European countries M - Y

Geography of Europe: Geography of Europe, the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or the larger Afro-Eurasia - Geology of Europe - Geological history of Europe
List of European countries by population and by area: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, including 50 generally recognised sovereign states - List of European countries by population, including 51 countries and 6 territories and dependencies located in Europe, broadly defined, as transcontinental countries are included if they are members of the Council of Europe - List of European countries by area, as some states are only partially located in Europe and are ranked according to the size of their European part only - Lists of countries in Europe by other - more or less distinguishing - features
European countries A - L




Russia - History of Russia - History of Russia since 1992
Geography, demographics and ethnic groups of Russia: Geography of Russia - Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
Economy of Russia: Economy of Russia - main industries are oil and gas, chemicals, mining, processed metals, military equipment, shipbuilding, aerospace, automotive communications equipment, electric power generating and transmitting equipment, consumer durables, textiles, food and beverages, retailing, real estate, healthcare, utilities - List of companies of Russia - Companies of Russia by industry
Manufacturing companies of Russia: Manufacturing companies of Russia
Automotive industry in Russia: Automotive industry in Russia
2015: 31 March 2015: After years of growth, car sales in Russia shrank in 2014 as the economy weakened because of sanctions over the Ukraine crisis and a slide in oil prices
Russian military industry: Russian military industry - List of Russian weaponry makers
Aircraft industry of Russia
Military-Industrial Commission of Russia: Military-Industrial Commission of Russia
Space industry of Russia: Space industry of Russia - Since 1992/2015 Roscosmos State Corporation, the Russian regime's body responsible for the space science program of Russia and general aerospace research
August 2012: 7 August 2012: Russia’s federal space agency says an unmanned rocket and its payload of two communications satellites failed to reach the orbit, the latest in a series of failures
October 2016: 28 October 2016: ESA releases images of Roscosmos/ESA's Mars lander, showing a giant crater caused by impact, and scattered components
December 2017: 28 December 2017: Russian satellite lost after being set to launch from wrong spaceport
October 2018: 11 October 2018: A booster rocket carrying a Soyuz spacecraft with a Russian and a US astronaut onboard headed for the international space station failed in mid-air on Thursday, forcing the crew to make an emergency landing
20 August 2023 Russia’s Luna-25 spacecraft crashes into the moon: 20 August 2023: Russia’s first moon mission in 47 years has failed after its Luna-25 spacecraft spun out of control and crashed into the moon, dealing a significant setback to the embattled Russian space programme’s attempt to revive its Soviet-era prestige
Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records: Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
Mining industry of Russia: Mining industry of Russia - Mining companies of Russia - Mining cities and regions in Russia - Donets Basin region of eastern Ukraine and southwest Russia and a coal mining area that has become a heavily industrialised territory suffering from urban decay and industrial pollution
Siberian natural resources: Siberian natural resources - coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron, other minerals
Coal in Russia: Coal in Russia - coal power in Russia is one of the largest sources of energy, accounting for 14.4% of the country's energy consumption - Coal mining regions in Russia - Coal mines in Russia - Coal companies of Russia
Coal mining disasters in Russia: Coal mining disasters in Russia
February 2016 Severnaïa coal mine firedamp explosions: 28 février 2016: Deux coups de grisou en trois jours dans la mine de charbon de Severnaïa au nord de la Russie ont fait 36 morts
Environmental impact of the coal industry: Environmental impact of the coal industry
Uranium mining in Russia: Uranium mining in Russia - 'ARMZ Uranium Holding Co.' mines uranium in Russia and Kazakhstan - new operations involve Armenia, Namibia and Canada - 'Tekhsnabexport' trades uranium fuel and fuel processing services abroad
Energy in Russia: Energy in Russia - Energy policy of Russia - Russia in the European energy sector
Fossil fuels in Russia: Fossil fuels in Russia - Coal in Russia - Natural gas in Russia - Petroleum in Russia - Oil shale in Russia - Peat deposits in Russia
Oil and gas industry in Russia:
Petroleum industry in Russia: Petroleum industry in Russia, one of the largest in the world as Russia has the largest reserves - Oil fields of Russia - Oil reserves in Russia
Pollution in Norilsk area: Pollution in Norilsk city, listed by Russia's Federal State Statistics Service the city as the most polluted city in Russia, as in 2017 Norilsk produced 1.798 million tons of carbon pollutants—nearly six times more than the 304.6 thousand tons that was generated by Russia's second-most polluted city, Cherepovets
April 2016 failed talks in Qatar to freeze oil production: 19 April 2016: Failed talks in Qatar to freeze oil production and to stabilize prices bring nothing but disappointment for the Russians
June 2020 Norilsk diesel oil spill after fuel reservoir at power plant near Norilsk collapsed: May/June 2020 Norilsk diesel oil spill, an industrial disaster near Norilsk in Krasnoyarsk Krai, when a fuel storage tank at Norilsk-Taimyr Energy's Thermal Power Plant No. 3 (owned by Nornickel) failed, flooding local rivers with up to 21,000 cubic metres of diesel oil./a> - 3 June 2020: Putin has ordered a state of emergency after 20,000 tonnes of diesel fuel spilled into a river inside the Arctic Circle, occurring when a fuel reservoir at a power plant near the city of Norilsk collapsed, and as the plant is operated by a division of Nornickel, whose factories in the area have made the city one of the most heavily polluted places on Earth
4/5 June 2020 arrests over massive fuel leak in Siberia: 4 June 2020: Arrest made over massive fuel leak in Siberia, the 'first accident of such a scale in the Arctic' - 5 June 2020: Russian prosecutors order checks at permafrost sites, as criminal case launched over pollution, alleged negligence and power plant's director has been taken into custody
8 June 2020 Norilsk diesel oil spill: 8 juin 2020: D'importantes concentrations de produits pétroliers ont été retrouvées derrière les barrages flottants installés sur la rivière de l'Arctique russe touchée fin mai par une pollution sans précédent aux hydrocarbures, selon une responsable régionale, ajoutant 'que les barrages ... sont soit une mesure inefficace pour empêcher la pollution de l'eau, soit ont été installés trop tard et après le passage de l'essentiel de la nappe'
Rosneft: Rosneft, an integrated oil company majority owned by the Government of Russia, which became Russia's leading extraction and refinement company after purchasing assets of former oil giant Yukos, whose Khodorkovsky was arrested and the company forcibly broken up for alleged unpaid taxes, declaring bankrupt in 2006 - Since 2011 Rosneft's Arctic shelf deals with BP and ExxonMobil
Natural gas in Russia: Natural gas in Russia, as of 2013 the world's second-largest producer of natural gas and the world's largest exporter - Natural gas fields in Russia
Gazprom: Gazprom - 16 September 2012: From falling profits to an EU anti-trust probe and a possibly misguided strategy based on pipelines - storm clouds are finally gathering over Gazprom
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September 2013: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace holds global protests calling for Russia's release of 30 Greenpeace activists after being jailed for protests against Arctic oil drilling - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 23 octobre: Réduction des charges retenues contre les écologistes Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme' - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention
March 2014: 4 March: Russia's Gazprom will remove a discount on the price it charges Ukraine for gas from April 2014
Stroytransgaz: Stroytransgaz - a Russian engineering construction company in the field of oil and gas industry, founded in 1990 and originally a subsidiary of Gazprom
2016: 11 February 2016: Multiple sources reveal that the Russian construction company 'Stroytransgaz' had resumed work in the Tuweinan gas facility in the Syrian Deir Ezzor province after it was captured by 'Islamic State' terrorists in early 2014, that the Russian company sent employees to the facility after it fell to IS terrorists, adding that 'Stroytransgaz' utilized a Syrian subcontractor 'Hesco', owned by Russian-Syrian dual national George Haswani
Electricity sector in Russia: Electricity sector in Russia, in 2008 the country's electricity was produced with gas 48%, coal and peat 19%, hydro electricity 16% and nuclear power 16% - List of power stations in Russia - Power companies of Russia
Nuclear power in Russia: Nuclear power in Russia - 'Atomenergoprom' 100% state-owned holding company unites Russian civil nuclear industry
April 2018 floating nuclear power plant: 28 April 2018: A floating nuclear power plant built in Russia and widely criticized by environmentalists has embarked on its first sea voyage - 29 April 2018: Greenpeace slams floating Russian nuclear power plant to supply far-flung Arctic outposts, saying 'Chernobyl on ice'
Nuclear power accidents in the Russian Federation: Nuclear power accidents in the Russian Federation - List of nuclear and radiation fatalities in the Soviet Union/Russia
July 2019: 18 juilllet 2019: Trois réacteurs de la centrale nucléaire russe de Kalinine, située 300 kilomètres au nord-ouest de Moscou, ont été arrêtés après une panne de courant, selon Rosenergoatom
24 August 2019 floating nuclear power plant: 24 August 2019: Russia launched the world’s first floating nuclear reactor, sending it loaded with nuclear fuel on an epic journey across the Arctic to Pevek in northeastern Siberia, despite environmentalists warning of a 'Chernobyl on ice'
Safety at work in Russia: Safety at work in Russia
September 2012 Invest-Oil fire: 29 September 2012: Several workers killed and injured in a huge fire at an oil sludge treatment plant of Invest-Oil company
February 2013 Vorkuta coal mine explosion: 11 February 2013: At least 16 workers killed and two more feared dead after explosion in coal mine in the Komi region town of Vorkuta
February 2016 firedamp explosions: 28 février 2016: Deux coups de grisou en trois jours dans la mine de charbon de Severnaïa au nord de la Russie ont fait 36 morts
June 2019 Dzerzhinsk explosion: 1 juin 2019: Quarante-deux personnes ont été blessées samedi par une déflagration dans une importante usine d'explosifs du centre de la Russie à Dzerzhinsk
September 2019 Koltsovo laboratory blast: 17 September 2019: Blast sparks fire at Russian laboratory in Koltsovo housing viruses ranging from smallpox to Ebola, after site housed biological weapons research during the Soviet era and is now one of Russia’s main disease research centres
Construction and civil engineering industry of Russia: Construction industry of Russia - Construction and civil engineering companies of Russia - Real estate companies of Russia
Man-made disasters in Russia: Man-made disasters in Russia - Disasters in Russia by year
February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow: February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow
February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow: February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow
August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident: August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia
July 2015 Omsk building collapse: July 2015 Omsk building collapse
April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan: April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan
December 2018 Magnitogorsk apartment building collapse: 31 December 2018: Rescue teams reportedly scrambling to find survivors after a suspected gas blast caused the partial collapse of a high-rise apartment building in the Russian city of Magnitogorsk, killing four people, leaving 40 missing and hundreds without a home in freezing temperatures on New Year’s Eve - 1 janvier 2019: Les secouristes ont retrouvé un bébé de dix mois vivant sous les décombres d'un immeuble dévasté la veille par une explosion de gaz qui a fait au moins sept morts, la mère du bébé est aussi vivante
Agriculture in Russia: Agriculture in Russia - Crops - the most important grains are soft wheat and barley, the main oilseed is sunflower seed - Agriculture companies of Russia
February 2022 more than a quarter of the world’s wheat exports come from Russia and Ukraine: 17 February 2022: Russia, Ukraine and the global wheat supply, as more than a quarter of the world’s wheat exports come from Russia and Ukraine
Dairy in Russia: Dairy
September 2012 Russia Livestock and Products Annual 2012: 12 September 2012: Russia Livestock and Products Annual 2012
Siberian agriculture: Siberian agriculture
Food industry of Russia: Food industry of Russia - Grocery retailing in Russia
Forestry in Russia: Forestry in Russia - Forests of Russia - Tractor, timber and agricultural machinery in Russia
Fishing industry in Russia: Fishing industry in Russia
Water in Russia: Water in Russia - Bodies of water of Russia
Water supply and sanitation in Russia: Water supply and sanitation in Russia
Irrigation in Russia: Irrigation in Russia
Rivers of Russia: Rivers of Russia, draining into the Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Asian part is drained into the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean - List of rivers of Russia as the country can be divided into a European and an Asian part. The dividing line is generally considered to be the Ural Mountains. The European part is drained into the Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Asian part is drained into the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are Pechora, Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina.In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenisei, the Angara, the Lena, the Amur, the Yana, the Indigirka, and the Kolyma
Volga river: The Volga, the longest river in Europe. Situated in Russia, it flows through Central Russia to Southern Russia and into the Caspian Sea. The Volga has a length of 3,531 km, and a catchment area of 1,360,000 km2. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and of drainage basin. It is widely regarded as the national river of Russia. The old Russian state, the Rus' Khaganate, arose along the Volga between the late-8th and mid-9th centuries AD. Historically, the river served as an important meeting place of various Eurasian civilizations, as the river flows in Russia through forests, forest steppes and steppes. Four of the ten largest cities of Russia, including the nation's capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's drainage basin, and the river has got a symbolic meaning in Russian culture.
Tributaries of the Volga: Tributaries of the Volga - Volga basin - Volga Region including the three sections of Upper Volga Region, Middle Volga Region, and Lower Volga Region to the Volga Delta in the Caspian Sea - Volga economic region
Kama river: The Kama, a 1,805 kilometres long river in Russia. It has a drainage basin of 507,000 square kilometres. It is the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge. At their confluence, in fact, the Kama is even larger than the Volga, and it starts in the Udmurt Republic, flowing northwest for 200 kilometres, turning northeast near Loyno for another 200 kilometres, then turning south and west in Perm Krai, flowing again through the Udmurt Republic and then through the Republic of Tatarstan, where it meets the Volga - Dams and reservoirs of the Kama river
Oka river: The Oka, a river in central Russia and the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga. Its length is 1,500 km and its catchment area is 245,000 km2. The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries — the Moskva
Neva river: The Neva, a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres, it is the fourth-largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge (after the Volga, the Danube and the Rhine)
Dnieper river: The Dnieper, one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and Belarus and the fourth-longest river in Europe, after Volga, Danube and Ural. The total length is approximately 2,200 km with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres. Historically, the river was an important barrier, dividing Ukraine into right and left banks. Nowadays, the river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine and is connected via the Dnieper–Bug Canal to other waterways in Europe - Dnieper basin - Tributaries of the Dnieper
Don river: The Don, the fifth-longest river in Europe. Flowing from Central Russia to the Sea of Azov in Southern Russia, it is one of Russia's largest rivers as its basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the lower Volga basin immediately to the east, and the Oka basin (tributary of the Volga) to the north. Native to much of the basin were Slavic nomads, as the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula (in turn 193 kilometres south of Moscow), and flows 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. - Don basin - Tributaries of the Don
Donets river: The Donets, a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine (Kharkiv, Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts) and then again through Russia (Rostov Oblast) to join the river Don, about 100 km from the Sea of Azov. The Donets is the fourth longest river in Ukraine and the biggest in the Eastern Ukraine. It is an important source of fresh water in the east of the country. It gives its name to the Donets Basin, known commonly as the Donbass, an important coal mining region in Ukraine
Transport in Russia: Transport in Russia - History of transport in Russia
Aviation in Russia: Aviation in Russia - Russian military aviation - Aircraft manufacturers of Russia
Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia and abroad: Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia - Accidents and incidents involving the Antonov An-26
March 2018 Russian Air Force An-26 crash on approach to Khmeimim air base in Syria: 6 March 2018 Russian Air Force Antonov An-26 crash on approach to Khmeimim air base in Syria, killing all 39 Russian regime's servicemen on board, including Major-General Yeremeyev
August 2018 Russian helicopter Mi-8 crash: 4 August 2018: Russian helicopter Mi-8 operated by UTair crash, colliding with another helicopter in Siberia, kills all 18 people onboard believed to have been working for a subsidiary of the state oil company Rosneft
6 July 2021 no survivors after a plane carrying 28 people crashed in the far east of Russia: 6 July 2021: There are no survivors after a plane carrying 28 people crashed in the far east of Russia on Tuesday, Russian news agencies cited rescue officials as saying
Rail transport in Russia: Rail transport in Russia - History of rail transport in Russia
Railway accidents in Russia: Railway accidents in Russia
Road transport in Russia: Road transport in Russia
Water transport in Russia: Water transport in Russia
Waterways in Russia: Waterways in Russia, as according to the data from the 'Morskaya Kollegiya' in 2004, 136.6 million tons of cargo were carried that year over Russia's inland waterways, the total cargo transportation volume being 87,556.5 million ton-km. During that same year, 53 companies were engaged in carrying passengers over Russia's inland waterways, transporting 22.8 million passengers, as the total volume of river passenger transportation being 841.1 million passenger-km
Bridge disasters in Russia: Bridge disasters in Russia
September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse: September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse
Transport disasters in Russia: Transport disasters in Russia - Transport disasters in Moscow
Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia: Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia
10 October 2021 at least 16 dead after plane carrying skydivers crashes in Tatarstan: 10 October 2021: At least 16 dead after plane carrying skydivers crashes in central Russia, as six people in ‘very serious condition’ after being rescued from wreckage of aircraft in Tatarstan
Maritime incidents in Russia: Maritime incidents in Russia
Railway accidents and incidents in Russia: Railway accidents and incidents in Russia
Road incidents in Russia: Road incidents in Russia
Foreign trade of Russia: Foreign trade of Russia
2015 Russia main exports are oil and natural gas, 62.8% of total exports: In 2015, Russia main exports are oil and natural gas (62.8% of total exports), ores and metals (5.9%), chemical products (5.8%), machinery and transport equipment (5.4%) and food (4.7%). Others include: agricultural raw materials (2.2%) and textiles (0.2%)
2019 Russia main exports remain fossil fuels, oil, natural gas: 2019 Russia main exports remain fossil fuels, oil, natural gas in 2019 with more then 50% of all products, according to World Bank's 'World Integrated Trade Solution'
Russia exported $407bn in products and Ukraine $49bn in 2019: Russia exported $407bn in products and Ukraine $49bn in 2019, while Russia is the world’s biggest exporter of wheat, among other products, Ukraine is the biggest exporter of seed oils, and Russia’s bilateral trade with Ukraine has tanked from its peak of almost $50bn in 2011 to $11bn in 2019, as 'Al Jazeera' gives an overview of the main exports and top export countries
Russian arms exports: Russian arms exports
January 2014 Russia surges in global arms sales: 31 January 2014: Russia surges in global arms sales - 15 December 2014: Arms sales by Russian firms continue to expand despite a global downturn in defence spending, according to SIPRI
February 2016 Russia (25%) and the USA (33%) remain largest arms exporters: 22 February 2016: Russia (25%) and the USA (33%) remain largest arms exporters, as Asia (India 14% of global arms imports, China 4.7%) and the Middle East (arms imports rose by 61% between 2006–10 and 2011–15) lead rise in arms imports, says SIPRI
Banking and banks in Russia: Banking in Russia - List of banks in Russia
Central Bank of Russia: Central Bank of Russia, originally founded in 1860, named the State Bank of the Russian Empire and headquartered on Neglinnaya Street in Moscow, as the Bank of Russia in 2022 owns a 57.58% stake in Sberbank, the country's leading commercial bank, owning as well 100% stake in Russian National Reinsurance Company RNRC, biggest national reinsurance company established for prevention possible problems with abroad reinsurance of large risks under International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, like constructing the Crimean Bridge
Since 24 February 2022 international sanctions since Russia's Ukraine war, Russian financial crisis: International sanctions imposed during the Russo–Ukrainian War by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began in late February 2014. Belarus has also been sanctioned. The sanctions were imposed by the USA, the European Union EU, several countries and international organisations against individuals, businesses and officials from Russia and Ukraine. Russia responded with sanctions against several countries, including a total ban on food imports from Australia, Canada, Norway, Japan, the USA and the EU, as the sanctions contributed to the collapse of the Russian ruble and the Russian financial crisis
Financial services companies of Russia: Financial services companies of Russia - Federal Financial Markets Service
Stock exchanges in Russia: Stock exchanges in Russia - Moscow Exchange - Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange
Since 1991 economic history of the Russian Federation, economic cycles and crises: Economic history of the Russian Federation since 1991
1998 Russian financial crisis: 1998 Russian financial crisis
2008-2009 Russian financial crisis, recession and unemployment: 2008-2009 Russian financial crisis - Great Recession in Russia
2014 amid Russia's annexation of Crimea shares on the Moscow stock exchange fell sharply: 22 March: As shares on the Moscow stock exchange fell sharply and investors took fright at decisions to impose sanctions, Putin signed law completing Russia's annexation of Crimea
Since 2014 Russian financial and economic crisis: Since 2014 Russian financial crisis, after economic sanctions were imposed by the USA, the European Union and many other countries on Russian Putin regime, following its military intervention in Ukraine in early 2014, its annexation of Crimea and its assistance to separatists fighting Ukraine in the War in Donbas
December 2014 crumbling ruble and GDP growth forecast cut: 2 December: Crumbling ruble, which has been badly buffeted by a plunge of almost 40% in oil prices, prompts central bank action - 2 December: Economics ministry cuts its GDP growth forecast of 1.2% in 2015 to a 0.8% fall amid financial fallout over Ukraine and lower oil prices - 11 December: Russia’s central bank failed to stem a further dramatic fall in the rouble on Thursday despite raising the headline interest rate to 10.5% - 15 December: Russian central bank raises interest rate to 17% to prevent rouble’s collapse - 17 December: Russia’s financial turmoil shows little sign of easing as the rouble continues to fluctuate against major currencies in volatile trading - 29 December: Russian recession fears as economy shrinks for first time in five years
2015 recession fears: 21 February 2015: Russia's debt downgraded to junk by Moody's following S&P’s downrating - 31 March 2015: After years of growth, car sales in Russia shrank in 2014 as the economy weakened because of sanctions over the Ukraine crisis and a slide in oil prices
2016 Russia's GDP falls 3.7%: 26 January 2016: Russia's national currency is extending its losses, low oil prices lead to high inflation, less business, and Russia's GDP falls 3.7% - 20 October 2016: Russian Economy Ministry has composed a long-term prognosis of the country's social-economic development, predicting dozens of years of fight against the economic stagnation and that this fight is not going to be successful
Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic: Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Russia and regime's measures
Since 24 February 2022 international sanctions since Russia's Ukraine war, Russian financial crisis: International sanctions imposed during the Russo–Ukrainian War by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began in late February 2014. Belarus has also been sanctioned. The sanctions were imposed by the USA, the European Union EU, several countries and international organisations against individuals, businesses and officials from Russia and Ukraine. Russia responded with sanctions against several countries, including a total ban on food imports from Australia, Canada, Norway, Japan, the USA and the EU, as the sanctions contributed to the collapse of the Russian ruble and the Russian financial crisis
23 March 2022 annual inflation in Russia accelerated to 14.53% as of March 18: 23 March 2022: Annual inflation in Russia accelerated to 14.53% as of March 18, its highest since November 2015 and up from 12,54% a week earlier, as the battered rouble sent prices soaring amid unprecedented Western sanctions against Putin's war in Ukraine, 'Reuters' reports
31 March 2022 Russia's economy projected to shrink by 10% amid regime's aggression against Ukraine: 31 March 2022: The economies of Russia and Ukraine will shrink by 10% and 20% respectively in 2022, according to the EBRD, warning in its first economic forecast since Russian regime’s invasion on 24 February that the war had triggered 'the greatest supply shock since at least the early 1970s' and would have a severe effect on economies far beyond the immediate area of the conflict'
13 August 2022 Putin’s war sets Russian economy back 4 years in single quarter: 13 August 2022: Putin’s war sets Russian economy back 4 years in single quarter, after a wave of international sanctions following Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine disrupted Russia’s trade and threw various of its industries into paralysis
Since 2022 economic impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine: Since 2022 economic impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, updated by 'Wikipedia'
28/30 March 2023 Russia’s economy is starting to come undone, according to WSJ and Ukrinform: 28 March 2023 Russia’s economy is starting to come undone, as investment is down, labor is scarce, budget is squeezed, and oligarch says ‘there will be no money next year’, 'The Wall Street Journal' reports - 30 March 2023: Russia's economy is beginning to gradually collapse due to a long war in Ukraine and sanctions introduced against the aggressor country, Russia's government revenue is being squeezed and its economy has shifted to a lower-growth trajectory, likely for the long term, Russia's biggest exports, gas and oil, have lost major customers, government finances are strained, the ruble is down over 20% since November against the dollar, he labor force has shrunk as young people are sent to the front or flee the country over fears of being drafted, and uncertainty has curbed business investment, Ukrinform reports
Since 1991 privatization, Russian oligarchs and billionaires: Since 1991 Privatization in Russia - Russian oligarchs - Russian billionaires
Summer 2014 wealth shifting Hague orders Russia to pay oil giant Yukos shareholders $51.6 billion: 28 July 2014: Wealth shifting Hague orders Russia to pay Yukos shareholders $51.6 billion, after arbitration court ruled Russian regime carried out 'politically motivated' expropriation of oil giant's assets - 31 July 2014: In a new blow after The Hague wealth shifting ruling, European Court of Human Rights rules Russia must pay Yukos shareholders 1.9 billion euros saying regime had failed to 'strike a fair balance' in its treatment of Yukos
2 March 2022 Russian World Bank adviser Boris Lvin quits in protest at invasion of Ukraine: 2 March 2022: Russian World Bank adviser Boris Lvin quits in protest at invasion of Ukraine
23 March 2022 Putin adviser Anatoly Chubais quits and leaves Russia over invasion of Ukraine: 23 March 2022: Putin adviser Anatoly Chubais quits and leaves Russia over invasion of Ukraine, as Chubais is best known as the architect of Russia’s controversial privatisation scheme in the 1990s, which helped create the country’s finance-led capitalism - called 'market' economy - concentrating immense wealth in the hands of a group of wealthy oligarchs, and in the first instance creating rivalries, enmities between capital fractions, preparing the 'Verselbständigung' of the state machine
25 March 2022 Russia's ruling elite reportedly trying to distance itself from decision to invade Ukraine: 25 March 2022: Adviser in Ukrainian president's office Mikhail Podoliak believes that Russia's ruling elite is trying to distance itself from regime’s move to launch a full-scale invasion of Ukraine and attack peaceful cities, as Podoliak has addressed the issue on Twitter saying that deputy chairman of Russia’s Security Council Dmitry Medvedev 'publicly stated that the decision to conduct the hardest special operation (war) against Ukraine, including attacks on peaceful cities, was made solely by the Russian President', 'the ruling elite is trying to distance itself, understanding the legal consequences', according to 'Ukrinform'
29 August 2023 documents show Putin’s order to move superyacht before 2022 Ukraine invasion: 25 March 2022: Vladimir Putin moved his $100m superyacht from a German shipyard to Russia just weeks before he ordered the invasion of Ukraine, according to secret documents released in a new investigation by a Russian anti-corruption organisation set up by jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny, showing that the Russian president ordered the urgent moving of the 82-metre superyacht called Graceful from a shipyard in Hamburg, where it was undergoing a $32m refit, by 1 February 2022. Just 15 days later – on 22 February – Putin ordered the fullblown invasion of Ukraine. After the invasion, the USA, UK and EU imposed sanctions on Russian-owned assets overseas, and dozens of oligarch-owned superyachts were seized across the world.
Labor in Russia, labour law and trade unions: Labor in Russia - Russian labour law - Trade unions in Russia - Confederation of Labour of Russia
Poverty in Russia: Poverty in Russia - 4 July 2011: The number of impoverished people in Russia has increased by 2.3 million and made up 22.9 million in one year - 12 April 2012: Russian poverty rising - 2 January 2013: Divide between rich and poor increases in Russia, according to statistics - 7 August 2015: Russian regime’s move to ostentatiously destroy banned food imports at the border has sparked debate in a country where millions live below the poverty line
2016: 2 March 2016: 500,000 more Russians face unemployment, labor minister says, as the number of Russians living below the official poverty line increased to 20.3 million by September 2015, according to Rosstat - 22 March 2016: Millions more Russians living in poverty as economic crisis bites and as nearly 20 million now surviving on wages which are below the poverty threshold according to latest state statistics - 1 April 2016: Bribes drive up the cost of living in Russia, studies by Indem research institute show
Military of the 'Russian Federation': Military of the Russian Federation
May 2015 military casualties made secret by Putin: 28 May 2015: Putin makes information about military casualties in peacetime secret
Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria and Ukraine: Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria
2017 Russian losses in Syria, soldiers dying for Putin and Assad: 2 August 2017: Russian losses in Syria jump in 2017, Reuters estimates show
2018 1,359 deaths of Russian citizens in Ukraine reported since 2014: By early February 2018, Cargo 200 reported 1,359 deaths of Russian citizens during the Russian military intervention in Ukraine since 2014
6 February 2022 Putin's patriotism, preparations against independent Ukraine: 6 février 2022: La Russie prépare une invasion de grande ampleur, selon le renseignement des États unies américains, qui estime que le régime de Vladimir Poutine accentue les préparatifs d'une invasion à grande échelle de l'Ukraine, et qu'elle dispose déjà de 70% du dispositif nécessaire à une telle opération
Military equipment and weapons of Russia: Military equipment of Russia - Weapons of Russia
August 2015: 21 August 2015: Russia military flame-throwing system under development amid rising regional tensions
December 2015: 28 December 2015: Russia's new underwater nuclear drone should raise alarm bells, Washington Post says - 31 December 2015: Russia reportedly deploys advanced cruise missiles for attacks at land and sea in major navy reboot
May 2016: 13 May 2016: Eastern Ukraine and Syria become a testing ground for Russian regime's modernized military equipment and weaponry in combat conditions, according to regime's Putin
January 2019 new missile SSC 8: 23 January 2019: Russia, in effort to defuse USA nuclear dispute, finally displays new missile Novator 9M729, called SSC-8 by NATO
February 2019 new generation of missiles including intercontinental missiles: 6 février 2019: Après la suspension du traité INF, la Russie se donne deux ans pour développer de nouveaux missiles terrestres
October 2019 new Russian submarine intercontinental missile: 30 October 2019: New Russian submarine test fires intercontinental missile for first time
4 October 2022 'Poseidon' autonomous, nuclear-powered, and nuclear-armed unmanned underwater vehicle: 'Poseidon', an autonomous, nuclear-powered, and nuclear-armed unmanned underwater vehicle under development by Rubin Design Bureau, capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear payloads - 4 October 2022: NATO concerned over submarine 'Poseidon', Russia's weapon of apocalypse
Russian regime's military exercises: Russian regime's military exercises
2017: Zapad September 2017 exercise and reactions of NATO and Ukraine prior to the drills - 19 September 2017: Russian attack helicopters fire on bystanders at Zapad war games watching the exercises, caught on video, according to the Moscow Times as two people were reported hospitalized with serious injuries
August/September 2018: 28 August 2018: Russia will next month hold its biggest war games in nearly four decades, that will take place in central and eastern Russian military districts and involve almost 300,000 troops, over 1,000 military aircraft, two of Russia's naval fleets, and all its airborne units, according to Russian regime's Sergei Shoigu
December 2019 'new triangle of sea power’ exercise: 27 December 2019: ‘New triangle of sea power’, as Iran, China, Russia start unprecedented naval drill starting in Gulf of Oman, amid tensions over nuke deal’s unraveling
23 September 2021 Russia’s navy practiced firing at targets in the Black Sea off the coast of annexed Crimea: 23 September 2021: Russia’s navy practiced firing at targets in the Black Sea off the coast of annexed Crimea using its Bastion coastal missile defense system, Putin regime's military said, as Ukraine held joint military drills with the USA in Ukraine involving more NATO troops, set to run until 1 October. They follow huge war games staged by neighboring Russia and Belarus earlier this month that alarmed the West.
List of Russian military accidents: List of Russian military accidents since 1990s
2000 submarine Kursk explosion: Russian submarine Kursk explosion 12 August 2000 - Russian government response to the submarine Kursk explosion - 24 August 2002: Twenty-four hours after the submarine's Kursk disappearance, as Russian naval officials made bleak calculations about the chances of the 118 men on board, Putin was filmed enjoying himself, shirtsleeves rolled up, hosting a barbecue at his holiday villa on the Black Sea
2001-2007 helicopter crashes: 2001-2007 Helicopter crashes of Russia's Second Chechen War
2008 submarine K-152 Nerpa accident: 2008 Russian submarine K-152 Nerpa accident
September 2013 nuclear submarine fire: 16 September 2013: Russian nuclear submarine catches fire
April 2015 nuclear submarine fire: 7 April 2015: Russian nuclear submarine catches fire in Arkhangels
January/February 2016: 25 January 2016: Russian MiG-31 fighter jet crashes in Siberia - 9 February 2016: Four people killed when Russian military Mi-8 helicopter crashed in the Pskov region of northwest Russia, after 15 people died when a Mi-8 helicopter crashed into a lake in the northern Murmansk region in June 2014
November/December 2016 fighter jet crash in Mediterranean: 14 November 2016: Russian fighter jet crashes near its aircraft carrier in Mediterranean, before doing more mischief in the war against the Syrian people - 5 December 2016: Russian Su-33 crashed in the Mediterranean while attempting to land on Kuznetsov aircraft carrier, before doing more mischief in the war against the Syrian people
25 December 2016 Tupolev Tu-154 crash: 25 December 2016 Russian military Tupolev Tu-154 crash during a flight from Sochi International Airport to Khmeimim in Syria, killing all 92 people on board - 25 décembre 2016: L'armée russe annonce qu'il n'y a pas de signes de survivants dans le crash de l'avion russe après son décollage de Sotchi vers la Syrie avec 92 personnes à bord
July 2019 submarine 'Losharik' fire: 1 July 2019 Russian submarine 'Losharik' fire - 2 July 2019: A fire on one of the Russian navy’s deep-sea submersibles reportedly killed 14 sailors including 7 senior officers, as vessel said to be top-secret nuclear-powered submarine used for sensitive missions at great ocean depths - 23 July 2019; A malfunctioning lithium-ion battery may have sparked the deadly fire on top-secret Russian nuclear submersible 'Losharik' that killed 14 naval officers, according to investigators, after it was equipped with a Russian-made lithium-ion battery to replace proven batteries procured from the Ukrainian defence industry before Russian regime’s 2014 annexation of Crimea
August 2019 ammunition depot explosion: 5 August 2019: Thousands have been evacuated from the Siberian town of Achinsk after an ammunition depot on a military base caught fire, triggering huge explosions that have sent deadly shrapnel flying for miles around, killing one soldier and injuring at least seven other people
Since 8 August 2019 rocket engine explosion near Severodvinsk: 8 August 2019 Nyonoksa radiation accident - 8 August 2019: Two people have been killed and radiation levels reportedly spiked in Severodvinsk after a rocket engine exploded during a test in northern Russia, in the second deadly incident at a Russian military installation this week - 12 August 2019: 7 were killed in blast that Moscow’s TASS news agency reports was related to a ‘radioisotope power source’ and mini nuclear reactor, that caused radiation readings in neighbouring cities to spike to 20 times their normal level
26 August 2019 radioactive isotopes found in Severodvinsk: 26 August 2019: Russia’s state weather agency said it had found the radioactive isotopes of strontium, barium and lanthanum in test samples after 8 August Severodvinsk accident during a test at a military site
12 December 2019 Russia's only aircraft carrier catches fire: 12 December 2019: Two soldiers injured as Russia's only aircraft carrier 'Kuznetsov' catches fire during 'maintenance work' in Russia's Arctic port in Murmansk
17 December 2019 Tu-22M3 bomber landed on its belly in a field: 17 December 2019: Tu-22M3 bomber landed on its belly in a field in the Astrakhan region of southern Russia after suffering an engine malfunction, as such bombers take part in the murderous Putin regime's aggression against Syria, flying attacks from their bases in Russia
24 December 2019 Russian fighter jet Su-57 crashes in Russia: 24 December 2019: Russia's most advanced fighter jet Su-57 crashes during a training flight near Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the country's far east, pilot survives, the best thing that can happen, as at least 8 people, including 5 children, were killed Tuesday in murderous Russian air strikes on a school in northwest Syria sheltering displaced civilians, according to SOHR
Personnel of the Russian military: Personnel of the Russian military - as of 2008, some 480,000 young men are brought into the Army via conscription in two call-ups each year, the term of service is 12 months
July 2015 soldiers killed by military barracks collapse: 13 July 2015: At least 23 soldiers were killed when a military barracks collapsed in Russia's Omsk region
February 2018 soldiers polled on their political views: 6 February 2018: Russian regime reportedly polled soldiers on their political views and willingness to crack down on protesters as the country enters its election campaign season
25 October 2019 soldier killed eight other soldiers:
: 25 October 2019: A Russian soldier on Friday opened fire on fellow troops at a Siberian military base, killing eight and wounding another two, officials said
War resisters in Russia:
November/December 2015: 2 November 2015: Numerous cases recorded of the Russian troops disobeying orders in defiance of deployment in Ukrainian Donbas, according to Ukraine's intelligence - 3 December 2015: War Resisters’ International campaigning for alternative service in Russia
2016: 20 December 2016: Russian blogger Alexei Kungurov convicted to two years in a penal colony for a LiveJournal post criticising Russia's military operation in Syria
Russia and weapons of mass destruction: Russia and weapons of mass destruction
Russian chemical weapons: Russian chemical weapons, in 1997 consisting of blister agents Lewisite, mustard, Lewisite-mustard-mix (HL) and nerve agents Sarin, Soman, VX - 'Novichok' series of nerve agents the Soviet Union and Russia developed between 1971 and 1993, Russian scientists who developed the agents claim they are the deadliest nerve agents ever made
March 2018: 22 March 2018: Before Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia collapsed on a park bench in english Salisbury on 4 March 2018, the only other person confirmed to suffer the effects of Russian nerve agent 'novichok' was a young Soviet chemical weapons scientist Zheleznyakov who was working on chemical weapons when a hood malfunction exposed him to the deadly nerve agent
Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union and Russia: Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union - Nuclear missiles of Russia
2015: 12 November 2015: Russian TV stations broadcast secret nuclear torpedo plans that would create 'zones of extensive radioactive contamination making them unsuitable for military or economic activity for a long period', shown at a meeting where Putin warned that 'Russia will take necessary retaliatory measures to strengthen the potential of our strategic nuclear forces'
March 2019: 4 March 2019: Russian regime's Putin suspends Russian obligations under key nuclear pact
List of nuclear weapons tests: List of nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union - Thermonuclear weapon 'Tsar Bomba' 30 October 1961, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated
Nuclear weapons test sites of the Soviet Union and Russia:
1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Nuclear Weapons Test Site in Kazakhstan: 1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Nuclear Weapons Test Site in Kazakhstan
1955-present Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site, archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, 'Tsar Bomba': 1955–present Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site, archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the North of Russia, the indigenous population, who subsisted mainly on fishing, trapping, reindeer herding, polar bear hunting and seal hunting, was resettled to the mainland since the 1950s - Sukhoy Nos, the northern island of the archipelago Novaya Zemlya, was used between 1958–1961 and was the 1961 explosion site of 'Tsar Bomba'
Intercontinental ballistic, nuclear and guided missiles of Russia: Intercontinental ballistic missiles of Russia - Nuclear missiles of Russia - Guided missiles of Russia
2013/2014 series of short- and long-range nuclear-capable missiles, annexation of Crimea: 30 October 2013: Russia test-fired a series of short- and long-range nuclear-capable missiles - 5 March 2014: Russia test-fires Intercontinental Ballistic Missile with tensions high over its seizure of control in the Crimea and its threat to send more forces to Ukraine - 8 May 2014: Russia test-fires several ballistic missiles including Topol intercontinental ballistic missile - 29 July 2014: Russia violated 1987 arms control treaty by testing a ground-launched cruise missile, USA says
June 2015 new intercontinental ballistic missiles: 16 June 2015: Russian regime's adding of 40 new intercontinental ballistic missiles to its nuclear arsenal slammed by NATO's Jens Stoltenberg as 'dangerous' and 'nuclear sabre rattling'
21st century Russian hypersonic missiles, production and use: 21st century hypersonic cruise missiles in production and use by Russia - UdSSR und dann Russland forschten seit den 1980er-Jahren an Hyperschallwaffen, wobei das zunnehmend aggressivere russische Putin Regime seine Bemühungen seit 2001 deutlich erhöhte als Reaktion auf die USA-amerikanischen Abwehrmöglichkeiten (!). Das zunehmend autokratische Regime vefügt mittlerweile im 21. Jahrhundert über mehrere Hyperschallwaffen-Programme, inkl. nuklear bestückter Hyperschall-Gleiter 'Awangard' (!), der per ICBM (2021 mit der SS-19 Stiletto, möglicherweise zukünftig mit der RS-28 'Sarmat', Einführung nach Verzögerungen 2022) gestartet wird, fermer 'SS-N-33 Zirkon' schiffsgestützte Marschflugkörper zur Bekämpfung von Land- und Seezielen mit Geschwindigkeiten zwischen Mach 6 und Mach 8 und wahrscheinlicher Einführung 2023, ferner 'Ch-47M2 Kinschal' luftgestützte Rakete (Abwandlung der Iskander-Rakete) die Geschwindigkeiten bis zu Mach 10 erreichen soll, 2018 erfolgreich mit einer MiG-31 getestet und 2022 im Angriffskrieg gegen die unabhängige Ukraine erstmals während einer Kriegshandlung gegen die Bevölkerung und ihre Verteidigung eingesetzt
17 March 2022 Russia has accelerated efforts in research and use of hypersonic weapons technology: 17 March 2022: Although Russia has conducted research on hypersonic weapons technology since the 1980s, it accelerated its efforts in response to USA missile defense deployments in both the USA and Europe, and in response to the USA withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 2001, Putin regime stated that 'the US is permitting constant, uncontrolled growth of the number of anti-ballistic missiles' (!). Russia is pursuing two hypersonic weapons programs — the Avangard and the 3M22 Tsirkon (or Zircon) — and has reportedly fielded the Kinzhal ('Dagger”'), a maneuvering air-launched ballistic missile. 'Avangard' is a hypersonic glide vehicle launched from an intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM, giving it 'effectively unlimited range'. Reports indicate that Avangard is currently deployed on the SS-19 Stiletto ICBM, though Russia plans to eventually launch the vehicle from the Sarmat ICBM. Sarmat is still in development, although it is scheduled to be deployed by the end of 2022.
20 March 2022 Russia’s use of hypersonic missiles against Ukraine appears to mark a shift in strategy: 20 March 2022: Russia’s use of hypersonic missiles against Ukraine appears to mark a shift in strategy in response to its losses on the battlefield, one that may signal a new phase of the war while serving to show the world its abundant firepower. Western military analysts point to dictator Putin’s ground campaign getting bogged down, with Russian troops failing to achieve their initial objectives and underestimating the scale of Ukraine’s resistance, as it happened in Assad's, Khamenei's, Putin's war against the Syrian people since early 2011, leading to war crimes including sieges, massacres, mass murder using chemical weapons, brutal air attacks on cities including Syria's second largest city of Aleppo (murderous Battle of Aleppo 2012–2016 against city's population and aftermath at least until March 2022)
20 April 2020 Russia tests nuclear-capable missile in warning and threatening: 20 April 2022: Russia tests nuclear-capable missile in warning and threatening to other countries, as Putin boasts new intercontinental ballistic weapon will provide ‘food for thought’
18 August 2022 2022 Russia deploys hypersonic missiles in Kaliningrad: 18 août 2022: La Russie annonce avoir déployé des avions équipés de missiles hypersoniques à Kaliningrad
Russia's military forces under the direct control of the 'Security Council of Russia': Russian Armed Forces comprise the world's fifth-largest military in terms of active-duty personnel, with at least 2 million reserve personnel. Their branches consist of the Ground Forces, Navy, and Aerospace Forces, as well as three independent arms of service including the Strategic Rocket Forces, Airborne Forces, and Special Operations Forces. Russian Armed Forces, alongside the Border Guard of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the National Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), the Federal Protective Service (FSO), the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) form Russia's military services under the direct control of the Security Council of Russia
Russia's commanding generals, second pillar of political power, and 'Security Council of Russia': The Defence Ministry of the Russian Federation serves as the administrative body of the Armed Forces. Since Soviet times, the General Staff has acted as the main commanding and supervising body of the Russian armed forces. USA expert William Odom said in 1998, that 'the Soviet General Staff without the MoD is conceivable, but the MoD without the General Staff is not.
Russia's military forces personnel, military ranks and chain of command: The Defence Ministry of the Russian Federation serves as the administrative body of the Armed Forces. Since Soviet times, the General Staff has acted as the main commanding and supervising body of the Russian armed forces. USA expert William Odom said in 1998, that 'the Soviet General Staff without the MoD is conceivable, but the MoD without the General Staff is not. - Russian Military Command Structure, as the armed forces chain of command prescribed in the military doctrine clearly establishes central control of the military with the president of the Russian Federation as commander in chief
7 August 2022 Russia’s private military contractor Wagner comes out of the shadows in Ukraine war: 7 August 2022: Russia’s private military contractor Wagner comes out of the shadows in Ukraine war, as mercenary group does not officially exist but is playing a more public role and openly recruiting in Russia. Three billboards in the Ural city of Yekaterinburg shine a light on what was once one of Russia’s most shadowy organisations, the private military contractor Wagner. 'Motherland, Honour, Blood, Bravery. WAGNER', one of the posters reads. Another, which locals said first appeared on the outskirts of the country’s fourth largest city in early July, depicts three men in military uniform next to the words “Wagner2022.org”. The billboards, which can be seen in several Russian cities, are part of Wagner’s efforts to recruit fighters to join its ranks in Ukraine. They also serve as a testament to the transformation the group has undergone since Moscow launched its invasion over five months ago, from a secretive mercenary organisation shrouded in mystery to an increasingly public extension of Russia’s military efforts in Ukraine.
Military budget of Russia: Military budget in Russia - 20. Februar 2012: Putins Wahlprogramm der Aufrüstung Rußlands mit 575 Mrd. Euro in den kommenden 10 Jahren - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen weltweiter Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - mit einem Anstieg um 580 Prozent steigerte vor allem Syrien die Waffenimporte seit dem Jahr 2002 deutlich - 17. April: Rußland und China erhöhen ihre Militärausgaben auch 2011 kräftig - 31 July: Putin announces that a total of 51 surface warships and 24 submarines, including 16 nuclear submarines, will enter into service in the Russian Navy by 2020 - 12. August 2012: Russland will sein Militär u.a. mit 1600 neuen Flugzeugen und Helikoptern aufrüsten - 14 April 2014: Russian defence spending rises by 4.8% to $88bn, devoting larger share of GDP on military than USA for first time since 2003 - 15 December 2014: Russian arms sales soar on domestic spending
Federal budget of Russia: Federal budget of Russia
Taxation in Russia: Taxation in Russia - Tax Code of Russia
Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation: Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation
Politics of Russia: Politics of Russia - Political parties in Russia
Ministry of Internal Affairs in Russia: Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation
2015: 25 July 2015: As Russia suffers the worst economic crisis in years, regime's Putin signed a decree limiting the number of staff employed by the Interior Ministry to just over one million, requiring massive layoffs that will bring total headcount down by 10%
Russian internal troops, Intelligence Community, Federal Security Service FSB, law enforcement agencies, repression and corruption: Russian Intelligence Community - Security Council of Russia
Internal Troops of Russia: Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
Federal Security Service FSB and Foreign Intelligence Service: Federal Security Service (KGB/FSB) - Service des renseignements extérieurs de la Fédération de Russie - Éléments opérationnels des services spéciaux russes
September 2018 suspects in the Salisbury poisoning: 23 September 2018: Leak of Russian regime's data about the suspects in the Salisbury poisoning may provide a rare insight into how Russia’s military intelligence agency provides cover identities for its agents abroad
October 2018: 5 October 2018: String of own goals by Russian spies exposes a strange sloppiness, as GRU seems to have lost its way in the age of internet search and as bungling agents leave Putin exposed in the global spotlight
October 2018: 31 October 2018: A local 17-year-old man reportedly set off a bomb at the entrance of the local branch of Russia's main intelligence agency in the northern city of Akhangelsk, injuring three security officials and killing himself
November 2018: 22 November 2018: Reportedly starting to feel unwell in mid-September and October, Russia's chief of military intelligence, Igor Korobov, has died after a serious and long illness, according to ministry
April 2019: 17 April 2019: SBU accuses Russian FSB general Dmitry Minaev of organizing assassination of Ukrainian intelligence operatives
December 2019 shooting at Russia’s FSB, the former KGB agency and Putin's lyceum and political home: 19 December 2019: One person has been shot dead after an unidentified gunman opened fire on the office of the FSB, Russia’s former KGB agency and Putin's lyceum and political home, in the heart of Moscow
28 April 2020 key MH17 figure identified as senior FSB official Burlaka: 28 April 2020: Key 2014 MH17 shoot-down figure identified as senior Russia's FSB official Andrey Ivanovich Burlaka, who was in a crucial role supervising militant activities in Donbas and authorizing the flow of weapons across Ukrainian/Russian border, 'Bellingcat' investigation says
23 September 2020 Putin investigators targeting Navalny and others using imported phone-hacking tech: 23 September 2020: Putin investigators targeting Alexei Navalny and others use Israeli phone-hacking tech, as committee headed by Putin associate Alexander Bastrykin claims it used Cellebrite’s technology more than 26,000 times for hacking phones
23 September 2020 treated in Berlin for Novichok poisoning Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny's condition improved enough for him to be released: 23 September 2020: The German hospital treating Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny for poisoning said Wednesday that his condition improved enough for him to be released, and suggested a 'complete recovery' from the Russian nerve agent was possible, as French newspaper citing unnamed sources on Tuesday reported that Russian regime's Putin told his French counterpart Macron, that Navalny was an 'internet troublemaker' who may have poisoned himself, as Putin's spokesman Peskov on Wednesday said 'Le Monde' had misrepresented the call and its report was 'imprecise'
14/17 December 2020 Russian FSB hit squad poisoned Alexei Navalny according to Bellingcat: 14 December 2020: An undercover hit squad working for Russia’s FSB spy agency poisoned the opposition activist Alexei Navalny in August, after shadowing him on multiple previous trips, the investigative website Bellingcat has claimed, citing 'voluminous' telecoms and travel data, and reporting that the squad had secretly tracked Navalny since 2017, as recent regime's crime apparently began after he announced plans to stand against Putin in presidential elections - 17 December 2020: Former KGB/FSB agent Putin rejects Navalny poisoning allegations as 'falsification' as he holds end-of-year press event, saying 'if they’d wanted to [poison him] then they probably would have finished the job'
21 December 2020 Navalny says Russian agent has admitted to role in death plot: 21 décembre 2020: L’opposant russe Alexeï Navalny a affirmé lundi avoir piégé au téléphone un agent des services de sécurité russes FSB pour lui faire admettre qu’il avait bien été la victime d’un empoisonnement cet été en Sibérie
22 December 2020 spokesman for Vladimir Putin accuses Alexei Navalny of 'comparing himself to Jesus': 22 December 2020: In an extended and unusual attack indicative of anger over recent revelations about the FSB, spokesman for Vladimir Putin accuses Alexei Navalny of 'comparing himself to Jesus', after a chartered plane paid for by 'Cinema for Peace Foundation' was sent in August from Germany to evacuate Navalny from Omsk for treatment at the Charité in Berlin to save his life, after the doctors treating him in Omsk had initially declared he was too sick to be transported, and as in October the OPCW announced that results of testing samples obtained from Navalny had confirmed the presence of a 'Novichok' agent
12 April 2021 operatives of the FSB agency searched Roman Anin's apartment, colleagues said: 12 April 2021: Operatives of the FSB agency searched the apartment of Roman Anin, his Vazhnye Istorii investigative news website colleagues said, after website recently published articles on possible links between the FSB and organized crime, and others on torture and mistreatment in Russian prisons, including the ongoing surveillance and 2021 renewed imprisonment of regime critic Alexei Navalny, once more critically endangered, whose biography in recent years now furnishes final proof concerning Putin's crimes and intentions
22 February 2024 Alexei Navalny’s mother shown body blackmailed by authorities, after Navalny died in penal colony: 22 February 2024: Alexei Navalny’s mother shown body, blackmailed by Putin's regime, after Alexei Navalny died in penal colony - 22 February 2024: Joe Biden met with Alexei Navalny’s widow Yulia Navalnaya and his daughter Dasha Navalnaya in California, after the main opposition leader to the Russian Putin regime died in an Arctic penal colony last Friday after being imprisoned by the regime
24 February 2024 Alexei Navalny’s body given to mother by Putin regime's authorities: 24 February 2024: The body of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has been handed over to his mother nine days after he died in an Arctic prison, his spokesperson announced on Saturday. In a post on X, Kira Yarmysh thanked 'all those who had demanded' the return of his body, but added that she did not know if the authorities would allow a public funeral to be held.
FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing: FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing
2015 Russian special services' involvement in terrorism: 7 December 2015: Former Russian Federal Security Service officer Yevgeniy tells TSN about Russian special services' involvement in terrorist organizations and terror attacks
2015: 30 December 2015: Putin signs into law new legislation which allows FSB to shoot at civilians including women and children in 'terror' related incidents
Federal 'law' enforcement agencies of Russia and police: 'Law' enforcement in Russia - Federal law enforcement agencies of Russia - FSB - Police of Russia - Federal Protective Service
Military Police
Investigative Committee of Russia
Border Guard Service of Russia - Federal Migration Service
Police brutality in Russia: Police brutality in Russia
2012 new charges against Russian police officers accused of torturing detainees: 29 March 2012: New charges against Russian police officers accused of torturing detainees amid growing public outrage over police brutality
2015: 1 April 2015: 21 deaths recorded in Russian police custody last month
2016 200 people died in Russian police custody in 2015: 200 people died in Russian police custody in 2015, website of investigative journalist says, tracking epidemic of prisoners dying in detention
Penal system in Russia and Federal Penitentiary Service: Penal system in Russia - Federal Penitentiary Service - Prisons in Russia - Corrective labor colony
2014/2018 destroyed Gulag data: 8 June 2018: Gulag History Museum in Moscow has discovered a secret Russian order from 2014 instructing officials to destroy data on prisoners, a move it said 'could have catastrophic consequences for studying the history of the camps'
July 2018: 20 July 2018: A recently published video of prison guards in Yaroslavl torturing a detainee has spurred Russian authorities to launch an investigation into abuse, in a case that had previously been ignored by regional officials - 24 juillet 2018: Un surveillant d'un camp pénitentiaire russe a été arrêté pour avoir tué un détenu, ont indiqué mardi les autorités locales
August 2018: 13 August 2018: Following the trial of those accused of beating Makarov, Ruslan Vakhapov, now a representative of Public Verdict, recognised all the prison guards on trial last month for the brutal torture of the inmate in the Yaroslavl prison, who used to be his jailers too
Torture in Russia and in occupied territories: Torture in Russia and in occupied territories
2012 new charges against Russian police officers accused of torturing detainees: 29 March 2012: New charges against Russian police officers accused of torturing detainees amid growing public outrage over police brutality
16 June 2023 Russian invading forces turned school gym into torture chamber in Ukrainian village Velyki Kopani: 16 June 2023: 'Russian terrorists have been recorded forcibly abducting pro-Ukrainian people and establishing new torture chambers for their detention in the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine. One such torture chamber was discovered in a secondary school located in the village of Velyki Kopani, Kherson region', according to the Ukrainian General Staff, reporting how the Russian FSB conducts interrogations in the school gym and how Russian forces are keeping the detainees in harsh, inhuman conditions and torture them.
14 July 2023 Ukrainian Human Rights Center told how Russians in the Kherson region tortured women in detention centers: 14 July 2023 (Bastille day): Ukrainian Human Rights Center told how Russians in the Kherson region tortured women in detention centers, reporting that special attention during the detentions was paid to women who either worked in law enforcement agencies of Ukraine or allegedly had links with the resistance movement. The torture included beatings, electric shocks, and waterboarding. Electrocution was applied to their bare breasts. In addition, women were humiliated, stripped naked during detention, and threatened with rape against them and their children. Torture was carried out in front of other detainees to intimidate them. It is also noted that the violence was carried out during the day and at night. 'One of the victims was forced to listen to the screams of her husband, who was held in the cell opposite. For a more effective emotional perception, the doors of both cells were open.' The women were not informed why they were being detained, in violation of the legal procedure of detention. Three of the victims said they were not given any reason, while others said they were detained under the pretext of checking their documents. In the temporarily occupied part of the Kherson region, Russian terrorists made a torture chamber in a school gym
Russian mafia state: Russian mafia state following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991
2010: 1 December 2010: WikiLeaks cables condemn Russia as 'mafia state', saying that Kremlin relies on criminals and rewards them with political patronage while top officials collect bribes 'like a personal taxation system' - 2 December 2010: Putin knew of poison plot that killed former KGB spy Litvinenko in London, according to WikiLeaks revelations - 8 March 2012: In a discussion on the death of lawyer Sergei Magnitsky British MP's described Putin's Russia as a mafia state - 25 July 2012: Security obsessed Putin fears being poisoned and gets every meal tested by professional tasters - 25 September 2012: Two Russian police officers have been jailed after a man was tortured in custody and later died of his wounds
2014: 17 April 2014: Putin, who earlier denied the presence of Russian troops in Crimea who described themselves as self-defense forces, admits during a Q&A session that people in military uniforms without any insignia in Crimea were Russian military
2015: 9 March 2015: Vladimir Putin now describes secret meeting when Russia decided to seize Crimea - 23 September 2015: Putin's regime is built using the criminal syndicate pattern, journalist Brian Whitmore who has been studying Russia since the 1990s says
2016: 3 May 2016: Spanish 'Audiencia National' has issued an international arrest warrant for several Russian former high-rank officials, accused of participating in Tambov and Malyshev's criminal gangs, according to Spanish daily newspaper El Mundo
September 2016: 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
December 2016: 27 December 2016: Russian officials admit for the first time to a state-backed campaign of doping that involved hundreds of the country’s athletes, as the acting director of Russia’s national anti-doping agency Anna Antseliovich and others in a serie of intervies detail that 'it was an institutional conspiracy' concerning the entire Olympic movement
October 2018: 23 October 2018: Russian businessman Yevgeny Prigozhin dubbed 'Putin’s chef' for organizing catering events for Russian Putin regime and even personally serving him, who has also been indicted by USA investigators for allegedly trying to interfere with the 2016 USA election, has been involved in attacks on several people and at least one killing, according to Novaya Gazeta
Since 1990s contract killings and poisonings in Russia: Poison laboratory of the Soviet and Russian secret services, a covert research and development facility of the Soviet secret police agencies which reportedly reactivated in late 1990s - Human experimentation to find a tasteless, odourless chemical that could not be detected post-mortem, as deadly poisons including mustard gas, ricin, digitoxin, curare, cyanide, and many others tested on prisoners
1990s contract killings: 8 August 1995: Murders panic Russian business elite, as a top banker Kivelidi is buried and government comes under fire for failing to stop contract killings - 9 August 1995: Poisoning added to the business risks in Russia, as at least 16 bankers have been killed in the last year and a half and as 8 members Mr. Kivelidi's 'Business Round Table' founded in 1993 have been slain
1995/2018: 23 March 2018: Nerve agent 'novichok' was used in 1995 murder, claims Vladimir Uglev, developer of Soviet-era chemical weapons, contradicting Russian regime's denials at existence of novichok nerve agents
2004: 2 September 2004: The Committee to Protect Journalists is alarmed by reports that prominent Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya was poisoned last night en route to Beslan in North Ossetia, where about 40 heavily armed fighters, reportedly of Chechen and Ingush origin, seized hostages at an elementary school yesterday
October/November 2006 poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko: October/November 2006 poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko - in January 2016 a UK public inquiry found that Andrey Lugovoy and Dmitry Kovtun were responsible for the poisoning of Litvinenko, also finding that there was a strong probability that Lugovoy and Kovtun were acting under the direction of the FSB, probably approved by both FSB's Nikolai Patrushev and Russian regime's Putin - Litvinenko's allegations about Russian government's actions since the 1990s, most of which are related to conducting or sponsoring domestic and foreign terrorism - Possibly related events in 2002, 2007, 2015/2016 to the 2006 poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko
March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal: 4 March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury with a chemical determined by the United Kingdom to be Russian 'novichok' nerve agent
April 2018: 28 April 2018: Novichok scientist Vladimir Uglev, who was run over by a car and left with serious injuries, fears for his safety after claiming his lab developed nerve agent used in Salisbury attack, saying Putin regime’s denial of culpability over the attempted assassinations of Sergei and Yulia Skripal do not withstand scrutiny
Since February 2022 USA's MES Global news channel provides review-style content on the Russia-Ukraine war: Since February 2022 MES global news' Ukraine war news - USA's MES Global news channel provides review-style content on the Russia-Ukraine tension. We also aim to quickly present political developments in Israel, USA, Turkey, France, UK, and China. By following us, you'll stay up-to-date with the world agenda. Our team of professionals and volunteers work hard to deliver accurate information from reliable sources and regional experts. - MES Global news daily updated
2 July 2023 'red alert' in the Kremlin, as Putin's illness and diseases kept as a secret have appeared: 2 July 2023: 'Red Alert' in the Kremlin, as Putin's illness and diseases kept as a secret have appeared, documented by many videos
Nationalism and racism in Russia: Russian nationalism - Racism in Russia
Nationalist parties in Russia: Nationalist parties in Russia - Fascist parties in Russia
Since 2001 'United Russia', the ruling political party of the Russian Federation, holding 340 (or 75.56%) of the 450 seats in the State Duma since 2017 - Since 1992 'Liberal Democratic Party of Russia', frequently described as neither liberal nor democratic as its ideology is based primarily on Zhirinovsky's ideas of 'imperial reconquest' (a 'renewed Russian Empire') and on an authoritarian vision of a 'Greater Russia'
Antisemitism in the Russian empire since the 18th century: Antisemitism in the Russian Empire
Antisemitism in the Russian empire in the 18th and 19th century: Pale of Settlement since the 18th century - Odessa pogroms since 1821 - Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire 1881–1884 and 1903–1906
Since 1904: 1904/1 February 2000: According to the Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine the anti-Semitic pamphlet 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion' 1904 were concocted by Russian propagandist Mathieu Golovinski as part of a monarchist scheme to persuade Czar Nicholas II that the capitalist modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot - 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' ordered to be studied in German classrooms by the Nazi Party since 1933 - 'Jewish Bolshevism' is part of the Jewish World Conspiracy theory that Jews control the world - Contemporary Middle East imprints of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' - many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols and taught them in their schools as historical fact - The Charter of the Hamas, issued on 18 August 1988, explicitly refers to 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'
Since 1922: History of the Jews in the Soviet Union - Antisemitism in the Soviet Union - Stalin and antisemitism - Jewish Autonomous Oblast since 1934
Antisemitism in the Russian Federation since 1991: Antisemitism in the Russian Federation
April 2018: 4 April 2018: Russian-born Israeli Mikhail Verevskoy beaten to death in Russia in suspected anti-Semitic attack, succumbing five days after he was attacked outside his St. Petersburg apartment building
April 2019: 19 April 2019: Russia’s largest yeshiva attacked with arson and swastikas ahead of Passover in eastern Moscow, hours before 60 people gathered for traditional seder meal
13 April 2020 in third assault since 2015 synagogue in Arkhangelsk severely damaged by arson: 13 April 2020: Northern Star Jewish community center and synagogue in Arkhangelsk was severely damaged in a fire that the local Jewish community said was caused by arsonists, as local Jewish leader says it was third assault since 2015
Facism, Nazism and Neo-Nazism in Russia: Russian facism and organizations in the 1930s and 1940s, in the 1990s and in the 2000s - Russian collaboration with Nazi Germany 1933-1945 - Russian Nazi collaborators - Neo-Nazism in Russia - White nationalism in Russia - Far-right politics in Russia
2 March 2020 UN says Russia committed war crimes in Syria as world expects end of impunity: 2 March 2020: Russia committed war crimes in Syria, finds UN report, as Putin regime also blamed for indiscriminate attacks in civilian areas without 'a specific military objective', also documenting 'unprecedented levels of displacement and dire conditions for civilians' in Syria
6 November 2020 Russian MPs prepare lifetime immunity for former presidents: 6 November 2020: Russian lawmakers have introduced a bill to parliament that would give Vladimir Putin lifetime immunity from prosecution if and when he decides to leave office, as bill would give a former president immunity from criminal prosecution for any offences committed during his lifetime, and a supermajority of lawmakers would be required to revoke the protections, as currently, ex-presidents are protected for actions taken only while they were in office
Notable hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia: Hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia
October 2013: 14 October 2013: A mob attacked businesses known for employing immigrants and clashed with police during riots in Moscow following the killing of a young Russian that was widely blamed on a man from the Caucasus - 14 octobre 2013: Le maire de Moscou a lancé lundi de vastes opérations policières contre les immigrés, au lendemain d'émeutes xénophobes qui ont fait 23 blessés et qui témoignent de la montée des sentiments anti-immigrés et ultra-nationalistes en Russie
Crime in Russia: Other crimes in Russia, at the forefront corruption
Corruption in Russia: Corruption in Russia - Areas of corruption in Russia - Category: Corruption in Russia - Putin Corruption
2012/2013 defence ministry caught up in corruption scandal, Putin backs amnesty for white-collar crime: 6 November 2012: Putin dismisses the defence minister after his ministry was caught up in a corruption scandal - 21 June 2013: Russia's Putin backs amnesty for white-collar crime
2016 200,000 offshore companies shines new light on fabulous fortunes of Putin’s inner circle: 3 April 2016: A massive leak of 11.5m documents detailing the activities of more than 200,000 offshore companies shines new light on the fabulous fortunes of Putin’s inner circle - 8 April: Russia's 'offshore bandits' expose the Kremlin's deep hypocrisy, The Moscow Times explains - 14 November 2016: Russia’s economic development minister Ulyukayev, who has spoken out against state intervention in economy, arrested over alleged $2m cash bribe as part of a sting operation
Religion and freedom of religion in Russia: Religion in Russia - Freedom of religion in Russia
2012: 17 October 2012: The Russian authorities have cancelled a modern art exhibit in Saint Petersburg which Russia's Orthodox conservatives have denounced as anti-religious
2016: 15 August 2016: Russian air strikes that Idlib in Syria destroying a large part of the Church of the Virgin Mary, the only church in the city, in addition to destroying much of the Christian district in a repeated assault
February 2019: 6 February 2019: A Russian court found a Danish adherent of the Jehovah's Witnesses guilty of organising the activities of a banned extremist organisation and jailed him for six years in a case Western governments cast as a test of religious freedom
September 2019 priests back jailed protesters and bystanders: 18 September 2019: Several dozen Russian Orthodox priests have signed a public petition, condemning a series of recent trials and prison sentences for anti-government protesters and even bystanders
April 2022 Russian Orthodox Church is helping drive Putin’s war against Ukraine, no separation of church/state: 18 April 2022: Russian Orthodox Church lends legitimacy to Vladimir Putin’s war against Ukrainian people, 'Financial Times' reports, after in 1934, as Adolf Hitler consolidated his grip on power in Germany, a courageous group of Protestant pastors resisted attempts to create a pro-Nazi unified Reich Church, asserting the absolute separation of church and state
Since 2013 amended blasphemy law in Russia: Blasphemy and blasphemy law in Russia
November 2015 religious censorship: 13 November 2015: Since the amended Russian blasphemy law, which see actions deemed insulting to religious beliefs punishable by up to three years in jail, came into force in July 2013, Russian journalists have faced a growth of religious censorship, according a Zdravomyslie study
Human rights, pressure on media, repression and political crime in Russia: Human Rights in Russia - Political repression in Russia - Freedom of assembly in Russia - Torture in Russia - Political abuse of psychiatry in Russia - LGBT rights in Russia
2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' Russia report: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' Russia report examining freedom of association, freedom of expression, political opposition, intensification of harassment and persecution of independent critics, North Caucasus, sexual orientation and gender identity, palliative care, Russia and Ukraine, disability rights, key international actors, foreign policy (Russia and Syria - United Nations OHCHR monitoring Russia's compliance with obligations of human rights treaties
2016 'Big Brother law': 26/27 June 2016: Russia’s parliament passes legislation that human rights campaigners say will roll back personal freedoms and privacy, called 'Big Brother law' by Edward Snowden
October 2016 international pressure to expel Russia from UN's HRC over its military campaign in Syria: 25 October 2016: Over 80 human rights and aid organizations, including Human Rights Watch, CARE International and Refugees International, have urged the UN member states to expel Russia from the Human Rights Council over its military campaign in Syria
September-December 2016 Russian-Assad coalition committed war crimes during bombing campaign in Syria: 1 December 2016: Russian-Syrian coalition committed war crimes during a month-long aerial bombing campaign of opposition-controlled territory in Aleppo in September and October 2016, Human Rights Watch documents
2017 Russia today is more repressive than it has ever been in the post-Soviet era: Human Rights Watch report 2017 on Russia, also saying that Russia today is more repressive than it has ever been in the post-Soviet era, using a wide range of tools, the state has tightened control over free expression, assembly, and speech, aiming to silence independent critics, including online
August 2019 Russia violated Magnitsky’s right to life: 27 August 2019: 10 years after his death, the European Court ruled that Russia violated Magnitsky’s right to life by failing to hold an effective investigation into the alleged medical negligence that resulted in his death, that his detention conditions amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment, that repeated extensions of his detention was unjustified, and that his posthumous trial and conviction by a Russian court was inherently unfair
September 2019 Ukrainian prisoner tortured by Putin regime: 16 September 2019: Ukrainian political prisoner Volodymyr Balukh, who has recently been freed from Russian captivity in a prisoner swap, has said he was tortured immediately after arriving in the Russian colony
28 December 2021 Russia’s Supreme Court ruled that 'Memorial' should be shut down: 28 December 2021: Russia’s Supreme Court has ruled that 'Memorial', the country’s best-known human rights group, should be shut down, marking the latest step in a sweeping crackdown on rights activists, independent media and opposition supporters, as last month, prosecutors accused the Moscow-based Memorial Human Rights Centre and its parent structure, Memorial International, of violating Russia’s 'foreign agent' law, asking the court to dissolve them, 'Al Jazeera' reports
29 December 2021 Russian court orders closure of another human rights group 'Memorial Human Rights Centre': 29 December 2021: Russian court orders closure of another human rights group, as 'Memorial Human Rights Centre' liquidated a day after its sister group 'Memorial' in assault on civil liberties
Legal history and law of Russia: Legal history of Russia - Law of Russia
December 2019 Putin's law to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents': 3 December 2019: Russia's Putin has signed a law that will allow regime to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents' in a move critics say will allow the Kremlin to target government critics
6 November 2020 Russian MPs prepare lifetime immunity for former presidents: 6 November 2020: Russian lawmakers have introduced a bill to parliament that would give Vladimir Putin lifetime immunity from prosecution if and when he decides to leave office, as bill would give a former president immunity from criminal prosecution for any offences committed during his lifetime, and a supermajority of lawmakers would be required to revoke the protections, as currently, ex-presidents are protected for actions taken only while they were in office
Judiciary in Russia: Judiciary and court system in Russia - Judiciary of Russia is subject to manipulation by political authorities, according to Constitution of Russia top judges are appointed by the Federation Council, following nomination by the President of Russia
Supreme Court of Russia: Supreme Court of Russia, judges are nominated by the President of Russia and appointed by the Federation Council
December 2017: 30 December 2017: Russia supreme court rules Putin regime critic Navalny cannot run for president, as Navalny's lawyers say they will appeal at European court of human rights
Repression and political crime in Russia: Repression, political crime and killed journalists in Russia
2003 Detention of Mikhail Khodorkovsky: Prosecution and detention of Mikhail Khodorkovsky 2003-2013 - 22 December 2013: At a news conference in Berlin Khodorkovsky says 'that he intends to do everything he can to help political prisoners in Russia to freedom'
7 October 2006 Assassination of Anna Politkovskaya: Anna Politkovskaya - Assassination of Anna Politkovskaya 2006 - 25 July 2013: Moscow City Court began hearing the case against five men suspected over the murder of anti-Kremlin reporter Anna Politkovskaya, despite a boycott of the trial by her children and their lawyers - 20 May 2014: Court in Moscow has found five men guilty of the murder of Anna Politkovskaya in 2006
16 November 2009 Death of Sergei Magnitsky: Death of attorney Sergei Magnitsky in Polonium-Putin's custody 16 November 2009 - 9. April: Das Verfahren gegen eine Gefängnisärztin wegen des Todes des prominenten russischen Anwalts und Menschenrechtsaktivisten Sergej Magnitski in Untersuchungshaft vor mehr als zwei Jahren wird in Moskau wegen Verjährung eingestellt - 28 December: A Moscow court acquitts prison doctor Kratov charged with the death of lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after his pancreatitis went untreated - an investigation by Russia's presidential council on human rights had concluded he was severely beaten and denied medical treatment - 28 January 2013: A Russian court has opened the posthumous fraud trial against Sergei Magnitsky, a lawyer who died in prison in 2009 after accusing state officials of a multimillion-dollar tax scam - 11 March 2013: 'Trial' of dead lawyer Sergei Magnitsky to begin in Russia - relatives say it's inhuman to try a dead man and the trial is revenge by the Kremlin - 22 March: Russia court begins proceedings against deceased lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after an alleged beating - 11 July 2013: In 'one of the most shameful moments for Russia since the days of Joseph Stalin', tortured and severely beaten Sergei Magnitsky posthumously found guilty of fraud by a Moscow court after his violent death in custody - 22 March 2017: Russian lawyer Nikolai Gorokhov who represents the family of Sergei Magnitsky is in intensive care after falling from the fourth floor of his apartment building, according to unconfirmed reports
6 November 2010 attack on Oleg Kashin: On 6 November 2010, journalist Oleg Kashin assaulted in attempted murder by unknown attackers in Moscow, hospitalized with several fractures, after Kashin had been reporting on a highway project covering youth political movements, including the Young Guard of United Russia, associated with the United Russia political party chaired by Vladimir Putin - 20 October 2015: Attempted murder of Oleg Kashin a symbol of impunity for attacks on journalists - 2 November 2016: Russia's intervention in Syria could have been stopped 20 years ago, as the war in Chechnya laid the foundations for Putin’s aggressive foreign policy, but western leaders remained silent, Oleg Kashin explains
August/September 2011: 16. August 2011: Willkürliche und gesetzwidrige Festnahme des Oppositionspolitikers Boris Nemzow durch St. Petersburger Polizei am 15. August - 22. August 2011: Bürgermeister J. Duschko der russischen Großstadt Sergijew Possad auf offener Straße ermordet - zuvor von kriminellen Wirtschaftskreisen bedroht - 24 August: Arrest of former senior police official over 2006 Politkovskaya murder - 27. August: Im Mordfall Anna Politkowskaja neue Hinweise auf Tatbeteiligung der 'Sicherheitskräfte' - 20. September: Europäischer Gerichtshof sieht Rechte des zerschlagenen Yukos-Konzerns durch russische Regierung verletzt
2012: 20. März 2012: Scharfe Kritik an russischen Sicherheitsbehörden wegen eines zu Tode gefolterten Häftlings - 9. April: Das Verfahren gegen eine Gefängnisärztin wegen des Todes des prominenten russischen Anwalts und Menschenrechtsaktivisten Sergej Magnitski in Untersuchungshaft vor mehr als zwei Jahren wird in Moskau wegen Verjährung eingestellt
13. Juni 2012: Der stellvertretende Chefredaktor Sergej Sokolow der russischen Oppositionszeitung 'Nowaja Gaseta' flieht wegen Todesdrohungen des hohen Justizvertreters A. Bastrykin ins Ausland - 14. Juni: Bastrykin entschuldigt sich bei einem Treffen mit dem Chefredaktor der 'Nowaja Gaseta', Dmitri Muratow
27 octobre: Accusée à tort de terrorisme, la Tchétchène Zara Mourtazalieva a vécu près d’une décennie dans une colonie pénitentiaire de Mordovie - 24 November: UN report voices concern at Moscow's failure to investigate widespread allegations of torture
November 2012: Alexander Perepilichnyy, who had a rare poison in his stomach when he died abruptly in Surrey, feared revenge over his role in exposing a huge fraud in Russia
1 December 2012: Six years after the murder of Anna Politkovskaya and ongoing concerns over safety of journalists the trial of a man suspected of the murder has been extended until March 2013 - 14 December: Ex-policeman jailed for his role in the Anna Politkovskaya murder
2013: 20 December 2013: Kremlin critic Mikhail Khodorkovsky on Friday walked out of jail after more than 10 years behind bars, immediately flying to Germany following his surprise pardon by Putin
2014: 25 January: After more than 10 years in prison, Mikhail Khodorkovsky's associate Platon Lebedev freed following Russian court ruling - 28 July 2014: Hague arbitration court ruled Russian regime carried out 'politically motivated' expropriation of oil giant Yukos' assets
February 2015 Murder of Boris Nemtsov: 27 February 2015 murder of Boris Nemtsov in Moscow - 28 February 2015: Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov reportedly shot four times in the back by a killer in a passing car in the centre of Moscow two days before Nemtsov was due to lead a major opposition rally in Moscow - 28 February: Politicians worldwide condemn the assassination of Boris Nemtsov, pressing the Russian regime to ensure that the killing is thoroughly investigated, as Boris Nemtsov allies fear killers of Russian politician will escape justice - 2 March: Immediately after murder, Russian investigators removed all evidence of Russian troops in Ukraine from Nemtsov apartment - 2 March: Nemtsov's Ukrainian companion Anna Duritskaya says being held against her will after murder - 3 March: Foreign officials barred from attending Boris Nemtsov funeral - 8 March: Zaur Dadayev, one of the men detained on suspicion of killing Boris Nemtsov, reportedly served nearly a decade in a police unit in the Russian region of Chechnya - 10 March 2015: Boris Nemtsov's friend Ilya Yashin rejects regime's allegation, as Russia's Putin this week awards Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov a medal for 'professional achievements, public activities', and as this Ramzan Kadyrov praises Chechen Zaur Dadayev publicly to be 'a true patriot of Russia', who is now charged by Russian authorities with the murder of Boris Nemtsov - 11 March: Former law enforcement officer Dadayev charged with involvement in the murder of opposition leader Boris Nemtsov has claimed that he was forced to confess to the killing, monitoring group that visited Dadayev and two other suspects in jail allegedly found evidence that the confession had been forced - 12 March: Zhanna Nemtsova, the daughter of assassinated Boris Nemtsov, says Vladimir Putin must bear responsibility for his death - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May 2015: Russian State Duma committee refuses to investigate Nemtsov's murder
2016: 1 November 2016: Russian dissident Ildar Dadin, jailed in 2015 after staging anti-government protests under a controversial new Kremlin law, says he is being beaten, repeatedly tortured and threatened with murder at notorious Karelia penal colony where he is being held in north-west Russia
2017: 7 February 2017: Russian regime critic Vladimir Kara-Murza, screening a documentary film about his friend Boris Nemtsov, 'poisoned by undefined substance', after in 2015 he was diagnosed with acute kidney failure in connection with poisoning and only just survived - 23 October 2017: An intruder forced his way into the offices of Russian radio station Ekho Moskvy and stabbed the station's anchor Tatyana Felgengauer in the neck, who has been hospitalised - 23 October 2017: Russian journalists have said an increasingly polarised and violent political climate in the country may have encouraged a knife attack in which well-known radio host Tatyana Felgengauer was stabbed in the neck
February 2018: 12 février 2018: Grigory Rodchenkov, qui a dévoilé le scandale du dopage institutionnalisé en Russie est apparu grimé pour sa première interview depuis l'affaire, diffusée dimanche sur CBS, expliquant toujours craindre pour sa vie, sûr que le régime de Poutine veut le faire taire pour de bon
April 2018: 16 April 2018: Maksim Borodin, a journalist for the online news site Novy Den in Yekaterinburg, who was previously attacked in 2017 when he gave an interview to TV Rain about the controversial film Matilda about Tsar Nicholas' Polish mistress, and who wrote about Wagner mercenaries dies under suspicious circumstances after falling from the fifth floor
December 2019 Putin's law to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents': 3 December 2019: Russia's Putin has signed a law that will allow regime to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents' in a move critics say will allow the Kremlin to target government critics
August 2020 suspected poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 suspected poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
Terrorism in Russia: Terrorism in Russia
1 January 1918 Saint Petersburg assassination attempt on Lenin: 1 January 1918: As Lenin's car drove away from Mikhailovsky Manège, a group of terrorists - among them the best sharpshooters in the former Russian Army - who were hiding in ambush in the next lane began shooting, shattering the car's windshield where Lenin was sitting in the back seat with Fritz Platten, but 'Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down (and) Platten’s hand was' met and wounded - 1 January 1918: After his 'Speech at the send-off of the socialist army’s first troop tains' in Saint Petersburg's Mikhailovsky Manège, an assassination attempt was made on Lenin returning to the Smolny, when a bullet went through the car's windscreen and passed over his head, and the Swiss Communist Fritz Platten, who was with Lenin, was wounded
30 August 1918 Moscow assassination attempt on Lenin and death 1924: 30 August 1918: After Lenin spoke at Michelson arms factory in Moscow and before entering his car, Socialist Revolutionary Party's member Fanny Kaplan fired three shots on him, but despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived, never fully recovering followed by strokes that incapacitated and eventually killed him in 1924 - 28 July 2019: After Lenin was seriously wounded by the August 1918 assassination attempt, Russia fell deeper into civil war
1918-1925 'Allied Powers', allied with anti-communist 'White forces', including terrorists, against Russia's governemt: 4 September 1918: Russian government official Moisei Uritsky was assassinated, his murderers arrested, and as a direct result of this incident numerous houses were searched in Petrograd, including the British embassy where shots were fired - 1918-1925 after the Bolshevik government withdrew from World War I, the Allied Powers, including the British Empire, France, USA and other countries, openly backed the anti-communist 'White forces', including terrorists, in Russia - 1919 British forces use mustard gas intervening in the Russian Civil War against the Red Army
Terrorist incidents in Russia by year: Terrorist incidents in Russia by year since 1995 - Suicide attacks in the North Caucasus conflict
2013-2015 Volgograd bus bombings: 21 October 2013 Volgograd bus bombing - 29 December 2013 Volgograd station bombing - 29 December 2013: Suicide bomber kills at least 16 people at train station in Volgograd - 30 December 2013 Volgograd trolleybus bombing - 30 December: At least 10 people were killed when a bomb blast ripped through a trolleybus in the second deadly attack in Volgograd in two days
February 2015 assassination of Boris Nemtsov: 27 February 2015: Assassination of Boris Nemtsov, a Russian statesman and politician opposed to the Putin regime, in central Moscow
2016: 11 April 2016: Three terrorists blew themselves up targeting a police station in Stavropol Region, one was killed
December 2015 homemade explosive detonated at a bus stop in central Moscow: 8 December 2015: Five people were lightly injured when a homemade explosive detonated at a bus stop in central Moscow
2017 terrorist incidents in Russia: Terrorist incidents in Russia in 2017 - 3 April 2017 Saint Petersburg Metro bombing - 6 April 2017: Thousands of people gathered outside the Kremlin walls in Moscow in solidarity with the killed and injured innocent people who were victims of Monday’s bomb blast in St Petersburg - 27 December 2017: At least 10 people injured after bomb packed with shrapnel goes off in supermarket in St Petersburg
Russian Mafia: Russian Mafia - 17 January 2013: A reputed Russian crime boss has been shot dead by an unidentified gunman in central Moscow in an apparent contract killing
Society, demographics, culture and languages in Russia: Russian society
Federal subjects, oblasts, districts and cities of Russia: Subdivisions of Russia - 83 Federal subjects of Russia - Federal districts of Russia - City of federal subject significance - 22 'Republics of Russia', most of them representing areas of non-Russian ethnicity
12 Russian economic regions: 12 Russian economic regions, groups of federal subjects sharing some characteristics - List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP
46 Russian oblasts: The Russian Federation is divided into 85 subjects, of which 46 are oblasts
Municipal divisions, cities and towns in Russia: Municipal divisions of Russia - Alphabetical list of cities and towns in Russia - List of cities and towns in Russia by population - 3 Federal cities of Russia Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol
2014 annexation of Crimea: 18 March 2014: Defying Ukrainian protests and Western sanctions, Russian regime's Putin signed a treaty in Moscow making Crimea part of Russia - 2014 Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation


Northwestern Federal District: Northwestern Federal District, one of the eight federal districts of Russia, consisting of the northern part of European Russia with a population of 13,616,057 citizens (83.5% urban) in 2010
Murmansk Oblast: Murmansk Oblast, a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country, with its administrative center Murmansk
Economy of Murmansk Oblast: Economy of Murmansk Oblast, that is very rich in natural resources with deposits of over 700 minerals, as the main industries of the region are in the sphere of raw material extraction and basic processing, including metallurgy (36,6%), electric power-production (22,9%) and food-industry (fishing 13,7%), and as the icefree port of Murmansk plays an important role in marine transportation in Russia, having a 41% share of the total Russian marine transport market, and as the fishing industry is among the most profitable in the region, supplying 16% of Russia's total fish production
Murmansk city: Murmansk city, a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia
Economy and port of Murmansk: Economy of Murmansk - Murmansk is set to be the Russian terminus of the 'Arctic Bridge', a sea route linking it to the Canadian port of Churchill, Manitoba - Port of Murmansk, located on the eastern shore of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea, ranking fourth in Russia in terms of processed goods and the second-largest port in northwest Russia (after the port of St. Petersburg), one of the largest ice-free ports in Russia and forming the backbone of the economy of the city


Arkhangelsk Oblast: Arkhangelsk Oblast, including the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea, with a population (including Nenetsia) of 1,227,626 residents in 2010
Arkhangelsk city: Arkhangelsk city, the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia, with 348,783 inhabitants in 2010
Economy of Arkhangelsk: Economy and companies of Arkhangelsk - Port of Arkhangelsk, located at the mouth of the Northern Dvina River, for much of Russia's history its main centre of international maritime trade, and a major naval base of the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy
History and timeline of Arkhangelsk: History and timeline of Arkhangelsk
Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages: Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages
March 2004 Arkhangelsk explosion: March 2004 Arkhangelsk explosion, destroying a corner section of a nine-story apartment building and killing 58 people (33 women, 16 men and 9 children)
Since 8 August 2019 rocket engine explosion near Severodvinsk: 8 August 2019 Nyonoksa radiation accident - 10 August 2019: Russian nuclear agency Rosatom confirms role in rocket test explosion, saying five staff died in accident that caused radiation levels to spike in Arkhangelsk - 26 August 2019: Russia’s state weather agency has said it found the radioactive isotopes of strontium, barium and lanthanum in test samples after 8 August 2019 rocket engine explosion during a test at a military site


Leningrad Oblast: Leningrad Oblast, a federal subject of Russia (and oblast) established on 1 August 1927, although it was not until 1946 that the oblast's borders had been mostly settled in their present position. Named after the city of Leningrad - Saint Petersburg (Petrograd) since 1547 Ivan IV's 'Tsardom of Rus' foundation and the 18th century foundation of Saint Petersburg by Peter I in 1721, but unlike the oblast the city retained the Tsardom's name at the end of the 20th century in disregard of the Russian revolutions since 1905
Saint Petersburg city: Saint Petersburg city, Russia's second-largest city after Moscow with five million inhabitants in 2012 and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea - History of Petersburg
Timeline of Saint Petersburg: Timeline of Saint Petersburg
17th–18th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg: 17th–18th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg
17th century Swedish Nyen town and Nyenschantz: 17th century Swedish Nyen town and Nyenschantz fortress at the confluence of the Neva River and Okhta River, the site of present-day Saint Petersburg in Russia. Nyenschantz was built in 1611 to establish Swedish rule in Ingria, which had been annexed from the Tsardom of Russia during the Time of Troubles. The town of Nyen, which formed around Nyenschantz, became a wealthy trading center and a capital of Swedish Ingria during the 17th century. In 1702, Nyenschantz and Nyen were conquered by Russia
May 1703 wooden house of tsar Peter first later town's 'palace': May 1703 cabin of tsar Peter, a small wooden house which was the first St Petersburg 'palace', as the log cabin was constructed in three days in by soldiers and as at that time, the new St. Petersburg was described as 'a heap of villages linked together, like some plantation in the West Indies'. The date of its construction is now considered to mark the foundation of the city.
Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences: Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences
19th/20th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg: 19th/20th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg
Since 1862 Saint Petersburg Conservatory: Since 1862 Saint Petersburg Conservatory - Notable faculty and notable graduates of Saint Petersburg Conservatory
January 1905 unarmed demonstrators attacked by the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition: 22 January 1905 'Bloody Sunday', the name given to the events of 22 January (O.S. 9 January) 1905 in St Petersburg, when unarmed demonstrators, led by Father Georgy Gapon, were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, as this 'Bloody Sunday' caused grave consequences for the Tsarist autocracy governing Imperial Russia, provoking public outrage and a series of massive strikes that spread quickly to the industrial centres of the Russian Empire, and as the massacre is considered to be the start of the active phase of the Revolution of 1905
Since October 1905 Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Delegates: Since October 1905 Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Delegates (later the Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies) was a workers' council, or soviet
1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed: 12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed
Summer 1917/1918 Sergei Prokofiev's first symphony, the Classical: In the summer of 1917 Sergei Prokofiev composed his Symphony No. 1 'Classical', a modern reinterpretation of the classical style of Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, premiered in April 1918 in Petrograd, as the name was Prokofiev's own and as the music is in a style that, according to Prokofiev, Joseph Haydn would have used if he were alive at the time, incorporating some advanced musical elements
1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
8 November 1917 Decree on Peace written by Vladimir Lenin was passed, Moscow and Kiev uprisings: 8 November 1917 Decree on Peace written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies, following the success of the October Revolution. It was published in the Izvestiya newspaper on 9 November 1917. It proposed an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I, and and proposed to all warring peoples and their governments to begin at once negotiations leading to a just democratic peace. It was ultimately implemented through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Woodrow Wilson's 'Fourteen Points' of January 1918 were largely a response to this Decree.
Since November 1917 timeline of the spread of Soviet power: Since November 1917 timeline of the spread of Soviet power (Gregorian calendar dates) - Since 7 November 1917 Moscow Bolshevik Uprising, the armed uprising of the Bolsheviks in Moscow, during the October/November 1917 Revolution of Russia. It was in Moscow where the most prolonged and bitter fighting unfolded. - Days of the Revolution in Moscow - 8-13 November 1917 Kiev Bolshevik Uprising (October 26–31 by old style), a military struggle for power in Kiev (Kyiv) after the fall of the Russian Provisional Government due to the October Revolution. It ended in victory for the Kievan Committee of the Bolshevik Party and the Central Rada
Since September 1918 Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Since September 1918 Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one of Russia's largest research centers specialized in physics and technology, run for several decades by Abram Ioffe, as the Institute is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and as the development of science was one of the priorities of the new Communist government
Since 1921 Art Culture Museum: Since 1921 Art Culture Museum - List of museums in Saint Petersburg
Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre: Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre
Since 1923 Russian Museum of Ethnography: Since 1923 Russian Museum of Ethnography in St. Petersburg that houses a collection of about 500,000 items relating to the ethnography, or cultural anthropology, of peoples of the former Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
Since 1931 Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Since 1931 Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a leading botanical institution in Russia, named after the Russian botanist Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov 1869–1945 - List of Russian and Soviet biologists
Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School for gifted children: Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School, the first art school for gifted children
Since 1930/1936 Arctic and Antarctic Museum in St. Petersburg: Since 1930/1936 Arctic and Antarctic Museum in St. Petersburg, established in November 1930 as part of the Soviet Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, but was not opened until six years later
Since 1936, 2011, and March 2022 Prokofiev's symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf': 1936 symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf' op. 67, a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev, as a narrator tells a children's story, while the orchestra illustrates it, and that became Prokofiev's most frequently performed work and one of the most frequently performed works in the entire classical repertoire - 8 June 2011 Sergej Prokofiev's 'Peter and the Wolf' - In 2009 published by Oxford University Press, Simon Morrison recounts Prokofiev's Soviet years in his book 'The People's Artist', describing Prokofiev's return to Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930th, facing the rising NSDAP ruled German empire preparing its 'Blitzkrieg' operations in the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War, the September 1939 Invasion of Poland, the summer 1940 'Blitzkrieg' against the Low Countries and France, and since June 1941 German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union, first involving a number of breakthroughs and encirclements by motorised forces 'to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia', allowing the 'Luftwaffe' to achieve total air supremacy over all the battlefields within the first week, as during the Battle of Moscow October 1941 - January 1942, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative.
Since 1938 State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg: Since 1938 State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg, as during German empire's WWII on the eastern front the content were moved to Sarapul, and the first full historical exhibitions began in 1957, celebrating the 250th anniversary of Leningrad
1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad: 1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad
Since April 1941 timeline of German siege of Leningrad, Soviet resistance and defense: Since April 1941 timeline of German siege of Leningrad and Soviet resistance and defense, after German dictator Hitler with OKW at least since April 1941 intended to occupy and then destroy Leningrad ('Generalplan Ost') and in the summer on 22 June 'Axis' powers' invasion of Soviet Union begins with brutal aggression first using 'Blitzkrieg' methods
Since 1941 'Road of Life' against German war crimes: Since 1941 Road of Life, the ice road winter transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad while the perimeter in the siege was actively maintained by the German Army Group North (supported by Franco's 'Blue Devision'), as the siege lasted for 29 months from 8 September 1941 to 27 January 1944, and as over one million citizens of Leningrad died from starvation, stress, exposure and bombardments
Since 31 December 1944 State Puppet Theatre of Fairy Tales: Since 31 December 1944 State Puppet Theatre of Fairy Tales, as composer Boris Kravchenko wrote music for many of the company's productions, following the simple and expressive style of Russian folk songs
Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad: Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad
1991 Vladimir Poutine quitte le KGB pour commencer une carrière politique à 'Saint-Petersbourg': En 1991 - après 15 ans de bons et loyaux services - Vladimir Poutine quitte le KGB pour commencer une carrière politique au côté d'Anatoli Sobchak, le maire de 'Saint-Petersbourg'. Sobchak perd la mairie en 1996 et Poutine se met donc au service d'Anatoli Tchoubaïs, chef de l'administration présidentielle. Boris Eltsine, au vu du passé de Poutine, le nomme à la tête du FSB (le nouveau nom du KGB). Poutine devient un bavard sans scrupules depuis 1991 en contre-révolution russe, après en 1917 la révolution de février et plus tard de novembre fait chuter en quelques jours l'Ancien régime tsariste, que l'immense majorité du peuple (paysans, ouvriers, petite-bourgeois...) en était venu à détester.
31 janvier 2013 'HRW' affirme que Poutine a fait subir les pires répressions depuis la chute de l'Union soviétique: 31 janvier 2013: L'ONG Human Rights Watch affirme dans son rapport annuel que la Russie de Vladimir Poutine a fait subir à son peuple en 2012 les pires répressions depuis la chute de l'Union soviétique
22 June 2022 volunteers arranged candles in St Petersburg to commemorate Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union: 22 June 2022: Some 150 volunteers arranged 50-thousand candles in St Petersburg early on Wednesday to commemorate the 81st anniversary of Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union. NSDAP ruled Germany launched 'Operation Barbarossa', a massive invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941, followed by never seen war crimes, as World War II losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000 both civilian and military, although exact figures are disputed. The post-Soviet government of Russia puts the Soviet war losses at 26.6 million. - 23 January 1930 – 1 July 1944 Tanya Savicheva, a Russian child diarist who endured the siege of Leningrad during World War II. During the siege, Savicheva recorded the successive deaths of each member of her family in her diary, with her final entry indicating her belief to be the sole living family member. Although Savicheva was rescued and transferred to a hospital, she succumbed to intestinal tuberculosis in July 1944 at age 14. Her image and the pages from her diary became symbolic of the human cost of the siege of Leningrad, and she is remembered in St. Petersburg with a memorial complex on the Green Belt of Glory along the Road of Life. Her diary was used during the Nuremberg Trials as evidence of the Nazis’ crimes.
Pushkin municipal town in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg: Pushkin municipal town with a population of 92,889 citizens in 2010, located in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg 24 kilometers south from its center, and as its railway station is directly connected by railway to the Vitebsky Rail Terminal of the city. Pushkin was founded in 1710 as an imperial residence named 'Tsarskoye Selo' ('Tsar's Village'), receiving status of a town in 1808. The first public railways in Russia, Tsarskoye Selo Railways, were opened here in 1837 and connected the town to the capital, St. Petersburg. After the October Revolution, the town was renamed to 'Detskoye Selo' ('Children's Village'). Its name was further changed in 1937 to Pushkin to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. The town contains an ensemble of the 18th century 'Tsarskoye Selo', following October/November 1917 and also today a museum complex including the 'Catherine Palace', 'Alexander Palace' and other buildings and associated parks
Timeline and history of Pushkin town: Timeline and history of Pushkin town in the 19th century in the period of lasting Russian empire, Soviet period since 1917/18 and 21st century
Shlisselburg town: Shlisselburg town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 35 kilometers east of St. Petersburg with a population of 13,170 citizens in 2010
Economy of Shlisselburg town: Economy of Shlisselburg town, housing several shipyards, as the main company operating in the city is 'Nevsky shipyard' which was founded in 1913 when the ship repair workshops were established. The main activities of the company include shipbuilding, ship repair, modernization and renovation and machine-building
On 8 May 1887 Lenin's older brother Aleksandr Ulyanov was hanged at Shlisselburg: On 8 May 1887 Aleksandr Ulyanov and his four comrades were hanged at Shlisselburg. Aleksandr's execution drove his younger brother Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Vladimir Lenin) to pursue the Russian revolutionary struggle ever more fervently. Vladimir was already active in politics prior to his older brother's arrest. Vladimir admired his older brother, however, he was quite dismissive of his older brother's political attitude.
Since 1995 'St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class', 1898 'RSDL Party': Since 1995 'St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class', a Marxist group in the St. Petersburg region founded by Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov, Gleb Krzhizhanovsky and others, uniting 20 different Marxist study circles, but Lenin dominated the league through the 'central group'. Its main activity was agitation amongst the workers of St Petersburg and the distribution of socialist leaflets to the factories there. Towards the end of 1895, the League had prepared the first issue of their new newspaper, Rabocheye Delo. It was ready to go to press when it was seized by the gendarmes during a raid on the house of Vaneyev, on December 20. Six League members were arrested, Lenin among them. When the news spread among the workers of the Shlisselburg Highway that the discovery and arrest were facilitated by an agent provocateur, N. N. Mikhailov. Later the group's organization contributed to the founding of the 'Russian Social Democratic Labor Party' in 1898. Lenin went on to become the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the party, while Martov became leader of the Menshevik faction, after the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903. - Since 1883 'Emancipation of Labour', the first Russian Marxist group. It was founded in exile by Georgi Plekhanov, Vasily Ignatov, Vera Zasulich, Leo Deutsch, and Pavel Axelrod, at Geneva in Switzerland in 1883
Published 1899 Lenin's early economic work 'The Development of Capitalism in Russia': Published 1899 'The Development of Capitalism in Russia', an early economic work by Lenin written whilst he was in exile in Siberia, published in 1899 under the pseudonym of 'Vladimir Ilyin', and established his reputation as a major Marxist theorist, after he has managed to examine a large amount of literature on the Russian economy, enabling the author to attack the Populist claim that Russia could avoid the stage of capitalism, and that the rural commune could serve as the basis for communism. Instead Lenin argued that the rural communes had already been wiped out by capitalism and statistics showed the degree to which feudalism was already dying in Russia. Lenin noted the growth of a national market for goods in Russia replacing local markets, the tendency to grow cash crops rather than rely on subsistence agriculture and a growth of individual rather than communal property ownership. Lenin also noted the growth of class division amongst the peasants with a growing division between a landholding rural bourgeoise and a mostly landless rural proletariat recruited from a diminishing middle peasantry. Lenin saw a community of interest between rural and urban proletariat and the possibility of a worker–peasant alliance against the representatives of capital. - Works by Vladimir Lenin listed by 'Wikipedia'


Novgorod Oblast: Novgorod Oblast, a federal subject of Russia as its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod with a population of 634,111 citizens in 2010. Novgorod Oblast borders with Leningrad Oblast in the north and in the northwest, Vologda Oblast in the east, Tver Oblast in the southeast and in the south, and Pskov Oblast in the southwest. The western part is a lowland around Lake Ilmen, while the eastern part is a highland. In the center of the oblast is Lake Ilmen, one of the largest lakes in Central Russia. The major tributaries of Lake Ilmen are the Msta, which originates in the east of the Valdai Hills and collects the rivers in the east of the oblast, the Lovat, the Pola, and the Polist, which all flow to the lake from the south, and the Shelon, flowing from the southwest. The only outflow of the lake is the Volkhov, a major tributary of Lake Ladoga. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are located in the oblast.
Novgorod city: Novgorod city and administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is one of the oldest cities in Russia, being first mentioned in the 9th century. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg
History of Novgorod city since 9th century, trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks: History of Novgorod city, documented since 9th century, when Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks - The 'Varangians' - the name given by Eastern Romans to Vikings, mostly Swedes -, as between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard which later also included Anglo-Saxons. According to the 12th-century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik - 'Garðaríki', the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of Rus', as 9th century map shows Varangian or Rus' settlements, location of Slavic tribes and settlements, and mid-9th century Khazar influence
Since 882 princely state within Kievan Rus': Since 882 princely state within Kievan Rus'
In the high Middle Ages Norway ties, then 'Hanseatic League' ties with European cities: In the high Middle Ages Viking kings and yarls came from Norway to Novgorod seeking refuge or employment. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof). Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Mstislavich, the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the 'Hanseatic League', was the easternmost kontor, or entrepôt, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (sable, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts - Die 'Hanse' - im Frühmittelalter eine Gruppe von Kaufleuten, die gemeinsam Handel trieben und bestimmte Privilegien im Ausland genossen - hatte sich aus der 'Kaufmannshanse' zur 'Städtehanse' entwickelt, also einem Zusammenschluss von Städten zum Schutz der Kaufleute und der Handelswege. Städtebündnisse und Landfriedensbündnisse dienten demselben Zweck. Die Handelsaktivitäten der Lemgoer Kaufleute seit dem 13. Jh. spiegelten sich in zahlreichen Bürgschaftsurkunden und Verbindungen und lassen sich so bis Nowgorod, Lübeck, Antwerpen oder Riga belegen.
1136–1478 Novgorod Republic: 1136–1478 Novgorod Republic
13th century Mongol invasion, Novgorod Republic paid a large bribe to Golden Horde's Subutai: 13th century Mongol invasion and its aftermath, as Novgorod Republic managed to escape the horrors of the Mongol invasion because it was the only Rus principality to preemptively and peacefully submit to the Mongols. Instead of being formally conquered, the Republic paid a large bribe to Subutai in 1241, agreed to become a vassal, and later began to pay tribute to the khans of the Golden Horde. In 1259, Mongol tax-collectors and census-takers arrived in the city, leading to political disturbances.
January 1570 Tsar Ivan's massacre of Novgorod and subjugation: January 1570 Massacre of Novgorod, an attack launched by Tsar Ivan IV 'The Terrible' oprichniki on the city of Novgorod, subjugation of Novgorod as the Tsar took out the brunt of his sadistic anger on the population of Novgorod, namely the upper and middle classes. The peasantry suffered a more generic, though equally brutal, punishment, amid the brutality directed at the more prominent members of society, as - with tortures visited on the upper and middle classes - peasants and paupers were treated with disregard and disdain, albeit of a broader nature. The oprichniki centered its attack on the townspeople around two main objectives to increase the royal treasury and to terrorize the lower classes into submission. Ivan's fear of conspiracies and revolution in any combination, led him to try to quell disaffection and discourage revolutionary tendencies, generally through the manipulation of fear and violence, then Ivan ordered an attack on the trade streets of Novgorod, hoping to cripple the middle-class merchants (generally considered to be the seat of discontented revolutionary ideas) in order to suppress popular insurrection and guarantee dependency and submission. The oprichniki were to seize all profitable goods and destroy shops and storehouses, then move into the suburbs, where their instructions were to loot and destroy homes and kill all inhabitants who resisted (and, periodically, even those who complied), regardless of age or sex. Cold, hunger, and disease also killed the hundreds of families that were evicted and exiled from the city and surrounding villages. The famines that had plagued the area for the previous years (exacerbated by the oprichniki's razing of the farm land on their trek to Novgorod) had drawn many of the poor from the surrounding land into the city for shelter. With little regard for the lives at stake, the tsar ordered the collected paupers and beggars expelled from the city in the middle of winter, abandoning them to die of exposure or starvation.
Since 1570 devastated Novgorod Republic officially became a thing of the past: After previous blows dealt to the city by Ivan and his grandfather, the 1570 attack, massacre by Ivan IV contributed heavily to the decline of the once great city of Novgorod. An attack from one's own ruler, especially one as devastating to life and property as Ivan's campaign against Novgorod, was crippling. After the attack, many of the inhabitants either fled the city to escape persecution from Moscow, or died from increasingly damning conditions, exacerbated by high taxes and food shortages and the epidemics that tend to accompany poor living conditions that followed. As part of his attack Ivan burned the fields, laying waste roughly 90% of the arable land surrounding Novgorod. Coupled with the crop failures of the years before, this would create a massive food shortage (and cause supply problems for Russia in the Livonian war). With the loss of the majority of its production capacity and the economy essentially in ruins, Novgorod, a city that, until Ivan III, rivaled Moscow for the seat of power in Russia, lost its political standing and the Novgorod Republic officially became a thing of the past.
History of Novgorod in the 20th, 21st century: On 15 August 1941, during World War II, the city was occupied by NSDAP ruled German empire's military. The population of the whole country was forced to defend their lives against the most terrible aggressor. The historic monuments were systematically obliterated. The Red Army liberated the city on 19 January 1944. Out of 2,536 stone buildings, fewer than forty remained standing. After the war, thanks to plans laid down by Alexey Shchusev, the central part was gradually restored. In 1992, the chief monuments of the city and the surrounding area were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site


Pskov Oblast: Pskov Oblast, located in the west of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Pskov. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 673,423 citizens. Pskov Oblast is the westernmost federal subject of contiguous Russia. It borders with Leningrad Oblast in the north, Novgorod Oblast in the east, Tver and Smolensk Oblasts in the southeast, Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus in the south, and with the counties of Latvia and Estonia in the west. In the northwest, Pskov Oblast is limited by Lake Peipus, which makes up most of the state border with Estonia, and is located in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, mostly in the basin of the Narva River. The biggest river of this basin is the Velikaya, which flows across the whole oblast from south to north and drains into Lake Peipus.
History of Pskov Oblast: History of Pskov Oblast
Pskov city: Pskov city, the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, located about 20km east from the Estonian border on the Velikaya River, with a population of 203,279 citizens in 2010. Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia, that served as the capital of the Pskov Republic and was a trading post of the Hanseatic League before it came under the control of the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Since 903 Timeline of Pskov: Timeline of Pskov since 903
1348-1510 Pskov Republic: 1348-1510 Pskov Republic, a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov. Originally a principality and then a part of the Novgorod Republic, Pskov became an independent republic in 1348. Its territory was roughly equivalent to the modern Pskov Oblast of Russia. The capital city was and is Pskov
Economy of Pskov and veche republic: Economy of Pskov, that has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West. Archaeological data shows the presence of imported goods in Pskov in the 10th and 11th centuries. This was due to the extensive trade contacts of emerging cities with Scandinavia, which also was the source of Russian military elite since the 10th century. Archaeological excavation revealed a large variety of found articles, among them Byzantine coins, bronze and copper items, confirming that Pskov was not an economically isolated region and shows extensive trade contacts with both the West and the East. Pskov republic started to be recognized as a sovereign state after Treaty of Bolotovo was concluded in 1348, which granted political independence from the Novgorod Republic. This happened just ten years before the establishment of the Hanseatic League - commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns, which played a major part in Pskov economic development. Pskov at that was a veche republic, where all free people were considered its citizens with the right to participate in governing of their city-state, which was expressed in veche assemblies and election of local officials.
20th century timeline of Pskov: 20th century timeline of Pskov


Central Federal District: Central Federal District, comprising the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions and eighteen federal subjects and one of the eight federal districts of Russia, considered as the core of the Russian state and its predecessor, the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, situated in the extreme west of present-day Russia although it can be considered as the central region of European Russia
Kursk Oblast: Kursk Oblast, a federal subject of Russia as its administrative center is the city of Kursk, with a population of 1,127,081 citizens in 2010 - Geography of Kursk oblast, with an average elevation of 177–225m, occupying the southern slopes of the middle-Russian plateau as its surface is hilly and intersected by ravines, as Chernozem soils cover around 70% of the oblast's territory and podsol soils cover 26%, and as low relief, gentle slopes, and mild winters make the area suitable for farming, with much of the forest disappearing
Kursk Oblast comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities: Administrative divisions of Kursk Oblast, comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities
Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast: Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast
Kursk city: Kursk city, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym rivers, as the area around Kursk was the site of a turning point in the Soviet–German struggle during World War II and the site of the largest tank battle in history, finally ending German empire's 'Blitzkrieg' of generals Guderian, Rommel etc., as Kursk's population in the 21st century comprises 415,159 citizens in 2010 Census
Economy and infrastructure of Kursk: Economy and infrastructure of Kursk
Timeline and history of Kursk: History of Kursk as first written record of Kursk is dated 1032
Kursk in the 1905 Russian Revolution as oblast had dominant role in the food industry: Russian Revolution of 1905, a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government, including worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies and leading to constitutional reform (namely the 'October Manifesto'), including the establishment of the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906
Since 1934 Kursk State Pedagogical Institute and later State University: Since 1934 Kursk State University, Kursk's oldest higher educational institution, founded as Kursk State Pedagogical Institute, later transformed into Kursk State Pedagogical University and has a current status since 2003
Since 1934 Kursk State University Library: Since 1934 Kursk State University Library collecting books, journals, newspapers, magazines and prints
1943 'Battle of Kursk' blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter: 1941-1943 during Axis powers' World War II Kursk was occupied by NSDASP and SS Germany between 4 November 1941 – 8 November 1943, as in July 1943 the Germans launched 'Operation Citadel' in an attempt to recapture Kursk, as during the resulting 'Battle of Kursk', the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement between Soviet and German forces, which is widely considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history, and as Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union and the final stage, blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter - Soviet army's resistance and defense campaign was a strategic Soviet success, as for the first time, a major German offensive had been stopped before achieving a breakthrough, despite German empire was using more technologically advanced armour than in previous years, yet unable to break through the in-depth Soviet defences, caught off guard by the significant operational reserves of the Red Army, as this result changed the pattern of operations on the Eastern Front, with the Soviet Union gaining the operational initiative, but the Soviet victory was costly, with the Red Army losing considerably more men and materiel than the German Army, finally enforcing the Soviet Union's larger industrial potential and pool of manpower, as Nazi 'Blitzkrieg' general Guderian wrote 'with the failure of Zitadelle we have suffered a decisive defeat', long before 1944 'Operation Overlord' against NSDAP Germany and the Italian puppet 'Social Republic', (established by Kesselring's, Rommel's, von Rundstedt's, von Weichs' and Löhr's 'Operation Achse')
Since 1944 T-34 tank as a war memorial in Kursk: Since 1944 as a war memorial in Kursk T-34 tank, a Soviet medium tank introduced in 1940, famously deployed with the Red Army during World War II against NSDAP-ruled German empire's brutal aggression since June 1941 with 'Blitzkrieg' operations, sieges, use of starvation as weapon against millions of humans, deportations, mass murder, as T-34 tanks since 1941/42 were mainly produced in Chelyabinsk (called 'Tank City', where work force increased to 60,000 workers by 1944, from 25,000 during non-military production, and as workers and machinery from Leningrad's Voroshilov Tank Factory were incorporated into the Ural Factory), and as - after the industrial complex surrounding the Dzerzhinsky Tractor Factory in Stalingrad continued to work double shifts throughout the period of Soviet withdrawal (September 1941 - September 1942) to make up for production lost and produced 40% of all T-34s during this period - the factory became surrounded by heavy fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942/43 with desperate: manufacturing innovations necessitated by material shortages, with unpainted T-34 tanks driven out of the factory directly to the battlefields around it, so that Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942 despite Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' - German empire's 'Panzer IV' 1939-1945 produced by Krupp, Vomag and 'Nibelungenwerk', later in Syria until 'Six-Day War', then ruled by Ba'th regime - Vomags (Vogtländische Maschinenfabrik), Geschäft mit dem Krieg seit 1914 und innerhalb von 4 Jahren einer der größten Rüstungsproduzenten der Armee des kaiserlichen Deutschen Reiches, und seit 1939-1945 profitmachender Rüstungsbetrieb des NSDAP berrschten 'Dritten Reiches', zu einem 'Musterbetrieb' deutscher Rüstung aufgestiegen, der von 1944-1945 in Mehltheuer in einem Außenlager des KZ Flossenbürg hunderte von weiblichen Häftlinge Zwangsarbeit für die Vomag - deren Produkte bedient und befehligt von skupellosen Verbrechern im Dienste größenwahnsinniger Politiker incl. Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres seit 1944 Heinz Guderian und GFM Erwin Rommel ihre Familien vernichten halfen - verrichten ließ - 1914-1945 armaments products produced for profit in 'Krupp Industries', employing workers conscripted by the NSDAP, SS and Gestapo regime from across Europe - Since 1864 rifle manufacturer and WWII armament poducer's 'Nibelungenwerk' (Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG) armament products produced for profit in Upper Austria - 1940s Tiger German heavy tanks of World War II that operated beginning in 1942 in Africa, in the Soviet Union and in France, usually in independent heavy tank battalions - Since 1935, Henschel began manufacturing Panzer I tanks produced for profit - also responsible for license production of the Dornier Do 17Z medium bomber -, as during World War II since 1939 it began large-scale production of the Panzer III, becoming the sole manufacturer of the Tiger I - and alongside Porsche the Tiger II - and as in 1945 the company had 8,000 workers working in two shifts each of 12 hours, and forced labour was used extensively
Soviet losses in NSDAP Germany's 'Battle of Kursk': Soviet losses in NSDAP Germany's 'Battle of Kursk' comprise 254,470 killed, missing or captured people, 608,833 wounded or sick people (74% wounded and 26% sick, a total of 863,000 men (~710,000 casualties in combat)
Since 1964 Kursk State Technical University: South-West State University (Kursk State Technical University) founded in 1964 as Kursk Politechnical Institute
September 1979 stony Florian asteroid 3073 Kursk discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh: 24 September 1979 provisionally known as 1979 SW11, stony Florian asteroid 3073 Kursk and synchronous binary system from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4.7 kilometers in diameter, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh, as minor planet was named after the city of Kursk


Belgorod Oblast: Belgorod Oblast with a population of 1,532,526 citizens in 2010, as its administrative center is the city of Belgorod
Natural resources of Belgorod oblast: Over 40% of known iron ore reserves of Russia are concentrated in the oblast. Deposits are confined to the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly area. Among them are Korobkovsky, Lebedinskoye, Stoylenskoye, and prospective Prioskolskoye iron ore deposits in Stary Oskol District, Bolshetroitskoye in Shebekinsky District, as well as Yakovlevskoye and Pogremetskoye fields. Identified and explored in varying degrees are the large deposits of bauxites, apatites, underground mineral waters, and numerous deposits of construction materials such as chalk, sand, clay, and more. There are also known occurrences of gold, graphite, and other rare metals.
Economy of Belgorod oblast and trade turnover between Russia and Ukraine: Belgorod Oblast is a highly developed industrial-agrarian region, whose economy relies on its enormous wealth of mineral resources and the unique black soils. The oblast has traditionally had and still has strong ties with the agro-industrial complex of Ukraine. Despite its relatively small size, the oblast accounts for one fifth of the trade turnover between Russia and Ukraine.
History of Belgorod Oblast: History of Belgorod Oblast documented since turn of the 17th century, when a solid line of military fortifications was built in the area, stretching for almost 800 kilometers. Ukrainian Cossacks, who moved here because of the nobility and the tax burden, were in charge of the line defenses. Even more Cossacks moved to the area during the Khmelnytsky Uprising 1648–1657 and the internecine wars in the Cossack Hetmanate 1659–1679. Belgorod became the military and administrative center, after originating as an outpost on the southern borders of Russia. From 1708 to 1727, the territory of the modern Belgorod Oblast was part of Kiev and Azov Governorates.
Belgorod city: Belgorod city, the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast located on the Seversky Donets River 40 kilometers north of the border with Ukraine and with a population of 356,402 citizens in 2010
History of Belgorod city: History of Belgorod city, as records first mention the settlement in 1237, when the Mongol-led army of Batu Khan ravaged it. It is unclear whether this Belgorod stood on the same site as the current city. In 1596 Tsar Feodor Ioannovich of Russia ordered its re-establishment as one of numerous forts set up to defend Muscovy's southern borders from the Crimean Tatars.


Moscow Oblast: Moscow Oblast, a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), with a population of 7,095,120 inhabitants in 2010
Moscow city: Moscow city, the capital and most populous city of Russia with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area - History of Moscow
Economy of Moscow: Economy of Moscow
Timeline of Moscow since European Middle Ages: Timeline of Moscow since European Middle Ages
879–1240 Kyivan Rus' federation of East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic peoples in Eastern and Northern Europe: Kievan Rus' or Kyivan Rus', a loose federation of East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic peoples in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. The Rurik dynasty would continue to rule parts of Rus' until the 16th century with the Tsardom of Russia. At its greatest extent, in the mid-11th century, it stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the majority of East Slavic tribes.
Since 2nd century BC history and timeline of the 'Kremlin': History and timeline of the 'Kremlin' site, that had been continuously inhabited by Finnic peoples, especially the Meryans, since the 2nd century BC. The East Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow', and the word 'Kremlin' was first recorded in 1331. - Since 1586 Tsar cannon during the reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, the son of Ivan the Terrible - As history of Russian bell founding goes back to the 10th century, the original Tsar Bell since 16th century crashed to the ground in a fire in the mid-17th century and was broken to pieces, as the second Tsar Bell since 1655 was again destroyed by fire in 1701, as the third was finally successfully raised in the summer of 1836 by the French architect Auguste de Montferrand and placed on a stone pedestal, and as its broken slab alone is nearly three times larger than the world's largest bell hung for full circle ringing, the tenor bell at Liverpool Cathedral, and French enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher Voltaire - famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity (especially the Roman Catholic Church) and of slavery, as well as his advocacy of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state - once joked that the Kremlin's two greatest items were a bell which was never rung and a cannon (the Tsar Pushka) that was never fired
1237-1242 Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus', part of the Mongol invasion of Europe: 1237-1242 Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, in which the Mongol Empire invaded and conquered Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev, with the only major cities escaping destruction being Novgorod and Pskov
Since 1237 Mongol influence brought changes, incl. capital punishment, torture: Since 1237 Mongol influence brought about changes in the economic power, in the political and judicial sphere, as capital punishment - which during the times of Kievan Rus' had only been applied to slaves - became widespread, and the use of torture became a regular part of criminal procedure. Specific punishments introduced in Moscow included beheading for alleged traitors and branding of thieves (with execution for a third arrest).
1812 fire of Moscow ahead of French invasion: 1812 Fire of Moscow, when Russian troops and most of the remaining residents abandoned the city of Moscow just ahead of Napoleon's vanguard troops entering the city after the Battle of Borodino
Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway: Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway
October/November 1917 Moscow Bolshevik Uprising: October/November 1917 Moscow Bolshevik Uprising, following German empire's war against Russia
Since 1 January 1918 assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin: Since 1 January 1918 several assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin
Februar 1918 Lenins 'Wie soll man den Wettbewerb organisieren?': 'Eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, wenn nicht die wichtigste, besteht jetzt darin, diese selbständige Initiative der Arbeiter und überhaupt aller Werktätigen und Ausgebeuteten bei der schöpferischen organisatorischen Arbeit in möglichst breitem Umfang zu entwickeln', Zitat aus 'Wie soll man den Wettbewerb organisieren?' Lenin Werke Band 26, S. 407
July 1918 uprising against the Bolsheviks intended to restart the war against Germany: 6-7 July 1918 uprising against the Bolsheviks intended to restart the war against Germany and one of a number of uprisings against the Bolsheviks that took place during the Russian Civil War
30 August 1918 assassination attempt on Lenin that killed him in 1924: 30 August 1918 Russian revolutionary politician Vladimir Lenin spoke at an arms factory in southern Moscow, but before he had entered his car to leave Fanny Kaplan called out to him and fired three shots with a Browning pistol as one passed through his neck, punctured part of his left lung and stopped near his right collarbone, and the other lodging in his left shoulder, then Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin refusing to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention, the doctors were brought in to treat him but could not remove the bullets outside a hospital, as despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived, but his health never fully recovered from the attack and it is believed the shooting contributed to the strokes that incapacitated and eventually killed him in 1924
Since 1919 Moscow State Jewish Theatre: Since 1919 Moscow State Jewish Theatre, serving as a prominent expression of Jewish culture in Russia
Since 1921 Moscow State Academic Children's Music Theater: Since 1921 Moscow State Academic Children's Music Theater, a theater specializing in opera, ballet and dramatic productions for children and the world's first professional theater for children
Since 1935 Biblioteka Imeni Lenina station of the Moscow Metro, also shelter: Since 1935 Biblioteka Imeni Lenina, a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro, opened on 15 May 1935 as a part of the first stage of the Metro and situated in the very centre of the city under Mokhovaya Street - Moscow metro and stations were built not only as public transport, as he deepest stations of the Moscow metro reach 84 meters, the height of 28 storey building, as depth of the tunnels usually ranges from 35-55 meters. In 1930-s the country was already preparing for a possible war. During the German empire's 1941 Siege of Moscow, metro stations were used as air-raid shelters. Council of Ministers moved its offices to the platforms of Mayakovskaya, where Stalin made public speeches on several occasions. Another station Chistye Prudy accommodated the headquarters of the Air Defense. Following the defeat of German empire in May 1945 and since then during the so-called 'Cold War', many Moscow stations built are very deep and were planned as shelters in the event of nuclear attack.
1936-1938 Moscow Trials: 1936-1938 Moscow Trials, a series of show trials held in the Soviet Union
Since 1936, 2011, and March 2022 Prokofiev's symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf': 1936 symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf' op. 67, a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev, as a narrator tells a children's story, while the orchestra illustrates it, and that became Prokofiev's most frequently performed work and one of the most frequently performed works in the entire classical repertoire - 8 June 2011 Sergej Prokofiev's 'Peter and the Wolf' - In 2009 published by Oxford University Press, Simon Morrison recounts Prokofiev's Soviet years in his book 'The People's Artist', describing Prokofiev's return to Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930th, facing the rising NSDAP ruled German empire preparing its 'Blitzkrieg' operations in the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War, the September 1939 Invasion of Poland, the summer 1940 'Blitzkrieg' against the Low Countries and France, and since June 1941 German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union, first involving a number of breakthroughs and encirclements by motorised forces 'to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia', allowing the 'Luftwaffe' to achieve total air supremacy over all the battlefields within the first week, as during the Battle of Moscow October 1941 - January 1942, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative.
1941/1942 Battle of Moscow against German military and war crimes: October 1941 - January 1942 Battle of Moscow, German military campaign consisting of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km sector of the Eastern Front during World War II
Since 1941, 1945 Moscow Metro not only continued to carry passengers but also served as a bomb shelter ...: 1941-2022 after - throughout Axis Powers' World War II until 1945 - the Moscow Metro not only continued to carry passengers on a daily basis but also served as a bomb shelter for millions of people - 29 June 2022: CCTV footage from a pond in the Ukrainian city of Kremenchuk has captured civilians, children running for cover and falling to the ground as Russian missile strikes hit nearby, leaving at least 18 people dead. The BBC has analysed the footage - and it appears one missile hit close to the eastern end of a shopping centre, while the other hit the northern end of a nearby factory.
July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow: July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow, attracting 34,000 people from 130 countries
July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow: July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow, attracting 34,000 people from 130 countries
July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow: July/August 1957 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow, attracting 34,000 people from 130 countries
1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU: 1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU, the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
1987–1989 Gorbachev's reforms until in the revolutions of 1989 Central/Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change: Further reform: 1987–1989, including domestic reforms, relations with China and Western states, nationality question and the Eastern Bloc, until in the revolutions of 1989, most of the Marxist–Leninist states of Central and Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change
October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis: October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis
February/August 2004 Moscow Metro bombings: February 2004 Moscow Metro bombing - August 2004 Moscow Metro bombing
March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings: March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings
February 2015 assassination of Boris Nemtsov: February 2015 assassination of Boris Nemtsov, a Russian politician opposed to the Putin regime, happening in central Moscow after appealing to the public to support a march against Russia's war in Ukraine
20 July 2019 protest demanding free and fair polls: 20 juillet 2019: Plus de 20'000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans le centre de Moscou pour réclamer des élections locales libres et équitables, après les autorités ont invalidé l'enregistrement d'une soixantaine de candidats
February 2020 effects of 'Putinism' are flashing back amid waves of false alarms for months: 10 février 2020: Depuis plus de deux mois, la capitale russe subit les assauts d'une vague de fausses alertes à la bombe qui perturbent administrations, écoles et entreprises, atteignant parfois mille alertes quotidiennes, sous le regard impuissant d'autorités largement silencieuses
March 2020 Moscow's non-working week amid Chinese coronavirus pandemic and Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign: 28 March 2020: Moscow mayor Sobyanin urged Muscovites to stay at home during the non-working week amid the spread of the coronavirus, as authorities said they had recorded 1,264 coronavirus cases, a rise of 228, the largest daily increase since the start of the outbreak - Since September 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign
2022 opposition against dictatorial Putin regime: Opposition to Vladimir Putin in Russia, 2022 anti-war protests against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, and list of opposition figures, listed alphabetically by 'Wikipedia'
Since 1 March 2022 escalating number of arrested anti-war protesters against Putin's war crimes in Ukraine: Since 1 March 2022, the Moscow radio station Echo of Moscow, as well as the independent television channel Dozhd, was forced off air for having aired opposition to Putin's brutal war against the Ukrainian people, as on 4 March, the Russian parliament attempted to further dissuade protests by passing a 'new law' to punish citizens with up to 15 years in jail for spreading 'fake news' about the military assault on Ukraine, amid an escalating number of anti-war protestors arrested day by day since February
9 May 2022 Ukrainian Mockery Version of Den' Pobedy: 9 May 2022 Ukrainian Mockery Version of Den' Pobedy - 15 January 2011: Das sowjetische Lied 'Straßen' wurde einige Wochen nach dem Ende des deutschen Angriffskrieges geschrieben, von der Sowjetunion und den Westallierten siegreich abgeschlossen mit der Befreiung Europas inkl. Polens, aber mit allein für die Sowjetunion weit über 20 Millionen Kriegstoten - World War II casualties of the Soviet Union - Since February casualties of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, causing Europe's largest refugee crisis since WWII with more than 8.8 million Ukrainians fleeing the country and a third of the population displaced. The invasion also caused global food shortages, while on 16 June 2022 the Ukrainian defense minister told CNN that he believed tens of thousands of Ukrainians had died, adding that he 'hoped' that the true death toll was below 100,000 - On 2 May 1945 Soviet army soldier Aleksey Khaldei from Yuzovka assisted by Private Kovalev from Kiev scaled the now pacified Reichstag in Berlin to take a picture. Khaldei was born to a Jewish family in Yuzovka (now Donetsk) and was obsessed with photography since childhood, having built his first childhood camera with his grandmother's eyeglasses. His father and three of his four sisters were murdered by the Nazis during the war, as the Ukrainian soldier in May 1945 was carrying with him a large flag, sewn from three tablecloths for this very purpose by his uncle.
24 July 2022 Moscow chess robot grabs and breaks finger of seven-year-old 'opponent': 24 July 2022: Moscow chess robot - in a game of strategic thinking without violence, but that cannot always be said of machines and especially Russian robots - grabs and breaks finger of seven-year-old 'opponent', exactly how Russian defence ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov - as usual in Moscow today - alleged that Putin's military in Ukraine is always using 'high-precision weapons' in its very 'special military operation' to terrorize its neighbour - July 2022: 80 years after the beginning of German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Russia blocks move on 'Killer Robots Ban', as 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots' Stephen Goose said 'Russia demonstrated conclusively that the CCW is unlikely to make any meaningful progress on this issue'
21 November 2022 Putin's Advent calendar and his advent gifts: 21 November 2022: Putin's Advent calendar and his advent gifts mean that the Armed Forces of Ukraine from February 24 to November 21 eliminated nearly 84,600 Russian invaders, including 390 in the past day alone, also, Ukraine’s defenders destroyed 2,892 enemy main battle tanks (+6 in past day), 5,822 (+5) armored combat vehicles, 1,870 (+2) artillery systems, 393 (+0) MLR systems, 209 (+0) air defense systems, 278 (+0) warplanes, 261 (+0) helicopters, 1,537 (+0) operational and tactical-level UAVs, 480 (+0) cruise missiles, 16 (+0) warships/cutters, 4,378 (+7) trucks and fuel tankers, and 161 (+0) units of specialized equipment
22 November 2022 dictator Putin will meet mothers of soldiers fighting in Ukraine on 27 November: 22 November 2022: Russian dictator Putin will meet mothers of soldiers fighting in Ukraine, because Russia celebrates Mother’s Day on 27 November
23 November 2022 war ciminal Putin's missiles destroy maternity ward of the Vilniansk Hospital: 23 November 2022: Russian missiles destroy maternity ward of the Vilniansk Hospital, killing a newborn baby overnight in Ukraine's Zaporizhzhia region, according to Zaporizhzhia Regional State Administration's Oleksandr Starukh
24 November 2022 a Russian rocket attack completely destroyed a kindergarten in Toretsk: 24 November 2022: 'The Russians launched another rocket attack on Donetsk region, this time targeting Toretsk. A Russian rocket completely destroyed a kindergarten', according to Donetsk Regional Military Administration's Pavlo Kyrylenko
25 November 2022 in Ukraine's liberated Kherson Putin's armed gang leaves explosives even in children's toys: 25 November 2022: Retreating from Kherson city, the Russian military left explosives even in children's toys. 'Currently, the main focus is on demining. The scale of mining is extremely large there. 'I constantly receive photo reports (about discovered ammunition - ed.) in children's toys, there was a mine between two soccer balls, etc.,' interior ministry's adviser Rostyslav Smirnov said, noting that in the liberated territories of Kherson region, rescuers have already disposed more than 5,000 explosive objects. - 24 July 2018: Novichok victim mother-of-three Dawn Sturgess found substance disguised as perfume in sealed box in Amesbury
25 November 2022 Putin tells Russian group of 17 mothers carefully chosen for the meeting he shares their pain: 25 November 2022: Across Russia, groups of mothers of serving soldiers have been openly complaining that their sons are being sent into battle poorly trained and without adequate weapons and clothing, especially as the winter sets in. Some have also accused the Russian military of turning those forcefully mobilised into 'cannon fodder', following a string of heavy military defeats in recent months. Earlier this month, Mark Milley, the most senior US general, estimated that about 100,000 Russian and 100,000 Ukrainian soldiers had been killed or injured since the war began on 24 February.
27 November 2022 Mother's Day in Russia in the context of a long tradition: After on the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913, International Women's Day was later transferred to other dates but remained the global date for International Women's Day ever since - 27 November 2022: Mother's Day in Russia on the last Sunday of November
20 December 2022 calls between Russian 'cannon fodder' and their loved ones, eavesdropped by Ukraine: 20 December 2022: Calls between Russian soldiers and their loved ones - eavesdropped by Ukraine - reveal reality of war for Kremlin’s forces. Out on the frontline, near the eastern Ukrainian city of Lyman, on 8 November at 15.10, a Russian serviceman called Andrey decided to ignore the orders of his superiors and call his mother with an unauthorised mobile phone. 'No one feeds us anything, mum', he complained. 'Our supply is shit, to be honest. We draw water from puddles, then we strain it and drink it.' Russian forces had been on the back foot in the Donetsk oblast for weeks. Lyman, taken by the Russians in May, was liberated by Ukrainian forces in October. Two days before Andrey made his afternoon call back home, the Russian forces had 'finally' started firing at Ukrainian positions with phosphorus bombs, he told his mother, but the promises of munitions that could turn the battle had come to nothing.
30 July 2023 Putin's war finally reached his real goal blast as drones again explode in Moscow: 30 July 2023: Russia's defence ministry has said three Ukrainian drones were downed on Sunday, with two crashing into offices, as one person has been injured, according to Tass. Russia accused Ukraine of being behind the attack and says one drone was shot down over the Odintsovo district, west of the city centre, and two others were neutralised but crashed into offices, the BBC reports presenting a video with upsetting scenes, after Putin's war finally reached its real goal - 30 July 2023: In a video address from the western Ukrainian city of Ivano-Frankivsk, president Zelensky said 'today is the 522nd day of the so-called 'Special Military Operation', which the Russian leadership thought would last a couple of weeks', adding 'gradually, the war is returning to the territory of Russia - to its symbolic centres and military bases, and this is an inevitable, natural and absolutely fair process'


Odintsovsky city and district: Odintsovsky District, one of the 36 in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located in the western central part of the oblast bordering with the federal city of Moscow in the east, Leninsky District in the southeast, Naro-Fominsky District in the south, Ruzsky District in the west, Istrinsky District in the north, and with Krasnogorsky District in the northeast. Its administrative center is the city of Odintsovo, as the population of Odintsovo accounts for 43.9% of the district's total population. The Moskva River with its tributaries flow through the district. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs (north and north-west of the city.
Novo-Ogaryovo estate: Novo-Ogaryovo estate in the Odintsovsky District of Moscow Oblast, located by the Rublyovo-Uspenskoye Highway west of the city of Moscow. It operates as the suburban residence of the president of Russia, officially recognized as such in 2000. Since 1991, Novo-Ogaryovo has been reserved as a government residence, mostly unused until Russia's Putin - in office since 31 December 1999 - had it renovated in 2000. A six-meter-high wall surrounds the residence. In October 2012, Putin announced his intention to work at Novo-Ogaryovo to avoid commuting into Moscow, allegedly due to the city's extensive traffic congestion. In April 2020, Putin self-isolated at Novo-Ogaryovo after meeting with the head doctor of City Clinical Hospital No. 40 in Moscow, who later tested positive for covid-19. - Constructed since 2005 'Putin's Palace', an Italianate palace complex located on the Black Sea coast near Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai. The complex first came to public attention in 2010 after whistleblower Sergei Kolesnikov published an open letter to Russia's Dmitry Medvedev exposing the construction of the palace. Kolesnikov also stated that the undertaking was run by Nikolai Shamalov who was acting on behalf of Vladimir Putin. The complex drew substantial public attention in 2021, when Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny's Anti Corruption Foundation FBK released an investigative documentary film about it which detailed a corruption scheme allegedly headed by Putin and claimed that the palace was built for the president's personal use. The FBK investigation estimated the cost of the build to be over 100 billion rubles at 2022 prices. - 'Mezhyhirya Residence' in Ukraine where Viktor Yanukovych lived when he was PM and then president of Ukraine. Yanukovych lived in the estate from 2002 to 21 February 2014, when he fled the country during the Ukrainian 'Revolution of Dignity'.


