015: Boko Haram terrorists, sending five suicide bombers identified as two women, two children and a man, said to be behind two attacks at busy market and refugee camp in Lake Chad region near Nigeria, killing at least 36 people and wounding about 50 others - 5 décembre 2015: Au moins 27 personnes ont été tuées et plus de 80 blessées samedi dans un triple attentat-suicide commis sur le marché de Loulou Fou, une île tchadienne du lac Tchad
August 2019 Boko Haram suicide attack: 14 août 2019: Six personnes ont été tuées dans un attentat perpétré dans la nuit de mardi à mercredi par une kamikaze dans l'ouest du Tchad et attribué au groupe djihadiste nigérian Boko Haram
24/25 March 2020 92 Chadian soldiers killed by Boko Haram jihadists: 24/25 March 2020: 92 Chadian soldiers have been killed in the deadliest attack ever by Boko Haram jihadists on armed forces in the country's village of Boma in the Lac province near the border with Nigeria and Niger, president said, as attack is part of an expanding jihadist campaign in the vast, marshy Lake Chad area, where the borders of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria converge
26 March 2020 Chad recounting its losses after Boko Haram attack: 26 March 2020: Chad is recounting its losses and recording what it has described as the deadliest-ever attack by the Boko Haram armed group on the country’s military forces, after at least 92 soldiers were killed in an attack on them that lasted at least seven hours on the Boma peninsula, Lake Chad region
1 August 2020 deadly Boko Haram attack: 1 août 2020: Au moins dix civils ont été tués et sept autres enlevés vendredi au Tchad dans une attaque attribuée au groupe djihadiste Boko Haram par un officier de l’armée et le préfet local
19 April 2021 Chadian soldiers reportedly halted a rebel advance in the country's north: 19 April 2021: Chadian soldiers have halted a rebel advance in the country's north, according to a military spokesman, after USA and British embassies urged personnel to leave ahead of a possible assault on the capital, and as Chad army spokesperson said the country's forces had 'defeated a group of terrorists who had ventured into the north of the Kanem province'
Law and law enforcement in Chad: Chadian law - Law enforcement in Chad
Constitutional Council of Chad: Constitutional Council of Chad judges the constitutionality of legislation and treaties in Chad and consists of nine judges who are elected to 9-year terms
Supreme Court of Chad: Supreme Court of Chad
Foreign relations of Chad: Foreign relations of Chad
Treaties of Chad: Treaties of Chad
Chadian membership of international organizations: Chadian membership of international organizations
Since 1973: Since 1973 Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel CILSS, an international organization consisting of countries in the Sahel region of Africa
Since 1998: Since 1998 Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Chadian relations with other African and Arab states: Chadian relations with other African and Arab states
August 2017: 12 août 2017: La libre circulation des personnes et de biens en Afrique centrale vient d'avoir un écho favorable du côté du Tchad, dont les autorités viennent d'ouvrir les frontières aux citoyens des pays voisins et aux ressortissants de la Cémac
Chad's participation UN in peacekeeping missions: Chad among nations that participate in UN peacekeeping missions
Bilateral relations of Chad: Bilateral relations of Chad
Chad/Cameroon relations: Chad/Cameroon relations - Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project
Chad/Central African Republic relations: Chad/Central African Republic relations - Bank of Central African States that serves six central African countries forming the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
Chad/France relations: Chad/France relations
Late 19th century French conquest of West Africa: Since 1899 Voulet–Chanoine Mission and atrocities, sent out to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa, armed with artillery, machine guns, hundreds of rifles and millions of rounds of ammunition
1900-1960: French colonial Chad 1900-1960 - 1900 Battle of Kousséri originated in French plans to occupy the Chari-Baguirmi region in 1899-1901 - Administrative divisions of Chad have often changed since 1900, when the territory was first created by France as part of its colonial empire
1910-1958: 1910-1958 Federation of French colonies 'French Equatorial Africa', including Chad, Oubangui-Chari (currently Central African Republic), French Congo (currently Republic of the Congo), Gabon, French Cameroon (currently part of Cameroon)
1986-2014 French military presence in Chad: Operation Épervier, the French military presence in Chad from 1986 until 2014
Since 2014 French led 'Operation Barkhane' and 'G5 Sahel': Since 2014 'Operation Barkhane', an ongoing anti-insurgent operation that started in August 2014 and is led by the French military against Islamist groups in Africa's Sahel region. It consists of a roughly 5,000-strong French force, which is permanently headquartered in N’Djamena, the capital of Chad. The operation is led in co-operation with five countries, all of which are former French colonies that span the Sahel including Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger. The countries are collectively referred to as the 'G5 Sahel'
Chad-France trade relations: Chad-France trade relations
December 2018: 26/27 December 2018: Controversy on Macron's former security advisor Benalla's travel to Chad, who accompanied a foreign economic delegation to Ndjamena for investment purposes travelling on a diplomatic passport, despite he was sacked in July for beating up protesters in Paris
Chad/Israel relations: Chad/Israel relations, as both nations are members of the UN, and as the diplomatic relations between the two countries began with Chad's independence in 1960, were officially terminated in the 1970s. De facto relations resumed in 2016, with diplomatic relations re-established in 2019.
Chad/Libya relations: Chad/Libya relations, since centuries of ethnic, religious, and commercial ties
1978-1987 Chadian–Libyan conflict, a series of military campaigns in Chad between 1978 and 1987, fought between Libyan and allied Chadian forces against Chadian groups supported by France, with the occasional involvement of other foreign countries and factions. Libya had been involved in Chad's internal affairs prior to 1978 and before Muammar Gaddafi's rise to power in Libya in 1969, beginning with the extension of the Chadian Civil War to northern Chad in 1968. The conflict was marked by a series of four separate Libyan interventions in Chad, taking place in 1978, 1979, 1980–1981 and 1983–1987. In all of these occasions Gaddafi had the support of a number of factions participating in the civil war
Chad/Nigeria relations: Chad/Nigeria relations
2014/2015: Since 2014 cooperation on fighting Boko Haram - 26 May 2014: Cameroon, Chad Deploy Troops to Fight Boko Haram - 31 January 2015: Troops from Chad have driven Boko Haram fighters from a northern Nigeria border town seized late last year - 13 February: Boko Haram attacks Chadian village overnight killing several people - 8 March: Chad and Niger launched a joint army operation against Boko Haram in Nigeria - 2 April 2015: After soldiers from Chad and Niger drove Boko Haram militants from Malam Fatori, Chad's forces killed hundreds of militants and lost nine of its own troops in clashes in northern Nigeria, Chad's army says - 28 July 2015: At least 13 suspected Boko Haram militants and three civilians killed in separate attacks after the terrorists raided several remote localities around Lake Chad
26 March 2020 Chad recounting its losses after Boko Haram attack: 26 March 2020: Chad is recounting its losses and recording what it has described as the deadliest-ever attack by the Boko Haram armed group on the country’s military forces, after at least 92 soldiers were killed in an attack on them that lasted at least seven hours on the Boma peninsula, Lake Chad region
25 December 2021 six soldiers and at least 22 jihadists died in fighting in the Lake Chad region: 25 December 2021: Six soldiers and at least 22 jihadists died in fighting in the Lake Chad region of central Africa by a joint force describing the operation as a 'success' and saying it had benefited from 'decisive support by American partners', as the region around Lake Chad - an important and still existing water body - bordered by Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad has become a bolthole for Boko Haram and Islamic State-linked jihadists
Chad/Senegal relations:
2013-2015: 13 February 2013: Extraordinary African Chambers in Senegal to try former Chad dictator Hissène Habré - 7 July 2015: The former Chadian dictator Hissène Habré goes on trial on 20 July 2015, almost 25 years after being toppled in a coup, charged with crimes against humanity, war crimes, and torture before a specially commissioned court in Senegal - 20 July 2015: Former Chad dictator Habré faces war crimes trial
May 2016 Habré verdict: 30 May 2016: Chad'´s former dictator Hissène Habré found guilty of crimes against humanity, summary execution, torture and rape at a landmark trial in Senegal and sentenced to life in prison
April 2017: 27 April 2017: Ex-Chad dictator Hissène Habré's conviction for crimes against humanity upheld by Dakar court
Chad/Sudan relations: Chad/Sudan relations
2005-2010: Chadian Civil War 2005–2010, since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan-Christians of the south - 2006 Tripoli Agreement - Mediation of the Chadian Civil War (2005–2010)
Chad/Ukraine relations: Chad/Ukraine relations
Chad/United Kingdom relations: Chad/United Kingdom relations
Since January 2013 'Operation Newcombe' in support for the French-led G5 Sahel 'Operation Barkhane': Since January 2013 'Operation Newcombe', the code name for two complimentary British non-combat military operations in Mali, as one part of the operation involves logistical support for the French-led 'Operation Barkhane', whilst the other encompasses peacekeeping in support of the MINUSMA
July 2021 RAF supports recovery operations after French fighter jet crash in G5 Sahel: 27 July 2021: RAF supports recovery operations after French fighter jet crash in Mali
28 January 2021 mining giant Glencore faces human rights complaint over toxic spill in Chad: 28 January 2021: The UK government has accepted a human rights complaint against mining and commodities giant Glencore regarding a toxic wastewater spill in Chad, where dozens of villagers – among them children – claim they suffered severe burns, skin lesions and sickness after contact with contaminated water
Environment of Chad: Environment of Chad
Climate of Chad: Climate of Chad
Landforms of ChadLandforms of Chad
Mountains of Chad: Mountains of Chad
Tibesti Mountains: Tibesti Mountains, a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small portion located in southern Libya. The highest peak in the range, Emi Koussi, lies to the south at a height of 3,415 meters
Ecoregions in Chad: List of ecoregions in Chad - Elephant hunting in Chad - 2006 Zakouma elephant slaughter refers to a series of poaching massacres of African elephants in the vicinity of Zakouma National Park in southeastern Chad
Water in Chad: Water in Chad
Rivers of Chad and list by drainage basin, list of lakes: Rivers of Chad - List of rivers in Chad, arranged by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name - List of lakes of Chad
Chari River: Chari River, a 1,400 kilometres long river, flowing in Central Africa. It is Lake Chad's main source of water, as Chari River flows from the CAR through Chad into Lake Chad, following the Cameroon border from N'Djamena, where it is joined by its western and principal tributary, the Logone River. Chari river provides 90% of the water flowing into Lake Chad. The watershed of the river covers 548,747 square kilometres, as its principal tributary is the Logone River, while minor tributaries include the Bahr Salamat, the Bahr Sah, the Bahr Aouk and the Bahr Kéita. Much of Chad's population, including Sarh and the capital N'Djamena, is concentrated around Chari River - Chari river supports an important local fishing industry. One of the most highly prized local fish is the Nile perch. Since the 1960s, there have been proposals to divert water from the Ubangi river to Chari river to revitalize Lake Chad, but the project would require pumping the water some 180m uphill, so it also requires a power source, either hydroelectric or solar. It was estimated to deliver 91 m3/s of water to the Chari at a cost of $10 billion
Logone River, a major tributary of the Chari River: Logone River, a major tributary of the Chari River. The Logone's sources are located in the western CAR. northern Cameroon, and southern Chad. It has two major tributaries including the Pendé River (Eastern Logone) in the prefecture Ouham-Pendé in the CAR and the Mbéré River (Western Logone) at the east of Cameroon. Many swamps and wetlands surround the river
Lake Chad: Lake Chad shrank as much as 95% from about 1963 to 1998, showing improvement in 2007 - Lake Chad Basin Commission, an intergovernmental organization that oversees water and other natural resource usage in the basin. There are eight member governments including Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Algeria, the Central African Republic, Libya, and Sudan, chosen for their proximity to Lake Chad
Hydrology and history of Lake Chad: Hydrology and history of Lake Chad
Flora and fauna of Lake Chad basin, threats and efforts of preservation: Flora and fauna of Lake Chad basin, threats and efforts of preservation
Dwindling of the Lake Chad devastating impacts: As the dwindling of the Lake Chad has had devastating impacts also on Nigeria. Because of the way it has shrunk dramatically in recent decades, the lake has been labeled an ecological catastrophe by the UN FAO
October 2019 Lake Chad and 10 million people in urgent need of humanitarian assistance: 22 October 2019: Lake Chad is a hydrological miracle - a life-giving, freshwater lake in the Sahara desert -, but the region around the lake has been engulfed in a violent crisis for more than a decade, which has left nearly 10 million people in urgent need of humanitarian assistance
Lake Fianga in Chad and Cameroon: Lake Fianga in Chad and Cameroon. It does not have clearly delineated borders, as it forms the western border of an area of permanent swampland. The lake forms with the seasonal flooding of the Logone River
Lake Fitri located in the center of Chad: Lake Fitri, located in the center of Chad about 300km east of N’Djamena. The normal size of the lake is about 50,000 hectares. The freshwater lake is shallow and is fed by seasonal rainfall and run-off from a catchment area estimated at 70,000 square kilometres, as the principal river feed is the seasonal Batha River which carries water from the Ouaddai massif to the west. Similarly to Lake Chad, it is not quite as large as once was. The normally permanent lake may dry out during severe drought periods
Natural disasters in Chad: Disasters in Chad, man-made and natural disasters in Chad
2010 Sahel famine: 2010 Sahel famine
2012 Sahel drought: 2012 Sahel drought
August-September 2020 African Sahel floods: August-September 2020 African Sahel floods, affecting in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo Republic, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Senegal, and Tunisia, and killing hundreds of citizens


Comoros - Geography of the Comoros - History of the Comoros - Demographics of the Comoros
Economy of the Comoros: Economy of the Comoros, main industies include fishing, tourism, perfume distillation
Agriculture in the Comoros: Agriculture in the Comoros - as the economy of the Comoros is primarily agricultural, crops include manioc, coconuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, rice, corn, cloves, also sugarcane, sisal, peppers, spices, coffee, and various perfume plants such as ylang-ylang, abelmosk, lemon grass, jasmine, and citronella
Transport in the Comoros: Transport in the Comoros
Tourism in the Comoros: Tourism in the Comoros
External trade of the Comoros: External trade of the Comoros
Poverty in the Comoros: 6 July 2010: 3 socioeconomic groups account for nearly two-thirds of national poverty in the Comoros - farmers' households 30.2%, unprotected wage earners' households 15.8%, and households headed by an inactive person 19.6%, according to IMF
Politics of the Comoros: Politics of the Comoros - Since 1977 five Constitutions of the Comoros - 12 December 2001 Constitution of the Comoros
Political parties in the Comoros: Political parties in the Comoros - List of political parties in the Comoros
Assembly of the Union of the Comoros: Assembly of the Union of the Comoros
Elections and politics in the Comoros: Elections in the Comoros
December 1974 Comorian independence referendum: 22 December 1974 Comorian independence referendum resulting in a strong 'yes' vote, with 94.57% of voters voting for independence and almost all the 'no' votes being cast in Mayotte, voter turnout was 93.3%
March/April 2002 constitutional referendum: In March and April 2002, the three islands of the Comoros (Anjouan, Grande Comore, and Mohéli) held and approved new constitutions in referendums, the main points of the constitutions were to establish each island as an autonomous part of the Union of Comoros, along with provisions that created elected local assemblies and presidents
February/April 2016 Comorian presidential election: 21 February and 10 April 2016 Comorian presidential election
July 2018 Comorian constitutional referendum: 30 July 2018 Comorian constitutional referendum concerning presidential term limits and the system of rotating power among the three main islands - 30 July 2018: Turnout was weak at several polling stations in the capital Moroni, after opposition leaders called for a boycott of the referendum that could change the constitution and allow Assoumani to rule beyond 2021, his current term limit
October 2018: 21 October 2018: Comoros military regained control of Mutsamudu's old city centre on the island of Anjouan, after soldiers and rebels opposed to president Azali Assoumani staged an uprising earlier this week, amid Assoumani's efforts to extend term limits through constitutional changes that could see him rule for 11 more years - October 2018: African Union Commission's Moussa Faki Mahamat criticised Comorian government’s suspension of the inter-Comorian dialogue
March 2019 Comorian presidential election: 24 March 2019 Comorian presidential election - Candidates of the 2019 Comorian presidential election - 25 March 2019: Opposition parties in Comoros say the forthcoming presidential elections could be marred with repression and vote rigging - 27 March 2019: Incumbent president Azali Assoumani was declared winner of the presidential election of Comoros, even as the opposition rejected the electoral outcome as fraudulent
Social movements and protests in the Comoros: Trade unions in the Comoros
June 2018: 3 June 2018: Comoros opposition rallies against referendum - 25 June 2018: Authorities detain the leaders of three opposition parties during protest in Moroni on June 22
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Comoros: Comorian society
Human rights in the Comoros: Human rights in the Comoros - Freedom of religion in the Comoros
Islands of the Comoros: Islands of the Comoros - List of islands of the Comoros
Grande Comore: Grande Comore, the largest island in the Comoros nation with a population of about 316,600 inhabitants in 2006, mostly belonging to the Comorian ethnic group
Moroni: Moroni, the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros
Demographics of the Comoros: Demographics of the Comoros - Ethnic groups in the Comoros
Culture and languages of the Comoros: Culture of the Comoros - Languages of the Comoros
Women in the Comoros: Women in the Comoros
Education in the Comoros: Education in the Comoros
Health in the Comoros: Health in the Comoros
Media of the Comoros: Media of the Comoros
Crime in the Comoros: Crime in the Comoros
Law and legal history of the Comoros: Law of the Comoros - Since 1977 five Constitutions of the Comoros - 12 December 2001 Constitution of the Comoros
Law enforcement in the Comoros: Law enforcement in the Comoros
Foreign relations of the Comoros: Foreign relations of the Comoros
Treaties of the Comoros: Treaties of the Comoros
Bilateral relations of the Comoros: Bilateral relations of the Comoros
Comoros/France relations: Comoros/France relations
1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros: 1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros
1978-1989 Abdallah regime: 1978-1989 History of the Comoros and the Abdallah regime
Since 2011 French overseas department of Mayotte and dispute: Since 2011 French overseas department of Mayotte, consisting of a main island Maore, a smaller island Pamanzi, and several islets, the department status of Mayotte is recent and the region remains the poorest in France, nevertheless much more prosperous than the other countries of the Mozambique Channel, making it a major destination for illegal immigration
Since April 2018: 16 April 2018: As the French government tried to deport immigrants from the Department of Mayotte to Comoros Island, the Comorian government blocked entry of the migrants into the country as Comoros is claiming sovereignty of Mayotte and protests have been rocking Moroni - 29 June 2018: Despite promises to resolve tensions, relations between France and the Comoros have only deteriorated in the past few months, as the French government expels around 20,000 undocumented migrants annually
Comoros/India relations: Comoros/India relations
Comoros/India trade relations and Indians in Comoros