Ryazan Oblast: Ryazan Oblast, a federal subject of Russia as its administrative center is the oblast's largest city of Ryazan, the oblast with a population of 1,154,114 citizens in 2010 - Districts of Ryazan Oblast
Landforms and rivers of Ryazan Oblast: Landforms of Ryazan Oblast - Meshchera Lowlands - Rivers of Ryazan Oblast
Economy of Ryazan Oblast: Economy and companies of Ryazan Oblast - Since 1962 SAAZ, a Russian factory of automotive components (telescopic struts, shock absorbers, pneumatic-stops and gas springs)
Politics of Ryazan Oblast: Politics of Ryazan Oblast
History and timeline of Ryazan Oblast: History of Ryazan Oblast
1097-1521 Grand Duchy of Ryazan: 1097-1521 Grand Duchy of Ryazan existed several centuries after it was separated from the Chernigov Principality as the provincial Murom Principality
1941-1945 Ryazan city was bombed by Germany in World War II: 1941-1945 Ryazan city was bombed by Germany in World War II, as immediately after the war, rapid development of the city began and Ryazan became a major industrial, scientific, and military center of the European part of Russia
8 October 2020 explosion and fire at munitions depot sends 2,000 fleeing from villages in Ryazan region: 8 October 2020: Russia explosion and fire at munitions depot sends 2,000 fleeing, as villages in Ryazan region south-east of Moscow cleared after grass fire reaches military facility
Administrative divisions and cities and towns in Ryazan Oblast: Administrative divisions of Ryazan Oblast - Districts of Ryazan Oblast - List of rural localities in Ryazan Oblast - Urban-type settlements in Ryazan Oblast - Cities and towns in Ryazan Oblast
Ryazan city: Ryazan city, the largest city and administrative center of Ryazan Oblast located on the Oka River in Central Russia, 196 kilometers southeast of Moscow, with a population of 524,927 citizens, making it the 33rd most populated city in Russia - Since 1915/1930 Ryazan State (Pedagogical) University
Economy of Ryazan city: Economy of Ryazan city, as major industries in the city include electronics and oil refining and as Ryazan has a reputation of being one of Russia's electronics hubs


Southern Federal District: Southern Federal District, one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic–Caspian steppe of southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine, the Azov Sea, and the Black Sea in the west, and Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea in the east. On 19 January 2010, the Southern Federal District was split in two, with its former southern territories forming a new North Caucasian Federal District
Rostov Oblast: Rostov Oblast, a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District, with a population of 4,277,976 inhabitants in 2010, and with its administrative center Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don: Rostov-on-Don, a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov, with a population of 1,125,000 inhabitants - Economy of Rostov-on-Don
Since 1761 timeline of Rostov-on-Don: Since 1761 timeline and history of Rostov-on-Don
1941 Battle of Rostov: November-December 1941 Battle of Rostov, a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought around Rostov-on-Don between the Army Group South of Nazi Germany and the Southern Front of the Soviet Union
August 1942 27,000 Jews massacred by the German military: On 11/12 August 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka
21st century timeline of Rostov-on-Don: 21st century timeline of Rostov-on-Don
23-24 June 2023 'Wagner mercenary group' rebellion: 23 June 2023 Wagner Group rebellion, Rostov-on-Don is captured by the Wagner Group - 23–24 June 2023 Russian paramilitary organization 'Wagner mercenary group' initiated a rebellion against the criminal Putin regime and its military. The revolt arose amidst escalating tensions between the Russian ministry of 'defence' and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the leader of Wagner mercenaries. Prigozhin portrayed the rebellion as a response to an alleged attack including airstrikes on his forces by the ministry. He dismissed the regime's justification for its invasion of Ukraine, placing blame on regime's Sergei Shoigu for its military shortcomings, and accusing him of waging the war for the benefit of Russian elites, citing Russian opposition's critism of Putin regime's corruption. 15 Russian soldiers were killed during the fight in Rostov-on-Don, while no casualties were reported among Wagner fighters. Following negotiations with Belarusian dictator Lukashenko, Prigozhin agreed to stand down, and as of 11:00 p.m. on 24 June began withdrawing from Rostov-on-Don
24 June 2023 ongoing Wagner Group's ongoing withdrawal from Rostov-on-Don: 24 June 2023 Wagner Group's ongoing withdrawal from Rostov-on-Don
Since 2013 Wagner Group's organisation, politics activities are linked to white supremacist and neo-Nazi far-right extremists: The 'Wagner mercenary group' first appeared in Ukraine in 2014, where it participated in the annexation of Crimea, after in 2013 ita founder Dmitriy Valeryevich Utkin began working for the Moran Security Group, a private company of Russian military veterans, which was involved in 'security' and training missions worldwide. The same year, senior Moran Security Group managers were involved in setting up the Hong Kong-based 'Slavonic Corps', which headhunted contractors to 'protect oil fields and pipelines' in Assad's war since 2011 against the Syrian people. Wagner Group's organisation, politics activities are linked to white supremacist and neo-Nazi far-right extremists, such as Wagner's openly far-right and neo-Nazi Rusich unit, and Wagner members have left neo-Nazi graffiti on the battlefield. In 2021, it was said that the group's name comes from its founder Utkin's own call sign 'Wagner', reportedly after the German composer Richard Wagner, which Utkin is said to have chosen due to his passion for the 'Third Reich', when Richard Wagner was Adolf Hitler's favorite composer.
Since 2015 Wagner Group activities in Syria, and further mainly in Africa: The presence of private military companies PMCs in Syria was first reported in late October 2015 in Latakia province, employed by the Russian Defense Ministry. Wagner PMCs were notably involved in both Palmyra offensives in 2016 and 2017, as well as the Syrian Army's campaign in central Syria in the summer of 2017 and the Battle of Deir ez-Zor in late 2017. They were in the role of frontline advisors, fire and movement coordinators, forward air controllers who provided guidance to close air support and 'shock troops' alongside Assad's army. Involved in 2018 in the Battle of Khasham, the Wagner Group then took part in the Assad regime's Rif Dimashq offensive against the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta, east of Damascus, the in Assad's offensive in northwestern Syria since 2019. In March 2023, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights SOHR still reported the presence and activities of the 'Wagner mercenary group' in the country. Wagner Group activities were further documented in Sudan, the Central African Republic, Madagascar, Libya, Venezuela, Mozambique, Mali, and more countries.
25 June 2023 Prigozhin’s rockstar exit from Rostov shows public support for ‘traitor’: 25 June 2023: Yevgeny Prigozhin left Rostov-on-Don late Saturday to a rapturous reception that resembled the departure of a rockstar, with crowds of men gathering around his car. The extraordinary scenes underlined some of the broader support Prigozhin appears to enjoy among sections of the Russian population, despite Putin calling him a traitor whom he vowed to 'liquidate'.


Volga Federal District: Volga Federal District, one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It forms the south-eastern part of European Russia. It is second most populated federal district (after Central). Its population was 29,899,699 citizens in 2010, living on an area of 1,038,000 square kilometers. The historical center of the district is known as the Idel-Ural region
Tatarstan republic: Tatarstan, a republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. It is a part of the Volga Federal District, as its capital and largest city is Kazan, one of the most important cultural centres of Russia. The republic borders Kirov, Ulyanovsk, Samara, and Orenburg Oblasts, the Mari El, Udmurt, and Chuvash Republics, and the Republic of Bashkortostan. As of the 2010 Census, the population of Tatarstan was 3,786,488 citizens. The state languages of the Republic of Tatarstan are Tatar and Russian
10 October 2021 at least 16 dead after plane carrying skydivers crashes in Tatarstan: 10 October 2021: At least 16 dead after plane carrying skydivers crashes in central Russia, as six people in ‘very serious condition’ after being rescued from wreckage of aircraft in Tatarstan
Kazan city: Kazan city, the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Volga and the Kazanka rivers, covering an area of 425.3 square kilometres, with a population of over 1.2 million residents, up to roughly 1.6 million residents in the urban agglomeration. Kazan is the fifth-largest city in Russia, and the most populous city on the Volga, as well as the Volga Federal District. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Kazan grew to become a major industrial, cultural and religious centre of Russia. In 1920, after the Russian SFSR became a part of the Soviet Union, Kazan became the capital of the Tatar ASSR. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazan stayed as the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan
Since 1438 timeline of Kazan: Timeline of Kazan since 1438
20th and 21st centuries timeline of Kazan: 20th and 21st centuries timeline of Kazan
11 May 2021 Kazan mass school shooting, as also a bomb was detonated: 11 May 2021 Kazan mass school shooting, as also a bomb was detonated. Nine people (seven 8th-grade students and two teachers) were killed, and 23 others were injured. The 19-year-old shooter, Ilnaz Galyaviev, was identified as a former student. He pleaded guilty to the murder of two or more persons on 12 May and is being detained
Volgograd Oblast: Volgograd Oblast, a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia, with its administrative center Volgograd
Volgograd city: Volgograd city, an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, situated on the western bank of the Volga River with 1,021,215 inhabitants in 2010
Timeline of Volgograd: Timeline of Volgograd
1942-1943 Battle of Stalingrad: 1942-1943 Battle of Stalingrad, a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (Volgograd) in Southern Russia
Significance of the 1942/43 battle of Stalingrad: Significance of the 1942/43 battle of Stalingrad, often identified as the turning point on the Eastern Front, in the war against NSDAP ruled German emoire overall, and in the entire Second World War
Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad: Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad


Ural Federal District: Ural Federal District, one of the eight federal districts of Russia, with a population of 12,080,523 (79.9% urban) inhabitants in 2010, and located at the border of the European and Asian parts of Russia with its administrative centre Yekaterinburg city, contributing 18% to Russia’s Gross Regional Product GRP, although its population is only 8.5% of the Russian total
Sverdlovsk Oblast: Sverdlovsk Oblast, a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District, its administrative center is the city of Yekaterinburg, formerly known as Sverdlovsk and its population is 4,297,747 inhabitants, according to the 2010 Census
Yekaterinburg, formerly known as Sverdlovsk: Yekaterinburg city, the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains
April 2018: 3 April 2018: Politicians in Yekaterinburg have cancelled an upcoming election in order to oust mayor Yevgeny Roizman, who has been in office since 2013 and has decried Putin regime’s influence in local politics and his election to a fourth term in power, now saying 'it’s a direct insult to the citizens of Yekaterinburg, a belittling of the status of Yekaterinburg, a show of disrespect to the city, the city’s traditions'


Siberian Federal District: Siberian Federal District, one of the eight federal districts of Russia, as its population was 17,178,298 according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 4,361,800 square kilometers andas the entire federal district lies within the continent of Asia
Omsk Oblast: Omsk Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in southwestern Siberia with a population of 1,977,665 citizens in 2010 Census and with its administrative center Omsk, bordering Tyumen Oblast in the north and west, Novosibirsk and Tomsk Oblasts in the east, and Kazakhstan in the south
Omsk city: Omsk city, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, located in southwestern Siberia with a population of 1,154,116 citizens, Russia's third-largest city east of the Ural Mountains after Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg - History of Omsk - Transportation in Omsk, as city is a major rail, road, and air hub, served by a station on the Trans-Siberian Railway, and by the Tsentralny Airport, as Omsk additionally possesses a river port on the Irtysh, offering service to domestic destinations and to cities within Kazakhstan
Economy of Omsk: Economy of Omsk - Companies based in Omsk - Since 1995 Gazprom Neft, formerly Sibneft, is the third largest oil producer in Russia
Timeline of Omsk since 18th century: Timeline of Omsk since 18th century
August 2020 poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
2 September 2020 Novichok use shows ‘only state’ could have poisoned Navalny aide says: 2 September 2020: Germany’s finding that Alexey Navalny was poisoned with nerve agent Novichok shows that only the Russian state could be responsible, opposition's Ivan Zhdanov says
17 September 2020 Novichok traces found on water bottle in Navalny's hotel room in Tomsk: 17 September 2020: Colleagues of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny said that a bottle of water with a trace of the Novichok nerve agent was found in his hotel room in Tomsk after his poisoning
Tomsk Oblast: Tomsk Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District, as its administrative center is the city of Tomsk and with a population of 1,078,923 citizens in 2010
Tomsk city: Tomsk city, the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia located on the Tom River with a population of 524,669 citizens in 2010
Economy of Tomsk: Economy of Tomsk, as Tomsk consumes more electric energy than produced by the city's power plants GRES-2 (281 MWt) and TEC-3 (140 MWt) belonging to Tomskenergo Inc., Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk
Politics of Tomsk: Politics of Tomsk, as city is governed by a mayor and a 33-member Duma, and as of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate districts while 17 are chosen from party lists
Timeline and history of Tomsk since 17th century: History and timeline of Tomsk since 17th century
Since 1604 fortress Tomsk: In 1604 Tomsk originated when the tsar sent 200 cossacks to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River, overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk
Since 1941 during WWII Tomsk became the new home for many factories: Since 1941 during German empire's World War II, Tomsk like many Siberian cities became the new home for many factories relocated out of the war zone, and the resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish the new Tomsk Oblast, with Tomsk serving as the administrative center
14 September 2020 French and Swedish labs confirm Navalny's Novichok poisoning Germany says: 14 September 2020: Three laboratories have independently confirmed that Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny was poisoned with the Novichok nerve agent, Germany said Monday, renewing calls for Russia to explain the incident
14 September 2020 Navalny allies win council seats in regional polls: 14 September 2020: As in several dozen of Russia’s 85 regions citizens voted for regional governors and lawmakers in regional and city legislatures as well as in several by-elections for national MPs, allies of poisoned Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny have said they have secured city council seats in Siberia as independent monitors condemned a reported 'stream' of voting irregularities in regional polls
17 September 2020 Novichok traces found on water bottle in Navalny's hotel room in Tomsk: 17 September 2020: Colleagues of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny said that a bottle of water with a trace of the Novichok nerve agent was found in his hotel room in Tomsk after his poisoning
Novosibirsk Oblast: Novosibirsk Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in southwestern Siberia, as its administrative and economic center is the city of Novosibirsk, and with a population of 2,788,849 citizens in 2018
Novosibirsk city: Novosibirsk city, the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast in Russia, located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River, and the third-most populous city in Russia (after Moscow and St. Petersburg) as well as the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,612,833 inhabitants in 2018


Krasnoyarsk Krai federal subject of Russia: Krasnoyarsk Krai, is a federal subject of Russia, with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk, the third-largest city in Siberia (after Novosibirsk and Omsk) and comprising half of the Siberian Federal District
Norilsk city in Krasnoyarsk Krai: Norilsk city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula, with a permanent population of 175,000 citizens reaching 220,000 with temporary inhabitants included
Pollution in Norilsk area: Pollution in Norilsk city, listed by Russia's Federal State Statistics Service the city as the most polluted city in Russia, as in 2017 Norilsk produced 1.798 million tons of carbon pollutants—nearly six times more than the 304.6 thousand tons that was generated by Russia's second-most polluted city, Cherepovets
April 2016 failed talks in Qatar to freeze oil production: 19 April 2016: Failed talks in Qatar to freeze oil production and to stabilize prices bring nothing but disappointment for the Russians
September 2016 world's biggest nickel producer Norilsk Nickel spillage: 12 September 2016: The world's biggest nickel producer has admitted a spillage at one of its plants was responsible for a river in the Russian Arctic turning blood-red, as Norilsk Nickel admits 'red river' responsibility for overflow into the Daldykan river at its Nadezhda plant
June 2020 fuel reservoir at power plant near Norilsk collapsed: 3 June 2020: Putin has ordered a state of emergency after 20,000 tonnes of diesel fuel spilled into a river inside the Arctic Circle, occurring when a fuel reservoir at a power plant near the city of Norilsk collapsed, and as the plant is operated by a division of Nornickel, whose factories in the area have made the city one of the most heavily polluted places on Earth
Kemerovo Oblast: Kemerovo Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian Mountains. The oblast, which covers an area of 95,500 square kilometers, shares a border with Tomsk Oblast in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Altai Republic in the south, and with Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai in the west. Kemerovo is the administrative center of the oblast, though Novokuznetsk is the largest city in terms of size. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most urbanized regions, with over 70% of the population living in its nine principal cities. Its ethnic composition is predominantly Russian, but Ukrainians, Tatars, and Chuvash also live in the oblast. The population was 2,763,135 citizena in 2010. - Geography of Kemerovo Oblast
Climate of Kemerovo: Seasons and climate of Kemerovo, showing a January-July difference to the amount of 80°C
Economy and industrialization of Kemerovo: Economy of Kemerovo, as the industrialization of Kemerovo was driven and underpinned by coal mining and by the heavy industry based on the availability of coal. It remains an important industrial city, built up during the Soviet period, with important steel, aluminum and machinery based manufacturing plants along with chemical, fertilizer, and other manufacturing industries. Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the city's industries have experienced a severe decline, creating high levels of unemployment. Major companies based in the city include Siberian Business Union.
19 March 2007 Ulyanovskaya coal mine disaster: 19 March 2007 Ulyanovskaya Mine disaster, caused by a methane explosion that occurred in the Ulyanovskaya longwall coal mine in the Kemerovo Oblast. At least 108 people were reported to have been killed by the blast, which occurred at a depth of about 270 meters at 10:19 local time. The mine disaster was Russia's deadliest in more than a decade.
24 May 2007 Yubileinaya coal mine disaster: 24 May 2007 Yubileinaya coal mine disaster in the Kemerovo Oblast area of Siberia, operated by Yuzhkuzbassugol, part owned by the Evraz Group. A methane explosion at the mine killed 38 miners and injured a further 7, one of whom subsequently died. Investigators believe that the explosion was caused by a spark from a damaged cable.
8 May 2010 Raspadskaya mine explosion: 8 May 2010 Raspadskaya mine explosion in the Raspadskaya mine, located near Mezhdurechensk in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, which occurred on 8 May 2010. It was believed to have been caused by a buildup of methane. The initial explosion was followed by a second approximately four hours later which collapsed the mine's ventilation shaft and trapped several rescue workers. By 18 May 2010, 66 people were confirmed to have died with at least 99 others injured and as many as a further 24 unaccounted for
25 November 2021 Listvyazhnaya mine disaster: 25 November 2021 Listvyazhnaya mine disaster was a mining accident that occurred in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. Smoke from a fire in a ventilation shaft caused the suffocation of more than 40 miners. A failed attempt to rescue the trapped miners killed at least five rescuers when the mine exploded. It is the deadliest mine accident in Russia since the 2010 Raspadskaya mine explosion in the same region
Kemerovom city: Kemerovom city, an industrial city and the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast located at the confluence of the Iskitim and Tom Rivers, in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin, with 532,981 inhabitants in 2010
March 2018 Kemerovo fire: 25 March 2018 Kemerovo Winter Cherry complex fire, killing at least 64 people according to official statements, after the blaze started somewhere on the top floor of the four-storey complex, and people were seen jumping from windows to escape it - 27 March 2018: Forty-one children have died in the fire at the 'Zimnyaya Vishnya' shopping mall in Kemerovo, as total number of the victims is reportedly 64 persons
27/28 March 2018 Russians have rallied in Kemerovo to demand a full probe of fire: 27 March 2018: Thousands of angry and distraught Russians have rallied in Siberian city of Kemerovo to demand a full probe into a shopping centre fire that killed at least 64 people, many of them children - 28 mars 2018: Les Russes et proches de victimes réclamaient la tête des autorités locales et exigeaient justice à Kemerovo, alors que le pays observe mercredi une journée de deuil après l'incendie meurtrier d'un centre commercial dû à des violations choquantes des règles de sécurité - 29 mars 2018: La lenteur et l'inaction des pompiers dénoncées après l'incendie du centre commercial qui a fait au moins 64 morts dimanche
April 2018 governor of Russia's Kemerovo resigns over mall fire: 1 April 2018: Governor of Russia's Kemerovo resigns over mall fire that killed more than 60 citizens after a litany of violations in safety procedures left shoppers and children trapped inside the building
Irkutsk Oblast: Irkutsk Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in southeastern Siberia in the basins of the Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers. The administrative center is the city of Irkutsk. It borders the Republic of Buryatia and the Tuva Republic in the south and southwest, which separate it from Khövsgöl Province in Mongolia, Krasnoyarsk Krai in the west, the Sakha Republic in the northeast, and Zabaykalsky Krai in the east. It had a population of 2,428,750 inhabitants in 2010.
Angara river in Siberia: Angara river in Siberia, which traces a course through Russia's Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. It drains out of Lake Baikal and is the headwater tributary of the Yenisey. It is 1,849km long and has a drainage basin of 1,039,000 square kilometres.
History of Irkutsk Oblast: History of Irkutsk Oblast
Administrative and municipal divisions of Irkutsk Oblast: Administrative and municipal divisions of Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk city: Irkutsk city, the largest city and administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast. With a population of 617,473 citizens in 2010, Irkutsk is the 25th largest city in Russia by population, the 5th largest in the Siberian Federal District, and one of the largest cities in Siberia. Located in the south of the eponymous oblast, the city proper lies on the Angara River, a tributary of the Yenisei, about 850km to the south-east of Krasnoyarsk and about 520km north of Ulaanbaatar. The Trans-Siberian Highway and Trans-Siberian Railway connect Irkutsk to other regions in Russia and Mongolia.
History of Irkutsk city since 19th century: History of Irkutsk city, after in the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and they developed much of the city's cultural heritage. They had wooden houses built that were adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations. Many still survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them. By the end of the 19th century, the population consisted of one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. As a result, Irkutsk became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia.
23 October 2022 Putin regime kills Russians on its home front: 23 October 2022: Two pilots have been killed when a Russian fighter jet Su-30 - a key component of the Russian regime's air force widely deployed in its war in Syria and invasion of Ukraine - crashed into a two-story residential building in the city of Irkutsk in southern Siberia, home to the aircraft factory producing the Su-30 fighters. The crash occurred less than a week after a Sukhoi Su-34 jet crashed into a multistory residential building in the Russian town of Yeysk, killing 15 people.


Far Eastern Federal District: Far Eastern Federal District, the largest of the eight federal districts of Russia but the least populated, with a population of 8,371,257 inhabitants in 2010, located within the easternmost part of Asia and covering the territory of the Russian Far East, with its administrative center Vladivostok
Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast, a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China, as its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan
History of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: History of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, established in May 1934 - Administrative and municipal divisions of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Birobidzhan city: Birobidzhan city, the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, located on the Trans-Siberian Railway near the China-Russia border, with a population of 75,413 citizens in 2010 and its official language Yiddish, as Birobidzhan is named after the two largest rivers in the autonomous oblast, the Bira and the Bidzhan, both tributaries of the Amur
Khabarovsk Krai federal subject: Khabarovsk Krai federal subject of Russia, located in the Far East region and part of the Far Eastern Federal District, as the administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the largest city in the Russian Far East and the fourth-largest federal subject by area with a population of 1,343,869 citizens 2010
Khabarovsk city: Khabarovsk city, the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai located 30 kilometers from the Chinese border at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers north of Vladivostok, also the largest city in the Russian Far East having overtaken Vladivostok in 2015 - Geography and climate of Khabarovsk
Economy and infrastructure of Khabarovsk: Economy and infrastructure of Khabarovsk, as primary industries include iron processing, steel milling, Khabarovsk shipyard, machinery, petroleum refining, flour milling, pharmaceutical industry, meat packing and manufacturing of various types of heavy and light machinery
Since 8th century timeline of Khabarovsk: History and timeline of Khabarovsk, founded in the 8th century
Since 1999 Khabarovsk Bridge crossing the Amur River: Since 1999 Khabarovsk Bridge, a road and rail bridge crossing the Amur River in eastern Russia, and connecting the urban-type settlement of Imeni Telmana in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with the city of Khabarovsk in Khabarovsk Krai, after since 1916 an older bridge existed nearby
Since 11 July 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests in support of arrested governor Sergei Furgal: Since 11 July 2020 protests in Khabarovsk Krai in support of the current governor, Sergei Furgal, after his arrest, as protests in support of Furgal also took place in other cities including Novosibirsk, Vladivostok and Omsk - Opposition to Vladimir Putin in Russia
18 July 2020 thousands in Khabarovsk protest against arrest of governor Sergei Furgal: 18 July 2020: Tens of thousands of people in the Russian city of Khabarovsk have turned out for a protest over the arrest of the region’s governor Liberal Democratic party's Sergei Furgal, elected governor in 2018 with unexpected victory
19 July 2020: 50,000 people took to the streets on Saturday in Khabarovsk: 19 July 2020: 50,000 people took to the streets on Saturday in Khabarovsk, a city 6,100 miles east of Moscow, to demand the return of Sergei Furgal, a former scrap metals trader, as Putin regime is poised to replace a governor from Russia’s far east charged with crimes, potentially kindling a fresh round of public anger that has already ignited the largest protests in the region’s history
25 July 2020 protest: 25 juillet 2020: D’importantes manifestations contre le gouvernement russe se sont de nouveau déroulées samedi dans la région russe de Khabarovsk, en Extrême-Orient, après l’arrestation d’un gouverneur populaire et son remplacement cette semaine par un homme nommé par le régime de Poutine et qui n’a jamais vécu dans cette région
29 July 2020 Putin’s trust rating falls to new low amid far east protests: 29 July 2020: Putin’s trust rating falls to new low amid far east protests, as nearly half of Russians support anti-Kremlin protests in far east, according to poll
1/2 August 2020 Khabarovsk saw a fourth consecutive massive rally Saturday: 1/2 August 2020: Russian far east protesters turn out by the thousands as crackdown intensifies, and as despite multiple arrests of protesters this week, Khabarovsk saw a fourth consecutive massive rally Saturday
Primorsky Krai: Primorsky Krai shares Russia's only border with North Korea, along the Tumen River in Khasansky District in the southwestern corner of the krai, a federal subject located in the Far East region of the country and a part of the Far Eastern Federal District, as the city of Vladivostok is the administrative center of the krai, as well as the largest city in the Russian Far East, and as the krai has the largest economy among the federal subjects in the Russian Far East, with a population of 1,956,497 citizens in 2010 - Administrative divisions of Primorsky Krai
Economy of Primorsky Krai: Economy of Primorsky Krai, the most balanced in the Russian Far East and also the largest in absolute terms, as food production is the most important sector, represented mainly by fish processing, followed by the machine building, where half of the output is geared toward the fishing industry and shipyards, as defense or military is another important sector, producing naval vessels and military aircraft, and as the construction materials industry including timber industry here provides for the whole Russian Far East
Vladivostok city: Vladivostok city, the administrative centre of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea, and with a population of 604,901 inhabitants in 2018
Economy and ports of Vladivostock: Economy of Vladivostock, main industries include shipping, commercial fishing, and the naval base, as fishing accounts for almost four-fifths of Vladivostok's commercial production - Port of Vladivostock, ice-free all year round with the help of ice breakers - Free port of Vladivostok, a port zone under a special custom and taxation system, with a particular jurisdiction regarding investments
Timeline of Vladivostok: Timeline of Vladivostok
Sakha republic: Sakha officially known as the Republic of Sakha, a federal Russian republic, with a population of 958,528 citizens at the 2010 Census, mainly ethnic Sakha and Russians, as the republic - comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District - is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers with its capital city of Yakutsk
Yakutsk city: Yakutsk city, the capital of the Sakha Republic located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle, with a population of an estimated 311,760 citizens in 2018
Demographics of Yakuts: Demographics of Yakuts, as ethnic composition in 2010 includes Yakuts (50.6%), Russians (38.4%), Ukrainians (1.4%) and others
History and timeline of Yakuts city and Yakuts people: History and timeline of Yakuts city and Yakuts people, also known as the Sakha people, migrating to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia and mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area, before the Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632
18 December 2020 amid covid-19 pandemic Yakutsk is preparing the new year: 18 December 2020: Amid covid-19 pandemic Yakutsk is preparing the new year, as seasonal temperature differences found in the region are the greatest in the world with the city having the coldest winter temperatures of any major city, with an average monthly temperature in January of -38.6C


Demographics and ethnic groups in Russia:Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
Lists of indigenous peoples of Russia: List of larger indigenous peoples of Russia - Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East
Udmurt people: Udmurt people, 552,299 citizens in Russia in 2010
Indigenous peoples of Siberia: Indigenous peoples of Siberia - as the demographics of Siberia today is dominated by native speakers of Russian, there remain a considerable number of indigenous groups, between them accounting for below 10% of total Siberian population, about 4,500,000, which are also related to indigenous peoples of the Americas
History of ethnic groups in Russia: History of ethnic groups in Russia
Territorial evolution of Russia, Russification and Russians: Russification, a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one - Territorial evolution of Russia - Russians - Citizenship of Russia
Ethnic minorities and diasporas in Russia: Armenians in Russia - Azerbaijanis in Russia - Belarusians in Russia - Georgians in Russia - History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union - Germans from Russia - Indians in Russia - Kazakhs in Russia - Kurds in Russia - Kyrgyz Russian - Polish minority in Russia - Siberian Yupik people - Sirenik Eskimos - Tatars - Ukrainians in Russia - Vietnamese people in Russia
Afro-Russian: Afro-Russian are people of African descent, as the Metis Foundation estimates that there are about 50,000 Afro-Russians
Chinese people in Russia: Ethnic Chinese in Russia, estimated 200,000–400,000 people as of 2004
Indigenous peoples of Russia: List of larger indigenous peoples of Russia - Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East
Udmurt people: Udmurt people, 552,299 citizens in Russia in 2010
Indigenous peoples of Siberia: Indigenous peoples of Siberia, about 4,500,000 people today
History of the Jews in Russia: History of the Jews in Russia, Jewish people have been present in contemporary Armenia and Georgia since the Babylonian captivity and the presence of Jewish people in the territories corresponding to modern Belarus, Ukraine, and the European part of Russia can be traced back to the 7th-14th centuries CE - Yiddish culture in Russia
Jews and Judaism in Russia: Jews and Judaism in Russia - Jewish communities in Russia
Since 1996 Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia: Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia since 1996
February 2019 Jewish community in Rostov-on-Don wants to add their names to the city’s memorial, but the Russian authorities don't agree: 12 February 2019: After years of painstaking research to discover the identities of the dead in the August 1942 German-led slaughter, the Jewish community in Rostov-on-Don wants to add their names to the city’s memorial, but the Russian authorities don't agree
24 July 2020 Holocaust survivor Irina Shur found stabbed to death in her Moscow apartment: 24 July 2020: The body of Irina Shur, a former professor at the Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography and a Holocaust survivor, was found at her apartment late last week, TASS reported Wednesday, after she had been stabbed multiple times and had been dead for at least 24 hours
Romani people in Russia: Romani in Russia - Ruska Roma, the largest subgroup of Romani people in Russia and Belarus
June 2019: 19 June 2019: Hundreds of Roma people have been forcibly evicted from a village in western Russia, the head of the village council has admitted, after one ethnic Russian was killed and another left in a coma
Immigration to Russia and emigration: Immigration to Russia - Emigration in recent years, 171,872 Russian citizens left the country in 2014
November 2015 Russia deports Tajik mother after five-month-old baby's death in police custody: 17 November 2015: Russia deports Tajik mother after five-month-old baby's death in police custody, saying she was hastily deported to prevent a proper investigation into her son’s death


Culture in Russia: Culture in Russia - History of Russian culture
Yiddish culture in Russia: Yiddish culture in Russia
Languages in Russia: Languages in Russia - Official languages - List of languages in Russia
Russian language - History of the Russian language
Literature in Russia: Literature in Russia
History of literature in Russia: History of literature in Russia
Theatre in Russia: Theatre in Russia - Theatres in Russia
November 2018 Serebrennikov case: 15 November 2018: Russian stage and screen director Kirill Serebrennikov faces a tortuous, months-long criminal trial seen as a bellwether for artistic freedom in the country, charged with embezzlement
Women in Russia: Women in Russia
Russian women and World War I and women in the Russian Revolution 1917: Russian women and World War I and women in the Russian Revolution 1917 - 'Zhenotdel' was the department of the Russian Communist party, devoted to women's affairs in the 1920s and improving the conditions of women's lives throughout the Soviet Union, fighting illiteracy, and educating women about the new marriage, education, and working laws
Soviet women in World War II: Soviet women in World War II, most toiled in industry, transport, agriculture and other civilian roles, working double shifts to free up enlisted men to fight and increase military production, a sizable number of women served in the army, the majority were in medical units
Women in Russia since 1991, women's organizations and women's rights in Russia: Women in Russia since 1991 - women often face discrimination in the labour market, and the law itself lists 456 occupations and 38 branches of industry that are forbidden to women, despite this, many Russian women have achieved success in business - Women's organizations - Russian grassroots women’s organizations
22 February 2024 Alexei Navalny’s mother shown body blackmailed by authorities, after Navalny died in penal colony: 22 February 2024: Alexei Navalny’s mother shown body, blackmailed by Putin's regime, after Alexei Navalny died in penal colony - 22 February 2024: Joe Biden met with Alexei Navalny’s widow Yulia Navalnaya and his daughter Dasha Navalnaya in California, after the main opposition leader to the Russian Putin regime died in an Arctic penal colony last Friday after being imprisoned by the regime
24 February 2024 Alexei Navalny’s body given to mother by Putin regime's authorities: 24 February 2024: The body of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has been handed over to his mother nine days after he died in an Arctic prison, his spokesperson announced on Saturday. In a post on X, Kira Yarmysh thanked 'all those who had demanded' the return of his body, but added that she did not know if the authorities would allow a public funeral to be held.
Gender pay gap in Russia: Gender pay gap in Russia
Domestic violence in Russia: Domestic violence in Russia
2017: 25 January 2017: Russian MPs back bill reducing punishment for domestic violence, despite protests from rights groups - 7 February 2017: Putin has signed into law a controversial amendment that decriminalises domestic violence in Russia, where it is estimated domestic abuse kills a woman every 40 minutes
Women's rights in Russia: Women's rights in Russia
2013: 8 March 2013: Rights workers in Russia use International Women's Day to urge action against nation's domestic abuse
2016: 6 October 2016: The women risking everything to report from Russian regime's frontlines
Children and youth in Russia: Childhood in Russia - Youth in Russia
1928-1942 Volodia Dubinin, known for the defense of the Adzhimushkay quarry: 1928-1942 Volodia Dubinin, one of the group of Soviet partisans who went to live underground in an abandoned quarry near Kerch to resist German invasion during World War II, later known for the defense of the Adzhimushkay quarry for his knowledge of the area, but during demining an exploding treacherous land mine left by the Germans, Volodia lost his life on 4 January 1942
1925-1942 Sasha Filippov supported the Red Army during the Battle of Stalingrad: 1925-1942 Sasha Filippov, who had become a spy for the Red Army during the Battle of Stalingrad, providing exact firing coordinates after the German assault on Stalingrad resulted in battalions overrunning suburbs of the city, and many Russian families were caught unaware and found themselves unable to flee in time - 23/24 December 1942 murder of Sasha Filippov, when he and two others were hanged in view of neighbors and his parents, while Sasha's mother remained alone with the bodies of her son and two other youngsters' after the soldiers had marched off
2005 'Children of Leningradsky': 2005 'Children of Leningradsky', a 2005 Polish short documentary film about a community of homeless children living in the Leningradsky railway station in Moscow
January 2016 Vlad Kolesnikov's suicide, humiliated over T-shirt against war in Ukraine: 14 January 2016: Russian teenager Vlad Kolesnikov was humiliated and bullied after wearing a protest T-shirt against war in Ukraine to school in the Moscow suburb of Podolsk in June, saying before his suicide in December that his life had become unbearable
Orphans in Russia: Orphans in Russia
Education in Russia: Education in Russia - Education in Russia by federal subject - Education in Russia by city or town
Schools in Russia: Schools in Russia
July 2019 teacher visas denied to Anglo-American school in Moscow: 17 July 2019: Russian Putin regime has denied visas to teachers of the Anglo-American school in Moscow, in a move that will 'affect over 1,100 students and their families, who represent over 60 countries, including Russia', as the day school is popular among the children of western diplomats and businessmen, after Putin said on 28 June that 'the liberal idea has become obsolete, praising the rise of nationalist-populist and neo-Nazi linked movements in Europe, also saying the Salisbury poisonings and murder are not worth ‘all this fuss’, that the story is not worth 5 kopecks, and that liberals can no longer 'dictate’ to anyone
November 2019 student killed and wounded other students: 14 November 2019: A student killed a fellow student and wounded three more in a shooting Thursday at a college in Russia's Blagoveshchensk near the border with China before taking his own life
26 September 2022 Swastika-wearing ex-pupil kills 15 in Russian school shooting in Izhevsk: 26 September 2022 Izhevsk school shooting - 26 September 2022: A gunman with a swastika on his teeshirt killed 15 people, including 11 children, and wounded 24 at a school in Russia on Monday before committing suicide. The attacker who was named by authorities as Artem Kazantsev, killed two security guards and then opened fire on students and teachers at School Number 88 in Izhevsk, where he had once been a pupil.
Universities and colleges in Russia: Universities and colleges in Russia
Science and technology in Russia: Science and technology in Russia
Libraries and archives in Russia: Libraries in Russia - Archives in Russia
Museums in Russia: Museums in Russia - History museums in Russia
Monuments and memorials in Russia: Monuments and memorials in Russia - Russian cultural heritage register
2016 Putin regime's plan to erect a statue to 'Ivan the Terrible': 20 July 2016: After in in almost 500 years no one (no tsar, no emperor, no general secretary, no president) has erected a statue to 'Ivan the Terrible', officials' plan to erect a statue of the bloodthirsty tsar near a children’s theatre has drawn outrage from locals in Oryol
Health in Russia: Health in Russia
Medical outbreaks, health disasters and crimes in Russia: Health disasters in Russia - Medical outbreaks in Russia - Man-made disasters in Russia
Since 17th century documented famines in Russia: Since 17th century documented famines in Russia - Russian famine of 1601–03
May 1896 Khodynka stampede in Moscow during the the coronation of tsar Nicholas II: 30 May 1896 'Khodynka Tragedy', a human stampede that occurred on Khodynka Field in Moscow during the festivities after the coronation of tsar Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia, which resulted in the deaths of 1,389 people
Nuclear power accidents and waste in Russia: Nuclear power accidents in the Russian Federation - Nuclear waste in Russia - Pollution of Lake Karachay in the southern Ural Mountains, a dumping ground for nuclear weapon facilities
Soviet/Russian nuclear, biological and chemical weapons programs: Russia and weapons of mass destruction - Nuclear weapons programme of Russia - Soviet/Russian biological weapons program - Soviet/Russian chemical weapons program
1971 Aral smallpox outbreak: July 1971 Aral smallpox outbreak of the viral disease which occurred as a result of a field test at a biological weapons facility on an island in the Aral Sea
Since 1979 and 1992 Sverdlovsk anthrax leak: Since 1979 and 1992 Sverdlovsk anthrax leak, aftermath and ongoing classified activities
Since 1980s HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia: Since 1987 (first documented case) HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia, the total number of individuals with HIV estimated in 2016 to be between 0.85 and 1.5 million (the lower estimate is from the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation), as prevalence of HIV in adult people is between 0.8 and 1%, and as according to the UN, Russia has one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world
2016 Irkutsk mass methanol poisoning: December 2016 Irkutsk mass methanol poisoning - 21 December 2016: At least 60 people died in Irkutsk after being poisoned with non-edible alcohol containing bath product 'Boyaryshnik' - 23 December: The number of persons who died after getting poisoned with surrogate alcohol in Irkutsk has reached 74, with the total number of injured reaching 122
June/July 2018 'Novichok poisonings' of British and Russian nationals in Amesbury/Salisbury: 30 June 2018 Amesbury poisonings of two British nationals, who were hospitalised in a critical condition and were poisoned by Novichok nerve agent of the same kind used in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in the city of Salisbury, 7 miles away - 6 July 2018: UK's police have warned more people could come into contact with deadly nerve agent after a second couple were poisoned with Novichok
Since January 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Russia: Since January 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Russia - Travel and entry restrictions, event cancellations and other preventive measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in Russia
19 March 2020 Russia confirmed coronavirus-related death: 19 March 2020: Russia has confirmed coronavirus-related death, after a female professor at the Gubkin Oil and Gas University with pre-existing health conditions died in an infectious diseases hospital, and as Russia has registered 147 cases of coronavirus so far, a figure that has risen sharply in recent days
28 March 2020 Moscow's non-working week amid Chinese coronavirus pandemic and Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign: 28 March 2020: Moscow mayor Sobyanin urged Muscovites to stay at home during the non-working week amid the spread of the coronavirus, as authorities said they had recorded 1,264 coronavirus cases, a rise of 228, the largest daily increase since the start of the outbreak - Since September 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign
6 April 2020 Russia confirmed 954 new coronavirus infections: 6 April 2020: Russia confirmed 954 new coronavirus infections on Monday, bringing the official number of cases to 6,343 and marking a new record one-day increase in infections
7 April 2020 covid-19 cases rose by more than 1,000 as deaths rose to 58: 7 April 2020: The number of coronavirus cases in Russia rose by more than 1,000 for the first time to reach 7,497 in the past 24 hours, the country’s crisis response centre said, while deaths rose by 11 to 58
10 April 2020 Russia reported 1,786 more covid-19 cases: 10 April 2020: Russia reported 1,786 more covid-19 cases on Friday, its largest daily rise so far, which took the national tally of confirmed infections to 11,917,as number of coronavirus-related deaths rose by 18 to 94
12 April 2020 covid-19 spreads in Russia: 12 April 2020: Moscow hospitals see 'huge influx' of patients as covid-19 spreads in Russia and death toll rose to 106 and many regions have been in lockdown for nearly two weeks to stem the contagion
14 April 2020 regime warns Russia 'faces' extraordinary crisis: 14 April 2020: Regime's Putin warns Russia faces 'extraordinary' crisis, as country reports highest daily number of 2,558 new cases on Monday, as officials tighten lockdown restrictions in Moscow, as overall nationwide tally stood at 18,328 and the death toll was 148, and as Putin added that his regime would also bring in the defence ministry to intervene if necessary, proven experienced
17 April 2020 Russia reports record 4,000 new covid-19 cases: 17 April 2020: Russia reports record 4,000 new covid-19 cases, as war criminal Putin postpones WWII parade, as worldwide cases stand at over 2.1 million, and as Syrian people suffer in the tenth year of Assad's, Putin's and Khameini's brutal war
19 April 2020 Russia reports record rise of 6,060 new covid-19 cases: 19 April 2020: Russia on Sunday reported a record rise of 6,060 new covid-19 cases over the previous 24 hours, bringing its nationwide tally to 42,853
28 April 2020 with 6,411 new cases total covid-19 number in Russia climbed to 93,558: 28 April 2020: The number of new covid-19 cases in Russia climbed on Tuesday to 6,411, a record daily rise, bringing its nationwide tally to 93,558, as the number of deaths rose by 72
2 May 2020 Russia reported 9,623 new covid-19 cases on Saturday: 2 May 2020: Russia reported 9,623 new covid-19 cases on Saturday, its highest daily rise since the start of the pandemic, bringing the total to 124,054, mostly in the capital Moscow
30 May 2020 Russia accounts for 6.6% of covid-19 cases as known global infections exceed 5.7m and as crisis at wide-ranging levels spreads: 30 May 2020: Russia accounts for 6.6% of worldwide covid-19 cases, also reporting 8,952 new daily cases, as the UK accounts for 4.7%, Spain for 4.1%, Italy for 4%, and as Iran sees highest tally of new infections since early April
18 October 2020 Russia shuns tough restrictions even as infections soar: 18 October 2020: Russia shuns tough restrictions even as infections soar, as the outbreak in Russia this month is breaking the records set in the spring, when a lockdown to slow the spread of the virus was put in place
13 October 2021 Russia’s natural population has undergone its largest peacetime decline: 13 October 2021: Russia’s natural population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in recorded history over the last 12 months as the natural population, a number calculated from registered deaths and births, excluding the impact of migration, declined by 997,000 between October 2020 and September 2021, according to an analysis of official government statistics made by the independent demographer Alexei Raksha
14 October 2021 global covid-19 data include 239,964,416 cases, 474,139 new cases and 4,889,703 total deaths: 14 October 2021: Global covid-19 data include 239,964,416 cases, 474,139 new cases and 4,889,703 total deaths, according to Israel's 'Haaretz', as covid-19 main victim country USA reported 44.685.145 cases, as India reported 34.020.730 cases, as Turkey reported 7.540.193 cases, as Russia reported 7.773.388 cases, as UK reported 8.311.851 cases, according to Johns Hopkins University, as Russia registers 31,299 new cases in one day, as WHO reveals new team to investigate covid-19 origin, and as global covid-19 crisis and defense efforts continue, reported by 'The Guardian'
Major health issues in Russia: Major health issues in Russia
Alcohol consumption and abuse in Russia: Alcohol consumption in Russia stays among the highest in the world - Alcohol abuse in Russia - List of federal subjects of Russia by incidence of substance (alcohol and drug) abuse - Vodka belt in Europe and Asia
2014 Vodka and high death risk: 31 January 2014: Vodka to blame for high death risk in Russian men
Drugs in Russia: Drugs in Russia
Healthcare and hospitals in Russia: Healthcare in Russia, in 2008 621,000 doctors and 1.3 million nurses were employed in Russian healthcare, the number of doctors per 10,000 people was 43.8, but only 12.1 in rural areas - Timeline of healthcare in Russia
Russian people in health professions: Russian people in health professions - Russian physicians - Russian otolaryngologists
Since 2003 NDPHS: Since 2003 'Northern Dimension Partnership in Public Health and Social Well-being', a transnational cooperative effort of ten governments (including Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden), the European Commission and eight international organisations (excluding among others humanitarian NGO Syria Civil Defence SCD in Syria and Turkey, much more bombarded by the Putin and Assad regime)
Mai 2020 des soignants russes mystérieusement tombés des fenêtres d’hôpitaux montreraient la pression: 5 mai 2020: Des soignants russes mystérieusement tombés des fenêtres d’hôpitaux montreraient la pression subie par les soignants en Russie et 'témoignent des conditions particulièrement éprouvantes des soignants russes face au covid-19'
Hospitals in Russia: Hospitals in Russia - List of burn centers in Russia - Hospitals in Moscow - Central Clinical Hospital in Moscow since 1957
12 May 2020 fire at Russian hospital kills 5 covid-19 patients: 12 May 2020: A fire at St. George Hospital in St. Petersburg killed five covid-19 patients who were on ventilators, Russian emergency officials said
April 2013 psychiatric hospital fire: 26 April 2013: Fire swept through a decrepit psychiatric hospital in a Moscow suburb, killing 38 people and turning spotlight on Russia's terrible safety record - 13 September 2013: A pre-dawn fire has swept through a Russian psychiatric hospital in Novgorod, killing 37 people, following warnings that the mostly wooden building was unsafe
December 2015 psychiatric hospital fire: 13 December 2015: Twenty-one people killed and a further 20 injured in the blaze which destroyed a psychiatric hospital building in Alferovka, a village in the Voronezh region
January 2016: 9 January 2016: Russian doctor at a hospital in Belgorod filmed punching patient who later died
2016 Irkutsk mass methanol poisoning: December 2016 Irkutsk mass methanol poisoning - 21 December 2016: At least 60 people died in Irkutsk after being poisoned with non-edible alcohol containing bath product 'Boyaryshnik' - 23 December: The number of persons who died after getting poisoned with surrogate alcohol in Irkutsk has reached 74, with the total number of injured reaching 122
Drugs in Russia: Drugs in Russia - Russian sportspeople in doping cases
Doping in Russia: Doping in Russia - Doping in sport
November 2015 Russian state-sponsored doping revealed: 9 November 2015: 2012 London Olympics were sabotaged by Russia’s doping and the inaction of authorities, according to an independent World Anti-Doping Agency commission's investigation headed by Dick Pound - 9 November 2015: Russia accused of ‘state-sponsored doping’ and should be banned from athletics, according to damning Wada report - 13 November 2015: IAAF has provisionally suspended the All-Russia Athletic Federation ARAF as an IAAF Member with immediate effect - 19 November 2015: The World Anti-Doping Agency has suspended Russia's national anti-doping body as the international governing body continues its crack down on Russian drug cheats
2016: 12 May 2016: Former head of Russia’s national anti-doping lab admits to cheating tests before and during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi in an astonishing state-run Russian doping programme
June 2016: 17 June 2016: There will be no track and field athletes competing under the Russian flag at the Rio Olympics 2016 after IAAF ruled they had not met readmission criteria imposed when they suspended over widespread state sponsored doping in November 2015 - 18 June 2016: The International Olympic Committee says it welcomed the IAAF's 'strong stance against doping' following athletics ruling body's extension of Russia's ban ahead of Rio Olympics
July 2016: 13 July 2016: In the Russian regime's inverted world, athlete Darya Klishina branded a 'traitor' after she agreed to compete under a neutral flag at next month’s Olympics thanking the IAAF for allowing her to compete - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 19 July 2016: Several former Olympians who now serve on the International Olympic Committee’s athletes’ commission have warned of catastrophic consequences if the organisation does not ban Russia completely from the Rio Games - 25 July 2016: The World Anti-Doping Agency is 'disappointed' its recommendation to ban Russia from next month's Olympic Games in Rio has been rejected by the International Olympic Committee, saying the IOC's decision will inevitably mean 'lesser protection for clean athletes'
August 2016: 23 August 2016: Russia banned from Paralympics due to 'inability to fulfil its responsibilities' over doping after losing appeal against doping exclusion, the court of arbitration for sport has announced
December 2016: 9 December 2016: Over 1000 Russian athletes from over 30 disciplines were involved in state-sponsored doping programme in 2011-2015, including London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games winners and medalists, and that also helped forging fake doping probes results by involving special services, World Anti-Doping Agency's report on Russian doping row says - 14 December 2016: Russia deprived of bobsleigh 2017 World Championship in Sochi - 24 December 2016: Following Sochi's loss last week of the right to host February's bobsleigh and skeleton world championships, Biathlon and speed skating events February/March 2017 taken away from Russia over doping scandal - 27 December 2016: Russian officials admit for the first time to a state-backed campaign of doping that involved hundreds of the country’s athletes, as the acting director of Russia’s national anti-doping agency Anna Antseliovich and others in a serie of interviews detail that 'it was an institutional conspiracy' concerning the entire Olympic movement
December 2017: 5 December 2017: Russia banned from Winter Olympics 2018 in Pyeongchang over state-sponsored doping and ordered to pay $15m in costs after making what the International Olympic Committee called an 'unprecedented attack on the integrity of the Olympic Games and sport'
February 2018: 12 février 2018: Grigory Rodchenkov, qui a dévoilé le scandale du dopage institutionnalisé en Russie est apparu grimé pour sa première interview depuis l'affaire, diffusée dimanche sur CBS, expliquant toujours craindre pour sa vie, sûr que le régime de Poutine veut le faire taire pour de bon - 25 February 2018: Russians banned from flying flag at Olympic Winter Games closing ceremony after fresh doping violations
November 2019 Russia is again facing Olympic ban: 23 November 2019: Russia is again facing a possible Olympic ban after the Wada's Compliance Review Committee recommended that the Russian Anti-Doping Agency be ruled non-compliant
9 December 2019 Russian regime banned from all major sporting events including 2020 Olympics and 2022 World Cup: 9 December 2019: Russian regime banned and handed a four-year ban from all major sporting events by the World Anti-Doping Agency Wada to include 2020 Olympics and 2022 World Cup
Sport in Russia: Sport in Russia - Sport in Russia by sport - Sport in Russia by federal subject - Sports competitions in Russia - Ministry of Sport in Russia, responsible for the development of Sport in Russia in all spheres
Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics - 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi - 7 October 2013: Russia has installed an all-encompassing surveillance system at the site of next year's Winter Olympic Games in Sochi that will allow security services to listen in on athletes and visitors, security analysts say - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups - 23 December: Nadezhda Tolokonnikova calls for foreign countries to boycott February's Winter Olympics, hours after she was freed from jail - 23/24 December: Benjamin Netanyahu joins Barack Obama, David Cameron, Francois Hollande and others in rejecting Sochi invite - 12 February 2014: Russian environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko who campaigned against ecological damage from construction work for the Sochi Olympics is to spend three years in a prison colony
Migrant workers in Sochi: 2 February 2013: Dreams fade for unpaid Sochi migrant workers - 6 February 2013: Migrant workers abused at Sochi Winter Olympic sites - 30 October 2013: Angry construction workers are demanding to be paid as Sochi 2014 draws closer, amid accusations of massive corruption, shoddy workmanship and spiralling costs - 26 January 2014: Deported Serb workers, not paid and being detained as illegal workers, tell horror stories of Sochi Olympic construction work - 26. Januar 2014: Olympia-Bauarbeiter in Sotschi ohne offizielle Arbeitsdokumente, ohne Bezahlung und am Ende mit Gewalt ausgewiesen
Concerns and controversies at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, planned in Russia: List of 2018 FIFA World Cup controversies, discrimination and racism in Russia, its war against Ukraine and allegations of corruption
2015: 28 May 2015: Putin talks at length about soccer corruption case
May 2018: 30 May 2018: Donbas may face 'various kinds of changes' once World Cup 2018 in Russia over, according to Ukrainian General Romanenko, saying that the situation will be held back by the Putin regime until the football tournament finishes
6 June 2018: 6 June 2018: Ukrainian artist Andriy Yermolenko created a series of posters dedicated to 2018 FIFA World Cup hosted by Russia, showing the brutal and bloody nature of Russia's current regime
16 June 2018: 16 June 2018: A man driving a taxi on a crowded Moscow street on Saturday injured eight people including World Cup fans, when he ploughed into pedestrians near Red Square
21 June 2018: 21 June 2018: English football supporters have caused outrage by singing an anti-Semitic song and throwing Nazi salutes in a local pub before England's World Cup match in Volgograd, where more than a million Soviet soldiers died to stop the German assault since 1941, 77 years ago
1 July 2018: 1 July 2018: Russia’s soccer federation has been fined by FIFA for neo-Nazi banner at World Cup, as FIFA warned the Russian, Serbian and also Brazil’s federation for incidents involving its fans
4 July 2018 teenage protester detained: 4 July 2018: A Russian teenage activist was among four people detained after she staged a protest outside the World Cup stadium in St. Petersburg wearing a bloodied shirt that she said was intended to draw attention to the country's problems, Reuters reported


Media in Russia: Media in Russia - Freedom of the press in Russia - Censorship in Russia
Killed journalists in Russia: List of journalists killed in Russia
2000-2008 under Putin: Journalists killed in Russia since 2000 under Putin
2008-2011 during Medvedev presidency: 2008-2011 Journalists killed in Russia during Medvedev presidency
In July 2013 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed): 9 July 2013: 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed), CPJ says
Since 2012 journalists killed in Russia under Putin: Since 2012 Journalists killed in Russia again under Putin
2 October 2020 Russian Koza Press journalist Irina Slavina has died following persecution: 2 October 2020: Russian journalist Irina Slavina, who worked as editor-in-chief at Koza Press, has died after setting herself on fire in front of the local branch of the interior ministry in the city of Nizhny Novgorod, a day after her apartment was searched by police, as opposition activists said Slavina had been under pressure and 'over the past years security officials have subjected her to endless persecution because of her opposition [activities]'
Assassinated Russian journalists: Assassinated Russian journalists
May 2018: 29/30 May 2018: Russian journalist Arkady Babchenko, who was critical of Vladimir Putin, in particular of Russia's military intervention Ukraine and Syria, and who left Russia in 2017 after receiving death threats, collaborated with the SBU to expose Russian agents engaged in preparations for his contract killing and to assassinate 30 people in Ukraine
Newspapers and broadcasting in Russia: Newspapers in Russia - Broadcasting in Russia - Russian television networks - Television in Russia
2014: 20 January 2014: Centenary of WWI 1914-1918 largely ignored in Russia, 'The Moscow Times' says - 28 April 2014: Violating international law, Russian television shows three captured Ukrainian security guards bloodied, blindfolded, stripped of their trousers and shoes, their arms bound with packing tape in Slovyansk, where OSCE observers are also being held - 14 May 2014: 94% of Russians get news about Ukraine from Russian TV channels according to a poll conducted by the Russian Public Opinion Study Center - 20 May 2014: A total of 79.5% of respondents in all regions of Ukraine distrust the Russian media, according to a survey conducted by the Razumkov Center in April 2014 - 8 August 2014: Putin and Assad are using a lot of the same propaganda methods to conceal their crimes
Since 2014 Ukrainian crisis, Ukrainian revolution and Russian aggression in Russian media: Since 2014 Ukrainian crisis and Russian aggression in the Russian media, propagandizing and of waging an information war during its coverage of the events
2015: 28 January 2015: Students in Kiev release YouTube video for their Moscow equivalents speaking out against 'rampant Kremlin propaganda' they say fuels the conflict in eastern Ukraine - 1 March 2015: The West is ignoring some unpleasant truths about Putin - 5 October 2015: A Russian TV forecaster predicts 'excellent weather' for bombing Syria, edited with footage from a bombing raid - 25 November: Pretending to show pilots of its downed Sukhoi Su-24 jet, Russian media publishes an old video dating back to April 2015 near Kweris airbase in Aleppo
2016: 23 May 2016: French TV channel busts Russian journalists on facts distortion - 2 June 2016: According to a survey about Russians' attitude towards foreigners nearly three quarters of respondents are sure the USA are the most hostile state, Ukraine is the second with 48%, the third member of top-3 is Turkey - 27 November 2016: Ice dancers on Russian television including Tatiana Navka, the wife of Vladimir Putin’s press secretary Dmitry Peskov, performed dressed in a ragged concentration camp uniform with a yellow star to the music of the Oscar-winning film 'Life is Beautiful'
June 2018 'reckless and defamatory allegations' in Skripal and Litvinenko cases: 22 June 2018: Marina Litvinenko and Alex Goldfarb have demanded retractions from Russian RT and the state-run 'Channel One' after they made a series of 'reckless and defamatory allegations' in March and April in the aftermath of the poisonings of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, screening libellous claims that Alexander Litvinenko was murdered by his close friend Alex Goldfarb
June 2019 support for detained journalist Golunov: 10 June 2019: In a show of rare solidarity, Russia's three major newspapers put out nearly identical front pages to support detained journalist Ivan Golunov, as Kommersant, Vedomosti and RBK, among the most respected daily newspapers in Russia, published a joint editorial under the headline 'I am/We are Ivan Golunov', calling for a transparent probe into the case of the prominent investigative journalist
27 August 2021 Russia’s leading independent media have appealed to regime's Putin to halt crackdown: 27 August 2021: Russia’s leading independent media have appealed to regime's Putin and other officials to halt a crackdown on journalists under which some of the countries’ top outlets have been declared foreign agents or banned outright over the last year
15 March 2022 state Channel editor shouted during transmission ‘Stop the war. No to war’: 15 March 2022: Marina Ovsyannikova, an editor at Russia’s state Channel One television has interrupted the channel’s main news programme with an extraordinary protest against Putin’s invasion of Ukraine, bursting on to the set of the live broadcast of the nightly news on Monday evening, shouting 'stop the war. No to war'. She also held a sign saying 'don’t believe the propaganda. They’re lying to you here'.
Internet in Russia: Internet in Russia - Internet censorship in Russia - Russian Internet blacklist
2014 Putin regime blocks opposition news websites: 14 March 2014: Putin regime blocks three major opposition news websites as well as the popular blog of Alexei Navalny amid the regime's standoff with the West over Ukraine - 18 April 2014: Russia plans student web surveillance in new anti-terror law calling for continuous monitoring of Internet use in schools and universities - 24 April 2014: Putin calls internet a 'CIA project' and warns Russians against making Google searches - 25 April 2014: Petition to designate Russia as 'State Sponsor of Terrorism' available on White House website
2015: 24 June 2015: The secretive Russian agency that hires people to write pro-Kremlin propaganda on the web stepped into the public spotlight for the first time on Tuesday as former employee Savchuk took it to court for underpayment and labour violations and defending Nazarova made an offer but quickly left the court without speaking to the press - 18 August 2015: Agency, that hired people to write pro-Kremlin propaganda, and sued by ex-employee Lyudmila Savchuk to 'bring the internet trolls out of the shade’, ordered by a Russian court to pay symbolic damages
December 2016 Russian blogger Kungurov convicted: 20 December 2016: Russian blogger Alexei Kungurov convicted to two years in a penal colony for a LiveJournal post criticising Russia's military operation in Syria
2017: 4 August 2017: Critics have accused Russian Putin regime of attempting to neuter the internet as a political threat after the authorities launched a crackdown on virtual private networks VPNs
February 2018 Russian threats against YouTube and Instagram: 13 February 2018: Russian regime has threatened to block access to YouTube and Instagram if the websites do not remove videos and photos of a Kremlin-linked oligarch’s meeting between Oleg Deripaska, an aluminium and mining tycoon, and Sergei Prikhodko, a Russian deputy prime minister, that was the subject of a recent investigation by Alexei Navalny, barred from challenging Putin in next month’s presidential election and using social media
April 2018: 16 avril 2018: Régime russe bloque la messagerie Telegram car elle a refusé de donner accès aux aux messages cryptés de ses utilisateurs
November 2019 Putin regime censoring the internet: 7 November 2019: Study details how Russian Putin regime succeeds in censoring the internet
18 March 2021 new Russian regime's measures against social media: 18 March 2021: Russian regime has told Twitter to delete the account of an opposition news outlet following threats to block the social network entirely if it did not remove 'banned content' within a month, part of a wider crackdown on social media and the opposition after protests supporting the jailed regime critic Alexei Navalny, which were organised via online platforms
Since 1991 Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Since 1991 Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Cyberwarfare by Russia: Cyberwarfare by Russia
Russian hacker groups: 22 June 2017: The World’s most dangerous hacker groups include 'Fancy Bear', which comes out of the GRU, Russia’s military intelligence agency, 'Cozy Bear', which represents the FSB, Russian antivirus firm Kaspersky and Sandworm group, believed to be associated with the Russians
Since 2004 GRU's 'Fancy Bear' cyber espionage group: Since 2004 'Fancy Bear' cyber espionage group. Cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike has said with a medium level of confidence that it is associated with the Russian military intelligence agency GRU - Cyber attacks by 'Fancy Bear'
Since 2008 FSB's 'Cozy Bear' and attacks: Since 2008 'Cozy Bear', a Russian hacker group believed to be associated with Russian intelligence, as the Dutch AIVD deduced from security camera footage that it is led by the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service - Cyber attacks by 'Cozy Bear'
Russian web brigades or troll farms: Russian web brigades or troll farms are state-sponsored anonymous Internet political commentators and trolls linked to the Russian government, organized into teams and groups of commentators that participate in Russian and international political blogs and Internet forums using sockpuppets and large-scale orchestrated trolling and disinformation campaigns to promote pro-Putin and pro-Russian propaganda - Internet Research Agency, known in Russian Internet slang as the Trolls from Olgino, a Russian company based in Saint Petersburg, engaged in online influence operations on behalf of Russian business and regime's political interests
February 2020 effects of 'Putinism' are flashing back amid waves of false alarms for months: 10 février 2020: Depuis plus de deux mois, la capitale russe subit les assauts d'une vague de fausses alertes à la bombe qui perturbent administrations, écoles et entreprises, atteignant parfois mille alertes quotidiennes, sous le regard impuissant d'autorités largement silencieuses
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
September 2018: 13 September 2018: Russian social network hosts 'Miss Hitler' beauty pageant
Cinema of Russia: Cinema of Russia - Russian films by genre - List of Russian films by period and year
December 2018: 8 December 2018: Financed by Russia’s Ministry of Culture and screened last month at the Russian Documentary Film Festival in New York, Russian WWII film comprised almost entirely of German propaganda footage shows war through sympathetic German lens
Pressure on independent media and control: Pressure on independent media
2013: 10 December 2013: Putin dissolves Russian state news agency, tightens grip on media
2014: 14 janvier 2014: Le journaliste américain David Satter a affirmé qu'il avait été expulsé de Russie après avoir travaillé sur les manifestations pro-européennes en cours en Ukraine depuis novembre - 14 January: Russia has barred US journalist David Satter who is critical of Putin for five years - 14 March 2014: Putin regime censors media by blocking websites, adding Alexei Navalny blog and opposition news sites to banned list amid ongoing Ukraine crisis - 15 March 2014: Russian propaganda war in full swing over Ukraine, alleging Ukraine government is run by anti-Semitic fascists - 17 March 2014: Putin regime's TV says Russia could turn USA to 'radioactive ash' - 22 April 2014: 'Russian Facebook' founder Durov flees country after selling his share in the company under pressure from the security services - 27 September 2014: Curbs on foreign ownership will gut Russia's media after Russian parliament passed a law calling foreign ownership in domestic media assets at 20% and hitting some of the world's largest media companies
2016: 1 February 2016: Russian magazine 'New Times' cyber-attacked and fined after article on Putin's daughter, as Russian publications have recently begun to draw back the veil of secrecy, finding that Putin's daughters and their associates have enjoyed speedy success in politics and business along with other children of the regime - 17 February 2016: Ukrainian Afanasyev, Crimean photographer and member of the resistance movement against the Russian occupation of Crimea, who testified in the Russian trial of filmmaker Oleh Sentsov and later recanted his testimony has been transferred to a harsh punishment cell and is being denied medical care despite worsening health
2017: 23 October 2017: ‘Nobody defends us’, Russian journalists say decrying climate of hatred after Tatyana Felgenhauer was stabbed in neck at Ekho Moskvy radio station
2018: 16 avril 2018: Régime russe bloque la messagerie Telegram car elle a refusé de donner accès aux aux messages cryptés de ses utilisateurs
April 2019: 15 April 2019: Russian authorities blocked a regional news website over the weekend over a report about graffiti insulting Vladimir Putin, according to its chief editor, under a new ban on insulting officials online, as critics say the measure is a form of direct state censorship
10/11 August 2019: 11 August 2019: Russian regime, after peaceful protests, tells Google not to advertise 'illegal' events on its YouTube video platform
November 2019 Russian internet giant grants veto powers to regime-linked body: 18 November 2019: Yandex, the Russian search giant, has agreed to a corporate restructuring that will grant a veto over key company decisions, such as those covering the security of personal data and intellectual property, to Putin regime-linked body
December 2019 Putin's law to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents': 3 December 2019: Russia's Putin has signed a law that will allow regime to declare journalists and bloggers as 'foreign agents' in a move critics say will allow the Kremlin to target government critics
24 April 2020 journalists at Vedomosti rebel against editor accused of censorship: 24 April 2020: Journalists at the Russian business newspaper Vedomosti have rebelled against their new management after the paper’s editor was accused of banning criticism of constitutional amendments backed by Vladimir Putin and the use of data from an independent pollster
8 October 2021 Russia's Putin regime labels investigative news outlet Bellingcat a ‘foreign agent’: 8 October 2021: Russia's Putin regime labels investigative news outlet Bellingcat a ‘foreign agent’ along with nine people who work for Russian language news outlets or non-governmental organisations, as the designations are the latest in a crackdown on media outlets authorities in Moscow see as hostile
28 December 2021 Russia’s Supreme Court ruled that 'Memorial' should be shut down: 28 December 2021: Russia’s Supreme Court has ruled that 'Memorial', the country’s best-known human rights group, should be shut down, marking the latest step in a sweeping crackdown on rights activists, independent media and opposition supporters, as last month, prosecutors accused the Moscow-based Memorial Human Rights Centre and its parent structure, Memorial International, of violating Russia’s 'foreign agent' law, asking the court to dissolve them, 'Al Jazeera' reports
29 December 2021 Russian court orders closure of another human rights group 'Memorial Human Rights Centre': 29 December 2021: Russian court orders closure of another human rights group, as 'Memorial Human Rights Centre' liquidated a day after its sister group 'Memorial' in assault on civil liberties
Media opposition in Russia:
February 2014 state-owned or state-controlled companies owned over 60% of registered newspapers and periodicals: 27 February 2014: As Russian regime or state-owned or state-controlled companies in 2013 directly owned more than 60% of the country’s 45,000 registered local newspapers and periodicals, completely or partially owned approximately 66% of the 2,500 television stations, including all six national channels, independent news outlets running stories critical of the government often faced retaliation for such coverage
March/April 2014 RT protest at the deployment of Russia-backed forces in Ukraine: 6 March 2014: Moscow-funded RT television network presenter resigns live on air in protest at the deployment of Russia-backed forces in Ukraine, after another RT journalist criticized Russian military on her show - 14 April 2014: After Russian regime has removed the longtime editor of popular Russian Internet news site Lenta.ru and taken the independent TV channel off air, about 5,000 Russians rallied in Moscow to protest at what they say is a government crackdown on independent media intended to stifle debate about the crisis in Ukraine
2015 West is ignoring some unpleasant truths about Putin: 1 March 2015: The West is ignoring some unpleasant truths about Putin - 9 June 2015: Fifth birthday celebration for TV Rain, the small Russian television station that over the past five years has provided a small oasis of independent news and analysis - 2 December 2015: International and European Federations of Journalists EFJ and IFJ join their affiliate Russian Union of Journalists RUJ and condemn 'Foreign Agent' labelling of leading Russian Media Freedom group
May 2018 MH17 victims families' open letter to the Russian people: 22 May 2018: In an open letter to the Russian people families of the victims in downing of MH17 hold the Russian regime as ultimately responsible for the deaths of their family members, expressing confidence in the thoroughness and impartiality of the work conducted by the Joint Investigation Team, and condemning reports on MH17 coming out of the Russian regime and state media, asking 'do Russian people really want to live in a country where the truth has ceased to exist'


Politics, repression, elections, social movements and protests in Russia: Political repression in Russia - Protests in Russia
March 1917: On 8 March 1917, Putilov protesters were joined in uprising by those celebrating International Woman's Day and protesting against the government's implemented food rationing, both men and women flooded the streets of Petrograd, demanding an end to Russian food shortages, the end of World War I and the end of autocracy - 8–16 March 1917 Russian Revolution, called February Revolution - Since 15 March 1917 Russian Provisional Government following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire
8 March 2017: International Women’s Day demonstration in Petrograd on 8 March 1917 gave way to strikes that led to the overthrow of the tsar
Since March 2010: Since March 2010: Russian campaign 'Putin must go' - Strategy-31 defending freedom of assembly in Russia
September 2011: Campagnes électorales à la ... - 24 September: Russia's Putin set to return as president in 2012 - 26 septembre 2011: Ministre de finances Koudrine démissionne à la demande de Medvedev
Legislative election December 2011 and protests: Russian legislative election 4 December 2011 - 4 December: Russians voting in parliamentary poll amid allegations of violations of election law - 'Golos' leader Liliya Shibanova was held for several hours, her laptop confiscated - 5 December: Putin party suffers setback - reports of mass fraud and more than hundred detained pro democracy protesters - 5 December: 'United Russia', Putins tea party movement, wins election but ... - 5 December: Russia elections - OSCE sees 'numerous violations - 6 December: Activists detained after protests over results of criticised election - 6 December: Protesters defy rally ban in Moscow - 8 December: Gorbachev calls on Russia to annul vote - 8 December: Putin accuses foreign countries, the USA over poll protests - in Prague Medvedev says investigation of election results possible - 10 December: Moscow braces for fresh protests amid anger over disputed polls - 11 December: Tens of thousands demonstrate against alleged vote fraud and demand end to Putin's rule in largest rallies in years across Russia - 11 December: Medvedev orders probe into poll allegations - 13. Dezember: Kündigungen in russischen Medien nach Wahlberichterstattung - Journalisten-Union verurteilt Zensur - 25 December: Tens of thousands rally in growing protest against electoral fraud as Kremlin panel says it has proof of mass violations in parliamentary poll three weeks ago
2011/2012: 2011-2012 Russian protests
January 2012: 1 January 2012: Russian riot police arrest dozens at protests in Moscow and Saint Petersburg - 28 January: Putin critic barred from Russia elections in March
February 2012: 4 February: Tens of thousands of protesters have gathered in the Russian capital to demand fair presidential polls - PM's supporters gather for separate rally - 20. Februar: Putins Wahlprogramm der Aufrüstung Rußlands mit 575 Mrd. Euro in den kommenden 10 Jahren - Polonium-Putin und die Molekularbiologie: "Wir sind ein Sieger-Volk, das haben wir in den Genen". (Putin am 23. Februar 2012) - 26. Februar: Mit einem Sieg gegen eisige Kälte gelingt es in Moskau Zehntausenden binnen einer Stunde eine 16 km lange Menschenkette als Protest gegen Putin um das Stadtzentrum zu bilden
Presidential election March 2012 and protests: Russian presidential election 4 March 2012 - 5 March: Putin alleges victory with more than 60 per cent of vote was fair, but rivals and opposition allege fraud and call for protests - 6 mars: L'OSCE a dénoncé lundi une présidentielle russe 'biaisée' marquée par d'importantes irrégularités - 6 mars: Interpellation de plusieurs centaines de manifestants anti-Poutine - 6 March: Police in Moscow and Saint Petersburg break up protests against Putin's victory in Russian presidential vote - 7 mars: l'opposition appelle à de nouvelles manifestations malgré les centaines d'interpellations de la veille - 10 mars: L'opposition russe manifeste contre la victoire du président Poutine - 12 mars: Les enquêteurs ukrainiens n'ont pas trouvé de preuves de la préparation en février par deux suspects arrêtés en Ukraine d'un attentat contre Vladimir Poutine, à moins d'une semaine de la présidentielle du 4 mars remportée par l'ex-agent du KGB - 16 March: While political opponents of the president-elect Putin are sentenced to prison, political cronyism is alive and well - 18 March: Dozens held at Moscow protest over 'pro-Putin' TV film that accused the opposition of paying anti-government protesters
April 2012: 2. April: Die russische Opposition gewinnt die Lokalwahl in der Wolga-Stadt Jaroslawl - Oppositionskandidat Jewgeni Urlaschow erhält rund 70 Prozent der Stimmen
May 2012: 6. Mai 2012: Putin beginnt seine erschlichene dritte Präsidentschaft mit Einschränkung der Demonstrationsfreiheit, Festnahmen und Gewalt - 13 May: Protest 'stroll' of thousands in Moscow - 16 May: Police detain Russian Anti-Putin protesters - 17 May: Protesters set up new Moscow camp - 20 May: Moscow protesters driven out again - 22 May: A bill which massively increases the size of fines for unapproved rallies in Russia has begun its passage through parliament amid strong protests
June 2012: 1. Juni 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei Demonstrationen für das Recht auf Versammlungsfreiheit - 6. Juni: Begleitet von Festnahmen von Regierungsgegnern beschließt Staatsduma die scharf kritisierte Verschärfung des Versammlungsgesetzes - 8. Juni: Der Entscheid des russischen Parlaments, das Demonstrationsrecht einzuschränken, verstösst nach Einschätzung des russischen Menschenrechtsrats gegen die Verfassung - 11 juin: Perquisitions chez des leaders de l'opposition avant une manifestation - 12 juin: Forte mobilisation de l'opposition russe dans les rues de Moscou
July 2012: 7 July 2012: Russia house backs bill to tag NGOs as agents - 13 July: Pro Putin Duma adopts NGO 'foreign agents' bill - 27. Juli: Zeichen gegen die Repression - Solidaritätskundgebung in Moskau für die Gefangenen und Verfolgten vom 6. Mai - Russia today endangered by three singing women? On 30 July, three members of a punk band face seven years in prison for performing a 'punk prayer' against Putin - 31. Juli: Schlaf- und Nahrungsentzug für die drei angeklagten Frauen der Punk Band - 31 July: Putin critic Alexei Navalny charged with theft
August 2012: 1. August: Die russischen Behörden haben gegen den bekannten Kreml-Kritiker Alexei Nawalny Anklage wegen Veruntreuung erhoben - 7 August: Russian prosecutors ask for three-year sentence for the punk group who protested in a cathedral against Putin - 7. August: Im Büro des Putin-Kritikers Alexei Nawalny werden Abhörwanze und Kamera entdeckt - 15. August: Solidaritätskundgebung in Moskau für inhaftierte Punk Band Musikerinnen aufgelöst - 17 August: Punk protesters get two-year jail sentences - 17 August: The EU, US and human rights groups have condemned jail sentences imposed on three members of Russian punk band as 'disproportionate' - 26 August: Two members of anti-Kremlin punk band escape from Russia - 28. August: Acht Jahre Straflager für russische Aktivistin Taissja Ossipowa
September 2012: 12 September: Moscow allows new mass anti-Putin protest at the weekend - 12 September: Russia PM Medvedev suggests that three activists from punk band should be freed - 15 September: Tens of thousands of opposition supporters demonstrate in Moscow against President Vladimir Putin's rule, calling for greater freedom and equality four months after his inauguration
October 2012: 7 October: Russian police arrest anti-Putin protesters calling for answers in the death of journalist and Kremlin critic Anna Politkovskaya six years ago - 10 octobre: Le procès en appel du groupe de punk-rock reprend dans l'ombre de Poutine - 10 October: Russian appeals court frees one anti-Kremlin punk band member, keeps two in jail - 14 October: First elections held for regional governors since Putin banned such direct voting 2004 - 17 October: Putin's investigators opened criminal proceedings against prominent protest leader Sergei Udaltsov, saying a documentary on a pro-Kremlin TV channel showed evidence he had plotted mass disorder and placing him under house arrest - 18 October: Opposition aide Konstantin Lebedev charged with plotting mass anti-government riots and could face a 10-year jail term - 21 October: Opposition forces in Russia are holding a three-day national ballot to elect a leadership tasked with focusing the fight for fair elections - 23 October: Russian opposition elected a new opposition leadership to fight for election reform, the biggest vote-getter was Alexei Navalny - 23 October: Russia's lower house votes to broaden high treason laws - 27 October: Several Russian opposition leaders have been detained while demonstrating against the claimed torture of fellow activist Leonid Razvozzhayev
December 2012: 15 December: Russian opposition leaders arrested at anti-Putin rally - 24 December: Federal investigators open a third fraud inquiry into opposition leader and anti-corruption campaigner Alexei Navalny - 26 December: Several protesters have been detained outside parliament ahead of a vote by the upper chamber on a bill which would ban Americans from adopting Russian children
January 2013: 13 January: Tens of thousands protest in Moscow against the new law banning Americans from adopting Russian children - 26 January: Hours after police detained more than 20 mostly young protesting opponents, Russia's parliament has given initial backing to a bill banning homosexual 'propaganda' 9 February: Russian court has put prominent opposition leader Sergei Udaltsov under house arrest for two months banning him from using the internet and telephone, amid accusations he incited mass disorder to overthrow Putin
March 2013: 25 mars: Les autorités russes poursuivaient lundi une vaste campagne de vérification des ONG, des enquêteurs faisant notamment irruption à l'antenne moscovite d'Amnesty International - 30 March: Russian police detains around a dozen opposition activists for a rally to support their jailed colleagues
April 2013: 17 avril 2013: Ouverture du procès du principal opposant à Poutine, Alexeï Navalny
May 2013: 6 mai 2013: Grand rassemblement de l'opposition anti-Poutine pour le sombre anniversaire de la manifestation du 6 mai 2012 contre son retour au Kremlin
June 2013: 6 June: Former chess champion and anti-Kremlin activist Garry Kasparov has said he is staying out of Russia over fears he could be put on trial, becoming the latest Russian intellectual to leave his home country amid the crackdown on the opposition - 21 June 2013: Russia's Putin backs amnesty for white-collar crime
July 2013: 18 juillet: L'opposant Navalny reconnu coupable de détournement - 19 July: After Alexei Navalny was sentenced to five years in jail, thousands protested in Moscow and St Petersburg and prosecutors asked for him to be freed pending appeal - 19 July: Alexei Navalny freed on bail
August 2013: 23 August: Putin bans protests in Sochi, restricts access - 25 August: Russia arrests 10 activists marking 'Prague Spring' demonstation - 25 August: Russian opposition leader Navalny arrested after campaign rally
8 September 2013 Moscow mayoral election: Moscow mayoral election 8 September 2013 - 9 septembre 2013: L'opposant Alexeï Navalny a contesté dimanche soir la victoire annoncée du maire sortant de Moscou Sobianine, dénonçant des falsifications - 10 September: Thousands of cheering supporters answered a call by Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny to rally in protest against Moscow mayoral election he said was rigged to hand victory to a Putin ally - 23 September: Jailed punk band member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova starts hunger strike over prison conditions, saying she is made to work up to 17 hours a day and has had death threats from prison deputy
October 2013: 13 October: Several dozen journalists took to the streets of Saint Petersburg to demand the release of Denis Sinyakov, detained on piracy charges along with the crew of the Greenpeace 'Arctic sunrise' - 15 October: Russian police rounded up more than 1,600 migrants on Monday in Moscow after rioting and violence against migrants swept through southern neighbourhood - 16 October: Putin's political rival Alexei Navalny faces five years in jail - 17 octobre: L'opposant Alexeï Navalny accueilli par des partisans à son retour en train à Moscou, après que sa peine de 5 ans de camp a été commuée en sursis - 27 octobre: Plusieurs milliers de personnes dont Alexeï Navalny ont participé à une marche autorisée dans le centre de Moscou contre le régime de Poutine et pour soutenir les prisonniers politiques - 29 octobre: Des centaines de Moscovites ont rendu hommage mardi aux victimes des répressions staliniennes, en lisant le nom de milliers d'habitants de la capitale russe fusillés en 1937 et 1938
October/November 2013: 2 November: After two hunger strikes Nadezhda Tolokonnikova sent to a hospital and a new penal colony - 7 November: Concern mounting for Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, after her family said she had not been heard from since being transferred to a prison colony
December 2013: 22 December 2013: At a press conference in Berlin barely two days after he was freed from a Russian jail, Mikhail Khodorkovsky vowed to do all he can to ensure the release of other political prisoners in Russia - 23 December: Out of jail, Punk band member Maria Alyokhina slammed her early release under a Kremlin amnesty as a 'PR stunt' from Putin - 23 December: Punk band member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, freed on Monday in a Kremlin-backed amnesty, slammed Russia's prison system and said that the whole country is built like a penal colony
February-April 2014: 12 February 2014: Environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko jailed for three years after Sochi Games protest - 20 February: After being detained by police in Sochi, Russian punk group women beaten with whips by Cossacks - 25 February: Outside trial over anti-Putin rally 2012 Russian police detain hundreds protesting against jailing of activists - 2014 Russian anti-war protests - 2 March: While authorities accommodated and encouraged a pro-government rally, a smaller protest against Ukraine intervention down the street was not sanctioned - 2 March: Protesters in Moscow against Russian military intervention in Ukraine were quickly detained by police - 15 March: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters marched in central Moscow against Kremlin-backed referendum in Crimea - 14 April: About 5,000 Russians, some waving Ukrainian flags, rallied in Moscow to protest at what they say is a government crackdown on independent media intended to stifle debate about the crisis in Ukraine - 28 April: Criticising environmental and state corruption leads to threats, intimidation and the impossibility to object to grand projects which have the authorities behind them, exiled Suren Gazaryan says
July-December 2014: 24 July: Russian opposition leader Sergei Udaltsov convicted of organising rioting at anti-Putin protest along with activist Leonid Razvozzhayev in trial human rights groups call 'mockery of justice' - 5 August: Russian authorities have banned a Siberian independence march, in sharp contrast to the treatment of separatists in Crimea and eastern Ukraine - 17 August: Pro-federalism protests in Siberia banned and at least nine activists, calling for greater regional autonomy in Russia, detained by police over protests - 21 September: A huge column of protesters marched through Moscow to protest against Putin's role in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict that has claimed nearly 3,000 lives and pitted Russians against Ukrainians - 30 novembre: Pour la première fois depuis des années, les personnels de santé descendent dans la rue dans plusieurs grandes villes de Russie, à Moscou ils vont manifester contre la fermeture de nombreux hôpitaux - 14 December: Hundreds march in Moscow to protest against healthcare and education reforms - 30 December: Opposition activist Navalny gets 3.5-year suspended sentence in his controversial fraud trial as his brother was handed a 3.5-year prison term - 30/31 December 2014: Navalny again detained after joining protest in Moscow
January-June 2015: 5 January: After receiving suspended sentence amid ongoing house arrest, Putin regime critic Alexei Navalny says he would no longer comply with the absurd terms of his house arrest and cuts off monitoring tag - 7 January: Alexei Navalny defies house arrest to go to his local store, quickly intercepted by three men who escorted him home - 20 January: Hundreds of Russians marched in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, six years after lawyer Stanislav Markelov and journalist Anastasia Baburova were murdered by nationalists - 28 February: Just a day before a planned protest against Putin's rule Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov shot dead in Moscow - 1 March: Tens of thousands march in memory of murdered politician Boris Nemtsov in Moscow, as many members of the democratic opposition blame regime and state-controlled media for pushing people toward aggression - 1/2 March: Protesters, most of them of Russian or Ukrainian origin, rallied in New York near the Russian mission to the UN to denounce the murder of regime critic Boris Nemtsov, despite fear of reprisals to themselves or family members back in Russia - 16 April: Police and special forces searched the Moscow office of Open Russia, a rights network led by Khodorkovsky, for protest flyers - 18 April: Russian opposition parties of murdered Boris Nemtsov and anti-corruption blogger Navalny form alliance against Putin ahead of 2016 parliamentary elections - 29 April: Russian Ministry of Justice has cancelled the registration of the Progress Party of Alexei Navalny - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May: Russian anti-war protesters outside a key military headquarters in Tolyatti have demanded Russian regime withdraws regular servicemen from Ukraine, after two soldiers were captured on Ukrainian soil on May 16 - 24 May 2015: Putin signs law for shutting down 'undesirable' organizations - 28 May 2015: Putin has turned Ukrainans and Russians into enemies, Russian opposition activist Ilya Yashin says visiting Kyiv in support of report on Russian intervention - 7 June 2015: Several thousand protesters including scientists and intellectuals took to the streets of Moscow to express fears for the future of scientific research, after regime crackdowns - 9 June: Russian regime's 'Investigative Committee' launches a criminal inquiry against Ilya Ponomaryov, the lone State Duma representative to vote against the 2014 annexation of Crimea from Ukraine - 19 June 2015: My father was killed by Russian propaganda, says Nemtsov's daughter Zhanna Nemtsova
July/August 2015: 5 August 2015: An online petition signed by more than 170,000 people calls on the regime to rethink new law ordering destruction of sanction-busting imports and banned EU food products, saying it is grotesque to destroy food in a country where millions still live below the poverty line - 11 August: As Russian regime continues mass destruction of banned food in retaliation for sanctions, online petition calling to overturn the decision has already gained 340,000 signatures
September 2015 regional elections in Russia: 11 September 2015: The Democratic Coalition party has been permitted to campaign for Russia’s regional elections in Kostroma, but even here, hecklers have found them - 13 September 2015: Russian opposition party Parnas claims success in regional election in the province of Kostroma, but a regime pollster said it had not passed the 5% threshold - 14 September: Polls have closed in regional elections, as opposition Democratic Coalition was only allowed to stand in one region - 21 September: Thousands of people rallied on the streets of Moscow on Sunday against Putin, adressed by Illya Yashin - 28 September: Russian police detain protesters rallying in St. Petersburg and Moscow for peace in Ukraine
October-December 2015: 18 October 2015: Russian anti-war protesters in Moscow slam Putin's wars in Syria and Ukraine, protesting against Russian airstrikes in Syria and also against the Russian regime's corruption - 20 October 2015: Human rights activist Nadezhda Kutepova from a small town in the Urals has fled to Paris seeking asylum after adocumentary on state TV channel Rossia 1 portrayed her as an agent, accusing her of 'ndustrial espionage' and plotting against the nuclear industry - 12 December 2015: Several protesters detained during Moscow rally on Russian Constitution Day - 13 December 2015: Angry over the economic mismanagement of the country, Russian protesters rallied in Moscow, demanding to sack several top ministers over the crisis
February 2016: 20 February 2016: Truck drivers in Russia strike in 45 regions over road tax - 26/27 February 2016: Russian State Duma refuses to pay tribute to murdered Boris Nemtsov, as one year after his assassination crime remains unsolved - 27 February: Vyacheslav Kislitsin, an organizer of an upcoming march to commemorate slain Kremlin critic Boris Nemtsov, has been severely beaten by unknown men in the city of Chelyabinsk - 27/28 février 2016: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont défilé dans les rues de Moscou et de Saint-Pétersbourg pour commémorer le premier anniversaire de l'assassinat de l'opposant Boris Nemtsov et pour protester contre Poutine
March 2016: 8 March 2016: Dozens of activists detained in Moscow for rallying in support of Ukraine's Nadiya Savchenko - 22 March: Several hundred people took to the streets of the Russian town of Artyomovsk to protest against poverty and unemployment, calling for better living conditions, long-sought housing repairs and the reelection of the authorities
April/May 2016: 8 April 2016: Protesters in St. Petersburg demand Putin's resignation over 'Panama Papers' scandal - 6 May 2016: Russian activist Andrey Bubeyev gets three years in jail for claiming Crimea is Ukraine
June/July 2016: June 2016: Around a thousand Russians protested against naming a new bridge in Saint Petersburg after Chechnya's Akhmad Kadyrov, after online petition against the 'Kadyrov's bridge' gained votes of around 70,000 people - 20 July 2016: After in in almost 500 years no one (no tsar, no emperor, no general secretary, no president) has erected a statue to Ivan the Terrible, officials' plan to erect a statue of the bloodthirsty tsar near a children’s theatre has drawn outrage from locals in Oryol
August/September 2016: 3 August 2016: Since Putin came back to the Kremlin in 2012, Russia has arrested, detained or interrogated the mayors of more than 25 cities, only a tiny minority of them were from opposition parties - 1 September 2016: Beslan mothers detained over anti-Putin protest at ceremony, after wearing T-shirts blaming Russian president for 2004 siege that left 186 children dead, and also journalists arrested, trying to film the brief protest - 6 September 2016: Russia moves to silence Levada Centre after damning public opinion polls
September 2016 Russian legislative election: 18 September 2016 Russian legislative election - 18 September 2016: The elections to Russia's State Duma violate international law because they take place in occupied Crimea as well, Ukrainian Foreign Ministry's Maryana Betsa says - 19 September 2016: Sweden, USA, Romania, Denmark, Estonia and Lithuania declared they do not recognize Russian MP's to be elected in Crimea - 19 September 2016: Pro-Putin party wins in Russian election, but nationwide turnout in Sunday's polls was only 47%, which analysts attribute largely to apathy amid hardships of an economic slowdown - 19 September 2016: Statistical analysis of Sunday’s parliamentary election results appears to show evidence of some of the same irregularities that plagued the 2011 State Duma contest, according to the 'Moscow Times' and 'Slon news' website
29 September 2016: 29 September 2016: A hundred years after an epochal movement in Russia against war and its causes, only 300 people protest in Moscow against the start of the Russian regime’s murderous Syria bombing campaign, as the main driver of public opinion remains the slavishly pro-regime state media and its worldwide allies, as doctors in Aleppo say that the Russian and Assad regime's warfare is testing the conscience of the world, giving account that 'children ... are coming to us as body parts', and as a Dutch-led international investigation team states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014 in Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
December 2016: 16 December 2016: Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny claims he intends to hold an 'honest referendum' in Crimea and to completely fulfil Minsk agreements if elected Russia's president in 2018
February-November 2017 100th anniversaries of Russian February and November revolutions: 6 November 2017: February-November 2017 100th anniversaries of Russian February and November revolutions, as Putin - who has spoken out against the popular 'color revolution' uprisings that have toppled established regimes in the nations of the former U.S.S.R., especially the Ukrainian 'Orange Revolution' 2005/2006 and the Euromaidan-protests since 2013 with the aim of 'building a new Ukraine and a new Ukrainian government' by creating a new Ukrainian constitution and removing corrupt politicians, judges and prosecutors - cannot openly celebrate the holiday the Soviets called Red October, essentially the mother of all color revolutions, according to the 'Washington Post'
Since February 2017 pro Alexei Navalny and Boris Nemtsov movements in Russia: 8. Februar 2017: Nawalny am erneut schuldig gesprochen, um - wie er sagt - seine Präsidentschafts-Kandidatur zu verhindern - 26 February 2017: Thousands of protesters have marched in Moscow and other Russian cities to mark two years since the opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was gunned down near the Kremlin, as many fear whoever ordered the killing will not be brought to justice and as law enforcement officers confiscated some posters that referred to Putin by name
Since March 2017 Russian protests: Since March 2017 Russian protests
March 2017: 8 March 2017: Several female activists have been detained in Moscow after carrying posters with slogans such as 'A woman for president' and 'We're the majority', also trying to attach a banner to the walls of the Kremlin calling for the ouster of men from Russian politics - 26 March 2017: Thousands gather in major Russian cities to protest against corruption in largest anti-government demonstrations for five years, with over a hundred detained including opposition leader and anti-corruption campaigner Alexei Navalny - 27 March 2017: Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny in court following arrest, after tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Russia on Sunday in the biggest show of defiance since the 2011-12 anti-government protests
1/2 April 2017 anti-Putin protesters's plans for jailed opponent Navalny followed by arrests: 1 April 2017: Anti-Putin protesters plan next move as jailed opponent Navalny considers election bid - 2 avril 2017: Une semaine après l'interpellation de centaines de personnes lors d'un rassemblement de milliers d'opposants, la police russe a arrêté dimanche une trentaine de manifestants d'opposition qui tentaient de défiler dimanche à Moscou, mais à Novossibirsk environ 400 personnes ont participé à une manifestation similaire et autorisée par la municipalité
8 April 2017 two years on, Russia hasn’t forgotten Jewish anti-Putin politician Boris Nemtsov's assassination: 8 April 2017: Two years on, Russia hasn’t forgotten Jewish anti-Putin politician Boris Nemtsov's assassination outside the Kremlin, as he’s become something of a cult figure in a country known for silencing dissenters. Of at least four films out about the martyred man at least two of the documentaries are the work of Russian Jewish artists.
29 April 2017 peaceful pro-Navalny protesters detained in several cities calling for Putin to quit: 29 April 2017: Dozens detained as Russians in peaceful protests in several cities call for Putin to quit
14 May 2017: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Moscow in a rally against a bill to tear down Soviet-era low-rise apartment buildings: 14 May 2017: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Moscow in a rally against a bill to tear down Soviet-era low-rise apartment buildings and force them to live in high-rise blocks
June 2017 Russian protests: 9 June 2017: Russia's Alexei Navalny claims, if he is elected president, he is ready to withdraw Russian troops from the occupied areas of eastern Ukraine and hold a fair referendum in the Russian-annexed Crimea - 13 June 2017: Over 1,500 people were detained mainly in Moscow and St Petersburg at nationwide anti-corruption protests and demonstrations, as Navalny supporters face court who himself was arrested at his block of flats before he could even make his way to the protest and quickly slapped with a 30-day jail sentence - 13 June 2017: As 800 people were detained in Moscow and 900 in St Petersburg, several protesters were sentenced to 15 days in jail, including the opposition politician Ilya Yashin and political partner of Boris Nemtsov, who was murdered in 2015
23 June 2017 opposition and anti-corruption politician Alexei Navalny barred from standing against Putin in election: 23 June 2017: Russian opposition politician and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny barred from standing against Putin in election, according to the regime’s Central Election Commission saying he was ineligible to run for office
July 2017: 23 July 2017: Russian demonstrators took to the streets of Moscow to protest Internet censorship and demand the resignation of the head of Russia’s state media regulator
August 2017: 4 August 2017: Critics have accused Russian Putin regime of attempting to neuter the internet as a political threat after the authorities launched a crackdown on virtual private networks VPNs - 22 August 2017: Russian investigators have arrested Kirill Serebrennikov, one of the country’s most prominent theatre directors, for fraud in a case that many fear is part of the ongoing crackdown on dissenting voices
September 2017: 29 September 2017: Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny says he has been detained by police as he left his Moscow home to attend a pre-election rally in the provincial town of Nizhny Novgorod
October 2017: 8 October 2017: Russian police violently broke up a rally in Saint Petersburg as thousands took to the streets across Russia Saturday on Putin’s 65th birthday, urging him to quit power, as rights group demands release of scores of peaceful protesters detained at rallies - 22 octobre 2017: Alexeï Navalny a annoncé dimanche avoir été libéré après avoir passé vingt jours en prison pour l'organisation de manifestations
6/7 November 2017 a hundred years later legacy of the Russian revolutions 1917 and Putin regime's confusion: Legacy of the Russian revolution in October/November 1917 - 6 November 2017: A hundred years later, Russians are split over whether the revolution should be commemorated at all, showing Putin regime's confusion - 7 novembre 2017: La moindre forme de contestation est immédiatement diabolisée par le régime en 2017 et la police russe a arrêté pendant le week-end des centaines de manifestants anti-Poutine descendus dans la rue
27 November 2017 anchor at TV Rain Mikhail Fishman explains how Russia is killing what little independent press it has: 27 November 2017: Anchor at TV Rain Mikhail Fishman (and the former editor in chief of Russian Newsweek and Moscow Times) explains how Russia is killing what little independent press it has, after he began to cover protest demonstrations - following Putin's return to his throne in the Kremlin after a four-year intermission as PM - for TV Rain and got a strong foothold with its exclusive in-depth coverage of Bolotnaya Square protests in Moscow - 2017-2023 Anchor at TV Rain's anchor Mikhail Fishman - who - further explained how the Kremlin treated the Panama Papers, that implicated members of Putin’s inner circle in an alleged $2 billion money-laundering scheme and identified musician and Putin’s close friend Sergei Roldugin as the owner of a number of offshore companies allegedly helping to channel funds back to Russia. Mikhail Fishman further said 'it wasn’t always like this'. 'In the late 1980s, after decades of Soviet censorship, Russian media emerged as harbingers of freedom and a key institution of the new system of checks and balances – the one that was expected to become a civilized democracy in the future. That didn’t work out as initially planned. It was turned into an industry deprived of purpose and competitiveness.' - Mikhail Fishman on 10 February 2023 - in a blog of the Kennan Institute offering insights into Russia’s politics, history, culture and society - Mikhail Fishman reported that 'in Krasnodar, a city in the south of Russia, a local couple has been detained after they sympathized with Ukraine in a private conversation in a restaurant, and another visitor joined their discussion, that in Nizhny Novgorod, a mechanic at an aircraft factory was fined 30,000 rubles after the authorities received a report that he was tearing leaflets supporting the Russian military off the factory walls, that in Tver, 160km northwest of Moscow, a local official reported on two women who had laid flowers and soft toys at a local memorial to victims of political repression as a tribute to the Ukrainians who had died in the shelling of a residential building in Dnipro on January 14, that in the small town of Kasimov, 300km from Russia, the police identified a woman who had left an antiwar message in a public bathroom in a local shopping mall, that in Saratov, a city on the Volga river, a doctor in a local perinatal center received the same fine, 30,000 rubles, after she said she opposed the war in Ukraine, as in Moscow, there is hardly any reminder of the war, apart from the increased number of police and the officially installed letters Z and V, emblems of Putin’s war.
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Opposition's campaign gathers steam ahead of 2018 election, but supporters face threats and intimidation, targeting whole families - 24 December 2017: Supporters of opposition politician Alexei Navalny have been gathering in some 20 Russian cities to back his bid to run in March's presidential poll - 26 décembre 2017: Suite au rejet de sa candidature à l'élection présidentielle de mars 2018, Alexeï Navalny appelle au boycott du scrutin
January 2018: 28 January 2018: After authorities in Moscow and St Petersburg refused to give permission for anti-Putin protests, opposition supporters rallied in about 100 cities across Russia, as in Moscow about 2,000 people defied bitter cold and a heavy police presence to gather in Pushkin Square - 28 January 2018: Hundreds detained at rallies across Russia, Alexi Navalny's office raided by Putin's police, and Navalny and 15 others arrested in Moscow attempting to join protest - 28 January 2018: Russia's youth takes the lead in countrywide protests against Putin, saying 'Money and power, that's all that Putin wants'
February/March 2018: 12 February 2018: Yabloko opposition party warns of a string of attacks on political and civic activists in St. Petersburg in the past month, including the late January death of local activist Konstantin Sinitsyn, the beating of human rights activist Dinar Idrisov and the kidnapping and reported torture of antifascist activists Viktor Filinkov, Igor Shishkin and Ilya Kapustin - 25 février 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont défilé dimanche à Moscou pour rendre hommage à l'ancien opposant à Vladimir Poutine, abattu le 27 février 2015 en plein centre de la capitale russe alors qu'il travaillait sur un rapport concernant le conflit en Ukraine - 25 February 2018: At least three people were detained at the Moscow march, as about 7,600 democrats gathered to honor slain opposition politician Boris Nemtsov and as rallies were also held in several other cities, including St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg - 25 February 2018: Disparate political movements in opposition to Russia's Putin came together for a brief few hours to march in the memory of murdered opposition politician Boris Nemtsov - 17 March 2018: Days before Russia’s presidential elections, police are trying to seize documents that give activist observers access to polling stations and independent elections watchdog Golos has unexpectedly seen its office lease revoked
March 2018 Russian presidential election: 18 March 2018 Russian presidential election - 19 March 2018: Despite opposition activists highlighting cases of vote rigging, Putin secures win in Russian presidential election - 19 March 2018: OSCE says Russian presidential election was characterized by restrictions on fundamental freedoms, lack of genuine competition and had been marked by unfair pressure on critical voices - 21 March 2018: Reporters have photographed what appears to be evidence of people voting twice in Russia’s presidential election
Since 23 March 2018: 27 March 2018: Thousands of angry and distraught Russians have rallied in Siberian city of Kemerovo to demand a full probe into a shopping centre fire that killed at least 64 people, many of them children - 28 mars 2018: Les Russes et proches de victimes réclamaient la tête des autorités locales et exigeaient justice à Kemerovo, alors que le pays observe mercredi une journée de deuil après l'incendie meurtrier d'un centre commercial dû à des violations choquantes des règles de sécurité
May 2018: 5 May 2018: Pro-democracy and anti-Putin protest rallies titled 'He's not our tsar' launched across Rusian cities, set up by supporters of the Russian opposition's Alexei Navalny, also saying 'Enough lies' and 'Enough war' - 5 mai 2018: Plusieurs manifestants qui se sont réunis pour contester l'investiture de Poutine, ont été interpellés 'de manière brutale' - 7 May 2018: The infamous 'Cossacks' who were seen whipping and beating up peaceful protesters at a #notourtsar rally in Moscow had previously taken part in Donbas hostilities as part of Putin regime's proxy forces in his hybrid war against Ukraine and are to patrol the streets of the Russian capital at the World Cup - 11 mai 2018: L'opposant Navalny de retour au tribunal pour avoir organisé des manifestations avant l'investiture de Poutine pour un quatrième mandat, dispersées manu militari par la police assistée d'unités paramilitaires
June 2018 World Cup protests: 10 June 2018: Students make rare protest against World Cup, as students at Moscow State University want soccer fan zone moved, fearing destruction of green space and eviction from dorms - 10 June 2018: Demonstrators have taken to the center of Moscow to protest against mass violations of human rights in Russia and to call for the release of political prisoners - 16 June 2018: Diversity House, organised by a group of NGOs, and Diversity fan zone on the sidelines of the World Cup blocked from opening in St Petersburg
June 2018 pension-reform protests: 20 June 2018: Planned protests against Russian regime's pension-reform legislation, announced the day the football World Cup began, come amid tightened restrictions on demonstrations in cities hosting the World Cup
July 2018 World Cup protests: 4 July 2018: A Russian teenage activist was among four people detained after she staged a protest outside the World Cup stadium in St. Petersburg wearing a bloodied shirt that she said was intended to draw attention to the country's problems, Reuters reported
July 2018 protests against retirement age hike: 1 July 2018: Thousands of Russians protested on Sunday in 39 cities across the country over a government decision to increase the retirement age, but there were no demonstrations in the cities hosting the World Cup because of security restrictions in force during the tournament - 19 July 2018: From Omsk to St. Petersburg, Russians took to the streets to protest the government’s controversial pension reform program that would see a hike in the country’s retirement age, a plan announced the day the football World Cup began, and that would see the age raised gradually from 60 to 65 for men, and from 55 to 63 for women - 29 juillet 2018: Des dizaines de milliers de Russes à Moscou et dans des dizaines d'autres villes ont participé samedi à des manifestations organisées à travers le pays par le Parti communiste contre un projet de hausse de l'âge du départ à la retraite
August 2018: 25 août 2018: L'opposant russe Alexeï Navalny arrêté à Moscou et blessé au doigt lors de son interpellation pour avoir participé à une manifestation antigouvernementale en janvier dernier
September 2018: 2 September 2018: Thousands of people across Russia joined protests, organized by different parties, against regime's plans to raise the pension age, also calling for taxing Russia’s oligarchs instead of raising the retirement age, despite recent promises to soften the unpopular measure
September 2018 regional elections: September 2018 Russian regional elections - 9 September 2018: On election day, anti-regime protesters rally across Russia against pension age hike as police detain hundreds - 10 September 2018: Support for Russia's ruling party slips in regional elections amid pension protests
18 September 2018: 18 September 2018: Pyotr Verzilov, one of four members of Pussy Riot who invaded the pitch dressed in police uniforms during the World Cup final in Moscow to protest against excessive Russian police powers, fell ill after a court hearing last Tuesday, as German doctors now treating him say claims he was poisoned are 'highly probable' based on his symptoms
23 September 2018: 23 September 2018: Thousands of Russians held authorised protest rallies organised by different groups across the country on Saturday as anger continues over the regime’s pension plan
October 2018: 8 October 2018: Trust in Putin and Russia’s ruling party have declined steeply over the past year with analysts pointing to the regime’s controversial pension changes as the main reason, as only 39% of Russians listed Putin as a politican they trust, a 20% decrease from November 2017 - 14 October 2018: Alexei Navalny released after back to back prison stints for organizing anti-corruption protests, says he will not be intimidated
19 October 2018: 19 October 2018: Moscow city authorities have refused permission for an annual ceremony honouring victims of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, according to Russia’s most prominent human rights group, saying withdrawal of permission is outrageous
November 2018: 13 November 2018: Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny was stopped at the border and barred from leaving Russia as he was about to travel to a court hearing at the European Court for Human Rights in France, and as 'there is no explanation why' - 14 November 2018: Alexei Navalny flies out of Russia after ban lifted, without responding to a request for comment regarding Navalny’s allegations that Russian regime's actions were illegal
24 February 2019: 24 February 2019: Thousands of Russians gathered in central Moscow for an annual march in memory of Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, who was shot and killed a stone's throw from the Kremlin in 2015, marching behind a banner reading 'we have given Russia away to the crooks, it's time to take it back', as a demonstration also began in St Petersburg
March 2019: 10 mars 2019: Des milliers de personnes ont manifesté en Russie contre un projet de loi visant à se doter d'un Internet indépendant, mais que ses détracteurs accusent de 'censure' et de tentative d''isoler' le pays du reste du monde
June 2019 journalist Ivan Golunov detained and severely beaten: 8 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov, known for investigating corruption among Moscow city officials, was detained in central Moscow on Thursday on his way to a meeting with a source and has been charged with large-scale drug trafficking, but his lawyer, his employer and colleagues say he has been framed - 9 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov released and moved to house arrest after hundreds of supporters picket police HQ, pending trial on drug charges - 10 June 2019: In a show of rare solidarity, Russia's three major newspapers put out nearly identical front pages to support detained journalist Ivan Golunov, as Kommersant, Vedomosti and RBK, among the most respected daily newspapers in Russia, published a joint editorial under the headline 'I am/We are Ivan Golunov', calling for a transparent probe into the case of the prominent investigative journalist
11/12 June 2019 charges against Golunov dropped, protesters detained: 11 June 2019: Thousands of protesters are to march in Moscow in support investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, arrested on controversial drug-dealing charges that are widely seen as an attempt to silence his reports on corruption, as more than 20,000 people have so far expressed an interest on Facebook in attending the march on Wednesday - 11 juin 2019: Les autorités russes ont disculpé mardi le journaliste d'investigation Ivan Golounov, qui été accusé de trafic de drogue dans une affaire qui a provoqué l'indignation de la société civile - 12 June 2019: At least 423 people reportedly detained in central Moscow as protesters rallied to demand that charges be brought against the police officers who planted drugs on investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, whose arrest sparked widespread public anger
20 July 2019 protest demanding free and fair local polls: 20 July 2019: More than 10,000 people, including prominent opposition politicians, have gathered in Moscow to demand free and fair local polls, an NGO that tracks participation in protest rallies says
22 July 2019 activist Yelena Grigoryeva murdered: 22 July 2019: Russian campaigners have said that Yelena Grigoryeva found murdered with multiple stab wounds in the city of Saint Petersburg was a well-known activist of democratic and anti-war movements including demands for freedom of Ukrainian political prisoners, who had received threats over her protests for LGBT rights and opposition causes, reported to the police who took no action
24 July 2019 Navalny arrested: 24 July 2019: Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny arrested ahead of planned protests in Moscow on Saturday, some weeks after he had been jailed for 10 days
27/28 July 2019 opposition protest and arrests: 27 July 2019: Russian police have started detaining people gathering in central Moscow for an opposition protest on Saturday - 28 juillet 2019: La police russe a arrêté 1373 personnes qui manifestaient samedi à Moscou pour des élections libres, selon un bilan dimanche de l'ONG OVD-Info spécialisée dans le suivi des manifestations
29 July 2019 detained Navalny hospitalized with an 'acute allergic reaction': 29 July 2019: Russian regime critic Alexei Navalny is hospitalized after being detained - 29 July 2019: Jailed opposition politician Alexei Navalny might have been exposed to an unidentified 'toxic agent', his personal doctor Anastasia Vasilyeva said, adding that health officials at Moscow's hospital No 64, which treated him, have behaved strangely - 29 July 2019: Navalny's doctor Anastasia Vassilieva says he has been discharged from hospital and will now be transferred back to jail, adding that he 'needs to be under close medical supervision', and should be allowed to call his relatives
30 July 2019 nearly 1,400 detained demonstrators: 30 July 2019: All of the opposition candidates running in Moscow’s local elections have been placed under arrest or sentenced to jail over a Moscow protest in an unprecedented act, as nearly 1,400 demonstrators were detained, some violently, during Saturday’s rally to demand that opposition-minded candidates be allowed onto the ballot in Moscow's city council elections
2 August 2019 regime's threats: 2 August 2019: Russian Putin regime has threatened protesters in Moscow with lengthy jail sentences in an attempt to dampen an unexpected surge in protest mood before a planned rally on Saturday
3 August 2019 mass arrests of protesters including Lyubov Sobol: 3 August 2019: As nearly 200 pro-democracy demonstrators detained in protest triggered by refusal to let opposition candidates stand in elections, Russian police also detain opposition leader Lyubov Sobol, heading to rally against exclusion of candidates such as herself from Moscow election
4 August 2019: 4 August 2019: Russia’s anti-Putin opposition said it was planning a nationwide protest next weekend despite police forcibly detaining over 1,000 people on Saturday for attending peaceful march in Moscow to demand free elections and to protest against the exclusion of their candidates from the Moscow election next month
10 August 2019 pro-democracy protests: 10 août 2019: Environ 40'000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi à Moscou pour protester contre l'exclusion des candidats d'opposition aux élections locales de septembre, encadré par une forte présence policière, et d'autres rassemblements ont eu lieu dans plusieurs villes de Russie
11 August 2019 more than 300 peaceful demonstrators arrested: 11 August 2019: More than 300 anti-Putin demonstrators were arrested, including 244 in Moscow and 81 in St Petersburg, as tens of thousands of people defied a crackdown by Russian authorities to stage what is believed to be the country’s biggest political protest for eight years, shouting 'down with the tsar' and peacefully demanding free elections to local legislatures - 11 August 2019: Russian regime, after protests, tells Google not to advertise 'illegal' events on its YouTube video platform
17 August 2019 protest: 17 August 2019: Russian opposition activists staged a string of pickets in central Moscow to call for free elections and for charges against protesters detained at recent rallies to be dropped
23 August 2019 Alexeï Navalny free and healthy again: 23 août 2019: Alexeï Navalny, a été libéré de prison vendredi après 30 jours passés en détention pour des appels à manifester et un traitement à l'hôpital pour ce que les médecins ont qualifié de 'grave réaction allergique', tandis que l'opposant n'a pas exclu d'avoir été 'empoisonné'
31 August 2019 protest: 31 August 2019: Thousands of Russians took to the streets of central Moscow to demand free elections to the capital's city legislature on 8 September, defying a ban which has been enforced with violent detentions during previous protests, as weeks of demonstrations over local elections have turned into the biggest sustained protest movement in Russia since 2011-2013 - 31 août 2019: On dénombre près de 2700 arrestations depuis le début du mouvement, alors qu'une nouvelle marche de protestation se tenait dans la capitale moscovite samedi
September 2019 Russian elections: 8 September 2019 Russian elections of governors in 19 subjects, among which 16 by direct votes and 3 by indirect votes, and of legislatives bodies in 13 subjects - 8 September 2019 Moscow City Duma election - 8 September 2019 Saint Petersburg gubernatorial election - 8 September 2019: Russians vote in regional elections after biggest protests in years triggered by the exclusion of opposition candidates and crackdown on dissent
9 September 2019 strong opposition in Moscow: 9 September 2019: Russia's ruling United Russia party, which backs Putin, has lost one third of its seats in the Moscow parliament, as opposition candidates won almost half the seats
12 September 2019 Putin regime raids opposition: 12 September 2019: Following successful election strategy which cut the presence of pro-government candidates in Moscow legislature by a half, Putin regime's police are raiding homes and offices of supporters of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny in 43 Russian cities in more than 150 raids, including robbery attempts to confiscate equipment, as police have also searched the home of Sergei Boyko, who came second with nearly 20% of the vote in the mayoral election in Russia's third-largest city of Novosibirsk last Sunday, and homes of three of Golos monitoring group's regional coordinators
18 September 2019 mounting campaign to release protesters and bystanders: 18 September 2019: Mounting public campaign in support of anti-government activists and even bystanders caught up in opposition rallies to be freed
22 September 2019 northwest Russia protests: 22 September 2019: Several thousand people have taken to the streets across northwest Russia to protest a controversial plan to build a major waste plant there, as protesters rallied in more than a dozen towns in the area against the dump
29 September 2019 protest against police brutality: 29 September 2019: Thousands of Russians rallied in Moscow on Sunday to demand the release of protesters jailed in what Kremlin opponents says is a campaign to stifle dissent, following allegations of police brutality and harsh jail sentences that sparked an unusual public outcry
30 September 2019: 30 septembre 2019: Un tribunal moscovite a commué lundi la lourde condamnation d'un acteur accusé de 'violences' au cours d'une manifestation en une peine d'un an de prison avec sursis
9 October 2019: 9 octobre 2019: 'Le Fonds de lutte contre la corruption', organisation gérée par le principal opposant au Kremlin Alexeï Navalny, est accusé d'être un 'agent de l'étranger'
15 October 2019 opposition offices across the country raided: 15 October 2019: Russian police on Tuesday conducted nationwide raids on the offices of opposition politician Alexei Navalny's anti-corruption foundation, as Lyubov Sobol said 'shameless bastards from the Kremlin are seeking revenge for ‘Smart Voting’ and trying to destroy a network of our offices'
20 December 2019 climate activist sentenced to six days in prison: 20 December 2019: Russian 25-year-old climate activist and violinist Arshak Makichyan has been sentenced to six days in prison for taking part in a demonstration in Moscow, as supporters said the punishment was disproportionately severe, and was one of the harshest crackdowns on student campaigners anywhere in the world
26 December 2019 Anti-Putin activist Ruslan Shaveddinov 'forcibly conscripted' and Navalny again detained: 26 December 2019: Anti-Putin activist Ruslan Shaveddinov 'forcibly conscripted' and sent to Arctic, as opposition leader Navalny says 23-year-old is a ‘political prisoner’ after being taken to secret and remote air defence base - 26 December 2019: Moscow police again detain opposition leader Navalny when police forced their way into his organization's office Thursday, according to his spokeswoman Kira Yarmysh, without information on charges
January 2020 former KGB Putin plans to stay in power past 2024: 15 January 2020: Russian government quits as regime's former KGB Putin plans to stay in power past 2024
20 February 2020: Russian lawmakers call for relaxing rules on Nazi symbols: 20 February 2020: Russian lawmakers call for relaxing rules on Nazi symbols, after Nazi Germamy committed the biggest mass murder in human history in their country
29 February protest against Putin regime: 29 février 2020: L'opposition défile contre Vladimir Poutine
10 March 2020 constitutional amendment to allow Putin to run again for president backed by his party: 10 March 2020: Russia's ruling United Russia party said it would back a constitutional amendment that would allow war criminal Putin to run for president again despite a legal limit currently prohibiting such a move
29 May 2020 protesters against arrest of Russian journalist detained: 29 May 2020: Police in Moscow and St. Petersburg detained 25 people who came out to protest Friday against the arrest of a prominent Russian journalist, the OVD-Info rights group said
2 July 2020 Putin regime wins vote that could let Putin rule until 2036: 2 July 2020: Putin regime wins Russian vote that could let regime's head Vladimir Putin rule until 2036, as amendments include also constitutional mention of ‘faith in God’
24 July 2020 Russian defendant alleges police torture: 24 July 2020: Ruslan Kostylenkov, defendant in a controversial Russian extremism case, has accused the police of beating and sexually assaulting him in order to obtain a confession, the latest accusation of police torture in a high-profile trial in the country
Since 11 July 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests in support of arrested governor Sergei Furgal: Since 11 July 2020 protests in Khabarovsk Krai in support of the current governor, Sergei Furgal, after his arrest, as protests in support of Furgal also took place in other cities including Novosibirsk, Vladivostok and Omsk - Opposition to Vladimir Putin in Russia
18 July 2020 thousands in Khabarovsk protest against arrest of governor Sergei Furgal: 18 July 2020: Tens of thousands of people in the Russian city of Khabarovsk have turned out for a protest over the arrest of the region’s governor Liberal Democratic party's Sergei Furgal, elected governor in 2018 with unexpected victory
19 July 2020: 50,000 people took to the streets on Saturday in Khabarovsk: 19 July 2020: 50,000 people took to the streets on Saturday in Khabarovsk, a city 6,100 miles east of Moscow, to demand the return of Sergei Furgal, a former scrap metals trader, as Putin regime is poised to replace a governor from Russia’s far east charged with crimes, potentially kindling a fresh round of public anger that has already ignited the largest protests in the region’s history
25 July 2020 protest: 25 juillet 2020: D’importantes manifestations contre le gouvernement russe se sont de nouveau déroulées samedi dans la région russe de Khabarovsk, en Extrême-Orient, après l’arrestation d’un gouverneur populaire et son remplacement cette semaine par un homme nommé par le régime de Poutine et qui n’a jamais vécu dans cette région
29 July 2020 Putin’s trust rating falls to new low amid far east protests: 29 July 2020: Putin’s trust rating falls to new low amid far east protests, as nearly half of Russians support anti-Kremlin protests in far east, according to poll
1/2 August 2020 Khabarovsk saw a fourth consecutive massive rally Saturday: 1/2 August 2020: Russian far east protesters turn out by the thousands as crackdown intensifies, and as despite multiple arrests of protesters this week, Khabarovsk saw a fourth consecutive massive rally Saturday
August 2020 poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
20 August 2020 Russian activist Alexei Navalny unconscious after being 'poisoned': 20 August 2020: Russian opposition activist Alexei Navalny is unconscious in hospital after allegedly being poisoned with a toxic substance in his tea, according to his press secretary Kira Yarmish, as Navalny has campaigned against Putin’s rule for years and was now travelling through several cities in Siberia to back candidates he supports in local elections involving 40 million voters next month, also calling for more volunteers, stating 'these crooks won’t kick themselves out of office'
21 August 2020 local doctors refuse to authorize Navalny's transfer to a top German medical facility from a Siberian hospital: 21 August 2020: Family and allies of comatose Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who has been in a coma for a day, were fighting Friday to get him flown to a top German medical facility from a Siberian hospital but local doctors refused to authorize the transfer - 21 August 2020: Alexei Navalny's wife asks Putin to let him be treated in Germany after doctors refuse to allow Kremlin critic to leave country - 21 August 2020: Kremlin says refusal to evacuate Navalny 'purely medical decision'
24 August 2020 Navalny is in serious condition: 24 August 2020: Berlin’s Charité hospital's tests indicate that Alexei Navalny was the victim of a poisoning, clinic has reported in the first medical corroboration of an attempt on the Kremlin critic’s life, while Charité hospital did not identify the specific poison responsible for Navalny’s sudden illness, saying the substance was part of a group that affects the central nervous system, and includes nerve agents and pesticides, and that Navalny is in serious condition, but 'there is currently no acute danger to his life'
13 September 2020 Russian local elections: 13 September 2020 local elections will be held including the election of the heads of 17 Republics and the election of deputies of legislative bodies in 11 districts of the Russian Federation
14 September 2020 Navalny allies win council seats in regional polls: 14 September 2020: As in several dozen of Russia’s 85 regions citizens voted for regional governors and lawmakers in regional and city legislatures as well as in several by-elections for national MPs, allies of poisoned Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny have said they have secured city council seats in Siberia as independent monitors condemned a reported 'stream' of voting irregularities in regional polls
13-17 January 2021 Navalny will return to Russia: 13 janvier 2021: Empoisonné en août et en convalescence en Allemagne, l’opposant russe Navalny annonce qu’il rentrera en Russie le 17 janvier - 13 January 2021: Alexey Navalny says he will return to Russia on Sunday after being poisoned, and after recent reporting from investigative group Bellingcat and CNN revealed that Russia's FSB had formed an elite team specializing in nerve agents that trailed Navalny for years - 17 January 2021: Alexei Navalny to fly into Moscow in challenge to Putin, as fascist Putin regime is likely to seek retaliation for a Bellingcat investigation that traced the movements of an FSB hit team that shadowed Navalny around Russia for years, and as Navalny himself elicited a confession by telephone from one of the men who took part in the operation
17 January 2021 Alexei Navalny detained at airport on return to Russia: 17 January 2021: Alexei Navalny detained at airport on return to Russia, picked up after landing in home country following recovery from poisoning
18 January 2021 Putin murder gang continues human rights violations as Navalny forced to appear in court: 18 January 2021: Alexei Navalny has appeared in court for the first time following his arrest at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport, amid growing international condemnation of the Russian opposition leader’s detention, as Navalny in a video called the court hearing 'lawlessness of the highest order' and said a judge was reviewing a request from a police official to keep him in custody
19 January 2021 Kremlin highlights regime not scared of Alexei Navalny: 19 January 2021: As Kremlin spokesman highlights conspicuously regime not scared of Alexei Navalny, Putin regime likely to block protests planned for Saturday in support of jailed opposition leader
22 January 2021 Navalny team releases investigation into Putin’s wealth: 22 January 2021: Alexei Navalny’s team has released a mammoth investigation into Vladimir Putin’s wealth, including a £1bn palace on the Black Sea allegedly built for the Russian president that the opposition leader called 'the biggest bribe in history'
22 January 2021 Putin regime detains Navalny aides and warns against Saturday protests: 22 January 2021: Russia is braced for mass protests on Saturday as thousands of supporters of the opposition leader Alexei Navalny are expected to hold rallies across the country to call for his release from jail, as police are expected to break up the unsanctioned demonstrations in Moscow, St Petersburg and dozens of other cities in what allies of Navalny say is their best chance of convincing the Putin regime to free him
Since 23 January 2021 Russian protests against Putin's terrorist policy: Since 23 January 2021 Russian protests in more than 190 towns and cities in Russia, following Navalny’s almost succeeded August 2020 Novichok poisoning
23 January 2021 over 2,000 citizens arrested in Russia at Navalny rallies: 23 January 2021: The OVD-Info monitor reported that Putin regime's police seized at least 2,131 demonstrators at the protests held in dozens of Russian cities, with 795 arrests carried out in the capital Moscow, including the wife of jailed regime critic Alexei Navalny, as riot police hauled off demonstrators and beat others with batons, as protests took place in temperatures of minus-50 Celsius, following criminal arrest of regime critics, and as demonstrators also rallied outside Russian embassy in Tel Aviv in solidarity with Russian democrats - 23 January 2021: Calling for Navalny's release, tens of thousands protest in Russia, spanning from Kaliningrad in the west to Vladivostok in the far east, as the turnout of those calling for the opposition leader’s release from jail far surpassed many protesters’ expectations
27 January 2021 Russian police raid Alexei Navalny's home and offices: 27 January 2021: Russian police raid Alexei Navalny's home and offices, as pressure rises on Putin regime critic following mass protests against murderous regime
28 January 2021 fearless Alexei Navalny release bid fails and senior aides charged over protests: 28 January 2021: Fearless Alexei Navalny release bid fails and senior aides charged over protests, as Putin regime critic will remain in jail until parole hearing next week where the brave Russian citizen could be sent to penal colony and as series of inquiries meant to disrupt the protest movement that has arisen in support of the regime critic
29 January 2021 Russia braces for second weekend of pro-Navalny protests: 29 January 2021: Russia braces for second weekend of pro-Navalny protests, as opposition leader thanks supporters and says ‘they can’t put everyone in jail’
31 January 2021 police paralysed centres of Russia’s largest cities to beat back pro-democracy rallies: 31 January 2021: Police have paralysed the centres of Russia’s largest cities, including Moscow, as Putin regime sought to beat back rallies in support of jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny, the country’s most significant protests in a decade - 31 January 2021: Navalny's wife detained in Moscow, as until now over 1,600 people have been detained during pro-Navalny rallies across Russia
January 2021 worldwide solidarity protests against Putin's terrorist policy: January 2021 solidarity protests were also held in cities around the world on 23 January, including Berlin, Munich, Prague, Krakow, Helsinki, London, Tallinn, The Hague, Denver, Vienna, Tel Aviv, Copenhagen, and Tokyo
31 January 2021 Putin's police arrest thousands of protesters demanding Navalny's release: 31 January 2021: More than 4,000 people, including Alexei Navalny’s wife Yulia were detained at rallies across Russia as supporters of the Putin regime critic took to the streets to protest against his imprisonment, following his almost succeeded August 2020 Novichok poisoning, as Putin's riot police and national guards troops shut down metro stations in Moscow and blocked off streets to prevent a repeat of last week’s record protests - The Moscow Times reports over regime's crack down on new Navalny protests
1 February 2021: Russian regime detains more than 5,000 at protests: 1 February 2021: Russian regime detains more than 5,000 at protests backing jailed Kremlin critic Navalny
2 February 2021 Navalny jailed for two years and eight months despite international condemnation: 2 February 2021: Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny jailed for two years and eight months, as court locks up Putin’s foe despite threat of protests and international condemnation, and as Navalny's supporters have called for a protest this evening near the Kremlin on Manezh Square - 2 février 2021: L’opposant russe Alexeï Navalny a qualifié sa comparution mardi devant la justice de tentative de 'faire peur à des millions' de Russes et s’est lancé dans un réquisitoire contre Vladimir Poutine
3 February 2021 UN office voiced deep dismay at the sentencing of A. Navalny calling for the immediate release of protesters: 3 February 2021: UN human rights office voiced deep dismay on Wednesday at the sentencing of Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny and called for the immediate release of peaceful protesters, including some 1,400 arrested on Tuesday
3 February 2021 1,438 more pro-democracy Russian protesters reportedly arrested amid brutal police crackdown: 3 February 2021: 1,438 more pro-democracy Russian citizens and protesters reportedly arrested amid brutal police crackdown following imprisonment of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, saying that his 32-month imprisonment will have not have 'significant influence' on Russian politics or lead to a mass protest movement similar to the one in neighbouring Belarus, as protesters detained at recent rallies in support of Navalny have complained of inhumane conditions and as police hold them in overcrowded jails or on buses in subzero temperatures days after their arrest
4 February 2021 Russian pro-Navalny detainees and relatives denounce jail conditions: 4 February 2021: Russian pro-Navalny detainees and relatives denounce jail conditions, as videos emerge from holding centre showing cells meant for eight filled with two or three times as many
5 February 2021 Putin regime expels German, Polish and Swedish diplomats over protests: 5 février 2021: Poutine régime a annoncé vendredi expulser des diplomates européens pour avoir participé à des manifestations pro-Alexeï Navalny, peu après que l’UE a jugé les relations russo-européennes au 'plus bas' du fait de l’emprisonnement et de l’empoisonnement de l’opposant
10 February 2021 Alexei Navalny's wife arrives in Germany on flight from Russia: 10 February 2021: Alexei Navalny's wife arrives in Germany on flight from Russia, as associates say departure of Yulia Navalnaya, wife of jailed opposition leader, is temporary
14 February 2021 Navalny supporters to defy Kremlin with candelit protests: 14 February 2021: Navalny supporters to defy Kremlin with candelit protests, as people set to gather in courtyards across Russia, also saying 'Putin is fear. Navalny is love. That’s why we will win', despite authorities warning they could face arrest, also on Valentine’s Day
20 February 2021 Alexei Navalny loses appeal against prison camp sentence: 20 February 2021: Moscow court has rejected an appeal from Alexei Navalny that virtually guarantees the Russian opposition figure will be sent to a prison camp for two and a half years.
27 February 2021 pro-democracy rallies in Russia remembering murdered Putin critic Boris Nemtsov: 27 février 2021: Plusieurs milliers de Russes se sont rassemblés samedi dans le centre de Moscou en mémoire de l’opposant Boris Nemtsov, l’un des principaux détracteurs du président Vladimir Poutine jusqu’à son assassinat il y a six ans
3 March 2021 Navalny succeeds to send a message: 3 mars 2021: De sa cellule, l’opposant russe Navalny assure aller 'bien', car il a réussi, actuellement dans un centre de détention à l’est de Moscou, à poster un message sur Instagram
13 March 2021 Putin regime detains scores of opposition figures at Moscow meeting: 13 March 2021: Russian regime's police detained about 150 people at a meeting of independent and opposition politicians in Moscow on Saturday, accusing them of links to an 'undesirable organisation', a monitoring group and a TV station said
15 March 2021 Alexei Navalny moved to ‘concentration camp’ known for strict control: 15 March 2021: Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny is being held in a prison camp in the Vladimir region of Russia north-east of Moscow known for its strict control of inmates, a message posted on the opposition politician’s Instagram account confirmed on Monday
31 March 2021 Navalny goes on hunger strike in protest at prison treatment: 31 March 2021: Alexei Navalny has gone on hunger strike after saying he was denied urgent medical treatment in prison, has complaining of a 'sharp deterioration' in his health since his transfer to a prison colony in the Vladimir region to serve a two-and-a-half year sentence on embezzlement charges, as the colony 60 miles from Moscow is notoriously strict and said to excel at isolating inmates from the outside world
5 April 2021 Putin passes law that may keep him in office until 2036: 5 April 2021: Vladimir Putin passes law that may keep him in office until 2036, as presidential terms ‘reset’ to allow ruler to run for presidency twice more in his lifetime, making him maybe the longest-serving leader since the Russian empire
6 April 2021 Alexei Navalny 'seriously ill' on prison sick ward, says lawyer: 6 April 2021: Alexei Navalny’s lawyer has said confirmed that the opposition leader is 'seriously ill' after reports emerged that he had been transferred to IK-2 prison colony sick ward for a respiratory illness and had been tested for covid-19, as on Tuesday Putin regime's police arrested several Navalny supporters who travelled to the prison 60 miles east of Moscow to petition for him to receive proper medical care
10 April 2021 Putin regime's police raid home of prominent journalist Roman Anin: 10 April 2021: Russian police raid home of prominent journalist Roman Anin, as officers seize phones and documents at apartment of reporter who investigated Putin regime and who worked on the Panama Papers investigations
18 April 2021 Alexei Navalny allies call for mass protests in Russia to save his life: 18 April 2021: Allies of Alexei Navalny have called on his supporters to stage mass protests on Wednesday in towns and cities all across Russia, amid a dire warning that the jailed Kremlin critic and opposition leader is now dangerously ill and could die 'at any minute'
19 April 2021 Alexei Navalny moved to hospital as fears grow: 19 April 2021: Alexei Navalny moved to hospital as fears grow for life of Putin critic, and as doctors say opposition leader, who is on hunger strike, is in danger of a heart attack or kidney failure
21 April 2021 Putin regime's police have arrested key supporters of Alexei Navalny: 21 April 2021: Putin regime's police have arrested key supporters of Alexei Navalny and begun closing down central squares in Moscow and other cities before demonstrations planned for Wednesday evening in support of the jailed opposition leader, while regime critic’s regional headquarters have also been raided as police seek to disrupt, and eventually liquidate, his political organisation across Russia, and as tensions have grown between regime and western capitals over concerns about Navalny’s health in prison, as well as Russia’s military build-up on the border with Ukraine, and accusations of aggressive Russian intelligence operations including a fatal explosion at a Czech ammunition dump in 2014
21 April 2021 thousands attend rallies calling for Navalny’s release: 21 April 2021: Thousands of Russians attend rallies calling for Alexei Navalny’s release, as allies of jailed opposition leader held as police close parts of Moscow and other cities
26 April 2021 regime’s prosecutor has suspended the activities of Alexei Navalny’s nationwide political organisation: 26 April 2021: Russian regime’s prosecutor has suspended the activities of Alexei Navalny’s nationwide political organisation ahead of a court ruling that is expected to outlaw the opposition movement as 'extremist' and threaten supporters with long jail terms
29 April 2021 Navalny has made his first public appearance, on screens: 29 April 2021: Alexei Navalny has made his first public appearance since holding a 24-day hunger strike, appearing gaunt but spirited during a courtroom appeal against a politically motivated defamation conviction
30 April 2021 Putin regime's watchdog adds Navalny network to 'terrorism' database: 30 April 2021: Russia’s state financial watchdog has added Alexei Navalny’s network of regional headquarters to a terrorism watchlist as the Putin regime appears poised to outlaw the opposition leader’s nationwide political movement
30 April 2021 Amnesty International demands the release of lawyer defending Navalny: 30 April 2021: Responding to news that Putin's FSB officers have detained Ivan Pavlov, a human rights lawyer defending the Anti-Corruption Foundation founded by Aleksei Navalny, Amnesty International’s Natalia Zviagina said that 'lawyers are the last line of defence against the government’s growing crackdown on human rights, and now the authorities are going after one of the country’s most courageous lawyers'
7 June 2021 Aleksei Navalny transferred back to his court-mandated prison: 7 juin 2021: Le principal opposant russe, Alexeï Navalny, a été transféré vers son lieu de détention habituel depuis l’hôpital pénitentiaire où il était en observation après une grève de la faim, ont indiqué ses proches et les autorités lundi - 7 June 2021 Aleksei Navalny has been transferred from prison hospital in the Correctional Colony No. 3 back to his court-mandated prison in the Vladimir region
9 June 2021 Russian court expected to outlaw Alexei Navalny’s organisation: 9 June 2021: Russian court expected to outlaw opposition politician Alexei Navalny’s nationwide political organisation on the grounds it is 'extremist', in a landmark step forward for Vladimir Putin’s crackdown on political dissent, as the highly anticipated court decision will effectively liquidate Navalny’s non-violent opposition movement and bar his allies from running for office for years, as the regime seeks to erase the jailed opposition leader from Russian political life
10 June 2021 obedient court has outlawed Navalny’s nationwide political organisation: 10 June 2021: Russian Putin regime's obedient court has outlawed opposition politician Alexei Navalny’s nationwide political organisation on the grounds it is 'extremist', as court hearing has coincided with a fierce crackdown on other opposition politicians and even lawyers who have defended the growing tide of political prisoners in court, and as trial marks a change of regime's attitude, which for years had harassed Navalny and his allies but resisted a widespread ban on street opposition, but since Navalny was targeted in a novichok poisoning last year it has grown more aggressive in its efforts to eliminate the opposition and to make a victim a perpetrator
29 June 2021 regime raids journalists probing corruption, preparing to publish against Putin’s interior minister Kolokoltsev: 29 June 2021: Russian police searched the apartments of three investigative journalists including Roman Badanin, Maria Zholobova and Mikhail Rubin, working for independent investigative outlet 'Proekt' and their relatives. as Proekt is one of the last independent media outlets focusing on in-depth investigations
26 July 2021 Putin regime blocks access to websites of Alexei Navalny and close allies: 26 July 2021: Russia blocks access to websites of Alexei Navalny and close allies, as action comes as Putin regime increases pressure on opponents and critics ahead of parliamentary elections
25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny says he is forced to watch state TV in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control: 25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny gives first interview from prison camp, saying he is forced to watch state television in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control
29 August 2021 Russia's Putin regime has silenced opposition voices using tax payers' money, approved cash payouts to potential voters: 29 August 2021: Russia's Putin regime has silenced opposition voices, approved cash payouts to potential voters, and made it nearly impossible to monitor the polls as it prepares for 'parliamentary elections' next month that the opposition has warned will be marred by fraud
17-19 September Russian Legislative elections: 17-19 September Russian Legislative elections, as 'United Russia' is the ruling party after winning the 2016 elections with 54.2% of the vote, taking 343 seats
17 September 2021 Russians will head to the polls for parliamentary elections: 17 September 2021: Russians will head to the polls for parliamentary elections that could serve as a platform for popular anger over the economy, a crackdown on dissent and the government response to the covid-19 pandemic, but the ruling Putin party 'United Russia' is likely to find a way to maintain a stranglehold on its control of the State Duma - 17 September 2021: Apple and Google accused of ‘political censorship’ over Alexei Navalny app, as Navalny’s supporters say companies deleted tactical voting app from stores after pressure from Kremlin
20 September 2021 EU and 'Golos' reported threats, intimidation and Russia’s opposition has denounced the parliamentary election as a sham: 20 September 2021: Russia’s opposition has denounced the parliamentary election as a sham, after results handed the pro-Kremlin United Russia party victory, as election watchdog 'Golos' recorded thousands of violations, including threats against observers and ballot stuffing, blatant examples of which circulated on social media, and as EU foreign affairs spokesman Stano said 'what we have seen in the run-up to these elections was an atmosphere of intimidation of all the critical independent voices' and 'there was no international independent observation'
25 September 2021 Russians join Moscow protest over parliamentary election: 25 September 2021: Moscow people, angered by last week's parliamentary election, joined a protest in central Moscow on Saturday, holding posters carrying slogans such as 'bring back the elections'
25 January 2022 Russia adds jailed regime critic Navalny to list of ‘terrorists’: 25 January 2022: Russian regime's authorities have added jailed critic Alexey Navalny and a handful of his allies to an official list of 'terrorists and extremists', as - also on Tuesday - local news agencies reported that the federal prison service had demanded that Navalny’s brother Oleg be given a jail term in place of a one-year suspended sentence handed to him last year
26 January 2022 Russia issues arrest warrant for Navalny’s brother: 26 January 2022 Russia's Putin regime issues arrest warrant for Navalny’s brother, part of ongoing criminal efforts to silence opposition voices as almost all of Alexei Navalny’s most prominent allies have fled Russia after he was jailed and his organisations were outlawed
15 February 2022 Alexei Navalny after surviving poisoning attempt faces 15 more years in prison: 15 February 2022: Alexei Navalny faces 15 more years in prison as new trial starts at penal colony far from support base where Navalny is serving a three-and-a-half-year sentence at the prison for a fabricated charge after he survived a poisoning attempt on his life in 2020 and was arrested after returning to Russia last year with the intention to tear off the mask of the brutal Putin regime walking over corpses
Since 24 February 2022 ongoing anti-war demonstrations/protests against Putin regime's invasion of Ukraine: Since 24 February 2022 ongoing anti-war demonstrations and protests in Russia against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, that sparked immediate daily protests in cities across Russia and worldwide, as Russian Putin regime's authorities have tried to intimidate the protesters through a total of 5,794 arrests by the end of Sunday 27 February - Since 24 February 2022 national and international pro-Ukrainian protests have occurred at several of Russia's embassies and consulates abroad, including those in meanwhile 59 global countries, listed by 'Wikipedia', page last edited on 1 March 2022 - Since 24 February 2022 International reactions - listed alphabetically by continent and countries - to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, also including intergovernmental and international organizations, political parties, opposition politicians and other political groups, international human rights organizations, non-governmental organizations and non-political groups, listed by continent and countries by 'Wikipedia', page last edited on 1 March 2022
22 March 2022 Alexei Navalny has been given 9 years in a 'strict regime penal colony': 22 March 2022: Russia's most prominent opposition figure Alexei Navalny has been given nine years in a 'strict regime penal colony' in a fraud case rejected by supporters as fabricated, as Navalny was detained when he returned to Russia last year, after surviving a poisoning attack he blamed on the Kremlin, and as he is already serving three and a half years in jail for breaking bail conditions while in hospital
8 July 2022 Moscow councillor jailed for 7 years for speaking out against Russia's war in Ukraine: 8 July 2022: A Moscow councillor has been jailed for seven years for speaking out against Russia's war in Ukraine - in what is said to be the first full jail term under new laws targeting dissent, as Alexei Gorinov was arrested in April after he was filmed criticising Putin's invasion of Ukraine - a war crime according to internatinal law - in a city council meeting
30 August 2022 eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev died after long illness: 30 August 2022: Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, died after a long illness at the Moscow Central Clinical Hospital, provoking responses from many current and former world leaders and politicians - Reception and legacy of Gorbachev's politics
2 September 2022 before he died Gorbachev was shocked and bewildered by the Ukraine conflict: 2 September 2022: Mikhail Gorbachev, the last Soviet president, was shocked and bewildered by the Ukraine conflict in the months before he died and psychologically crushed in recent years by Moscow’s worsening ties with Kyiv, according to his interpreter Pavel Palazhchenko, who worked with Gorbachev for 37 years and was at his side at numerous Soviet-USA summits, and who spoke to Gorbachev a few weeks ago by phone and said he and others had been struck by how traumatised he was by events in Ukraine.
5 September 2022 Russian court sentenced ex-journalist Ivan Safronov to 22 years, finding him guilty of treason: 5 September 2022: A Russian court has sentenced ex-journalist Ivan Safronov to 22 years in a penal colony after finding him guilty of treason, as the former defence reporter Safronov for the Kommersant and Vedomosti newspapers turned adviser to the head of Russia’s space agency, was arrested in 2020 and accused of disclosing classified information
10 February 2023 Russian journalist Mikhail Fishman reported oppositional actions against Putin's Ukraine war: 10 February 2023: Mikhail Fishman reported in a blog of the Kennan Institute offering insights into Russia’s politics, history, culture and society, that 'in Krasnodar, a city in the south of Russia, a local couple has been detained after they sympathized with Ukraine in a private conversation in a restaurant, and another visitor joined their discussion, that in Nizhny Novgorod, a mechanic at an aircraft factory was fined 30,000 rubles after the authorities received a report that he was tearing leaflets supporting the Russian military off the factory walls, that in Tver, 160km northwest of Moscow, a local official reported on two women who had laid flowers and soft toys at a local memorial to victims of political repression as a tribute to the Ukrainians who had died in the shelling of a residential building in Dnipro on January 14, that in the small town of Kasimov, 300km from Russia, the police identified a woman who had left an antiwar message in a public bathroom in a local shopping mall, that in Saratov, a city on the Volga river, a doctor in a local perinatal center received the same fine, 30,000 rubles, after she said she opposed the war in Ukraine, as in Moscow, there is hardly any reminder of the war, apart from the increased number of police and the officially installed letters Z and V, emblems of Putin’s war.
23-24 June 2023 'Wagner mercenary group' rebellion: 23 June 2023 Wagner Group rebellion, Rostov-on-Don is captured by the Wagner Group - 23–24 June 2023 Russian paramilitary organization 'Wagner mercenary group' initiated a rebellion against the criminal Putin regime and its military. The revolt arose amidst escalating tensions between the Russian ministry of 'defence' and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the leader of Wagner mercenaries. Prigozhin portrayed the rebellion as a response to an alleged attack including airstrikes on his forces by the ministry. He dismissed the regime's justification for its invasion of Ukraine, placing blame on regime's Sergei Shoigu for its military shortcomings, and accusing him of waging the war for the benefit of Russian elites, citing Russian opposition's critism of Putin regime's corruption. 15 Russian soldiers were killed during the fight in Rostov-on-Don, while no casualties were reported among Wagner fighters. Following negotiations with Belarusian dictator Lukashenko, Prigozhin agreed to stand down, and as of 11:00 p.m. on 24 June began withdrawing from Rostov-on-Don
24 June 2023 ongoing Wagner Group's ongoing withdrawal from Rostov-on-Don: 24 June 2023 Wagner Group's ongoing withdrawal from Rostov-on-Don
Since 2013 Wagner Group's organisation, politics activities are linked to white supremacist and neo-Nazi far-right extremists: The 'Wagner mercenary group' first appeared in Ukraine in 2014, where it participated in the annexation of Crimea, after in 2013 ita founder Dmitriy Valeryevich Utkin began working for the Moran Security Group, a private company of Russian military veterans, which was involved in 'security' and training missions worldwide. The same year, senior Moran Security Group managers were involved in setting up the Hong Kong-based 'Slavonic Corps', which headhunted contractors to 'protect oil fields and pipelines' in Assad's war since 2011 against the Syrian people. Wagner Group's organisation, politics activities are linked to white supremacist and neo-Nazi far-right extremists, such as Wagner's openly far-right and neo-Nazi Rusich unit, and Wagner members have left neo-Nazi graffiti on the battlefield. In 2021, it was said that the group's name comes from its founder Utkin's own call sign 'Wagner', reportedly after the German composer Richard Wagner, which Utkin is said to have chosen due to his passion for the 'Third Reich', when Richard Wagner was Adolf Hitler's favorite composer.
Since 2015 Wagner Group activities in Syria, and further mainly in Africa: The presence of private military companies PMCs in Syria was first reported in late October 2015 in Latakia province, employed by the Russian Defense Ministry. Wagner PMCs were notably involved in both Palmyra offensives in 2016 and 2017, as well as the Syrian Army's campaign in central Syria in the summer of 2017 and the Battle of Deir ez-Zor in late 2017. They were in the role of frontline advisors, fire and movement coordinators, forward air controllers who provided guidance to close air support and 'shock troops' alongside Assad's army. Involved in 2018 in the Battle of Khasham, the Wagner Group then took part in the Assad regime's Rif Dimashq offensive against the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta, east of Damascus, the in Assad's offensive in northwestern Syria since 2019. In March 2023, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights SOHR still reported the presence and activities of the 'Wagner mercenary group' in the country. Wagner Group activities were further documented in Sudan, the Central African Republic, Madagascar, Libya, Venezuela, Mozambique, Mali, and more countries.
26 June 2023 Wagner mercenaries will not be withdrawn from Africa, says Putin regime: 26 June 2023: Putin regime's FM Sergei Lavrov has moved to reassure allies in Africa that thousands of Wagner group fighters deployed to the continent will not be withdrawn after the mutiny led by their commander Yevgeny Prigozhin over the weekend, pledging that 'instructors' and 'private military contractors' would remain in Central African Republic and Mali, the two countries in sub-Saharan Africa where Wagner has the biggest presence. Both are considered strategic prizes by the Kremlin, which sees them as a springboard to greater influence on the continent and a source of lucrative natural resources.
20 July 2023 Russian prosecutors seek 20 more years in prison for Navalny: 20 July 2023: Russian prosecutors seek 20 more years in prison for Navalny on charges including 'extremism', which he says are fabricated to keep him out of political life, 'Al Jazeera' reports
27 August 2023 over 20 years of ruthlessness - how Putin's regime has silenced his opponents: 27 August 2023: Since its beginning Putin's regime has silenced his opponents. The form of the attacks has varied, from underwear daubed with the nerve agent novichok and polonium-laced tea to more straightforward assassinations by bullet, but throughout Putin’s rule since 1999 his critics, journalists and defected spies have met with similarly ruthless treatment for opposing his rule. The fatal crash of a private jet carrying the Wagner chief Yevgeny Prigozhin two months after he spearheaded a mutiny against Russia’s top army brass two months ago appeared to have added a new method to the Kremlin’s extensive assassination menu.
22 February 2024 Biden met with Alexei Navalny’s widow Yulia and daughter in California: 22 February 2024: Joe Biden met with Alexei Navalny’s widow Yulia Navalnaya and his daughter Dasha Navalnaya in California, after the main opposition leader to the Russian Putin regime died in an Arctic penal colony last Friday after being imprisoned by the regime
24 February 2024 Alexei Navalny’s body given to mother by Putin regime's authorities: 24 February 2024: The body of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has been handed over to his mother nine days after he died in an Arctic prison, his spokesperson announced on Saturday. In a post on X, Kira Yarmysh thanked 'all those who had demanded' the return of his body, but added that she did not know if the authorities would allow a public funeral to be held.
26 February 2024 Putin had Navalny killed to thwart prisoner swap, allies claim: 26 February 2024: Alexei Navalny’s allies have alleged that Vladimir Putin had the opposition leader killed in jail to sabotage a prisoner swap in which Navalny would have been exchanged for a convicted hitman jailed in Germany. Maria Pevchikh, a close ally of the opposition leader, said in a video that Navalny and two USA nationals were in line to be exchanged for Vadim Krasikov, a Russian FSB security service hitman who is serving a life sentence in Germany for the assassination of a Chechen former separatist in Berlin. 'Navalny should have been free in the next few days because we had secured a decision to exchange him', Pevchikh said.