Comoros/Madagascar relations: Comoros/Madagascar relations
Comoros/USA relations: Comoros/USA relations
Environment of the Comoros: Environment of the Comoros - Volcanoes of the Comoros
Landforms of the Comoros: Landforms of the Comoros
Comoros forests: Comoros forests
Water in the Comoros: Water in the Comoros
Environmental issues of the Comoros: Environmental issues of the Comoros include soil degradation and erosion resulting from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing, deforestation
Natural disasters of the Comoros:
April 2019 Cyclone Kenneth: April 2019 Cyclone Kenneth - 26 April 2019: Cyclone Kenneth swept through the island nation of Comoros, packed high winds, dumped heavy rains, leaving a trail of destruction and three people dead on Thursday


Republic of the Congo - Geography of the Republic of the Congo - History of the Republic of the Congo - Demographics of the Republic of the Congo
Economy of the Republic of the Congo: Economy of the Republic of the Congo - main industries include petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes - List of companies based in the Republic of the Congo
Mining in the Republic of Congo: Mining in the Republic of Congo - Zanaga iron mine located in Zanaga, Lékoumou Department - Cominco Resources is developing the $2billion Hinda phosphate project located in The Republic of the Congo - Sundance Resources Limited is an Australian mining company, based in Perth, whose main assets are iron ore leases in Cameroon near Mbalam, and across the border in the Republic of Congo
Energy in the Republic of the Congo: Energy in the Republic of the Congo - Fossil fuels in the Republic of the Congo
Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo: Petroleum industry in the Republic of the Congo, accounting for 89% of the country’s exports in 2010 - 'Perenco' Anglo-French oil and gas company, headquarters in London and Paris, exploration and production activities in 16 countries around the globe, the North Sea, Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Belize, Tunisia, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Vietnam - 'Total' S.A. French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six 'Supermajor' oil companies in the world, covering the entire oil and gas chain from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading - 'Eni' S.p.A. Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome with operations in 79 countries, and currently the world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros - 'SOCO International' plc international oil and gas exploration and production company, headquartered in London, with operations in Vietnam, Thailand, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo
Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo: Renewable energy in the Republic of the Congo
Hydroelectricity in the Republic of the Congo: Hydroelectric power stations in the Republic of the Congo - Since 2011 Imboulou Dam on the Léfini River, about 300 kilometers north of Brazzaville
Agriculture in the Republic of the Congo: Agriculture in the Republic of the Congo, subsistence agriculture is the country's most significant employer, and it is one of the three most important economic sectors - crops include sugarcane and tobacco, palm kernels, cacao, and coffee, the main consumption crops are bananas, manioc, peanuts, plantains, sugarcane, and yams, in 2010 the country imported about $300 million of food including wheat, rice, poultry meat, palm oil and milk products
Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo: Cassava production in the Republic of the Congo
Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo: Rural poverty in the Republic of the Congo
Water in the Republic of the Congo: Water in the Republic of the Congo - Bodies of water of the Republic of the Congo
Rivers of the Republic of the Congo: List of rivers of the Republic of the Congo
Congo River: The Congo River, the second longest river in Africa after Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water after the Amazon - Tributaries of the Congo River - Congo Basin - Congo Basin Forest Partnership
Transport in the Republic of the Congo: Transport in the Republic of the Congo
Congo–Ocean Railway: Congo–Ocean Railway
Roads in the Republic of the Congo: Roads in the Republic of the Congo
Aviation in the Republic of the Congo: Aviation in the Republic of the Congo
Tourism in the Republic of the Congo: Tourism in the Republic of the Congo - Tourist attractions in the Republic of the Congo
Foreign trade of the Republic of the Congo: Foreign trade of the Republic of the Congo - in 2015 exports are led by Crude Petroleum which represent 69% of the total exports of the Republic of the Congo, followed by Refined Copper, which account for 15.4%
Military of the Republic of the Congo: Military of the Republic of the Congo - 1993/1994 First Republic of the Congo Civil War - 1997-1999 Second Republic of the Congo Civil War
Politics of the Republic of the Congo: Politics of the Republic of the Congo - The Constitution of the Republic of the Congo states that the republic is a pluralistic, multi-party democracy, after a 2015 constitutional referendum the right to run for president is extended to three terms, while simultaneously reducing the presidential term from seven to five years and also reinstating the position of the Prime Minister and moving the country to a semi-presidential system
Political parties and trade unions in the Republic of the Congo: Political parties in the Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Republic of the Congo
Elections and politics in the Republic of the Congo: Elections in the Republic of the Congo
March 1961 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 26 March 1961 Republic of the Congo presidential election for the first time, as the only candidate was the incumbent Fulbert Youlou of the Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests, who was re-elected unopposed, as voter turnout was 90.3%
July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 12 July 2009 Republic of the Congo presidential election
July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 15 July 2012 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election
October 2015 Republic of the Congo constitutional referendum: 25 October 2015 Republic of the Congo constitutional referendum, allowing a person to be elected as President three times, eliminating an age limit of 70 years for candidates, and reducing the length of presidential terms from seven years to five years - 27 October 2015: More than 90% of people voting in a controversial referendum in the Republic of Congo approved a bid by President Nguesso to extend his 31-year stay in office
March 2016 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 20 March 2016 Republic of the Congo presidential election - 24 March 2016: According to Congo Republic's interior minister, president Denis Sassou Nguesso wins a new five-year term with more than 60% of the vote and will extend his decades-long rule over the oil-producing nation, as opposition candidates allege election fraud
July/August 2017 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election: 16/30 July 2017 Republic of the Congo parliamentary election - 17 July 2017: Voters went to the polls in legislative elections, the first since a violence-marred presidential poll last year - 4 août 2017: Les observateurs nationaux fustigent les violences dans cinq circonscriptions - 6 août 2017: Le Parti congolais du travail PCT conforte sa majorité avec 90 sièges et engage la procédure de sanction des candidats indisciplinés
24 December 2020 Congo sets March 21 for its presidential election: 24 December 2020: Congo sets March 21 for its presidential election
27-30 December 2019 Congolese Labour Party's fifth ordinary congress: 27 December 2019: Congolese Labour Party is holding its fifth ordinary congress in Brazzaville from 27 to 30 December, as agenda includes the appointment of a new secretary general and a vote on the candidacy of president Sassou Nguesso in the 2021 elections, who has been the head state of the Republic for 35 years
30 January 2021 opposition party boycotts March election: 30 janvier 2021: L’Union panafricaine pour la démocratie sociale, première formation d’opposition au Congo-Brazzaville, a indiqué qu’elle ne prendrait pas part à l’élection présidentielle du 21 mars où le président sortant Denis Sassou-Nguesso, 77 ans dont 36 au pouvoir, est en piste pour un nouveau mandat
March 2021 Republic of the Congo presidential election: 21 mars 2021 élection présidentielle de 2021 en république du Congo - 21 March 2021 Republic of the Congo presidential election
22 March 2021 counting process begins in Brazzaville: 22 March 2021: The counting process begins in a polling station in Brazzaville, after a day of elections and the death of main opposition candidate Guy-Brice Parfait Kolelas, as the election was boycotted by the main opposition and under an internet blackout, with critics voicing concerns over the transparency of the polls seen as tilted towards Sassou Nguesso, Africanews reports
10 July 2022 Parliamentary elections in the Republic of the Congo: 10 July 2022 Parliamentary elections in the Republic of the Congo, as members of the National Assembly are elected in single-member constituencies using the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the votes in the first round, a run-off is held
20 July 2022 elections run-off on 26/31 July: 20 julliet 2022: Le Conseil des ministres a décidé de la tenue du deuxième tour des élections législatives le 26 juillet pour les agents de la force publique et le 31 juillet pour le vote général
31 July 2022 Parliamentary elections second round: 31 July 2022 second round of the parliamentary elections in the Republic of the Congo, as members of the National Assembly are elected in single-member constituencies using the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the votes in the first round, a run-off is held
Social movements and protests in the Republic of the Congo:
October 2015 demonstrating people killed by police: 20 October 2015: At least four demonstrating people were killed when police opened fire as thousands of opposition supporters took to the streets against Sunday's referendum on removing constitutional term limits for president Nguesso in Congo Republic
March 2016 police fire teargas at opposition supporters: 25 March 2016: Police in Congo Republic fire teargas at opposition supporters and arrest around 10 of them ahead of a planned news conference by opposition candidates who say last weekend's presidential election was won fraudulently
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo society
Human rights in the Republic of the Congo: - Human rights in the Republic of the Congo
Subdivisions, 12 departments and cities in the Republic of the Congo: Subdivisions en république du Congo - 12 départements de la république du Congo
Brazzaville department: Département de Brazzaville, un département de la République du Congo, instauré en 2003 par élévation de la ville de Brazzaville au statut de département.
Brazzaville city: Brazzaville city, the capital and largest city of the republic and also the financial and administrative centre of the country, located on the north side of the Congo River opposite D.R. Congo's capital city Kinshasa. The population of the capital is estimated to exceed 1.8 million residents, comprising more than a third of the national populace. Some 40% are employed in non-agricultural professions. During World War II, Brazzaville was also the capital of Free France between 1940 and 1942, resisting German empire's 10 May – 25 June 1940 invasion and occupation of France.
History and timeline of Brazzaville city: History of Brazzaville city - Timeline of Brazzaville since 1880
1884 Teke trading site at Pool Malebo: 1880 Teke trading site at Pool Malebo 'ceded...to French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza' named Ncouna, as the Teke people, a Bantu Central African ethnic group that speak the Teke languages, mainly inhabit the south, north, and center of the Republic of the Congo, the west of the D.R. Congo, with a minority in the south-east of Gabon
20th century timeline of Brazzaville city: 20th century timeline of Brazzaville city, as in 1940 Brazzaville becomes capital of government-in-exile of France (Free France) during World War II when in October 1940 De Gaulle visits city, as in January 1944 the meeting of government-in-exile of France was held in Brazzaville, and as in 1945 city's population was approximately 50,000 citizens
Since 1965 'Stade de la Revolution' in Brazzaville: Since 1965 Stade de la Revolution (Stade Alphonse Massemba-Débat) in Brazzaville, that became the venue for the 1965 All-Africa Games and the 2004 African Championships in Athletics
21st century timeline of Brazzaville city: 21st century timeline of Brazzaville city
4 March 2012 series of blasts at an army arms dump in Brazzaville: On 4 March 2012, a series of blasts occurred at an army arms dump in Brazzaville. At least 300 people were killed by the explosions. Additional bodies were said to be 'unfindable'. Among the dead were six Chinese workers from a Beijing Construction Engineering Group work site close to the armoury. Interior Minister Mboulou said that nearby hospitals were overflowing with injuries, with many wounded lying in hallways due to lack of space. Total injuries exceeded 2,500. More than 121,000 people were left homeless and 672 million dollars in damages were done. One survivor described the event as feeling like 'the apocalypse'.
2023-2028 Brazzaville–Kinshasa road-rail bridge construction project: 2023-2028 Brazzaville–Kinshasa road-rail bridge construction project over the Congo River that will connect the Republic of the Congo to the Democratic Republic of the Congo at their respective capitals, Brazzaville and Kinshasa. The project has proceeded intermittently, but work is slated to begin in 2023 and be completed in 2028, as Dartford's 'World Highways News' reported in 2021 that building the link will help transport in the corridor running between Libya’s capital Tripoli and Namibia’s capital Windhoek, and that the work will also improve transport between the DRC’s port of Matadi and Pointe-Noire in the Congo Republic.
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo: Demographics of the Republic of the Congo - Ethnic groups in the Republic of the Congo
Culture and languages in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo culture - Languages of the Republic of the Congo
Women in the Republic of the Congo: Women in the Republic of the Congo
August 2017: 6 août 2017: Treize femmes ont été choisies sur les 151 députés qui vont siéger à la nouvelle assemblée nationale
March 2019: 8 March 2019: Gloria Bouesso in the port area of Pointe Noire is the only female of 144 men, with the role to guide and give directions to drivers of these fleet of heavy trucks
Education in the Republic of the Congo: Education in the Republic of the Congo
Health in the Republic of the Congo: Health in the Republic of the Congo
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in the Republic of the Congo: Medical outbreaks in the Republic of the Congo - Man-made disasters in the Republic of the Congo
Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of the Congo: Since March 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in the Republic of the Congo
14 March 2020 Congo Republic confirms first coronavirus case: 14 March 2020: Congo Republic confirms first coronavirus case, after 50-year-old man returned the country on March 1 from Paris
30 March 2020 a 30 day lockdown and curfew decreed against covid-19: 30 March 2020: A 30 day lockdown and curfew decreed in the Republic of Congo in an announcement made by president Nguesso, 24 hours after the confirmation of 15 new coronavirus cases
January 2021 covid-19 in the Republic of the Congo: 1 janvier 2021: Le Congo-Brazzaville, qui a été en confinement total du 31 mars au 3 mai avec environ cinq millions d'habitants, maintenant avec 7107 cas officiellement déclarés dont 108 décès
Healthcare in the Republic of the Congo: Healthcare in the Republic of the Congo
Media of the Republic of the Congo: Media of the Republic of the Congo
Broadcasting in the Republic of the Congo: Broadcasting in the Republic of the Congo
Internet in the Republic of the Congo: Internet in the Republic of the Congo
Crime in the Republic of the Congo: Crime in the Republic of the Congo
March-June 2017 Kasaï region UN report: 6 août 2017: Quelque 251 personnes dont 62 enfants ont été victimes d'exécutions sauvages entre mars et juin dans la région du Kasaï, perpétrées par des agents de l'État, des milices ou des rebelles, selon un rapport de l'ONU
Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo: Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo
Law and law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Republic of the Congo law - Constitution of the Republic of the Congo
Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo: Law enforcement in the Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Republic of the Congo
Membership in international organizations: Republic of the Congo membership in international organizations includes the United Nations, Organisation of African Unity, African Development Bank, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Economic Commission for Central African States, Central African Customs and Economic Union, International Coffee Organization, Union of Central African States, INTELSAT, International Criminal Police Organization Interpol, Non-Aligned Movement, and Group of 77
Republic of the Congo/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council resolutions concerning the Republic of the Congo
Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo/China relations: Republic of the Congo/China relations
Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations: Republic of the Congo/Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
Republic of the Congo/France relations: Republic of the Congo/France relations
1882-1910 colony 'French Congo': 1882-1910 'French Congo', French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African Republic
1910-1958 'French Equatorial Africa': 1910-1958 'French Equatorial Africa', the federation of French colonial possessions in Central Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River to the Sahara
Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations: Republic of the Congo/United Kingdom relations
Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Environment of the Republic of the Congo: Environment of the Republic of the Congo - Natural history of the Republic of the Congo - Geology of the Republic of the Congo - Congo Craton - Climate of the Republic of the Congo
Ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo: List of ecoregions in the Republic of the Congo - Congolian forests are a broad belt of lowland tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome, which extends across the basin of the Congo River and its tributaries in Central Africa - Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests - Protected areas of the Republic of the Congo
Water in the Republic of the Congo: Water in the Republic of the Congo
Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo: Environmental issues in the Republic of the Congo include the high level of air pollution from vehicle emissions, water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage, tap water not being potable, and deforestation
Natural disasters in the Republic of the Congo: Disasters and natural disasters in the Republic of the Congo
August-September 2020 African Sahel and Central Africa floods: August-September 2020 African Sahel floods, extreme floods that struck numerous West, East, and Central African countries due to extreme rainfall, as over 760,000 people in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo Republic, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Senegal, and Tunisia were affected and hundreds killed
January 2021 northern Congo huge floods for several months: 9 January 2021: The northern part of the Republic of Congo has been facing huge floods for several months now, following a series of torrential rains that fall continuously in the Likuala basin and the plateau department, as the government having declared a state of humanitarian emergency has now dispatched with the help of foreign partners a convoy of food and essential products to help more than 180,000 trapped disaster victims


Democratic Republic of the Congo - Geography of the D.R. Congo - History of the D.R. Congo - Demographics of the D.R. Congo
Economy of the D.R. Congo: Economy of the D.R. Congo - main industries are mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods, beverages), metal products, lumber, cement, commercial ship repair
Mining industry in the D.R. Congo: Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Copper mining in the D.R. Congo - Uranium mining in the D.R. Congo - Foreign involvement in D.R. Congo mining industry, as at least 25 international mining companies were active in the D.R. Congo according to Datamonitor 360, including Canadian-domiciled mining companies with highest presence
December 2016 mining disaster: 18 décembre 2016: Au moins 20 personnes sont mortes dans un éboulement survenu la nuit dans un carré minier à Makungu dans le sud du Sud-Kivu, selon le ministre des mines
September 2020 at least 50 people reportedly died after artisanal gold mine collapse: 11/12 September 2020: As dozens of mine accident-related deaths are reported each year in the region, at least 50 people are thought to have died when an artisanal gold mine collapsed near Kamituga in the east of the D.R. Congo, a local mining NGO said, after landslide at a disused gold mine killed 16 people in October 2019, while 43 clandestine miners died in another landslide at a copper and cobalt mine in June 2019
Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the D.R. Congo: Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Canadian mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, tantalum (coltan), niobium, tin, tungsten, petroleum
Mining companies of the D.R. Congo: Mining companies of the D.R. Congo - 'Africo Resources' Canadian mining company, whose main property is the copper and cobalt Kalukundi Mine - Afrimines Resources - Anvil Mining copper producer since 2002 - 'Central African Mining and Exploration Company' headquartered in London - 'Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation' Kazakhstan/Central African-focused multinational diversified natural resources company headquartered in London - 'Glencore' plc Anglo–Swiss multinational trading and mining company headquartered in Baar (Switzerland) with its registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey - 'Katanga Mining' Ltd mine complex in the Katanga Province, producing refined copper and cobalt and headquartered in Canada - Metorex mining company - Mwana Africa mining company based in Johannesburg and London
April 2017 '3TG' entering the supply chains of tech firms: 6 April 2017: The risk of human rights tainted tungsten, tin, tantalum and gold (3TG) entering the supply chains of tech firms is extending well beyond the traditional home of 'conflict minerals', DR Congo and the Great Lakes Region of Africa, according to new research from risk analysis firm Verisk Maplecroft
4 November 2021 president Tshisekedi replaced entire board of directors of Gecamines: 4 November 2021: In the DR Congo president Tshisekedi replaced the entire board of directors of Gecamines including president Albert Yuma, director-general and deputy, as decision comes after claims of dubious transactions in the state-owned mining company, and as - on a personal level the now-former boss of Gecamines is allegedly implicated in the Egal case, a company in which he is a shareholder and which embezzled 43 million dollars of public money to benefit Joseph Kabila's inner circle
Child labour in the D.R. Congo: Child labour in the D.R. Congo
2016 children working in perilous conditions in the D.R. Congo to mine cobalt: 19 January 2016: Children as young as seven are working in perilous conditions in the D.R. Congo to mine cobalt that ends up in smartphones, cars and computers sold across the world, by household brands including Apple, Microsoft and Vodafone, according to a joint investigation of rights groups
Energy in the D.R. Congo; Energy in the D.R. Congo
Oil and gas companies of the D.R. Congo: Oil and gas companies of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Since 1999 Cohydro company in the D.R. of the Congo that is involved in the import, export and distribution of hydrocarbons derived from crude oil, for commercial and industrial uses
23 July 2022 DRC to auction oil and gas permits that could be a catastrophe for wildlife, health and climate: 23 July 2022: DRC to auction oil and gas permits in endangered gorilla habitat, as sale calls into question protection deal signed at Cop26 as expert warns Congo auction could be a catastrophe for wildlife, health and climate
Agriculture in the D.R. Congo: Agriculture in the D.R. Congo - principal crops cassava, yams, plantains, rice, maize and principal cash crops coffee, rubber, palm oil, cocoa, tea
Coffee production in the D.R. Congo: Coffee production in the D.R. Congo
Deforestation in the D.R. Congo: Deforestation in the D.R. Congo and causes - Consequences of deforestation in the D.R. Congo
List of rivers of the D.R. Congo: List of rivers of the D.R. Congo
Water crisis in the D.R. Congo: Water crisis in the D.R. Congo
Transport in the D.R. Congo: Transport in the D.R. Congo - Transport disasters in the D.R. Congo
Rail transport in the D.R. Congo: Rail transport in the D.R. Congo
Road transport in the D.R. Congo: Road transport in the D.R. Congo
Water transport in the D.R. Congo: Water transport in the D.R. Congo
16 February 2021 at least 60 people died and hundreds more missing after overloaded whaling boat sank on the Congo river: 16 February 2021: At least 60 people have died and hundreds more are missing after an overloaded whaling boat sank on the Congo river at night, according to country’s humanitarian affairs minister, as Steve Mbikayi said more than 700 people had been aboard the vessel but that only 300 survivors had been found so far at the site of the disaster in Mai-Ndombe province in the west of the country
9 October 2021 over 50 people dead, more missing after boat sinks on Congo River: 9 October 2021: Over 50 people dead, more missing after boat sinks on Congo River, authorities in DRC's Mongala state say 51 bodies recovered and nearly 70 believed to be missing after makeshift vessel capsizes
Ports and harbors in the D.R. Congo: Ports and harbors in the D.R. Congo
Aviation in the D.R. Congo: Aviation in the D.R. Congo
Aviation accidents and incidents in the D.R. Congo: Aviation accidents and incidents in the D.R. Congo
November 2019 plane accident: 24 novembre 2019: Au moins 23 personnes ont été tuées dimanche lors du crash d'un petit avion de ligne qui s'est écrasé au décollage sur un quartier résidentiel de Goma, dans l'est de la RDC
Economic history of the D.R. Congo and economic cycles: Economic history of the D.R. Congo
1980–2017 main economic indicators in the D.R. Congo: Main economic indicators in 1980–2017 in the D.R. Congo
Politics of the D.R. Congo: Politics of the D.R. Congo - Political parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Trade unions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
General election November 2011: DRC general election 28 November 2011 - 26 November: Deadly clashes in DRC capital ahead of vote on Monday - 27 November: DR Congo ban election rallies - 28 November: DR Congo votes amid fears of violence - 4 December: DR Congo elections - Kabila guards 'shot UDPS supporters' - 9 December: Kabila declared winner of DR Congo polls - 22 December 2011: DR Congo troops killed civilians after vote, Human Rights Watch says
2014: In July 2014 the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and United Nations forces launched an offensive against rebel groups in the Masisi and Walikale territories in the North Kivu province, resulting in the liberation of over twenty villages from rebel control, including a mine
Postponed November 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election: 27 November 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election - general elections were originally scheduled to be held on 27 November 2016 to determine a successor to president Kabila, but the election was postponed until early 2018 - 30 décembre 2016: Après quinze jours des discussions, la majorité et l'opposition sont arrivées à conclure un accord de sortie de la crise provoquée par le maintien au pouvoir du président Kabila, qui quittera le pouvoir après des élections en 2017
2017: 20 July 2017: The president Joseph Kabila currently clinging to power in the D.R. Congo and his family have a vast network of businesses thought to have generated hundreds of millions of dollars in revenues since 2003 and reaching into almost every sector of the country’s economy, according to a report - 6 November 2017: D.R of Congo announced that much delayed elections to replace President Kabila would take place in December 2018, but the opposition demanded the longtime leader step down sooner
April 2018: 26 April 2018: Opposition politicians and activists in the D.R. Congo have pledged to defy repression and step up their protests as the troubled country edges towards elections that have been promised by the president, Joseph Kabila, later this year
August 2018: 1 August 2018: Former warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba returns to DR Congo from prison to submit candidacy and to run for president after spending 10 years in prison in The Hague before his surprise acquittal on appeal in June - 8 August 2018: DR Congo's Kabila backs ex-interior minister for election - 25 August 2018: DR Congo bars Pierre-Bemba from presidential ballot
November 2018: 15 November 2018: The Congolese army and the United Nations force have been conducting a joint military operation against Ugandan rebels spreading terror in the eastern part of DRC just as the December 23 election approaches - 16 November 2018: At least seven UN peacekeepers have been killed in clashes with Islamist militias near Beni, in the east and close to the centre of the country’s worst Ebola outbreak - 25 novembre 2018: La religion est omniprésente dans les campagnes des 21 candidats à l'élection présidentielle qui aura lieu le 23 décembre
December 2018: 19 décembre 2018: La RDC se rend aux urnes dimanche après les élections ont été déjà reportées 2 fois - Liste des candidats président - Candidates of the 2018 D.R. of the Congo general election - 21 septembre 2018: Liste définitive des candidats à l'élection présidentielle du décembre 2018, parmi lesquels Marie Josée Ifoku et Badibanga ont été rétabli - 20 December 2018: DR Congo presidential election postponed for a week
December 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election: 23/30 December 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election - 27 December 2018: Protests rocked the city of Beni following the decision of the electoral commission to delay elections to March 2019 in that city, along with Butembo and Yumbi, as soldiers and police fired in the air to disperse demonstrators who barricaded roads and burned tires to protest against the decision to exclude them from the presidential election on Sunday - 29 December 2018: The elections body CENI confirmed that the December 30 general elections will take place after the initial date of December 23 was pushed forward by a week during which period CENI announced a 'no vote' for three cities considered opposition strongholds – Beni, Butembo and Yumbi - 31 December 2018: Most mobile internet connections in Kinshasa (and partly in Goma) were down on Monday, residents said, the day after a presidential election that both camps suggested they had won - 31 décembre 2018: La mission d'observation de l'Église catholique a fait état d'anomalies dans le dépouillement des résultats des élections générales de la veille en RDC, et l'accès à internet et aux réseaux sociaux a été coupé
January 2019: 1 January 2019: Western envoys reject internet outage amid vote count, also calling for observers to have access to result compilation centers - 4 janvier 2019: L'Afrique, les Etats-Unis et l'UE ont demandé à Kinshasa de respecter le choix des électeurs congolais, et l'èglise catholique affirme connaître le nom du vainqueur et demande à la Commission électorale de proclamer les résultats dans la 'vérité et la justice' - 5 January 2019: The USA has deployed military personnel to Gabon, in anticipation of possible violent demonstrations in the D.R. Congo, when results of a presidential election are declared - 6 January 2019: DRC officials postpone presidential election results, expected to increase tensions after government cut internet access
10-12 January 2019: 10 January 2019: Felix Tshisekedi, the leader of the D.R. Congo’s main opposition party, has been declared the surprise winner of the 30 December presidential election - 12 janvier 2019: La Commission électorale a donné les résultats des législatives qui donnent la majorité à l'Assemblée nationale aux alliés de l'actuel président Kabila - 12 January 2019: Opposition politician Martin Fayulu has filed an appeal at the country’s Constitutional Court challenging results of the December 30 polls, as France, the USA, and the United Kingdom have called for clarity over the results released by CENI - 13 January 2019: Southern African Development Community, which includes 16 states, calls for recount in DRC election, also urging government of national unity to ease crisis after poll result contested
March 2019 D.R. of the Congo Senate election: March 2019 Democratic Republic of the Congo Senate election - 17 March 2019: At least one police officer was killed during violent protest in Kinshasa following the crushing defeat of President Felix Tshisekedi’s party in Friday’s senatorial election
October 2019 calls for press freedom: 21 October 2019: 'Reporters Without Borders' and 'Journalist in Danger', its partner organization in the D.R. Congo, have called on the central African country’s new government to prioritize two major reforms in order to keep its promise to improve press freedom
12 July 2020 Justice minister Tunda resigned over proposed judiciary laws: 12 July 2020: D.R. Congo’s Justice minister Celestin Tunda resigned following a dispute with the president over proposed laws that would give politicians more control over criminal prosecutions, after he had been briefly arrested late last month opposing changes in the laws by the sitting government, citing illegality and as controversial reforms include proposals to define the powers of judges, which critics said is a ploy to muzzle the judiciary
11 December 2020 DR Congo parliament votes to oust pro-Kabila speaker: 11 December 2020: Legislators in the D.R. Congo on Thursday voted to remove the National Assembly speaker, as the political rift between president Tshisekedi and supporters of his predecessor Kabila deepens, as pro-Tshisekedi supporters celebrate speaker's exit
17 December 2020 D.R. Congo imposing stricter covid-19 measures as cases have soared: 17 December 2020: D.R. Congo is imposing stricter covid-19 measures as cases have soared, also announcing that schools would close earlier for the Christmas holidays and that there would be a ban on public gatherings of more than 10 people, on ceremonies before burials, and sports competitions will continue without fans, as country has recorded just over 14,000 covid cases and over 350 deaths from the pandemic and aas seen a steady increase in recent weeks
31 December 2020 survivours still seek justice 22 years after DR Congos's Makobola massacre: 31 December 2020: New Year's Eve begins on a somber note in the village of Makobola in the D.R. Congo, after more than 700 people were killed in a massacre in the village 22 years ago, and as on Thursday authorities, residents and survivors walked through the cemetery where hundreds are buried in mass graves after allegedly being killed by rebels that started shooting against civilians in the village on New Year's Eve in 1998
27 January 2021 lawmakers dismissed PM Sylvestre Ilunga Ilunkamba on Wednesday: 27 January 2021: Lawmakers in the D.R. Congo have dismissed the PM Sylvestre Ilunga Ilunkamba on Wednesday evening during a parliament plenary session held in Kinshasa, coming after the majority of the lawmakers passed a vote of no-confidence by 367 votes to seven to the Premier alleging his inability in the management of the country
22 May 2021 D.R. of Congo urged residents to evacuate after Nyiragongo volcano eruption: 22 May 2021: Authorities in the D.R. of Congo have urged residents of the eastern city of Goma to evacuate after a volcano overlooking the area erupted, and as the lava from Mount Nyiragongo approached Goma’s airport late on Saturday, as thousands of residents carrying mattresses and other belongings fled the border city on foot, many towards the frontier with Rwanda
3 June 2021 ‘exponential’ rise in covid-19 cases in DRC capital, reports WHO: 3 June 2021: ‘Exponential’ rise in covid-19 cases in DRC capital, reports WHO, as African city of Kinshasa, home to 15 million people, is amid third wave of infections, authorities confirm, as the rise mirrors a 'clear deterioration' in the wider province of Kinshasa, according to WHO
20 July 2021 IMF confirms three-year support programme: 20 July 2021: IMF Board of Directors approved a three-year aid programme for the DRC, confirmed on Monday during a joint conference with Nicolas Kazadi, Minister of Finance, as the programme includes the disbursement of 1.5 billion dollars over 3 years, in exchange for certain reforms, broken down into 3 parts
6 October 2021 four months since Nyiragongo eruption, victims plea for help: 6 October 2021: IDPs decry dire living conditions including lack of food at makeshift camp months after Nyiragongo volcanic eruption in eastern DRC
19 November 2021 new media report on enrichment by former president Kamila: 19 novembre 2021: Nouvelle enquête collaborative publiée par 'Congo Hold-up' documente d’importants détournements de fonds publics en République démocratique du Congo, révèlant comment la famille de l'ancien président Kabila a 'siphonné' 138 millions de dollars des caisses de l'État, avec la complicité de la banque BGFIRDC, à travers une société-écran installée dans un garage
4 November 2021 president Tshisekedi replaced entire board of directors of Gecamines: 4 November 2021: In the DR Congo president Tshisekedi replaced the entire board of directors of Gecamines including president Albert Yuma, director-general and deputy, as decision comes after claims of dubious transactions in the state-owned mining company, and as - on a personal level the now-former boss of Gecamines is allegedly implicated in the Egal case, a company in which he is a shareholder and which embezzled 43 million dollars of public money to benefit Joseph Kabila's inner circle
4 December 2021 DR Congo struggles with covid-19 vaccine push: 4 December 2021: DR Congo struggles with covid-19 vaccine push, as in Britain at the end of 2020 billions of jabs have since poured off production lines and rich countries are lining up booster shots to top up protection for their citizens, but in the DR Congo there's little talk of a vaccine success story as Sub-Saharan Africa's biggest country ranks among the least immunised nations in the world
2/3 August 2022 DR Congo's government reexamines the withdrawal plan for the UN's MONUSCO mission: 2 August 2022: After dozens of deaths during last week's violent demonstrations against the United Nations, DR Congo's government reexamines the withdrawal plan for the UN's MONUSCO mission
Social movements, protests and repression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Protests in the D.R. of the Congo
2012: 2 August 2012: Thousands take to streets denounce ongoing fighting in eastern region that has displaced hundreds of thousands
January 2015 Congolese protests: January 2015 Congolese protests led by students at the University of Kinshasa against proposed legislation that would allow the country's president Joseph Kabila to remain in power indefinitely until a national census was completed
2016: 26 April 2016: Congo police fire teargas, arrest opposition supporters - 20 September 2016: More than 50 people killed on Monday in clashes between protesters and security forces in the Congolese capital Kinshasa, after a rally, which the authorities cancelled, was called to demand the resignation of president Joseph Kabila - 19 October 2016: A general strike has begun in Kinshasa in protest at president Kabila’s plans to stay in power beyond the end of his term in December
December 2016 Congolese protests: December 2016 Congolese protests, after Joseph Kabila announced that he would not leave office despite the end of his constitutional term - 20 December 2016: Twenty people have been killed in confrontations between protesters and security forces in Kinshasa, according to UN officials, hours after the end of the second five-year term of the president Kabila - 21 December 2016: Despite calls from the USA, Britain, the European Union and the United Nations for authorities and security forces to respect human rights, police, paramilitaries and soldiers have rounded up demonstrators and opposition activists to prevent any further protests against the government of Joseph Kabila - 25 December 2016: Militias in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo killed at least 34 civilians over the weekend according to the army and local activists, as attacks have surged across the country in the past week alongside violent protests over president Joseph Kabila’s failure to step down
December 2017: 31 décembre 2017: Les forces de sécurité congolaises ont dispersé une messe à coup de gaz lacrymogènes dans une église du centre de Kinshasas et douze enfants de choeur catholiques ont été interpellés après l'appel des catholiques à manifester contre le maintien du président Joseph Kabila - 31 December 2017: UN peacekeepers say security forces shot at least seven people during demonstration in Kinshasa against President Kabila’s refusal to step down
January 2018: 23 January 2018: Congo steps up deadly crackdown as church joins anti-Kabila protests
December 2018: 21 December 2018: Students and residents protest in Kinshasa following news that the 'Independent National Election Commission' has postponed holding of the presidential election to December 30 - 27 December 2018: DRC troops fire teargas and live rounds to quell protests about election delay as demonstrators in the eastern cities of Beni, Butembo and their surrounding areas, that are strongholds of opposition to the outgoing president Kabila, block roads and burn tyres over their exclusion from vote - 28 December 2018: Soldiers crackdown on Beni protests
January 2019: 11 January 2019: Protests in favour of candidate Martin Fayulu have rocked an opposition stronghold, as Catholic Church questions Tshisekedi’s victory