North Caucasian Federal District, Committee for the Prevention of Torture in Russia, Chechen–Russian conflict and the insurgency in the North Caucasus: North Caucasian Federal District - Committee for the Prevention of Torture in Russia - Chechen–Russian conflict, a centuries-long conflict, often armed, between Russian regimes and various Chechen nationalist and Islamist forces - Insurgency in the North Caucasus, concentrated in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria
2012-2016 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2012 - List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2015 - List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2016
2018 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2018
2019 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2019
Politics of Chechnya: Politics of Chechnya
2012: 6 August 2012: Interior ministry troops among the dead after suspected bombers strike outside Grozny - 21 September 2012: At least 12 people killed in fighting between army and Islamist fighters in Chechnya and Kabardino-Balkaria - 21 October 2012: Raids involving both local and federal Russian troops destroyed 90 bases across several republics in North Caucasus, Russia says
2014: 2014 Grozny clashes - 4 December 2014: At least six gunmen and three policemen reportedly killed in gun battles in which a building was stormed in Grozny
2016 10 March 2016: Journalists on a tour organised by human rights activists in Chechnya have been attacked by masked men, with their minibus burned and two reporters hospitalised, according to activists - 21 March 2016: After being thrown out of his hotel in Grozny and attacked, the head of the Committee to Prevent Torture Igor Kalyapin speaks out over office raids, beatings of journalists and attack on him in street
2018 Kadyrov's oppression: 10 January 2018: Human rights activist Titiev in Chechnya faces up to 10 years in prison on drug possession charges that critics have said were trumped up by officials as revenge for his reports on rights abuses - 20 mai 2018: Quatre rebelles, deux policiers et un civil ont été tués en Tchétchénie lors d'une attaque contre une église orthodoxe, en plein centre de Grozny
September 2019 Kadyrov regime's oppression and death squads: 21 September 2019: Ramzan Kadyrov rules the Caucasus republic through fear and oppression, amid reports of torture, but those seeking asylum in Europe are not safe, as assassins hunt them down
15 July 2021 how public ‘apologies’ are used against domestic abuse victims in Chechnya: 15 July 2021: Activists say Ramzan Kadyrov’s regime uses televised confessions ‘under duress’ to hold back women’s rights, despite changes in society, as Khalimat Taramova only a couple of weeks fled her home, where she said she was subjected to violence after going against her family’s wishes, and sought help from a group of women’s rights activists, the Marem project, who let her stay in a flat in the neighbouring republic of Dagestan, then pleading for the Chechen authorities not to come looking for her, and days later the flat was raided by more than 20 men working for the Russian police and Chechen security forces, according to a journalist and activist who was present, as two activists say they were beaten and detained, and Taramova was taken back to Chechnya
4 July 2023 Kadyrov regime's oppression and death squads: 4 July 2023: Assailants have carried out a brutal attack on a human rights lawyer and a prominent Russian journalist in Chechnya, leaving them with stab wounds, broken fingers and head wounds. The brazen assault on journalist Elena Milashina and lawyer Alexander Nemov in Grozny, Chechnya’s capital, was the most vicious in recent memory, leading even to a rare rebuke from the Putin regime which called it a 'very serious attack that requires rather energetic measures'. Similar attacks in Chechnya, however, have gone unpunished for years.
Dagestan: Dagestan
May 2012: 4 May 2012: Two blasts near a police post killed at least 15 people and wounded more than 20 in Dagestan - 20. Mai 2012: Sieben Tote bei Anti-Terror-Einsätzen im Nordkaukasus - 19 August: Masked gunmen burst into a mosque in the troubled Russian Caucasus region of Dagestan, wounding eight - 28. August 2012: Selbstmordattentat auf Islamgelehrten und Amoklauf in Kaserne
May 2013: 20 May 2013: Two car bombs killed at least three people and wounded dozens of others on Monday in Dagestan's provincial capital Makhachkala - 25 May 2013: Female suicide bomber, a widow of two Islamic radicals killed by security forces, injures 18 people
April 2017 beatings and death threats part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers: 2 April 2017: Beatings and death threats are part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers enslaved in the remote Russian republic of Dagestan
Ingushetia: Ingushetia
August 2012 six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague: 19 August 2012: Six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague


Foreign relations of Russia: Foreign relations of Russia
Wars involving the Russian Empire: Wars involving the 1721-1917 Russian Empire
Until 1917 Military history of the Russian Empire: Military history of the Russian Empire, the 1547-1721 'Tsardom of Russia', and the 1721-1917 Russian Empire - Territorial changes of Russia - Foreign policy of the Russian Empire
1914-1918 European theatre of World War I: The Eastern Front of the European theatre of 1914-1918 World War I started by the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire - Allies of World War I, the members of the original 'Triple Entente of 1907' were the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire, Italy and Japan entered the war on the side of the Entente, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Romania were affiliated members of the Entente
1889-1916 'Socialist International' and 1917 Russian Revolution against war and tsarist autocracy: 1898-1918 Russian Social Democratic Labour Party - 1889-1916 'Socialist International' organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on 14 July 1889, the anniversary of the French Revolution - 1917 Russian Revolution against war and tsarist autocracy - 'Decree on Peace' passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the 8 November 1917
1918 Central Powers' 'Operation Faustschlag': February/March 1918 'Operation Faustschlag', the last major offensive of the German and Austro-Hungarian empires on the Eastern Front in World War I, supported by the Social Democratic Party of Germany after it had expelled opposition members against the World War in January 1917 including Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Hugo Haase, capturing huge territories in the Baltics, Belarus, and Ukraine and forcing the Bolshevik government of Russia to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1918-1925 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: 1918-1925 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War by the British Empire (United Kingdom and colonies, Canada, Australia, British 'Raj'), USA, French Empire, Empire of Japan, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Serbia and China to support the 'Russia White movement' and to destroy the 1917 Russian Revolution begun to abolish despotism, class rule and the causes of war
1917/1922-1991 Military history of the Soviet Union: 1917/1922-1991 Military history of the Soviet Union - The Eastern Front of World War II, theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 - 1947-1991 'Cold War', a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies, and powers in the Western Bloc, the USA, its NATO allies and others, including several regional conflicts and wars
Since 1936 Foreign military aid of the Soviet Union: Foreign military aid of the Soviet Union, since 1936 supporting the 1931-1939 Second Spanish Republic against the allied fascists
1939-1945 European theatre of World War II: Eastern Front of the European theatre of 1939-1945 World War II started by the German Empire - Allies of World War II promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression, in 1939 the 'Allies' consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom, colonies and dependent states such as the British India and was formalised by the Declaration by 'United Nations', from 1 January 1942, the basis of the United Nations in 1945 with 51 member states and today 193
1941–1945 Jews in the Red Army: 1941–1945 Jews in the Red Army - from 1941 to 1945 between 350,000 and 500,000 Jews served in various roles in the Red Army during the Soviet-German war of 1941-1945, in the Red Army itself the estimates of the number of Jews killed during the war range from 120,000 to 142,000
1949/1950, following World War II: Founded in 1950, the 'World Peace Council' was an international organization that advocates universal disarmament, sovereignty, independence, peaceful co-existence, and campaigns against imperialism, weapons of mass destruction and all forms of discrimination - 1947-1991 Soviet influence on the peace movement - Founded in 1949 'Soviet Peace Committee' was a state-sponsored organization responsible for coordinating respective movements active in the Soviet Union, and existed until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991
March 1950: On 15 March 1950 the 'World Peace Council' approved the Stockholm Appeal initiated by the French Communist physicist Frédéric Joliot-Curie, calling for an absolute ban on nuclear weapons and gathering petitions allegedly signed by 273,470,566 persons including the entire adult population of the U.S.S.R.
1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU: 1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU, the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
1987–1989 Gorbachev's reforms until in the revolutions of 1989 Central/Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change: Further reform: 1987–1989, including domestic reforms, relations with China and Western states, nationality question and the Eastern Bloc, until in the revolutions of 1989, most of the Marxist–Leninist states of Central and Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change
Since 1991 Military history of the Russian Federation: Since 1991 Military history of the Russian Federation - Military budget of the Russian Federation
Russian military installations and bases abroad: Military installations of Russia in other countries - List of Russian military bases abroad
Since 1991: Following the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, the 'World Peace Council' lost most of its support, dwindled to a small core group and lost most of its income and most of its staff - 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union - Since 1991 KGB sans phrase, now without Soviet flag, remaining in power - the main secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force since 1954, as a direct successor of such preceding agencies as the Cheka, NKGB, and MGB, now split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service
Since 1999/2000 Putin's KGB-regime and Russia's foreign policy: Russia's foreign policy and Putin regime since 1999/2000
Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Cyberwarfare by Russia includes denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures, according to investigative journalist Andrei Soldatov, some of these activities have been coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which is part of the FSB and was formerly a part of the 16th KGB department
Russian hacker groups: 22 June 2017: The World’s most dangerous hacker groups include 'Fancy Bear', which comes out of the GRU, Russia’s military intelligence agency, 'Cozy Bear', which represents the FSB, Russian antivirus firm Kaspersky and Sandworm group, believed to be associated with the Russians
Since 2004 GRU's 'Fancy Bear' cyber espionage group: Since 2004 'Fancy Bear' cyber espionage group. Cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike has said with a medium level of confidence that it is associated with the Russian military intelligence agency GRU - Cyber attacks by 'Fancy Bear'
Since 2008 FSB's 'Cozy Bear' and attacks: Since 2008 'Cozy Bear', a Russian hacker group believed to be associated with Russian intelligence, as the Dutch AIVD deduced from security camera footage that it is led by the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service - Cyber attacks by 'Cozy Bear'
Since 2003 'web brigades' and 'Internet Research Agency': Since 2003 Russian 'web brigades' (known as Russia's troll army, Russian bots, Kremlinbots, troll factory, or troll farms) are state-sponsored anonymous Internet political commentators and trolls linked to the Russian Putin regime, participants report that they are organized into teams and groups of commentators that participate in Russian and international political blogs and Internet forums using sockpuppets and large-scale orchestrated trolling and disinformation campaigns to promote pro-Putin and pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 'Internet Research Agency' (known in Russian Internet slang as the Trolls from Olgino), a Russian company based in Saint Petersburg and engaged in online influence operations on behalf of Russian business and political interests
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
September 2018: 13 September 2018: Russian social network hosts 'Miss Hitler' beauty pageant
Since 2011 Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2011 Russian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2011 vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China: Vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China since 2011
Since 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2015 Russian military intervention in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2016: 22 January 2016: Russian warships make display of might in eastern Mediterranean off coast of Syria - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases, actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - 6 July 2016: Three Palestinians were killed and at least five injured by apparent Russian airstrikes on Monday targeting the Khan al-Shih neighborhood southwest of Damascus which is considered a Palestinian refugee camp, causing heavy damage to civilian houses and destroying a building housing the foundation’s Child Friendly Space, according to the Jafra Foundation - 14 November 2016: Russian regime's warplane MiG-29 has crashed into the eastern Mediterranean as it was coming in to land on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier off the coast of Syria - 21 November 2016: Russian MiG-29 jet fighter from the Admiral Kuznetsov carrier reportedly crashed into the sea because the arrestor gear rope snapped and engine failure
24 November 2016: 24 November 2016: Russia and terror organization Hezbollah have begun 'official' military coordination in Syria at the behest of Russian regime, establishing 'continual' communication and shared channels between the two sides over what’s happening on the battlefield, as Russia is especially interested in coordinating with Hezbollah’s infantry on the ground in Aleppo
Since 2014 Crimea annexation following Russian military intervention in Ukraine:
2013: 28 March 2013: Russia's Putin ordered unscheduled military exercises involving thousands of troops and dozens of ships in the Black Sea region
Since 2014: Russian military intervention in Ukraine since February 2014 - Since 2014 Crimea crisis
Since 2013-2015: International sanctions during the 2013–15 Ukrainian crisis
9 March 2020 trial of Russians and one allied Ukrainian accused of murdering 298 people in MH17 case: 9 March 2020: The trial of three Russians and one Ukrainian accused of murdering 298 people in the shooting down of the MH17 aircraft over eastern Ukraine has begun in the Netherlands, as presiding judge Hendrik Steenhuis said 'the loss of so many lives and the manner in which they so abruptly ended is barely conceivable', and as murderous and coward Russian Putin regime has always denied any involvement in the brutal shooting down of the civilian plane and war crimes in Syria
International membership of the Russian Federation, obstruction and aggression: International membership of the Russian Federation - Multilateral relations of Russia
Russia/United Nations relations: Russia/United Nations relations
1945-1991 Soviet Union and the United Nations: 1945-1991 Soviet Union and the United Nations - In 1945 at the behest of the USA the Soviet Union took a role in the establishment of the UN, insisting that there be veto rights in the Security Council and that alterations in the United Nations Charter be unanimously approved by the five permanent members
1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU: 1985-1990/91 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the CPSU, the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
1987–1989 Gorbachev's reforms until in the revolutions of 1989 Central/Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change: Further reform: 1987–1989, including domestic reforms, relations with China and Western states, nationality question and the Eastern Bloc, until in the revolutions of 1989, most of the Marxist–Leninist states of Central and Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change
1991/1992: The legality of the 1991/1992 Russia's succession of the Soviet Union's UN membership, including its permanent membership on the Security Council in UN, questioned by international lawyer Yehuda Z. Blum, who opined that 'with the demise of the Soviet Union itself, its membership in the UN should have automatically lapsed and Russia should have been admitted to membership in the same way' as other states
2013: 9 June 2013: We can't accept Russia's offer to replace Golan peacekeepers, UN says - 5 September 2013: Russia holding UN Council 'hostage' on Syria, US says - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea ordered Russia to release Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise and its 30 crew members in return for a €3.6 billion bond to be paid by the Netherlands
2014: 5 March 2014: UN special envoy, Dutch diplomat Robert Serry, was forced to abandon a mission to Ukraine's Russian-occupied Crimea region after being stopped by armed men and besieged inside a cafe by a hostile crowd shouting 'Russia! Russia!' - 13 March 2014: The UN Security Council is discussing a possible resolution that would reaffirm Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity - 15 March: Russia vetoes UN resolution against Crimea referendum - 27 March: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid - 29 March: Russia threatened several Eastern European, Asian and African states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a UN resolution against its annexation of Crimea, UN diplomats say - 2 April: In a diplomatic blow to Russia, the UN will continue to view Crimea as part of Ukraine in line with a General Assembly resolution - 14 April: As UN Security Council meets over Ukraine and well-organised pro-Russian attackers using Russian-origin automatic weapons, Britain's UN ambassador says Russia had massed tens of thousands of well-equipped troops near the Ukrainian border in addition to the 25,000 troops it recently moved into Crimea to seize it - 13 June 2014: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 17 June: Russia again finds no support at UN Security Council for a resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine - 6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis
2015: 1 March 2015: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Saturday condemned the assassination of Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov adding that he expects the perpetrators to be brought to justice swiftly - 19 March: Russia refuses to participate in UN Security Council meeting on Crimea - 21 March 2015: Russia to block UN mission in Donbas and will not vote in the UN Security Council on the draft resolution to deploy peacekeepers, regime's Lavrov says - 24 October 2015: UNHCR's Amin Awad says that Russian airstrikes and increased fighting around the Syrian city of Aleppo had contributed to the 'dynamic of displacement', with about 30,000 displaced, as the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs puts the number at 50,000 - 31 October 2015: Making reference to the 'brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international humanitarian law', which was characterized by indiscriminate attacks on civilians areas, such as one reported yesterday in a marketplace in Syria and credited to government forces, UN's Ban Ki-moon along with the head of the ICRC calls for action to stop suffering by ending conflict, saying 'Enough is enough' - 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 2 December 2015: Citing Russia's bombing of the Al-Khafsa water treatment facility in Aleppo province on Thursday Unicef's Hanaa Singer condemns airstrikes cutting water supplies to Aleppo, noting that 'the rules of war, including those meant to protect vital civilian infrastructure, continue to be broken on a daily basis'
2016: 28 October 2016: It was the first time Russia and one of the permanent five members of the security council had failed to get elected to the HRC since its formation a decade ago, and followed a campaign by human rights groups opposing Russian membership because of its role in the bombing of Syrian cities, eastern Aleppo in particular
August 2017: 7 August 2017: UN Syria investigator Carla del Ponte quits over concern about Russian obstruction
September 2017: 5 September 2017: Russian Putin regime threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate and renewal of UN peacekeeper force if Lebanon-based terror organization Hezbollah, its ally in Assad's war against the Syrian people, mentioned
November 2017: 14 November 2017: Russian Putin regime rejects 26 of 29 USA proposals for UN peacekeeping force in Donbas
April 2018: 18 April 2018: OPCW rejects Russian claims of second Salisbury nerve agent
8 November 2019 Russian support of terrorism in Donbas: 8 novembre 2019: La Cour internationale de justice s'est déclarée compétente pour juger une affaire entre la Russia et l'Ukraine, qui accuse la Russie de financer le terrorisme en soutenant les rebelles séparatistes dans l'est de l'Ukraine
8 September 2020 UN urges Russia to probe Navalny poisoning: 8 September 2020: UN rights chief calls on Russian regime to conduct or cooperate with a 'thorough, transparent, independent and impartial investigation' into the alleged nerve agent attack on Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny
3 February 2021 UN office voiced deep dismay at the sentencing of A. Navalny calling for the immediate release of protesters: 3 February 2021: UN human rights office voiced deep dismay on Wednesday at the sentencing of Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny, calling for the immediate release of peaceful protesters, including some 1,400 arrested on Tuesday, as UN's spokeswoman Ravina Shamdasani also said, concerning a 2014 suspended sentence in an embezzlement case, 'that the European Court of Human Rights had in 2017 already unanimously found to be arbitrary, unfair and manifestly unreasonable'
28 October 2021 UN experts urge CAR above all to cut ties with Russia's mercenaries: 28 October 2021: UN experts urged the CAR to cut ties with Russia's Wagner group, accusing the private security force of violent harassment, intimidation and sexual abuse. Wagner personnel have been reported in the CAR and other African countries, as well as in Syria and Libya, and Mali's junta has also contemplated a deal, as French FM Le Drian has called them 'a company of Russian mercenaries which makes war by proxy on Russia's account', adding that 'even if Russia denies it, nobody is fooled'.
Since February 2022 escalating Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, despite UN Charter's prohibition: Since 24 February 2022 fresh and escalating wave of Russian Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, as - according to many specialists - the invasion of Ukraine, part of the Russo-Ukrainian War that started in 2014, violated the Charter of the United Nations prohibition on aggression and constitutes a crime of aggression according to international criminal law. Many indiscriminate attacks on civilian areas by Russian forces have occurred during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, which may constitute war crimes
21 February 2023 Russia will halt participation in New Start nuclear arms treaty: 21 February 2023: Russia's dictator Putin has said Russia will halt its participation in New Start, the last major remaining nuclear arms control treaty with the USA, in a speech devoted to the one-year anniversary of Russia’s large-scale invasion of Ukraine
Russian regime and the international criminal court:
November 2016: 16 November 2016: Russian regime is formally withdrawing its signature from the founding statute of the International Criminal Court, a day after the court published a report classifying the Russian annexation of Crimea as an occupation - 16 November 2016: Russia’s announcement that it was formally withdrawing its signature from the founding statute of the International Criminal Court is designed 'to evade accountability for the war crimes its forces are committing against civilians in Syria', Syrian Coalition says
December 2019 UN report predicts 'bleak outlook' for the world as compliance with international law is declining: 5 December 2019: Attacks on healthcare workers have reached a record high according to UN’s global humanitarian overview 2020 report, that predicts a 'bleak outlook' for the world’s poorest people due to intense armed conflict and the climate emergency, as the number of highly violent conflicts has risen to 41, from 36 in 2018, causing deaths, injuries, significant displacement and hunger, and as compliance with international law is declining, while attacks against aid and health workers in areas hit by conflict are putting 'millions of people at risk' by denying them care and aid
Putin regime's war crimes, regime's terrorism and politics of lying:
November 2006: November 2006 Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in London using Polonium-210 produced in state-regulated nuclear reactors
2014: 17 April 2014: Putin, who earlier denied the presence of Russian troops in Crimea who described themselves as self-defense forces, admits during a Q&A session that people in military uniforms without any insignia in Crimea were Russian military -
Since 17 July 2014: International reactions to the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown by Russian BUK missile
2015: 8 October 2015: 'Bellingcat' says that scenarios of the terrorist downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 in July 2014 'presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 17 December 2015: Putin admits Russian military in Ukraine at annual marathon press conference - 25 December 2015: Amnesty International responds to Russia's denial of committing war crimes in Syria, saying that the organization has compelling evidence that Russian airstrikes targeted civilians in markets, hospitals, mosques and populated areas and evidence of the use of cluster bombs
2016: 13 May 2016: Eastern Ukraine and Syria become a testing ground for Russian regime's modernized military equipment and weaponry in combat conditions, according to regime's Putin - 19 September 2016: Sweden, USA, Romania, Denmark, Estonia and Lithuania declared they do not recognize Russian MP's to be elected in Crimea
March 2018: 4 March 2018 Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salibury using 'novichok'
April 2018: 18 April 2018: OPCW rejects Russian claims of second Salisbury nerve agent - 25 April 2018: Russian regime says it has nothing to do with Russian contractors fighting in Syria but on three recent occasions groups of men flying in from Damascus headed straight to a defense ministry base in Molkino, Reuters reporters witnessed
Since February 2022 escalating Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, despite UN Charter's prohibition: Since 24 February 2022 fresh and escalating wave of Russian Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, as - according to many specialists - the invasion of Ukraine, part of the Russo-Ukrainian War that started in 2014, violated the Charter of the United Nations prohibition on aggression and constitutes a crime of aggression according to international criminal law. Many indiscriminate attacks on civilian areas by Russian forces have occurred during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, which may constitute war crimes
Since 1996 Russia in the Council of Europe: Since 1996 Russian membership in the Council of Europe, founded on 5 May 1949 by the 'Statute of the Council of Europe' (Treaty of London), signed by Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom - List of Council of Europe treaties
Russia/Europe relations:
2012/2013: 19 October 2012: The member of anti-Kremlin punk group Yekaterina Samutsevich freed on appeal has taken her case to the European Court of Human Rights, her lawyer said on Friday, accusing Russia of violating her right to freedom of speech and illegally detaining her - 25 July 2013: The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Russian officials violated the rights of jailed Mikhail Khodorkovsky, but the court rejected his claim that his trial was political
2014: 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European Court of Human Rights - 31 October: OSCE outraged at Russian actor Porechenkov's shooting in Donetsk at the positions of Ukrainian forces in a helmet with the inscription 'Press'
2015: 6 February: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel in truce talks in Ukraine and Russia as TV report from Debaltseve shows 'a town almost too dangerous to live in' due to Russian weapons - 24 February: Russian regime's Lavrov leaves Normandy format talks in Paris - 28 May 2015: Nato's Jens Stoltenberg says Russian plans such as the deployment of nuclear-capable missiles near the Polish border and to move nuclear forces in Crimea are 'deeply troubling and dangerous' - 3 September 2015: Aggression of the Russian Federation in Ukraine poses a challenge to security in Europe, the representatives of eight Nordic-Baltic countries say at a meeting on regional security in Copenhagen
2016: 31 March 2016: 'Russian aggression in Ukraine is security threat for the entire European continent', Professor Valbona Zeneli says in Kyiv, adding that 'there is a strong need for cooperative approaches to these challenges' - 5 December 2016: To tackle the Russian aggression in Europe, the USA will boost its presence on the continent, the USA's Air Force Secretary Deborah James tells Reuters, adding that she's considering 'Russia to be the biggest threat'
17 February 2021 ECHR tells Russia to free Alexei Navalny on safety grounds: The European court of human rights has told Russia to free Alexei Navalny, prompting a new standoff between Europe and Moscow over the fate of Vladimir Putin’s staunchest critic, as in the ruling published on Wednesday, the Strasbourg-based court granted Navalny a temporary release from jail because it said the government 'could not provide sufficient safeguards for his life and health'
Since February 2022 escalating Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, despite UN Charter's prohibition: Since 24 February 2022 fresh and escalating wave of Russian Putin regime's war crimes in Ukraine, as - according to many specialists - the invasion of Ukraine, part of the Russo-Ukrainian War that started in 2014, violated the Charter of the United Nations prohibition on aggression and constitutes a crime of aggression according to international criminal law. Many indiscriminate attacks on civilian areas by Russian forces have occurred during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, which may constitute war crimes
Russia a participating state in the OSCE: Since 1990 Russian Federation a participating state in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe - 1975 'Helsinki Accords' of the 'Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe' of 35 states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, enumerate 10 articles including 'Refraining from the threat or use of force', 'Inviolability of frontiers', 'Territorial integrity of States', 'Peaceful settlement of disputes' and 'Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms', and represent a political commitment by all signatories - Legal status, structure and institutions of the OSCE
Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership: Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership
Arctic policy of Russia and territorial claims: Arctic policy of Russia - Territorial claims in the Arctic
2007: 2 August 2007: Russia claims North Pole by planting flag on seabed
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform and environmental issues - 2013 Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 29 septembre: Un tribunal russe a ordonné dimanche le placement en détention pour deux mois de six autres membres de l'équipage du navire de Greenpeace, l'Arctic Sunrise - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 17 octobre: 11 Prix Nobel de la Paix écrivent à Poutine prenant la défense des 30 membres d'équipage d'un navire de Greenpeace arrêtés en septembre - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise - 23 octobre: La Russie réduit les charges de l'équipage Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme', punissable de sept ans - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention - 16 November: Greenpeace organised protests in 263 cities around the world on Saturday to mark two months since 30 of its environmental activists were jailed in Russia - 21 novembre: Huit militants de Greenpeace libérés sous caution en Russie - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea orders Russia to free Greenpeace activists - 25 December: Russia drops charges against 19 Greenpeace activists - 27 December: Dutch Greenpeace activist Faiza Oulahsen who spent more than two months in Russian prison says the ordeal has made her 'even more dedicated' to saving the Arctic environment - 28 décembre: Des militants de Greenpeace amnistiés demandent des excuses à la Russie - 25 August 2015: A court in the Netherlands has ordered Russia to pay compensation for seizing the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise during a protest against an offshore oil platform two years ago, ruling that Russia violated international maritime conventions
2015: 21 June 2015: As Russia's Arctic territorial claims encompass an area of roughly 1.2m sqkm, regime announces deploying new radar stations and fighter aircraft on islands - 25 July 2015: Russian military strengthens forces in oil-rich Arctic region
2014 Russia's suspension from 'Group of Eight' G8 and sanctions: Russia's suspension from the G8 nations after its 2014 military intervention in Ukraine - List of individuals sanctioned during the 2014 Crimean crisis - 24 March 2014: G7 countries snub Putin and refuse to attend planned G8 summit in Russia amid fears of further Russian military moves in Ukraine, warning Russia of more sanctions if Ukraine crisis escalates - 26 April 2014: In a joint statement the G7 nations say they will act urgently to intensify 'targeted sanctions' on Russian regime
Bilateral relations of Russia: Bilateral relations of Russia
Russia/Afghanistan relations: Russia/Afghanistan relations
1979-1992 history of Afghanistan and foreign powers:: 1979-1992 history of Afghanistan - Soviet–Afghan War 1979-1989, Mujahideen insurgent groups, who received aid from several Western and Muslim countries, fought against the Soviet Army and allied Afghan forces, 850,000–1.5 million civilians were killed in the conflict - 1989-1992 phase of the Afghan Civil War began after the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Afghan communist government to fend for itself against the Mujahideen - War in Afghanistan 1978–present
2015 Putin regime's exchange information with the Taliban and wants to supply weapons: 23 December 2015: Russia wants to supply weapons to Afghanistan and has established communication channels to exchange information with the Taliban, Putin's special envoy on Afghanistan Zamir Kabulov tells Interfax
2017: 24 April 2017: Russia is sending weapons to Taliban, USA general confirms - 3 May 2017: Amid recent accusations by the USA military that Russian regime is supplying weapons and possibly funding to the Taliban, it has been courting influential Afghans, expressing veiled criticism of the NATO-led mission there
May 2019 Taliban terrorists in Moscow for talks: 28 May 2019: Hosting Taliban delegates, Russian regime calls for withdrawal Of foreign forces from Afghanistan
14 September 2019 Taliban terrorists in Moscow: 14 September 2019: Taliban terrorists have sent a delegation to Russia to discuss prospects for a withdrawal of USA troops from Afghanistan following the collapse of talks with the USA following a series of terror attacks in the country, causing many civilian casualtier - 2019 terrorist incidents in Afghanistan
15/16 September 2019 Farah, Ghazni and Logar attacks: 16 September 2019: At least five civilians, including women and children, were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in western Farah province on Sunday, where the Taliban are active, as on Monday a sticky bomb attached to a mini bus belonging to Ghazni University exploded and killed the bus driver, wounding five Ghazni University students
31 October 2022 Russia recruiting Afghan special forces who fought with USA to fight in Ukraine: 31 October 2022: Afghan special forces soldiers who fought alongside American troops and then fled to Iran after the chaotic USA withdrawal last year are now being recruited by the Russian military to fight in Ukraine, three former Afghan generals have told the Associated Press. They said the Russians want to attract thousands of the former elite Afghan commandos into a 'foreign legion' with offers of steady, $1,500-a-month payments and promises of safe havens (if they survive, otherwise a place in the heaven like Afghan president since 1986 Mohammad Najibullah) for themselves and their families so they can avoid deportation home to what many assume would be death at the hands of the Taliban - 1947 – 27 September 1996 Mohammad Najibullah's resignation in 1992, shortly after which the Taliban took over Kabul. After a failed attempt to flee to India, Najibullah lived in the UN headquarters until his assassination by the Taliban after their capture of the city
Russia/Africa relations: Russia/Africa relations
21st century Russian mining incl. gold in several African countries: Since 1993 Severstal ('Northern Steel'), a Russian company mainly operating in the steel and mining industry, headquartered in Cherepovets, listed on the Moscow Exchange and LSE, the largest steel company in Russia, as it is majority-owned and controlled by billionaire Alexey Mordashov. Severstal owns major industrial facilities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, France, and Italy, as well as in several African countries. The company also has mining assets, thus securing its supply of raw materials. - Russian 'Nord Gold S.E.' since 2007 gold mining in Burkina Faso with several mines including Bissa mine, Bouly mine and Taparko mine
Since 2015 Wagner Group activities in Syria, and further mainly in Africa: The presence of private military companies PMCs in Syria was first reported in late October 2015 in Latakia province, employed by the Russian Defense Ministry. Wagner PMCs were notably involved in both Palmyra offensives in 2016 and 2017, as well as the Syrian Army's campaign in central Syria in the summer of 2017 and the Battle of Deir ez-Zor in late 2017. They were in the role of frontline advisors, fire and movement coordinators, forward air controllers who provided guidance to close air support and 'shock troops' alongside Assad's army. Involved in 2018 in the Battle of Khasham, the Wagner Group then took part in the Assad regime's Rif Dimashq offensive against the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta, east of Damascus, the in Assad's offensive in northwestern Syria since 2019. In March 2023, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights SOHR still reported the presence and activities of the 'Wagner mercenary group' in the country. Wagner Group activities were further documented in Sudan, the Central African Republic, Madagascar, Libya, Venezuela, Mozambique, Mali, and more countries.
September 2018: 11 September 2018: Russia is engaged in a frantic new scramble for influence in Africa, which is being spearheaded by a rash of military cooperation and arms deals signed across the continent in 2018, raising fears over the human rights and security implications of selling arms to regimes that are weak or in conflict
June 2019 Russian effort to exert influence in Africa: 11 June 2019: Russian regime is seeking to bolster its presence in at least 13 countries across Africa by building relations with existing rulers, striking military deals, and grooming a new generation of 'leaders' and undercover 'agents', leaked documents reveal
August 2019 Russia pushing unsuitable nuclear power in Africa: 28 August 2019: Russian regime is attempting to gain influence in Africa and earn billions of pounds by selling developing nations nuclear technology that critics say is unsuitable and unlikely to benefit the continent’s poorest people
6 August 2020 Russia's Putin making Africa a priority, massively expanding military presence: 6 August 2020: Russian regime's Putin is making Africa a priority, massively expanding military presence, in particular intending to set up military bases in six regions, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Eritrea, Mozambique, Egypt, and Sudan, according to German intelligence ageny's classified report, seen by newspaper
27 November 2020 UN Sudan expert's links to Russian oligarch Prigozhin revealed: 27 November 2020: Leaked documents show links between an academic serving on a UN expert panel on Sudan, and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the Russian oligarch under USA sanctions who has led Russia’s recent push into Africa, as - according to the USA - Prigozhin runs the Wagner group, which has sent mercenaries to countries including Sudan, Libya and the Central African Republic, and is also behind a notorious internet troll factory that supported Donald Trump
24 December 2021 presence of Russian mercenaries in Mali, also present in more African countries, denounced: 24 December 2021: A number of western countries have denounced the presence of Russian mercenaries in Mali, as in a joint letter, 15 countries including France, Germany and Canada condemned the deployment of paramilitary company Wagner on Malian territory, as the letter did not threaten Bamako with the departure of foreign forces currently involved in anti-jihadist fighting. Previously, French president, Emmanuel Macron, said that the presence of Wagner's forces in Mali would be incompatible with the presence of French soldiers.
23 April 2022 Russia has deployed its 'Wagner Group' in operations across at least half a dozen African nations: 23 April 2022: Russia has deployed the 'Wagner Group' with Russian mercenaries in military operations across at least half a dozen African nations.
26 June 2023 Wagner mercenaries will not be withdrawn from Africa, says Putin regime: 26 June 2023: Putin regime's FM Sergei Lavrov has moved to reassure allies in Africa that thousands of Wagner group fighters deployed to the continent will not be withdrawn after the mutiny led by their commander Yevgeny Prigozhin over the weekend, pledging that 'instructors' and 'private military contractors' would remain in Central African Republic and Mali, the two countries in sub-Saharan Africa where Wagner has the biggest presence. Both are considered strategic prizes by the Kremlin, which sees them as a springboard to greater influence on the continent and a source of lucrative natural resources.
29 July 2023 Putin promises free grain to six African nations after collapse of Black Sea deal: 29 July 2023: Putin promises free grain to six African nations after collapse of Black Sea deal, as his regime seeks to capitalise on the collapse of the Black Sea grain deal
Since 1945 Russian/Arab League relations: Russian/Arab League relations since 1945 Soviet Union, since 1992 Russian Federation
Russia/Argentina relations: Russia/Argentina relations
2018: 2 mars 2018: Le cerveau russe présumé d'un incroyable trafic de cocaïne utilisant une dépendance de l'ambassade russe en Argentine a été arrêté en Allemagne
Russia/Armenia relations: Russia/Armenia relations
2015: 15 January 2015: Thousands demonstrate against Kremlin influence after a Russian soldier is accused of killing a family of six
2016: 27 May 2016: Russia sued by relatives of Armenian Avetisyan family, massacred by Russian soldier Valery Permyakov in 2015
Russia/Australia relations: Russia/Australia relations
April 2014 Russian ambassador to Australia called in to explain troops in Crimea: 3 April 2014: Russian ambassador to Australia called in to explain troops in Crimea - 13 October 2014: Australia PM says will confront Putin at G20 over the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 and the murder of Australian citizens - 18 October: Putin agrees to use his influence with pro-Russian separatists in Ukraine to aid the investigation into the crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 brought down by an explosion consistent with a surface-to-air missile, Australia's Julie Bishop says - 19 October: Parents of three children Mo, Evie and Otis, who were killed with their grandfather Nick Norris in the downing of flight MH17, call for an end to war saying their lives are an 'ongoing hell'
2015 Australia excluded from Syria peace talks after Russian objection: 16 November 2015: Australia, which is participating in airstrikes against Islamic State terrorists, excluded from Syria peace talks involving 20 countries or regional groupings, after Russian objection
2016 Bellingcat names Russia Defence Ministry and Putin possibly involved in July 2014 MH17 crash: 24 February 2016: Bellingcat names those possibly involved in July 2014 MH17 crash, including Russia Defence Ministry and Putin - 18 May 2016: NSW Coroner Michael Barnes has found the deaths of six NSW passengers in the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 crash were caused by 'deliberate, malicious acts' - 21 May 2016: Australian law firm wants compensation from Russian regime for MH17 crash and its President Putin on behalf of families of victims of July 2014 catastrophe, the relevant application was submitted to the European Court of Human Rights on 9 May 2016
September/October 2016 MH17 'killers' will be brought to justice: 28/29 September 2016: MH17 'killers' will be brought to justice, says Australian PM Malcolm Turnbull, adding that Australia will continue to pursue Russia after two-year international investigation found Malaysian Airlines plane was downed by missile from Russia - 2 October 2016: Australia’s FM Julie Bishop says that Russian-backed separatists responsible for shooting down the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 in Ukraine, killing 298 people including 38 Australians, could face a Lockerbie-style prosecution once the investigation has concluded, and that other legal avenues are required because Russia would likely veto any moves by the UN security council to bring to trial those responsible
October 2016 protests opposed to Russian military intervention in Syria: 7 October 2016: Protesters opposed to Russian military intervention in Syria gathered outside the Russian Embassy in Canberra, with some carrying placards comparing Russian regime's Vladimir Putin to Adolf Hitler
July 2017 MH17 case: 16 July 2017: Australia says MH17 perpetrators, shot down by a Russian-made Buk missile in July 2014, may be tried in absentia - 17 July 2017: Bellingcat's team of investigative journalists has released report summarizing all major open source evidence surrounding the downing of MH17 in an easy-to-read 73-page survey, naming Buk 332 of the Russian Armed Forces to be the only credible candidate for the missile launcher that downed MH17
May 2018 Russia formally accused of downing MH17: 25 May 2018: Australia and the Netherlands have formally accused Russia of being responsible for downing a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet in July 2014, after international Joint Investigation Team identified the missile used to shoot down the plane as coming from Russia's armed forces, murdering all 298 people on board
June 2018 Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia: 8 June 2018: Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia
July 2018 Perth parents of children who died when flight MH17 was shot down: 17 July 2018: The Perth parents of three children who died when Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 was shot down over Ukraine have condemned USA's Donald Trump for his refusal to hold the Russia's Vladimir Putin to account over the downing, killing 298 people including 38 Australians
Russia/Austria relations: Russia/Austria relations
December 2016: 20 December 2016: Austrian Freedom Party's Heinz-Christian Strache, the Austrian party founded by former Nazis, signed a cooperation agreement with Russian Vladimir Putin's United Russia party and met with Michael Flynn, President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for national security adviser at Trump Tower in New York (USA)
November 2018: 9 November 2018: Austria has arrested a retired army colonel on suspicion of spying for Russian regime since 1990, saying the case and allegations of espionage in the Netherlands, 'don’t improve relations between Russia and the European Union'
Russia/Baltics relations: In 1991 Baltic countries claimed de facto independence, international recognition followed, and in 1998 Russia officially ended its military presence in the Baltics
2015: 7 November 2015: The Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia demand Russia pay compensation for decades of repressive Soviet rule
Russia/Belarus relations: Russia/Belarus relations
2014 Russia and 'Eurasian Economic Union': Eurasian Economic Union will go into effect on 1 January 2015 if treaty is approved by each country - Eurasia - continental landmass of Europe and Asia - 29 May 2014: Ex-Soviet trade bloc treaty 'Eurasian Economic Union', uniting Russian, Kazakh, Belarusian economies into market, signed in Moscow
April 2015 Lukashenko refuses to attend 'Victory Day Parade in Mocow' with Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend
October 2015 Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base: 7 October 2015: Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base, Lukashenko says following protests against his rule and reported Russian plans to beef up military presence
January 2019: 19 January 2019: Belarusian model Anastasia Vashukevich, who claimed she had proof of Russian collusion with the Trump 2016 election campaign, in Russian custody after police 'dragged' her from a transit zone in Moscow’s airport, her lawyer told AFP, branding the arrest an 'international scandal'
24 December 2019 Belarus' Lukashenko warns Putin against forceful merger: 24 décembre 2019: Le président bélarusse Loukachenko a mis en garde mardi les autorités russes contre une union sous la contrainte entre son pays et la Russie, qui discutent depuis des années d'une hypothétique fusion en un seul Etat
29 July 2020 dozens of militants detained near Minsk part of Russia's PMC Wagner: 29 July 2020: Belarus security forces overnight Wednesday apprehended just outside Minsk as many as 32 militants with Russia's Wagner private military company, whose fighters had been earlier spotted in various hotspots across the world, including Syria, Libya, and Donbas
16 August 2020 Putin tells Lukashenko Russia ready to provide 'help': 16 August 2020: Putin tells Lukashenko Russia ready to provide 'help' in accordance with a collective military pact if necessary, Russian regime said in a statement
3 February 2022 Russia has sent some 30,000 combat troops, modern weapons to Belarus, NATO says: 3 February 2022: Russia has been moving some 30,000 combat troops and modern weapons to Belarus over the last days, regimes's biggest military deployment to the country since the end of the Cold War, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg said
Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
2018: 12 January 2018: 15 months after Russian intelligence was implicated in an abortive coup in Montenegro, in which mercenaries planned to storm parliament and assassinate PM Milo Ðukanovic, Russian-trained mercenaries back Bosnia's Serb separatists' new paramilitary unit, recruiting from the Serb criminal underworld
Russia/Burkina Faso relations: Russia/Burkina Faso relations
Russian 'Nord Gold S.E.' since 2007 gold mining in Burkina Faso: Russian 'Nord Gold S.E.' since 2007 gold mining in Burkina Faso with several mines including Bissa mine, Bouly mine and Taparko mine - Bissa gold mine - Since 1993 Severstal ('Northern Steel'), a Russian company mainly operating in the steel and mining industry, headquartered in Cherepovets, listed on the Moscow Exchange and LSE, the largest steel company in Russia, as it is majority-owned and controlled by billionaire Alexey Mordashov. Severstal owns major industrial facilities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, France, and Italy, as well as in several African countries. The company also has mining assets, thus securing its supply of raw materials.
18 October 2016 gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso: 18 October 2016: Gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso
Russia/Cameroon relations: Russia/Cameroon relations
2017: 30 June 2017: Russians dress up in blackface to represent Cameroon carrying bananas marched in an official parade in Sochi less than a month before the city hosts Cameroon for a Confederations Cup match, once again raising concerns about racism at football matches in Russia
Russia/Canada relations: Russia/Canada relations - Uranium One
December 2013 North Pole dispute: 11 December 2013: Putin orders Russia's military to step up its presence in the Arctic after Canada signalled its intention to claim the North Pole
November 2019 'freedom' of racist speech in Russia: 12 November 2019: One day after the Canadian hockey pundit Don Cherry was fired by Sportsnet for xenophobic remarks made on Saturday night’s Hockey Night in Canada telecast, Russian team Dynamo Moscow has publicly recruited Cherry to come aboard as a TV analyst, offered to 'talk whatever he thinks'
16 July 2020 Russian state-sponsored hackers target UK, USA and Canadian covid-19 vaccine researchers: 16 July 2020: Russian state-sponsored hackers are targeting UK, USA and Canadian organisations involved in developing a covid-19 vaccine, according to British security officials, saying drug firms and research groups being targeted by group known as APT29
Russia/Central African Republic relations: Russia/Central African Republic relations
December 2017 Russian regime supported by UN to send more weapons to CAR despite embargo: 15 décembre 2017: Autorisée par l’ONU, la Russie s’apprête à livrer des armes à la Centrafrique, malgré l’embargo imposé au pays depuis 2013 - 23 décembre 2017: La Russie a obtenu du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU une exemption à l’embargo sur les armes imposé à la Centrafrique - Since 2014 Wagner Group, a Russian paramilitary organisation and Putin-linked military company, whose contractors take part in various conflicts, including operations in Assad's war against the Syrian people, in the War in Donbass against the Ukrainian people and since 2017/2018 in the Central African Republic
February 2018: 12 février 2018: Depuis la fin du mois de décembre 2017, ce sont presque 200 instructeurs russes, parfois avec des passeports falsifiés et pour la plupart sous couverture d'une société privée, qui se sont installés avec armes et bagages en Centrafrique avec la bénédiction de l'ONU
March 2018: 24 mars 2018: Après de longues tractations à l'ONU, des instructeurs venus de Russie ont pris possession d'une demeure de l'ex-président Jean-Bedel Bokassa près de Bangui
4 April 2018: 23 April 2018: Russian presence in the Central African Republic confirmed by the Russian regime
August 2018 journalists killed near Sibut researching criminal actions of the Russian military firm Wagner: 1 August 2018: Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre', also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there - 4 August 2018: As murdered journalists were chasing Russian regime's mercenaries in the CAR, deaths put spotlight on Russia's murky activities in Africa - 8 August 2018: Russian TV Dozhd's Vasily Polonsky says the three Russian journalists who were killed in the CAR managed to record videos of bases of the Russian Wagner mercenaries, adding that other journalists agree that it was not robbery or an attack by thieves and local criminals but a planned attack
23 August 2018 Russian mounting influence in CAR: 23 August 2018: CAR spokesman Ange-Maxime Kazagui denied any government involvement in talks of a parallel mediation including the Russian regime in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, reaffirming Bangui’s strong support for the African Union mediation, leading a peace process
September 2018 Russian journalists in Africa eliminated by Russia's military company: 29 September 2018: Russian journalists in Africa reportedly eliminated by Russia's military company PMC Patriot connected with Russian regime's 'Defense Ministry'
24 October 2020 neo-Nazi linked Russian Putin regime sends more military equipment to CAR: 24 October 2020: Russian Putin regime sends more military equipment to CAR, as regime has opened a representative office in the central African country, bringing ten more armoured vehicles after solidifying its presence in the CAR in recent years, sending weapons and contractors and political 'advisors', and has been growing its role on the continent overall as part of a renewed push for global influence
15 December 2020 French and Russian disinformation campaigns in the CAR: 15 December 2020: French and Russian disinformation campaigns have sought to deceive and influence internet users in the CAR ahead of December presidential election, Facebook said
30 March 2021 Russian mercenaries behind human rights abuses in CAR, say UN experts: 30 March 2021: Russian mercenaries from the Putin-linked military contractor Wagner group, have committed human rights abuses in the Central African Republic while fighting alongside government forces, according to a group of independent UN experts, as UN working group said it was 'deeply disturbed' by the connections between Russian mercenaries and a series of violent attacks that have taken place in the CAR since elections in December
16 May 2021 new film shines light on Russian military contractors in CAR: 16 May 2021: New film shines light on Russian military contractors in CAR, a further sign of the deepening ties between Russia and the Central African Republic, which have become the envy of former colonial ruler France
24 June 2021 western countries and Russia clash over Russian mercenaries in CAR: 24 June 2021: hUSA, Britain and France accused Russian mercenaries on Wednesday of operating alongside CAR forces and committing human rights violations against civilians and obstructing UN peacekeeping
28 October 2021 UN experts urge CAR above all to cut ties with Russia's mercenaries: 28 octobre 2021: Un groupe d'experts de l'ONU a appelé le gouvernement centrafricain à 'mettre fin à toutes relations' avec les paramilitaires russes, en particulier le groupe privé de sécurité Wagner, accusés de harceler et d'intimider 'violemment' des civils. Paramilitaires russes du groupe Wagner, selon l'ONU et la France, ont mené depuis le début de l'année une vaste contre-offensive contre des groupes rebelles. Moscou ne reconnaît officiellement la présence que de 1 135 'instructeurs non armés'.
Russia/PR of China relations: Russia/PR of China relations (since 1991)
July 2012: 20. Juli 2012: Chinas Regierung reagiert ungehalten auf die Kaperung chinesischer Fischerboote durch die russische Küstenwache - 5 April 2015: China and Russia set to finalise gas agreement
2014 joint naval exercises: 1 May 2014: China and Russia will carry out joint naval exercises in the East China Sea later this month
September 2018 military cooperation: 11 septembre 2018: Le plus grand exercice militaire russe de ces dernières décennies se tiendra en Sibérie, la Chine et la Mongolie y participeront également
4 October 2019 military aid for Beijing regime: 4 October 2019: Russia is helping China build a missile defence system, Putin says
December 2019 Iran announces joint naval exercise with China, Russia: 4 December 2019: Iran announces joint naval exercise with China, Russia, starting in the Indian Ocean on December 27, calling for Beijing regime to collaborate on production of warships
22 December 2020 Russia and China fly joint bomber patrol over the Pacific: 22 December 2020: Russian and Chinese bombers have flown a joint patrol mission over the western Pacific in a show of increasingly close military ties between the regimes
Russia/Cyprus relations: Russia/Cyprus relations
Economic and financial relations: Officially Cyprus is the third largest foreign investor in the Russian economy, but most of foreign direct investments from Cyprus are capitals hidden offshore for tax and legal protection purposes
2010: 2 September 2010: 25 foreign businessmen have been given Cypriot citizenship, including the Russian billionaire Abramov, in exchange for their 'services to the Republic of Cyprus'
2012/2013: 11 April 2012: EU bailout of Cyprus would use the money of taxpayers to bail out mostly rich Russians who have over the years deposited their black money in Cypriot banks that are now collapsing - 22 March 2013: Cypriot Finance Minister Sarris left Moscow after two days of talks aimed at securing a financial lifeline from Russia without reaching an agreement
2018: 2 March 2018: The Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska has bought a Cypriot passport under a controversial scheme that allows rich investors to acquire citizenship and visa-free access to the EU, according to the British 'Guardian'
Russia/Czech Republic relations: Russia/Czech Republic relations
17 April 2021 Czech police hunt two men with names matching Skripal suspects: 17 April 2021: Czech police hunt two men with names matching suspects Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirovin in the attempted poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, as news follows announcement of expulsion of 18 Russia diplomats identified as spies linked to 2014 blast that killed two people
17 April 2021 Czech police hunt two men with names matching Skripal suspects: 17 April 2021: Czech police hunt two men with names matching suspects Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirovin in the attempted poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, as news follows announcement of expulsion of 18 Russia diplomats identified as spies linked to 2014 blast that killed two people
Russia/Denmark relations: Russia/Denmark relations - 22 March 2015: Russian ambassador to Denmark says the Danish navy will be a fair target for a nuclear attack because of NATO shield participation
Russia/Egypt relations: Russia/Egypt relations - 13 February 2014: Putin backs Sisi 'bid for Egypt presidency'
2015: 10 February 2015: Egypt rolls out red carpet for Putin as residential neighbourhoods of the Ukrainian city of Kramatorsk are shelled by Russian-backed separatists and as Russian-backed Assad regime kills over 100 civilians and injures hundreds in a series of brutal attacks on the district of Douma - 10 February 2015: Russia's Putin presented to Egypt's el-Sisi a Kalashnikov - which kills an estimated 250,000 people every year - during his official visit
Kogalymavia Flight 9268, international chartered passenger flight, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia, that crashed in central Sinai following departure from Sharm el-Sheikh on 31 October 2015 - 31 October 2015: A Russian plane carrying more than 200 passengers from an Egyptian resort has crashed in central Sinai 20 minutes after taking off Sharm el-Sheikh, with all on board feared dead - 5 November: Bomb may have caused Russian plane crash in Egypt, USA and UK officials say - 6 November: Russia suspends Egypt flights amid reports flight recorders point to bomb attack
2017: 14 March 2017: Russian special forces reportedly deployed to Egypt, operating near Libyan border believed to be assisting Egyptian-backed militia commander Hifter
Russia/Estonia relations: Russia/Estonia relations
2014 Russian violatin of airspace: 23 October 2014: NATO fighter jets intercepted a Russian spy plane over the Baltic Sea after it breached Estonian airspace
2016 Russian provocations: 17 May 2016: United Kingdoms's Air Force fighters have intercepted Russian jets approaching Estonia for the second time in a week
September 2019 Russian violatin of airspace: 24 September 2019: Russian military aircraft violates airspace of NATO member Estonia
Russia/European Union relations: Russia/European Union relations, since 1957 Soviet Union, since 1992 Russian Federation/EU relations
Russia in the European energy sector - Documented examples of energy sector incidents
2012 EU pressures Russia over Syria: 4 June 2012: EU officials pressure Russia over Syria - 4 September 2012: Gazprom faces EU anti-competition probe
2013: 7 October 2013: Russia has installed an all-encompassing surveillance system at the site of next year's Winter Olympic Games in Sochi that will allow security services to listen in on athletes and visitors, security analysts say - 30 October 2013: European Union to probe allegations of Russia spying during G20 summit - 29 November: Russia cannot 'veto' its ties with East Europe nations, European Union says - 16 December: European countries bordering Russia's territory of Kaliningrad say they are worried at reports that Moscow has put nuclear-capable missiles there
January 2014 Russia spied on American, European and Asian companies: 22 January 2014: Russia spied on hundreds of American, European and Asian companies, including energy and technology firms, defense contractors, government agencies, the USA cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike says
March 2014: 11 March 2014: EU tells Russia to start Ukraine talks or face sanctions - 13 March: EU agreed on a framework for sanctions on Russia - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 19 March: Russian Deputy FM warns West it may change its stance on Iran saying regime may retaliate against USA and EU due to tensions over Ukraine - 21 March 2014: EU drafts plans for much more substantive sanctions if Putin presses ahead with Russian territorial expansion
July 2014 sanctions against Russia: 25/26 July 2014: EU expands Russian oligarch sanctions blacklist - 29 July: EU governments agree to impose sweeping sanctions on Russian regime, targeting state-owned banks, imposing an arms embargo, restricting sales of sensitive technology and the export of equipment for the country's oil industry
September 2014 Putin threatens to 'take' European capitals in two days: 18 September 2014: In a conversation with Ukrainian President Poroshenko Russia's Putin threatened to 'take' European capitals in two days
October 2014: 17 October: Putin under pressure from EU leaders to commit to fragile peace plan for eastern Ukraine as violence continues to spread across region despite ceasefire - 29 October: Two separate security reports say the Russian and Chinese governments are likely behind widespread cyber espionage that has hit US defence contractors, Eastern European governments and European security organisations - 30 October: The number of Russian military aircraft maneuvers over Europe has increased, in particular over the North and Baltic Seas - 31 October 2014: Portugal scrambles jets again to intercept Russian bombers
2015: 3 March: At the same time as EU imposes sanctions against Russian aggression, Putin's European extremist allies are not ashamed to support his regime - 21 March: EU far-right parties set to gather in St. Petersburg for Russian forum, as Russian regime courts EU far-right, neo-Nazi movements - 1 July: A move in Russia to review the legality of 1991 decision granting Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia independence has alarmed the Baltic States - 24 October 2015: As Russian airstrikes push more migrants to flee to EU before borders shut and sea gets rougher, more Syrians risk deadly crossings to Greece after more than 502,000 refugees and migrants have entered Greece since the beginning of this year - 7 November 2015: The plan to construct a Russian undersea pipeline to Germany, in order eliminate Ukraine as a transit country, has hit the buffers after a number of EU states raised objections to the deal
May 2016 Europe a Russian gangster playground: 12 May 2016: How Europe became a Russian gangster playground
June 2016 Plevneliev warns that Russia is trying to 'destroy' EU: 9 June 2016: Outgoing Bulgarian president Rosen Plevneliev warns that Russia is trying to 'destroy' EU - 12 June 2016: Nearly 100 Ukrainian and Bulgarian activists took part in the 'Stop Putin's War in Ukraine' rally in Sofia on 11 June
2017 Russia fake news poses threat to EU business: 6 May 2017: Russia fake news poses threat to EU business - 25 November 2017: The EU is stepping up its campaign to counter disinformation and fake news from Russia by spending more than €1m a year on its specialist anti-propaganda unit East Stratcom taskforce
2018 Putin aligned with anti-Semites in attacking democracies: 11 January 2018: Putin aligned with anti-Semites in attacking democracies, according to USA Congressional Research Service reports
June 2019 EU demands Russian cooperation in MH 17 criminal investigation: 21 juin 2019: Les dirigeants de l'UE ont joint leurs voix jeudi à la pression internationale sur la Russie en l'exhortant à 'coopérer pleinement' à l'enquête sur le crash du vol MH17, abattu en 2014 au-dessus de l'est de l'Ukraine par un missile russe
September 2019 following Putin Kadyrov's Chechen death squads stalking Europe, 'we can find you anywhere’: 21 September 2019: Ramzan Kadyrov rules the Caucasus republic through fear and oppression, amid reports of torture, but those seeking asylum in Europe are not safe, as assassins hunt them down
November 2019 Nord Stream 2 poses major threat to environment: 3 November 2019: Nord Stream 2 poses major threat to environment in Baltic Sea over WW2-era chemical munitions, experts say
18 September 2020 532 MEPs of EU Parliament demand halt to Nord Stream 2 project over Navalny's poisoning: 18 September 2020: European Parliament has demanded that sanctions against the Russian Federation should be strengthened and the construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline should be halted over the poisoning of Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny, as 532 MEPs voted for the resolution, 84 voted against it, and another 72 abstained
5 February 2021: Russia expels Swedish, Polish and German diplomats over Navalny rally: 5 February 2021: Russia expels Swedish, Polish and German diplomats for attending a rally in support of opposition leader Alexei Navalny
7 January 2022 arrested Ukrainian opera director vows to fight Putin ‘oppression’: 7 January 2022: Ukrainian opera director Yevhen Lavrenchuk was detained in Naples on an international arrest warrant issued by Russia's Putin regime during a stopover in the city on 17 December, as opera director has pledged to continue his fight against Russian regime's 'oppression' as calls for his release mount from around the world
12 January 2022 Russia is orchestrating Europe’s gas crisis: 12 January 2022: Russia is orchestrating Europe’s gas crisis, energy agency boss Fatih Birol says as low gas flowing to continent, coinciding with escalating rift over Ukraine
17 June 2023 Ukrainian journalists draw list of Putinism agents in 19 European countries: 17 June 2023: Ukrainian journalists compile a list of all agents of influence of the Putin regime, which reveal themselves in one or another activity in 19 European countries, and which now has more than 2,100 people. These are both foreigners and Russians who live in Europe and can be used as instruments of influence of Russian special services. The project was granted an eloquent name - The Germs of 'Russian World'. - Since December 2022 TEXTY published material entitled The Germs of 'Russian World' - one of our most elaborate and important projects of the year. The study offered a comprehensive insight into the people and organizations that support Russia and its policy in various forms in 19 countries of Europe. We managed to identify over 1,300 individuals and some 900 organizations.
14 December 2023 deal reached to open EU accession talks with Ukraine and Moldova, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates: 14 December 2023: Deal reached to open EU accession talks with Ukraine and Moldova, as president of the European parliament states 'this is a proud moment for Europe' and 'a clear signal of hope for their people and for our continent', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates on day 659 of Putin's war crimes
Russia/Finland relations: Russia/Finland relations - Paris Peace Treaties 1947
July 2015 Finland scrambles to intercept Russian military aircraft: 9 July 2015: Finland scrambles to intercept Russian military aircraft
Russia/France relations: Russia/France relations
1792-1797 War of the First Coalition against the French Revolution: 1792-1797 War of the First Coalition, the wars that several European powers including the Russian empire fought against the French First Republic founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
1853-1856 Crimean War: 1853-1856 Crimean War, in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia
1893-1917: Franco-Russian Alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–1893 and lasted until 1917
1914-1918: France and Russia among the Allied Powers defending themselves against Germany and the 'Central Powers' in World War I 1914-1918
1935: 1935 Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance in order to reduce the threat from Nazi Germany
1939-1945: France and the Soviet Union among the Allies of World War II 1939-1945 defending themselves against Nazi Germany and the 'Axis powers'
1990: 1990 'Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany' between the states of World War II France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the USA and the aggressor Germany, renouncing all rights the four powers held in Germany and allowing a united Germany to become fully sovereign the following year
2013: 3 January 2013: Russia's Putin grants Depardieu citizenship for tax exile - 6 janvier: Dans la résidence de Poutine, Depardieu reçoit son passeport russe - 8 January: Depardieu on drink-drive scooter charge in Paris - 21 juin: Depardieu jugé à Paris pour conduite en état d'ivresse - 26 October: Greenpeace activist hangs off Eiffel Tower in protest against Russia's detention of 30 ecologists - 29 November: Russia is bankrolling far-right European political parties such as France's Front National with millions of Euros, says Mediapart
2016: 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 16 June: France expels Russia far-right fan chief Shprygin and jails three other detained Russian 'fans' for up to two years over the violence in Marseille - 11 October 2016: Russia's Putin will not come to Paris next week after declining an offer to meet President Francois Hollande only for talks on Syria
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
2016/2017 suspected Russian interference in the French elections and April/May 2017: 27 April 2017: Emmanuel Macron spokesman confirms that the Russian state-funded Sputnik news agency and RT TV channel had been barred from having media access to him, describing them as a 'two-headed entity' which issued Russian state propaganda and fake news - 7 May 2017: Russian effort suspected in French election hacking attack, as Paris’ cybersecurity agency begins to probe leak of Macron campaign documents and as expert notes ‘Cyrillic script in the metadata’ of hacked files - 7 May 2017: WikiLeaks finds Russian trace in hacker attack on Macron's headquarters - 10 May 2017: USA watched Russia hack French systems during 2017 elections
January 2020 Paris ceasefire promise never observed by Macron supported Russian regime: 4 January 2020: Russia's hybrid military forces on Friday mounted three attacks on Ukrainian positions in eastern Ukraine, despite ceasefire promise observed not a single day by Macron supported Russian regime - 10 January 2020: Russia's hybrid military forces on January 9 mounted six attacks on Ukrainian Army positions in eastern Ukraine, killing one Ukrainian soldier and wounding another one
3 February 2020 after criticising Ramzan Kadyrov blogger Imran Aliev found brutally murdered in France: 3 February 2020: Blogger Imran Aliev from Chechnya, who had criticised the country’s leader Ramzan Kadyrov, has been found brutally murdered in France, several of his acquaintances have said, in the latest killing of a Chechen dissident in Europe
Russia/Georgia relations: Russia/Georgia relations
1918-1920 Georgian–Ossetian conflict: Georgian–Ossetian conflict 1918–1920
Since 1989: Georgian–Ossetian conflict 1989-present over Georgia's former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a 1991–1992 South Ossetia War
1991–1992 South Ossetia War: 1991–1992 South Ossetia War
2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis and August 2008 Russo-Georgian War: 2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis - August 2008 Russo-Georgian War
2009-2011: Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in Georgia (South Caucasus), Report September 2009, Volume I, Introduction - UN court rejects Georgia case against Russia April 2011
2015: 19 March 2015: Georgia accuses Russian regime of 'de facto annexation' as Putin signs pact with South Ossetia incorporating South Ossetia's economy and military into Russia's - 14 July 2015: Georgia accuses Russia of violating international law over South Ossetia, as latest in series of surprise operations sees Russian troops erect new border markings several hundred metres deeper into disputed region
9 June 2019 South Ossetian parliamentary election: 9 June 2019 South Ossetian parliamentary election - 10 June 2019: Georgia's breakaway South Ossetia region holds 'elections' for parliament
22 June 2019: 22 June 2019: Russian regime banned airlines from flying to Georgia, a day after a regime lawmaker’s visit to the country prompted violent clashes between protesters and police, as the suspension of flights is designed to put pressure on Georgia’s tourism industry, which accounted for 7.6% of the country’s GDP in 2018
21 January 2021 ECHR rules Putin regime responsible for murder of civilians, looting and burning of homes: 21 January 2021: Russia committed human rights violation in Georgia war, ECHR rules, as European court of human rights says in a landmark judgment Putin regime responsible for murder of civilians, looting and burning of homes and the torture of Georgian prisoners of war in 2008 war with Georgia
Russia/Germany relations: Russia/Germany relations
1 August 1914: German declarations of war on Russia on 1st August, on France on August 3, on Belgium on August 4
1914-1918: 1914-1918 World War I - The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 38 million, over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, including about 11 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians, the Allies lost about 6 million military personnel while the so-called Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey) lost about 4 million, at least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead
1917/1918: 3 March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and the so-called Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey) ended Russia's participation in World War I, following the 'Decree On Peace', passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the 8 November 1917
1939-1945: World War II - Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II since 22 June 1941 - Siege of Leningrad 1941-1944 - Battle of Stalingrad 1942/1943 - German war crimes - World War II casualties, over 80 million killed people including deaths from war-related disease and famine, civilians killed totalled 50 to 55 million
1941-1945: The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic by Nazi Germany
Since 1945: Aftermath of World War II and so-called 'Cold War'
1950-1990 collaboration of KGB and Stasi: Collaboration between the KGB and the Stasi (GDR's Ministry for State Security) was so close since 1950 that the KGB invited the Stasi to establish operational bases in Moscow and Leningrad, in 1978 Mielke formally granted KGB officers in East Germany the same rights and powers that they enjoyed in the Soviet Union - 27 October 2012: Cooperation between the East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi) and the Soviet Committee for State Security (KGB) - Office of the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records' Documentary Overview - 30 July 2015: As a young spy in Dresden since 1985, a major in the Russian intelligence service, who recruited spies in the GDR, Vladimir Putin sets the stage for his unprecedented career
2013: 15 January 2013: A married couple have gone on trial in Germany for spying for Russia in one of the most intriguing cases since the end of the Cold War - 2 July 2013: Germany jails Russian couple who spied on NATO and European Union for decades
December 2013: 22 December 2013: At a press conference in Berlin barely two days after he was freed from a Russian jail, Mikhail Khodorkovsky vowed to do all he can to ensure the release of other political prisoners in Russia
2014: 14 March: Germany warns Putin regime of further EU sanctions if it doesn't step back in its intervention in Ukraine - 27 April 2014: A German-led eight-member group of OSCE military observers accused of being NATO spies by Ponomarev, the self-proclaimed 'people's mayor' of Slovyansk, remains in captivity - 4 August: Germany suspends military exports of Rheinmetall to Russia
2014-2018: First World War 1914-1918 centenary 2014-2018 - World War I memorials - 20 January 2014: Centenary of WWI largely ignored in Russia, 'The Moscow Times' says
2015: 11/12 May 2015: 'We need to seek to secure Ukraine's territorial integrity', German PM Angela Merkel says in Moscow, urging Russian-backed separatists to let Ukrainian aid in Donbas and explaining that 'due to the criminal and illegal, under international law, annexation of Crimea and the military conflicts in eastern Ukraine' cooperation between NATO and Russia has suffered a serious setback - 12 May: German PM Merkel's remark on Russian 'criminal' annexation of Crimea omitted in Russian translation in Moscow - 25 May 2015: Head of German-Ukrainian parliamentary group Wellmann denied entry into Russia, a decision the German foreign ministry criticised as unacceptable
2016: 29 January 2016: Russian FM Sergei Lavrov calls for 'truth and justice' in a Russian teen's fabricated rape claim by alleged Middle East migrants in Berlin, as Russian regime is murdering hundreds of civilians including children in Syria since months - 31 January 2016: 13-year-old Russian-German girl has admitted making up a story about being kidnapped and raped by migrants, exacerbated by a report on Russian state TV, in which the girl’s relatives claimed her allegations were not being investigated, and that triggered outrage among Berlin’s Russian-German community, staging protests supported by the Pegida-related Bärgida movement, the Neonazi National Democratic party, and joint by Russian FM Sergei Lavrov, who criticised the Berlin authorities - 24 April: Nearly half of Germans in favour of sanctions against Russia and 64% of respondents of a survey say 'Putin's Russia is no longer a 'trusted partner' - 5 June: Updated version of the guidelines on Germany's national security policy states that Russia now is one of the main threats - 16 June 2016: Mob of Russian 'ultras' put Spanish football fan in hospital in Germany, punching and kicking two tourists and their friends in an 'extremely aggressive and brutal' way - 29 November 2016: German intelligence agency official says in an interview, that cyberspace had become 'a place of hybrid warfare' in which Russia is a key player, 'recently, we see the willingness of Russian intelligence to carry out sabotage', also carrying out attacks on computer systems which, as far as his agency had been able to ascertain, were 'aimed at comprehensive strategic data gathering'
January/February 2017: 24 janvier 2017: La chancelière allemande Angela Merkel a été en 2016 une des cibles favorites de la 'désinformation' orchestrée par la Russie, a-t-on appris lundi de source européenne à Bruxelles, et la campagne pourrait s'amplifier à l'approche des élections de 2017 en Allemagne - 21 February 2017: Leader of Germany's neo-Nazi linked Alternative for Germany party meets Putin allies in Moscow, discussing cooperation
July 2017: 4 July 2017: Violent acts by neo-Nazi groups in Germany rose 14% to 1,600 in 2016, annual BfV intelligence and government report says, seeing 'a clear radicalization in both substance and rhetoric regarding asylum matters', also saying that Germany is a big target of spying and cyberattacks by foreign governments such as Russia, Iran, China and Turkey, warning of 'ticking time bombs' that could sabotage critical infrastructure, and assuming 'that Russian state agencies are trying to influence parties, politicians and public opinion, with a particular eye to the 2017 parliamentary election' - 11. Juli 2017: Siemens hat Klage bei einem Moskauer Gericht wegen Vertragsbruchs eingereicht, nachdem mindestens zwei von Siemens nach Russland gelieferte Gasturbinen vertrags- und sanktionswidrig auf die Krim weitertransportiert wurden
November 2017: 17 November 2017: Questions over German politician's 'links to Russian pipeline' that critics say is opposed to EU interests
February 2018: 4 February 2018: A delegation of German parliamentarians with members of neo-Nazi linked AfD from three regional parliaments are visiting Russian-occupied Crimea in violation of Ukrainian laws, as AfD's Gauland calls Crimea 'indigenously Russian territory', saying in September 2017 that Germans 'have the right to be proud of the achievements of the German soldiers in two world wars', and as the USSR, according to archival figures, suffered 1,129,619 total casualties alone in the Battle of Stalingrad 75 years ago
March 2018: 30 March 2018: Russia will expel four German diplomats in a tit-for-tat response over the poisoning of S. Skripal in Britain's Salisbury, as Russian regime summons the heads of missions from 23 countries, almost all of them EU member states, to tell them that some of their diplomats have to leave, and expels more British diplomats
11/12 May 2018: 11/12 May 2018: German investigative sports journalist Hajo Seppelt has been denied entry to Russia for the upcoming World Cup after he has reported extensively on doping at the highest level of Russian sports, as German officials call on the global soccer federation FIFA to intervene after freedom of the press was denied by the Russian regime
22 May 2018: 22 May 2018: Members of the neo-Nazi linked Alternative for Germany AfD received a sponsored flight to Moscow during the 2017 campaign, German media reported on Tuesday, citing Russian sources
August 2018: 22 August 2018: Germany detains Russian at an apartment in Berlin on suspicion of planning a 'serious state-damaging act of violence'
December 2018: 11 December 2018: Novichok-Putin’s old East German secret police identification card for 'Maj Vladimir Putin' was discovered in the Stasi archives among Soviet-era personnel files in Dresden, where Putin served as a KGB officer in the 1980s
February 2019: 14 February 2019: German spy agency examines AfD party’s ties to Russia, as report says intelligence officials are concerned that Russian regime sees extreme nationalist groups as potential allies in destabilizing West, including AfD, praising the 'achievements' of German soldiers in two world wars - 23 February 2019: Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany would not be possible without former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and his contacts, Danish journalist Jens Hovsgaard, who explores the involvement of former agents from the Soviet Union and the so-called GDR in lobbying for the construction of the pipeline, has claimed
April 2019: 17 April 2019: Germany’s troubled Deutsche Bank faces fines, legal action and the possible prosecution of 'senior management' because of its role in a $20bn Russian money-laundering scheme, a confidential internal report seen by the Guardian says
August/September 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili - 30 August 2019: Similar to the Skripal case, suspected assassin 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov' in the Berlin killing of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili used fake identity documents, a valid Moscow-issued passport and cover identity, created very recently and most likely custom-made for the specific operation in Berlin, leading to the possibilities that he may have been assassinated in an operation led by either of the FSB, the GRU or even Ramzan Kadyrov’s apparatus, Bellingcat says - 3 September 2019: Suspected assassin 'Vadim Sokolov' visited by Russian diplomats - 4 September 2019: Protesters demonstrate outside the Russian embassy in Berlin against the suspected assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili, as British historian and specialist in Russian Intelligence Services Mark Galeotti sees parallels between this case and the attack on Skripal in the UK, saying that the new case is 'probably an assassination choreographed by state elements in Russia' - 17 September 2019: Russian suspect stays silent over Chechen's killing in Berlin, as Russian authorities had not helped the investigation so far
27 September 2019 Chechen’s killing linked to Russian regime: 27 September 2019: Joint investigation links Chechen rebel Zelimkhan Khangoshvili’s killing in Berlin to Russian Putin regime
3 December 2019 Russia link to assassination in Berlin: 3 December 2019: German federal prosecutors believe Russian intelligence was involved in the August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin and want to take over the investigation, saying 'we have evidence that a foreign intelligence agency was behind it'
11 December 2019 Putin's brazen lies mock the world: 11. Dezember 2019: Bundesregierung widerspricht Putins Lüge, daß trotz entsprechender Gesuche Khangoshvili nicht ausgeliefert worden sei, mit der Feststellung daß 'keine Auslieferungsersuchen Russlands bekannt' seien - 15 September 2019: Russia’s brazen lies mock the world
19 December 2019 forced to do so Putin admits brazen lie: 19. Dezember 2019: Putin gibt Falschbehauptung zu über Mord im Kleinen Tiergarten
6 January 2020 German CDU-Merkel will visit Russia on 11 January: 6 January 2020: German CDU-Merkel will visit Russia on 11 January at Russian regime's, offering Polonium-tea, Novichok and hundreds of thousands of murdered Syrians and Ukrainians, war criminal Putin's invitation
Since August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin and search for assassins: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin and international search for Khangoshvili's assassins - 30 August 2019: Similar to the Skripal case, suspected assassin 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov' in the Berlin killing of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili used fake identity documents, a valid Moscow-issued passport and cover identity, created very recently and most likely custom-made for the specific operation in Berlin, leading to the possibilities that he may have been assassinated in an operation led by either of the FSB, the GRU or even Ramzan Kadyrov’s apparatus, Bellingcat says - 3 September 2019: Suspected assassin 'Vadim Sokolov' visited by Russian diplomats - 4 September 2019: Protesters demonstrate outside the Russian embassy in Berlin against the suspected assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili, as British historian and specialist in Russian Intelligence Services Mark Galeotti sees parallels between this case and the attack on Skripal in the UK, saying that the new case is 'probably an assassination choreographed by state elements in Russia'
December 2019 Germany has expelled Russian regime's employees over the Khangoshvili case: 4 December 2019: Germany has expelled two Russians working at the Russian embassy in Berlin after federal prosecutors took over the case of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili killed in August in Berlin, saying they had concluded that evidence suggests state's involvement
17 February 2020 Russia's FSB planned and organized the murder of Khangoshvili in Berlin, Bellingcat reports: 17 February 2020: Russia's FSB security service planned and organized the murder of Georgian Khangoshvili in Berlin last summer, a killing that triggered diplomatic expulsions from Germany and Moscow, the investigative website Bellingcat said
18 June 2020 German prosecutors file murder charges against Russian FSB's Vadim Sokolov: 18 June 2020: German prosecutors filed murder charges against Russian FSB's Vadim K. alias Vadim S accused in the brazen daylight slaying in Berlin last year of Georgian Zelimkhan Khangoshvili and said that the Russian state ordered the killing
22 August 2020 acutely ill politician and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny in Berlin: 22 August 2020: Politician, anti-corruption activist and Putin critic Alexei Navalny arrives in Germany for medical treatment - 20 August 2020 suspected poisoning of Alexei Navalny - 22 août 2020: L’opposant russe Navalny a atterri à Berlin où il doit être soigné, après l’opposant russe, possiblement victime d’un empoisonnement, a été évacué par voie aérienne vers l’Allemagne dans la nuit
10 February 2021 Alexei Navalny's wife arrives in Germany on flight from Russia: 10 February 2021: Alexei Navalny's wife arrives in Germany on flight from Russia, as associates say departure of Yulia Navalnaya, wife of jailed opposition leader, is temporary
25 February 2021 German man charged with giving Bundestag floor plans to Russian agent: 25 February 2021: German federal prosecutors have charged a German citizen with espionage, saying he passed floor plans of the Bundestag parliament building to Russian intelligence
5 November 2021 Russian diplomat found dead outside country's embassy in Berlin: 5 November 2021: Russian diplomat was found dead last month outside the country's embassy in the German capital Berlin, as website Bellingcat said it had used open source data to establish the man was the son of the deputy director of the Second Service of Russia's FSB intelligence agency, as Germany has accused Russia of ordering the murder and as Second Service officials have also been linked to the poisoning of Russian opposition figure Alexei Navalny in 2020
21 May 2023 German police investigate possible poisoning of two Russian exiles: 21 May 2023: Berlin police have opened an investigation into the suspected poisoning of two Russian journalists - including Natalia Arno, the head of the Free Russia Foundation - visiting the city for a conference last month organised by the Russian Kremlin critic Mikhail Khodorkovsky - 'Free Russia Foundation' founded in 2014, an international organization supporting civil society and democratic development in Russia, opposing Putin regime's war against Ukraine
29 August 2023 documents show Putin’s order to move superyacht before 2022 Ukraine invasion: 25 March 2022: Vladimir Putin moved his $100m superyacht from a German shipyard to Russia just weeks before he ordered the invasion of Ukraine, according to secret documents released in a new investigation by a Russian anti-corruption organisation set up by jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny, showing that the Russian president ordered the urgent moving of the 82-metre superyacht called Graceful from a shipyard in Hamburg, where it was undergoing a $32m refit, by 1 February 2022. Just 15 days later – on 22 February – Putin ordered the fullblown invasion of Ukraine. After the invasion, the USA, UK and EU imposed sanctions on Russian-owned assets overseas, and dozens of oligarch-owned superyachts were seized across the world.
Russia/Greece relations: Russia/Greece relations
2015: 20 June 2015: Russian pipeline project through Greek territory
2016: 28 May 2016: Russian regime's Putin and Greece's Tsipras sign several economic deals on Friday during the war criminal's visit to Greece aimed at reinforcing a relationship with his accessory, as Italian navy recovers the bodies of 45 people who drowned on Friday, while dozens of others are still missing in the third major tragedy in the Mediterranean in as many days
July 2018: 23 July 2018: Greek FM Nikos Kotzias is determined to protect a recent accord with Macedonia, saying 'Russia must realise that it cannot disrespect the national interests of another state because it feels it is stronger', after former Yugoslav republic was invited to join Nato
August 2018: 11 August 2018: The deterioration in relations between Greece and Russia, following landmark deal between Greece and Macedonia, has intensified after Greek government publicly accused Russian Putin regime of attempting to bribe state officials and meddle in the country’s internal affairs, angrily rebuking Russia for expelling two Greek envoys, calling the action 'arbitrary and vengeful'
Russia/Guinea relations: Russia/Guinea relations - Nord Gold N.V. gold mining company with assets in Russia, Kazakhstan, Burkina Faso and Guinea - Lefa gold mine
August 2019 Russia's 'special status': 27 August 2019: 'Russians have special status' - politics and mining mix in Guinea
Russia/Hungary relations: Russia/Hungary relations
2014: 26 September 2014: Hungary suspends gas supplies to Ukraine under pressure from Russian regime
2016: 28 November 2016: Russian diplomats and spies trained Hungary's neo-Nazi National Front movement
Russia/India relations: Russia/India relations - 1 June 2012: Putin meets chess masters Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand for tea ... - 13 June: India can halt Russian arms flowing to Syria, activists say - 30 June: Russia will set up licensed production of tank and rocket artillery ammunitions in India, 'Rosoboronexport' says - 24 December 2012: Russia steps up arms sales to India
2013: Russian-made INS Sindhurakshak (S63) fire incident 2010 and on 14 August 2013 - 14 August 2013: Explosion and fire on Russian-built navy submarine INS Sindhurakshak in Mumbai, 18 personnel missing - 14 August 2013: INS Sindhurakshak was refitted in Russia's Zvezdochka shipyard recently
Russia/Indonesia relations: Russia/Indonesia relations - 7 August 2012: Russian rocket fails to reach target orbit - Indonesia's Telkom-3 satellites 'can be considered lost'
Russia/Iran relations: Russia/Iran relations - Iran/Russia relations, recent 'Times of Israel' reports - Military cooperation and trade - Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant
2013 nuclear and military support: 10 June 2013: Iran's Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant has suffered a malfunction in its main generator - 11 septembre: En pleine crise syrienne, Moscou s'apprêterait à proposer des missiles perfectionnés S-300 à l'Iran, autre allié du régime de Bachar al-Assad - 23 September 2013: Iran to take control of Russian-built nuclear power station at Bushehr on its Gulf coast - 21 October 2013: Iran holds talks with Russia to boost military cooperation
2014 joint naval exercise: 17 October 2014: Iran and Russian hold joint three-day naval exercise in the Caspian Sea
2015 military cooperation pact and nuclear support: 20 January 2015: Iran and Russia reportedly agreed to a military cooperation pact - 23 February: Iran studies Russian offer of new missiles instead of S-300 - 13 April: Russian regime lifts ban on delivery of S-300 anti-missile rocket systems to Iran, that could be used to shield Iran's nuclear facilities from possible future air strikes and had been under embargo for the past five years - 26 May: Russia agrees to supply S-300 missiles to Iran at 'the earliest opportunity' - 14 July 2015: Russian FM Lavrov says, after a deal was reached on curbing Iran's nuclear programme, that arms deliveries to Tehran will be possible, warning Israel not to supply weapons to Ukraine - 31 July: Russia modernising S-300 missile system for Iran - 18 August: Iran will sign a contract with Russia next week to buy four S-300 surface-to-air missile systems - 16 September 2015: Russian regime agrees to help Iranian regime upgrade its uranium-enriching centrifuges - 8 October 2015: After Iran lobbied in the summer for Russian campaign in Syria, Russian cruise missiles fired from ships in Caspian Sea and aimed at Syria land in Iran and may have caused injuries - 9 November 2015: Russia and Iran have signed a contract to deliver the advanced S-300 missile defense system to the Iranian regime, already entered into force
2016 S-300 missile system to Iran: 11 March 2016: Russian regime to ship first S-300 missile system to Iran in August-September 2016 - 26 April 2016: Russia supplies S-300 air defense system to Iran ahead of schedule and is now in talks with the Islamic regime on deliveries of other military equipment - 23 August 2016: Iranian murderous regime's Dehghan criticized Russian murderous regime for 'not having kept its promise' when Russia made public that it was using an Iranian airbase for bombing raids in Syria