25/26 November 2019 protests in Beni against violence and fresh militant attack: 25 November 2019: Eight civilians died overnight in DR Congo’s volatile city of Beni in a fresh militant attack, as there have been a string of rallies against local forces and UN peacekeepers in Beni for failing to stop attacks by the 'Allied Democratic Forces' militia, and as more than 60 civilians have been massacred in the Beni region since the start of November - 26 November 2019: Protesters in Beni set the town hall on fire on Monday after militants believed to belong to the ADF have killed more than 70 civilians in massacres since the Congolese army launched an offensive against them this month
28 November 2019 Goma protest: 28 November 2019: Students in the city of Goma, who were violently dispersed and arrested by police during an anti-UN solidarity demonstration, accuse the UN Mission in Congo Monusco of 'passively' witnessing the massacres of civilians in the city of Beni
14 July 2020 thousands of protesters gather in the DR Congo capital Kinshasa: 14 July 2020: Thousands of protesters gather in the DR Congo capital Kinshasa, four days after five people were killed in banned demonstrations over the choice of a new election chief
26 July 2022 several shot dead, dozens injured at anti-UN protests in DR Congo: 26 July 2022: At least five people have been killed and dozens injured during anti-UN protests in eastern DR Congo, a government spokesman said Tuesday as the unrest spread, after on Monday hundreds of people blocked roads and chanted hostile slogans before storming the UN peacekeeping mission's headquarters and a supply base in Goma, the main city in North Kivu province
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the D.R. Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo society
Provinces, districts and territories of the D.R. Congo: Since 2006-2015 25/26 provinces of the D.R. Congo - Districts of the D.R. Congo - 192 territories of the D.R. Congo
Cities in the D.R. Congo: List of cities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
2006/2015 21st century's provinces of the D.R. Congo: 25/26 nouvelles provinces de la République Démocratique du Congo - The Constitution of 2006 increased the number of provinces from ten, and in the summer of 2015 the six largest provinces were split up into twenty-one new provinces, in a total of 25/26 provinces - 1966-2015 Katanga province - one of the four large provinces created in the colonial 'Belgian Congo' in 1914 - was then one of the eleven provinces of the D.R. Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba, and Haut-Katanga provinces. Between 1971 and 1997 - during the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko when Congo was known as 'Zaïre' - its official name was Shaba Province - Zaire province, one of the 18 provinces of Angola - independent from Portugal since 11 November 1975 - in the north west of the country, bordered on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north by the D.R. Congo, on the east by the Uíge Province, and on the south by the Bengo Province
Kinshasa city: Kinshasa city, the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo situated alongside the Congo River and today a megacity with an estimated population of more than 11 million, facing Brazzaville, the capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo - History of Kinshasa
Economy of Kinshasa: Economy of Kinshasa
Timeline of Kinshasa: Timeline of Kinshasa since 14th Century
1908 Kinshasa (Léopoldville) becomes part of Belgian Congo: Kinshasa (Léopoldville) becomes part of Belgian Congo in 1908, after in the late 19th century King Leopold II of Belgium established a colony
1959 Léopoldville riots: 1959 Léopoldville riots were an outbreak of civil disorder in modern-day Kinshasa in the Belgian Congo which were an important moment for the Congolese independence movement, after members of the Alliance des Bakongo political party were not allowed to assemble for a protest and colonial authorities reacted harshly
Since 1981 (1954) University of Kinshasa: Since 1981 (1954) University of Kinshasa, one of the three major universities in the D.R. Congo, together with the University of Kisangani and University of Lubumbashi
November 2019 Kinshasa floods: 26 novembre 2019: Au moins 41 personnes sont mortes mardi à Kinshasa, victimes de pluies diluviennes qui ont provoqué dans la nuit de lundi à mardi inondations, glissements de terrains et électrocutions dans une capitale où les autorités congolaises peinent à combattre l'urbanisme de la pauvreté
3 June 2021 ‘exponential’ rise in covid-19 cases in DRC capital, reports WHO: 3 June 2021: ‘Exponential’ rise in covid-19 cases in DRC capital, reports WHO, as African city of Kinshasa, home to 15 million people, is amid third wave of infections, authorities confirm, as the rise mirrors a 'clear deterioration' in the wider province of Kinshasa, according to WHO
Mongala province: Mongala province, located at the northwest of the country on the Congo River, bordering the provinces of Tshopo, Bas-Uele, Nord-Ubangi, Sud-Ubangi, Équateur and Tshuapa, as Mongala is one of the 21 new provinces of the D.R. of the Congo created in the 2015 repartitioning, formed from the Mongala District whose town of Lisala was elevated to capital city of the new province, with 1,793,564 citizens in the 21st century
Lisala city between two rivers: Lisala city, the capital of the Mongala Province. The population is made up of several different tribal groups, notably Ngombe with minorities of Mongo, Ngandi, Ngwaka and Budja. Lisala's area is crossed by the N6 road, of the Route Nationale and is bordered to the north by the Mongala River and to the south by the Congo River
9 October 2021 over 50 people dead, more missing after boat sinks on Congo River: 9 October 2021: Over 50 people dead, more missing after boat sinks on Congo River, authorities in DRC's Mongala state say 51 bodies recovered and nearly 70 believed to be missing after makeshift vessel capsizes
Lubumbashi city: Lubumbashi city, in the southeastern part of Democratic Republic of the Congo and the mining capital of the D.R. Congo, acting as a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies, and the second-largest city in the country with a population of around 1.5 million inhabitants - Timeline of Lubumbashi - Economy of Lubumbashi
Mbuji-Mayi city: Mbuji-Mayi city, located in Luba country on the Sankuru River, the capital city of Kasai-Oriental Province in the south-central region and the third largest city in the country - Mbuji-Mayi's area one of the richest sources of mineral wealth in the world
Kisangani city: Kisangani city, the capital of Tshopo province, the third largest urbanized city in the country and the largest of the cities that lie in the tropical woodlands of the Congo - Timeline of Kisangani - Economy of Kisangani
Kananga city: Kananga city, near the Lulua River (a tributary of the Kasai River) and the Ilebo-Lubumbashi railway, an important commercial and administrative centre and the capital city of the Lulua Province with an estimated population of 1,463,556 inhabitants
Bukavu city: Bukavu ciy in eastern DRC and the capital of the South Kivu province, lying at the extreme south-western edge of Lake Kivu, west of Cyangugu in Rwanda, and separated from it by the outlet of the Ruzizi River, with an estimated population of 806,940 inhabitants in 2012
Timeline of Bukavu: Timeline of Bukavu
3 November 2021 deadly clashes in DRC’s Bukavu: 3 November 2021: Deadly clashes in DRC’s Bukavu after gunmen launch overnight raid, as 6 attackers, two police officers and a soldier killed during gun battles, local governor says
Goma city: Goma city, the capital of North Kivu province in the eastern D.R. Congo, located on the northern shore of Lake Kivu, next to the Rwandan city of Gisenyi
Since 1993 University of Goma: Since 1993 University of Goma, a public university in the Congolese city
Since ancient times volcanic activity around Goma: Since ancient times volcanic activity around Goma, as - after the Great Rift Valley was formed, pulled apart, leading to earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes in the region
Since 1993 University of Goma: Since 1993 University of Goma, a public university in the Congolese city
September 2013 Goma’s aid economy a blessing and curse, according to OCHA's 'reliefweb': 11 September 2013: Goma’s aid economy a blessing and curse, as construction workers put the final touches on a five-story apartment-hotel complex in the eastern DRC city of Goma, its future occupants would likely not be locals. Goma’s economy remains weak and subsceptible according to OCHA's 'reliefweb', after waves of conflict over the past two decades have led to the presence of some 500 aid agencies in North Kivu. Around 100 of them are international, the rest depend largely on foreign funding. Aid agencies' staff have created an emerging middle class in Goma who are able to spend and drive the economy. 'Their presence also means there is an increased need for services', as 'Congolese businessmen and the mining activities in the eastern part of the country also contribute a substantial amount of money that circulates within the economy of Goma', OCHA says - Economy, transport, and other features of Goms
Timeline of Goma since 1925: Timeline of Goma since 1925 - History of Goma
Since April 1925 Albert National Park, Africa's first national park: In the early 1920s, several proponents of the European conservation movement championed the idea of creating a protected area in northeastern Belgian Congo. When Albert National Park was established in April 1925 as Africa's first national park, it was promoted (and conceived) as a science-oriented nature reserve with the aim of studying and preserving wildlife and so-called 'primitive' hunter-gatherer African Pygmies. - In 2011, the British company Soco International was granted a concession for extracting crude oil in the surroundings of and in large parts of the national park. Government officials supported exploration activities by Soco International mission members, whereas park management opposed. In the course of increasing tensions, the park's chief warden, Emmanuel de Mérode, was assailed in April 2014. Following international protests, the company stopped exploring activities and consented to refrain from starting similar operations in the vicinity of World Heritage sites, according to 'Sustainable development at natural World Heritage sites in Africa', UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, March 2018
Since 1998 Goma and Second Congo War: Since 1998 Goma and Second Congo War - following the First Congo War 1997-1998 -, unprecedented in Africa for the loss of civilian life in massacres and atrocities. By 2003 the Banyamulenge had become tired of the war and friction emerged between them and Rwanda. In 2002 and 2003 a fragile negotiated peace emerged between the many sides involved in the war.
2002 destruction, eruption of volcano Nyiragongo: 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo, warning, as and most of the population of Goma evacuated to Gisenyi. The lava destroyed 40% of the city (more than 4,500 houses and buildings). There were some fatalities caused by the lava and by emissions of carbon dioxide, which causes asphyxiation. The lava also covered over the northern runway of Goma International Airport, isolating the terminal and apron which were at that end. In 2005, volcanic activity again threatened the city.
July-November 2012 second battle of Goma: Juillet-20 novembre 2012 seconde bataille de Goma, belligérants CNDP, FARDC, FDLR
February 2019 gunmen killed eight people in three districts of Goma: 17 February 2019: Unidentified gunmen killed eight people in three districts of Goma in eastern D.R. Congo during the night of Saturday to Sunday, provoking public anger against the authorities, the city’s mayor reported
May 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption: May 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption, as on 22 May 2021 Mount Nyiragongo in the D.R. Congo began erupting. As of 25 May, 32 people died as a result of the eruption and 1,000 homes were destroyed
20 December 2021 protests called 'journée d'action ville morte' and several deaths: Quatre personnes dont un bébé ont été tuées et au moins 12 blessées lundi à Goma, dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo, lors d'une journée d'action 'ville morte' déclenchée pour protester contre la criminalité. La police a tiré à balles réelles et fait usage de gaz lacrymogène pour disperser la foule. L'activité de la ville est restée paralysée toute la journée, avec rues barricadées, boutiques, banques, écoles et marché central fermés.
26 January 2022 more than 20 Congolese soldiers killed in an attack by the M23 rebel group: 26 January 2022: More than 20 Congolese soldiers have been killed in an attack by the M23 rebel group on an army position in D.R. of Congo’s conflict-wracked east, as the attack was launched on Monday night in North Kivu province near the Virunga National Park
6 February 2022 amid covid-19 Amani festival returns to Goma with recognition of Congolese rumba by UNESCO: 6 February 2022: The Amani festival returns to Goma with its 8th edition after its suspension due to the covid-19 restrictions last year, now reviving as a busy period in eastern DRC's city. Performances of local and international artists are on the agenda but this year, Congolese rumba will have the place of honor after its the recognition from UNESCO as world's intangible cultural heritage.
26 July 2022: At least 15 people were killed and about 50 wounded during a second day of violent anti-UN protests in the D.R. of the Congo’s eastern cities of Goma and Butembo according to authorities , as the dead included demonstrators and UN personnel when UN sites were attacked by crowds. The protests were called by a faction of the ruling party’s youth wing that accuses the UN mission, known as Monusco, of failing to protect civilians against militia violence
Lake Kivu on the border between the D.R. Congo and Rwanda: Lake Kivu on the border between the D.R. Congo and Rwanda, in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift. Lake Kivu empties into the Ruzizi River, which flows southwards into Lake Tanganyika, ass the surface of the lake sits at a height of 1,460 metres above sea level. The lake has a maximum depth of 475 m making it the world's eighteenth deepest lake by maximum depth, as 58% of the lake's waters lie within DRC borders. The lake bed sits upon a rift valley that is slowly being pulled apart, causing volcanic activity in the area.
Beni city in north eastern D.R.: Beni city in north eastern D.R. with an estimated population of 231,952 citizens in 2013, lying immediately west of the Virunga National Park and the Rwenzori Mountains, on the edge of the Ituri Forest. Beni is home to a market, an airport and a university, as the city contains four communes, or municipalities incl. Beni, Bungulu, Ruwenzori and Muhekera, and was the scene of fierce fighting in the Second Congo War around 2001. Between October 2014 and May 2016 over 500 people died in a series of attacks on Beni and its surrounding area that have been attributed to Ugandan Islamist rebels. The Beni massacre occurred here in August 2016. As of December 2018 Beni has been subject to over 200 cases of Ebola virus disease according to the WHO. On the third of June 2019 an attack in the city killed or wounded 25 people. Isil claimed responsibility shortly afterwards. In 2020, ADF militants reportedly orchestrated a prison escape from the Kangbayi prison, killed and in many cases beheaded 25 people in the village of Tingwe. The militants have been accused of 800 deaths.
5 February 2022 people were hurt in bomb attack in Benin: 5 February 2022: At least four people were hurt after a bomb exploded at a busy market in the eastern city of Beni in D.R. Congo, days after the USA embassy in the capital Kinshasa warned of a possible attack
Ituri province: Ituri province, one of the 21 new provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo created in the 2015 repartitioning. Ituri, Bas-Uele, Haut-Uele, and Tshopo provinces are the result of the dismemberment of the former Orientale province. Ituri was formed from the Ituri district whose town of Bunia was elevated to capital city of the new province.
Bunia capital city of Ituri Province: Bunia city, the capital city of Ituri Province, located at an elevation of 1275m on a plateau about 30 km west of Lake Albert in the Albertine Rift, and about 25km east of the Ituri Rainforest. The city is at the center of the Ituri conflict between the Lendu and Hema. In the Second Congo War the city and district were the scene of much fighting and many civilian deaths from this conflict, and related clashes between militias and Uganda-based forces
History of Ituri province: History of Ituri province, as Kibali-Ituri was a province of the DRC from 1962-1966. Prior to the adoption of the 2006 constitution of D.R. Congo, the legal status of Ituri was a topic of some dispute. From the beginning of the Second Congo War in 1998, it was held by soldiers of the Uganda People's Defense Force and the Ugandan-backed RCD-ML.
27 December 2021 many civilians killed in days of attacks of 'Islamic State' linked criminals in Ituri province: 27 December 2021: 12 civilians and 38 rebels have died in four days of fighting in northeast DR Congo, where the armed forces are carrying out a crackdown on militias, military and local sources said on Monday. The clashes have taken place in Ituri province, where in separate conflicts, the army is battling the Allied Democratic Forces ADF - a group with suspected links to the so-called 'Islamic State' - and an ethnic-based militia called Codecc
2 February 2022 dozens of civilians killed in militia attack in eastern DR Congo's Djugu area: 2 February 2022: Dozens of civilians killed in militia attack in eastern DR Congo's Djugu area, bordering Lake Albert and Uganda which lie to the east, is the theatre for a bloody, long-running feud between the Lendu and Hema communities
9 May 2022 dozens dead after suspected militia raid in Ituri province: 9 May 2022: Dozens of people were killed and many more are missing after armed men raided a mining encampment near the town of Mongwalu in the DRC’s eastern Ituri province, three civil society leaders said, as army spokesmanTsikudi confirmed a deadly attack had taken place at a mining camp near Mongwalu

Demographics and ethnic groups in the D.R. Congo: Demographics of the D.R. Congo, as the CIA World Factbook estimated its population to be over 105 million as of 2021, now exceeding that of Vietnam (with 98,721,275 inhabitants as of 2020) and ascending the country to the rank of 15th most populous in the world
Ethnic groups in the D.R. Congo: Ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as many as 250 ethnic groups have been distinguished and named. The most numerous people are the Luba, Mongo, and Bakongo. Although 700 local languages and dialects are spoken, the linguistic variety is bridged both by the use of French, and the intermediary languages Kikongo ya leta, Tshiluba, Swahili, and Lingala. Bantu peoples make up about 80% of the population, Luba (18%), Mongo (17%), Kongo (12%), as others include Ambala, Ambuun, Angba, Babindi, Baboma, Baholo, Balunda, Bangala, Bango, Batsamba, Bazombe, Bemba, Bembe, Bira, Bowa, Dikidiki, Dzing, Fuliru, Havu, Hema, Hima, Hunde, Iboko, Kanioka, Kaonde, Kuba, Kumu, Kwango, Lengola, Lokele, Lupu, Lwalwa, Mbala, Mbole, Mbuza (Budja), Nande, Ngoli, Bangoli, Ngombe, Nkumu, Nyanga, Pende, Popoi, Poto, Sango, Shi, Songo, Sukus, Tabwa, Chokwe, Téké, Tembo, Tetela, Topoke, Ungana, Vira, Wakuti, Yaka, Yakoma, Yanzi, Yéké, Yela peoples, Central Sudanic/Ubangian (Ngbandi, Ngbaka, Manvu, Mbunja, Moru-Mangbetu, Zande, Lugbara peoples), Nilotic (Alur, Kakwa, Bari, Logo peoples, Pygmy (Alur, Kakwa, Bari, Logo peoples), as more than 600,000 pygmies (around 1% of the total population) are believed to live in DR Congo, mainly in forests, where they survive by hunting wild animals and gathering fruits, according to 'Wikipedia' in the English language
Kongo people, since 16th century European slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves: Kongo people, a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo, that lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, and in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well-organized Kingdom of Kongo, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found in the Republic of the Congo, in the D.R. Congo, Angola and also southwest Gabon, today the largest ethnic group in the Republic of the Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE. Soon afterwards they were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th centuries. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in - 1390-1914 'Kingdom of Kongo' - from c. 1390 to 1862 an independent state - in central Africa in present-day northern Angola, the western portion of the D.R. Congo, the Republic of the Congo as well as the southernmost part of Gabon, consisting of several core provinces ruled by the Manikon, as oral traditions about the early history of the country were set in writing for the first time in the late 16th century - Kongo or Kikongo language, one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo people living in the D.R. Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Angola and Gabon, and spoken by many of those who were taken from the region and sold as slaves in the Americas. For this reason, while Kongo still is spoken in the above-mentioned countries, creolized forms of the language are found in ritual speech of Afro-American religions, especially in Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Haiti. The vast majority of present-day speakers live in Africa. There are roughly 7 million native speakers of Kongo, with perhaps two million more who use it as a second language.
Mongo people of the D.R. Congo: Mongo people are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the equatorial forest of Central Africa. They are the second largest ethnic group in the D.R. Congo, highly influential in its north region, with an estimated population of 12 million. A diverse collection of sub-ethnic groups, they are mostly residents of a region north of the Kasai and the Sankuru Rivers, south of the main Congo River bend. Their highest presence is in the province of Équateur and the northern parts of the Bandundu Province
Since early centuries of the 1st millennium handed down history of the Mongo people: History of the Mongo people, as historic roots of the Mongo people are unclear, but they probably settled along the rainy, hot and humid river valleys of northern and western Congo in early centuries of the 1st millennium. Farming of staples such as yam and banana was likely established by about 1000 CE. The Belgian colonial rule impacted the traditions, culture and religious beliefs of the Mongo people
Luba people or Baluba: Luba people or Baluba are an ethno-linguistic group indigenous to the south-central region of the D.R. Congo. The majority of them live in this country, residing mainly in its Katanga, Kasai and Maniema. The Baluba Tribe consist of many sub-groups or clans who speak various dialects of Luba (e.g. Kiluba, Tshiluba) and other languages, such as Swahili
1585–1889 Kingdom of Luba, pre-colonial Central African community: Kingdom of Luba 1585–1889, a pre-colonial Central African community that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba Depression in what is now southern D.R. Congo
Culture and languages of the D.R. Congo: Culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Languages of the D.R. Congo: Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Women in the D.R. Congo: Women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Polygamy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Women's rights in the D.R. Congo: Women's rights in the D.R. Congo
8 March 2021 on International Women's Day Africanews spoke to Denise Nyakeru Tshisekedi: 8 March 2021: On International Women's Day and marking the momentous occasion Africanews spoke to the First Lady of the D.R. of Congo Denise Nyakeru Tshisekedi, a champion defender of women's rights with the foundation that bears her name fighting against gender-based violence, as she told journalist Nathalie Wakam about the coronavirus pandemic, inspiring women to become the next leaders and the assassination of the Italian ambassador to the DRC
Children, children's rights, child labour and soldiers in the D.R. Congo: Children in the D.R. Congo - Child soldiers in the D.R Congo
August 2013 violence against children: 17 août 2013: Plus de 80 enfants, âgés de 8 à 17 ans et recrutés de force dans l'est de la RD Congo, ont été retirés des mains de miliciens Maï-Maï, selon l'ONU
January 2016 children working in perilous conditions to mine cobalt: 19 January 2016: Children as young as seven are working in perilous conditions in the D.R. Congo to mine cobalt that ends up in smartphones, cars and computers sold across the world, by household brands including Apple, Microsoft and Vodafone, according to a joint investigation of rights groups
6 May 2020 pollution causing birth defects in children of DRC cobalt miners: 6 May 2020: Pollution causing birth defects in children of DRC cobalt miners, according to researchers, linking exposure to mining pollutants to greatly increased risk of conditions such as spina bifida and limb abnormalities, as people exposed to dangerous toxic pollution for their children mine for cobalt used to make rechargeable batteries for smartphones, laptops and electric cars
Education in the D.R. Congo: Education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo -
Schools in the D.R. Congo: Schools in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
22 October 2021 schoolchildren storm DRC parliament over striking teachers’ pay: 22 October 2021: Schoolchildren storm DRC parliament over striking teachers’ pay, as hundreds of students demand the government raise teachers’ pay to end a strike that has put a halt on lessons
Universities in the D.R. Congo: Universities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Health in the D.R. Congo: Health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Medical outbreaks in the D.R. Congo: Medical outbreaks in the D.R. Congo - Man-made disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 1983 HIV/AIDS in the D.R. Congo: HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1983
Ebola outbreaks in the D.R. of the Congo: Ebola outbreaks in the D.R. of the Congo
2014 Ebola virus outbreak: 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak began in August 2014
2017 D.R. of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak: 2017 D.R. of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak - 12 May 2017: New Ebola outbreak declared in Democratic Republic of Congo
Since 2018 Ebola virus outbreak in the D.R. of the Congo: 2018 D.R. of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak - Since August 2018 Kivu Ebola epidemic
May-August 2018: 8 May 2018: 17 people in northwest DRC have died from Ebola, the health ministry said, describing the fresh outbreak as a 'public health emergency with international impact' - Since August 2018 Kivu D.R. of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak - 5 août 2018: Ebola fait 33 morts en RDC, directement liés à la dernière épidémie de fièvre hémorragique Ebola qui s'est déclarée fin juillet - 14 août 2018: La nouvelle épidémie d'Ebola a encore fait des morts, dans l'est de la RDC
May 2019: 3 May 2019: Ebola death toll in Congo to pass 1,000 and women and children fare worst, World Health Organization warns, as efforts to contain outbreak are undermined by health centre attacks and local mistrust
July 2019: 16 July 2019: The first Ebola patient in eastern D.R. Congo’s largest city has died, as spread of the virus to Goma on the border with Rwanda has raised fears the outbreak, which is already the second deadliest ever Ebola epidemic, could spread more widely - 31 July 2019: Second case of Ebola confirmed in DR Congo's Goma
August/September 2019: 16 août 2019: Deux premières personnes ont été testées positives au virus Ebola dans la province du Sud-Kivu, et l'une d'entre elles est décédée, selon le gouvernorat - 14 September 2019: Confirmed Ebola deaths in the east of the DR Congo reportedly nearing 2,000 and confirmed cases of the virus have exceeded 3,000
12 April 2020 second Ebola death in days recorded: 12 April 2020: D.R. Congo recorded a second Ebola death in days following more than seven weeks without a new case, according to WHO
8 February 2021 Ebola virus kills woman in D.R. Congo: 8 February 2021: Ebola virus kills woman in D.R. Congo, health ministry says, as case near city of Butembo comes nearly three months after the end of an outbreak in the western province of Équateur, which killed 55 people
Since early 2019 measles outbreak in the D.R. Congo: 2019–2020 measles outbreak in the D.R. of the Congo
8 September 2021 meningitis epidemic in DR Congo kills 129, WHO says: 8 September 2021: An epidemic of meningitis has been declared in northeastern DR Congo, where 129 people have died, the WHO said, as a total of 261 suspected cases have been recorded so far, amounting to a 'high case fatality ratio of 50 percent', WHO's Africa branch said
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Pandémie de Covid-19 en république démocratique du Congo
12 April 2020 234 covid-19 confirmed cases and 20 deaths in the D.R. Congo: 12 avril 2020: Dernières évolutions concernant la pandémie du covid-19 dans le pays comprennent 234 cas confirmés et 20 morts
17 December 2020 D.R. Congo imposing stricter covid-19 measures as cases have soared: 17 December 2020: D.R. Congo is imposing stricter covid-19 measures as cases have soared, also announcing that schools would close earlier for the Christmas holidays and that there would be a ban on public gatherings of more than 10 people, on ceremonies before burials, and sports competitions will continue without fans, as country has recorded just over 14,000 covid cases and over 350 deaths from the pandemic and aas seen a steady increase in recent weeks
Healthcare in the D.R. Congo: Healthcare in the D.R. Congo timeline
Hospitals in the D.R. Congo: Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Panzi Hospital in Bukavu specialized in treating survivors of violence founded in 1999
Sport in the D.R. Congo: Sport in the D.R. Congo
Football in the D.R. Congo - 12 May 2014: Fifteen people were killed and 21 others injured after trouble broke out at a football match in Kinshasa, during which police fired tear gas at fans
Media of the D.R. Congo: Media of the D.R. Congo - Freedom of speech and press in the D.R. Congo
Since 1998 'Journaliste en danger': Since 1998 'Journaliste en danger', an independent, non partisan non-profit organization on the initiative of a group of Congolese journalists for the defence and promotion of the press freedom in DR Congo
November 2017: 21 November 2017: Media in the D.R. Congo operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest, and 'freedom of information is constantly violated' according to Reporters Without Borders, but some publications carry opposition party views and there are hundreds of radio stations and scores of TV networks, most of them privately run as owners often have political connections
Newspapers in the D.R. Congo: List of newspapers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Presse écrite de la République démocratique du Congo
Broadcasting in the D.R. Congo: Radio in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - List of television stations in Kinshasa - Radio-Télévision nationale congolaise
Internet in the D.R. Congo: Internet in the D.R. Congo - Internet freedom in the D.R. Congo
December 2017: 30 December 2017: Internet and phone services cut in the D.R. Congo ahead of anti-government protests, after activists have called for marches in major cities to demand that President Joseph Kabila commit to not changing the constitution to stand for a third term and release political prisoners
Human rights the D.R. Congo: Human rights the D.R. Congo
December 2018: 13 December 2018: Armed conflict and other violence have continued in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with government security forces and numerous non-state armed groups responsible for countless horrific abuses against civilians, including killings and rapes, largely with impunity, according to the 'Human Rights Watch Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of the Democratic Republic of Congo'
Crime in the D.R. Congo: Crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Corruption in the D.R. Congo: Corruption in the D.R. Congo continues to exceed corruption in most states - Resource Extraction Monitoring
December 2013 corruption and megaprojects: December 2013: Corruption and Infrastructure - Megaprojects in the DR Congo
May 2020 corruption trial of Vital Kamerhé in Kinshasa: 12 May 2020: Trial of Vital Kamerhé in Kinshasa, as ally and Chief of Staff of DRC president Tshisekedi is charged with embezzlement of public funds
November 2018: 2 November 2018: The recent history of the Democratic Republic of Congo has been one of civil war and corruption, according to media country profile
Violence in the D.R. Congo: Violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Sexual violence in the D.R. Congo: Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Rape in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Human trafficking in the D.R. Congo: Human trafficking in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Terrorism in the the D.R. Congo: Terrorism in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Terrorist incidents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
December 2013 Kinshasa attacks: 30 December 2013 Kinshasa attacks
December 2017 Semuliki attack: 7 December 2017 Semuliki attack
Massacres in the D.R. Congo: Massacres in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Second Congo War 1998-2003 and ongoing Kivu conflict: Second Congo War 1998-2003 - Kivu conflict since 2004, ongoing - M23 rebellion (4 April 2012 – ongoing)
May/June 2012: 14. Mai 2012: Rebellen töten mindestens 20 Menschen im Osten Kongos - zwölf Uno-Blauhelme verletzt - 6 June: Soldiers and rebels clashed in the country's east, killing at least 19 people in the latest outbreak of violence that has forced tens of thousands to flee their homes
July 2012: 6 July: Some 600 Congolese soldiers have fled into Uganda, following clashes with rebels who have seized a border town - 8 July: 'M23 movement' takes Rutshuru and two other towns close to Ugandan border - 11 July: UN calls on Congo, Rwanda to 'defuse tensions' - 12 July: UN and government forces have bombarded rebel positions stationed around two villages in the eastern region of North-Kivu - 14 July: ICC issues warrants for DR Congo warlords
November/December 2012: 18 November: UN Security Council demands an immediate halt to fighting in eastern Congo, as rebels advance towards capital, Goma - 19 November: Ban Ki-moon vows peacekeepers will stay in threatened Goma - 19 November: M23 group is at the gates of Goma, causing panic in the city as government soldiers, officials flee - 19 November: DR Congo rejects M23 ultimatum on talks - 20 November: M23 rebels 'enter Goma city', reports say - 20 November: Calm returns to the main city of eastern DRC after days of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels - 22 November: Presidents of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda discuss Kivu crisis telling M23 rebels to quit Goma - 23 November: The head of the army in the D.R. Congo has been suspended pending an investigation into claims that he sold weapons to rebel groups - 23 November: M23 rebels march on strategic eastern town of Bukavu planning to head to Kisangani and the capital Kinshasa and causing fear in other parts of the country - 23 November: The UN warns of a growing humanitarian crisis in the D.R. Congo - 23/24 November: Congolese flee rebel advance on city of Sake in eastern DR Congo where M23 rebels have racked up military gains against government troops - 24 November: Regional leaders at Kampala summit have urged M23 rebels to cease fire, to stop threats to depose the government and to leave key eastern city of Goma - 26 November: The Kampala summit gives the armed group M23 until Monday to withdraw from Goma and other eastern areas - 26 November: Congo M23 rebels agree to pull out of eastern cities, says Uganda - 28 November: M23 group demands the release of political prisoners after it agrees to leave eastern city of Goma - 30 November: M23 group prepares to leave Goma - 30 November: Disagreement over abandoned Congolese army supplies that the M23 group wants to take with them - 30 November: DR Congo police arrive in Goma as M23 rebels delay pull-out
December 2012: 2 December: Locals remain sceptical after M23 group announces departure from provincial capital Goma following official ceremony - 3 December: DR Congo army returns to Goma
January 2013: 1 January: The UN Security Council has imposed sanctions against leaders of the M23 rebel movement - 8 January: M23 rebels declare a unilateral ceasefire ahead of a second round of peace talks with the government
February 2013: 24 February 2013: In Addis Ababa leaders of Africa's Great Lakes region signed a UN-mediated peace deal aimed at ending two decades of conflict in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo
March 2013: 19 March 2013: Fugitive M23 leader Ntaganda, wanted by the International Criminal Court for suspected war crimes, has surrendered to the US embassy in Kigali - 22 March: Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda in custody at International Criminal Court
May 2013: 21 May: Two days of clashes between Congo's army and rebel fighters near the eastern city of Goma have killed at least 19 people
July 2013: 16 juillet: Combats meurtriers autour de Goma, l'ONU prête à employer 'la force armée' pour stopper une avancée du M23 - 30 July: United Nations has given M23 48 hours to leave the eastern city of Goma or face 'use of force'
August 2013: 3 August: Protesters angry that a new UN security zone will not take in the regions under the control of the rebel M23 movement have hurled rocks at a peacekeeper convoy there - 25 August: Goma residents protest after deadly attack on civilians - 28 August: A UN peacekeeper from Tanzania killed and three others were wounded in an operation with the Congolese army to drive back M23 rebels from the city of Goma - 31 August: M23 rebels retreat from eastern frontline but Rwanda, accused of supporting the M23 group, reportedly moved troops towards the border
September 2013: 9 septembre: Négociations entre le M23 et la RDC à Kampala sous pression des chefs d'Etat de la conférence internationale des Grands Lacs
October/November 2013: 30 October 2013: Congolese troops entered Bunagana after M23 rebels abandoned the last major town they were holding, leaving civilians to celebrate in the streets - 3 November: DR Congo's M23 rebels call truce, potentially paving the way for peace talks - 4 novembre: Les rebelles du M23 ont affirmé lundi matin que l'armée attaquait leur dernier réduit dans les montagnes de l'Est - 5 November: DR Congo claims defeat of M23 rebels - 10 novembre: L'accord que doivent signer la République démocratique du Congo et la rébellion du M23 représente 'une étape très importante vers la paix', selon l'ONU
December 2013: 17 December: Women and children mutilated in DRC attack, UN says - 30 December 2013: Government forces ‘regain control’ of DR Congo capital
2015: 30 November 2015: At least 30 people including a UN peacekeeper killed in clashes pitting the army and UN troops against Ugandan rebels in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, according to local sources
2017: 19 février 2017: Vingt cinq civils ont été tués lors d'une attaque menée par une milice de l'ethnie nande dans le village de Kyaghala et ses environs, une localité de l'Est de la République démocratique du Congo - 23 February 2017: Sixteen people have been killed in three days of fighting this week that pitted the Democratic Republic of Congo's army against a rebel militia, military spokesman says - 26 March 2017: A Congolese militia group has decapitated 42 policemen after ambushing them in Kasai Central where the UN is searching for missing American and Swedish investigators - 22 May 2017: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 922,000 people were displaced by violence and conflict in 2016, a 50% rise on the previous year, according to Norwegian Refugee Council report - 20 June 2017: After the UN reported serious concerns about the human rights violations and abuses committed by the Congolese army and police, and the Kamuina Nsapu militia, and after mass grave sites have been found in the region, Congo's Catholic Church reports that more than 3,000 people have been killed in the central Kasai region of the D.R. of Congo - 5 August 2017: UN report blames Bana Mura militia and government forces for murders, including of 62 children, and urges DRC to prevent escalation into wider ethnic cleansing - 8 December 2017: Heavily armed Islamists killed at least 15 UN peacekeepers and five soldiers in DRC, as more than 50 peacekeepers were left wounded after fighters from a local Islamist extremist group overran a remote base in the east of the country and as most of the dead and wounded are believed to be from Tanzania
2018: 27 February 2018: At least six people were killed in an overnight attack on Kagabi in the Kabare territory of South Kivu province - 2 mars 2018: 49 personnes ont été tuées dans des nouvelles violences communautaires survenues dans la nuit de jeudi à vendredi en Ituri dans le nord-est de la RDC - 13 March 2018: At least 40 people reportedly killed in the last 48 hours in northeastern DR Congo following a new outbreak of ethnic clashes between Hema cattle herders and Lendu farmers - 16 November 2018: At least seven UN peacekeepers have been killed in clashes with Islamist militias near Beni, in the east and close to the centre of the country’s worst Ebola outbreak
May 2019: 9 May 2019: An attack on the town of Butembo by Mai Mai fighters killing eight people in Ebola-hit area has prompted fears of a return to large scale violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
16 November 2019: 16 novembre 2019: 14 civils ont été tués par des miliciens dans la nuit de vendredi à samedi dans l'est de la République démocratique du Congo, en représailles à une offensive de l'armée congolaise contre des rebelles ougandais, a-t-on appris de sources locales
25 November 2019 8 civilians died in Beni in a fresh militant attack: 25 November 2019: Eight civilians died overnight in DR Congo’s volatile city of Beni in a fresh militant attack, as there have been a string of rallies against local forces and UN peacekeepers in Beni for failing to stop attacks by the 'Allied Democratic Forces' militia, and as more than 60 civilians have been massacred in the Beni region since the start of November
31 January 2020 militia raids kill dozens: 31 January 2020: A militia group has launched a series of bloody attacks in the east of the D.C. Congo, plunging the country further into instability after months of violence and political tension
2 February 2020 7 people were killed by militiamen: 2 February 2020: 7 people were killed by militiamen in D.R. Congo’s eastern province of Beni, as in Biakato, the neighbouring province of Ituri, Ebola response have been suspended
18 February 2020 terrorists killed 12 civilians and soldier in eastern Congo: 18 February 2020: Terrorists have killed 12 civilians and a soldier in the latest overnight attack on a village in eastern Congo, as 'they surprised the people in their homes', a local official said, while the president of the National Assembly was visiting the city and meeting with survivors of past massacres
24/25 April 2020 at least 18 people, including 13 rangers, murdered in Virunga national park: 24/25 April 2020: Suspected Hutu militiamen have killed at least 18 people, including 13 rangers, in the Virunga national park, according to an official, as the park in eastern DRC, home to critically endangered mountain gorillas as well as hundreds of other rare species, has faced repeated incursions and attacks by local armed groups, and as initiatives have focused on nearby communities, with micro-loans and hydroelectric power projects to boost the local economy
15 May 2020 a dozen civilians killed by armed groups: 15 May 2020: A dozen civilians were killed by armed groups in eastern D.R. Congo in two separate attacks in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces, local sources said
28 May 2020 attack on civilians in northeastern D.R. Congo: 28 May 2020: At least 40 people were killed in the northeastern D.R. Congo in the latest grisly attack on civilians in the mountainous jungles near the Ugandan border
26 September 2020 19 dead in Lubumbashi firefight as attackers were repelled: 26 September 2020: Congo's second biggest town Lubumbashi has been at the center of at attack by armed militia this saturday, as two police officers and a soldier were killed as a result of the firefights, and '16 attackers were neutralised', according to Haut-Katanga interior minister
5 December 2020 at least 8 killed in Goma violence: 5 December 2020: 8 people were killed by unidentified gunmen in a shootout Friday night in a working-class neighbourhood of Goma in eastern D.R. Congo, the governor of North Kivu said
2 January 2021 at least 25 people killed troubled Beni region: 2 January 2021: At least 25 people were killed in the troubled Beni region of the D.R. Congo Thursday, local sources said, as the incident occurred after an attack attributed to members of the Uganda-origin armed group ADF
5 January 2021 more than 20 killed in militant attack on eastern DRC village: 5 January 2021: At least 21 people have been killed in a village in the eastern D.R. Congo, in an area that usually sees Islamist rebel attacks, according to local authorities, saying militants launched the attack late on Monday and killed residents in the Mwenda village with machetes and guns
22 February 2021 three people including Italian ambassador killed in attack on UN convoy: 22 February 2021: Luca Attanasio, Italy’s ambassador to the D.R, Congo, and two other people have been killed in an attack on a UN convoy in the restive east of the central African country, as a WFP convoy was attacked near the town of Kanyamahoro, north of the regional capital Goma
15 March 2021 at least 15 civilians killed in attack on villagers in North Kivu province: 15 March 2021: At least 15 civilians have been killed by militiamen in a village in eastern D.R. of Congo, as men armed with machetes attacked the village of Bulongo in North Kivu province on Monday and some of the victims were beheaded, according to reports, as forces suspected with the reputation of being the bloodiest of the 122 militias which plague the eastern DRC, many of them a legacy of the Congo Wars of the 1990s
19 March 2021 200 people killed and 40,000 displaced by ADF militia since January UN says: 19 March 2021: Nearly 200 people have been killed and 40,000 have been displaced since January following a surge of attacks by the ADF militia in the northeast D.R. of Congo, the UN said on Friday
1 July 2021 at least 10 killed in suspected ADF attack in DRC’s Beni: 1 July 20021: At least 10 people have been killed in an overnight raid in the city of Beni in eastern D.R. of the Congo, in an attack blamed on the Allied Democratic Forces armed group
3 August 2021 at least 16 people knifed to death weeks after being taken hostage: 3 August 2021: At least 16 people were knifed to death weeks after being taken hostage in the D.R Congo's east, in bloodletting blamed on armed Islamists, military and local sources said, as according to local civilian sources, the victims, who included two women, had been held by members of the ADF, which the USA says is linked to the Islamic State group
28 August 2021 19 civilians burned, hacked to death by Ugandan rebels in Kasanzi village: 28 August 2021: 19 civilians burned, hacked to death by Ugandan rebels in DR Congo, as the deadly attack happened in Kasanzi village in the Beni territory of North Kivu province, a local official said, and as fourteen bodies were found on Saturday, a day after the incident
8 November 2021 gunmen seize villages in DRC near Uganda, Rwanda borders: 8 November 2021: Gunmen seize villages in DRC near Uganda, Rwanda borders, as gunmen overnight seized the villages of Tshanzu and Runyoni, the last redoubts of the M23 group before their defeat years ago
23 November deadly attack, massacre near Bunia city in eastern D.R. Congo: 22 novembre 2021: Des attaques en Ituri dans l'Est de la République démocratique ont fait au moins 29 morts dans le territoire de Djugu, au nord de la ville de Bunia, après les miliciens CODECO ont notamment attaqué un camp de déplacés qui abritait 16.500 hommes, femmes et enfants selon la société civile
29 November 2021 over 20 people killed in attack on displaced persons camp in Ituri province: 29 November 2021: At least 22 people were killed in an attack on a camp for internally displaced people in Ituri province
Man-made disasters in the D.R. Congo: Man-made disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Wars involving the D.R. Congo: Wars involving the Democratic Republic of the Congo - List of wars involving the D.R. Congo since 1891
Terrorist incidents in the D.R. Congo: Terrorist incidents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Transport disasters in the D.R. Congo: Transport disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
July 2010 Kasai River disaster: 29 July 2010 Kasai River disaster
September 2019 Congo River disaster: 15 September 2019: 36 people have been declared missing when a cargo and passenger ship sank on the Congo River in the Kinshasa region, police announced
Law and legal history in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo law - 2006 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, its sixth constitution since 1960 - Human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Judiciary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
December 2017: 13 December 2017: Twelve members of a Congolese militia group that christened itself Djeshi ya Yesu (The Army of Jesus), including a member of parliament, have been convicted of raping 37 toddlers and young girls in eastern DRC between 2013 and 2016, in a trial held in a mobile military court in Kavumu so that locals could attend and see justice done, and in a case that lawmakers hope will represent a milestone in the fight against impunity
30 January 2022 UN, 2017 murders, and its demand 'that justice is done': 30 January 2022: After UN was shocked by 2017 murders saying the organisation 'would do everything possible to ensure that justice is done', 5 years later dozens of militia members have been sentenced to death in the D.R. Congo for their involvement in the murder of UN experts Swedish-Chilean Zaida Catalan and USA's Michael Sharp in the Kasai region
15 May 2021 30 people sentenced to death despite 2003 moratorium: 15 May 2021: Thirty people have been sentenced to death in the D.R Congo for their role in the violence against the police that marked the end of Ramadan in the capital Kinshasa, judicial sources said, as verdict was pronounced in the early hours of Saturday morning after a hastily conducted trial that began Friday in Kinshasa, charged with criminal association, rebellion, assault and battery, as well as attempted murder, as five people were acquitted, and after Congo imposed a moratorium on executions in 2003
Court of Cassation: Court of Cassation, the main court of last resort in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Constitutional Court of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
September 2018 Jean Pierre Bemba case: 4 September 2018: D.R. Congo’s Jean Pierre Bemba will not be a candidate in the December 23 presidential poll, after the country’s highest court validated the rejection of his candidacy by the electoral commission, saying that the election commission had rightly invalidated Bemba’s candidacy last month, finding that witness tampering is a form of corruption as stipulated in the electoral law
January 2019 pesidential election case: 20 January 2019: The Constitutional Court of the D.R. Congo confirmed Felix Tshisekedi’s presidential election win while dismissing a challenge from opposition leader Martin Fayulu
Law enforcement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Law enforcement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Law enforcement agencies of the D.R. Congo
Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Treaties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/United Nations relations: United Nations Security Council Resolution 17 July 1960
Since 1960: United Nations operation in the Congo since 1960
Since 1999: UNO stabilization mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1999
2013: 28 March 2013: UN approves new combat force to neutralize Congo rebels - 17 August 2013: 82 child soldiers forcibly recruited by the Mai Mai Bakata-Katanga armed group, rescued in DR Congo, the UN peacekeeping mission says - 30 August 2013: In a statement Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says he is deeply concerned about the escalating violence in the eastern DRC and the indiscriminate shelling by M23 group which caused civilian deaths, stressing that the UN remains committed to taking all necessary actions to protect civilians - 3 December 2913: UN launches its first ever surveillance drone in DR Congo
2014: 14 February 2014: UN mission to visit the site of alleged mass killings in the east of the country
2017: 29 March 2017: Villagers in the DRC have found the remains of two UN investigators and their Congolese interpreter who went missing this month in an area engulfed in a violent uprising - 8 December 2017: Heavily armed Islamists killed at least 15 UN peacekeepers and five soldiers in DRC, as more than 50 peacekeepers were left wounded after fighters from a local Islamist extremist group overran a remote base in the east of the country and as most of the dead and wounded are believed to be from Tanzania
2018: 6 January 2018: The UN will investigate an attack in Congo last month that killed 15 Tanzanian peacekeepers, after Tanzania had demanded 'a thorough and transparent investigation ... in order to know what happened and obtain justice' - 3 mars 2018: Les Nations unies ont reconnu plusieurs manquements dans le dispositif onusien, après l'attaque qui a fait 15 morts tanzaniens en décembre 2017
April 2018: 13 April 2018: The Democratic Republic of Congo boycotts a UN donor conference in Geneva seeking to raise $1.7bn for the country, saying the UN has exaggerated the scale of the problem as the UN says more than 13 million Congolese need humanitarian aid, calling it a catastrophic humanitarian crisis
October 2018: 8 October 2018: Candidate women for the various elections, led by Marie-Josée Ifoku, a single contender for the highest office, asked the UN Security Council to set up a support framework for women involved in the electoral process ahead of general elections planned on 23 December 2018 in the D.R. Congo
November 2018: 16 November 2018: At least seven UN peacekeepers have been killed in clashes with Islamist militias near Beni, in the east and close to the centre of the country’s worst Ebola outbreak
November 2019 who will protect civilians and children: 27 November 2019: Ebola responders are on lockdown in the D.R. Congo after angry residents stormed a UN peacekeepers camp in protest at fatal militia attacks on civilians, the WHO has said, evacuating 49 non-essential in Beni in North Kivu, as Unicef also evacuated 27 staff and some NGOs suspended their operations, as Amnesty Internatioal's Magango said 'it is scandalous that civilians are dying day in, day out while the local police and nearby UN peacekeepers stay put in their camps' without fulfilling 'their mandate and bring an end to these killings', and as Monusco's Matthias Gillman said, they 'had been prevented from doing (their duty) because the Congolese army had begun operations against the group unilaterally'
28 November 2019 rebels unharmed by UN peacekeeper force have attacked and killed Ebola response workers: 28 November 2019: Rebels unharmed by UN peacekeeper force have attacked and killed Ebola response workers in eastern Congo, the WHO chief said Thursday, an alarming development that could cause the waning outbreak to again pick up momentum in what has been called a war zone
7 September 2020 Denis Mukwege at risk of assassination after the UN withdrawal of peacekeepers: 7 September 2020: Doctor Denis Mukwege, who shared a Nobel prize in 2018 for his work with victims of sexual violence in the D.R. of Congo is at risk of assassination after the UN withdrew peacekeepers guarding his hospital and residence, as he has received death threats in recent weeks after making a series of statements deploring recent violent incidents and calling for justice for perpetrators of possible war crimes committed in eastern DRC by militia, foreign troops and rebels
22 February 2021 three people including Italian ambassador killed in attack on UN convoy: 22 February 2021: Luca Attanasio, Italy’s ambassador to the D.R, Congo, Italian military policeman Vittorio Iacovacci, and a Congolese driver have been killed in an attack on a UN convoy in the restive east of the central African country, as a WFP convoy was attacked near Kanyamahoro north of the regional capital Goma, and as several others have been reported as wounded and have been taken to hospital
28 September 2021 probe finds 80 alleged sex abuse cases linked to WHO’s DRC work: 28 September 2021: An independent investigation commissioned by the WHO has identified more than 80 alleged cases of sexual abuse during the global health agency’s response to an Ebola outbreak in the DRC, including allegations implicating 20 staff members, as report exposed the most widescale sexual wrongdoing linked to a UN institution in years
30 January 2022 UN, 2017 murders, and its demand 'that justice is done': 30 January 2022: After UN was shocked by 2017 murders saying the organisation 'would do everything possible to ensure that justice is done', 5 years later dozens of militia members have been sentenced to death in the D.R. Congo for their involvement in the murder of UN experts Swedish-Chilean Zaida Catalan and USA's Michael Sharp in the Kasai region investigating alleged mass graves after fighting broke out between government forces and a militia group as their interpreter Betu Tshintela was also killed, in a terrorist crime known in other countries
31 July 2022 UN peacekeepers open fire in DR Congo in Beni territory, causing several casualties: 31 July 2022: UN peacekeepers open fire in DR Congo, causing several casualties, at a border post in eastern Beni territory
Democratic Republic of the Congo and the International Criminal Court:
2004-2012 Thomas Lubanga trial at the ICC: 2004-2012 Thomas Lubanga trial at the International Criminal Court ICC - Lubanga trial at the ICC - 25. August 2011: Schlußplädoyer im Prozeß gegen Exrebellenführer Lubanga während des kongolesischen Bürgerkriegs - Hunderte Kinder zu Soldaten rekrutiert und zu Mördern gemacht - 14 March 2012: Congolese rebel leader Lubanga convicted of using child soldiers in first verdict handed down by International Criminal Court - 15. Mai 2012: ICC-Chefankläger will FDLR-Milizenführer Mudacumura im Kongo festnehmen lassen - 10 juillet: Reconnu coupable le 14 mars d'avoir utilisé des enfants soldats la Cour pénale internationale prononce sa première condamnation contre Thomas Lubanga
14 July 2012: ICC issues warrants for DR Congo warlords
March 2014 ICC conviction of Germain Katanga: On 7 March 2014, by a 2-to-1 decision, the ICC convicted Germain Katanga on five counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity
March 2016 ICC conviction of Jean-Pierre Bemba: 21 March 2016 ICC conviction of Jean-Pierre Bemba
August 2018 Jean-Pierre Bemba's return from prison: On 1 August 2018 Jean-Pierre Bemba returned to DR Congo from prison to run for president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the 2018 election - 20 September 2018: The D.R. Congo’s election commission has banned Jean-Pierre Bemba from running for president as the former warlord awaits the final outcome for his witness tampering case at the International Criminal Court in The Hague
July 2019 conviction of Bosco Ntaganda: 8 July 2019: The international criminal court ICC has convicted notorious rebel commander Bosco Ntaganda known as 'the Terminator' of 18 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape and sexual slavery, for his role in atrocities in a bloody ethnic conflict in a mineral-rich region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2002 and 2003
Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Bilateral relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Angola relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Belgium relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Belgium relations
1867-1885 European colonization of the Congo: Colonization of the Congo 1867-1885, by the end of the 19th century, the Congo Basin had been carved up by European colonial powers, into the 'Congo free state', the 'French Congo' and the 'Portuguese Congo'
1885-1908 Belgian 'Congo Free State': 'Congo Free State' in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908, which was in personal union with the Kingdom of Belgium under Leopold II
Since 1885 Belgian atrocities, Red Rubber system and forced labour in the 'Congo Free State': 1885-1908 Atrocities in the 'Congo Free State' - Red Rubber system and forced labour
1908-1960 'Belgian Congo' colony: 1908-1960 'Belgian Congo', Belgian colony in Central Africa in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais': Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais' African nationalist party within the Belgian Congo and a united front organization bringing together members from a variety of political backgrounds in order to achieve independence, and created around a charter which was signed by, among others Patrice Lumumba, Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Iléo
1960-1971 Republic of the Congo: 1960-1971 Republic of the Congo, a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the 'Belgian Congo' in 1960 - Since 1960 Republic of the Congo, also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the former 'French Congo' is a country in Central Africa bordered by Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Cameroon to the northwest, the Central African Republic to the northeast, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south, and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest
Since 1960 Congo Crisis and aftermath: 1960-1966 Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War
1960-2010: 30 June 2010: New row over colonial past as Congo marks 50th anniversary of independence and Belgians may face charges over the assassination in January 1961 of Patrice Lumumba, Congo's first post-independence prime minister
1897, 1958-2018: 16 April 2018: Belgium comes to terms with 'human zoos' of its colonial past, as 60 years ago Belgium set up a live display of people from Congo for the 1958 world fair, but is now rethinking that legacy
Since 1960 UN forces and operations in the Congo: Since 1960 UN Operation in the Congo - Since 1999 UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a UN peacekeeping force to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict
30 June 2020 as Congo marks anniversary of its independence Belgian king expresses 'deepest regrets': 30 June 2020: As the Democratic Republic of the Congo marks the 60th anniversary of its independence, Belgian king expresses 'deepest regrets' for brutal colonial rule, for the first time in Belgium’s history
1 July 2020 women sue Belgium for colonial-era 'abduction' from Congo: 1 July 2020: Five biracial women born in Congo who were taken away from their Black mothers during Belgian rule have filed a lawsuit for crimes against humanity targeting the Belgian state
14 October 2021 women taken from their Congolese mothers sue Belgian state: 14 October 2021: Women taken from their Congolese mothers sue Belgian state, as five mixed-race women taken from their mothers in DR Congo as children have gone to court, suing Belgium for crimes against humanity. The trial is the first of its kind. Around 15,000 biracial children were forcibly separated from their Black mothers in the former Belgian colonies of DR Congo, Rwanda and Burundi
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Canada relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Canada relations - Foreign involvement in the mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Canadian mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Republic of the Congo relations - Congo River - Republic of the Congo - French Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/France relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda relations - Lake Kivu - Ruzizi River
First Congo War 1996–1997: First Congo War 1996–1997
Second Congo War 1998-2003: Second Congo War 1998-2003
2012/2013: 7 August 2012: Rwanda and DRC among 11 African states meeting in Uganda to discuss proposed neutral force to police unstable border - 8 August 2012: Rwanda and DR Congo leaders meet amid wave of unrest - 24 February 2013: In the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa 11 countries in the Great Lakes region - including those accused of stoking trouble by backing rebel groups - signed deal to end eastern Congo conflict - 31 July: Four Rwandans have told the BBC the army forcibly recruited them to fight for the M23 rebel group in neighbouring eastern DR of Congo
2018: 27 February 2018: At least five Congolese refugees were killed and 20 injured at a camp in Rwanda when a protest over a cut in food rations turned violent, seven policemen were also injured
27 June 2021 DRC-Rwanda: economic cooperation established: 27 June 2021: DRC-Rwanda: economic cooperation established, as agreements were signed during the visit of Rwandan president Kagame, who met with his Congolese counterpart Tshisekedi in Goma, concerning the promotion and protection of investments, taxation and tax evasion between the two countries and a memorandum on gold mining cooperation
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Sweden relations
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda relations - Semliki River - Lake Albert - Lake Edward
Since 1987 'Lord's Resistance Army' insurgency: 'Lord's Resistance Army' insurgency 1987–present
2002 Luanda Agreement to establish ceasefire and normalization of relations: After the relationship between Uganda and the DRC was plagued by violence for decades, and after Uganda has been plundering the DRC of valuable minerals since the 1990s, the 2002 Luanda Agreement was signed to establish ceasefire and normalization of relations between the nations with far-reaching implications for regional peace. The Luanda Agreement became a baseline for peace accords in Africa and is viewed favorably by outside entities, such as the UN and the EU
25–27 December 2008 Christmas massacres: 25–27 December 2008 Christmas massacres
November 2013 DR Congo M23 rebel forces surrender: 7 November 2013: DR Congo M23 rebel forces surrender to Uganda
June 2020 Uganda reopens border to thousands of people fleeing violence in DRC: 24 June 2020: Uganda has temporarily opened its border to thousands of people fleeing deadly ethnic clashes in neighbouring DRC, after Ugandan government closed its reception centres at border crossings in March in an attempt to slow the spread of the coronavirus
January-November 2021 Uganda bombings, part ADF insurgency: 2021 Uganda bombings, part of the Allied Democratic Forces insurgency, in October/November targeting civilians, security forces, with bombings, suicide bombings committed by Islamic State in Central Africa Province and D.R. Congo's so-called 'Allied Democratic Forces' - Since 1996 'Allied Democratic Forces' insurgency, ongoing conflict waged by the group in Uganda and the D.R. Congo against the governments of those two countries and the MONUSCO
November/December 2021 Ugandan military launched air and artillery raids against the 'ADF': 30 November 2021: Ugandan military has launched air and artillery raids against the 'Allied Democratic Forces ADF' armed group in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC, in an operation agreed with Congolese forces, as Congolese government confirms operation of ‘air strikes and artillery fire from Uganda’ against armed group blamed for Kampala attacks, 'Al Jazeera' reports - 1 December 2021: After Ugandan troops have crossed into the DRC as both countries accuse ADF of massacring civilians, both said the group, the deadliest of dozens of militias plaguing the DRC’s mineral-rich east, had been bombarded with artillery and air raids
D.R. Congo/United Kingdom relations: D.R. Congo/United Kingdom relations
January 2019: 11 January 2019: Congolese asylum seeker Otis Bolamu, a survivor of torture in his home country, who was due to be removed from the UK on Christmas Day has been released from detention, facing deportation to the D.R. Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/USA relations
Since 1960 CIA activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Since 1960 CIA activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo - 1960 USA involvement in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba - 1960-1965 Congo Crisis
December 2019 lawsuit against Apple, Google etc. over Congolese child cobalt mining deaths: 16 December 2019: Apple and Google named in USA lawsuit over Congolese child cobalt mining deaths, as Dell, Microsoft and Tesla also among tech firms named in case brought by Congolese families of children killed or injured while mining for cobalt used to power smartphones, laptops and electric cars in DRC
Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations: Democratic Republic of the Congo/Zambia relations
Environment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Environment of the DR Congo - Natural history of the DR Congo - Geology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Vegetation and wildlife of Congo
Ecoregions in the D.R. Congo: List of ecoregions in the DR Congo - Congolian forests - Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic
Environmental issues in the D.R. Congo: Environmental issues in the D.R. Congo, including water pollution, deforestation (chiefly due to land conversion to agriculture by indigenous farmers, soil erosion, wildlife poaching, mining of minerals, coltan, a mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
May/June 2018 approved oil drilling: 29 May 2018: Rainforest under threat from Congo oil drilling deal - 30 June 2018: DR Congo approves oil drilling in Unesco World Heritage Sites that home endangered gorillas
Deforestation in the D.R. Congo: Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
2015: 2 June 2015: Logging companies are systematically violating national laws to plunder Congo's forests, undermining efforts to protect the world's second largest rainforest, 'Global Witness' campaign group says
Rwenzori Mountains: Rwenzori Mountains - Retreat of glaciers since 1850 - tropical glaciers - 20 March 2014: Vanishing ice warning for 'Africa's Alps'
List of rivers of the D.R. Congo: List of rivers of the D.R. Congo
Water crisis in the D.R. Congo: Water crisis in the D.R. Congo
Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Natural disasters in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Earthquakes in the D.R. of the Congo: Earthquakes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
2008 Lake Kivu earthquake: 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
Volcanos in the D.R. of the Congo: List of volcanoes in the DR of the Congo - Stratovolcanoes of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Mount Nyiragongo eruptions, listed by wikipedia since 1977
23/24 May 2021 at least 15 die in lava flows after volcano of Mount Nyiragongo erupts: May 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption - 23 May 2021: At least 15 die in lava flows after volcano of Mount Nyiragongo erupts in D.R of Congo, as more than 500 homes have been destroyed by the lava that has poured into villages - 24 mai 2021: Au moins cinq personnes ont été retrouvées mortes lundi, asphyxiées par les émanations toxiques de la lave rocheuse du volcan Nyiragongo entré en éruption samedi soir dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo
6 October 2021 four months since Nyiragongo eruption, victims plea for help: 6 October 2021: IDPs decry dire living conditions including lack of food at makeshift camp months after Nyiragongo volcanic eruption in eastern DRC
Floods in the D.R. of the Congo:
2016: 29 décembre 2016: Au moins 50 personnes ont été tuées dans le sud-ouest de la République démocratique du Congo dans des inondations provoquées par des pluies torrentielles et le débordement de la rivière Kalamu
November 2019 Kinshasa floods: 26 novembre 2019: Au moins 41 personnes sont mortes mardi à Kinshasa, victimes de pluies diluviennes qui ont provoqué dans la nuit de lundi à mardi inondations, glissements de terrains et électrocutions dans une capitale où les autorités congolaises peinent à combattre l'urbanisme de la pauvreté


Côte d'Ivoire - Ivory Coast - Geography of Ivory Coast - History of Ivory Coast - Demographics of Ivory Coast
Economy of Ivory Coast: Economy of Ivory Coast - main industries are wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair, foodstuffs, beverages - Companies of Ivory Coast
Energy in Ivory Coast: Energy in Ivory Coast - Renewable energy in Ivory Coast - Hydroelectric power stations in Ivory Coast
Mining industry of Ivory Coast: Mining industry of Ivory Coast - Endeavour Mining
Agriculture in Ivory Coast: Agriculture in Ivory Coast - export goods are cocoa, coffee, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish, cotton - Banana production in Ivory Coast - Pineapple production in Ivory Coast
Cocoa production in Ivory Coast: Cocoa production in Ivory Coast - Ivory Coast leads the world in production and export of the cocoa beans used in the manufacture of chocolate, supplying 33% of cocoa produced in the world in 2012
Child labour in Ivory Coast's cocoa industry: Child labour in Ivory Coast's cocoa industry - Children in cocoa production
June 2015: 24 juin 2015: Selon la fondation Initiative internationale pour le cacao, entre 300 000 et un million d’enfants travaillent dans les plantations de cacao en Côte d’Ivoire
Banana production in Ivory Coast: Banana production in Ivory Coast
Coffee production in Ivory Coast: Coffee production in Ivory Coast
Pineapple production in Ivory Coast: Pineapple production in Ivory Coast
Forests of Ivory Coast: Forests of Ivory Coast - Eastern Guinean forests, a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of West Africa including the lowland forests extending from the Gulf of Guinea a few hundred kilometers inland, from western Côte d'Ivoire to the western shore of Lake Volta in Ghana
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast
June 2021 'we have no water' Ladji Koné Vacaba says: 7 juin 2021: 'Nous n’avons pas d’eau', constate, impuissant, le chef du barrage hydroélectrique d’Ayamé en Côte d’Ivoire, forcé d'attendre la saison des pluies pour en finir en partie avec les coupures intempestives d’électricité qui secouent le pays depuis avril
Rivers of Ivory Coast: Rivers of Ivory Coast - List of rivers of Ivory Coast - Dams in Ivory Coast
Bandama River and Lake Kossou: Bandama River, the longest river in Côte d'Ivoire with a length of some 800 kilometers, fed by the Marahoué, Solomougou, Kan and Nzi rivers and empties into the Tagba Lagoon and the Gulf of Guinea - Since 1973 Lake Kossou, an artificail and largest lake in Côte d'Ivoire in the center of the country on the Bandama River, after some 85,000 Baoulé people were displaced by the lake - Kossou Dam and power plant, about 32 kilometres northwest of Yamoussoukro with a power generating capacity of 174 megawatts
Tourism in Ivory Coast: Tourism in Ivory Coast - Visitor attractions in Ivory Coast - World Heritage Sites in Ivory Coast - Comoé National Park - Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve - Grand-Bassam
External trade and investment in Ivory Coast: External trade and investment
October 2016: 30 October 2016: Ivory Coast's exports, imports and trade partners, according to the Observatory of Economic Complexity
Economic history of Ivory Coast and economic cycles: Economic history of Ivory Coast
July 2018: 12 July 2018: Robust growth of Ivory Coast's economy under the looming threat of climate change impacts, as the economy is expected to maintain a steady trajectory with GDP growth of 7-7.5% in the coming years, according to the World Bank
Labor in Ivory Coast: Labor force, total in Ivory Coast was reported at 8,016,076 in 2017, according to the World Bank
Trade unions in Ivory Coast: Trade unions in Ivory Coast
Military of Ivory Coast: Military of Ivory Coast - Air Force of Ivory Coast
Wars involving Ivory Coast's miliary: Wars involving Ivory Coast's miliary
2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War: 2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War
2004 French–Ivorian clashes and aftermath: 2004 French–Ivorian clashes
2005 air force rebuilding with help from Belarus and Ukraine: 14 November 2005: Côte d’Ivoire’s government has begun rebuilding its air force with help from Belarus and Ukraine, one year after it was mostly destroyed by French forces in retaliation for an air raid that killed nine French soldiers, a UN report says
2008 Ivorian New Forces unrest: 2008 Ivorian New Forces unrest
2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War: 2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War
27-29 March 2011 Duékoué massacre: 27-29 mars 2011 massacre de Duékoué - 4 avril 2011: Le temps des assassins en Côte d'Ivoire
May 2011: 9 mai 2011: En Côte d'Ivoire, 120 civils tués par miliciens et mercenaires pro-Gbagbo - 10 mai 2011: En Côte d’Ivoire, le souvenir des massacres pèse toujours - 15 mai 2011: Quelque 220 civils ont été tués dans le sud-ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire par des miliciens et des mercenaires libériens fidèles au président déchu Laurent Gbagbo
January/May 2017 Ivory Coast mutiny: January-May 2017 Ivory Coast mutiny - 6 January 2017: Mutinous soldiers demanding pay and perks have seized control of three cities in Ivory Coast, raising fears of new instability - 9 January 2017: President Ouattara has dismissed the heads of the army, police and paramilitary gendarmes following a two-day army mutiny that paralysed the country - 16 May 2017: Soldiers in Ivory Coast have accepted a deal to end a five-day mutiny over pay
January 2019 acquittal of Gbagbo: Arrest of former president Laurent Gbagbo, transfer to the International Criminal Court on 29 November 2011, proceedings in the ICC and acquittal on 15 January 2019 - 15 January 2019: 'The acquittal of Gbagbo and Blé Goudé is a crushing disappointment to victims of post-election violence in Cote d’Ivoire. However, the judges found that the Office of the Prosecutor had not presented evidence needed to prove its case beyond reasonable doubt', rights group says
Taxation in Côte d'Ivoire: Fiscalité en Côte d'Ivoire - Ministère de l'Économie et des Finances en Côte d'Ivoire
Sécurité sociale en Côte d’Ivoire: Sécurité sociale en Côte d’Ivoire et taux de cotisation - Caisse nationale de prévoyance sociale en Côte d'Ivoire
Politics of Ivory Coast: Politics of Ivory Coast - Constitution of Ivory Coast - on 31 October 1960 the National Assembly of Ivory Coast adopted the Constitution establishing an independent republic - 2000 Constitution - 2016 Constitution of Ivory Coast
Political parties in Côte d'Ivoire: Political parties in Côte d'Ivoire - Since 1982 'Ivorian Popular Front', a centre-left, democratic socialist and social democratic political party in Ivory Coas
Trade unions in Ivory Coast: Trade unions in Ivory Coast
Elections and politics in Ivory Coast by year: Elections in Ivory Coast by year
August 1960 independence from France: History of Ivory Coast 1960–1999, after Ivory Coast achieved its full independence from France on 7 August 1960
November 1960 Ivorian general election: 27 November 1960 Ivorian general election, as under the constitution enacted that year the country was officially a one-party state with the Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally as the sole legal party, and its leader Houphouët-Boigny was automatically elected to a five-year term as president and unanimously confirmed in office via a referendum
1999 Ivorian coup d'état and October 2000 Ivorian presidential election: 1999 Ivorian coup d'état - Ivorian presidential election October 2000
2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War: First Ivorian Civil War 2002-2007 - 2004 French–Ivorian clashes
2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War: 2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War - 21 April 2011: AU lifts sanctions - 7. Mai 2011: Ouattara als Präsident vereidigt - 18 September 2011: New violence erupts on Liberia-Ivory Coast border - 29 November 2011: ICC 'warrant for Laurent Gbagbo'
Since 2011 elections and politics in Ivory Coast: Elections in Ivory Coast
December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election: December 2016 Ivorian parliamentary election
January-May 2017: 6 January 2017: Mutinous soldiers demanding pay and perks have seized control of three cities in Ivory Coast, raising fears of new instability - 8 January 2017: Rogue soldiers allowed Ivory Coast’s defence minister and dozens of others to leave a house where they had been trapped when some mutineers appeared to reject aspects of a deal intended to end a two-day revolt - 14 January 2017: After president Ouattara ordered major changes in the top security ranks, government and rebel troops, demanding bonuses, better pay and housing, reach a final deal at talks in Bouake at the close of a tense day, which saw outbreaks of gunfire at barracks across the country - 15 May 2017: Shooting heard in Bouaké and Abidjan as revolt by soldiers over delayed bonus payments enters fourth day
21 October 2020 opposition accused of violent tactics by Ivorian ruling party: 21 October 2020: Opposition accused of violent tactics by Ivorian ruling party
31 October 2020 Ivorian presidential election: 31 October 2020 Ivorian presidential election
1 November 2020 ruling party hails vote success, opposition says 12 dead: 1 November 2020: Ruling party hails vote success in Ivorian presidential election, opposition says 12 dead
June 2021 victims' organisations weigh up strategies ahead of Gbagbo's return despite 2011 post-election violence: 15 June 2021: Victims' organisations weigh up strategies ahead of Gbagbo's return, after his controversial ICC's aquittal
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ivory Coast: Ivorian society
Human rights and freedom of speech in Ivory Coast: Human rights in Ivory Coast
Districts, regions, departments and communes of Ivory Coast: Subdivisions of Ivory Coast, since 1961 several reorganisations of the country's - and former French colony - administrative subdivisions - 14 Districts of Ivory Coast, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan, created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities, further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions - 31 Regions of Ivory Coast, since 2011 the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast, and each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast - 108 Departments of Ivory Coast (en français départements de Côte d'Ivoire), currently the third-level administrative subdivision of the country, as each department is divided into two or more sub-prefectures, which are the fourth-level subdivisions in Ivory Coast - 510 Sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast, created in 2011 when the administrative subdivisions of Ivory Coast were reorganised, the sub-prefectures contain more than 8,000 villages nationwide, multiple villages also combined into 197 communes - Currently 197 communes in the 510 sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast are a fifth-level administrative unit of administration in Ivory Coast, as sub-prefectures of Ivory Coast contain villages and in select instances more than one village is combined into a commune, after in 2012 the government abolished 1,126 communes on the grounds coming under the new jurisdiction of districts, regions, departments, and sub-prefectures
List of cities in Ivory Coast: List of cities in Ivory Coast
1898 village of Abidjan founded: 1898 village of Abidjan founded
1960 Abidjan capital of independent Republic of Côte d'Ivoire: 1960 Abidjan becomes capital of independent Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
Since 1968 National Library of Ivory Coast in Abidjan: Since 1968 National Library of Ivory Coast located in Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Since 1996 Université d'Abobo-Adjamé: Since 1996 Université d'Abobo-Adjamé
Since 2009 University of Science and Technology of Ivory Coast: Since 2009 University of Science and Technology of Ivory Coast
History of Bouaké: History of Bouaké
Yoruba people: Yoruba people
Culture and languages of Ivory Coast: Culture of Ivory Coast - Languages of Ivory Coast
Women and women's rights in Ivory Coast: Women in Ivory Coast - Women's rights in Ivory Coast
Gender equality in the Ivory Coast: Gender equality in the Ivory Coast
Youth in Ivory Coast: Youth in Ivory Coast
Health in Ivory Coast: Health in Ivory Coast
Media of Ivory Coast: Media of Ivory Coast
Freedom of speech in Ivory Coast: Freedom of speech in Ivory Coast
Newspapers in Ivory Coast: Newspapers in Ivory Coast
Internet in Ivory Coast: Internet in Ivory Coast
Crime in Ivory Coast: Crime in Ivory Coast
2003-2017 corruption in Ivory Coast: Development of corruption in Ivory Coast 2003-2017
Violence in Ivory Coast:
2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War: 2002-2007 First Ivorian Civil War
2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War: 2010-2011 Second Ivorian Civil War
Human trafficking in Ivory Coast: Human trafficking in Ivory Coast
Terrorism in Ivory Coast: Terrorism in Ivory Coast
Judiciary of Ivory Coast:
Law enforcement in Ivory Coast: Law enforcement in Ivory Coast
Foreign relations of Ivory Coast: Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire
Treaties of Ivory Coast: Treaties of Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast/United Nations relations: United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast: Bilateral relations of Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations: Ivory Coast/Burkina Faso relations
Ivory Coast/Canada relations: Ivory Coast/Canada relations
Ivory Coast (West Africa)/European Union relations: Ivory Coast (West Africa)/European Union relations
Ivory Coast/France relations: Côte d'Ivoire/France relations
Ivory Coast/Liberia relations: Côte d'Ivoire/Liberia relations
Ivory Coast/Mali relations: Ivory Coast/Mali relations
Ivory Coast–Mali border: Ivory Coast–Mali border
Ivory Coast/USA relations: Ivory Coast/USA relations
Since 1842 history of Ivory Coast-USA relationsSince 1842 history of Ivory Coast-USA relations
List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast: List of ecoregions in Ivory Coast
Water in Ivory Coast: Water in Ivory Coast
Natural disasters in Ivory Coast:


Djibouti - Geography of Djibouti - History of Djibouti - Demographics of Djibouti
Energy in Djibouti: Energy in Djibouti
Water in Djibouti: Water in Djibouti
Water transport in Djibouti: Water transport in Djibouti
Ports and harbours of Djibouti: Ports and harbours of Djibouti
Rail transport in Djibouti: Rail transport in Djibouti
Labour and trade unions in Djibouti: Trade unions in Djibouti
Politics of Djibouti: Politics of Djibouti
Political parties in Djibouti: Political parties in Djibouti
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: Afars and Issas independence referendum 8 May 1977
2011 Djiboutian presidential election: Djiboutian presidential election 2011
February 2013 Djiboutian parliamentary election: Djiboutian parliamentary election 22 February 2013
February 2018 Djibouti legislative election: 23 February 2018 Djibouti legislative election
Social movements and protests in Djibouti:
2011 Djiboutian protests: 2011 Djiboutian protests
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Djibouti: Djiboutian society - Demographics of Djibouti
Education in Djibouti: Education in Djibouti
Health in Djibouti: Health in Djibouti
Djiboutian media: Djiboutian media
Minority and women's rights in Djibouti: Minority and women's rights - Polygamy in Djibouti
Crime in Djibouti: Crime in Djibouti
Human trafficking in Djibouti: Human trafficking in Djibouti
Law enforcement in Djibouti: Law enforcement in Djibouti
Foreign relations of Djibouti: Foreign relations of Djibouti
Djibouti/China relations: Djibouti/China relations
Since 2017 Chinese naval base in Djibouti: Chinese naval base in Djibouti
Djibouti/Ethiopia relations: Djibouti/Ethiopia relations
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum
Djibouti/Somalia relations: Djibouti/Somalia relations
Water in Djibouti: Water in Djibouti
Ports and harbours of Djibouti: Ports and harbours of Djibouti
Natural disasters in Djibouti: Natural disasters in Djibouti


Egypt - Geography of Egypt - History of Egypt - Ancient Egyptian agriculture - Recent History of Egypt - Demographics of Egypt
Egyptian military industry: Egyptian military industry
Telecommunications in Egypt: Telecommunications in Egypt
Tourism in Egypt: Tourism in Egypt
20th/21st centuries treatment of ancient mummies linked to commercial tourism industry: Treatment of ancient mummies in modern times, as first - following the spread of Islam, its 'Golden Age' and based on a mistranslation from the Arabic term for bitumen, it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties - it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine. Then - when actual mummies became unavailable - the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants. The trade in mummies - i.e. deceased humans who wanted to be protected against unwanted observation, visits, sacrileges - seems to have been frowned upon by Turkish authorities who ruled Egypt. Several Egyptians were imprisoned for boiling mummies to make oil in 1424. However, mummies were in high demand in Europe and it was possible to buy them for the right amount of money. During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in Victorian England. European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions. The pioneer of this kind of entertainment in Britain was Thomas Pettigrew known as 'Mummy' Pettigrew due to his 'work'. Such unrolling sessions destroyed hundreds of mummies, because the exposure to the air caused them to disintegrate. While mummies were used in medicine, some researchers have brought into question these other uses such as making paper and paint, fueling locomotives and fertilizing land.
17 June 2019 'Bandages, Bitumen, Bodies and Business', Egyptian mummies as raw materials: 17 June 2019: 'Bandages, Bitumen, Bodies and Business', Egyptian mummies as raw materials, by Chris Elliott, University of Southampton
Since January 2011 impact of Egypt's Revolution and Counter-revolution on Tourism: Since January 2011 impact of Egypt's Revolution and Counter-revolution on Tourism
Irrigation in Egypt: Irrigation in Egypt
Aswan Dam, Lake Nasser, irrigation projects: Aswan Dam - Aswan Low Dam
Transport in Egypt: Transport in Egypt
Transport disasters in Egypt: Transport disasters in Egypt
Water transport in Egypt: Water transport in Egypt
Suez Canal: Suez Canal
Maritime incidents in Egypt: Maritime incidents in Egypt
29 March 2021 'Ever Given' ship partially refloated but bow still stuck: 29 March 2021: 'Ever Given' ship partially refloated but bow still stuck
Rail transport and Egyptian National Railways: Rail transport in Egypt - Egyptian National Railways
Railway accidents and incidents in Egypt: Railway accidents and incidents in Egypt
Central Bank of Egypt and currency: Central Bank of Egypt and currency
Economic history and economic cycles in Egypt: Economic history of Egypt
Since 2007/2008 global financial crisis and Egypt's response: Global financial crisis since 2007/2008 and Egypt's response
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Egypt: Egyptian society
Governorates of Egypt: 27 governorates of Egypt
Economy of Cairo: Economy of Cairo
History of Egypt and Cairo: History of Egypt and Cairo
Timeline of Cairo since 1st century BCE: Timeline of Cairo since 1st century BCE
1798 French military leader Napoleon arrives: 1798 French military leader Napoleon arrives, later self declared emperor imitating Caesar and Augustus - March 1801 Battle of Alexandria, fought Napoleon's army and the British empire's expeditionary corps near the ruins of Nicopolis, as the fighting now was parts of the French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Ottoman Empire, which began in 1798 - May-June Siege of Cairo (also known as the Cairo Campaign), as the evening of the 28th August (!) the British and the Ottoman empires took possession of Giza and Cairo where the British and Turkish colours were conjointly hoisted - August-September 1801 Siege of Alexandria, as by 2 September 10,000 French surrendered under terms which allowed them to keep their personal weapons and baggage, and to return to France on British ships, but all French ships and cannons at Alexandria were surrendered to the British and to the Turks under Capitan Pacha (!) - 1805 Muhammad Ali's seizure of power, who became Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt and the Sudan until March 1848
November 1918 - July 1919 Egyptian Revolution: November 1918 - July 1919 Egyptian Revolution, a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan, carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of the revolutionary Egyptian Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919, as the revolution led to the UK's later recognition of Egyptian independence in 1922 as the Kingdom of Egypt, and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923, as the British Empire, however, refused to recognise full Egyptian sovereignty over Sudan, or to withdraw its forces from the Suez Canal Zone, factors that would continue to sour Anglo-Egyptian relations in the decades leading up to the Egyptian revolution of 1952
Since 2011 international reactions to the Egyptian revolution and solidarity protests: Since 2011 international reactions to the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and solidarity protests
Alexandria Port: Alexandria Port
Since 331–30 BCE timeline of Alexandria, Greek era since 331 BCE: Timeline of Alexandria since Greek era 331–30 BC
4th/3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria: Mid-4th century until mid-3rd century BC Euclid of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and a founder of geometry. His 'Elements' is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics from the time of its publication until the early 20th century. Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. - Euklids überlieferte Werke umfassen sämtliche Bereiche der antiken griechischen Mathematik, die theoretischen Disziplinen Arithmetik und Geometrie, Musiktheorie (z.B. 'Die Teilung des Kanon'), methodische Anleitung zur Findung von planimetrischen Problemlösungen von bestimmten gesicherten Ausgangspunkten aus (Porismen) sowie weitere physikalischen bzw. angewandungsbezogene Werke - Euklids musiktheoretischer Schrift 'Die Teilung des Kanon' greift die Musiktheorie des Archytas auf und stellte sie auf eine solidere akustische Basis, nämlich auf Frequenzen von Schwingungen und verallgemeinerte dabei den Archytas' Ansicht über Quadratwurzeln. Der Grund für diese Verallgemeinerung ist seine Antithese gegen die Harmonik des Aristoxenos, die auf rationalen Vielfachen des Tons aufbaut. Denn in der pythagoreischen Harmonik hat der Ton (Ganzton) die Proportion 9:8, was Euklid zu seiner Antithese 'Der Ton ist weder in zwei noch in mehrere gleiche Teile teilbar' veranlasste. Sie setzt allerdings kommensurable Frequenzen voraus, die in der pythagoreischen Harmonik bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts - der beginnenden Zeit des 'Wohltemperierten Klaviers' - angenommen wurden. Die Antithese 'Die Oktave ist kleiner als 6 Ganztöne' stützte er auf die Berechnung des pythagoreischen Kommas. Ferner enthält Euklids Teilung des Kanons – wie ihr Titel signalisiert – die älteste überlieferte Darstellung eines Tonsystems am Kanon, einer geteilten Saite, und zwar eine pythagoreische Umdeutung des vollständigen diatonischen Tonsystems des Aristoxenos. Euklids Tonsystem wurde durch Boethius tradiert und wurde in der Tonbuchstaben-Notation Odos zur Grundlage des modernen Tonsystems - Buchstabentonschrift, die älteste bekannte Art der Notenschrift seit der antiken Griechischen Musik, Artikel im Musik-Lexikon von Hugo Riemann
Demographics of Egypt: Demographics of Egypt
Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt: Sudanese refugees and migrants in Egypt
Contemporary art in Egypt: Contemporary art in Egypt
12 November 2013: Sexual harassment, high rates of female genital cutting and a surge in violence and Islamist feeling after the Arab Spring uprisings have made Egypt the worst country in the Arab world to be a woman, a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey says - 14 March 2014: A doctor and the father of 13-year-old Sohair al-Bata'a are the first to be prosecuted in Egypt for deadly practice of FGM - 6 June 2014: Egypt makes sexual harassment of women a crime for the first time but campaigners remain concerned about whether the law will be enforced by police - 16 July 2014: Egyptian court jails 7 men for life for sexually assaulting several women during a rally in Tahrir Square on 8 June - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says
Education in Egypt: Education in Egypt
Schools in Egypt: List of schools in Egypt
Universities in Egypt: Universities in Egypt
Health in Egypt: Health in Egypt
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Egypt: Medical outbreaks in Egypt - Man-made disasters in Egypt
2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Egypt: 2020 Chinese coronavirus outbreak in Egypt
641–1517 medieval Egypt after Muslim conquest of Egypt: 641–1517 medieval Egypt after Muslim conquest of Egypt
Hospitals, medical and health organisations based in Egypt: List of hospitals in Egypt - Medical and health organisations based in Egypt
Freedom of speech and repression in Egypt: Freedom of speech in Egypt
June 2015 jailed journalists: 25 June 2015: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990
Newspapers in Egypt: Newspapers in Egypt
2013/2014: 9 July 2013: Qatari-owned media company Al-Jazeera saw 22 members of its staff in Egypt resign on Monday over biased Egypt coverage - 11 February 2014: Al-Jazeera correspondent's trial set for next week, charged with having links to the Muslim Brotherhood and airing false news - 5 June 2014: Egyptian prosecutors seek 15-year prison sentence for Al Jazeera journalists - 16 June: Egypt to free Al Jazeera journalist on hunger strike - 23 June: Egypt court sentences Qatar-based Al-Jazeera journalists to seven years for 'publishing lies' - 2 November 2014: Several hundred Egyptian journalists reject declaration by newspaper editors pledging support to government and banning criticism of police and army - 29 December 2014: Protests outside Egyptian embassy in London against imprisonment of journalists one year behind bars
2015: 1 January 2015: Egyptian court cancels jail sentences against three Al Jazeera journalists - 1 February: Australian journalist Greste released from a Cairo jail and left Egypt for his native country - 25 June: Committee to Protect Journalists prison census found at least 18 Egyptian journalists were being held in jail for reasons related to their reporting, most since 1990 - 17 August 2015: Photojournalist and activist Esraa El Taweel, taken by force from an outing with her friends on 1 June and detained, faces greater harassment after posting latest letter from prison, sister says - 29 August 2015: Australian journalist Greste as well as his two Qatar-based Al Jazeera colleagues Canadian-Egyptian Fahmy and Baher Mohamed found guilty and sentenced to at least three years jail for broadcasting material harmful to Egypt and operating with no press license
Religion and freedom of religion in Egypt: Religion in Egypt - Freedom of religion in Egypt
Crime in Egypt: Crime in Egypt
Since 1550–1175 BC slavery in ancient Egypt, at least since the New Kingdom: Slavery in ancient Egypt existed at least since the New Kingdom 1550–1175 BC
Economy and slavery in ancient Egypt:
Murder in Egypt: Murder in Egypt
Religiously motivated violence and suicide bombings in Egypt: Religiously motivated violence in Egypt
2013: May 2013 hostage crisis - 22 May 2013: After the intervention of tribal leaders, heavily armed kidnappers released three Egyptian policemen and four soldiers captured last week in the Sinai peninsula - 5 July: In Sinai, Islamist militants fired rockets and directed heavy machine gun fire at a police base and attacked military - 6 July: Coptic priest killed in Sinai - 10 juillet: Des attaques dans le Sinaï font deux morts - 15 July: Militants killed at least three people and wounded 17 when they fired on a bus carrying workers in the North Sinai town of Al-Arish - 22 July: Six Egyptians were killed and 11 others wounded in several attacks by militants in the Sinai peninsula near Egypt's borders with Israel and the Palestinian Gaza strip - 24 July: A car bomb exploded near a police base and two soldiers were killed in separate, multiple attacks in the Sinai peninsula - 19 August: Militants kill 24 Egyptian policemen in Sinai - 8 septembre: L'attentat du Caire auquel a échappé le ministre de l'Intérieur revendiqué par des djihadistes du Sinaï - 8 septembre: L'armée égyptienne poursuit ses opérations au Sinaï - 11 September: At least three soldiers were killed and at least 10 others were wounded when a suicide car bomb targeted an intelligence outpost in Egypt’s Sinai - 27 September: Gunmen kill policeman in Sinai - 10 October: Egypt troops killed in Sinai suicide bomb attack - 20 novembre: Un attentat à la voiture piégée a visé un convoi militaire dans le Sinaï et tué au moins 10 soldats
October-November 2014 Sinai attacks: October 2014 Sinai attacks - 24 October: Militants killed at least 26 people at a military checkpoint in the northern Sinai peninsula
2015: 5 January: Bomb wounds four policemen in Egypt's Sinai - 29 January: Six people killed and an office of Egypt's state newspaper al Ahram destroyed in an attack by suspected Islamists in North Sinai's provincial capital el-Arish - 30 January: 'Islamic State' affiliate claims responsibility for coordinated attacks that struck more than a dozen army and other targets in the three Sinai towns of el-Arish, Sheik Zuwayid and Rafah, killing at least 26 security officers - 1 February: Three women killed as violence continues in Sinai - 6 March: Egyptian military air strikes reportedly killed 25 Islamist militants in Northern Sinai near the town of Sheikh Zuweid over the last two days - 10 March: 25 Egyptian policemen wounded by suicide car bomber targeting compound in the city of el-Arish - 2 April: Gunmen attacked several checkpoints in Sinai, killing at least five soldiers - 12 April: An explosion targeting a military vehicle kills five soldiers near Sheikh Zuweid on Sunday - 20 April: Three Egyptian soldiers killed in blast claimed by ISIS affiliate in Rafah - 7 May: Two Egyptian police recruits were killed on Thursday when unidentified gunmen shot them in Northern Sinai - 1/2 July: At least 70 Egyptians including soldiers and civilians killed in Islamic State terrorists' offensive in Sinai, as ties to Hamas’ military wing suspected - 9 July: 20 Egyptian policemen wounded in Sinai bombing in the provincial capital of el-Arish - 18 July: 'Islamic State' terrorists in Sinai attacked two Egypt military checkpoints, killing five soldiers and wounding at least seven near town of Sheikh Zuweid - 23 July: Four Egyptian soldiers killed in Sinai bombing claimed by Islamic State loyalists - 15 October: A roadside bomb by unknown assailants in the northern Sinai city of el-Arishhas has left one civilian and one soldier dead, also injuring six policemen - 4 November: At least 3 Egyptian police killed in Sinai bombing, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 15 November 2015: Egyptian police found the bodies of 15 African migrants who appeared to have been shot dead in northern Sinai near the border with Israel
January-February 2021 Sinai Peninsula attacks: January-February 2021 Sinai Peninsula attacks
Human trafficking in Egypt: Human trafficking in Egypt
Judiciary of Egypt: Judiciary of Egypt
Courts in Egypt: Courts in Egypt
Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt: Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt
Law enforcement and law enforcement agencies of Egypt: Law enforcement in Egypt - Law enforcement agencies of Egypt - Egyptian Police - Central Security Forces
Military of Egypt: Military of Egypt
Military history of Egypt: Military history of Egypt
Wars and conflicts involving Egypt: List of conflicts in Egypt - List of wars involving Egypt
Military industry and budget in Egypt: Military budget rank 41 - Egyptian military industry
International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état: International reactions to the July 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
Domestic responses to the Egyptian revolution - elections 2011- 2015: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011