10 November 2019 2nd Bushehr nuclear power reactor with Russian regime's help: 10 November 2019: Iran begins building 2nd nuclear power reactor at Bushehr with Russian regime's help
4 December 2019 Iran announces joint naval exercise with China, Russia: 4 December 2019: Iran announces joint naval exercise with China, Russia, starting in the Indian Ocean on December 27, calling for Beijing regime to collaborate on production of warships
25 December 2019 Iran to hold joint, four-day navy drill with Russia, China: 25 December 2019: Seeking to boost military cooperation, Iran’s armed forces will hold a joint, four-day naval exercise with Russian and Chinese regime in the northern part of the Indian Ocean
11 November 2022 amid Russian-Iranian drone deal, 'Revolutionary Guards' linked flights to Russia surge: 11 November 2022: Amid drone deal, 'Revolutionary Guards' linked flights to Russia surge, as data shows dozens of flights by Iranian firms under USA sanctions have landed in Moscow since the war in Ukraine began. According to a USA official, the Iran-Russia drone deal is moving ahead with 'Russians are training in Iran'.
Russia/Iraq relations: Russia/Iraq relations
October 2012: 9 October 2012: Iraq's Maliki in Russia for huge arms deal - 9 October 2012: Russia to become Iraq's second-biggest arms supplier as Iraq signs contracts to buy Russian arms worth $4.2bn this year - 10 October 2012: Russia warms up to Iraq with arms deal - don’t drag NATO into Syria, Baghdad warns Ankara
Russia/Israel relations: Russia/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Russia - Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world - Antisemitism in the Russian Empire - Jewish agricultural colonies in the Russian Empire - The Holocaust in Russia - Antisemitism in Russia
Since 1985: Russian and Iranian weapons for Lebanese Hezbollah
2012: 10. Juni 2012: Israel: 'Russland im schlimmsten Fall Mittäter in Syrien'
2013: 29 May 2013: Israel warns Russia of action if it delivers missiles to Syria - 1 November: Israel reportedly destroyed Hezbollah-bound missile shipment in Syria, targeting Russian-made SA-125 missiles
2015: 15 April 2015: Israel's PM Netanyahu urges Russia's Putin in vain not to supply Iran with the S-300 missile system, warning it will boost regime’s aggression - 18 April: Terrorist Putin warns Israel against selling arms to Ukraine - 28 November 2015: Russia has breached Israeli airspace more than once since it began intervening in Syria, Israeli defense official Gilad reveals
2016: 11 January 2016: Hezbollah terrorists reportedly receive long-range missiles, laser-guided rockets and other sophisticated weaponry directly from Russia in Syria, and are free to use that weaponry against Israel, following recent Netanyahu visit of servility to Moscow, including the shaking of bloody hands, amid fears in Israel that the Russian military aggression against Syrian people will threaten its defence and fears that Russian-supplied weapons will end up in the hands of Hezbollah - 7 December 2016: The deployment of Russian radar in Syrian territory to support Assad's and Hezbollah terrorists is probably making it difficult for the Israeli Air Force to operate freely against the transfer of sophisticated or very precise weaponry from Syria to Hezbollah in Lebanon
February 2018: 9 February 2018: Consortium comprising energy giants French Total, Italy's ENI, and Russian Novatek signed its first contract with Lebanon to drill for oil and gas off its coast, including in a block disputed by Israel, as Israel warns against 'provocative behavior' - 15 February 2018: A total of three Russian-made S-200 anti-aircraft missiles were found in non-Israeli territory after the Syrian military fired a barrage of rockets at Israeli jets
April 2018: 23 April 2018: Russian Putin regime said to warn of 'catastrophic consequences’ if Israel strikes S-300s - 24 April 2018: Israeli Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman said that Israel may strike the Russian-made S-300 anti-aircraft defense systems in Syria if they are used against Israel - 25 April 2018: Russian regime says will deliver new air defense systems to Syria soon, escalating tensions with Israel
June 2018: 24 June 2018: Contrary to Russian regime's promises to Israel, Russian jets on Saturday night bombed Syrian rebel targets in support of Assad’s southwest offensiv
11/12 July 2018: 12 July 2018: Putin meets Iranian Ali Khamenei's aide in Moscow day after meeting Netanyahu, saying that Netanyahu came to Moscow on 'private visit' to watch soccer, as Assad regime's UAV is downed over the Sea of Galilee in IAF's defense against another drone infiltration
September 2018: 20 September 2018: Russia’s embassy in Tel Aviv excoriates Israel for the downing of a Russian plane by the Russian-made S-200 air defense system in Syria during an Israeli strike, pinning the blame squarely on the Israeli Air Force, as Israel Defense Minister Liberman blames 'irresponsible and unprofessional' Syrian air defense operators for downing Russian surveillance plane, saying Israel won’t stop Syria strikes, and as Israel PM Netanyahu says that Israel must work to prevent war in the region, but warns that the IDF will act with 'full force' if armed conflict is forced on the country - 23 September 2018: Israeli military rejects Russian regime’s claim that it was to blame for Assad's downing of a Russian spy plane, vows to keep targeting Iran - 24 September 2018: Reportedly before Assad's downing of a Russian plane, Russian regime told Israel, that attacking Assad's targets harms Russian interests because Israeli strikes weaken Assad and Russia's goal is to strengthen Assad's dictatorship - 24 September 2018: Russian regime will outfit Assad's military with its sophisticated S-300 air defense system in the wake of Assad's downing of a Russian military plane - 24 September 2018: Israel and USA warned Russian regime against its declared intention to provide the Syrian military with advanced surface-to-air missiles within two weeks, saying the move would further destabilize the region and increase already high tensions
October 2018: 19 October 2018: Russian regime has reportedly delivered a more advanced version of its S-300 missile defense system to Assad's military as part of its effort to thwart Israeli airstrikes against Iranian-backed forces - 25 October 2018: Israeli defense minister Liberman rejects Russian ‘restrictions’ on Israeli strikes in Syria, saying government ‘will not accept’ Putin regime’s demands for additional warnings ahead of raids on Iranian and Iran-linked targets
December 2018: 18 December 2018: Israel said to strongly protest Russian invite to Hamas leader
January/February 2019: 19 January 2019: Russian Putin regime has reportedly asked Israel to halt its airstrikes against Iranian targets near the Damascus airport, also saying that Russian military officials are preparing to renovate the airport that has been damaged in the eight years of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against the Syrian people - 8 February 2019: Israel must stop Syria strikes, Russian regime says
June 2019: 25 June 2019: Israeli air strikes on Syria undesirable, says Russian regime's Nikolai Patrushev, amid Assad's and Russian regime's northwestern Syria offensive since April 2019, murdering hundreds of civilians, and as Iran-backed terror group Hezbollah is now giving orders to Assad’s army, using it to spy on Israel along Golan border
25 June 2019 Russia with Iran against Israel: 25 June 2019: In trilateral Jerusalem summit, Russian regime sides with Iran against Israel and USA, supporting Iranian regime's ongoing military presence in Syria, which Israel sees as a threat to its security
27/28 June 2019 Russian 'spoofing': 27 June 2019: Israeli officials accused Russian regime of responsibility for the ongoing disruptions to the satellite navigation systems of airplanes flying around Ben Gurion International Airport, appearing to stem from a form of electronic warfare known as 'spoofing' with disruptions it causes to nearby aircraft and ships, and to originate in Syria, where Russian troops and aircraft are fighting on behalf of the country’s dictator Bashar Assad - 28 June 2019: Signals disrupting satellite navigation for planes flying through Israeli airspace in recent weeks originate inside a Russian air base inside Syria, according to USA researcher, saying signals are detectable from space, appearing to come from new deployment of Russian regime’s electronic warfare systems
14 September 2019 obsequious PM Netanyahu meets Putin: 14 September 2019: Russian murderous Putin regime threatens to shoot down Israeli jets invading Syria to conduct airstrikes against Iran-backed targets, as obsequious PM Netanyahu meets Putin after 3-hour wait in Moscow
September 2019 Russian Jews increasingly moving to Israel: 22 September 2019: As Putin cracks down on democracy, Russian Jews increasingly moving to Israel
October 2019 Naama Issachar case: 13 October 2019: In a deepening diplomatic row Israel is urging its citizens to 'think twice' before visiting Russia, as Israel’s leaders stepped up their appeals to Russian regime’s Putin to release an Israeli woman who has been sentenced to seven and a half years in prison after being found with a small quantity of marijuana, in what is regarded by Israel as a wildly excessive punishment
29 October 2019 mother barred from visiting Naama Issachar: 29 October 2019: Mother of Israeli Naama Issachar jailed in Russia barred from visiting daughter
November 2019 Russia in possession of captured advanced Israeli interceptor missile: 6 November 2019: Russian regime is in possession of an advanced Israeli interceptor missile that was launched last year in response to Syrian rocket fire and recovered by Assad regime's military forces, according to a Chinese news site
December 2019 Russia to release 4-year-old Israeli girl detained for overstaying her visa: 6 December 2019: Russia to release 4-year-old Israeli girl detained for overstaying her visa, after Emily’s father Yigal said after her detainment 'they made a 4.5-year-old girl into a criminal, invading terrorist'
5 February 2020 Israelis detained at Moscow airport for 2nd time in days: 5 February 2020: Israelis detained at Moscow airport, denied entry to Russia for 2nd time in days, as authorities reportedly lock five passengers in room with no water or bathroom for six hours, without contact with the outside world, then send them back to Israel
19 October 2020 Russian warplane dangerously close to Israir passenger flight: 19 October 2020: Russian warplane said to come dangerously close to an 'Israir' Airbus A320 passenger flight, as Sukhoi Su-27 approaches and flies alongside the Israeli airbus flying from the Greek island of Rhodes to Tel Aviv
25 July 2021 Israeli airstrikes in Syria shake up Israel’s detente with Russian regime: 25 July 2021: Israeli airstrikes in Syria shake up Israel’s detente with Russian regime, as regime's announcement that it disrupted an Israeli attack in Syria reflects concern over Israeli airstrikes reaching closer to areas where Russia is present
24 January 2022 Israel, Jewish Groups discuss airlifting Ukraine's jews if Russia invades: 24 January 2022: With a possible Russian invasion of Ukraine looming, a briefing held Sunday by top officials in the Israeli government and Jewish organizations discussed the level of threat to Jewish communities in Ukraine and the possibility that Israel will facilitate an evacuation program
3 May 2022: Russia's Putin regime doubles down, says Israel 'supports neo-Nazi regime in Ukraine': 3 May 2022: Russia's Putin regime doubles down, says Israel 'supports neo-Nazi regime in Ukraine', after regime's FM Lavrov some days ago claimed Adolf Hitler had Jewish origins, as fascist Putin regime is committing war crimes in Ukraine since February
18 May 2022 Russians fire S-300 at Israeli jets in Syria: 18 May 2022: The Israeli Air Force may change its mode of operation when striking Iranian-related targets in Syria following a recent incident where Russia fired a missile from an S-300 air defense system at Israeli jets — a move that a senior Israeli defense source described as a 'very strange and worrying' act by Russian forces
21 July 2022 Russian Ministry of Justice wants the liquidation of the Jewish Agency for Israel: 21 July 2022: The Russian Ministry of Justice has asked a local court to rule on the liquidation of the Jewish Agency for Israel, claiming that it had violated Russian law during its activities in the country, after it was reported that Israel had clarification from Moscow following reports that the Kremlin has threatened to shut down the Jewish Agency’s aliyah activities in Russia amidst a sharp increase in immigration to the Jewish state
Russia/Italy relations: Russia/Italy relations
2013: 26 December 2013: First Greenpeace activist, Italy's Christian d'Alessandro, gets visa to leave Russia
March 2018 Russian networks worked to boost xenophobic and neo-fascist discourse in Italy: 5 March 2018: Russian networks worked to boost xenophobic and neo-fascist discourse in Italy ahead of elections, according to Spanish newspaper 'El País'
August 2018 Russian trolls' attack on Italian president investigated: 6 August 2018: Russian trolls' attack on Italian president in May 2018, just a few hours after Sergio Mattarella refused to appoint Eurosceptic Savona Minister of Finance, to be investigated in Italy as 'terrorism'
31 March 2021 Italy expels two Russian officials over alleged purchase of secret files in ‘clandestine meeting’: 31 March 2021: Italy has expelled two Russian officials after an Italian navy captain was arrested for allegedly passing confidential documents to one of them, as police said they had intervened 'during a clandestine meeting' between the Italian and a Russian military official and 'immediately after the transfer of a document by the Italian officer in exchange for a sum of money', and as the two people involved are accused of serious crimes related to spying and state security, the police said
7 January 2022 arrested Ukrainian opera director vows to fight Putin ‘oppression’: 7 January 2022: Ukrainian opera director Yevhen Lavrenchuk was detained in Naples on an international arrest warrant issued by Russia's Putin regime during a stopover in the city on 17 December, as opera director has pledged to continue his fight against Russian regime's 'oppression' as calls for his release mount from around the world
Russia/Japan relations: Russia/Japan relations
1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
1918-1922: Japanese Siberian Intervention of 1918–1922 was part of a larger effort by western powers and Japan to support 'White Russian' forces - Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1918-1922 (Japanese withdrawal from Siberia)
1917-1991: Japan/USSR relations
1932-1945: Japan/USSR border conflicts 1932-1945
1938: The Battle of Lake Khasan 1938 was an attempted military incursion by the Empire of Japan
1940: 1940 Tripartite Pact was the pact that established the Axis Powers Germany, Italy and Japan of World War II
2013/2014: 25 August 2013: As a pair of Russian military planes flew along Japan's northern coastline and after Russian planes breached Japan's airspace repeatedly in 2013, Japan scrambled fighter jets - 23 September 2014: Japan postpones Putin's visit over Ukraine conflict
Russia/Kazakhstan relations: Russia/Kazakhstan relations - Russians in Kazakhstan
1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Nuclear Weapons Test Site: 1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Test Site, the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons 1949-1989 with little regard for their effect on the local people or environment, the full impact of radiation exposure was hidden for many years and has only come to light since the test site closed in 1991
Uranium One: Uranium One
2013: 2 July 2013: Unmanned Russian rocket crashes in Kazakhstan, releasing poisonous rocket fuel
7 January 2022 Putin regime's intervention in Kazakhstan: 7 January 2022: Putin taking a risk in Kazakhstan and may hope for reward, as CSTO may be an alliance but decision to intervene in Kazakhstan was almost certainly taken in Moscow, 'The Guardian' reports
29 March 2013 Putin regime urges 'all' sides to refrain from muscle-flexing: 29 March 2013: Instead of taking strong action against the North Korean dictator threatening nuclear war Putin's foreign ministry, supporting the contempt for mankind, presumes to urge 'all' sides to refrain from muscle-flexing
2014 Russia writes off almost $10 billion of North Korea debt, eyes gas pipeline to South Korea: 19 April 2014: Russia writes off almost $10 billion of North Korea debt, eyes gas pipeline to South Korea - 30 September 2014: North Korean regime's foreign minister begins 10-day Russia visit in attempt to boost cooperation
6 September 2022 Russia to buy North Korean artillery shells, rockets: 6 September 2022: Russia to buy North Korean artillery shells, rockets, according to a New York Times report, saying declassified intelligence from the USA says that Putin's Russia is turning to isolated state to secure weapons as sanctions bite. Russia has deepened ties with countries including North Korea and Iran since its invasion of Ukraine in February drew international condemnation and sanctions that have made it more difficult to keep its military supplied with weapons and equipment.
Russia/North Korea relations: Russia/North Korea relations
24 August 2011 Kim Jong-il in rare Russian talks on economic co-operation: 24 August 2011: Kim Jong-il in rare Russian talks on economic co-operation (Gazprom)
div>2013 Putin regime urges 'all' sides to refrain from muscle-flexing, MiG fighter jets on North Korean arms ship: 29 March 2013: Instead of taking strong action against the North Korean dictator threatening nuclear war Putin's foreign ministry, supporting the contempt for mankind, presumes to urge 'all' sides to refrain from muscle-flexing - 22 July 2013: Panama finds MiG fighter jets on North Korean arms ship
2014 attempt to boost cooperation: 30 September 2014: North Korean regime's foreign minister begins 10-day Russia visit in attempt to boost cooperation
October 2017 Russia boosts North Korea's cyberwarfare capabilities: 2 October 2017: Russia boosts North Korea's cyberwarfare capabilities with new internet connection
December 2014 Russia delivers oil, produits petroliers to North Korea: 30 décembre 2017: Des navires russes ont fourni ces derniers mois des produits pétroliers à la Corée du Nord au moins à trois reprises en octobre et en novembre, en violation des dispositions adoptées à l'ONU
August 2018 Russia violating UN sanctions by allowing joint ventures: 3 août 2018: La Russie a fait travailler plus de 10'000 ouvriers en Russie depuis septembre et a délivré un permis de travail à au moins des centaines d'entre eux, ce qui pourrait constituer une violation des sanctions de l'ONU - 4 August 2018: USA Secretary of State says administratin has new, credible reports that Russia is violating UN sanctions by allowing joint ventures with North Korean companies
August/September 2018 Russia blocked the publication of UN report on the implementation of sanctions: 31 August 2018: Russia has blocked the publication of a UN report on the implementation of sanctions against North Korea, which AFP obtained a copy of earlier this month, listing violations of a ban on North Korean exports of coal, iron, seafood and other products that generate millions of dollars in revenue for Kim Jong Un's regime - 17 September 2018: At UN, USA accuses Russian Putin regime of 'cheating' on North Korea sanctions, citing 'evidence of consistent and wide-ranging Russian violations'
6 September 2022 Russia to buy North Korean artillery shells, rockets: 6 September 2022: Russia to buy North Korean artillery shells, rockets, according to a New York Times report, saying declassified intelligence from the USA says that Putin's Russia is turning to isolated state to secure weapons as sanctions bite. Russia has deepened ties with countries including North Korea and Iran since its invasion of Ukraine in February drew international condemnation and sanctions that have made it more difficult to keep its military supplied with weapons and equipment.
20 April 2023 Russia threatens to send weapons to DPRK if South Korea arms Ukraine: 20 April 2023: Russia threatens to send weapons to DPRK if South Korea arms Ukraine
22 January 2024 UK sends UN experts photographs of North Korean shipments to Russia: 22 January 2024: The UK has provided satellite photographs of North Korean cargo shipments to Russia to a panel of UN experts as part of an attempt to trigger an official investigation into arms deals in violation of international sanctions. North Korea has been accused of supplying ballistic missiles and hundreds of thousands of artillery shells to the Russian government for its war in Ukraine since Vladimir Putin met with Kim Jong-un in Russia’s far east in September.
Russia/South Korea relations: Russia/South Korea relations
2006: 11 September 2006: China, Japan, Russia and South Korea agreed to launch a new cargo and passenger sea route linking China and Japan, running through the Russian port of Zarubino and South Korea's Sokcho
Since 2006 North Korean nuclear threat: Since 2006 North Korean nuclear threat and Russia/South Korea relations
July 2019 Russian military provocation: 23 July 2019: After 3 Russian military planes together with two Chinese military planes initially entered South Korea’s air defense identification zone off its east coast, before one of the Russian planes entered and violated South Korea’s airspace, South Korean jets fired warning shots, but the Russian plane, first leaving the area, returned and violated the South Korean airspace again later and South Korean fighter jets fired warning shots again, later Russian regime denied its bombers had violated South Korean airspace and accused South Korean jets of carrying out dangerous manoeuvres
July 2019 Russian-Chinese provocation: 24 July 2019: Joint Russian and Chinese air patrol heightens tension in Korean peninsula, after troops and naval ships from Russia and China have taken part in joint war games before
20 April 2023 Russia threatens to send weapons to DPRK if South Korea arms Ukraine: 20 April 2023: Russia threatens to send weapons to DPRK if South Korea arms Ukraine
Russia/Latvia relations: Russia/Latvia relations - Russians in Latvia
2014: 23 October 2014: As Russian regime tightens its grip on the country’s independent media, a group of self-exiled reporters set up shop in Latvia hoping to evade the censors
2015: 4 April 2015: Latvia to strengthen eastern border following Russian regime's intervention and war in Ukraine - 20 December 2015: NATO jets again intercept Russian plane over Baltic near Latvia
April 2018: 4 April 2018: Russia began testing missiles with live munitions in the Baltic Sea alarming Latvia, a member of NATO, which says the drills have forced it to partly shut down Baltic commercial airspace
Russia/Lebanon relations: Russia/Lebanon relations
Russian and Iranian weapons for Lebanese terrorist organization Hezbollah: Russian and Iranian weapons for Lebanese Hezbollah, classified as a terrorist organization by the governments of the USA, Netherlands, France, Gulf Cooperation Council, UK, Australia, Canada, the European Union and Israel - Hezbollah armed strength
2014/2015 Russian deputy FM meets Hezbollah chief Nasrallah in Beirut: 7 December 2014: Russian deputy foreign minister meets Hezbollah chief Nasrallah in Beirut - 16 November 2015: Russia does not consider Hezbollah a terrorist group, encouraging their common agression in Syria
2016 Russia supplies Islamist terrorists Hezbollah with heavy weapons: 11 January 2016: Russia supplies Islamist terrorists Hezbollah with heavy weapons - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases, actually fighting alongside Russian special forces
February 2017 Lebanese Hezbollah terrorists and advanced Russian-made Yakhont anti-ship missiles: 19 February 2017: The Lebanese terror group Hezbollah is said to have obtained advanced Russian-made Yakhont anti-ship missiles, potentially threatening Israeli gas fields in the Mediterranean Sea and the Israeli Navy’s ability to operate in the area - 5 September 2017: Russian Putin regime threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate and renewal of UN peacekeeper force if Lebanon-based terror organization Hezbollah, its ally in Assad's war against the Syrian people, mentioned
February 2018 consortium comprising French Total, Italy's ENI, and Russian Novatek: 9 February 2018: Consortium comprising energy giants French Total, Italy's ENI, and Russian Novatek signed its first contract with Lebanon to drill for oil and gas off its coast, including in a block disputed by Israel, as Israel warns against 'provocative behavior'
February 2019 Russian regime hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria: 9 February 2019: Russian regime’s ambassador in Lebanon Zasypkin hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria, also saying USA policies toward Iran could set off a fresh war between Israel and Lebanon
8 August 2020 sunken Russian ship that brought ammonium nitrate to Beirut and never left: 8 August 2020: Sunken hull of Cyprus-based Russian businessman Igor Grechushkin owned MV 'Rhosus', whose cargo of thousands of tons of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the huge explosion that devastated Beirut last week, and which arrived in Lebanon in November 2013 while sailing from Georgia and bound for Mozambique, making the unscheduled detour to Beirut as the Russian shipowner was struggling with debts and hoped to earn some extra cash through picking up cargo in Lebanon, but 'Rhosus', reportedly unseaworthy, was soon impounded by the Lebanese authorities for failing to pay port fees and the dangerous cargo was impounded and unloaded by Lebanese authorities, as Russian shipowner Igor Grechushkin later abandoned crew members without paying their wages or the debt he owed to the port
2 October 2020 Lebanon requests arrests of Russian owner and captain of Beirut blast ship 'Rhosus': 2 October 2020: Lebanon requests arrests of Russian owner and captain of Beirut blast ship 'Rhosus', a cargo ship sailing from Georgia and bound for Mozambique widely understood to have brought ammonium nitrate to Beirut in 2013
Russia/Libya relations: Russia/Libya relations relations
2 October 2013 protesters tried to storm Russia's embassy after a Libyan army officer was killed : 2 October 2013: Dozens of angry protesters tried to storm Russia's embassy on after reports that a Russian woman had killed a Libyan army officer in Tripoli
July 2019: 6 July 2019: Two Russians with links to an infamous Russian troll farm and linked to attempts to influence African elections arrested in Libya
28 September 2019 Russian fighters linked to Haftar: 28 September 2019: PC head confirms finding evidence linking Russian fighters to Haftar
4 October 2019 35 Russian mercenaries killed in Libya: 4 October 2019: As many as 35 Russian mercenaries are reported to have been killed in Libya while they were fighting for Khalifa Haftar, who launched an offensive earlier this year on the Libyan capital of Tripoli, home to the country’s internationally-recognized government
November 2019 Russian cash for Haftar halted: 1 November 2019: Malta halts shipment of cash destined for Libyan rebel chief Haftar, as huge cache thought to have come from Russia in order to bankroll general’s war effort, after supplies of banknotes from Russia to East Libya accelerated this year
November 2019 Russian role in Haftar's war grows: 9 November 2019: Libya urges USA to help end conflict with warlord Haftar and his supporters as Russian role grows
December 2019 Egypt, Russia, UAE, and France's support for warlord Haftar: 23 December 2019: Detained pro-Haftar pilot reveals new details about Egypt, Russia, UAE, and France's support, saying Russian Wagner Group mercenaries depend on Tarhouna operations room with air-defense and electronic warfare systems, where a group of French experts working on logistical support, surveillance and wiretapping
14 February 2020 Russia conscripting Syrian men to fight on their behalf in Libya: 14 February 2020: Russia has been conscripting Syrian men to fight on their behalf in Libya, tempting them with large salaries writes Baladi News
18 February 2020 BBC confirmed the killing of the first Russian soldier in Libya: 18 February 2020: BBC News Russian confirmed Monday the killing of the first Russian soldier in Libya identified to be 'Gleb Mostovoy' on February 6
21 February 2020 Russian regime's Sergei Shoigu hosted warlord Khalifa Haftar: 21 February 2020: Russian regime's Sergei Shoigu hosted warlord Khalifa Haftar in Moscow February 19
26 May 2022 Russian mercenaries accused over use of mines and booby traps including rigged bomb to teddy bear: 26 May 2022: Russian mercenaries in Libya systematically broke international law by laying mines in civilian areas without any attempt to mark their location or remove the lethal devices, UN investigators have found, as fighters from the Wagner Group repeatedly linked to the Kremlin by western officials, also rigged booby traps to powerful explosive anti-tank weapons that were responsible for the death of two mine clearers working for an NGO, as investigators suspect that a booby trap found in a civilian neighbourhood in Tripoli – made of a mortar shell and plastic explosive attached to a teddy bear – was also the work of Wagner fighters
1 July 2023 drone strikes target base of Wagner mercenaries in Libya: 1 July 2023: Drone strikes of unknown origin on Thursday night targeted an air base in eastern Libya where mercenaries from the Russian paramilitary group Wagner are believed to be stationed. From April 2019 to June 2020 strongman Khalifa Haftar of eastern Libya used Chadian, Sudanese, Nigerian and Syrian fighters, but above all mercenaries from Wagner, in his failed attempt to seize the capital Tripoli. Since then, hundreds of Wagner members have remained active in the east, in the area of the oil terminals, and in the south of Libya after some of their troops left for Mali or Ukraine to fight alongside Russian Putin regime's army.
Russia/Lithuania relations: Russia/Lithuania relations - Lithuanian–Russian wars - Third Partition of Poland - Baltic–Soviet relations 1918-1989
2013: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2016: 23 February 2016: NATO intercepts a Russian IL-20 aircraft above the Baltic Sea, Lithuania officials say
October/November 2016: 9 October 2016: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad enclave bordering Poland and Lithuania, as neighbouring Lithuania to protest at Russian regime’s decision announcing a Nato-Russia council meeting and demanding that international agreements are adhered to - 22 November 2016: Russia is deploying short-range nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad region between the NATO states of Poland and Lithuania
Russia/Republic of Macedonia relations: Russia/Republic of Macedonia relations
2008-2017: 4 June 2017: Russian spies and diplomats have been involved in a nearly decade-long effort to spread propaganda and provoke discord in Macedonia aiming to stop Balkan countries joining Nato and to pry them away from western influence, according to a leak of classified documents from the country’s intelligence agency
Russia/Malaysia relations: Russia/Malaysia relations
2014: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from an area in eastern Ukraine controlled by Russian-backed separatists
2015: 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
2016: 24 February 2016: Bellingcat names those possibly involved in July 2014 MH17 crash, including Russia Defence Ministry and Putin - 24 February 2016: MH17 - Potential Suspects and Witnesses from the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade - A bell¿ngcat Investigation 2015/2016 - 16 November 2016: Names of 100 people responsible of downing Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 have been identified and will be revealed by early 2018, Malaysia's Liow Tiong Lai says
Russia/Mali relations: Russia/Mali relations
1 October 2021 Mali receives helicopters and weapons from Russia's Putin regime: 1 October 2021: A cargo plane has delivered four helicopters, weapons and ammunition from Russia's Putin regime to Mali, according to the military-led authorities in the West African country, as delivery of military equipment from Moscow comes amid tense relations between Bamako and key ally Paris
24 December 2021 Western powers strongly condemned deployment in Mali of Russian mercenaries: 24 décembre 2021: Les pays engagés dans les efforts pour assurer la paix et la stabilité au Mali ont dénoncé le déploiement de mercenaires russes sur le territoire malien selon un communiqué publié jeudi, Gauthier Rybinski, chroniqueur international pour France24 donne son analyse
22 April 2022 France says Russian mercenaries staged ‘French atrocity’ in Mali: 22 April 2022: France says Russian mercenaries staged ‘French atrocity’ in Mali, as army says it filmed mercenaries burying bodies to falsely accuse France of leaving behind mass graves
4 May 2022 Russian mercenaries linked to civilian massacres in Mali: 4 May 2022: Russian mercenaries linked to civilian massacres in Mali in which several hundred civilians have died, as internal Malian army documents show Wagner operatives took part in ‘mixed missions’, raising new fears about the impact of Puitin regime’s intensifying interventions on the stability and security of countries across the continent
1 November 2022 Russian Wagner group mercenaries accused of civilian massacre in Mali: 1 November 2022: Russian mercenaries in Mali have been accused of a new massacre of civilians following a major military operation in the centre of the unstable country. At least 13 civilians were killed on Sunday in the region of Mopti by Maliafollowing a lucrative deal struck with its new military rulers.
20 May 2023 Russian mercenaries behind slaughter of 500 citizens in Mali village, UN report finds: 20 May 2023: Russian mercenaries behind slaughter of 500 citizens in Mali village, UN report finds. First came a single helicopter, next came more helicopters, dropping troops off around the homes, ordering men into the centre of the village, gunning down those trying to escape. Over the next five days, hundreds more would die in Moure village at the hands of troops overseen by Russian mercenaries, as all but a small fraction were unarmed civilians.
Russia/Malta relations: Russia/Malta relations
2016: 27 October 2016: Malta will not refuel Russia's 'death fleet' heading to Syria, after online petition to the Maltese government said the people of Malta did not want to be complicit in Russia's war crimes
2017: 27 May 2017: Maltese government has claimed that it has come under attack from a Russian-backed campaign to undermine it, accusing Russian regime of cyber-attacks in run-up to election
Russia/Moldova relations: Russia/Moldova relations - 'Bessarabia Governorate' eastern part of Moldavia annexed by Russia 1812–1917 - 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines - 19 April 2014: Moldovan PM Iurie Leanca expresses concern that Moldova could be Putin's next conquest
Russia/Monaco relations: Russia/Monaco relations
3 September 2022 Russia's death toll in Ukraine war 49,050 Russians, far more than Monaco's inhabitants: 3 September 2022: Russian military death toll in Ukraine war rises to 49,050 Russians on 3 September - far more than the number of inhabitants of the 'Principality of Monaco' -, as Ukraine's defenders have killed 350 servants of Putin in the past day alone. Also, Ukraine's defenders destroyed 2,034 (+25) enemy tanks, 4,403 (+37) armored fighting vehicles, 1,134 (+8) artillery systems, 293 (+4) multiple launch rocket systems, 153 (+0) air defense systems, 235 (+1) warplanes, 205 (+0) helicopters, 864 (+11) operational-tactical UAVs, 203 (+5) cruise missiles, 15 (+0) warships / cutters, 3,268 (+21) trucks and tankers,
Russia/Montenegro relations: Russia/Montenegro relations
2015: 3 November 2015: Putin supported anti-gov't protests ahead of the final EU membership decision, Montenegro's PM Dukanovi says
2016: 6 November 2016: Russian nationalists were behind an alleged coup attempt in Montenegro that included plans to assassinate pro-western PM Ðukanovic over his government’s attempt to join Nato, the country’s chief special prosecutor Katnic has said - 11 November 2016: Serbia has deported a group of Russians suspected of involvement in a coup plot in neighbouring Montenegro, the Guardian has learned, in the latest twist in a murky sequence of events that apparently threatened the lives of two European prime ministers
2017: 9 March 2017: Russian destabilisation of Balkans rings alarm bells as EU leaders meet - 6 September 2017: Russian Putin regime has been accused by Nato’s secretary general Jens Stoltenberg of blocking the alliance from properly observing next week’s Zapad military exercises, when about 100,000 Russian troops are expected to mobilise on the EU’s eastern borders
May 2019 pro-Russia plot in 2016: 9 May 2019: A court in Montenegro has handed jail sentences to 14 people, including pro-Russia politicians Andrija Mandic and Milan Kneževic, over an alleged plot to overthrow the government with Russian help in 2016
Russia/NATO relations: Russia/NATO relations - 11 April 2014: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May 2014: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 23 May: Russia refuses from meeting with NATO on Ukraine, planned for May 27 - 30 September: Over half of Ukrainians see Ukraine in NATO, poll says - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law
2015: 16 June 2015: Russian regime's adding of 40 new intercontinental ballistic missiles to its nuclear arsenal slammed by NATO's Jens Stoltenberg as 'dangerous' and 'nuclear sabre rattling' - 4 July: Sweden and NATO jets intercept Russian nuclear bombers, coming close to Swedish airspace - 31 July 2015: NATO jets have been scrambled to intercept Russian military planes over Europe 250 times this year, the highest number since the end of the Cold War - 8 October 2015: NATO prepares major troop deployment to Turkey after a series of violations of Turkish airspace by Russian jets bombing Syria - 25 November 2015: NATO's Jens Stoltenberg offers support for Turkey after a Russian fighter jet was shot down near the Syrian border, rejecting any suggestion that the incident happened outside of Turkey's borders
30 November 2021 Putin warned Nato that deploying weapons or soldiers to Ukraine would cross a 'red line': 30 November 2021: Russian regime's Putin has warned Nato countries that deploying weapons or soldiers to Ukraine would cross a 'red line' for Russia and trigger a strong response, including a potential deployment of Russian missiles targeting Europe, as Nato countries have warned Putin against further aggression against Ukraine while foreign ministers gathered in Latvia to discuss the military alliance’s contingencies for a potential Russian invasion
Russia/Netherlands relations: Russia/Netherlands relations
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 4 October: Greenpeace International applauds Dutch arbitration over Arctic 30 - 16 October: Attack on Dutch deputy head of mission in Russia by unidentified assailants deepens Dutch-Russian rift - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise
2014: 24 April: Several NATO member countries scrambled jets after a pair of Russian bomber planes approached their airspace over the North Sea
July-December 2014: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down near Hrabove with a surface-to-air missile - 19 July: Amid reports that pro-Russia separatists accused of shooting down MH17 flight remove corpses themselves and are looting credit cards and other possessions, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and more global politicians round on Vladimir Putin as separatists continue to block international inspectors attempting to identify and repatriate bodies - 20 July 2014: As inspectors still denied access and anger mounts towards Russian regime, that is not yet ready to abandon separatists, UN considers resolution on Ukraine crash site access - 8 August 2014: Dutch FM Timmermans fears that the Russian policy towards Ukraine can be applied in other countries, and it poses a threat to the whole of Europe - 19 December 2014: Bodies of MH17 victims ‘contain missile fragments', Ukraine's SBU security service says
2015: 16 April: A Russian museum plans to exhibit a plane fragment from downed flight MH17, despite the fact Dutch investigators are still combing the area for evidence - 16 July 2015: Reports suggest investigation into flight MH17 disaster will accuse Russian-backed militants, but Russia's Putin tells Dutch PM that creating UN tribunal is counterproductive - 17 July 2015: A newly released video from the immediate aftermath of the 2014 shooting down of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 reveals pro-Russian separatists rummaging through the luggage of dead passengers while apparently in a state of confusion - 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
2016: 24 February 2016: Bellingcat names those possibly involved in July 2014 MH17 crash, including Russia Defence Ministry and Putin - 24 February 2016: MH17 - Potential Suspects and Witnesses from the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade - A bellingcat Investigation 2015/2016 - 18 May 2016: NSW Coroner Michael Barnes has found the deaths of six NSW passengers in the Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 crash were caused by 'deliberate, malicious acts'
July 2017: 5 July 2017: Those responsible for shooting down flight MH17 over Donbas in July 2014 will be tried under the jurisdiction of the courts of the Netherlands, according to government sources and an agreement between the Netherlands, Belgium, Australia, Malaysia, and Ukraine - 17 July 2017: 3 years after the Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Buk missile over Ukraine, friends and relatives of the 38 Australian citizens and residents who died were among the 2,000 people who attended the opening of a new memorial in the Netherlands to the 298 people who lost their lives - 18 July 2017: Justice served in Greenpeace 'Arctic 30' and 'Arctic Sunrise' case as Russia ordered by an international tribunal to pay the Netherlands €5.4 million in damages
November/December 2017: 15 November 2017: Russian 'security services' are trying to influence public opinion in the Netherlands by spreading fake news and in addition Dutch companies are being targeted by Russian cyber attacks, according to home affairs minister Kajsa Ollongren - 8 December 2017: Russian Colonel General identified as key MH17 figure, according to 'Bellingcat'
January 2018: 30 January 2018: A group of MH17 victims' relatives, including 10 Dutch, won a lawsuit in a USA court filed against Igor Girkin in Moscow, which entitles them to hundreds of millions of dollars in damages
May 2018 Russia formally accused of downing MH17: 25 May 2018: Australia and the Netherlands have formally accused Russia of being responsible for downing a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet in July 2014, after international Joint Investigation Team identified the missile used to shoot down the plane as coming from Russia's armed forces, murdering all 298 people on board - 25 May 2018: Russian GRU officer Ivannikov involved in delivery of Buk to Donbas in July 2014, according Bellingcat team, The Insider and other investigators
June 2018: 9 June 2018: A group of relatives of victims of the downing of flight MH17 held a silent protest in front of the Russian embassy in The Hague placing 298 empty chairs in the park opposite the embassy, saying '298 people, 80 of them forever children, have nothing to celebrate today. Their seats remain empty. Those who sealed their fate are silent and look away' - 13 June 2018: Sentences in the case of the MH17 downing over Donbas may be enforced in Ukraine while Dutch court will be able to use video conference calls in trial hearings, after Dutch legislators approved an agreement to facilitate possible prosecution
September 2018: 14 September 2018: The Dutch government expelled two alleged Russian spies earlier this year after they were accused of planning to hack into a Swiss chemicals laboratory where novichok nerve agent samples from the Salisbury attack were analysed, it has emerged - 18 September 2018: Russians misinterpret shadows and objects in JIT's MH17-related videos in an attempt to show there was a problem with lighting in the videos, according to Bellingcat, saying there is also satellite imagery of the Russian Buk convoy to serve as additional evidence
October 2018: 4 October 2018: Dutch defense ministry accuses Russian regime’s military intelligence unit of attempted cybercrimes targeting the international chemical weapons watchdog and the investigation into the 2014 Malaysian Airlines crash over Ukraine - 4 October 2018: Four GRU officers expelled from Netherlands after alleged attacks on OPCW, Porton Down and UK Foreign Office
19 June 2019 first trial of three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian suspect announced: 19 June 2019: Marking the beginning of the Dutch criminal proceedings, Dutch prosecutors say three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian will be tried on murder charges for their role in the 2014 downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine, saying that evidence showed a direct line of military command between Ukrainian separatists and Russia's Putin regime, as suspects will be tried for murder in the case set to start in March 2020, according to Silene Fredriksz-Hoogzand, the mother of one of the 298 victims - 19 June 2019: Identifying the separatists linked to the downing of MH17 by Bellingcat Investigation Team
17 July 2019: 17 juillet 2019: Les familles des victimes du crash du vol MH17 abattu en 2014 au-dessus de l'Ukraine se sont rassemblées mercredi à l'occasion du 5e anniversaire de la catastrophe et ont à nouveau réclamé justice, après les Pays-Bas et l'Australie ont ouvertement imputé en mai 2018 à la Russie la mort de leurs concitoyens
9 October 2019 Russian downing of MH17 flight and denial: 9 October 2019: The Netherlands and Australia will pursue criminal prosecutions for those responsible for the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 that killed 298 people, Dutch PM Rutte said at a joint press conference with Australian PM, after joint investigation team formed by Australia, Belgium, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Ukraine found that the plane was downed by a Russian missile and international arrest warrants have been issued for the four suspects, but Russia has not cooperated with the inquiry, refusing to surrender defendants
March 2020 downing of MH17 flight trial in Schiphol: 5 mars 2020: Le procès de 4 personnes suspectées d'avoir causé le crash du Boeing de Malaysian Airlines vol MH17 au-dessus de l'Ukraine en 2014 s'ouvre la semaine prochaine aux Pays-Bas, donnant enfin l'espoir aux proches des victimes d'obtenir justice malgré un banc des accusés vide
8 March 2020 families of people killed when Russian missile shot down MH17 flight set out 298 chairs outside Russian embassy: 8 March 2020: The families of people killed when a Russian BUK missile shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over eastern Ukraine in 2014 set out 298 white chairs outside the Russian embassy on Sunday in a silent protest against Putin regime’s lack of cooperation and denial in the investigation into the downing of the passenger jet - 8 March 2020: MH17 families fear they still face a long road to justice as trial begins
23 March 2020 MH17 resumed briefly as Russia continues to deny involvement: 23 March 2020: The trial of three Russians and a Ukrainian charged with multiple murder in shooting down MH17 in 2014 resumed briefly, as Judge Steenhuis authorized prosecutors to give lawyers for family members of the 298 victims access to limited parts of the investigation dossier, as the courtroom was almost empty due to restrictions aimed at slowing the spread of the coronavirus, as case was adjourned until June 8, and as Russian regime, accused by UN of war crimes in Syria, continues to deny involvement
15 October 2020 Russia's withdrawal from MH17 talks as the Netherlands doesn't rule out any options to achieve justice: 15 October 2020: Dutch FM Stef Blok has said the Netherlands regrets Russia's decision to withdraw from talks on liability for the downing of Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 in Donbas in 2014
Russia/New Zealand relations: Russia/New Zealand relations
March 2014 New Zealand joins in 'personal sanctions' over Crimea: 23 March 2014: New Zealand has joined the countries imposing travel bans on those Russian and Ukrainians seen as responsible for the crisis in Ukraine
March 2018 Salisbury attack serious affront to global rules: 16/17 March 2018: Calling the incident a 'serious affront' to global rules and norms, New Zealand's PM Jacinda Ardern has joined European leaders in backing a statement on the nerve agent attack in Salisbury, considering further measures against Russia after the government halted all efforts to restart trade talks
March 2019 Christchurch shooter's European links: 15 March 2019: Suspected New Zealand attacker ‘met extreme right-wing groups’ during Europe visit, saying he began planning his operation after a visit to Europe in 2017, according to security sources
August 2019 Christchurch shooter's Russian links: 15 August 2019: Christchurch shooter, who is accused of killing 51 people in mosque massacre, sends hate-filled letter from jail to a Russian man named Alan, who posted the letter to the website 4Chan, also discussing his trip to Russia in 2015
Russia/Niger relations: Russia/Niger relations
27 August 2023 Russia uses social media channels to exploit Niger coup: 27 August 2023: Russia's Putin regime uses social media channels to exploit Niger coup, aiming to increase influence in Africa, winning lucrative contracts and gaining access to key resources. Prigozhin, who led a rebellion against Vladimir Putin in June and who died in a plane crash north of Moscow last week, spearheaded a disinformation offensive in Africa that played a key role in the expansion of Russian influence in strategic areas such as the Sahel. Content about Niger across 45 Russian Telegram channels affiliated with the Russian state or Wagner increased by 6,645% in the month after the coup, suggesting a keen interest in Moscow in exploiting the upheaval. This expansion of Russian influence in the Sahel region followed the overthrow of a civilian government by soldiers in Mali in 2021 marked a turning point in the battle for influence between Russia and western countries in the Sahel. The new regime in Mali swiftly concluded a deal with the Wagner group leading to the withdrawal of western forces stationed there, in what was seen as a major victory in Africa for Russia's Putin regime.
Russia/Norway relations: Russia/Norway relations
October 2016 Russian Nazi mercenary in Donbas for pro-Russian forces detained in Norway: 20 October 2016: Russian Nazi, who was a mercenary in Donbas, fighting for pro-Russian forces, detained in Norway
2017 Norway keeps watch on Russia's Arctic manoeuvres and expanding military: 13 March 2017: Norway keeps watch on Russia's Arctic manoeuvres and expanding military
September 2018: 24 September 2018: A Russian national has been arrested in Norway on suspicion of spying during a conference on strengthening cooperation between Europe’s parliamentary administrations
3 February 2022 NRC's Jan Egeland warns against an escalation of Russian aggression against Ukraine: 3 February 2022: NRC Secretary General Jan Egeland warns that an escalation of Russian aggression against Ukraine would have catastrophic consequences for millions of civilians in the border regions, already suffering since 2014
Russia/Palestinian territories relations: Russia/Palestinian territories relations
2015: 3 August 2015: Russian FM Lavrov mets Hamas leader Meshal in Qatar and invites him to Moscow
2016: 6 July 2016: Three Palestinians were killed and at least five injured by apparent Russian airstrikes on Monday targeting the Khan al-Shih neighborhood southwest of Damascus which is considered a Palestinian refugee camp, causing heavy damage to civilian houses and destroying a building housing the foundation’s Child Friendly Space, according to the Jafra Foundation
July 2018: 15 July 2018: Palestinian territories' Mahmoud Abbas is facing domestic criticism for his decision to attend Sunday’s World Cup final in Moscow amid ongoing unrest in Gaza, where Israel and Palestinian terrorist groups have exchanged fire resulting in casualties on both side of the tense border
November 2018: 29 November 2018: The top leader of the Hamas terror group, Ismail Haniyeh, said he has received an invitation to make an official visit to Moscow, delivered by a visiting Russian diplomat, as UN General Assembly is expected to vote on a proposed resolution condemning rocket fire from Gaza at Israeli civilians and demanding that Hamas end its use of violence - 29 November 2018: New report documenting Assad regime’s widespread violations against Palestinian refugees in Syria, as at least 3,903 Palestinian refugees have been killed in Syria since March 2011, the majority in bombardments by Assad regime's and Russia's aircraft and as a result of sieges, armed clashes and torture
March 2020 Islamic Jihad terror group's chief will visit Russia at regime’s invitation: 1 March 2020: Palestinian Islamic Jihad terror group announced that it had accepted an invitation from the Russian regime's FM for its chief Ziad al-Nakhaleh to visit Moscow
Russia/Philippines relations: Russia/Philippines relations
2017: 3 January 2017: Russian regime sends warships to the Philippines as Duterte pivots away from the USA
Russia/Poland relations: Russia/Poland relations
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
1939-2020 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)': 29 December 2020: Herman 'Likwornik would have been one of about 230,000 Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust by reaching the Soviet Union ..., the largest group of Polish Jews to survive the Holocaust, yet historians have paid scant attention to their ordeals', co-editor Katharina Friedla of an upcoming book about this group of survivors called 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)', says
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2014/2015 USA's commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine: 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 29 April 2014: The Visegrad Group foreign ministers of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary condemn Russia's aggression against Ukraine - 10 June 2014: In St. Petersburg Poland's FM Sikorski urges Russia to stop sending terrorists to Ukraine - 28 April 2015: Polish border guards denied entry to Putin's 'Night Wolves' bikers, supporting Russia’s annexation of Crimea and aggression in Donbas and wanting to ride through Poland to commemorate the Red Army’s victory over Nazi Germany in 1945 - 19 July 2015: Russian regime is ramping up its military prescence in Kaliningrad, the Baltic territory of one million people wedged between EU members Poland and Lithuania, with fears growing that the military build-up could threaten stability in the region, 70 years after World War II - 26 September 2015: Poland will summon Russia's envoy after he said Poland was partly to blame for the outbreak of World War II
2016 Polish FM says Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war: 16 February 2016: Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war, Polish FM Witold Waszczykowski told the Munich Security Conference
October 2016 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad enclave: 9 October 2016: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad enclave bordering Poland and Lithuania
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
May 2018 Poland stops 'Russian hybrid war groups': 17 May 2018: Poland stops 'Russian hybrid war groups', saying ABW agency had 'neutralised' two 'Russian hybrid war networks' targeting Poland by expelling Russians
19 July 2019 Russian regime's Putin's attendance of commemorative events on the 80th anniversary of the start of WW II inappropriate: 19 July 2019: Poland's Jacek Sasin has said Polish authorities consider inappropriate the attendance by Russian regime's Putin of commemorative events on the 80th anniversary of the start of World War II, which will be held in Warsaw in September 2019
February 2020 Chechen blogger Abdurakhmanov survives assassination attempt in Poland: 27 February 2020: Chechen blogger Tumso Abdurakhmanov has survived an apparent assassination attempt in Poland by an attacker, who replied that he came 'from Moscow', in the latest of a series of attacks on dissidents exiled in Europe
Russia/Portugal relations: Russia/Portugal relations - 31 October 2014: Portugal scrambles jets again to intercept Russian bombers
Russia/Qatar relations: Russia/Qatar relations
Russia/Romania relations: Russia/Romania relations - Paris Peace Treaties 1947
2014: 10 May: Romania asks Russia for an explanation after regime's deputy PM Dmitry Rogozin, sanctioned by the EU, tweeted he would return in a TU-160 strategic bomber reacting to being barred from Romania's airspace
January 2019: 23 January 2019: The head of Russia's SVR foreign intelligence agency Sergei Naryshkin met Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, as well as the head of the kingdom's intelligence services, following the Russian poisoning of S. Skripal in 2018, the Saudi assassination of Jamal Khashoggi, and the mockery of the victims at G20
Russia/South Africa relations: Russia/South Africa relations
April 2018: 23 April 2018: Grassroots women activists Makoma Lekalakala and Liz McDaid, who were the sole signatories of a successful legal challenge against the plan for South Africa to buy up to 10 nuclear power stations from Russia's Putin regime at an estimated cost of $76bn, are among the winners of this year’s Goldman environment prize
October 2019 Russian regime landed two nuclear-capable bombers in South Africa: 24 October 2019: Russian regime landed two nuclear-capable bombers in South Africa on a training mission, a flight apparently timed to coincide with Putin's opening of a Russia-Africa summit designed to increase Russian regime's influence
19 July 2023 South Africa’s president says Putin will not attend the BRICS summit in the country: 19 July 2023: Russia's dictator Putin will not attend the BRICS summit in Johannesburg next month, South Africa’s president announced on Wednesday, a decision that allows the host nation to avoid the difficult predicament of whether to arrest the Russian leader, who is the subject of an international warrant
Russia/Spain relations: Russia/Spain relations
2016: 16 June 2016: Mob of Russian 'ultras' put Spanish football fan in hospital in Germany, punching and kicking two tourists and their friends in an 'extremely aggressive and brutal' way
Russia/Sudan relations: Russia/Sudan relations
25 May 2023 Russia's Wagner mercenary group provided missiles to Sudan’s RSF, says USA Treasury: 25 May 2023: Russia’s Wagner mercenary group provided the Sudanese paramilitary forces with surface-to-air missiles. The USA Treasury Department sanctioned Ivan Alexandrovich Maslov, the leader of the Wagner Group in Mali, for collaborating with the Russian paramilitary group to disrupt the stability of several African countries.
Russia/Sweden relations: Russia/Sweden relations
June 2015: 19 June 2015: Russia warns Sweden it will face military action if it joins Nato - 4 September 2015: Sweden rethinking neutrality amid fear of Russian aggression
January 2019: 24 January 2019: Russian fighter jets violated Sweden's airspace amid several reports of airspace violations by Russian military aircraft in the Baltic Sea region and an increased presence of Russian military vessels
Russia/Switzerland relations: Russia/Switzerland relations
2009 'Renova Group' Vekselberg fined: 6. April 2009: Strafverfahren gegen 'Renova Group' Vekselberg, welcher 31,2% an Sulzer hält, im Fall Sulzer - In 2009 Vekselberg was fined $38m by Swiss authorities
Since 2014 Ownership structure of OC Oerlikon technology group: Since 2014 Ownership structure of OC Oerlikon technology group and Renova Group - Since 1990 'Renova Group' Russian conglomerate with interests in aluminium, oil, energy, telecoms and a variety of other sectors, primarily active in Russia, the C.I.S. states, Switzerland, South Africa and the USA
February 2014 Ueli Maurer gives gifts to Polonium- and Sarin-Putin in the 'House of Switzerland': 16. Februar 2014: Putin von Bundesrat Ueli Maurer im 'House of Switzerland' empfangen und mit Geschenken begrüsst
2016 'largest oil deal in Russia's history': 11 December 2016: Despite western sanctions, war criminal Putin enabled by Anglo–Swiss 'Glencore plc' to ink 'largest oil deal in Russia's history', as Russian state holding company Rosneftegaz on Saturday signed a deal with the Qatar Investment Authority and commodities trader Glencore to sell a 19.5% stake in state-owned oil major Rosneft
April/May 2018 Swiss corporations's payments: In April 2018, the USA imposed sanctions on 'Renova Group' Vekselberg and 23 other Russian nationals - 9 May 2018: Donald Trump’s attorney and legal fixer Michael Cohen was paid half a million dollars by through an affiliate of the Renova investment group owned by Viktor Vekselberg and closely linked to Vladimir Putin - 10 May 2018: USA's special counsel Robert Mueller investigating payments made by corporations to Trump’s attorney Michael Cohen, including Swiss pharmaceuticals company Novartis, as Novartis confirmed it had paid Cohen $1.2m - 23 May 2018: Columbus Nova, an investment firm and the USA affiliate of Moscow-based Renova Group corporation owned by Viktor Vekselberg, that paid Donald Trump’s legal fixer Michael Cohen, was also involved in securing hundreds of millions of dollars in funding for the Russian oligarch from Russian state-controlled VTB Bank with ties to Russia’s intelligence services
July/September 2018 cyberattacks against Swiss chemical weapons experts and spying: 30 July 2018: Hackers linked to Russian government targeted Swiss chemical weapons experts in a Bern-based laboratory, apparently targeted for its role in the investigation into the Skripals' poisoning in the UK - 16 September 2018: Swiss foreign ministry has summoned Russia’s ambassador three times this year to raise concerns about suspected operations targeting organisations based in Switzerland, including a laboratory used to test chemical weapons
October 2018: 19 October 2018: Russian spying significant and increasing, according to Swiss authorities, believing two Russian spies targeted a Swiss chemical weapons facility and plotted a cyber attack against the offices of the World Anti-Doping Agency
September 2018: 8 September 2018: Intelligence agencies are investigating a series of trips by the two Russian hitmen Ruslan Boshirov and Alexander Petrov to Geneva prior to carrying out the nerve agent attack on Salisbury in March 2018 - 17 September 2018: A diplomatic war of words between Switzerland and Russia has intensified, with the Swiss demanding that Moscow cease spying activities on its territory after two suspected espionage cases came to light in recent days
September 2018 Russian oligarch Abramovich case: 25 September 2018: People around the world can be informed that Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich was known for 'suspicion of money laundering and presumed contacts with criminal organisations', posing a 'threat to public security', according to Swiss police, also asserting that there was reason to believe that 'the applicant’s assets are at least partially of illegal origin', after Swiss federal supreme court rejected Abramovich’s appeal against newspaper publisher
24 May 2022 'Russia House' in Davos converted into 'Russian War Crimes House': 24 May 2022 Russian oligarchs' 'Russia House' in Davos in Switzerland - a Central European country also known despite UN's presence in Geneva for its best relations with Ruasian oligarchs and war profiteers - converted into 'Russia Warcrimes House' in 2022, Bloomberg's Madison Mills reports with video, as 'New York Times' explains how for years, wealthy Russians, oligarchs and war profiteers made the Alpine ski resort of Davos their fur-lined playground, especially during the yearly World Economic Forum WEF, renting lavish chalets, threwing bacchanalian parties, welcoming V.I.P. guests to the Russia House with chilled vodka, now in 2022 Russia is a pariah at this gathering in Switzerland, its diplomats disinvited, its oligarchs blacklisted, and the Russia House converted by a wealthy Ukrainian businessman into 'Russian War Crimes House'. In place of the vodka is a harrowing photo exhibition of wartime atrocities.
Russia/Syria relations: Russia/Syria relations
Since 1971 military, economic and political relations: Since 1971 military, economic and political cooperation and support, Russia became Syria's main arms supplier - Since 2015 Russian paramilitary organisation Wagner Group in Syria - Seit 2016 soll Jewgeni Prigoschin mit seiner Firma Evro Polis einen Vertrag mit dem syrischen Assad Regime haben, nach dem 25% der Gewinne aus Öl- oder Gasfeldern an Evro Polis fallen, wenn russische Söldner die Anlagen zuvor vom Islamischen Staat erobert haben
2011: Since 2011 Russian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2012: 19. März 2012: Stark gestiegene Waffenimporte aus Rußland - 10 June: Russia will continue to oppose attempts by the UN Security Council to sanction military intervention in Syria, FM Lavrov says - 12 June 2012: Russia supplying attack helicopters to Syria, says Hillary Clinton - 16 June 2012: Russia may send warships and troops to Syria to protect its logistics base in Tartous, according to a Russian military source - 21 June 2012: Russia must stop providing military supplies to Syria, Arab League's Ahmed Bin Hilli says - 9. Juli 2012: Russland will vorerst keine Waffen mehr an Syrien liefern - 11 juillet: Le chef du Conseil national syrien Abdel Basset Sayda à Moscou pour presser la Russie de lâcher Assad - 11 July 2012: Russia sends a large flotilla of 11 warships to Syria in show of support to Assad - 20 July: Assad ready for ‘civilised’ exit, Russia’s ambassador to France A. Orlov says to Radio France Internationale - 20. Juli 2012: Russische Regierung stoppt angeblich erneut seine Waffenlieferungen an Assad, diesmal im Juni fast angelieferte, dann dementierte Kampfhelikopter - 24 August: Russia's Polonium-Putin regime says Syria's Assad regime has guaranteed it will not deploy its arsenal of chemical weapons - 14 December: Russian deputy FM says opposition fighters are gaining ground and that an opposition victory 'cannot be ruled out' - 18 December: Russia is sending a new flotilla of warships to the Mediterranean - 20 December 2012: Russia's Polonium-Putin recognizes need for change in Syria
2013: 16 January 2013: Bashar al-Assad and his family are living on a warship guarded by the Russian navy, reports say - 23 January: Russians flee Syrian conflict on planes from Beirut - 27 January: PM Medvedev says Assad's chances of keeping power are getting 'smaller and smaller' as war rages - 3 February: Syrian National Coalition's Mouaz al-Khatib has met the foreign ministers of Russia and Iran in first talks raising hope to a possible breakthrough - 13 février 2013: La Russie continuera de livrer des armes à la Syrie - 3 May 2013: Russia and China have rejected UN Security Council plans to inspect Syrian refugee camps in Jordan - 29 May 2013: Russia to send Assad regime air defence system - 31 May 2013: Russia to sell at least 10 MiG fighters in an advanced version to Assad regime, that bombs and murders the own people - 18 June 2013: As the G8 summit calls for immediate peace talks on Syria, isolated Russian Putin clashes with other leaders - 27 June 2013: Iran, Russia and China prop up Assad economy - 11 July: Syria opposition denies Russian chemical attack allegation as Russia blocks a draft UN Security Council resolution calling for a stalled UN chemical weapons investigation team to be allowed to visit Syria - 29 August: Russia sends warships to Mediterranean - 2 September: Russia sending spy ship to Mediterranean - 4 September: Russia sends missile cruiser to Mediterranean - 18 September: Russia 'ignoring facts' over Syria attack, USA says after UN report on the use of chemical weapons in the Ghouta Area of Damascus on 21 August 2013
2014: 17 January 2014: Russia steps up military supplies to Assad's regime, including armored vehicles, drones and guided bombs - 21 February 2014: Iran steps up support for Assad regime providing elite teams to gather intelligence and train troops along with deliveries of munitions and equipment from Russia - 22 May 2014: Russia and China veto UN draft resolution calling for Assad's war in Syria to be referred to the ICC, ignoring support for the measure by 65 other countries and all other members of the security council
2015: 19 June 2015: Putin reaffirms Russia's support for Syria's Assad at an economic conference in the city of St Petersburg - 7 September: Russian military experts who arrived in Syria weeks ago, inspect air bases and work to enlarge some runways, particularly in the north, as Assad regime expects to get more Russian attack helicopters - 11 September: Russian regime admits on Thursday that it ships both humanitarian aid and military equipment to Syrian Assad regime by air - 14 September 2015: Russia sends artillery and T-90 tanks to Syrian Assad regime as part of continued military buildup - 15 September: Russian regime reportedly building up military presence near Latakia, flying cargo planes through Iran, Iraq airspace to resupply Assad - 16 September: International condemnation of Russia's military build-up in Syria - 17 September 2015: Assad's army starts using new Russian ground and air weapons - 18 September: Russia ready to consider sending troops to Syria if Assad regime asks, Russian regime's spokesman says - 18 September: About 100 civilians in Syria reportedly died yesterday as Assad puts new Russian weapons to use - 21 September 2015: After pro-regime forces launched a rocket attack on a market popularly in the neighborhood of Al-Shaa’r in Aleppo, killing 33 civilians, most of them women and children, Syrian Coalition condemns Russia and Iran as partners in Assad’s massacres, also stating, that Russian intervention in Syria makes it an occupying country - 22 September 2015: Russian regime sending thousands of troops, dozens of jets to Syria, supporting Assad - 23 September: Satellite images suggest Russia building military facilities in Syria - 24 September: Russia sending troops to Syria directly from Crimea, Crimean Tatars' Mustafa Dzemilev says - 27 September: After Russian planes bombed Aleppo in Syria, video footage has emerged on a social media website showing the aftermath of airstrikes - 29 September: Russia orders removal of Syrian military personnel from Lattakia airport or its surroundings - 29 September: Weapons deployed by Russia, including sophisticated air-defense system, indicate that defeating Islamic State terrorists not main goal of Russia in Syria, Nato general says - 30 September: European journalists for the first time managed to fix Russia's military presence and equipment in Syria, showing Russian military helicopters, aircrafts and AN-helicopters based at the Latakia airfield
Since September 2015 Russian military intervention in Syria, air raids and war crimes against Syrian people: Since 30 September 2015 Russian military intervention in Assad's war against the Syrian people, first attacking areas in Latakia, Homs, and Hama province and murdering 36 civilians and wounding Free Syrian Army members
Since September 2015 Russian–Assad regime hospital bombing campaign: Since September 2015 Russian–Assad regime hospital bombing campaign - 29 September 2016: Syria hospital attacks are 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says - Since September 2015 Russian regime's war crimes and attacks on civilians in Syria - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people
30 September 2015: Syrian Coalition's Ghalioun warns that Russia’s president will personally face criminal responsibility for aiding and abetting Assad in his ongoing war crimes and crimes against humanity
October 2015: 1 October 2015: Russian Orthodox church backs Putin's 'holy war' in Syria - 1 October: Syrian Coalition and rebel factions condemn the Russian aggression against the Syrian people pointing out that the airstrikes on Homs and Hama where over 50 people were killed have exposed Russia's real intentions in front of the international community - 1 October: East Ghouta protest against Russia's military intervention in Syria condemning the massacres committed by the Russian air force against civilians and rejecting all forms of foreign intervention in Syria - 3 October 2015: Russian air force struck field hospitals providing medical care to civilians over the past two days, prompting the medical staff to declare a state of emergency and to evacuate all hospitals close to the Turkish border and in Hama province, Syrian Coalition says - 5 October 2015: A Russian TV forecaster predicts 'excellent weather' for bombing Syria, edited with footage from a bombing raid - 6 October: Russia drops more bombs on Syria - 7 October: Wave of Russian air strikes hit the Syrian provinces of Hama and Idlib early on Wednesday, also targeting towns close to the main north-south highway accompanied by regime forces and ground shelling - 7 October: Syrian Coalition slams Russia’s bombing of FSA’s Suqur al-Jabal Headquarters, stressing that the Russian airstrikes against Syrian rebels will boost Islamic State terrorists, adding that Islamic State targeted Suqur al-Jabal’s headquarters with a car bomb directly after the Russian air raid - 7 October: More than 90% of Russia’s military strikes in Syria have not been aimed at the Islamic State group or jihadists, and have instead targeted the moderate Syrian opposition, the USA State Department says - 8 October: An intense wave of Russian air strikes hit towns of Kafr Zita, Kafr Nabudah, Sayyad and the village of Lataminah in Hama province, as well as Khan Shaykhun and Alhbit in Idleb province, Reuters and monitoring group report - 8/9 October: Syrian National Coalition's Khaled Khoja says that the Russian invasion of Syria destabilizes the region and threatens its security, as Russian, Iranian and Syrian regime forces, supported by Russian air power, retreat from areas they have previously occupied in Hama’s northern countryside - 16 October 2015: Assad's army launches Aleppo offensive with Russian and Iranian support, the first time Iranian fighters take part on such a scale in war in Syria - 16 October 2015: The Russian air force committed an appalling massacre in the town of Terre Maaleh north of Homs when it targeted a bakery inside the town, killing civilians, mostly children, and wounding many others - 16 October 2015: An al-Souria Net correspondent in Homs has confirmed the accidental bombing of regime forces by Russian warplanes on Thursday, targeting many locations and killing two brigadiers and six soldiers - 16 October 2015: Russian-Iranian aggression on Syria has killed 878 civilians, including 86 children and 65 women, since 30 September, the largest number of victims recorded in Aleppo, where 301 civilians were killed, mostly as a result of the Russian aerial bombardment, in addition 142 people were killed in Homs, 137 Damascus and its suburbs, 100 in Dara’a, and 94 in Hama - 20 October 2015: About 120 persons died and wounded, including women and children, in a massacre by Russian warplanes in areas at the northern countryside of Lattakia - 20 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more airstrikes in the countryside of Lattakia, which resulted in the death of 7 people at least - 21 October 2015: 1,229 Syrians, including 125 children and 89 women, killed in Russian-Iranian aggression since 30 September, the largest number of victims was recorded in Aleppo province, where 402 civilians were killed, mostly as a result of the Russian aerial bombardment - 22 October: Russian regime tries to hide its casualties in Syria, as bodies of 26 soldiers were secretly transported to a Crimean port city - 22 October: At least three Syrian hospitals bombed since Russian airstrikes began, doctors say, as the latest attack kills at least 12 people at Sarmin hospital in Idlib province and as at least three of the victims are believed to be medical staff - 22 October 2015: The Russian airstrikes on several areas in Syria have led to a new wave of displacement, with approximately 1000 refugees arrived alone in Turkey over the past week - 23 October: Nine Russian air strikes have hit hospitals or field clinics operating in war-torn Syria, killing civilians and medical staff, Syrian medical organisation says - 23 October 2015: Russian warplanes carry out around 40 sorties on the area around Tir Mealla, Sesil, Mahatta and other areas in Homs province, as opposition factions manage to repel an attack on the town of Tir Mealla amid the unprecedented bombing campaign - 23 October 2015: 17 civilians, including six children and five women, reportedly killed in attacks of warplanes on the town of Talbeesa north of Homs - 24 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more airstrikes in Hama province targeting a field hospital in the town of Al-Latamneh - 24 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out several airstrikes on areas in Jabal al-Akrad and Jabal al-Turkman in Lattakia province - 24 October 2015: As Russian airstrikes push more migrants to flee to EU before borders shut and sea gets rougher, more Syrians risk deadly crossings to Greece after more than 502,000 refugees and migrants have entered Greece since the beginning of this year - 24 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Hama province - 25 October 2015: 500 Syrian civilians killed as Russia maintains deadly offensive and as less than 20% of Russian strikes have targeted IS - 26 October 2015: Human Rights Watch accuses Russia of war crimes in Syria - 26 October 2015: Russian warplanes bombed Qinnisrin school in southern rural Aleppo, destroying large parts of the building, also targeting the village of Sheikh Baraka in Idlib province, murdering a woman and her two children, wounding many civilians, and targeting the villages of Zitan, Khalsa, Khan Tuman and Al-Hadir in Aleppo province - 26 October: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Daraa province - 27 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama and Idlib province, killing civilians, and in Rif Damashq province - 28 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out airstrikes on areas in Rif Dimashq province, in Deir Ezzor province, in Aleppo province, and in Hama and Idlib province - 28 October: Up to 30 civilians were killed and dozens wounded in Russian airstrikes across Syria yesterday, Syrian Coalition says - 29 October: Russian regime’s Syrian base in Latakia said to be a transit point for Iran’s supply of equipment and troops to Damascus - 29 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Daraa province, and in Aleppo province - 29 October 2015: A member in the medical staff of Al-Lataminah hospital died affected by injuries from airstrikes by Russian warplanes on the field hospital area in the northern countryside of Hama - 29 October 2015: The escalation of attacks by Russia’s air forces, which began in late September, had targeted 12 hospitals in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, including six supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, a MSF statement says - 30 October 2015: The Russian air force committed a new massacre in Syrian today hitting a market in the district of Douma, near Damascus, with ten guided missiles, killing 55 civilians and wounding 125 others, including women and children in an initial toll - 31 October 2015: In yet the bloodiest days since Russia began launching airstrikes on Syria, 227 civilians, including 43 children and 22 women, were killed in intensified air raids on Aleppo, Rural Damascus, Homs and Idlib, as the Russian airstrikes hit mainly residential areas, markets and field hospitals
November 2015: 1 November 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Idlib province - 2 November 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, killing a child, and in Aleppo province - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 3 November 2015: Assistance Coordination Unit's relief worker Zakaria Hijazi was killed in a Russian airstrike in southern rural Aleppo and the head of Hama aid program Muyassar al-Hamdo died after succumbing to his wounds following a Russian air strike on Tamanaa village - 4 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama and Idlib province, in Homs province, and in Rif Damashq province - 5 November 2015: Massacres in Syria in October result in the deaths of at least 513 people including 159 children and 62 women, UK-based rights group reports, as Russian forces were responsible for 10 massacres - 5 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Homs province, and in Idlib province - 6 November 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more intensive airstrikes on areas in the towns and villages in Hama province, killing people including children, in Aleppo province - 7 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Idlib province - 8 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Lattakia province, and in Hama province - 9 November 2015: Motii Jalal's footage shows the moment a Russian airstrike hits the Sarmin National hospital in Idlib province, killing 12 people and injuring 20 - 10 November 2015: At least 24 Syrian civilians, including three children and a woman, reportedly killed Sunday in regime and Russian air strikes on rebel-held areas across Syria - 10 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province - 11 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province - 13 November 2015: Russia said to deploy advanced missile system in Syria's Lattakia - 13 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Hama and Idlib province, and in Rif Damashq province - 13 November 2015: The Russian air force carried seven air strikes on Benin in rural Idlib, two of which using internationally banned white phosphorous rockets, killing four civilians and wounding many more - 14 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo and Hama province - 15 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, also on areas of Saraqib wounding a number of civilians, and in Homs province - 16 November 2015: Russia does not consider Hezbollah a terrorist group, encouraging their common agression in Syria - 16 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Aleppo province, also targeting the neighborhood Karam al-Trab and al-Myassar in the city of Aleppo, which led to the death of 2 persons at least and wounded others in al-Myassar neighborhood - 17 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Idlib province causing casualties - 17 November 2015: Russian airstrikes target Khan Shekhon and kill civilians in Idlib province - 18 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Lattakia province - 19 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Aleppo and Idlib province, carrying out deadly raids on villages and towns - 20 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Aleppo province - 21 novembre 2015: Des bombardements menés par la Russie et la Syrie ont fait une quarantaine de victimes, dont 10 enfants et des dizaines d'autres blessées, vendredi dans l'est du pays - 21 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province - 22 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province, killing civilians, women and children - 23 November 2015: At least 30 civilians have been killed across Deir-ez-Zor province as Russian and Assad regime warplanes target Mayadin, Al-Bukamal, Al-Mohassan and areas surrounding Deir-ez-Zor military air base - 23 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in al-Raqqa and Idlib province - 23 November 2015: In yet new intensification of its aggression on Syria, the Russian air force bombed the headquarters of Free Aleppo University, the Faculty of Education, and the Faculty of Science in northern rural Aleppo - 23 November 2015: Russian air strikes on Deir Ezzor have caused dozens of civilian casualties, including women and children, Syrian Coalition's Khoja says stressing that instead of targeting ISIS headquarters, the Russian aggression has targeted civilians in Deir Ezzor who have made immense sacrifices on road to freedom - 24 November 2015: Russian warplanes targeted areas of the southern countryside of Aleppo and other areas of the northern countryside leading to injuries - 24 November 2015: FSA's General Ahmed Berri said that Turkey downed a Russian jet fighter after it bombed civilians in the town of Jisr al-Shughur and violated the Turkish airspace, revealing that the FSA fighters captured the one of the pilots while the second one was killed - 25 November 2015: Russian airstrikes on areas of the Turkman mount and on al-Akrad mount in Lattakia province - 25 November 2015: At least seven people died, 10 injured in an airstrike reportedly by Russian jets targeting an aid convoy in the northwestern Syrian town of Azaz near a border crossing with Turkey - 26 November: Syrian Coalition strongly condemns the Russian air force’s targeting of a relief aid convoy near Izaz, which left six civilians killed and burnt eight trucks, as Russia also intensified air strikes on the rebel-held villages along the Turkish border in northern rural Latakia
- 26 November 2015: Russian warplanes target areas in Homs province and in Aleppo province - 27 November 2015: Russia renewed its air strikes on aid vehicles near the Turkish border, targeting a convoy in Sarmada in Idlib province - 27 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Homs province, in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province - 27 November: Russian warplanes bombarded areas in Hama and Lattakia province - 28 November 2015: The Russian air force has intensified aerial attacks on areas in the provinces of Aleppo, Idlib and Latakia, targeting relief convoys, vital civilians facilities, a marketplace in Awijil, and a bus station Al-Dana, leaving dozens of civilian casualties - 28 November 2015: A man was killed by Russian airstrikes on Wadi al-Ahmar in Homs province - 28 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province - 28 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes raid areas of al-Taman’a, al-Maghara, Benech, and Ma’ra al-Nu’man in Idlib province, killing 3 people and wounding 6 in Ma’ra al-Nu’man - 28 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes target Der al-Asafir in Rif Damashq province, wounding a number of civilians - 29 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, killing at least a woman and a baby in the village of Jeb al-Rayyan and injuring people - 29 November 2015: Russian air strikes kill at least 18 people and wound dozens more in the town of Ariha in Idlib province on Sunday - 30 November 2015: Rose to 21 the including 4 children, the number of civilians who were killed by a massacre by Russian warplanes targeted Ariha city, reports of more human losses under the rubbish - 30 November 2015: Russian air strikes kill four civilians in the eastern suburbs of Damascus targeting the village of Deir al Asafir amid reports rebels have recaptured ground in eastern rural Damascus, while regime warplanes carried out more than 44 raids on Daraya west of Damascus, dropping more than 32 barrel bombs - 30 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes on I’zaz area in Aleppo province killing 2 persons while others wounded
December 2015: 1 December 2015: At least 60 people were killed when Russian airstrikes targeted a marketplace in the town of Ariha in Idlib provine, according to local activists - 1 December 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes areas in Hama and Idlib province, killing 2 children in airstrikes on Kafar Taharim, and in Lattakia province - 1 December 2015: At least 4 women killed while other civilians wounded due to airstrikes carried out by suspected Russian warplanes on places in the city of al-Sikhnah east of Homs - 1 December 2015: A hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Homs partially destroyed in a 'double-tap' barrel bombing, killing seven people including a young girl and wounding many, latest in apparent escalation of strikes on medical facilities by Russian and Assad terror warplanes - 2 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province - 4 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Homs province - 4 December: Taken barely 10 minutes before the Russian bombs landed, last photos of five-year-old Raghat in the town of Habeet near Idlib, where she died in October alongside her grandfather and her cousin - 5 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, killing and wounding some civilians in the village of al- Arba’in, in Aleppo province, in Idlib province - 5 December 2015: Russia targets Free Syrian Army and ignores Islamic State terrorists in its ongoing air campaign in Syria, killing many civilians now in its third month, Syrian Coalition's Khaled Khoja says - 6 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Homs province, in Idlib province - 7 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province, in Homs province, and in Lattakia province - 8 December 2015: Russian warplanes hit an Assad army base, reportedly killing three soldiers and injuring 13, USA military official says - 8 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Lattakia province, in Idlib province, in Hama province - 8 December 2015: Rights group report documents at least 158 incidents of the targeting of vital facilities during November, with Syrian government forces responsible for 80 of the incidents while Russian forces were responsible for 60 - 8 December 2015: Stepping up airstrikes across almost all the Syrian territory over the past two days, Russian warplanes targeted populated areas and public markets in Damascus and Homs provinces as well as two schools in Kafr Hamra in rural Aleppo and the town of Kansafra in rural Idlib, killing nearly 160 civilians, including women and children, and injuring over 150 others - 9 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing several civilians, including women and children - 10 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing and wounding some people, in Homs province, and in Lattakia province - 10 December 2015: Fighter jets believed to be Russian launched several airstrikes across Syria, targeting towns in Rural Damascus, areas in Aleppo and Idlib killing dozens of civilians, including women and children, and wounding many - 11 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Homs province - 12 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province - 13 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Lattakia province - 14 December 2015: At least 45 civilians including ten children have been killed by heavy regime rocket fire and airstrikes targeting besieged Syrian rebel strongholds Douma, Harasta, Saqba and Arbin east of Damascus that also hit a school - 14 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 14 December 2015: Rights groups say they documented 113 people killed across Syrian on Sunday, including 23 children and 16 women, as the district of Douma in eastern Ghouta bore the brunt of the Russian airstrikes using cluster and vacuum bombs - 15 December 2015: In response to the recent massacres in Douma and Eastern Ghouta by Russian warplanes, activists in Damascus launch a campaign distributing leaflets with pictures of Russia's Putin reading 'the murderer of Syrian people' - 15 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Rif Damashq province, also carrying out more airstrikes on Douma and al-Nashabiyya in the Eastern Ghouta, and in Lattakia province - 16 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Lattakia province, and in Rif Damashq province - 17 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in al-Hasakah province 18 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 19 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing more children, in Aleppo province, killing civilians, in Idlib province, trargeting the city of Jeser al-Shogour west, killing at least 7 children and 7 women in a massacre, one of them pregnant, and again in Idlib province, targeting the town of al-Najiyyah, and in Rif Dimashq province - 19 December: Just hours after UN security council roadmap to peace agreed in New York, Putin says Russia ready to increase military role in Syria - 20 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, in Hama and in Idlib provinces, killing and wounding civilians - 20 December 2015: Suspected Russian warplanes kill scores of people in the Syrian city of Idlib, targeting a busy market place in the heart of the city, several government buildings and residential areas - 21 December 2015: Russian airstrikes on Idlib, targeting health and public services centers as well as apartment buildings in the city center, killing 50 civilians and wounding 170 others, violates UNSC resolution 2254, Syrian Coalition says - 21 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province, killing citizens including at least a woman, in Rif Damashq province targeting Douma, killing 5 civilians, including a woman, her two female children and another woman, and wounding others - 21 December 2015: Human Rights Watch denounces Russia’s extensive use of cluster bombs in Syria - 22 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama and in al-Raqqa province, in Idlib province targeting the city of Khan Sheikhoun and the towns of al-Kindah, al-Najiyyah and Bdama in the western countryside of Idlib, and in Aleppo province - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces - 23 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province, killing more children and women, in Lattakia province - 24 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Homs province, in Idlib province, killing and wounding many civilians, in Aleppo province - 25 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing and wounding more civilians and children, and in Homs province - 26 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, also carrying out several raids on hospital areas in the town of Hraytan, again in Homs province, targeting Tadmur city with missiles in 23 airstrikes, again in Aleppo province - 26 December 2015: Russia’s assassination of rebel commanders is deliberate targeting of the Syrian Revolution, Syrian Coalition says - 27 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, killing 3 civilians while wounding 20 others - 28 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, in Hama province, targeting the villages of Aydoun, al-SatHiyyat, al-Tloul and al-Homor, in Rif Damashq province, targeting al-Batra and al-Maqali’ areas in Qalamon, again in Aleppo province, targeting the neighborhood of al-Rashidin in the city of Aleppo, again in Homs province, targeting areas of the electricity management area, Qasr al-Her school, Tadmur city, and al-Sena’ia area, killing four civilians including a child - 29 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, killing a child in the town of al-Sheikh Meskin, in Aleppo province, targeting neighborhoods in the city of Aleppo and the villages of Tal Msibin and Tal Jbin, the towns of Deir Jamal, Tal Ref’at and I’zaz city, killing 6 civilians, including a child and a woman, in Idlib province - 30 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, targeting the villages and towns of Hayyan and Hraytan, Tal Msibin and Tal Jbin, al-Mallah area, Handarat, I’zaz city and the town of Kafar Naha - 30 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Rif Damashq province, also targeting the city of Arbin, in Daraa province, targeting the town of Sheikh Meskin, and in Homs province - 31 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, targeting Ma’arzita, Saraqib and a camp for displaced civilians near Shekh Mustafa, and in Lattakia province - 31 December 2015: Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has documented the death of nearly 55,219 persons during 2015, including killed 20,977 civilians and 2,574 children
January 2016: 2 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 3 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting the towns of Nawa, Busra al-Harir and Sheikh Miskeen, in Aleppo province, targeting Tall Rifaat and Mennig and carrying out more deadly airstrikes on areas near Azaz city and in Mare, and in Lattakia province - 4 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 5 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, targeting the town of Selma - 5 January 2016: Syrian Network for Human Rights says that the Russian air force has committed 50 massacres between October and January, most of which occurred in the provinces of Damascus, Aleppo, Homs and Idlib, and claiming the lives of over 6,000 people - 6 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more deadly airstrikes in Lattakia province - 7 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province, targeting areas in the town Bazzaah and reportedly killing eight citizens including women and children, in Daraa province, targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin and also targeting areas near Nawa city, and in Deir Ezzor province - 7 January 2016: 12 people reportedly killed in Russian airstrikes that targeted the area located between the towns of Zamalka and Hazza in eastern Ghouta - 7 January 2016: Turkey's Davutoglu says that Russia has become a partner of the Syrian regime, which is brutally bombing civilians in Syria, and the world should not tolerate a situation where Syrians are fleeing the bombing, adding that the UN Security Council and Russia are responsible for the tragedy unfolding in Syria - 8 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, and in Aleppo province - 9 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting Sheikh Meskin with 12 airstrikes - 10 January 2015: At least 57 people killed in a massacre by Russian warplanes targeting the Administrative Court in Maarrat al-Nu’man - 10 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting Sheikh Meskin with 25 airstrikes, in Idlib and Lattakia province, killing a citizen woman, a man and a child, and in Aleppo province - 11 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin, in Lattakia province, targeting Salma and the towns and villages of Jabal al-Akrad and Jabal al-Turkman, and in Hama province - 11 January 2016: At least eight children were killed along with their teacher in a Russian air strike that hit a school in the town of Anjara in Aleppo province on Monday, also injuring at least 20 people, all of them children and teachers - 11 January 2016: 15 casualties including 12 children in the massacre by warplanes in the western countryside of Aleppo, as three schools were targeted by Russian aircrafts in the town of Ain Jara - 11 January 2016: Russia supplies Islamist terrorists Hezbollah with heavy weapons, as Hezbollah, Iran and Russia work closely to prop up Assad regime - 12 January 2016: Rose to 43 including 4 children and 6 women, the number of civilians who were killed in 3 massacres by Russian warplanes in Sarmada, Ma’raa al-Nu’man and Saraqib in Idlib province - 12/13 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing 5 civilians at least and wounding dozens, in Rif Damashq province, in Hama province, and in Lattakia province, as regime forces and Hezbollah attack Salma town - 13 January 2016: 80 civilians killed and dozens wounded in Russian airstrikes on northern Syria - 14 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, targeting areas of Khan al-Asal, of Azaz and the towns and villages of Mare’, Malkiyyeh and Mar’anaz, in Daraa province, also targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin, in Hama province, and in Homs province - 15 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province - in Homs and in Rif Damashq province - 16 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Rif Damashq province, in Aleppo province, targeting al-Malkiyyeh and also areas in al-Bab city, causing injuries and casualties including children and women, in Idlib province - 17 January 2016: 12 civilians from one family, 9 children and 3 women, were killed in the massacre carried out when warplanes, not known whether they were Russian or Syrian warplanes, targeted areas in the Filon village south of Idlib - 17 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 18 January 2016: Russian war criminals targeting al-Sakhour marketplace and northern town of Ma'rasset al-Khan in Aleppo province using fighter jets murder at least 15 civilians - 19 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 19 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, targeting the villages of Hirbnafsah and Talaf - 20 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama and in Idlib province, killing and injuring several people - 21 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Deir Ezzor and Idlib province, causing many casualties - 23 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Lattakia province - 24 January 2016: Rose to 164 including 43 children and 25 women the number of people who were killed in the past 72 hours by massacres committed by Russian and Syrian warplanes in the towns of Tabia, Jazira, Khesham, and al-Bolel in the eastern countryside of Der-Ezzor - 24 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 25 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Daraa province, and in Rif Damashq province - 25 January 2016: The Syrian interim government says that the Russian air force has bombed a total of 25 schools across Syria since the start of the Russian aggression against Syria in 2015 - 25 January 2016: Nearly 104 civilians, mostly women, children, and the elderly, reportedly killed in Russian airstrikes and shelling by ballistic missiles on Sunday, concentrated on rebel-held areas in Idlib, Lattakia and Aleppo provinces - 26 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, in Idlib province, in Rif Damashq province, in Aleppo province, and in Lattakia province - 27 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province - 27 January 2016: A total of 30 civilians, including women and children, killed and many more wounded in Russian airstrikes on rebel-held areas across Idlib province, targeting a public market in the town of Ariha, a residential area in the town of Jarjanaz, the town of Tarmanin and the towns of Saraqib, Tamana’a and Al-Najiya - 27 January 2016: Dozens of civilians reportedly killed and injured in Russian airstrikes on the town of Mheimidah in western rural Deir Ezzor, as the Russian air force also bombed the towns of Al-Mayadin, Abu Hamam and Al-Shuheil in rural Deir ezzor, causing civilian casualties - 27 January 2016: SOHR was able to document the death of 471 civilians including 127 children and 56 women, since the beginning of January 2016 until last night January 27th, they were all killed by Russian airstrikes targeted different Syrian provinces - 28 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Aleppo province, also targeting Anadan charity hospital area in the northern countryside killing a nurse and injuring 10 other people, in Homs province, in Deir Ezzor province, also targeting Mhimideh town, Abu Hamam town, al-Kharita town and killing many people including women and children - 29 January 2016: Russian warplanes killed five people and wounded 40 others in strikes on the town of Kafarlaha in Homs province, using cluster munitions and 'advanced' missiles - 29 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province - 29 January 2016: As 15 civilians are killed and dozens wounded as a result of a Russian airstrike on the town of Kafar Takharim in Idlib province, a large convoy of regime forces and Iranian-backed militias, containing many heavy equipment and tanks, reportedly arrives at the T-4 airbase in eastern Homs - 30 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Hama province, and in Aleppo province - 31 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, also targeting places in Aubin camp for the displaced people, in Hama province, targeting Herbanafsa, and in Homs province, targeting Kesen village and al-Hawla area with 10 airstrikes, and again in Hama province
September 2015 - January 2016: 30 January 2016: Russian air forces have murdered 1,380 civilians, including 332 children, 195 women and 853 men and young men, since the 30th of September 2015, documented by SOHR
February 2016: 1 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama and in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province, killing and injuring more people including children, in Deir Ezzor province - 2 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Lattakia province - 2 February 2016: The SNHR has documented 1,382 civilians killed across Syria in January 2016 at the hands of the Assad regime and its allied foreign forces, half of them in Russian airstrikes - 3 February 2016: At least seven women and children have been killed in Russian air strikes on a largely Turkmen village in the northern countryside of Homs - 3 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 3 February 2016: The Assad regime and Russia have killed nearly 300 civilians in Syria since the launch of the Geneva III conference on January 29th, according to the SNHR - 5 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Aleppo province, killing several civilians including children, in Lattakia province - 6 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 6 February 2016: Aleppo lives in fear of siege and starvation, as Russian and Assad regime's bombs are falling so fast now that often rescuers don’t have time to reach victims between blasts - 7 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Idlib province, and in Lattakia province - 7 February 2016: Warplanes believed to be Russian renewed their strikes on areas in Kafr Hamra and Huraytan in Aleppo province, also in Qabr al-Englizi, killing a child and injuring others, while several citizens were killed and injured in bombing on Anadan area during the burial of two of their children, who were also killed by warplanes this morning - 8 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 9 February 2016: Russia sets for deploying in Syria large landing ship seized from Ukraine and remaining Ukrainian property under international law - 10/11 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province and in Lattakia province - 11 February 2016: At least seven people, including women and children, have been killed in a cluster bomb attack on the embattled city of Douma near Damascus, medics say - 11 February 2016: Syrian regime forces killed 14 civilians in the northern countryside of Homs as they fled the embattled rebel-held area towards Idleb province, as Russian regime has conducted more than 300 raids on rebel-held provinces of Hama and Homs in 10 days, also dropping leaflets urging rebels to surrender before being exterminated - 12 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, as civil authorities in the towns of Sidon, Eastern al-Gharya, Western al-Gharya and Naemeh closed the schools and hospitals as a result of the continued targeting by warplanes for vital facilities and people’s homes in these towns, in Aleppo province, targeting the towns of Khan al-Asal and Kafrnaha and the electricity Association area, places in the towns of Huraytan, Hayan and Anadan and more - 13 February 2016: Russia continues bombing civilians in Syria despite a truce agreed the night before in Munich, targeting areas in Homs, Aleppo, Latakia and Dara’a provinces, including schools and hospitals and committing a massacre in the town of Al-Ghantou, Turkey's FM says - 13 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Daraa province - 14 February 2016: Russian warplanes have carried out at least 600 air strikes on Turkmen-dominated villages in the southern countryside of Hama province in the past month, displacing 10,000 people to the northern countryside of Homs, a FSA commander says, as activists and displaced Turkmen families witness heavy aerial bombardment by Russian jets - 15 February 2016: Five civilians were killed and many others were wounded by Russian airstrikes targeting the town of al-Herak in Daraa province - 15 février 2016: Un hôpital à Hadiyé dans la région de Maaret al-Noomane, lié à MSF, a été bombardé, neuf personnes, dont un enfant, ont été tuées lors de frappes de l'aviation, vraisemblablement russe - 17 February 2016: Eleven bodies were recovered from under the rubble of a hospital funded by 'Doctors Without Borders' that was struck by Russian warplanes in Ma’aret al-Nouman in rural Idlib, an MSF spokesperson says - 17 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more murderous airstrikes in Idlib province - 19 February 2016: Russian military vehicles accompanied by Russian soldiers transferred from Hmeymim airbase to Eastern Syria - 21 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, targeting Om Sharshouh village, and in Hama province, targeting Herbanafsa and other areas of Kafarzita and al-Latamina in the northern countryside - 21 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 22 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, also targeting the town of Anjarah and killing citizen women and children - 23 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 24 February 2016: In the Hama countryside, Civil Defense workers pushed to the brink of exhaustion as attacks by Assad regime and Russian forces increase - 24 February 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 26 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Rif Damashq province, and in Aleppo province - 27 February 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Rif Damashq province, and in Aleppo province - 27 February 2016: How Russia evades responsibility for war crimes in Syria
March/April 2016: 1 March: 1,378 Syrian civilians were killed in February in Syria at the hands of the Assad regime, Russia, the PYD and ISIS militias, Syrian Network for Human Rights says - 3 March 2016: 1,733 civilians are among the nearly 4,500 killed people by Russian air and missile strikes in Syria, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights says - 4 March 2016: Russian and Assad regime forces have deliberately struck hospitals and medical facilities in Aleppo as they advanced on the north Syrian town, killing and wounding civilians and medical workers, according to rights group - 6 March 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 8 March 2016: Assad’s forces, supported by Russian air strikes, had carried out a massacre of dozens of civilians around Aleppo on Monday, head of the opposition's negotiating team Riad Hijab says - 11 March 2011: SNHR documented 42 violations of the 'cessation of hostilities' agreement by the Russian and regime forces, saying that 29 civilians, including 5 children and a woman, were killed in attacks by Russian and regime forces, while 4 detainees were killed under torture in Assad’s prisons - 13 March 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province - 15 March: After Russian regime's Putin announced on Monday that 'the main part' of its armed forces in Syria would start to withdraw, UN human rights investigators on Syria say that preparing prosecutions against war criminals should not be delayed until the end of the conflict in Syria, now entering its sixth year - 15 March 2016: Russian fighter jets continue to carry out intense air raids in Syria in support of Bashar al-Assad - 18 March 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province - 19 March 2016: A wave of Russian air strikes killed at least 39 civilians, including at least five children and seven women, on Saturday in Raqa in Syria, a monitoring group says - 20 March 2016: Russian warplanes committed two massacres to civilians in Al-Raqqah, killing 55 people including 13 children and 12 citizen women and one of the women is a pregnant and she was killed with her unborn child, yesterday’s massacre killed 16 civilians including 8 children and five citizen women when the Russian warplanes intensively raided the areas of al-Sur, the silo, al-MoJamma’ Square near al-Thakneh neighborhood and other areas in the city of Al-Raqqah city, while in the second massacre 39 civilians were killed, including five children and seven citizen women and one of the women was also pregnant and she was killed with her unborn child too when the Russian warplanes carried out more than 10 airstrikes targeting different areas in the city of Al-Raqqah - 21 March 2016: Russian warplanes raided Tadmur city and al-Qaritin area in Homs province - 30 March: Russia, despite draw down, shipping more to Syria than removing - 6 April 2016: Russian claims to have mostly bombed Islamic State targets during its Syrian campaign were wildly out of step with reality, according to an Atlantic Council report using aerial surveillance, crowdsourcing and other open source techniques, saying the almost six months of Russian airstrikes up until the 27 February 'ceasefire' caused only peripheral damage to Isis - 16 April 2016: Russian regime deploys troops and equipment to Syria by air in recent weeks and its military contingent there is as strong as ever, with fewer jets but many more attack helicopters able to provide closer combat support to Assad's troops, journalists say - 20 April 2016: More than 10,000 Syrians killed by aerial bombardment by Russian and Syrian airstrikes, as SOHR documented 5,3017 airstrikes carried out by the regime air force since October 2014 until 20 April 2016, where the airstrikes targeted several farms, villages, towns and cities in 13 provinces - 23 April 2016: At least 20 civilians, including children, were killed and many more wounded in intensified aerial bombing of Aleppo on Friday by regime and Russian forces - 26 April 2016: Air strikes and rocket attacks by Assad regime forces west of Aleppo killed five rescue workers overnight, a monitoring group and volunteers working nearby say, as defense workers say that their colleagues were killed in very precise Russian air strikes - 30 April 2016: 5,799 people were killed by Russian warplanes in Syria during 6 months, including 2,005 civilian Syrians and about 800 children and citizen women, documenty by SOHR
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Russia has established a second military base in Syria located in the area of Palmyra in Idlib province, Palmyra Coordination Committee says, adding that the 'Islamic State' terrorists and Syrian regime forces facilitated handing the ancient city over to the Russians - 14 May 2016: Assad regime and Russian forces stepped up airstrikes on rural Idlib, concentrated on populated areas and vital civilian facilities on Friday, killing 20 civilians and injuring at least 35 - 23 May 2016: The Syrian Network for Human Rights says that it has documented the killing of 102 rescue workers of the Syrian Civil defense Corps by regime and Russian forces in the liberated areas, recording 62 attacks on civil defense centers and teams by regime and Russian forces - 23 May 2016: After at least 27 people were killed and around 112 were wounded in continued attacks on the rebel-held area Alhoula local council calls for urgent international action to stop regime and Russian assault - 27 May 2016: A documented total of 3,391 civilians killed by regime and Russian forces, the Hezbollah militias and other Iranian-backed militias across Syria since the 'cessation of hostilities' agreement on 24 February, the victims include 426 children and 304 women, over a hundred detainees also killed under torture in Assad’s prisons - 31 May 2016: Rose to 23, including 7 children and women, the number of civilians who were killed by no less than 10 Russian airstrikes targeted the national hospital area in Idlib city, al-Mutanabi and al-Baitara turnings, and al-Jalaa park, as a number of civilians were wounded by aerial bombardment targeting Maara al-Nu’man
June 2016: 6 June 2016: At least 53 civilians, including women and children, were killed and many more wounded in intense bombardment of Aleppo by the Assad regime and Russian forces on Sunday - 13 June 2016: At least 20 civilians, including women and children, were killed when Russian war planes target a local marketplace in the northern city of Idlib, medics say, and two more people also killed in a Russian vacuum missile attack on the Masjed al-Masri neighborhood in Marat al-Numanb - 17 June 2016: 80 civilians killed by Russian regime's airstrikes on Aleppo despite 48-hour truce, as the regime continues to be directly complicit in the crimes and terrorism perpetrated against the Syrian people - 21 June 2016: More than 11,000 civilians including more than 4,000 children killed by Assad regime’s warplanes, its barrel bombs and Russia warplanes since 20th November 2014, documented by SOHR - 24 June 2016: 12 civilians were killed and dozens more injured in Aleppo in airstrikes by Russian jets, using internationally banned weapons, most notably incendiary and cluster munitions - 26 June 2016: Air strikes conducted by Russia and the Syrian Assad regime reportedly killed at least 82 people, including 60 civilians in the town of Al Qurayyah in Deir Ezzor province - 28 June 2016: Russian warplanes continue to target Deir-ez-Zor civilians - 27/28 June 2016: Syrian activists have launched an online campaign titled 'Stop Russia’s Terror' on Russian regime’s ongoing crimes against the Syrian people, calling for shedding light on the aggression through posting photos and videos showing Russia’s atrocities in Syria - 30 June 2016: About 950 children and women between 2498 citizens killed by Russian airstrikes during 9 months, according to SOHR - 30 June 2016: Russian, Iranian backed militias in Homs provine increasingly devoting themselves to the interests of Iranian and Russian regime often at the expense of the Assad regime in the central province of Syria - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases, actually fighting alongside Russian special forces
July 2016: 2 July 2016: 16 civilians, including 7 children, reportedly killed and many more were injured in Russian airstrikes on a popular market in the neighborhood of Tariq Albab in Aleppo late on Friday, as Russian airstrikes also target residential neighborhoods in the rebel-held parts of the city and its northern countryside - 6 July 2016: Three Palestinians were killed and at least five injured by apparent Russian airstrikes on Monday targeting the Khan al-Shih neighborhood southwest of Damascus which is considered a Palestinian refugee camp, causing heavy damage to civilian houses and destroying a building housing the foundation’s Child Friendly Space, according to the Jafra Foundation - 7 July 2016: Russian and Syrian regime warplanes struck opposition-held parts of Syria’s northwestern Aleppo province on Thursday, after Assad regime declares 72-hour countrywide ceasefire, also violating its own ceasefire-announcement in Damascus and Idlib provinces - 12 July 2016: Russian warplanes carry out a massacre in the village of Burj Qai, Homs province, striking civilian homes with a number of air raids, killing eight and injuring dozens - 14 July 2016: Ten people were killed and dozens injured, including many children, in Russian airstrikes on a makeshift camp for internally displaced people along the Syrian Jordanian border - 21 July 2016: SNHR documents 54 Russian cluster munitions attacks on Syria - 22 July 2016: At least 10 civilians reportedly killed and 50 wounded in airstrikes by Russian forces on Idlib city on Friday morning - 24 juillet 2016: Des bombardements aériens, menés par la Syrie et la Russie, ont touchés les établissements dans les quartiers est de la ville, assiégés depuis le 17 juillet par le régime - 24 July 2016: Four makeshift hospitals and a local blood bank in Syria's battered Aleppo city have been hit by regime air raids in the past 24 hours, including the children's hospital in a besieged eastern neighbourhood, where the bombardment killed a two-day-old baby, according to a group of doctors - 26 July 2016: Russian warplanes fired vacuum missiles and cluster bombs at residential neighborhoods, hitting Atareb's main hospital and medicine stores and wounding 45 more people - 27 July 2016: Russian warplanes yesterday carried out air strikes on the northern Homs countryside striking a home for assisting the elderly in the Saan area, in addition to an office for documenting war violations in another area of the countryside - 28 July 2016: As Russian forces step up airstrikes on Aleppo, causing heavy civilian casualties and massive damage to infrastructure, Aleppo Provincial Local Council declares state of emergency - 28 July 2016: Human Rights Watch accuses Assad's regime and its ally Russia of extensively using banned cluster munitions in their offensive against Syrian opposition
August 2016: 1 August 2016: 12 casualties, including children and women, at least in Russian and Assad regime airstrikes at the eastern and northern countryside of Idlib - 3 August 2016: Russian warplanes carried out a massacre in Atarib in the western Aleppo countryside on Tuesday targeting the city’s market, killing more than six people and wounding dozens more, according to preliminary reports - 3 August 2016: Supported by Russian terrorist air forces, Assad regime shells places, carries out raids on areas in Aleppo city and province, including tens of airstrikes by Russian warplanes on al-Hikmah School and other areas in south and southwest of the city - 5 August 2016: Air strikes believed carried out by Russian warplanes hit two displaced persons' camps west of Aleppo and near the Turkish border, killing at least two children and wounding 30 people - 6 August 2016: Russian fighter jets carried out at least 28 airstrikes on the town of Saraqib in rural Idlib on Friday, with cluster bombs used in some of those raids, as at least 16 civilians, including 7 children and one woman, were killed in Russian airstrikes on the neighborhoods of Almarja and Tareeq Albab in eastern Aleppo and 4 more civilians from one family were killed in barrel bomb attacks by regime forces - 8 August 2016: Russian warplanes are attacking the town of Saraqeb, its vicinity and countryside until today with more than 105 airstrikes causing destruction of homes, schools, public facilities, institutions of electricity and water and medical points, leaving four casualties at least including a child, and about 70 wounded - 8 August 2016: Hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members - 8 August 2016: Continuous airstrikes target Aleppo, its countryside and outskirts, causing casualties and wounded people - 9 August 2016: Six civilians, including two children, reportedly killed when a ballistic missile hit the town of Daret Izza in rural Aleppo, fired from a Russian warship anchored off the Syrian coast, as Daraya west of Damascus was pounded with a barrage of barrel bombs, rockets and mortar shells - 13 August 2016: Russian jets destroy pediatric and maternity hospital in Kafar Hamra in Aleppo province - 15 August 2016: Assad regime and Russian warplanes launched 40 air raids with vacuum bombs and over half-ton bombs on Tayir Malaa village and the cities of Talbiyse and al-Rastan in Homs province, killing civilians and injuring scores, mostly women and children - 15 August 2016: Russian air strikes hit Idlib destroying a large part of the Church of the Virgin Mary, the only church in the city, in addition to destroying much of the Christian district in a repeated assault - 15 August 2016: Russian warplanes hit Kafarnaha, Qabtan al-Jebel, and Howr in the western Aleppo countryside, simultaneously with artillery bombardment on Andan in the northern countryside, leaving dozens killed and wounded - 17 August 2016: Russian fighter jets destroy hospital in Daret Izza, rural Aleppo - 30 August 2016: Assad regime and Russian air forces carried out 23 airstrikes on the district of Alwaer in Homs province, killing seven civilians and wounding 32 others also causing massive damage to civilian homes and infrastructure
September 2016: 3 September 2016: Annual report, co-produced by Handicap International and the Cluster Munition Coalition, on cluster munitions reveals Russia’s 'intense and repeated' use of cluster munitions in Syria, especially in the provinces of Aleppo, Homs and Idlib - 4 September 2016: Russian-backed Syrian regime sees siege tactics pay off as measures like burning farmland and denying entry to medical aid has led to surrender of key holdout areas of Daraya and Moadamiyeh, once hubs of the Syrian uprising - 21 September 2016: Russian planes dropped bombs that destroyed UN aid convoy and killed at least 20 people in opposition-controlled Urem al-Kubra in Syria, according to USA officials also saying two Russian Sukhoi SU-24 warplanes were in the sky above the aid convoy at the precise time it was struck - 22 September 2016: Assad regime and Russian air forces have targeted no fewer than 52 hospitals and medical centers since the beginning of 2016, also repeatedly targeting aid convoys destined for besieged civilians, the latest of which was a UN-Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy near Aleppo on Tuesday, Syrian interim government's Jawad Abu Hatab states - 23 September 2016: FSA groups have footage showing the moment the attack on Aleppo-bound aid convoy on Tuesday took place and the remnants of the weapons used, as the Russian invaders bombed the town with internationally banned weapons, especially napalm, and facilities and universities were also targeted by air strikes which killed a number of students, says interim government PM - 23 September 2016: Assad regime helicopters resume dropping barrel bombs on a number of besieged districts inside Aleppo city, resulting in a number of deaths and injuries among civilians amid bombardment from Russian warplanes on opposition positions south of the city - 26 September 2016: As USA during UN Security Council meeting slams Russian regime's barbarism in Syria, Russian ambassador says ending the war 'is almost an impossible task now'
October 2016: 3 October 2016: More than 1,400 killed or wounded civilians since Russian and Assad regime ended ceasefire in Aleppo - 8 October 2016: USA Secretary of State John Kerry called Friday for Russia and Syria to face a war crimes investigation for their attacks on Syrian civilians - 8 October 2016: Russia is building up its forces in Syria since Russian and Syrian regime ended ceasefire in late September, sending in troops, planes and advanced missile systems, a Reuters analysis of publicly available tracking data shows - 11 October 2016: Russian regime to create permanent naval base in Syria - 11 October 2016: Russian jets resumed heavy bombing of rebel-held eastern Aleppo on Tuesday - 16 October 2016: 31 casualties are today’s death toll of massacres by Russian/Assad warplanes and the regime forces in Aleppo city - 16 October 2016: At least 11 people were killed and 25 others injured when Russian fighter jets targeted a drug warehouse and a civil defense center in Turmanin neighborhood of Idlib - 17 octobre 2016: Au moins 12 civils ont été tués lundi dans des raids aériens par le régime d'Assad et son allié russe à Alep, faisant monter à 45 le bilan des morts dans cette ville en 24 heures, selon l'Observatoire syrien des droits de l'Homme - 17 October 2016: At least 40 civilians were killed and many more wounded in Russian airstrikes on Aleppo city and its countryside on Monday, according to activists saying that 'bunker-buster bombs' were used causing massive damage to residential buildings - 17 October 2016: According to a SNHR report on Sunday, Russian and Assad forces have killed 361 civilians, including 96 children and 55 women, since their ending of the ceasefire on 18 September, recording that Russian forces carried out 13 massacres and 22 acts of aggression against civilian centers, using incendiary weapons in six attacks - 18 October 2016: Al-Iman hospital in Sarja area in Idlib out of service due to the damages caused by the aerial bombardment by Russian warplanes - 19 October 2016: After more than 2,700 civilian casualties, hundreds of murdered, wounded and permanently disabled victims documented by SOHR in the month since the 19th of September 2016 in Aleppo province and city, where in the past 48 hours at least 55 citizens including 21 children and 9 females were murdered, some hours of no-bombing over Aleppo's eastern neighborhoods granted by unchallenged Russian, Iranian and Assad war criminals - 24 October 2016: Assad airstrikes kill 13 civilians in rural Idlib as regime forces hit Douma, rural Damascus with cluster bombs, as six civilians were killed in Russian airstrikes on the town of Kafar Takharim - 25 October 2016: Russian and regime warplanes escalate their attacks on the cities, towns and countryside of Idlib with high-explosive bombs as Russia announces no intention to reinstate humanitarian pause - 26 October 2016: Airstrikes by Russian and the Assad regime air forces using high-explosive parachute-retarded bombs hit a schools complex and a public market in the town of Hass in rural Idlib, killing at least 26 civilians and wounding dozens more, mostly schoolchildren and teachers - 26 October 2016: Rose to 76 including 38 children and women, the number of civilians who were killed by Russian and Assad's aerial bombardments targeting areas of Idlib countryside since the 20th of October until today, while no less than 150 others were wounded and seriously wounded including women and children - 29 October 2016: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Damascus and in Rif Damashq province, again in Rif Damashq province, as regime forces shell places in the city of Zabadani, while helicopters are dropping barrel bombs on areas at the outskirts of Khan al-Shih camp in the Western Ghouta, again in Rif Damashq province, in Hama province, in Daraa and in Idlib province, also dropping more barrel bombs amid aerial bombardment targeting Maara Masrin, Benesh and other areas of the northern countryside, al-Bara town in the Zawiya mount and in Aleppo province, targeting Hreitan and al-Bab city, in Homs province, again in Homs province, and in Aleppo province, while Russian and regime’s warplanes renewed the raids on the front stretching from the outskirts of Jam’eyyat al-Zahra’a neighborhood west of Aleppo city, to the southern and southwestern outskirts of the city - 30 October 2016: The dead from Wednesday’s airstrikes near a school complex in Idlib province included 22 children, Unicef's director Alan Lane says, adding that six teachers also died in the attacks
November 2016: 1 November 2016: At least 1,106 people, including 791 civilians, were killed in attacks by the Assad regime and Russian forces across Syria in October 2016, SNHR says - 2 November 2016: Syrian Coalition's Riad Hijab slams Russia's defense minister's remarks about postponing political solution 'indefinitely’ - 4 November 2016: Hundreds of artificial limbs blocked the entrance to the Russian Embassy in London on Thursday as members of the Syria Campaign group protested Russian regime's airstrikes in Syria's largest city of Aleppo - 4 November 2016: At least 9 members of the medical staff and rescue workers were killed in 44 attacks by the Assad and Russian regime in October as regime forces used napalm in rural Damascus and the Russian air force targeted 6 medical facilities and 7 ambulances, SNHR says - 5 November 2016: Russian regime denies that it has troops involved in combat operations in Syria, but when 'private contractors' die while supporting the Assad regime, their families receive medals with certificates signed by Putin - 5 November 2016: Activists in western rural Aleppo say that at least 22 civilians were killed and many more injured in airstrikes by the Russian air force on the town of Kafar Naha on Friday, also reporting that most of the victims were children and women, as Russian jets also raided the towns of Atareb, Khan Alassal, and Orem Alqubra despite regime’s announcement of a 'humanitarian pause', and as airstrikes and massacres in rural Damascus and Idlib continue - 6 November 2016: Russian aviation reportedly shelled parachute bombs targeting Aleppo's western opposition-held towns of Atarib, Darat Izzah and Ibbin Village, killing at least 11 civilians including women and children and injuring another 25 - 10 November 2016: Russian forces reportedly committed a horrible massacre against unarmed civilians in the town of Mishmishan in western rural Idlib when Russian jets hit the town with several high-explosive missiles - 12 November 2016: Assad regime and Russian air forces bombed two hospitals in the provinces of Hama and Aleppo on Friday, putting them out of service - 14 November 2016: Russian air strikes kill 9 civilians in Aleppo, some 30 people were injured and three children among those killed in the Russian attack on the opposition-held Kfar Dael village - 15 November 2016: Day after Putin-Trump phone call, Russia launches major Syria offensive from arcraft carrier, renewing murderous bombardment on Aleppo after failed attempts to negotiate humanitarian aid into the besieged city - 15 November 2016: Assad regime and Russian warplanes have destroyed three hospitals and a medical complex in Aleppo and Idlib provinces over the past week, putting them out of service and causing dozens of casualties - 15 November 2016: Tens of casualties and injuries in new massacres by warplanes and Assad's helicopters on the eastern section of Aleppo city and more casualties in al-Bab city - 16 November 2016: Bringing the total number of hospitals targeted by Russian warplanes on Monday in Aleppo's countryside to three, Russian murderous air strikes are targeting and destroying the Baghdad hospital, killing and wounding dozens and burying others under the rubble, while civil defense forces are working to lift the rubble to save the survivors and remove the corpses - 18 November 2016: Russian murderous forces continue to pound Aleppo with airstrikes - 19 November 2016: Regime and Russian airstrikes knock out all hospitals in Aleppo as MSF urges halt to attacks - 23 November 2016: Russian warplanes carried out a massacre on the city of Al-Lataminah in the northern Hama countryside, killing seven civilians and wounding more than 10 others - 28 November 2016: Assad regime and Russian airstrikes on Syrian hospitals continue unabated, as Zahra Women Hospital in Aleppo confirms that the hospital was put out of service on Friday after being directly hit by the regime airstrikes - 28 November 2016: Russia’s 'Defense Ministry' on November 17 published a videotape showing what it claimed as airstrikes on positions of 'terrorist groups' in western rural Aleppo, however, the structures appearing in the video are in fact a factories compound near the town of Atareb used for civilian purposes only and bombed by Russian jets three times in October and November
December 2016: 5 December 2016: 38 civilians confirmed dead including 5 children and 6 persons from the same family including a woman, by Russian airstrikes targeting the city of Maara al-Nuaman in Idlib province, rising the number of murdered civilians by aerial bombardment to 73 today - 19 December 2016: Russian airborne major Sanchirov killed in Syria secretly buried - 20 December 2016: Russian blogger Alexei Kungurov convicted to two years in a penal colony for a LiveJournal post criticising Russia's military operation in Syria - 25 décembre 2016: L'armée russe annonce qu'il n'y a pas de signes de survivants dans le crash de l'avion russe après son décollage de Sotchi vers la Syrie avec 92 personnes à bord - 25 décembre 2016: Les avions russes ont intensifié le bombardement des zones de la province d'Idlib sous contrôle de l'opposition contre la dictature, dans le nord-ouest de la Syrie, près d'Alep - 29 December 2016: Assad regime and Russian air forces step up bombardment on rebel-held towns and villages in eastern Ghouta and rural Damascus, targeting mainly residential buildings and vital civilian infrastructure and killing at least 13 civilians killed and injuring dozens more
January 2017: 13 January 2017: At least eight people, including four children, were killed in Russian air strikes on the western countryside of Aleppo targeting apartment complex in Babka - 17 January 2017: At least 25 people reportedly killed and dozens more injured in Assad regime and Russian airstrikes across Syria during the past 24 hours, targeting mostly rural Damascus, Homs and Hama - 18 January 2017: Five children reportedly killed and dozens of women and children injured in Russian and Assad regime airstrikes on the Ommal neighborhood in Deir Ezzor, as more airstrikes using cluster and vacuum hit other neighborhoods - 30 January 2017: About 4,751 civilian Syrian casualties, including 1,160 children, since the start of the Russian airstrikes in Syria documented by SOHR
February 2017: 7 February 2017: Over 20 civilians killed in Russian airstrikes in Idlib city on Tuesday - 10 February 2017: At least 162 rescue workers have so far lost their lives while performing their humanitarian duty in search and rescue operations among the rubble of buildings destroyed by the Assad regime and Russian forces in 2016, according to the Syrian Civil Defense's 3rd Annual Conference - 15 février 2017: Des avions russes ont bombardé pour la deuxième journée consécutive plusieurs quartiers de la ville syrienne de Deraa tenus par les rebelles, un hôpital aussi touché par les frappes meurtrières - 16 February 2017: The Assad regime and Russian forces were behind airstrikes that hit two hospitals in northeastern Syria in February 2016, according to an investigation initiated by Doctors Without Borders, also saying that 25 people, including an MSF staff member, were killed and 11 others wounded in the attack - 17 February 2017: Russian jets pounded rebel-held areas of Daraa for a second day in the reportedly first such intensive bombing campaign since Russian regime’s major intervention in Syria more than a year ago - 17 February 2017: The Assad regime and Russian forces reportedly intensified aerial and artillery bombardment on Daraa province, targeting mainly residential areas and vital civilian facilities
March 2017: 6 March 2017: Following the opposition’s downing of an Assad regime's plane, Russian and Assad's jets retaliated through air raids in Idlib, killing and wounding many Syrian citizens - 9/10 March 2017: At least five civilians killed in airstrikes on Kafranbel in rural Idlib as Russian and Assad's aggression continues - 11 March 2017: At least 55 civilians were killed and hundreds more injured in aerial and artillery bombardment by regime forces, as the Russian air force committed a massacre claiming the lives of at least 30 civilians, including entire families in Mayadin in rural Deir Ezzor, also targeting two schools sheltering dozens of displaced people - 16 March 2017: Russian jets bombed an apartment building in Idlib's district of Qusour using vacuum bombs, a massacre condemned by the Syrian Coalition that claimed the lives of over 25 civilians, mostly children and women - 18 March 2017: After Russian jets on Wednesday bombed a four-story building in the neighborhood of Qusour in Idlib city, causing it to collapse over the heads of the people inside while they were sleeping, it emerged that the victims include seven children from one family, sons and daughters of Doctor Mahmoud Sayeh - 20 March 2017: Assad regime and Russian airstrikes target civilian centers in Idleb, killing and wounding many civilians including children through use of vacuum missiles - 25 March 2017: At least 16 people were killed overnight in air strikes on a prison in the rebel-held city of Idlib, believed to be carried out by Russian warplanes backing Assad regime - 27 March 2017: Toxic gas attack on the Latamaneh hospital in Hama province kills medic and patient, as a medical relief agency releases a report claiming over 100 hospitals were hit by Syrian or Russian strikes in 2016
April 2017: 3 April 2017: Fighter jets, believed to be Russian, bombed the National Hospital, the main hospital in the town of Maaret Alnouman in rural Idlib on Sunday, putting the hospital out of service and injuring at least ten people - 3 April 2017: A total of 1,134 civilians were killed in Syria in March 2017 despite the December 'ceasefire', according to SNHR - 5 April 2017: Warplanes thought to be Russian carried out heavy and concentrated airstrikes on rescue centers and medical facilities which were treating victims of the chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, Civil Defense in Idlib countryside says - 8 April 2017: Russian regime sends another murderous warship armed with cruise missiles to battlegroup off Syrian coast, as the tragedy of a father who lost more than 20 family members in Khan Sheikhun chemical attack is reported - 10 April 2017: Russian airstrikes targeted the main hospital of Dael in southern Daraa, killing and wounding medics and patients and forcing services to stop, local activists say - 10 April 2017: Civilians voice concern over increased air campaigns against residential areas, as witnesses report white phosphorus attacks in the hours after the USA cruise missile strike on Syrian air base - 10 April 2017: At least 21 civilians were killed when Russian jets struck the northern Idleb province with cluster bombs, as Russia’s jets also hit towns of Maerherma and Basamis with white phosphorous - 10/11 April 2017: Russian air force have intensified bombing raids on towns and villages in the provinces of Hama and Idlib in revenge attacks, causing dozens of civilian casualties and using internationally banned weapons - 14 April 2017: A total of 114 vital civilian facilities and civilian structures across Syria were targeted by attacks during March 2017, as regime forces were responsible for 47 attacks, while Russian forces were responsible for 39 more, according to SOHR - 15 April 2017: Syrian Coalition says that Russia once again chose to side with a mass murderer and to stand by the Assad regime after it committed the horrific crime against civilians using chemical weapons in the town of Khan Sheikhoun - 18/20 April 2017: Russia’s truce violations outnumber those of Assad's regime in last two days, as Putin's murderous regime has intensified its bombing raids on rebel-held areas in the provinces of Aleppo, Hama, and Idlib over the past two days using internationally prohibited weapons, such as the white phosphorous, cluster bombs, and napalm - 25 April 2017: Civilians reported dead and wounded after central market in Khan Sheikhoun, the site of this month's chemical attack, is struck by warplanes thought to be Russian - 26 April 2017: Assad regime or Russian warplanes kill 12 people wounding others in Kafr Takharim in the rebel-held Idleb countryside after striking a hospital with a number of air raids, victims include doctors and nurses, alongside a number of patients receiving treatment at the time of the raids - 26 April 2017: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Idlib province dropping barrel bombs, amid aerial bombardements and as warplanes believed to be Russian carried out another massacre - 27 April 2017: 4 warplanes believed to be Russian carried out 4 consecutive raids at the dawn of today on the Hospital of the Syrian Medical University at the outskirts of Deir Sharqi in Idlib province, killing 6 citizens including 2 children - 28 April 2017: Assad and Russian regime reportedly destroyed 11 Syrian hospitals in April - 30 April 2017: It rose to 8 the number of members of the Civil Defense killed in airstrikes carried out by warplanes believed to be Russian on a center of the Civil Defense in the cave at KafrZitta area
May 2017: 1 May 2017: Assad’s air force, backed by Russian forces, committed a brutal massacre when helicopters of the Assad regime dropped around 15 barrel bombs on residential neighborhoods in Dara’a city on Sunday, killing dozens of civilians, mostly children and women - 2 May 2017: Syrian Network for Human Rights singles out Assad regime and Russian forces for their human rights violations in report documenting the deaths of more than a thousand non-combatants in April - 8 May 2017: Bombardment and military operations by regime forces backed by Iranian militias and the Russian air force continue unabated in many rebel-held areas across Syria, as the Russian air force carried out a horrific massacre in eastern rural Aleppo claiming the lives of 12 civilians on Sunday - 10 May 2017: 23 medical workers killed in Russian and Assad regime strikes in April, as over 280 medical centers were destroyed and 150 staff members killed in 2016, according to Syrian interim government report - 10 May 2017: The targeting of medical facilities by the Assad regime and Russian air forces, sometimes with banned weapons, aims to displace local residents, according to SNHR
June 2017: 15 June 2017: Assad regime and Russian forces intensified bombing on vital civilian facilities in northern rural Hama - 16 June 2017: At least eight people, including children, were killed in Assad regime airstrikes on a school sheltering displaced people in southern Daraa province, according to local activists, as regime army and Hezbollah terrorists escalate attacks against a rebel-held part of Daraa and as Assad and Russian airstrikes have destroyed most infrastructure and residential buildings in areas outside their control - 27 June 2017: Dozens of civilians reportedly killed and wounded during Russian and international coalition airstrikes on the cities and countryside of Deir-ez-Zor, Raqqa and Hassakeh - 29 June 2017: At least 50 civilians reportedly killed on Wednesday when Russia`s warplanes pounded eastern Deir-ez-Zor province with cluster bombs
July 2017: 4 July 2017: At least 16 civilians reportedly killed in southern Suweida province when Russian warplanes struck a village on the border with Jordan - 10 July 2017: The Assad forces violated the cease-fire in southwest Syria only hours after it went into effect as regime forces shelled the outskirts of Manshiyya disctrict in Daraa, FSA-held parts in Dara’a al-Balad and the villages of Hamidiya, Mashara, and Hamriya hill in rural Quneitra, also launched a ground attack on the positions of the FSA in northeastern rural Suweida backed by the Iranian militias and Russian aerial cover - 22 July 2017: Over 500 Russian mercenaries, who earlier fought in Donbas, now taking part in the war against Syria, according to the SBU Security Service of Ukraine - 29 July 2017: A joint investigation by Syrian rights groups has revealed new information on the systematic targeting of health facilities in Idlib province by the Assad regime and Russian forces during the month of April 2017 - 30 July 2017: 85 civilian casualties in a month raise to more than 5,300 the number of Syrian civilians who were killed in 22 months of Russian airstrikes, according to SOHR - 31 July 2017: Assad and Russian forces step up bombing on Eastern Ghouta despite cease-fire, reportedly violating the truce 98 times
September 2017: 11 September 2017: Russian strikes kill 34 civilians including nine children on river ferry boats, when warplanes targeted ferries carrying them across the Euphrates River near Syria’s eastern city of Deir Ezzor, according to SOHR - 17 September 2017: Russian airstrike wounded six of USA-backed Syrian Democratic Forces fighters near Deir el-Zour while in southeast Assad troops and their Iran-backed allies began a new offensive aiming to capture areas along the Iraq border under the cover of Russian airstrikes - 22 September 2017: At least four hospitals were targeted by Assad regime and Russian strikes as warplanes conducted more than 105 raids within a 24-hour period, deliberately attacking medical facilities in northern Hama and southern Idleb province - 25 September 2017: Death of 33 civilians in northeastern rural Hama as a result of the ongoing airstrikes by the Assad regime and Russia forces over the past week documented by activists, as Russian invaders’ warplanes burn Idlib province, hitting over 13 areas - 27 September 2017: At least 42 people have been killed by Russian and Syrian airstrikes in Idlib province since Sunday, as the regime army extends its ground and aerial attacks, Civil Defense says - 28 September 2017: Heavy bombing forces opposition to suspend school in Aleppo countryside, as education directorate says decision was made due to the 'monstrous attack' waged by Syrian and Russian warplanes - 28 September 2017: Russian warplanes continue their bombardment of Idlib with dozens of airstrikes on the province's cities and towns - 28 September 2017: Assad regime and Russian airstrikes knock out health facilities across Syria - 28 September 2017: Russian and Assad regime’s war crimes against Syrian people continue unabated - 29 September 2017: 10 days of bombing by warplanes of Russian and the regime kill and injure about 570 civilians in about 1,400 raids on the provinces of Idlib and Hama, according to SOHR
October 2017: 20 October 2017: Russian neo-Nazi Milchakov, who headed the 'Rusich' battalion fighting alongside Donbas militants, is now hired by 'Wagner', Russia's major private military company, and deployed in Syria - 23 October 2017: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Aleppo and in Hama province, including aerial bombardments in Hama province, in Rif Damashq province, amid escalation of aerial bombardment by Russian warplanes and regime’s warplanes in Deir Ezzor province
November 2017: 12 novembre 2017: Cinquante civils ont été tués dans les bombardements, notamment des frappes russes, qui ont visé depuis vendredi soir deux camps de déplacés et des secteurs avoisinants dans l'est de la Syrie, selon OSDH - 14 November 2017: Russian raids kill dozens in western Aleppo countryside's town of Atareb, swollen by the arrival of refugees from nearby battles - 14 November 2017: Russian air strikes on Monday bombed an ambulance station in the village of Qasr ibn Wardan in eastern rural Hama, putting the facility out of service - 14 November 2017: Russian and Assad regime forces continue to shell residential neighborhoods and service centers in the towns and villages of the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta, causing dozens of civilian casualties and widespread destruction to civilian homes - 27 November 2017: At least 53 civilians, including 21 children, perished early Sunday morning when Russian air strikes reportedly hit the village of Al-Shafah in Deir Ezzor province in eastern Syria - 28 November 2017: SNHR says it had recorded at least 14 massacres and 53 attacks by the Assad regime and its Russian ally on vital civilian centers in eastern Ghouta, including seven medical facilities since 22 July 2017 - 30 November 2017: In the second month of the third year of its participation Russia kills about 270 citizens and raises the number of civilian casualties to 6,200 persons during 26 months of killing, as more than 41% of the total death toll of 15,000 people killed by Russia since the start of its direct participation in Syria in September 2015 are civilians
December 2017: 7 December 2017: At least 21 displaced people have been killed in a Russian airstrike on the province of Deir-ez-Zor, as Assad regime forces and allied Shiite militias claim to have taken full control of the western bank of Euphrates River - 8 December 2017: Assad forces and their allied foreign militias committed 16 massacres, while Russian forces committed 13 ones in November, claiming the lives of 410 people, half of them children and women, according to SNHR - 9 December 2017: Schools in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta continue to be closed down because of the continued bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia’s air forces on the rebel-held area - 12 December 2017: Thousands of Russian private contractors reportedly fighting in Syria - 14 December 2017: USA jets fire warning flares as Russian planes enters Syria buffer zone, as USA Air Force says Russians infringing on forbidden airspace six to eight times a day - 25 December 2017: Three civilians were killed and dozens more were injured in intensifying aerial attacks by the Russian and Assad regime airstrikes targeting residential areas in rural Idlib on Christmas, as local activists say that a woman and a child were killed and another child was injured in barrel bomb attacks by Assad’s helicopters on the village of Tal Ammara - 30 December 2017: Dozens of people were killed and wounded in the intensifying bombing campaign by the Russian and Assad regime forces on towns and villages of rural Idlib
January 2018: 3 January 2018: Russian military helicopter flying to Hama crashed on New Year’s Eve, killing both pilots following a technical fault, according to Russian regime - 3 January 2018: At least seven Russian planes were destroyed by rebel shelling at the Khmeimim airbase in Syria on 31 December, according to Russian daily Kommersant - 3 January 2018: Russian warplanes carried out a massacre in Mesraba town in Rif Damashq province - 4 January 2018: Russian jets on Tuesday bombed Hasan al-A'araj Hospital in the town of Ma'arat al-Nu'man in rural Idlib, destroying large parts of the hospital and putting the facility out of service - 4 janvier 2018: Au moins 29 civils ont été tués mercredi dans l'enclave assiégée de la Ghouta orientale, près de Damas, la plupart par des frappes aériennes russes, a indiqué une ONG - 8 January 2018: Russian as well as Assad regime’s warplanes kill more than 21 citizens of several families in Idlib countryside, mostly children and citizen women, and renew their intensive targeting to the area - 15 January 2018: Violent explosions shook areas in the southern countryside and other areas in the eastern countryside of Idlib, where missiles believed to be Russian targeted villages - 15 January 2018: No fewer than 177 people were killed and 811 others wounded in attacks launched by Assad forces and the Iranian-backed militias with Russian air support on eastern Ghouta in the past 16 days, according to Syrian Civil Defense - 23 January 2018: A day after reports of a fresh chemical weapons attack in the rebel enclave of East Ghouta, which injured more than 20 people, most of them children, USA's Tillerson says that Russia bears responsibility for Syria chemical attacks, condemned the Putin regime for 'shielding' its Syrian ally against punishment for its actions - 26 January 2018: After Russia’s 'Thermite' (cluster incendiary bombs) attack today, warplanes bomb again the eastern countryside of Idlib and shelling targets north of Homs - 29 January 2018: Russian and Syrian warplanes escalated their airstrikes on the towns and cities of the Idlib countryside on Sunday, as civilian displacements continue
February 2018: 3 February 2018: Airstrikes and barrel bomb attacks by the Assad regime and suspected Russian jets targeted convoys carrying civilians fleeing southern rural Aleppo on Friday, killing 20 civilians and injuring dozens more, as airstrikes also targeted villages in southern rural Aleppo - 4 February 2018: After a Russian warplane was shot down on Saturday in Idlib province, that has seen since years and sees today heavy air strikes and attacks on the ground by Assad regime's forces backed by Russia and Iran, Russia's Putin regime kills more than 30 people in Idlib in a revenge attack - 5 February 2018: At least 14 civilians were killed and dozens more were wounded in Russian airstrikes on Khan al-Sibl and Maasaran following the downing of a Russian jet, as seven more people were killed by the regime and Russia carrying out more than 25 raids and heavy airstrikes on Saraqeb since early morning Sunday, as 30 people were killed in Saraqeb and the town of Ariha in recent days, and as seven displaced people burned to death in deadly airstrikes targeting their vehicle as they fled regime bombardment on the village of Tel Adhiya - 5 February 2018: Russia, Assad bomb 20 towns in Syria, use chemical arms, as air strikes come against the background of the latest downing of a Russian Su-25 fighter jet - 9 February 2018: The death toll mounted steadily throughout Thursday in Eastern Ghouta, which has been besieged since 2013, with the SOHR tallying 75 civilians dead by the evening, as the death toll from a four-day Assad regime assault on the rebel enclave on the outskirts of Damascus soaring past 220, and as UN appeal for ceasefire goes unheeded, after the Russian regime of mass murderers and war criminals dismissed the proposal as 'unrealistic' - 9 February 2018: At least six people, including children, were killed on Thursday in fresh Russian/Assad regime airstrikes targeting two schools in the northern province of Idlib, also killing ten civilians and wounding dozens more in heavy aerial bombing on the town of Maarrat al-Numan, according to the Civil Defense - 12 February 2018: Assad regime and Russian airstrikes in rebel-held areas have killed 230 civilians in the past week in some of the conflict’s worst violence that may also constitute war crimes, said Zeid Ra‘ad al-Hussein, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights - 13 February 2018: The names of Russian military contractors reportedly killed in clashes between USA-led coalition and pro-Assad regime forces last week have begun to surface - 15 February 2018: 15 Russians employed in Syria by a private security company in charge of 'protecting the oil and gas fields controlled by the Syrian regime' have been killed after an explosion rocked an arms depot of the company in Tabiya Jazira in Deir Ezzor province, according to SOHR, following the reported deaths of scores of Russian mercenaries last week - 15 February 2018: Continuing Russian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Daraa and Homs province, in Idlib province, amid aerial bombardments by warplanes believed to be Russian, also killing Civil Dense members and medical staff, in Rif Damashq province, amid aerial bombardments claiming the lives of more citizens including children and women, in Hama province - 16 February 2018: Russia bombs seventh hospital in Syria in 2 weeks in the village of Hass in Idlib province - 20 February 2018: More than 1000 casualties and wounded during less than 40 hours in the massacres of the besieged Eastern Ghouta amid the feebleness of the International Coalition, as SOHR reports ongoing targeting by warplanes and Assad's helicopters on the Eastern Ghouta with the participation of Russian warplanes and raising numbers of civilian casualties - 22 February 2018: Russia delivered weapons shipments reportedly including an array of internationally banned weapons to Assad regime forces ahead of Ghouta offensive - 22 February 2018: Assad and Russian warplanes and bombs continue to pound eastern Ghouta as UN and aid agencies once again plead for ceasefire, as more than 335 people have been killed in the area, with 13 civilians dying in latest strikes, and as Ghouta's desperate civilians say they've been abandoned to their fate - 23 February 2018: Russia reportedly tested over 200 new types of arms in Syria during its campaign in support of Assad's regime, as Russian regime was accused of taking part in murderous airstrikes against Eastern Ghouta - 28 February 2018: Russia 'on wrong side of history' over Syria chemical weapons, USA disarmament official says after reports of a chlorine attack in the besieged enclave of eastern Ghouta, a further OPCW investigation into the latest reports of chemical attacks and the leaking of a UN report into the supply of related items from North Korea
March 2018: 6 March 2018: A Russian Putin regime's military transport plane has crashed in Syria killing all 39 people on board - 16 March 2018: Tens of Russian airstrikes target the southern section of the Eastern Ghouta leaving 10 casualties and tens of wounded in Saqba
17 March 2018: Anatoly Kuntsevich, one of the men behind 'novichok', reportedly worked with Syrian regime, as deeply concerned Israel repeatedly warned the Russian regime without avail until in 2002, in circumstances that remain unknown, Kuntsevich died during a flight from Aleppo to Moscow - 22 March 2018: The number of civilians who were killed continues to rise in Harem city due to the death of more civilians affected by injured they had in raids by a warplane believed to be Russian - 31 March 2018: 1,797 citizens including 668 children and women killed in the Eastern Ghouta of Damascus during the past 2 months of bombardment, as Russian warplanes killed about 7,700 citizens in 30 months, about 60% of the total number of people killed by the regime’s bombardment on the Syrian territory in 42 months, according to SOHR
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Russian forces have targeted a medical center in rural Idlib province as the province has become home to about two million people, half of whom were forcibly displaced by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies - 4 April 2018: At least seven people were killed and a dozen more wounded in Russian airstrikes that hit northern Idlib province, as murderous raids targeted a marketplace in Ariha, leaving two people dead, and five more people were killed in the villages of Kourin and Al-Sukariyah - 6 April 2018: A Reuters investigation has revealed a covert airlift using civilian planes to fly private Russian contractors alias mercenaries to Syria's president, an operation the Putin regime insists does not exist - 7 April 2018: Russian and Assad regime's air strikes killed at least 40 civilians including 8 children and injured dozens in the last opposition-held town of Douma in Syria’s Eastern Ghouta on Friday, as Assad's army launches a ground offensive on its outskirts, as a Douma 'hospital is in a state of panic', as 'dentists are carrying out emergency surgeries (and) dead bodies are being brought in pieces and are unrecognizable', according to medics - 24 April 2018: Russian aircraft escalated their bombardment of areas in the northern Homs and southern Hama countrysides, coinciding with clashes on a number of fronts between opposition fighters and regime forces along with Iranian militias, who are trying to advance toward the area’s villages - 25 April 2018: A number of civilians were killed and injured in intensified bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces on Idlib province - 30 April 2018: SNHR documents in a report the deaths of 64 civilians, including 12 children, at the hands of regime forces and their Russian allies in the two weeks since the USA-British-French military strike, that has done little to stem the flow of civilian deaths - 30 April 2018: Russian and Assad regime forces step up aerial attacks on Northern Homs, targeting Al-Zaefaraneh, Al-Saen and Al-Majdal, leaving dozen of people killed and wounded and the only hospital of Al-Zaefaraneh out of service due to a vacuum missile attack
May 2018: 3 May 2018: Russian regime reported that a Sukhoi-30 multi-role fighter jet had crashed in Syria on Thursday, killing both of its pilots - 3 May 2018: Kafr Zaita hospital bombed out of service in Russian airstrikes - 5 May 2018: Russian and Assad regime's airstrikes on Idlib province, also targeting displaced persons' camps, killed at least six civilians on Friday as the UN stressed that it would not allow the occurrence of a humanitarian disaster in Idlib which is crowded with forcibly displaced civilians - 11 May 2018: Ten people from the same family have been killed in Russian airstrikes on the northern province of Idlib, rescue group said
June 2018: 7 June 2018: The Assad regime and Russian forces attacked three healthcare centers in Syria in May, according to SNHR, saying that such attacks have been 'deliberate and systematic' - 8 June 2018: Air strikes likely by Russia on the village of Zardana in northern rural Idlib killed at least 44 people overnight including 11 women and six children, inflicting the highest death toll in a single attack on the region this yearaccording to SOHR - 8 June 2018: Syrian Civil Defense mourned volunteer Ali Hassan Baradei who was killed in the line of duty when Russian airstrikes hit the town of Zardana in rural Idlib on Thursday - 8 June 2018: As attacks by the Assad regime forces and its Russian ally continue to target rebel-held areas across Syria, SNHR said that it had recorded no fewer than 11 massacres in Syria in May 2018 - 9 June 2018: As the Assad regime and its Russian ally and the Iranian terrorist groups are carrying on with military operations, more vital civilian centers in Syria are coming under attack - 15 June 2018: According to SOHR, Assad regime's army and its allies bombarded and shelled the towns of Kafr Shams and al-Harah near the border with the Golan Heights region in the southwestern Deraa region on Friday, killing at least six people, the highest death toll from bombing since a 'de-escalation zone' was agreed in by the regime’s ally Russia, along with Jordan and the USA, as soccer fans roar 'goal' in Moscow - 22 June 2018: Crimea has stepped up grain exports to Syria over the past year in an arrangement that gives the Russian occupied peninsula an outlet for its surplus crops and ensures dictator Assad has a reliable source of wheat - 24 June 2018: Russian regime bombed rebel-held parts of southern Syria late Saturday as intense airstrikes targeted areas near Daraa in an assault to take over strategic region bordering Israel and Jordan, ending ceasefire agreed by Jordan, Russian regime and the USA last year, and killing many civilians, according to SOHR - 24 June 2018: Russian jets strike Busra al-Harir town in Daraa province, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 25 June 2018: About 155 Russian raids and explosive barrels as well as hundreds of shells target the east of Daraa in 24 hours, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 26 June 2018: After hundreds of Russian airstrikes, Assad regime forces and terrorist militiamen loyal to them control Bosr al-Harir - 27 June 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama and Idlib province, in Daraa province, where the aerial and artillery shelling by the regime forces and their helicopters and by Russian warplanes, including attacks on hospitals and service centers, raise the death toll to more than 120 victims, and again in Hama province - 27 June 2018: Assad regime and Russian air forces have bombed most of the healthcare facilities and field hospitals in Dara’a province, putting them out of service, in repeat of the war crimes the Assad regime and its allies committed earlier in their bombing campaigns on eastern Ghouta and Aleppo - 28 June 2018: The military campaign launched by Assad's regime against the opposition in the south continues for a fourth day, with Russian air support and intense shelling in the towns and villages of the eastern countryside of Daraa, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 29 June 2018: Assad and Russian airstrikes pounded rebel-held areas in southwestern Syria on Thursday, killing at least 17 civilians in an underground shelter and driving thousands more from their homes, as displaced people protest near the Israeli border demanding international protection, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 29 June 2018: Russian jets hit a house in rural Dara’a in which several families were hiding to escape the bombardment, killing nine people, mostly children and women, as Assad regime and Russian air forces have further intensified the bombing campaign which targeted new towns and villages, and as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia
July 2018: 1 July 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Daraa province, amid aerial bombardments by warplanes and helicopters, which caused a massacre claiming the lives of 10 citizens half of whom are children and resulting in the injury and missing of others, in Aleppo and Hama province, again in Daraa province, where tens of air raids and shells target Tafas town, raising the number of casualties, again in Hama and in Idlib province, leaving at least 8 casualties, as democracy is bombed to death across Syria, and as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 5 July 2018: Waves of air strikes pounded southern Syria on Thursday as Russian-backed regime forces with hundreds of missiles and barrel bombs launched their most intensive murderous bombing campaign yet in the two-week-old offensive, as soccer mob roars 'goal' in Russia - 6 July 2018: New Russian mercenary group reportedly fighting in Syria - 6 July 2018: Armoured vehicles and a tank with a Russian flag were seen heading towards the Nasib border crossing between Jordan and Syria - 13 July 2018: Russian forces have killed 71 civilians, including 20 children and nine women since the start of the World Cup on 10 June, committing at least eight massacres, attacking 14 vital civilian centers, including five healthcare facilities, and displacing 270,000 people along with allies, according to SNHR - 16 July 2018: Causing civilian casualties, Assad regime's and Russian air forces pummeled northwestern rural Dara’a on Monday, stepping up the use of barrel bombs and cluster munitions to force rebel fighters to surrender, as Russian airstrikes killed three civilians and injured many others in the village of Aqraba, carrying out about 75 airstrikes on Tal al-Harra in the past 24 hours - 16 July 2018: Assad regime’s and allies' onslaught on Daraa caused biggest displacement wave since 2011 - 17 July 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama province, in Idlib and Lattakia province, in Daraa and al-Quneitra province, amid aerial bombardments by warplanes and helicopters - 18 July 2018: Dozens of civilians, mostly women and children, were killed in Assad regime and Russian airstrikes on border villages in the provinces of Quneitra and Daraa in the past 24 hours - 19 July 2018: Russian forces have killed more than 6,000 Syrian civilians since the beginning of its direct military intervention in Syria in 2015, also committing dozens of massacres in the areas covered by the ‘de-escalation zones’ agreement which was reached in May 2017, according to SNHR - 20 July 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama province, and in Daraa province, amid aerial bombardments by helicopters and Russian warplanes, targeting the towns of Tasil, Sahm al-Golan, Jellin, Adwan, and other places in Yarmouk Basin - 21 July 2018: After massacres of 26 civilian casualties, including 11 children, Russian warplanes continue to destroy and incinerate Yarmouk Basin area in Daraa province
August 2018: 22 August 2018: Russian regime's military have been key to propping up Syrian Assad regime and helping him reclaim key ground, as Russian ministry said Wednesday that over 63,000 Russian troops, including 434 generals, have fought in Syria and about 90% of Russian combat pilots have flown in Syria, using the operation to test some of its most advanced weapons, including the latest jets and cruise missiles, helping turn the tide of war in Assad’s favor and the Assad regime in August 2018 five years after the Ghouta chemical attack controls nearly two thirds of the country, compared to just one third back in 2014
28 August 2018 up to 13 Russian warships have crossed the Bosphorus toward Syria: 28 August 2018: Up to 13 Russian warships have crossed the Bosphorus toward Syria so far this week as tensions between the USA and Syria continue to rise
30 August 2018 about 8,000 civilians incl. 3,123 children, women killed by Russian strikes in 35 months: 30 August 2018: About 8,000 civilians including 3,123 children and women are among more than 18,000 people killed by the Russian strikes in 35 months of military operations in Syria, according to SOHR, as in seven years, the casualties of Russian and Iranian backed war have grown from the first handful of protesters shot by Assad's forces to hundreds of thousands of dead
September 2018 Russian regime resumes Idlib air strikes: 4 September 2018: Russian regime resumes Idlib air strikes targeting areas including the large town of Jisr al-Shughur and the town of Ariha held by Turkish-backed rebels, amid warnings - 8 September 2018: Russian and Syrian regimes' warplanes pounded towns in Syria’s Idlib province on Saturday, a day after a summit of Turkey, Iran and Russia failed to agree on a ceasefire, as witnesses and rescuers said at least a dozen air strikes hit a string of villages and towns in southern Idlib and the town of Latamneh in northern Hama, killing civilians, and Assad's helicopters dropped so-called barrel bombs on civilian homes - 10 September 2018: The Assad regime and Russian air forces have further intensified the bombing campaign in Idlib and Hama provinces, killing more than 30 people, including women and children. A number of towns and villages were declared disaster areas as a result of the widespread destruction
24 September 2018: 24 September 2018: Russian regime will outfit Assad's military with its sophisticated S-300 air defense system in the wake of the downing of a Russian spy plane by Assad's air defenses during an Israeli strike - 26 September 2018: In its latest report, Syrian Network for Human rights SNHR has said that over 222,000 civilians have died since March 2011, with Assad forces being responsible for almost 90% of them, and the number of victims of Russian operations reached 6,239, or 2.81%
October 2018: 1 octobre 2018: Les frappes russes en Syrie ont fait plus de 18'000 morts, dont près de 8000 civils, depuis le début il y a exactement trois ans de l'intervention militaire du régime russe au côté du régime syrien, selon SOHR - 31 October 2018: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama province
November 2018: 6 November 2018: Russian regime deployed new frigate with long-range Kalibr cruise missiles to the Mediterranean Sea, a few months after Putin regime had reinforced its naval forces off Syrian cost to support Syrian Assad regime's offensives
December 2018 Russia lying about Syria attack to undermine truce: 7 December 2018: USA accuses Russia of lying about Syria attack to undermine truce
January 2019: 5 January 2019: The Assad regime and Russia are responsible for the majority of the recorded 223 massacres that took place across Syria in 2018, according to SNHR - 5 January 2019: The Russian warplanes carry out a new round of aerial bombardment and of their first targeting to the western countryside of Aleppo leaving 16 citizens dead and wounded including children - 30 January 2019: Russian warplanes return to kill Syrians and raise to more than 18,100 the number of casualties of the Russian bombardment in 40 continuous months
February 2019: 9 February 2019: 4 civilians, including a woman, were wounded in rocket and artillery shelling by the Assad regime on the villages of Tal Minnis and Ma'arshammarin south of Idlib, and 8 civilians were killed and many others reportedly wounded in explosions of previously dropped cluster bombs by the Assad regime and Russian air forces in eastern rural Hama
March 2019: 1 March 2019: As a part of the aerial escalation, warplanes return to bomb Idlib and target major cities and towns along with ground shelling on several areas in the countryside of the province and Sahl Al-Ghab - 1 March 2019: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime forces shell places and carry out raids on areas Hama and Idlib province, also targeting Khan Shaykhun city - 4 March 2019: Syrian Coalition demands accountability for chemical weapons attack launched against civilians in eastern Ghouta's Douma in the spring of 2018 - 4 March 2019: Assad regime and Russia’s relentless bombing campaign on towns and villages in Hama and Idlib provinces forces tens of thousands to flee - 4 March 2019: Russian regime seeking to force people trapped in Rukban camp to return to regime-held areas as blockade continues - 5 March 2019: Russia threatens to starve Syrian refugee camp and force men into Assad's army - 7 March 2019: Eight years into Syria's Civil War, Russia is the big victor in Syria and will remain for a long time to come, 'Haaretz' says, stating: 'What a difference can 50 fighter jets make. In the summer of 2015 Syrian President Bashar Assad thought his regime was facing collapse' - 23 March 2019: Russian airstrikes killed at least 15 people, including four children and two women, and injured 27 others in at least 11 attacks on residential areas in rural Idlib including the town of Kfariya
April 2019: 8/9 April 2019: Suspected Russian long-range missiles hit the town of Jisr al-Shughour in rural Idlib, according to Syrian Civil Defense, as local observatory reported that the source of the missiles is the Russian warships stationed in the Mediterranean, wounding 12 civilians, including 10 children and a woman, and destroying a large amount of civilian property and infrastructure - 9 April 2019: The ongoing bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia has so far killed no fewer than 244 civilians since February 2, according to aid group - 17 April 2019: SNHR said that it had documented nearly 457 attacks in Syria by the Assad and Russian forces using cluster munitions, 24 of which occurred following the Sochi Agreement in September 2018 - 23 April 2019: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime and allied forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama and Idlib province, amid aerial bombardments by Russian warplanes - 26 April 2019: Russian warplanes renew their airstrikes today evening on Sahl Al-Ghab and Jabal Shashabo leaving wounded and people stuck under the rubble in Al-Amqiyyah village - 27 April 2019: Warplanes and helicopters carried out a new round of shelling, as Russian warplanes reportedly killed 15 civilians in the countryside of Idlib and Hama - 27 April 2019: After killing 15 civilians, the Russian warplanes continue their escalation within 'Putin-Erdogan' areas and carry out more raids, as Assad regime forces continue shelling targeting southern countryside of Idlib, southern countryside of Aleppo and Hama province - 29 April 2019: Russian jets on Sunday bombed civilian homes in the town of Qal'at al-Madiq in northwestern rural Hama, killing seven civilians and injuring many others - 29 April 2019: Russia using siege and starvation to force out residents of al-Rukban, according to OCHA - 30 April 2019: Months after the last targeting of this kind, Assad's helicopters drop more than 10 barrel bombs on Hama countryside in conjunction with the heavy raids by the Russian and the regime’s warplanes, as Russian operations complete their 43rd month on the Syrian territory by killing 22 citizens including about 10 children and women by its warplanes - 30 April 2019: The intensifying airstrikes by the Russian air force knocked out two hospitals in the town of Latamina in northern rural Hama in the past 24 hours, local activists said
1 May 2019: 1 May 2019: On the 2nd day of the aerial escalation, about 35 Russian and regime’s airstrikes, raids and barrel bombs target the countryside of Hama and Idlib - 1 May 2019: Pictures by SOHR show the destruction in al-Tamanah town south of Idlib, due to the aerial and ground shelling by the regime forces and the Russian guarantor, and in Abdeen village
6/7 May 2019: 6 May 2019: Russian and Assad's air raids and barrel bombs force more than 300,000 civilians to displace in 6 days, according to SOHR - 6 May 2019: Warplanes of the regime and the Russians start the 7th day of the most violent escalation by about 55 airstrikes on Aleppo, Hama, and Idlib provinces causing casualties and wounded - 6 May 2019: Aerial bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces targeting large areas of the provinces of Idlib and Hama knocked out four hospitals on Sunday, killing a nurse and a civilian in one of these hospitals - 7 May 2019: Assad regime forces and Russia bombarding 12 medical sites over 10 days in the Hama and Idlib provinces in central and northern Syria, according to SNHR - 7 May 2019: Assad regime forces and militias belonging to the regime reportedly launched attacks on a number of different fronts across Idlib and Hama provinces, with Russian and regime air support - 7 May 2019: Russian and regime's aerial and ground shelling continue on the 8th day of their escalation
7 May 2019: 7 May 2019: The share of Russians who support Putin regime’s military intervention in Syria has dropped from more than half to less than half since August 2017, according to an independent Levada Center survey
June 2019: 1 June 2019: Russia bears primary responsibility for Assad’s bombing of civilians, according to Syrian Coalition’s Riad al-Hassan, saying that the atrocities taking place against civilians in northwestern Syria constitute war crimes under the international law and international humanitarian law - 22 June 2019: Assad regime’s helicopters drop barrel bombs on the southern countryside of Idlib in conjunction with more than 20 raids by the Russian and regime’s warplanes, when warplanes of the murderous Russian regime also targeted the villages of al-Jabin and Tal Meleh at the northwestern countryside of Hama, as SOHR until the 21st of June 2019 documented the death of hundreds of civilians including women and children by aerial and ground bombardments since the 30th of April 2019 - 23 June 2019: Assad regime forces shell the southern countryside of Idlib by missiles loaded with the internationally banned phosphorus in conjunction with airstrikes by Russian warplanes targeting the same area - 24 June 2019: After an air raid by Russian warplanes that struck his home on Saturday evening, Khaled Mohamed al-Dani, a child from the town of Saraqeb in Idlib province, lost his life along with his mother and his siblings Duha, Mohamed and Hamza al-Dani, a day after recognition for excellence from his school - 24 June 2019: About 400 air and ground strikes target northern and northwest of Hama
July 2019: 4 July 2019: Assad regime and Russian air forces continue to bomb populated areas in northwestern Syria, especially in rural Idlib, resulting in the death of dozens of civilians, including children and women - 6 July 2019: Assad regime and Russian forces continue to bomb towns and villages in northwestern Syria, mainly targeting the infrastructure, healthcare facilities, educational facilities, and services institutions - 7 July 2019: At least 544 civilians have been killed and over 2,000 people injured since a Russian-led assault on the last rebel bastion in northwestern Syria began two months ago, rights groups and rescuers said on Saturday - 12 July 2019: Assad and Russian forces have escalated their airstrikes in northwestern Syria, especially in Idlib and its countryside, killing and injuring dozens of civilians including children as well as knocking out six vital civilian centers since Thursday morning - 13 July 2019: After they killed 2 families, the Russian warplanes renew their bombardment on the countryside of Hama and Idlib, and bombardment by the regime’s warplanes on a village east of Idlib leaves about 11 casualties and wounded - 13 July 2019: It rose to 14, the number of casualties documented by SOHR following a massacre carried out by Russian warplanes targeting agricultural lands in the vicinity of Khan Shaykhun, as aerial and ground bombardment by regime’s forces south of Aleppo continues - 13 July 2019: Two months of intensive airstrikes by Syrian government forces and their Russian allies, coupled with a fierce ground assault on rebel-controlled Idlib province, have killed hundreds of people and caused massive displacement while achieving little to no gain for Assad's and Putin's murderous regime - 22 July 2019: Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians in Idlib province
August 2019: 5 August 2019: SNHR said that it registered the names of 433 civilians who were killed across Syria in July, mostly in the ongoing onslaught the Assad regime and Russia launched against Idlib and rural Hama - 6 August 2019: Russian warplanes renew the airstrikes on the northern countryside of Hama - 15 August 2019: Russian double tap airstrike kills Civil Defense volunteer while trying to rescue a civilian near the village of Basika on Wednesday, after the Assad regime and Russian air forces bombed at least 29 healthcare facilities in the provinces of Idlib and Hama, causing dozens of civilian casualties - 16 August 2019: Russian airstrikes targeted an ambulance center in the town of Ma’aret Hurmeh in Idlib province, killing 3 medical workers 'as they were trying to rescue civilians wounded in the ongoing aerial bombardment', according to the Syrian American Medical Society, as at least seven people were killed in attacks on Idlib, according to SOHR - 16 August 2019: Russian and Assad regime’s recent military campaign had killed 1,221 civilians, including 332 children, as more than 853,000 people were displaced, according to Syrian Response Coordination Team - 17 August 2019: A suspected Russian airstrike hit a displaced people's gathering in the town of Hass south of Idlib province on Friday, killing at least 13 people, including at least four children, activists and war monitor SOHR said
26 September 2019 Russia expanding air base in Syria: 26 September 2019: Russian regime is expanding its Hmeimim air base in Syria and rebuilding a second landing strip to allow the facility to serve more aircraft, expanding the Russian/Iranian version of dialogue during UN general assembly meeting in New York, saying 'give us friendly words, a propaganda stage and markets, we will give you bombs and poison gas'
27 September 2019 USA sanctions against jet fuel for Russian forces in Syria and against sanctions-evasion conspiracy: 27 September 2019: USA imposed sanctions on a firm it said was participating in a scheme to avoid USA sanctions while helping provide jet fuel to Russian forces in Syria
2 March 2020 UN says Russia committed war crimes in Syria as world expects end of impunity: 2 March 2020: Russia committed war crimes in Syria, finds UN report, as Putin regime blamed for indiscriminate attacks in civilian areas without 'a specific military objective', also documenting 'unprecedented levels of displacement and dire conditions for civilians' in Syria
24 April 2020 heavily-armed Russian submarine heads to Syria: 24 April 2020: Heavily-armed Russian submarine heads to Syria, as the Rostov-on-Don submarine will join Putin's fleet in the Mediterranean and his tireless fight against terrorists also under water
11 May 2020 Russian and Assad regime's war crimes in Syria including attacks on hospitals and schools: 11 May 2020: December 2019 - March 2020 Syrian Assad regime backed by its ally Russia, subjected civilians in opposition-held areas in north-west Syria to a new wave of horrors attacking from the air and the ground repeatedly residential areas and crucial infrastructure, and the international community, including the UN Security Council, once again remained largely paralysed, according to rights group, documenting many attacks on medical facilities and schools that killed civilians, healthcare workers, teachers and children
15 March 2021 lawsuit seeks justice for suspected Russian killing of Syrian detainee: 15 March 2021: The brother of a Syrian man killed by suspected Russian mercenaries has called on the authorities in Moscow to investigate the incident and the possible role played by the Wagner Group, a mercenary group run by one of Vladimir Putin’s close allies, as video footage published by Russia’s Novaya Gazeta newspaper shows a group of six men torturing a Syrian detainee, and as the victim, Mohammed Taha Ismail Al-Abdullah, is believed to have deserted from al-Assad’s army and then been captured
2 April 2021 rights groups in Russia condemn Putin regime's role in Syria war crimes: 2 April 2021: Leading human rights organisations in Russia have released their first comprehensive report on abuses in the decade-old conflict in Syria, condemning Putin regime’s direct participation in indiscriminate bombings of civilians, its backing of the Assad regime’s use of torture, and culpability in other war crimes
Since January 2022 Russian airstrikes in Syria dccumented by Syrian Observatory of Human Rights SOHR: Since January 2022 airstrikes, other military assaults and activities of Russian forces in Syria, dccumented and listed by Syrian Observatory of Human Rights SOHR, reporting 25 airstrikes on first day of 2022
4 March 2022 flight of Russian reconnaissance jets and Assad regime's shelling: 4 March 2022: SOHR reported that Assad regime ground forces shelled positions in Jabal AL-Zawiyah in south Idlib countryside, targeting areas in Fuliful, Benin, Safhoun and Al-Futirah with more than 17 projectiles amid flight of Russian reconnaissance jets
12 March 2022 talks of sending fighters as 'mercenaries' to fight in Putin's war against Ukraine: 12 March 2022: SOHR reported that in Assad regime-held areas talks of sending fighters as 'mercenaries' to fight alongside the Russians in their war against Ukraine has become the most common talk as these areas are hit by poor living and economic conditions, and as members of Al-Baath party and former leaders of opposition factions, who have struck 'settlements and reconciliation deals' under Russian supervision during 2018 in areas south of the capital Damascus and Eastern Ghouta, have begun to openly promote fighting in Ukraine alongside Russian forces - 12 March 2022: In just 22 days, SOHR documented the killing of 1181 civilians, including 244 children under the age of 18, and 164 women on February 18, 2018, due to rockets and artillery shelling and barrel bombardment carried out by regime forces, their backed militias and Russians on separate areas of eastern Ghouta of Damascus. SOHR activists also documented massive destruction of civilian properties due to the intensive airstrikes executed by Russian fighter jets on various areas of Eastern Ghouta.
22 May 2022 Syria’s barrel bomb experts in Russia to help with potential Ukraine campaign: 22 May 2022: Technicians linked to the Syrian military’s infamous barrel bombs that have wreaked devastation across much of the country have been deployed to Russia to help potentially prepare for a similar campaign in the Ukraine war, European officials believe, as intelligence officers say more than 50 specialists, all with vast experience in making and delivering the crude explosive, have been in Russia for several weeks working alongside officials from Putin’s military
Russia/Turkey relations: Russia/Turkey relations
1853-1856 Crimean War: 1853-1856 Crimean War, in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia
Since 2010 Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant under construction: 13 May 2010: Turkey's first nuclear power plant will be built, owned and operated by Russia - Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant under development at Akkuyu in Mersin Province, that will be the country's first nuclear power plant
2012: 10 October 2012: Turkey diverts Syrian plane to Ankara saying the passenger aircraft coming from Moscow is suspected of carrying heavy weapons to Damascus - 11 October: The Syrian passenger plane forced to land in Turkey was carrying 'illegal cargo', according to Turkey's foreign minister - 12 October: Turkish PM says passenger plane forced to land in Ankara was carrying Russian-made defence equipment destined for Syria's defence ministry
2015 opposites over Syria: 5 October 2015: Turkey intercepted Russian jet violating air space as Russian regime increases military activity in region carrying out airstrikes against Syrian people - 24 November 2015 Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown - 24 November 2015: Russian fighter jet near Turkey-Syria border downed by Turkey after airspace violation - 25 November: Turkish military releases recording of warning to Russian Sukhoi Su-24 jet - 27 November: Russia cracks down on food and agriculture imports from Turkey - 27 November 2015: Hundreds of Turks have rallied against Russian and Syrian offensives on the province of Latakia, an area mainly controlled by ethnic Turkmens, as Russian forces continue launching heavy bombardment - 27 November 2015: Turkish president warns Russia not to 'play with fire' - 30 November 2015: Russian air strikes in northwest Syria have heavily targeted ethnic Turkmen areas in the weeks before Turkey shot down a Russian warplane, according to a Reuters data analysis - 4 December 2015: Russia faces massive 14 $ billion loss over cancelled South Stream and TurkStream gas projects - 13 décembre 2015: Un destroyer russe tire sur un bateau de pêche turc en mer Egée à 22 km de l'île grecque de Lemnos
2016 Russian nationals in custody on a suspicion of ties to Islamic State terrorists: 13 January: Three Russian nationals are in custody on a suspicion of ties to Islamic State terrorists, following the deadly attack that killed ten people in Istanbul - 30 January: Turkey says Russian jet invaded its airspace despite warnings - 20 December 2016: As Russian investigators join Turkey’s probe into ambassador Karlov’s assassination, his body put on a plane for Moscow and Russian regime's Putin, responsible for his death and the death of the shooter Mevlut Mert Altintas as a result of Russian war crimes in Syria
2017 Russian regime's airstrike kills three Turkish soldiers in northern Syria: 9 February 2017: Russian regime's airstrike kills three Turkish soldiers in northern Syria, supporting Syrian rebels in efforts to capture the city of al-Bab from so-called Islamic State - 27 April 2017: In fog and low visibility Russian naval reconnaissance warship Liman collided with a Togo-flagged cargo boat believed to have been carrying livestock near Turkey’s Black Sea coast, the Russian boat sank as there were no reports of casualties on either ship
August 2017 Russia to complete Turkish Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant by 2023: 26 August 2017: Russia to complete Turkish Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant by 2023
April 2018 Russia speeds up S-400 missile system delivery to Turkey: