European countries M - Y

Geography of Europe: Geography of Europe, the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or the larger Afro-Eurasia - Geology of Europe - Geological history of Europe
List of European countries by population and by area: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, including 50 generally recognised sovereign states - List of European countries by population, including 51 countries and 6 territories and dependencies located in Europe, broadly defined, as transcontinental countries are included if they are members of the Council of Europe - List of European countries by area, as some states are only partially located in Europe and are ranked according to the size of their European part only - Lists of countries in Europe by other - more or less distinguishing - features
European countries A - L




Malta - Geography of Malta - History of Malta - Demographics of Malta
Economy of Malta: Economy of Malta, main industries include tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services - Companies of Malta by industry
Petroleum in Malta: Petroleum in Malta - Luzzu oil field, located in the Mediterranean Sea, discovered in 2006 it will begin production in 2015
Energy in Malta: Energy in Malta, Malta produces almost all its electricity using oil, importing 100% of it
Agriculture in Malta: Agriculture in Malta - Lumi laring ta ghawdex - cultivation of oranges
Transport in Malta: Transport in Malta - Ports and harbours of Malta
Water transport in Malta: Water transport in Malta
Tourism in Malta: Tourism in Malta
Banking and banks in Malta: List of banks in Malta - Central Bank of Malta - Bank of Valletta - HSBC Bank Malta
March-November 2018 Pilatus bank case and investigative journalist: 22. März 2018: Maltas Finanzaufsicht MFSA hat die Absetzung des iranischen Chefs Nedschad der in einen Korruptionsskandal verwickelten Pilatus-Bank angeordnet, den die im Oktober ermordete maltesische Investigativjournalistin Daphne Caruana Galizia aufgedeckt hatte
November 2018 Pilatus bank closed over Iranian chairman fraud and corrupt payment charges: 5 November 2018: Maltese Pilatus bank, which was closed after its Iranian chairman and owner Ali Sadr Hasheminejad was charged in the USA in connection with money-laundering and fraud and was also accused of processing corrupt payments to Maltese officials by the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, has had its licence withdrawn by the European Central Bank
Taxation in Malta: Taxation in Malta
Politics of Malta: Politics of Malta - Constitution of Malta adopted on 21 September 1964 and amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2007
Political parties and trade unions in Malta: Political parties in Malta - Trade unions in Malta
Elections and parliament in Malta: Elections in Malta - Parliament of Malta
May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum: May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum, effectively a referendum on independence, as the new constitution made the country an independent Commonwealth realm
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
March 2008 Maltese general election: Maltese general election 8 March 2008 - 10 December 2012: Malta faces new elections after its government collapsed over negotiations for next year's budget
General election March 2013: Maltese general election 9 March 2013 - 10 March 2013: Addressing thousands of supporters at Floriana Granaries, newly elected PM Joseph Muscat says that the day of change has just dawned upon Malta
April 2014 Maltese presidential election: Maltese presidential election 1 April 2014 - Marie Louise Coleiro Preca appointed as the ninth President of Malta on 4 April 2014
European Parliament election 2014: European Parliament election 24 May 2014
June 2017 Maltese general election: 3 June 2017 Maltese general election - 4 juin 2017: Le premier ministre Muscat annoncé gagnant, dans l'espoir de retrouver une légitimité à l'égard d'une affaire des comptes au Panama
November/December 2017: 3 novembre 2017: Malte enterre ce vendredi la journaliste et blogueuse anticorruption Daphne Caruana Galizia, dont l'assassinat à la voiture piégée le 16 octobre a provoqué une onde de choc - 4 December 2017: Eight suspects have been arrested in Malta over the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, according to Malta's PM - 5 December 2017: Three Maltese men have been charged for the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia
May 2018: 28 May 2018: The family of the murdered Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia have had little chance to mourn her death because of continuing intimidation, threats and lies, according to her son
May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta: 25 May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta
September 2019 concerns over Daphne Caruana Galizia's death inquiry: 21 September 2019: Family of murdered Maltese journalist raise concerns over public inquiry, as Daphne Caruana Galizia’s family request meeting with Maltese PM over concerns about impartiality of panel, calling for greater scrutiny into a lack of accountability for criminal actions and political corruption
October 2019 serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2019: Pieter Omtzigt, a special rapporteur for the Council of Europe, has raised serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, saying 'individual officers may be doing their best, but the approach of the police force as a whole, and of the politicians responsible for it, does not match the prime minister’s promise to leave no stone unturned'
November 2019 Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested in Galizia case: 20 November 2019: Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested onboard his yacht as it was heading out to sea, in an operation linked to the murder of the Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, less than 24 hours after immunity offer from prosecution to an alleged middleman in exchange for information
26 November 2019 Maltese PM's aide and minister quit amid turmoil: 26 November 2019: Maltese PM’s chief of staff and tourism minister resigned in an escalation of the political turmoil surrounding the investigation into the murder of the prominent anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia in 2017
1 December 2019 Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder: 1 December 2019: Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder
12 January 2020 Malta gets new PM Labour leader Robert Abela: 12 January 2020: Malta gets new PM labour leader Robert Abela after Muscat departs over Daphne Caruana Galizia murde amid controversy surrounding investigation of journalist’s death
29 July 2021 Malta responsible for journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia's death, inquiry says: 29 July 2021: A public inquiry into the assassination of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia has found the state responsible for her death, as the report said the state had failed to recognise risks to the reporter's life and take reasonable steps to avoid them, after Caruana Galizia died in a car bomb attack near her home in October 2017
Social movements and protests in Malta: Protests in Malta
October 2017 protests following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017: Journalists, politicians, private citizens, backers and detractors, all were quick to condemn the as-yet unknown perpetrators who murdered Malta's most known journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia - 17 October 2017: People gathered outside the law courts in Valletta this afternoon for a protest demanding justice following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia - 19 October 2017: Malta's journalists held a silent commemoration in Valletta today to mark their sorrow at the murder of blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia and to promise that the savage attack will not intimidate the profession - 22 October 2017: Thousands of Maltese call for justice in a protest held by a group of non-governmental organizations after journalist and anti-corruption blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia was killed last Monday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Malta: Maltese society - Human rights in Malta
Regions, districts and local councils of Malta: Subdivisions of Malta - Regions of Malta - Districts of Malta - Local councils of Malta
Valletta city: Valletta, the capital city of Malta and located in the South Eastern Region, the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938 inhabitants
Demographics of Malta: Demographics of Malta
Culture of Malta: Culture of Malta - Languages of Malta - Maltese language
Women and women's rights in Malta: Women in Malta - Maltese women by occupation
Since 1947 women in Maltese general elections and politics: Women in Maltese general elections, as 15 general elections have been contested since the granting of universal suffrage in Malta in 1947, as only 73 women have contested in these elections and number of men has exceeded 1000, but the number of women contesting general elections has increased over the years - Maltese women in politics
Maltese children: Maltese children
Education in Malta: Education in Malta
Schools in Malta: Schools in Malta - List of schools in Malta
Universities in Malta: Universities in Malta - University of Malta
Health in Malta: Health in Malta
Healthcare in Malta: Healthcare in Malta - List of hospitals in Malta
Media in Malta: Media in Malta
Newspapers in Malta: Newspapers published in Malta - List of newspapers in Malta
Radio and TV in Malta: Radio in Malta - Television in Malta
Internet in Malta: Internet in Malta
Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook 'Running Commentary': Running Commentary website, Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook - Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook's final blog on 16 October 2017
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
November 2017: 22 November 2017: The family of the murdered Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was a relentless critic of corruption in the country, are taking legal action against the police force for allegedly failing to ensure the investigation into her killing is impartial and independent
April 2018: 17 April 2018: The family of the murdered anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia believe that three men awaiting trial for the crime were acting on orders from inside Malta, and have expressed concern that elements within the government may be protecting whoever commissioned the killing
July 2019: 16 July 2019: Three men have been formally charged over the 2017 murder of Maltese anti-corruption journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was killed by a car bomb in November 2017
24 October 2020 children's book tells story of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 24 October 2020: Children's book tells story of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, as her friend Gattaldo recounts her battles against corruption for young readers, saying 'she has left a strong legacy and here in Malta I see it', 'there is a realisation that democracy doesn’t stop with the vote'
Crime in Malta: Crime in Malta
Since classical antiquity slavery in Malta: Slavery in Malta existed and was recognised from classical antiquity until the early modern period, common in many countries around the Mediterranean Sea, as the system reached its apex under Hospitaller rule, when it took on unprecedented proportions, largely to provide galley slaves for the galleys of the Order, as well as other Christian countries
Corruption in Malta: 28 February 2017: Overview of Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Malta by Transparency International
April 2021 Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’: 23 April 2021: Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’, as undercover investigation finds evidence that cash-for-passport practices revealed in Henley & Partners leak continue
Terrorism in Malta: Terrorism in Malta
1977 Murder of Karin Grech: 28 December 1977 Murder of Karin Grech
October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia:: 16 October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia
October 2017 bomb detonated via mobile phone message: 19 December 2017: Bomb was ‘organic explosive’ detonated via mobile phone message, sent from a boat off the island’s coast as part of a carefully planned operation lasting several months
Organized crime in Malta: Organized crime and 'Ndrangheta in Malta
Human trafficking in Malta: Human trafficking in Malta
Law and legal history of Malta: Law of Malta - Human rights in Malta and history
Judiciary of Malta: Judiciary of Malta
Law enforcement in Malta: Law enforcement in Malta - The Malta Police Force
2017 police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder: 17 October 2017: Police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder
Foreign relations of Malta: Foreign relations of Malta
Treaties of Malta: Treaties of Malta
Immigration to Malta: Immigration to Malta - Illegal immigration in Malta - May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck - 11 October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - September 2014 Malta migrant shipwreck - 17 September 2014: About 500 migrants may have been killed when people smugglers rammed their boat bound for Malta, drowning the vast majority of its passengers, including refugees from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Palestine, the IOM says after it debriefed two Palestinian survivors - 19 September 2014: World must vigorously pursue criminal gangs who doomed hundreds of migrants in the Mediterranean, IOM's William Lacy Swing says
Malta and the European Union: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese EU membership referendum: Maltese EU membership referendum March 2003
2013: 13. Oktober 2013: Nach dem Schiffsunglück am 11. Oktober zwischen Malta und Lampedusa sagt Joseph Muscat, Malta fühle sich in der Flüchtlingsproblematik von der EU im Stich gelassen
2017: 20 October 2017: As European parliament's Antonio Tajani says there was broad agreement among the EU27 on the need for some form of international involvement 'to fully clarify an event of unprecedented gravity', Pope Francis sent a rare letter of condolence to Malta following the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, amid calls from her sons for the island’s PM to resign and mounting pressure for an international investigation - 3 novembre 2017: La Commission européenne a demandé aux autorités maltaises de retrouver les 'barbares' qui ont tué la journaliste d'investigation Daphné Caruana Galizia mi-octobre
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU’s justice commissioner Vera Jourová to fly to Malta to meet officers investigating the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia after a damning report accused the authorities of seeking to delay and stall attempts to find those who wanted the journalist dead
Bilateral relations of Malta: Bilateral relations of Malta
Malta/France relations: Malta/France relations
1798-1800 French occupation of Malta: 1798-1800 French occupation of Malta
Malta/Germany relations: Malta/Germany relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
Since January 1941 German intervention: Since January 1941 German intervention
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
2017 sociétés 'boîte aux lettres': 10 mai 2017: Des milliers d'entreprises fictives enregistrées sur l'île de Malta et liées à de grands groupes allemands sont dans le viseur du fisc allemand
Malta/Italy relations: Malta/Italy relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta: June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
Malta/Libya relations: Malta/Libya relations
Malta/Russia relations: Malta/Russia relations
2016: 27 October 2016: Malta will not refuel Russia's 'death fleet' heading to Syria, after online petition to the Maltese government said the people of Malta did not want to be complicit in Russia's war crimes
Malta/Spain relations: Malta/Spain relations
Malta/Tunisia relations: Malte/Tunisia relations
2015: 9 July 2015: As Maltese holidaymakers strike Tunisia off their destination list following the Sousse terrorist attack in June, and British tourists decide to cut their holidays, some have declared in interviews and on social media they were determined to see their holiday through to the end to defy the terrorists
Malta/Turkey relations: Malta/Turkey relations
1565 Great Siege of Malta: 1565 Great Siege of Malta, when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller
Malta/United Kingdom relations: Malta/United Kingdom relations
1690–1967 British Mediterranean Fleet: British Mediterranean Fleet 1690–1967
1798-1800 Siege of Malta: Siege of Malta (1798–1800)
1813-1964 British Malta Colony: British Malta Colony 1813–1964
1964 Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence: Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence 1964
Malta/USA relations: Malta/USA relations
Environment of Malta: Environment of Malta - Natural history of Malta - Geology of Malta
Landforms of Malta: Landforms of Malta
Water in Malta: Water in Malta


Moldova - Geography of Moldova - Principality of Moldavia 1346–1859 - History of Moldova - Independence of Moldova since 1991 - History of independent Moldova - Demographics of Moldova
Economy of Moldova: Economy of Moldova - main industries include sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, shoes, textiles - Companies of Moldova by industry
Telecommunications in Moldova
Agriculture in Moldova: Agriculture in Moldova and food processing account for about 40% of GDP including wine, wheat, corn, barley, tobacco, sugar beet, soybeans, beef and dairy cattle
Moldovan wine: Moldovan wine
Tourism in Moldova: Tourism in Moldova
Banking and banks in Moldova: List of banks in Moldova - Since 1991 National Bank of Moldova
Economic history of Moldova and economic cycles: Economic history of Moldova
2006-2020 macroeconomic situation and development: 2006-2020 Macroeconomic situation, business and economic environment and development
Poverty in Moldova: Poverty in Moldova
Military of Moldova: Military of Moldova
Politics of Moldova: Politics of Moldova
Political parties in Moldova: Political parties in Moldova
Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party': Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party', a liberal pro-EU political party in Moldova, led by the former minister of Education of Moldova Maia Sandu, as the party was constituted on grounds of voluntary association of the citizens
Trade unions in Moldova: Trade unions in Moldova
Elections and politics in Moldova: Elections in Moldova
Moldovan parliamentary election 28 November 2010 - Pro-European Coalition since May 2013
Moldovan presidential election December 2011 – March 2012
November 2014 Moldovan parliamentary election: Moldovan parliamentary election 30 November 2014 - 29 November: Moldovan pro-Kremlin party leader flees to Moscow ahead of parliamentary ballot after court barred pro-Russian party over illegal funding - 30 November: Moldovans cast their ballots - 1 December: With 87.7% of the vote counted early Monday, the pro-Europe parties were ahead with about 44.4%, with 39.5% for the two pro-Russia parties
October 2016 Moldovan presidential election: 30 October 2016 Moldovan presidential election - 30 October 2016: Moldovans elect president for first time in 20 years - 31 October: Moldova presidential election heads to second round
November 2016: 14 November 2016: Igor Dodon becomes president-elect in Moldova getting alleged 52,29% of votes, while Maiya Sandu got 47,71%
December 2018: 14 December 2018: On 24 February 2019 Moldova will elect a new parliament based on a mixed electoral system adopted in July 2017 by the incumbent Democratic Party, led by oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc, and the nominally opposition Party of Socialists controlled by President Igor Dodon, but opposed by all the other major political parties
February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election and referendum: 24 February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election - A two-part referendum will be held in Moldova on 24 February 2019, alongside parliamentary elections, as voters will be asked whether the number of MPs should be reduced from 101 to 61 and whether MPs should be open to recall
June 2019 Pavel Filip called early election: 9 juin 2019: Le nouveau président, Pavel Filip, a dissous le parlement sur fond de crise alors que l'ancien dirigeant pro-russe ne voulait pas un entente entre russes et européens
June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova: June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova, led by Maia Sandu, inaugurated on 8 June 2019 in the middle of the 2019 Moldovan constitutional crisis when the Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional her designation for this position as well as the appointment of the Government of the Republic of Moldova, however on 15 June 2019 the Constitutional Court revised and repealed its previous decisions declaring the Sandu Cabinet to have been constitutionally created, but it was ousted in a motion of no confidence in the Parliament of Moldova on 12 November that same year and subsequently replaced by a government headed by Ion Chicu
September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election: 6 September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election
Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet: Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet led by Ion Chicu and formed two days after the Sandu Cabinet led by Maia Sandu was ousted in a vote of no confidence
November 2020 Moldovan presidential election: 1 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election - 1 novembre 2020: Les Moldaves élisent dimanche leur président sous l’œil attentif de Moscou qui souhaite voir le chef de l’État sortant réélu face aux candidats pro-européens, sur fond d’inquiétude liée aux mouvements de contestation secouant l’espace ex-soviétique
2 November 2020 CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7%: 2 November 2020: Moldova will hold a runoff presidential election after CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7% with nearly all ballots counted, as Sandu was also backed by about 70% of Moldovans who voted abroad
15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round: 15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round, candidate from the Action and Solidarity Party, former PM Maia Sandu, won the elections
20 November 2020 Moldova's president-elect Maia Sandu says Crimea is part of Ukraine: 20 November 2020: Moldova's president-elect, former PM Maia Sandu, says Crimea is part of Ukraine, adding she has repeatedly expressed respect for the territorial integrity of neighbouring country, as Ukrainian president Zelensky has already invited Sandu to visit Ukraine
Social movements and protests in Moldova: Protests in Moldova
1990/1991: Bridge of Flowers
2009: April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests
2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration: November 2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration in Moldova
Education in Moldova: Education in Moldova
Schools in Moldova: Schools in Moldova
Universities and colleges in Moldova: Universities and colleges in Moldova
Health in Moldova: Health in Moldova
Disease outbreaks in Moldova: Disease outbreaks in Moldova
31 October 2020 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova: 31 October 2020: 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova
Hospitals in Moldova: Hospitals in Moldova
Media in Moldova: Moldovan media
Internet in Moldova: Internet in Moldova
Crime in Moldova and Transnistria: Crime in Moldova - Crime in Transnistria
Organized crime in Moldova:
Drugs in Moldova: Drugs in Moldova
Foreign relations of Moldova: Foreign relations of Moldova
Moldova/European Union relations: Moldova/European Union relations
Landforms and ecoregions of Moldova: Landforms of Moldova - Ecoregions of Moldova
Natural disasters in Moldova: Natural disasters in Moldova
Earthquakes in Moldova: Earthquakes in Moldova
Floods in Moldova: Floods in Moldova


Poland - Geography of Poland - History of Poland - Demographics of Poland
Mining disasters in Poland: Mining disasters in Poland
Poverty and income inequality in Poland: Poverty and income inequality in Poland
Welfare in Poland: Welfare in Poland
Budget,debt and taxation in Poland: Budget and debt in Poland - Taxation in Poland
Political parties in Poland: Political parties in Poland
Elections in Poland: Elections in Poland - Präsidentschaftswahl in Polen 2010 - Selbstverwaltungswahlen in Polen 2010
27 January 2020 Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Auschwitz death camp: 27 January 2020: 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz, Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Nazi death camp to honor its over 1.1 million mostly Jewish victims and to share their testimony as a stark warning amid a recent surge of anti-Semitic attacks on both sides of the Atlantic and especially fresh concerns over anti-Semitism in Europe, after war criminal Novichok-Putin, falsely accusing Poland of colluding with German Nazi dictator Hitler and contributing to the outbreak of World War II, spoke in Jerusalem on 23 January, and as Germany since 1961 refuses to rename Nazi general Erwin Rommel barracks in Augustdorf, continuing Nazi propaganda, misleading and indoctrinating young people and generations, as neo-Nazis and AfD since 2015 got stronger in Germany and elsewhere
2016 pro-democracy protests: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting - 23 January: Thousands of Poles marched through Warsaw to protests against their new conservative government's plan to increase its surveillance powers following moves to take more control of the judiciary and the media - 27 February: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters rally for 'free and open Poland' - 11 March: After Polish PM is refused to publish a ruling of the country's Constitutional Tribunal, protesters in favour of the court projected passages from the ruling onto the walls of the prime minister's chancellery on Wednesday night - 12/13 March 2016: Tens of thousands of people took to the streets in the Polish capital Warsaw, in Poznan and Wroclaw against the government's collision course with the country's top court to undermine judicial independence - 7 mai 2016: Plus de 240'000 manifestants à Varsovie souhaitent que la place de la Pologne soit préservée en Europe, montrant du doigt les conservateurs au pouvoir - 5 June: Former presidents lead 50,000 marchers in Warsaw in pro-democracy protests - 13 December 2016: Thousands protest against Law and Justice party threatening to reverse democratic gains made since 1989 - 17 December 2016: Mass protests in Poland over media restrictions
Society, demographics, culture, human rights and religion in Poland: Polish society - Human rights in Poland - Religion in Poland
Economy of Warwaw: Economy of Warsaw
Timeline and history of Warsaw: Timeline of Warsaw - History of Warsaw
Economy of Kraków: Economy of Kraków
Timeline of Kraków: Timeline of Kraków
Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland: Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland
1918-1939 Second Polish Republic: 1918-1939 Second Polish Republic
Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków: Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków
1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue: 1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue
6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of ill prepared Poland after French and British pressure not to mobilize: 6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of Poland, fought between the armies of Poland and Nazi Germany in World War II, after reason for Poland's late and insufficient mobilization was pressure from the French and the British not to mobilize, and as since 29 August 1939, when the Poles re—started the mobilization against advice from Paris and London, it was too late - Since 1938 'Western betrayal' (and earlier) concerning the fact that France, the United Kingdom, and sometimes the USA failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military, and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish states during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II, also sometimes referring to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European states at the time, enabling World War II that lasted from 1939 to 1945, the Holocaust by Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe, and the August 1945 atomic bombings forcing Japanese war criminals to surrender
Economy of Gdansk: Economy of Gdansk
Timeline and history of Gdansk: Timeline of Gdansk - History of Gdansk
Wroclaw city: Wroclaw city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia, located on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south, as the official population of Wroclaw in 2020 was 643,782, with a further 1.25 million residing in the metropolitan area - History of Wroclaw that has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship, after the history of the city started at a crossroads in Lower Silesia, becoming one of the centres of the Duchy and then Kingdom of Poland, and briefly, in the first half of the 13th century, the centre of half of the divided Kingdom of Poland, as its historical affiliations since AD 800 include Duchy of Poland 985–1025, Kingdom of Poland 1025–1038, Duchy of Bohemia 1038–1054, Kingdom of Poland 1054–ca. 1325, Duchy of Silesia 1202–1335, Kingdom of Bohemia 1335–1469, Kingdom of Hungary 1469–1490, Kingdom of Bohemia 1490–1526/1742, Habsburg Monarchy 1526–1742, Kingdom of Prussia 1742–1871, German Empire 1871–1918, Weimar Germany 1918–1933, NSDAP ruled Germany 1933–1945, People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989 and Republic of Poland 1989–present
Timeline of Wroclaw: Timeline of Wroclaw
Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology: Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction: Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
Demographics, demographic history and ethnic groups in Poland: Demographics of Poland - Demographic history of Poland
Belarusian minority in Poland: Belarusian minority in Poland
German minority in Poland: German minority in Poland
Ukrainians in Poland: Ukrainians in Poland
Schools in Poland: Schools in Poland
Museums in Poland: Museums in Poland
World War II museums in Poland: World War II museums in Poland
Health in Poland: Health in Poland
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Poland: Medical outbreaks in Poland - Disasters and man-made disasters in Poland
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland
Coal and environment of Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Newspapers in Poland: List of newspapers in Poland
Broadcasting in Poland: Broadcasting in Poland
Internet in Poland: Internet in Poland
Cinema of Poland: Cinema of Poland
Lists of Polish films by decade: Lists of Polish films by decade
Roman Catholic church sex abuse cases in Poland: Roman Catholic chruch sex abuse cases in Poland
Crime in Poland: Crime in Poland
Since 1939 German invasion and World War II crimes in Poland: Since 1939 German invasion, occupation and World War II crimes in Poland
2002-2004 Orlengate: 2002-2004 Orlengate
2006/2007: Oleksy tapes
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Poland: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
Human trafficking in Poland: Human trafficking in Poland
Judiciary and courts of Poland: Judiciary of Poland - Regional Courts
Law enforcement in Poland: Law enforcement in Poland
Foreign relations of Poland: Foreign relations of Poland
Treaties of Poland: Treaties of Poland
Poland's membership international organisations: Poland's membership international organisations
Poland/United Nations relations, membership since 1945: Poland's ambassadors to the United Nations
2013 UN Climate Change Conference in Warsaw: 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 11 November 2013: Poland, a top EU polluter, hosts UN climate summit aiming to map out the main points of an ambitious global agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to be signed 2015 - 14 November: November 'Coal summit' in Warsaw stokes trouble at UN climate talks - 20 November 2013: Polish environment minister sacked as he chairs UN climate talks - 21 November: The second-last day of the global climate change conference in Warsaw has seen 800 NGO delegates walk out of the talks over a lack of progress - 24 November 2013: At the UN climate talks in Warsaw, rich and poor nations agree to commit to the reduction of greenhouse gases, waiting for a final deal in Paris in 2015
Since 1991 Poland member of the Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Poland and the European Union, since 2004 membership: Poland and the European Union
Since 2015 reactions to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 EU and international reaction to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis
July 2017 efforts to reverse curbs on judicial freedom: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
Bilateral relations of Poland: Bilateral relations of Poland
Poland/Austria relations: Poland/Austria relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
Poland/Belarus relations: Poland/Belarus relations
Poland/Brazil relations: Poland/Brazil relations
1978 Poland's extradition request for war criminal Wagner rejected: Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Poland/Czech Republic relations: Poland/Czech Republic relations
Poland/Denmark relations: Poland/Denmark relations
Poland/France relations: Poland/France relations
Poland/Germany relations: Poland/Germany relations
Since 1772 Prussian Partition: Since 1772 Prussian Partition
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2018: 1 February 2018: Israel condemns passing of Polish Holocaust law, as politicians and Yad Vashem voice outrage - 1 February 2018: Yad Vashem criticized the Polish Senate’s approval of a contentious Polish Holocaust bill that would outlaw blaming the Polish state or nation for crimes of the Holocaust committed in Poland and vowed to continue supporting research into the 'Polish population’s attitudes toward Jews during the Holocaust' - 8 February 2018: Holocaust survivors entered the Polish embassy compound in Tel Aviv protesting the Polish complicity bill - 10 February 2018: Adviser Andrzej Zybertowicz to Poland's president says that Israel's reaction to a law criminalizing some statements about Poland's actions during World War II stems from a 'feeling of shame at the passivity of the Jews during the Holocaust', in a new version of victim blaming - 18 February 2018: Netanyahu slams Holocaust remark by Polish PM in Munich, who said - questioned by journalist Ronen Bergman who told of his mother's narrow escape from the Gestapo in Poland after learning that neighbours were planning to denounce them - that the Holocaust had involved 'Jewish perpetrators' as well as Polish, as the audience at the Munich Security Conference stayed quiet, according to Haaretz correspondent Noa Landau
Poland/Lebanon relations: 10 May 2005: Relations between Lebanon and Poland
Poland/Russia relations: Poland/Russia relations
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
Poland/Syria relations:
Poland/United Kingdom relations: Poland/United Kingdom relations
Poland/USA relations: Poland/USA relations
Poland/Vietnam relations: Poland/Vietnam relations since 1950
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Poland: Environmentalism in Poland
Coal and the environment in Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Water in Poland: Water in Poland


Portugal - Geography of Portugal - History of Portugal - Portuguese Empire (from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999) - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 - Demographics of Portugal
Energy in Portugal: Energy in Portugal
Hydroelectric power stations in Portugal: List of hydroelectric power stations in Portugal
Wind power in Portugal: Wind power in Portugal
Portuguese wine: Portuguese wine
Fishing in Portugal: Fishing in Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Transport in Portugal: Transport in Portugal
Rail transport in Portugal: Rail transport in Portugal
Road transport in Portugal: Road transport in Portugal
Banking in Portugal: Banking in Portugal
Economic history of Portugal and economic cycles: Since 20th century economic history of Portugal
2010–14 Portuguese financial and economic crisis (ongoing): European sovereign debt crisis (2010-present) - 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal: 2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal
Military coups in Portugal: Military coups in Portugal
Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side: Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side
Political parties in Portugal: Political parties in Portugal
Trade unions in Portugal: Trade unions in Portugal
Elections in Portugal since the 1974 'Carnation Revolution': Elections in Portugal since the 'Carnation Revolution' of 1974
April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election: 25 April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election
October 2017 Portuguese local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal
September 2019 Madeiran regional election: 22 September 2019 Madeiran regional election
2023 next Portuguese legislative election: On or before 8 October 2023 next Portuguese legislative election
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Portugal: Protests in Portugal
2013: 17 February 2013: Thousands of protesters rallied in Portugal against austerity measures imposed on the country by its international creditors - 2 February 2013: Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese demonstrate in Lisbon and other cities demanding an end to austerity measures dictated by an international bailout and for the centre-right government to resign - 27 juin 2013: Une grève générale de 24 heures à l'appel des deux principaux syndicats du pays contre la politique d'austérité draconienne paralyse le Portugal - 19 octobre: Des dizaines de milliers de manifestants se sont mobilisés au Portugal et en Italie contre les nouvelles mesures d'austérité annoncées par leur gouvernement respectif - 26 October: Thousands of demonstrators protested in Portugal against salary cuts and public sector reforms - 1 novembre: Plusieurs milliers de Portugais manifestent devant le Parlement pour protester contre les coupes sévères dans les dépenses publiques prévues par le budget 2014 - 21 novembre: Des milliers de policiers, gendarmes et autres fonctionnaires des forces de l'ordre manifestent contre l'austérité
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Portugal: Portuguese society - Human rights in Portugal
November 1755 Lisbon earthquake: 1 November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
October 2017 local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal: Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal
Immigration to Portugal: Immigration to Portugal
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Portugal: Culture of Portugal
Women and women's rights in Portugal: Women in Portugal
Children and youth in Portugal: Childhood in Portugal - Youth in Portugal
Education in Portugal: Education in Portugal
Schools in Portugal: List of schools in Portugal
Colleges and universities in Portugal: List of universities and colleges in Portugal
Health in Portugal: Health in Portugal
Health disasters in Portugal: Health disasters in Portugal
Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments: Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments
Newspapers in Portugal: Newspapers in Portugal
Broadcasting in Portugal: Broadcasting in Portugal
Internet in Portugal: Internet in Portugal
Crime in Portugal: Crime in Portugal
Racism in Portugal: Racism in Portugal
Antisemitism in Portugal: Antisemitism in Portugal
History of the conversos since 15th century: History of the conversos since 15th century
Corruption in Portugal: Corruption in Portugal
Police corruption in Portugal: Police corruption in Portugal
Terrorism in Portugal: Terrorism in Portugal
Human trafficking in Portugal: Human trafficking in Portugal
Since 1982 Constitutional Court: Constitutional Court Portugal since 1982
Judiciary and courts of Portugal: Judiciary of Portugal - Courts in Portugal
Law enforcement agencies of Portugal and Polícia de Segurança Pública: Law enforcement in Portugal - Law enforcement agencies of Portugal - Polícia de Segurança Pública
Foreign relations of Portugal: Foreign relations of Portugal
Portugal/Africa relations: Portugal/Africa relations
Portugal and the United Nations: Portugal and the United Nations
10 November 1975 Portugal and UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly - Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Since 1986 Portugal and the European Union: Portugal and the European Union, membership since 1986/1993
Treaties of Portugal: Treaties of Portugal
Bilateral relations of Portugal: Bilateral relations of Portugal
Portugal/Angola relations: Portugal/Angola relations
Portugal/Benin relations:
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
1815-1825 'United Kingdom' of Portugal and Brazil: 1815-1825 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Portugal/Equatorial Guinea relations:
Portugal/Germany relations: Portugal/Germany relations
Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations: Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations
Since the 15the century Portuguese slave trade: Since the 15the century Portuguese era of the slave trade
1963-1974 Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence: Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence 1963-1974
Portugal/Hungary relations:
1560-1812 Goa Inquisition: Goa Inquisition 1560-1812
Portugal/Israel relations: Portugal/Israel relations
Portugal/Luxembourg relations: Portugal/Luxembourg relations
Portugal/Mozambique relations: Portugal/Mozambique relations
Portugal/East Timor relations: Portugal/East Timor relations
Portugal/Vatican relations: Portugal/Vatican relations
Ecoregions in Portugal: List of ecoregions in Portugal
Forests in Portugal: Forests of Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Heatwaves and wildfires in Portugal: Wildfires in Portugal
Floods and landslides in Portugal: Landslides in Portugal
Earthquakes in Portugal: Earthquakes in Portugal


Romania - Geography of Romania - History of Romania - Demographics of Romania
Arms industry in Romania: Arms industry in Romania
Mining industry of Romania: Mining industry of Romania
Forestry and forests in Romania: Forestry in Romania - Forests of Romania
Water supply and sanitation in Romania: Water supply and sanitation in Romania
Foreign trade of Romania: Foreign trade of Romania
Banking in Romania: List of banks in Romania
2002-2007 Romanian property bubble: 2002-2007 Romanian property bubble
Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe: Great Recession in Europe since 2007 and Romania
2007-2017 growth and economic cycles in Romania: Growth and economic cycles in Romania 2007-2017
Wealth in Romania: Wealth in Romania
Taxation in Romania: Taxation in Romania
Budget of Romania: Budget of Romania 2013
Political parties in Romania: Political parties in Romania
Trade unions in Romania: Trade unions in Romania
Elections and politics in Romania: Elections in Romania
2015: 9 June 2015: Romanian parliament blocks investigation into forgery, money-laundering, tax evasion and conflict of interest in connection with PM Victor Ponta - 13 July 2015: Romanian prosecutors charged PM Victor Ponta as part of a corruption probe, piling more pressure on the embattled politician to resign - 22 July: Romania’s president has signed into law legislation that punishes Holocaust denial and the promotion of the fascist Legionnaires’ Movement with prison sentences of up to three years - 18 September: Victor Ponta indicted on charges of forgery, money laundering as part of corruption sweep, mainly concerning his time as a lawyer prior to taking office - 29 September: Thousands protest as Romanian PM Ponta withstands no-confidence vote - 4 November: Romanian PM and government resign after protests - 16 November: Prime minister-designate Dacian Ciolos has named a government, tapping European Union experts as well as private and non-profit sectors leaders to steer the country until elections next year
May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania
24 November 2019 Romanian presidential election runoff: 10 November 2019 Romanian presidential election second round
Social movements and protests in Romania: Protests in Romania
2012–14 Romanian social unrest: 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas - 2012–14 Romanian social unrest
2015: 2015 Romanian protests - 2 November 2015: Thousands of people marched through Bucharest to commemorate the victims after a Romanian club fire death toll was raising to 30, which also left nearly 200 injured during a rock concert that featured the use of fireworks indoors - 4 November: Tens of thousands of Romanians are marching against government corruption, angry that licences are given for businesses which do not pass necessary health and safety tests - 6 November: Massive anti-corruption rallies continued in Bucharest's University square for the third night, calling for the reform of the political class and public administration which are widely seen as corrupt - 9 November: Anti-corruption protests continue in Romania, calling for change amid the political class, as fire death toll rises
2017 Romanian protests: 2017 Romanian protests - in January 2017, days after the PSD government was sworn in, massive protests took place throughout Romania against the government ordinance bills that were proposed by the Ministry of Justice regarding the pardoning of certain committed crimes, and the amendment of the Penal Code, especially regarding the abuse of power - 2 February 2017: Protesters have clashed with police in Bucharest after hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets in cities across Romania in anger at the government’s decriminalising of a string of corruption offences - 4 février 2017: La crise se poursuit, les manifestations aussi - 6 February 2017: An estimated half a million Romanians have continued to protest against the government, with many calling on it to quit even after it scrapped the corruption legislation that sparked a week of public outrage - 12 February 2017: Among the of placards of mass anti-government protests in Romania many read 'Hands off DNA', Romania’s national anti-corruption directorate founded in 2003 and at the forefront of the country’s fight against official misconduct - 13 February 2017: Tens of thousands gathered in Bucharest to call for the government to stand down, despite resignation of justice minister
August 2018 Romanian protests: August 2018 Romanian protests - 11 August 2018: Tens of thousands of people took part in in Friday's protest in Bucharest and several other Romanian cities against corruption and low wages, as more than 400 people were injured by police using tear gas, pepper spray and water cannons, as several police officers were also hurt, as president Iohannis 'firmly condemn(ed) riot police's brutal intervention, strongly disproportionate to the actions of the majority of people', and as video footage posted on social media show police beating non-violent protesters holding their hands up - 12 August 2018: Tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered in the Romanian capital Bucharest returning to the streets without fear in a huge anti-corruption protest on Saturday, 24 hours after more than 450 people were hurt, many needing treatment, and about 30 arrested - 12 août 2018: Des milliers de Roumains se sont rassemblés pour le troisième soir consécutif à Bucarest et dans d'autres villes de Roumanie et ont demandé la démission de Viorica Sancila et dénoncé la corruption au sein du gouvernement social-démocrate
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Romania: Romanian society - Human rights in Romania
Cities, towns and metropolitan areas in Romania: List of cities and towns in Romania - Metropolitan areas in Romania
Timeline of Bucharest since the late Middle Ages: Timeline of Bucharest shown since the late Middle Ages
Demographics, ethnic groups and minorities of Romania: Demographics of Romania - Ethnic groups in Romania - Minorities of Romania
Immigration to Romania: Immigration to Romania
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Romania: Culture of Romania
Universities in Romania: List of universities in Romania
Health in Romania: Health in Romania
Healthcare in Romania: Healthcare in Romania
Medical and health organizations based in Romania: Medical and health organizations based in Romania - Medical education in Romania
Hospitals in Romania: List of hospitals in Romania
Newspapers in Romania: Newspapers published in Romania
Broadcasting in Romania: Broadcasting in Romania
Internet in Romania: Internet in Romania
Crime in Romania: Crime in Romania
Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania: Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania
Law enforcement and Romanian Police: Law enforcement in Romania - Romanian Police
Foreign relations of Romania: Foreign relations of Romania
Treaties of Romania: Treaties of Romania
Romanian membership in international organsisations and the EU: Romanian membership in international organsisations and in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Romania: Bilateral relations of Romania
Romania/Bulgaria relations: Romania/Bulgaria relations
Romania/Canada relations: Romania/Canada relations
Romania/Canada trade relations: Romania/Canada trade relations
Romania/Germany relations: Romania/Germany relations
Romania/Hungary relations: Romania/Hungary relations
Romania/Israel relations: Romania/Israel relations
Romanian Jews in Israel: Romanian Jews in Israel
Romania/Turkey relations: Romania/Turkey relations
Romania/United Kingdom relations: Romania/United Kingdom relations
Forests in Romania: Forests of Romania
Water in Romania and Black Sea: Water in Romania - Bodies of water of Romania - Black Sea
Natural disasters in Romania: Natural disasters in Romania


Russia - History of Russia - History of Russia since 1992
Geography, demographics and ethnic groups of Russia: Geography of Russia - Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
Manufacturing companies of Russia: Manufacturing companies of Russia
Automotive industry in Russia: Automotive industry in Russia
Military-Industrial Commission of Russia: Military-Industrial Commission of Russia
Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records: Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
Coal mining disasters in Russia: Coal mining disasters in Russia
Environmental impact of the coal industry: Environmental impact of the coal industry
Oil and gas industry in Russia:
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September 2013: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace holds global protests calling for Russia's release of 30 Greenpeace activists after being jailed for protests against Arctic oil drilling - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 23 octobre: Réduction des charges retenues contre les écologistes Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme' - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention
Safety at work in Russia: Safety at work in Russia
February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow: February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow
February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow: February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow
August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident: August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia
July 2015 Omsk building collapse: July 2015 Omsk building collapse
April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan: April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan
Bridge disasters in Russia: Bridge disasters in Russia
September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse: September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse
Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia: Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia
Maritime incidents in Russia: Maritime incidents in Russia
Railway accidents and incidents in Russia: Railway accidents and incidents in Russia
Road incidents in Russia: Road incidents in Russia
Siberian agriculture: Siberian agriculture
Water and irrigation in Russia: Water in Russia - Bodies of water of Russia - Rivers of Russia
Fishing industry in Russia: Fishing industry in Russia
Transport in Russia: Transport in Russia
Railway accidents in Russia: Railway accidents in Russia
Road transport in Russia: Road transport in Russia
Water transport in Russia: Water transport in Russia
Foreign trade of Russia: Foreign trade of Russia
Russian arms exports: Russian arms exports
Banking in Russia and financial services: Banking in Russia - List of banks in Russia - Central Bank of Russia
Economic history of the Russian Federation since 1991 and economic cycles: Economic history of the Russian Federation since 1991
1998 Russian financial crisis: 1998 Russian financial crisis
2008-2009 Russian financial crisis, recession and unemployment: 2008-2009 Russian financial crisis - Great Recession in Russia
December 2014 crumbling ruble and GDP growth forecast cut: 2 December: Crumbling ruble, which has been badly buffeted by a plunge of almost 40% in oil prices, prompts central bank action - 2 December: Economics ministry cuts its GDP growth forecast of 1.2% in 2015 to a 0.8% fall amid financial fallout over Ukraine and lower oil prices - 11 December: Russia’s central bank failed to stem a further dramatic fall in the rouble on Thursday despite raising the headline interest rate to 10.5% - 15 December: Russian central bank raises interest rate to 17% to prevent rouble’s collapse - 17 December: Russia’s financial turmoil shows little sign of easing as the rouble continues to fluctuate against major currencies in volatile trading - 29 December: Russian recession fears as economy shrinks for first time in five years
Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic: Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Russia and regime's measures
Privatization, Russian oligarchs and billionaires: Privatization in Russia - Russian oligarchs - Russian billionaires
Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria and Ukraine: Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria
Military equipment and weapons of Russia: Military equipment of Russia - Weapons of Russia
October 2019 new Russian submarine intercontinental missile: 30 October 2019: New Russian submarine test fires intercontinental missile for first time
Russian regime's military exercises: Russian regime's military exercises
List of Russian military accidents: List of Russian military accidents since 1990s
2008 submarine K-152 Nerpa accident: 2008 Russian submarine K-152 Nerpa accident
September 2013 nuclear submarine fire: 16 September 2013: Russian nuclear submarine catches fire
25 October 2019 soldier killed eight other soldiers:
: 25 October 2019: A Russian soldier on Friday opened fire on fellow troops at a Siberian military base, killing eight and wounding another two, officials said
War resisters in Russia:
Russia and weapons of mass destruction: Russia and weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union and Russia: Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union - Nuclear missiles of Russia
Nuclear weapons test sites of the Soviet Union and Russia:
Intercontinental ballistic, nuclear and guided missiles of Russia: Intercontinental ballistic missiles of Russia - Nuclear missiles of Russia - Guided missiles of Russia
Military budget of Russia: Military budget in Russia - 20. Februar 2012: Putins Wahlprogramm der Aufrüstung Rußlands mit 575 Mrd. Euro in den kommenden 10 Jahren - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen weltweiter Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - mit einem Anstieg um 580 Prozent steigerte vor allem Syrien die Waffenimporte seit dem Jahr 2002 deutlich - 17. April: Rußland und China erhöhen ihre Militärausgaben auch 2011 kräftig - 31 July: Putin announces that a total of 51 surface warships and 24 submarines, including 16 nuclear submarines, will enter into service in the Russian Navy by 2020 - 12. August 2012: Russland will sein Militär u.a. mit 1600 neuen Flugzeugen und Helikoptern aufrüsten - 14 April 2014: Russian defence spending rises by 4.8% to $88bn, devoting larger share of GDP on military than USA for first time since 2003 - 15 December 2014: Russian arms sales soar on domestic spending
Federal budget of Russia: Federal budget of Russia
Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation: Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation
Ministry of Internal Affairs in Russia: Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation
Russian internal troops, Intelligence Community, Federal Security Service FSB, law enforcement agencies, repression and corruption: Russian Intelligence Community - Security Council of Russia
FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing: FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing
Penal system in Russia and Federal Penitentiary Service: Penal system in Russia - Federal Penitentiary Service - Prisons in Russia - Corrective labor colony
Torture in Russia: Torture in Russia
Police brutality in Russia: Police brutality in Russia
Crime in Russia: Crime in Russia
Nationalism and racism in Russia: Russian nationalism - Racism in Russia
Antisemitism in the Russian empire since the 18th century: Antisemitism in the Russian Empire
Since 1904: 1904/1 February 2000: According to the Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine the anti-Semitic pamphlet 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion' 1904 were concocted by Russian propagandist Mathieu Golovinski as part of a monarchist scheme to persuade Czar Nicholas II that the capitalist modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot - 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' ordered to be studied in German classrooms by the Nazi Party since 1933 - 'Jewish Bolshevism' is part of the Jewish World Conspiracy theory that Jews control the world - Contemporary Middle East imprints of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' - many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols and taught them in their schools as historical fact - The Charter of the Hamas, issued on 18 August 1988, explicitly refers to 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'
Antisemitism in the Russian Federation since 1991: Antisemitism in the Russian Federation
Notable hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia: Hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia
Religion and freedom of religion in Russia: Religion in Russia - Freedom of religion in Russia
Since 2013 amended blasphemy law in Russia: Blasphemy and blasphemy law in Russia
Legal history and law of Russia: Legal history of Russia - Law of Russia
Repression and political crime in Russia: Repression, political crime and killed journalists in Russia
16 November 2009 Death of Sergei Magnitsky: Death of attorney Sergei Magnitsky in Polonium-Putin's custody 16 November 2009 - 9. April: Das Verfahren gegen eine Gefängnisärztin wegen des Todes des prominenten russischen Anwalts und Menschenrechtsaktivisten Sergej Magnitski in Untersuchungshaft vor mehr als zwei Jahren wird in Moskau wegen Verjährung eingestellt - 28 December: A Moscow court acquitts prison doctor Kratov charged with the death of lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after his pancreatitis went untreated - an investigation by Russia's presidential council on human rights had concluded he was severely beaten and denied medical treatment - 28 January 2013: A Russian court has opened the posthumous fraud trial against Sergei Magnitsky, a lawyer who died in prison in 2009 after accusing state officials of a multimillion-dollar tax scam - 11 March 2013: 'Trial' of dead lawyer Sergei Magnitsky to begin in Russia - relatives say it's inhuman to try a dead man and the trial is revenge by the Kremlin - 22 March: Russia court begins proceedings against deceased lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after an alleged beating - 11 July 2013: In 'one of the most shameful moments for Russia since the days of Joseph Stalin', tortured and severely beaten Sergei Magnitsky posthumously found guilty of fraud by a Moscow court after his violent death in custody - 22 March 2017: Russian lawyer Nikolai Gorokhov who represents the family of Sergei Magnitsky is in intensive care after falling from the fourth floor of his apartment building, according to unconfirmed reports
27 octobre: Accusée à tort de terrorisme, la Tchétchène Zara Mourtazalieva a vécu près d’une décennie dans une colonie pénitentiaire de Mordovie - 24 November: UN report voices concern at Moscow's failure to investigate widespread allegations of torture
February 2015 Murder of Boris Nemtsov: 27 February 2015 murder of Boris Nemtsov in Moscow - 28 February 2015: Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov reportedly shot four times in the back by a killer in a passing car in the centre of Moscow two days before Nemtsov was due to lead a major opposition rally in Moscow - 28 February: Politicians worldwide condemn the assassination of Boris Nemtsov, pressing the Russian regime to ensure that the killing is thoroughly investigated, as Boris Nemtsov allies fear killers of Russian politician will escape justice - 2 March: Immediately after murder, Russian investigators removed all evidence of Russian troops in Ukraine from Nemtsov apartment - 2 March: Nemtsov's Ukrainian companion Anna Duritskaya says being held against her will after murder - 3 March: Foreign officials barred from attending Boris Nemtsov funeral - 8 March: Zaur Dadayev, one of the men detained on suspicion of killing Boris Nemtsov, reportedly served nearly a decade in a police unit in the Russian region of Chechnya - 10 March 2015: Boris Nemtsov's friend Ilya Yashin rejects regime's allegation, as Russia's Putin this week awards Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov a medal for 'professional achievements, public activities', and as this Ramzan Kadyrov praises Chechen Zaur Dadayev publicly to be 'a true patriot of Russia', who is now charged by Russian authorities with the murder of Boris Nemtsov - 11 March: Former law enforcement officer Dadayev charged with involvement in the murder of opposition leader Boris Nemtsov has claimed that he was forced to confess to the killing, monitoring group that visited Dadayev and two other suspects in jail allegedly found evidence that the confession had been forced - 12 March: Zhanna Nemtsova, the daughter of assassinated Boris Nemtsov, says Vladimir Putin must bear responsibility for his death - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May 2015: Russian State Duma committee refuses to investigate Nemtsov's murder
Terrorism in Russia: Terrorism in Russia
1 January 1918 Saint Petersburg assassination attempt on Lenin: 1 January 1918: As Lenin's car drove away from Mikhailovsky Manège, a group of terrorists - among them the best sharpshooters in the former Russian Army - who were hiding in ambush in the next lane began shooting, shattering the car's windshield where Lenin was sitting in the back seat with Fritz Platten, but 'Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down (and) Platten’s hand was' met and wounded - 1 January 1918: After his 'Speech at the send-off of the socialist army’s first troop tains' in Saint Petersburg's Mikhailovsky Manège, an assassination attempt was made on Lenin returning to the Smolny, when a bullet went through the car's windscreen and passed over his head, and the Swiss Communist Fritz Platten, who was with Lenin, was wounded
Society, demographics, culture and languages in Russia: Russian society
History and timeline of Arkhangelsk: History and timeline of Arkhangelsk
Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages: Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages


Timeline of Saint Petersburg: Timeline of Saint Petersburg
Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences: Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences
1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed: 12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed
1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre: Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre
Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School for gifted children: Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School, the first art school for gifted children
1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad: 1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad
Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad: Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad




Kursk Oblast comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities: Administrative divisions of Kursk Oblast, comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities
Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast: Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast
Economy and infrastructure of Kursk: Economy and infrastructure of Kursk
1943 'Battle of Kursk' blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter: 1941-1943 during Axis powers' World War II Kursk was occupied by NSDASP and SS Germany between 4 November 1941 – 8 November 1943, as in July 1943 the Germans launched 'Operation Citadel' in an attempt to recapture Kursk, as during the resulting 'Battle of Kursk', the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement between Soviet and German forces, which is widely considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history, and as Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union and the final stage, blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter - Soviet army's resistance and defense campaign was a strategic Soviet success, as for the first time, a major German offensive had been stopped before achieving a breakthrough, despite German empire was using more technologically advanced armour than in previous years, yet unable to break through the in-depth Soviet defences, caught off guard by the significant operational reserves of the Red Army, as this result changed the pattern of operations on the Eastern Front, with the Soviet Union gaining the operational initiative, but the Soviet victory was costly, with the Red Army losing considerably more men and materiel than the German Army, finally enforcing the Soviet Union's larger industrial potential and pool of manpower, as Nazi 'Blitzkrieg' general Guderian wrote 'with the failure of Zitadelle we have suffered a decisive defeat', long before 1944 'Operation Overlord' against NSDAP Germany and the Italian puppet 'Social Republic', (established by Kesselring's, Rommel's, von Rundstedt's, von Weichs' and Löhr's 'Operation Achse')
Since 1944 T-34 tank as a war memorial in Kursk: Since 1944 as a war memorial in Kursk T-34 tank, a Soviet medium tank introduced in 1940, famously deployed with the Red Army during World War II against NSDAP-ruled German empire's brutal aggression since June 1941 with 'Blitzkrieg' operations, sieges, use of starvation as weapon against millions of humans, deportations, mass murder, as T-34 tanks since 1941/42 were mainly produced in Chelyabinsk (called 'Tank City', where work force increased to 60,000 workers by 1944, from 25,000 during non-military production, and as workers and machinery from Leningrad's Voroshilov Tank Factory were incorporated into the Ural Factory), and as - after the industrial complex surrounding the Dzerzhinsky Tractor Factory in Stalingrad continued to work double shifts throughout the period of Soviet withdrawal (September 1941 - September 1942) to make up for production lost and produced 40% of all T-34s during this period - the factory became surrounded by heavy fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942/43 with desperate: manufacturing innovations necessitated by material shortages, with unpainted T-34 tanks driven out of the factory directly to the battlefields around it, so that Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942 despite Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' - German empire's 'Panzer IV' 1939-1945 produced by Krupp, Vomag and 'Nibelungenwerk', later in Syria until 'Six-Day War', then ruled by Ba'th regime - Vomags (Vogtländische Maschinenfabrik), Geschäft mit dem Krieg seit 1914 und innerhalb von 4 Jahren einer der größten Rüstungsproduzenten der Armee des kaiserlichen Deutschen Reiches, und seit 1939-1945 profitmachender Rüstungsbetrieb des NSDAP berrschten 'Dritten Reiches', zu einem 'Musterbetrieb' deutscher Rüstung aufgestiegen, der von 1944-1945 in Mehltheuer in einem Außenlager des KZ Flossenbürg hunderte von weiblichen Häftlinge Zwangsarbeit für die Vomag - deren Produkte bedient und befehligt von skupellosen Verbrechern im Dienste größenwahnsinniger Politiker incl. Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres seit 1944 Heinz Guderian und GFM Erwin Rommel ihre Familien vernichten halfen - verrichten ließ - 1914-1945 armaments products produced for profit in 'Krupp Industries', employing workers conscripted by the NSDAP, SS and Gestapo regime from across Europe - Since 1864 rifle manufacturer and WWII armament poducer's 'Nibelungenwerk' (Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG) armament products produced for profit in Upper Austria - 1940s Tiger German heavy tanks of World War II that operated beginning in 1942 in Africa, in the Soviet Union and in France, usually in independent heavy tank battalions - Since 1935, Henschel began manufacturing Panzer I tanks produced for profit - also responsible for license production of the Dornier Do 17Z medium bomber -, as during World War II since 1939 it began large-scale production of the Panzer III, becoming the sole manufacturer of the Tiger I - and alongside Porsche the Tiger II - and as in 1945 the company had 8,000 workers working in two shifts each of 12 hours, and forced labour was used extensively


Economy of Moscow: Economy of Moscow
Timeline of Moscow: Timeline of Moscow since 1147
Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway: Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway
Since 1 January 1918 assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin: Since 1 January 1918 several assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin
30 August 1918 assassination attempt on Lenin that killed him in 1924: 30 August 1918 Russian revolutionary politician Vladimir Lenin spoke at an arms factory in southern Moscow, but before he had entered his car to leave Fanny Kaplan called out to him and fired three shots with a Browning pistol as one passed through his neck, punctured part of his left lung and stopped near his right collarbone, and the other lodging in his left shoulder, then Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin refusing to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention, the doctors were brought in to treat him but could not remove the bullets outside a hospital, as despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived, but his health never fully recovered from the attack and it is believed the shooting contributed to the strokes that incapacitated and eventually killed him in 1924
October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis: October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
February/August 2004 Moscow Metro bombings: February 2004 Moscow Metro bombing - August 2004 Moscow Metro bombing
March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings: March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings


Landforms and rivers of Ryazan Oblast: Landforms of Ryazan Oblast - Meshchera Lowlands - Rivers of Ryazan Oblast
Politics of Ryazan Oblast: Politics of Ryazan Oblast
History and timeline of Ryazan Oblast: History of Ryazan Oblast
Timeline of Rostov-on-Don: Timeline of Rostov-on-Don
Timeline of Volgograd: Timeline of Volgograd
Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad: Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad
Timeline of Omsk since 18th century: Timeline of Omsk since 18th century
Timeline and history of Tomsk since 17th century: History and timeline of Tomsk since 17th century
Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Since 8th century timeline of Khabarovsk: History and timeline of Khabarovsk, founded in the 8th century
Timeline of Vladivostok: Timeline of Vladivostok
Demographics and ethnic groups in Russia:Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
History of ethnic groups in Russia: History of ethnic groups in Russia
Since 1996 Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia: Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia since 1996
Literature in Russia: Literature in Russia
History of literature in Russia: History of literature in Russia
Women in Russia: Women in Russia
Gender pay gap in Russia: Gender pay gap in Russia
Domestic violence in Russia: Domestic violence in Russia
Women's rights in Russia: Women's rights in Russia
Children and youth in Russia: Childhood in Russia - Youth in Russia
Orphans in Russia: Orphans in Russia
Schools in Russia: Schools in Russia
Universities and colleges in Russia: Universities and colleges in Russia
Science and technology in Russia: Science and technology in Russia
Libraries and archives in Russia: Libraries in Russia - Archives in Russia
Health in Russia: Health in Russia
Medical outbreaks, health disasters and crimes in Russia: Health disasters in Russia - Medical outbreaks in Russia - Man-made disasters in Russia
Since 17th century documented famines in Russia: Since 17th century documented famines in Russia - Russian famine of 1601–03
Major health issues in Russia: Major health issues in Russia
Drugs in Russia: Drugs in Russia
Doping in Russia: Doping in Russia - Doping in sport
July 2016: 13 July 2016: In the Russian regime's inverted world, athlete Darya Klishina branded a 'traitor' after she agreed to compete under a neutral flag at next month’s Olympics thanking the IAAF for allowing her to compete - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 19 July 2016: Several former Olympians who now serve on the International Olympic Committee’s athletes’ commission have warned of catastrophic consequences if the organisation does not ban Russia completely from the Rio Games - 25 July 2016: The World Anti-Doping Agency is 'disappointed' its recommendation to ban Russia from next month's Olympic Games in Rio has been rejected by the International Olympic Committee, saying the IOC's decision will inevitably mean 'lesser protection for clean athletes'
December 2016: 9 December 2016: Over 1000 Russian athletes from over 30 disciplines were involved in state-sponsored doping programme in 2011-2015, including London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games winners and medalists, and that also helped forging fake doping probes results by involving special services, World Anti-Doping Agency's report on Russian doping row says - 14 December 2016: Russia deprived of bobsleigh 2017 World Championship in Sochi - 24 December 2016: Following Sochi's loss last week of the right to host February's bobsleigh and skeleton world championships, Biathlon and speed skating events February/March 2017 taken away from Russia over doping scandal - 27 December 2016: Russian officials admit for the first time to a state-backed campaign of doping that involved hundreds of the country’s athletes, as the acting director of Russia’s national anti-doping agency Anna Antseliovich and others in a serie of interviews detail that 'it was an institutional conspiracy' concerning the entire Olympic movement
Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics - 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi - 7 October 2013: Russia has installed an all-encompassing surveillance system at the site of next year's Winter Olympic Games in Sochi that will allow security services to listen in on athletes and visitors, security analysts say - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups - 23 December: Nadezhda Tolokonnikova calls for foreign countries to boycott February's Winter Olympics, hours after she was freed from jail - 23/24 December: Benjamin Netanyahu joins Barack Obama, David Cameron, Francois Hollande and others in rejecting Sochi invite - 12 February 2014: Russian environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko who campaigned against ecological damage from construction work for the Sochi Olympics is to spend three years in a prison colony
Killed journalists in Russia: List of journalists killed in Russia
In July 2013 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed): 9 July 2013: 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed), CPJ says
Since 2012 journalists killed in Russia under Putin: Since 2012 Journalists killed in Russia again under Putin
Assassinated Russian journalists: Assassinated Russian journalists
Since 1991 Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Since 1991 Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Cyberwarfare by Russia: Cyberwarfare by Russia
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
Pressure on independent media and control: Pressure on independent media
2014: 14 janvier 2014: Le journaliste américain David Satter a affirmé qu'il avait été expulsé de Russie après avoir travaillé sur les manifestations pro-européennes en cours en Ukraine depuis novembre - 14 January: Russia has barred US journalist David Satter who is critical of Putin for five years - 14 March 2014: Putin regime censors media by blocking websites, adding Alexei Navalny blog and opposition news sites to banned list amid ongoing Ukraine crisis - 15 March 2014: Russian propaganda war in full swing over Ukraine, alleging Ukraine government is run by anti-Semitic fascists - 17 March 2014: Putin regime's TV says Russia could turn USA to 'radioactive ash' - 22 April 2014: 'Russian Facebook' founder Durov flees country after selling his share in the company under pressure from the security services - 27 September 2014: Curbs on foreign ownership will gut Russia's media after Russian parliament passed a law calling foreign ownership in domestic media assets at 20% and hitting some of the world's largest media companies
Media opposition in Russia:
Politics, repression, elections, social movements and protests in Russia: Political repression in Russia - Protests in Russia
Legislative election December 2011 and protests: Russian legislative election 4 December 2011 - 4 December: Russians voting in parliamentary poll amid allegations of violations of election law - 'Golos' leader Liliya Shibanova was held for several hours, her laptop confiscated - 5 December: Putin party suffers setback - reports of mass fraud and more than hundred detained pro democracy protesters - 5 December: 'United Russia', Putins tea party movement, wins election but ... - 5 December: Russia elections - OSCE sees 'numerous violations - 6 December: Activists detained after protests over results of criticised election - 6 December: Protesters defy rally ban in Moscow - 8 December: Gorbachev calls on Russia to annul vote - 8 December: Putin accuses foreign countries, the USA over poll protests - in Prague Medvedev says investigation of election results possible - 10 December: Moscow braces for fresh protests amid anger over disputed polls - 11 December: Tens of thousands demonstrate against alleged vote fraud and demand end to Putin's rule in largest rallies in years across Russia - 11 December: Medvedev orders probe into poll allegations - 13. Dezember: Kündigungen in russischen Medien nach Wahlberichterstattung - Journalisten-Union verurteilt Zensur - 25 December: Tens of thousands rally in growing protest against electoral fraud as Kremlin panel says it has proof of mass violations in parliamentary poll three weeks ago
Presidential election March 2012 and protests: Russian presidential election 4 March 2012 - 5 March: Putin alleges victory with more than 60 per cent of vote was fair, but rivals and opposition allege fraud and call for protests - 6 mars: L'OSCE a dénoncé lundi une présidentielle russe 'biaisée' marquée par d'importantes irrégularités - 6 mars: Interpellation de plusieurs centaines de manifestants anti-Poutine - 6 March: Police in Moscow and Saint Petersburg break up protests against Putin's victory in Russian presidential vote - 7 mars: l'opposition appelle à de nouvelles manifestations malgré les centaines d'interpellations de la veille - 10 mars: L'opposition russe manifeste contre la victoire du président Poutine - 12 mars: Les enquêteurs ukrainiens n'ont pas trouvé de preuves de la préparation en février par deux suspects arrêtés en Ukraine d'un attentat contre Vladimir Poutine, à moins d'une semaine de la présidentielle du 4 mars remportée par l'ex-agent du KGB - 16 March: While political opponents of the president-elect Putin are sentenced to prison, political cronyism is alive and well - 18 March: Dozens held at Moscow protest over 'pro-Putin' TV film that accused the opposition of paying anti-government protesters
August 2012: 1. August: Die russischen Behörden haben gegen den bekannten Kreml-Kritiker Alexei Nawalny Anklage wegen Veruntreuung erhoben - 7 August: Russian prosecutors ask for three-year sentence for the punk group who protested in a cathedral against Putin - 7. August: Im Büro des Putin-Kritikers Alexei Nawalny werden Abhörwanze und Kamera entdeckt - 15. August: Solidaritätskundgebung in Moskau für inhaftierte Punk Band Musikerinnen aufgelöst - 17 August: Punk protesters get two-year jail sentences - 17 August: The EU, US and human rights groups have condemned jail sentences imposed on three members of Russian punk band as 'disproportionate' - 26 August: Two members of anti-Kremlin punk band escape from Russia - 28. August: Acht Jahre Straflager für russische Aktivistin Taissja Ossipowa
October 2012: 7 October: Russian police arrest anti-Putin protesters calling for answers in the death of journalist and Kremlin critic Anna Politkovskaya six years ago - 10 octobre: Le procès en appel du groupe de punk-rock reprend dans l'ombre de Poutine - 10 October: Russian appeals court frees one anti-Kremlin punk band member, keeps two in jail - 14 October: First elections held for regional governors since Putin banned such direct voting 2004 - 17 October: Putin's investigators opened criminal proceedings against prominent protest leader Sergei Udaltsov, saying a documentary on a pro-Kremlin TV channel showed evidence he had plotted mass disorder and placing him under house arrest - 18 October: Opposition aide Konstantin Lebedev charged with plotting mass anti-government riots and could face a 10-year jail term - 21 October: Opposition forces in Russia are holding a three-day national ballot to elect a leadership tasked with focusing the fight for fair elections - 23 October: Russian opposition elected a new opposition leadership to fight for election reform, the biggest vote-getter was Alexei Navalny - 23 October: Russia's lower house votes to broaden high treason laws - 27 October: Several Russian opposition leaders have been detained while demonstrating against the claimed torture of fellow activist Leonid Razvozzhayev
October 2013: 13 October: Several dozen journalists took to the streets of Saint Petersburg to demand the release of Denis Sinyakov, detained on piracy charges along with the crew of the Greenpeace 'Arctic sunrise' - 15 October: Russian police rounded up more than 1,600 migrants on Monday in Moscow after rioting and violence against migrants swept through southern neighbourhood - 16 October: Putin's political rival Alexei Navalny faces five years in jail - 17 octobre: L'opposant Alexeï Navalny accueilli par des partisans à son retour en train à Moscou, après que sa peine de 5 ans de camp a été commuée en sursis - 27 octobre: Plusieurs milliers de personnes dont Alexeï Navalny ont participé à une marche autorisée dans le centre de Moscou contre le régime de Poutine et pour soutenir les prisonniers politiques - 29 octobre: Des centaines de Moscovites ont rendu hommage mardi aux victimes des répressions staliniennes, en lisant le nom de milliers d'habitants de la capitale russe fusillés en 1937 et 1938
December 2013: 22 December 2013: At a press conference in Berlin barely two days after he was freed from a Russian jail, Mikhail Khodorkovsky vowed to do all he can to ensure the release of other political prisoners in Russia - 23 December: Out of jail, Punk band member Maria Alyokhina slammed her early release under a Kremlin amnesty as a 'PR stunt' from Putin - 23 December: Punk band member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, freed on Monday in a Kremlin-backed amnesty, slammed Russia's prison system and said that the whole country is built like a penal colony
February-April 2014: 12 February 2014: Environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko jailed for three years after Sochi Games protest - 20 February: After being detained by police in Sochi, Russian punk group women beaten with whips by Cossacks - 25 February: Outside trial over anti-Putin rally 2012 Russian police detain hundreds protesting against jailing of activists - 2014 Russian anti-war protests - 2 March: While authorities accommodated and encouraged a pro-government rally, a smaller protest against Ukraine intervention down the street was not sanctioned - 2 March: Protesters in Moscow against Russian military intervention in Ukraine were quickly detained by police - 15 March: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters marched in central Moscow against Kremlin-backed referendum in Crimea - 14 April: About 5,000 Russians, some waving Ukrainian flags, rallied in Moscow to protest at what they say is a government crackdown on independent media intended to stifle debate about the crisis in Ukraine - 28 April: Criticising environmental and state corruption leads to threats, intimidation and the impossibility to object to grand projects which have the authorities behind them, exiled Suren Gazaryan says
July-December 2014: 24 July: Russian opposition leader Sergei Udaltsov convicted of organising rioting at anti-Putin protest along with activist Leonid Razvozzhayev in trial human rights groups call 'mockery of justice' - 5 August: Russian authorities have banned a Siberian independence march, in sharp contrast to the treatment of separatists in Crimea and eastern Ukraine - 17 August: Pro-federalism protests in Siberia banned and at least nine activists, calling for greater regional autonomy in Russia, detained by police over protests - 21 September: A huge column of protesters marched through Moscow to protest against Putin's role in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict that has claimed nearly 3,000 lives and pitted Russians against Ukrainians - 30 novembre: Pour la première fois depuis des années, les personnels de santé descendent dans la rue dans plusieurs grandes villes de Russie, à Moscou ils vont manifester contre la fermeture de nombreux hôpitaux - 14 December: Hundreds march in Moscow to protest against healthcare and education reforms - 30 December: Opposition activist Navalny gets 3.5-year suspended sentence in his controversial fraud trial as his brother was handed a 3.5-year prison term - 30/31 December 2014: Navalny again detained after joining protest in Moscow
January-June 2015: 5 January: After receiving suspended sentence amid ongoing house arrest, Putin regime critic Alexei Navalny says he would no longer comply with the absurd terms of his house arrest and cuts off monitoring tag - 7 January: Alexei Navalny defies house arrest to go to his local store, quickly intercepted by three men who escorted him home - 20 January: Hundreds of Russians marched in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, six years after lawyer Stanislav Markelov and journalist Anastasia Baburova were murdered by nationalists - 28 February: Just a day before a planned protest against Putin's rule Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov shot dead in Moscow - 1 March: Tens of thousands march in memory of murdered politician Boris Nemtsov in Moscow, as many members of the democratic opposition blame regime and state-controlled media for pushing people toward aggression - 1/2 March: Protesters, most of them of Russian or Ukrainian origin, rallied in New York near the Russian mission to the UN to denounce the murder of regime critic Boris Nemtsov, despite fear of reprisals to themselves or family members back in Russia - 16 April: Police and special forces searched the Moscow office of Open Russia, a rights network led by Khodorkovsky, for protest flyers - 18 April: Russian opposition parties of murdered Boris Nemtsov and anti-corruption blogger Navalny form alliance against Putin ahead of 2016 parliamentary elections - 29 April: Russian Ministry of Justice has cancelled the registration of the Progress Party of Alexei Navalny - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May: Russian anti-war protesters outside a key military headquarters in Tolyatti have demanded Russian regime withdraws regular servicemen from Ukraine, after two soldiers were captured on Ukrainian soil on May 16 - 24 May 2015: Putin signs law for shutting down 'undesirable' organizations - 28 May 2015: Putin has turned Ukrainans and Russians into enemies, Russian opposition activist Ilya Yashin says visiting Kyiv in support of report on Russian intervention - 7 June 2015: Several thousand protesters including scientists and intellectuals took to the streets of Moscow to express fears for the future of scientific research, after regime crackdowns - 9 June: Russian regime's 'Investigative Committee' launches a criminal inquiry against Ilya Ponomaryov, the lone State Duma representative to vote against the 2014 annexation of Crimea from Ukraine - 19 June 2015: My father was killed by Russian propaganda, says Nemtsov's daughter Zhanna Nemtsova
July/August 2015: 5 August 2015: An online petition signed by more than 170,000 people calls on the regime to rethink new law ordering destruction of sanction-busting imports and banned EU food products, saying it is grotesque to destroy food in a country where millions still live below the poverty line - 11 August: As Russian regime continues mass destruction of banned food in retaliation for sanctions, online petition calling to overturn the decision has already gained 340,000 signatures
September 2016 Russian legislative election: 18 September 2016 Russian legislative election - 18 September 2016: The elections to Russia's State Duma violate international law because they take place in occupied Crimea as well, Ukrainian Foreign Ministry's Maryana Betsa says - 19 September 2016: Sweden, USA, Romania, Denmark, Estonia and Lithuania declared they do not recognize Russian MP's to be elected in Crimea - 19 September 2016: Pro-Putin party wins in Russian election, but nationwide turnout in Sunday's polls was only 47%, which analysts attribute largely to apathy amid hardships of an economic slowdown - 19 September 2016: Statistical analysis of Sunday’s parliamentary election results appears to show evidence of some of the same irregularities that plagued the 2011 State Duma contest, according to the 'Moscow Times' and 'Slon news' website
29 September 2016: 29 September 2016: A hundred years after an epochal movement in Russia against war and its causes, only 300 people protest in Moscow against the start of the Russian regime’s murderous Syria bombing campaign, as the main driver of public opinion remains the slavishly pro-regime state media and its worldwide allies, as doctors in Aleppo say that the Russian and Assad regime's warfare is testing the conscience of the world, giving account that 'children ... are coming to us as body parts', and as a Dutch-led international investigation team states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014 in Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
Since March 2017 Russian protests: Since March 2017 Russian protests
May/June 2017: 14 May 2017: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Moscow in a rally against a bill to tear down Soviet-era low-rise apartment buildings and force them to live in high-rise blocks - 9 June 2017: Russia's Alexei Navalny claims, if he is elected president, he is ready to withdraw Russian troops from the occupied areas of eastern Ukraine and hold a fair referendum in the Russian-annexed Crimea - 13 June 2017: Over 1,500 people were detained mainly in Moscow and St Petersburg at nationwide anti-corruption protests and demonstrations, as Navalny supporters face court who himself was arrested at his block of flats before he could even make his way to the protest and quickly slapped with a 30-day jail sentence - 13 June 2017: As 800 people were detained in Moscow and 900 in St Petersburg, several protesters were sentenced to 15 days in jail, including the opposition politician Ilya Yashin and political partner of Boris Nemtsov, who was murdered in 2015 - 23 June 2017: Russian opposition politician and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny barred from standing against Putin in election, according to the regime’s Central Election Commission saying he was ineligible to run for office
February/March 2018: 12 February 2018: Yabloko opposition party warns of a string of attacks on political and civic activists in St. Petersburg in the past month, including the late January death of local activist Konstantin Sinitsyn, the beating of human rights activist Dinar Idrisov and the kidnapping and reported torture of antifascist activists Viktor Filinkov, Igor Shishkin and Ilya Kapustin - 25 février 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont défilé dimanche à Moscou pour rendre hommage à l'ancien opposant à Vladimir Poutine, abattu le 27 février 2015 en plein centre de la capitale russe alors qu'il travaillait sur un rapport concernant le conflit en Ukraine - 25 February 2018: At least three people were detained at the Moscow march, as about 7,600 democrats gathered to honor slain opposition politician Boris Nemtsov and as rallies were also held in several other cities, including St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg - 25 February 2018: Disparate political movements in opposition to Russia's Putin came together for a brief few hours to march in the memory of murdered opposition politician Boris Nemtsov - 17 March 2018: Days before Russia’s presidential elections, police are trying to seize documents that give activist observers access to polling stations and independent elections watchdog Golos has unexpectedly seen its office lease revoked
May 2018: 5 May 2018: Pro-democracy and anti-Putin protest rallies titled 'He's not our tsar' launched across Rusian cities, set up by supporters of the Russian opposition's Alexei Navalny, also saying 'Enough lies' and 'Enough war' - 5 mai 2018: Plusieurs manifestants qui se sont réunis pour contester l'investiture de Poutine, ont été interpellés 'de manière brutale' - 7 May 2018: The infamous 'Cossacks' who were seen whipping and beating up peaceful protesters at a #notourtsar rally in Moscow had previously taken part in Donbas hostilities as part of Putin regime's proxy forces in his hybrid war against Ukraine and are to patrol the streets of the Russian capital at the World Cup - 11 mai 2018: L'opposant Navalny de retour au tribunal pour avoir organisé des manifestations avant l'investiture de Poutine pour un quatrième mandat, dispersées manu militari par la police assistée d'unités paramilitaires
July 2018 protests against retirement age hike: 1 July 2018: Thousands of Russians protested on Sunday in 39 cities across the country over a government decision to increase the retirement age, but there were no demonstrations in the cities hosting the World Cup because of security restrictions in force during the tournament - 19 July 2018: From Omsk to St. Petersburg, Russians took to the streets to protest the government’s controversial pension reform program that would see a hike in the country’s retirement age, a plan announced the day the football World Cup began, and that would see the age raised gradually from 60 to 65 for men, and from 55 to 63 for women - 29 juillet 2018: Des dizaines de milliers de Russes à Moscou et dans des dizaines d'autres villes ont participé samedi à des manifestations organisées à travers le pays par le Parti communiste contre un projet de hausse de l'âge du départ à la retraite
June 2019 journalist Ivan Golunov detained and severely beaten: 8 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov, known for investigating corruption among Moscow city officials, was detained in central Moscow on Thursday on his way to a meeting with a source and has been charged with large-scale drug trafficking, but his lawyer, his employer and colleagues say he has been framed - 9 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov released and moved to house arrest after hundreds of supporters picket police HQ, pending trial on drug charges - 10 June 2019: In a show of rare solidarity, Russia's three major newspapers put out nearly identical front pages to support detained journalist Ivan Golunov, as Kommersant, Vedomosti and RBK, among the most respected daily newspapers in Russia, published a joint editorial under the headline 'I am/We are Ivan Golunov', calling for a transparent probe into the case of the prominent investigative journalist
11/12 June 2019 charges against Golunov dropped, protesters detained: 11 June 2019: Thousands of protesters are to march in Moscow in support investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, arrested on controversial drug-dealing charges that are widely seen as an attempt to silence his reports on corruption, as more than 20,000 people have so far expressed an interest on Facebook in attending the march on Wednesday - 11 juin 2019: Les autorités russes ont disculpé mardi le journaliste d'investigation Ivan Golounov, qui été accusé de trafic de drogue dans une affaire qui a provoqué l'indignation de la société civile - 12 June 2019: At least 423 people reportedly detained in central Moscow as protesters rallied to demand that charges be brought against the police officers who planted drugs on investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, whose arrest sparked widespread public anger
29 February protest against Putin regime: 29 février 2020: L'opposition défile contre Vladimir Poutine
13-17 January 2021 Navalny will return to Russia: 13 janvier 2021: Empoisonné en août et en convalescence en Allemagne, l’opposant russe Navalny annonce qu’il rentrera en Russie le 17 janvier - 13 January 2021: Alexey Navalny says he will return to Russia on Sunday after being poisoned, and after recent reporting from investigative group Bellingcat and CNN revealed that Russia's FSB had formed an elite team specializing in nerve agents that trailed Navalny for years - 17 January 2021: Alexei Navalny to fly into Moscow in challenge to Putin, as fascist Putin regime is likely to seek retaliation for a Bellingcat investigation that traced the movements of an FSB hit team that shadowed Navalny around Russia for years, and as Navalny himself elicited a confession by telephone from one of the men who took part in the operation
23 January 2021 over 2,000 citizens arrested in Russia at Navalny rallies: 23 January 2021: The OVD-Info monitor reported that Putin regime's police seized at least 2,131 demonstrators at the protests held in dozens of Russian cities, with 795 arrests carried out in the capital Moscow, including the wife of jailed regime critic Alexei Navalny, as riot police hauled off demonstrators and beat others with batons, as protests took place in temperatures of minus-50 Celsius, following criminal arrest of regime critics, and as demonstrators also rallied outside Russian embassy in Tel Aviv in solidarity with Russian democrats - 23 January 2021: Calling for Navalny's release, tens of thousands protest in Russia, spanning from Kaliningrad in the west to Vladivostok in the far east, as the turnout of those calling for the opposition leader’s release from jail far surpassed many protesters’ expectations
25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny says he is forced to watch state TV in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control: 25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny gives first interview from prison camp, saying he is forced to watch state television in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control
25 September 2021 Russians join Moscow protest over parliamentary election: 25 September 2021: Moscow people, angered by last week's parliamentary election, joined a protest in central Moscow on Saturday, holding posters carrying slogans such as 'bring back the elections'
2018 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2018
2019 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2019
Politics of Chechnya: Politics of Chechnya
15 July 2021 how public ‘apologies’ are used against domestic abuse victims in Chechnya: 15 July 2021: Activists say Ramzan Kadyrov’s regime uses televised confessions ‘under duress’ to hold back women’s rights, despite changes in society, as Khalimat Taramova only a couple of weeks fled her home, where she said she was subjected to violence after going against her family’s wishes, and sought help from a group of women’s rights activists, the Marem project, who let her stay in a flat in the neighbouring republic of Dagestan, then pleading for the Chechen authorities not to come looking for her, and days later the flat was raided by more than 20 men working for the Russian police and Chechen security forces, according to a journalist and activist who was present, as two activists say they were beaten and detained, and Taramova was taken back to Chechnya
Dagestan: Dagestan
April 2017 beatings and death threats part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers: 2 April 2017: Beatings and death threats are part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers enslaved in the remote Russian republic of Dagestan
Ingushetia: Ingushetia
August 2012 six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague: 19 August 2012: Six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague
Foreign relations of Russia: Foreign relations of Russia
Wars involving the Russian Empire: Wars involving the 1721-1917 Russian Empire
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
Since 1999/2000 Putin's KGB-regime and Russia's foreign policy: Russia's foreign policy and Putin regime since 1999/2000
Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Since 2003 'web brigades' and 'Internet Research Agency': Since 2003 Russian 'web brigades' (known as Russia's troll army, Russian bots, Kremlinbots, troll factory, or troll farms) are state-sponsored anonymous Internet political commentators and trolls linked to the Russian Putin regime, participants report that they are organized into teams and groups of commentators that participate in Russian and international political blogs and Internet forums using sockpuppets and large-scale orchestrated trolling and disinformation campaigns to promote pro-Putin and pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 'Internet Research Agency' (known in Russian Internet slang as the Trolls from Olgino), a Russian company based in Saint Petersburg and engaged in online influence operations on behalf of Russian business and political interests
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
Since 2011 Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2011 Russian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2011 vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China: Vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China since 2011
Since 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2015 Russian military intervention in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2016: 22 January 2016: Russian warships make display of might in eastern Mediterranean off coast of Syria - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases, actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - 6 July 2016: Three Palestinians were killed and at least five injured by apparent Russian airstrikes on Monday targeting the Khan al-Shih neighborhood southwest of Damascus which is considered a Palestinian refugee camp, causing heavy damage to civilian houses and destroying a building housing the foundation’s Child Friendly Space, according to the Jafra Foundation - 14 November 2016: Russian regime's warplane MiG-29 has crashed into the eastern Mediterranean as it was coming in to land on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier off the coast of Syria - 21 November 2016: Russian MiG-29 jet fighter from the Admiral Kuznetsov carrier reportedly crashed into the sea because the arrestor gear rope snapped and engine failure
Since 2014 Crimea annexation following Russian military intervention in Ukraine:
International membership of the Russian Federation, obstruction and aggression: International membership of the Russian Federation - Multilateral relations of Russia
Russia/United Nations relations: Russia/United Nations relations
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
2014: 5 March 2014: UN special envoy, Dutch diplomat Robert Serry, was forced to abandon a mission to Ukraine's Russian-occupied Crimea region after being stopped by armed men and besieged inside a cafe by a hostile crowd shouting 'Russia! Russia!' - 13 March 2014: The UN Security Council is discussing a possible resolution that would reaffirm Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity - 15 March: Russia vetoes UN resolution against Crimea referendum - 27 March: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid - 29 March: Russia threatened several Eastern European, Asian and African states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a UN resolution against its annexation of Crimea, UN diplomats say - 2 April: In a diplomatic blow to Russia, the UN will continue to view Crimea as part of Ukraine in line with a General Assembly resolution - 14 April: As UN Security Council meets over Ukraine and well-organised pro-Russian attackers using Russian-origin automatic weapons, Britain's UN ambassador says Russia had massed tens of thousands of well-equipped troops near the Ukrainian border in addition to the 25,000 troops it recently moved into Crimea to seize it - 13 June 2014: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 17 June: Russia again finds no support at UN Security Council for a resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine - 6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis
2015: 1 March 2015: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Saturday condemned the assassination of Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov adding that he expects the perpetrators to be brought to justice swiftly - 19 March: Russia refuses to participate in UN Security Council meeting on Crimea - 21 March 2015: Russia to block UN mission in Donbas and will not vote in the UN Security Council on the draft resolution to deploy peacekeepers, regime's Lavrov says - 24 October 2015: UNHCR's Amin Awad says that Russian airstrikes and increased fighting around the Syrian city of Aleppo had contributed to the 'dynamic of displacement', with about 30,000 displaced, as the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs puts the number at 50,000 - 31 October 2015: Making reference to the 'brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international humanitarian law', which was characterized by indiscriminate attacks on civilians areas, such as one reported yesterday in a marketplace in Syria and credited to government forces, UN's Ban Ki-moon along with the head of the ICRC calls for action to stop suffering by ending conflict, saying 'Enough is enough' - 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 2 December 2015: Citing Russia's bombing of the Al-Khafsa water treatment facility in Aleppo province on Thursday Unicef's Hanaa Singer condemns airstrikes cutting water supplies to Aleppo, noting that 'the rules of war, including those meant to protect vital civilian infrastructure, continue to be broken on a daily basis'
Russian regime and the international criminal court:
Putin regime's war crimes, regime's terrorism and politics of lying:
Russia/Europe relations:
Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership: Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership
Arctic policy of Russia and territorial claims: Arctic policy of Russia - Territorial claims in the Arctic
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform and environmental issues - 2013 Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 29 septembre: Un tribunal russe a ordonné dimanche le placement en détention pour deux mois de six autres membres de l'équipage du navire de Greenpeace, l'Arctic Sunrise - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 17 octobre: 11 Prix Nobel de la Paix écrivent à Poutine prenant la défense des 30 membres d'équipage d'un navire de Greenpeace arrêtés en septembre - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise - 23 octobre: La Russie réduit les charges de l'équipage Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme', punissable de sept ans - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention - 16 November: Greenpeace organised protests in 263 cities around the world on Saturday to mark two months since 30 of its environmental activists were jailed in Russia - 21 novembre: Huit militants de Greenpeace libérés sous caution en Russie - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea orders Russia to free Greenpeace activists - 25 December: Russia drops charges against 19 Greenpeace activists - 27 December: Dutch Greenpeace activist Faiza Oulahsen who spent more than two months in Russian prison says the ordeal has made her 'even more dedicated' to saving the Arctic environment - 28 décembre: Des militants de Greenpeace amnistiés demandent des excuses à la Russie - 25 August 2015: A court in the Netherlands has ordered Russia to pay compensation for seizing the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise during a protest against an offshore oil platform two years ago, ruling that Russia violated international maritime conventions
Bilateral relations of Russia: Bilateral relations of Russia
Russia/Afghanistan relations: Russia/Afghanistan relations
Russia/Africa relations: Russia/Africa relations
Russia/Argentina relations: Russia/Argentina relations
Russia/Armenia relations: Russia/Armenia relations
Russia/Australia relations: Russia/Australia relations
June 2018 Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia: 8 June 2018: Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia
Russia/Austria relations: Russia/Austria relations
Russia/Belarus relations: Russia/Belarus relations
April 2015 Lukashenko refuses to attend 'Victory Day Parade in Mocow' with Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend
Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Russia/Cameroon relations: Russia/Cameroon relations
Russia/Canada relations: Russia/Canada relations - Uranium One
Russia/Central African Republic relations: Russia/Central African Republic relations
August 2018 journalists killed near Sibut researching criminal actions of the Russian military firm Wagner: 1 August 2018: Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre', also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there - 4 August 2018: As murdered journalists were chasing Russian regime's mercenaries in the CAR, deaths put spotlight on Russia's murky activities in Africa - 8 August 2018: Russian TV Dozhd's Vasily Polonsky says the three Russian journalists who were killed in the CAR managed to record videos of bases of the Russian Wagner mercenaries, adding that other journalists agree that it was not robbery or an attack by thieves and local criminals but a planned attack
Russia/PR of China relations: Russia/PR of China relations (since 1991)
Russia/Cyprus relations: Russia/Cyprus relations
Russia/Czech Republic relations: Russia/Czech Republic relations
Russia/Estonia relations: Russia/Estonia relations
2015: 3 March: At the same time as EU imposes sanctions against Russian aggression, Putin's European extremist allies are not ashamed to support his regime - 21 March: EU far-right parties set to gather in St. Petersburg for Russian forum, as Russian regime courts EU far-right, neo-Nazi movements - 1 July: A move in Russia to review the legality of 1991 decision granting Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia independence has alarmed the Baltic States - 24 October 2015: As Russian airstrikes push more migrants to flee to EU before borders shut and sea gets rougher, more Syrians risk deadly crossings to Greece after more than 502,000 refugees and migrants have entered Greece since the beginning of this year - 7 November 2015: The plan to construct a Russian undersea pipeline to Germany, in order eliminate Ukraine as a transit country, has hit the buffers after a number of EU states raised objections to the deal
May 2016 Europe a Russian gangster playground: 12 May 2016: How Europe became a Russian gangster playground
Russia/France relations: Russia/France relations
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
Russia/Georgia relations: Russia/Georgia relations
1918-1920 Georgian–Ossetian conflict: Georgian–Ossetian conflict 1918–1920
1991–1992 South Ossetia War: 1991–1992 South Ossetia War
2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis and August 2008 Russo-Georgian War: 2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis - August 2008 Russo-Georgian War
Russia/Germany relations: Russia/Germany relations
2016: 29 January 2016: Russian FM Sergei Lavrov calls for 'truth and justice' in a Russian teen's fabricated rape claim by alleged Middle East migrants in Berlin, as Russian regime is murdering hundreds of civilians including children in Syria since months - 31 January 2016: 13-year-old Russian-German girl has admitted making up a story about being kidnapped and raped by migrants, exacerbated by a report on Russian state TV, in which the girl’s relatives claimed her allegations were not being investigated, and that triggered outrage among Berlin’s Russian-German community, staging protests supported by the Pegida-related Bärgida movement, the Neonazi National Democratic party, and joint by Russian FM Sergei Lavrov, who criticised the Berlin authorities - 24 April: Nearly half of Germans in favour of sanctions against Russia and 64% of respondents of a survey say 'Putin's Russia is no longer a 'trusted partner' - 5 June: Updated version of the guidelines on Germany's national security policy states that Russia now is one of the main threats - 16 June 2016: Mob of Russian 'ultras' put Spanish football fan in hospital in Germany, punching and kicking two tourists and their friends in an 'extremely aggressive and brutal' way - 29 November 2016: German intelligence agency official says in an interview, that cyberspace had become 'a place of hybrid warfare' in which Russia is a key player, 'recently, we see the willingness of Russian intelligence to carry out sabotage', also carrying out attacks on computer systems which, as far as his agency had been able to ascertain, were 'aimed at comprehensive strategic data gathering'
July 2017: 4 July 2017: Violent acts by neo-Nazi groups in Germany rose 14% to 1,600 in 2016, annual BfV intelligence and government report says, seeing 'a clear radicalization in both substance and rhetoric regarding asylum matters', also saying that Germany is a big target of spying and cyberattacks by foreign governments such as Russia, Iran, China and Turkey, warning of 'ticking time bombs' that could sabotage critical infrastructure, and assuming 'that Russian state agencies are trying to influence parties, politicians and public opinion, with a particular eye to the 2017 parliamentary election' - 11. Juli 2017: Siemens hat Klage bei einem Moskauer Gericht wegen Vertragsbruchs eingereicht, nachdem mindestens zwei von Siemens nach Russland gelieferte Gasturbinen vertrags- und sanktionswidrig auf die Krim weitertransportiert wurden
August/September 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili - 30 August 2019: Similar to the Skripal case, suspected assassin 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov' in the Berlin killing of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili used fake identity documents, a valid Moscow-issued passport and cover identity, created very recently and most likely custom-made for the specific operation in Berlin, leading to the possibilities that he may have been assassinated in an operation led by either of the FSB, the GRU or even Ramzan Kadyrov’s apparatus, Bellingcat says - 3 September 2019: Suspected assassin 'Vadim Sokolov' visited by Russian diplomats - 4 September 2019: Protesters demonstrate outside the Russian embassy in Berlin against the suspected assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili, as British historian and specialist in Russian Intelligence Services Mark Galeotti sees parallels between this case and the attack on Skripal in the UK, saying that the new case is 'probably an assassination choreographed by state elements in Russia' - 17 September 2019: Russian suspect stays silent over Chechen's killing in Berlin, as Russian authorities had not helped the investigation so far
19 December 2019 forced to do so Putin admits brazen lie: 19. Dezember 2019: Putin gibt Falschbehauptung zu über Mord im Kleinen Tiergarten
Since August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin and search for assassins: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili in Berlin and international search for Khangoshvili's assassins - 30 August 2019: Similar to the Skripal case, suspected assassin 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov' in the Berlin killing of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili used fake identity documents, a valid Moscow-issued passport and cover identity, created very recently and most likely custom-made for the specific operation in Berlin, leading to the possibilities that he may have been assassinated in an operation led by either of the FSB, the GRU or even Ramzan Kadyrov’s apparatus, Bellingcat says - 3 September 2019: Suspected assassin 'Vadim Sokolov' visited by Russian diplomats - 4 September 2019: Protesters demonstrate outside the Russian embassy in Berlin against the suspected assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili, as British historian and specialist in Russian Intelligence Services Mark Galeotti sees parallels between this case and the attack on Skripal in the UK, saying that the new case is 'probably an assassination choreographed by state elements in Russia'
Russia/Greece relations: Russia/Greece relations
Russia/Hungary relations: Russia/Hungary relations
2015 military cooperation pact and nuclear support: 20 January 2015: Iran and Russia reportedly agreed to a military cooperation pact - 23 February: Iran studies Russian offer of new missiles instead of S-300 - 13 April: Russian regime lifts ban on delivery of S-300 anti-missile rocket systems to Iran, that could be used to shield Iran's nuclear facilities from possible future air strikes and had been under embargo for the past five years - 26 May: Russia agrees to supply S-300 missiles to Iran at 'the earliest opportunity' - 14 July 2015: Russian FM Lavrov says, after a deal was reached on curbing Iran's nuclear programme, that arms deliveries to Tehran will be possible, warning Israel not to supply weapons to Ukraine - 31 July: Russia modernising S-300 missile system for Iran - 18 August: Iran will sign a contract with Russia next week to buy four S-300 surface-to-air missile systems - 16 September 2015: Russian regime agrees to help Iranian regime upgrade its uranium-enriching centrifuges - 8 October 2015: After Iran lobbied in the summer for Russian campaign in Syria, Russian cruise missiles fired from ships in Caspian Sea and aimed at Syria land in Iran and may have caused injuries - 9 November 2015: Russia and Iran have signed a contract to deliver the advanced S-300 missile defense system to the Iranian regime, already entered into force
10 November 2019 2nd Bushehr nuclear power reactor with Russian regime's help: 10 November 2019: Iran begins building 2nd nuclear power reactor at Bushehr with Russian regime's help
Russia/Iraq relations: Russia/Iraq relations
September 2018: 20 September 2018: Russia’s embassy in Tel Aviv excoriates Israel for the downing of a Russian plane by the Russian-made S-200 air defense system in Syria during an Israeli strike, pinning the blame squarely on the Israeli Air Force, as Israel Defense Minister Liberman blames 'irresponsible and unprofessional' Syrian air defense operators for downing Russian surveillance plane, saying Israel won’t stop Syria strikes, and as Israel PM Netanyahu says that Israel must work to prevent war in the region, but warns that the IDF will act with 'full force' if armed conflict is forced on the country - 23 September 2018: Israeli military rejects Russian regime’s claim that it was to blame for Assad's downing of a Russian spy plane, vows to keep targeting Iran - 24 September 2018: Reportedly before Assad's downing of a Russian plane, Russian regime told Israel, that attacking Assad's targets harms Russian interests because Israeli strikes weaken Assad and Russia's goal is to strengthen Assad's dictatorship - 24 September 2018: Russian regime will outfit Assad's military with its sophisticated S-300 air defense system in the wake of Assad's downing of a Russian military plane - 24 September 2018: Israel and USA warned Russian regime against its declared intention to provide the Syrian military with advanced surface-to-air missiles within two weeks, saying the move would further destabilize the region and increase already high tensions
27/28 June 2019 Russian 'spoofing': 27 June 2019: Israeli officials accused Russian regime of responsibility for the ongoing disruptions to the satellite navigation systems of airplanes flying around Ben Gurion International Airport, appearing to stem from a form of electronic warfare known as 'spoofing' with disruptions it causes to nearby aircraft and ships, and to originate in Syria, where Russian troops and aircraft are fighting on behalf of the country’s dictator Bashar Assad - 28 June 2019: Signals disrupting satellite navigation for planes flying through Israeli airspace in recent weeks originate inside a Russian air base inside Syria, according to USA researcher, saying signals are detectable from space, appearing to come from new deployment of Russian regime’s electronic warfare systems
Russia/Italy relations: Russia/Italy relations
Russia/Japan relations: Russia/Japan relations
Uranium One: Uranium One
Russia/North Korea relations: Russia/North Korea relations
Russia/South Korea relations: Russia/South Korea relations
Russia/Latvia relations: Russia/Latvia relations - Russians in Latvia
Russia/Lebanon relations: Russia/Lebanon relations
8 August 2020 sunken Russian ship that brought ammonium nitrate to Beirut and never left: 8 August 2020: Sunken hull of Cyprus-based Russian businessman Igor Grechushkin owned MV 'Rhosus', whose cargo of thousands of tons of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the huge explosion that devastated Beirut last week, and which arrived in Lebanon in November 2013 while sailing from Georgia and bound for Mozambique, making the unscheduled detour to Beirut as the Russian shipowner was struggling with debts and hoped to earn some extra cash through picking up cargo in Lebanon, but 'Rhosus', reportedly unseaworthy, was soon impounded by the Lebanese authorities for failing to pay port fees and the dangerous cargo was impounded and unloaded by Lebanese authorities, as Russian shipowner Igor Grechushkin later abandoned crew members without paying their wages or the debt he owed to the port
Russia/Libya relations: Russia/Libya relations relations
21 February 2020 Russian regime's Sergei Shoigu hosted warlord Khalifa Haftar: 21 February 2020: Russian regime's Sergei Shoigu hosted warlord Khalifa Haftar in Moscow February 19
Russia/Republic of Macedonia relations: Russia/Republic of Macedonia relations
Russia/Malaysia relations: Russia/Malaysia relations
2015: 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
Russia/Malta relations: Russia/Malta relations
Russia/Montenegro relations: Russia/Montenegro relations
Russia/NATO relations: Russia/NATO relations - 11 April 2014: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May 2014: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 23 May: Russia refuses from meeting with NATO on Ukraine, planned for May 27 - 30 September: Over half of Ukrainians see Ukraine in NATO, poll says - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law
2015: 16 June 2015: Russian regime's adding of 40 new intercontinental ballistic missiles to its nuclear arsenal slammed by NATO's Jens Stoltenberg as 'dangerous' and 'nuclear sabre rattling' - 4 July: Sweden and NATO jets intercept Russian nuclear bombers, coming close to Swedish airspace - 31 July 2015: NATO jets have been scrambled to intercept Russian military planes over Europe 250 times this year, the highest number since the end of the Cold War - 8 October 2015: NATO prepares major troop deployment to Turkey after a series of violations of Turkish airspace by Russian jets bombing Syria - 25 November 2015: NATO's Jens Stoltenberg offers support for Turkey after a Russian fighter jet was shot down near the Syrian border, rejecting any suggestion that the incident happened outside of Turkey's borders
Russia/Netherlands relations: Russia/Netherlands relations
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 4 October: Greenpeace International applauds Dutch arbitration over Arctic 30 - 16 October: Attack on Dutch deputy head of mission in Russia by unidentified assailants deepens Dutch-Russian rift - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise
July-December 2014: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down near Hrabove with a surface-to-air missile - 19 July: Amid reports that pro-Russia separatists accused of shooting down MH17 flight remove corpses themselves and are looting credit cards and other possessions, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and more global politicians round on Vladimir Putin as separatists continue to block international inspectors attempting to identify and repatriate bodies - 20 July 2014: As inspectors still denied access and anger mounts towards Russian regime, that is not yet ready to abandon separatists, UN considers resolution on Ukraine crash site access - 8 August 2014: Dutch FM Timmermans fears that the Russian policy towards Ukraine can be applied in other countries, and it poses a threat to the whole of Europe - 19 December 2014: Bodies of MH17 victims ‘contain missile fragments', Ukraine's SBU security service says
2015: 16 April: A Russian museum plans to exhibit a plane fragment from downed flight MH17, despite the fact Dutch investigators are still combing the area for evidence - 16 July 2015: Reports suggest investigation into flight MH17 disaster will accuse Russian-backed militants, but Russia's Putin tells Dutch PM that creating UN tribunal is counterproductive - 17 July 2015: A newly released video from the immediate aftermath of the 2014 shooting down of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 reveals pro-Russian separatists rummaging through the luggage of dead passengers while apparently in a state of confusion - 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
Russia/New Zealand relations: Russia/New Zealand relations
Russia/Norway relations: Russia/Norway relations
Russia/Palestinian territories relations: Russia/Palestinian territories relations
Russia/Philippines relations: Russia/Philippines relations
Russia/Poland relations: Russia/Poland relations
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2014/2015 USA's commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine: 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 29 April 2014: The Visegrad Group foreign ministers of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary condemn Russia's aggression against Ukraine - 10 June 2014: In St. Petersburg Poland's FM Sikorski urges Russia to stop sending terrorists to Ukraine - 28 April 2015: Polish border guards denied entry to Putin's 'Night Wolves' bikers, supporting Russia’s annexation of Crimea and aggression in Donbas and wanting to ride through Poland to commemorate the Red Army’s victory over Nazi Germany in 1945 - 19 July 2015: Russian regime is ramping up its military prescence in Kaliningrad, the Baltic territory of one million people wedged between EU members Poland and Lithuania, with fears growing that the military build-up could threaten stability in the region, 70 years after World War II - 26 September 2015: Poland will summon Russia's envoy after he said Poland was partly to blame for the outbreak of World War II
October 2016 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad enclave: 9 October 2016: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad enclave bordering Poland and Lithuania
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
Russia/Qatar relations: Russia/Qatar relations
Russia/Spain relations: Russia/Spain relations
Russia/Sweden relations: Russia/Sweden relations
Russia/Switzerland relations: Russia/Switzerland relations
February 2014 Ueli Maurer gives gifts to Polonium- and Sarin-Putin in the 'House of Switzerland': 16. Februar 2014: Putin von Bundesrat Ueli Maurer im 'House of Switzerland' empfangen und mit Geschenken begrüsst
April/May 2018 Swiss corporations's payments: In April 2018, the USA imposed sanctions on 'Renova Group' Vekselberg and 23 other Russian nationals - 9 May 2018: Donald Trump’s attorney and legal fixer Michael Cohen was paid half a million dollars by through an affiliate of the Renova investment group owned by Viktor Vekselberg and closely linked to Vladimir Putin - 10 May 2018: USA's special counsel Robert Mueller investigating payments made by corporations to Trump’s attorney Michael Cohen, including Swiss pharmaceuticals company Novartis, as Novartis confirmed it had paid Cohen $1.2m - 23 May 2018: Columbus Nova, an investment firm and the USA affiliate of Moscow-based Renova Group corporation owned by Viktor Vekselberg, that paid Donald Trump’s legal fixer Michael Cohen, was also involved in securing hundreds of millions of dollars in funding for the Russian oligarch from Russian state-controlled VTB Bank with ties to Russia’s intelligence services
Russia/Syria relations: Russia/Syria relations
2012: 19. März 2012: Stark gestiegene Waffenimporte aus Rußland - 10 June: Russia will continue to oppose attempts by the UN Security Council to sanction military intervention in Syria, FM Lavrov says - 12 June 2012: Russia supplying attack helicopters to Syria, says Hillary Clinton - 16 June 2012: Russia may send warships and troops to Syria to protect its logistics base in Tartous, according to a Russian military source - 21 June 2012: Russia must stop providing military supplies to Syria, Arab League's Ahmed Bin Hilli says - 9. Juli 2012: Russland will vorerst keine Waffen mehr an Syrien liefern - 11 juillet: Le chef du Conseil national syrien Abdel Basset Sayda à Moscou pour presser la Russie de lâcher Assad - 11 July 2012: Russia sends a large flotilla of 11 warships to Syria in show of support to Assad - 20 July: Assad ready for ‘civilised’ exit, Russia’s ambassador to France A. Orlov says to Radio France Internationale - 20. Juli 2012: Russische Regierung stoppt angeblich erneut seine Waffenlieferungen an Assad, diesmal im Juni fast angelieferte, dann dementierte Kampfhelikopter - 24 August: Russia's Polonium-Putin regime says Syria's Assad regime has guaranteed it will not deploy its arsenal of chemical weapons - 14 December: Russian deputy FM says opposition fighters are gaining ground and that an opposition victory 'cannot be ruled out' - 18 December: Russia is sending a new flotilla of warships to the Mediterranean - 20 December 2012: Russia's Polonium-Putin recognizes need for change in Syria
2013: 16 January 2013: Bashar al-Assad and his family are living on a warship guarded by the Russian navy, reports say - 23 January: Russians flee Syrian conflict on planes from Beirut - 27 January: PM Medvedev says Assad's chances of keeping power are getting 'smaller and smaller' as war rages - 3 February: Syrian National Coalition's Mouaz al-Khatib has met the foreign ministers of Russia and Iran in first talks raising hope to a possible breakthrough - 13 février 2013: La Russie continuera de livrer des armes à la Syrie - 3 May 2013: Russia and China have rejected UN Security Council plans to inspect Syrian refugee camps in Jordan - 29 May 2013: Russia to send Assad regime air defence system - 31 May 2013: Russia to sell at least 10 MiG fighters in an advanced version to Assad regime, that bombs and murders the own people - 18 June 2013: As the G8 summit calls for immediate peace talks on Syria, isolated Russian Putin clashes with other leaders - 27 June 2013: Iran, Russia and China prop up Assad economy - 11 July: Syria opposition denies Russian chemical attack allegation as Russia blocks a draft UN Security Council resolution calling for a stalled UN chemical weapons investigation team to be allowed to visit Syria - 29 August: Russia sends warships to Mediterranean - 2 September: Russia sending spy ship to Mediterranean - 4 September: Russia sends missile cruiser to Mediterranean - 18 September: Russia 'ignoring facts' over Syria attack, USA says after UN report on the use of chemical weapons in the Ghouta Area of Damascus on 21 August 2013
2015: 19 June 2015: Putin reaffirms Russia's support for Syria's Assad at an economic conference in the city of St Petersburg - 7 September: Russian military experts who arrived in Syria weeks ago, inspect air bases and work to enlarge some runways, particularly in the north, as Assad regime expects to get more Russian attack helicopters - 11 September: Russian regime admits on Thursday that it ships both humanitarian aid and military equipment to Syrian Assad regime by air - 14 September 2015: Russia sends artillery and T-90 tanks to Syrian Assad regime as part of continued military buildup - 15 September: Russian regime reportedly building up military presence near Latakia, flying cargo planes through Iran, Iraq airspace to resupply Assad - 16 September: International condemnation of Russia's military build-up in Syria - 17 September 2015: Assad's army starts using new Russian ground and air weapons - 18 September: Russia ready to consider sending troops to Syria if Assad regime asks, Russian regime's spokesman says - 18 September: About 100 civilians in Syria reportedly died yesterday as Assad puts new Russian weapons to use - 21 September 2015: After pro-regime forces launched a rocket attack on a market popularly in the neighborhood of Al-Shaa’r in Aleppo, killing 33 civilians, most of them women and children, Syrian Coalition condemns Russia and Iran as partners in Assad’s massacres, also stating, that Russian intervention in Syria makes it an occupying country - 22 September 2015: Russian regime sending thousands of troops, dozens of jets to Syria, supporting Assad - 23 September: Satellite images suggest Russia building military facilities in Syria - 24 September: Russia sending troops to Syria directly from Crimea, Crimean Tatars' Mustafa Dzemilev says - 27 September: After Russian planes bombed Aleppo in Syria, video footage has emerged on a social media website showing the aftermath of airstrikes - 29 September: Russia orders removal of Syrian military personnel from Lattakia airport or its surroundings - 29 September: Weapons deployed by Russia, including sophisticated air-defense system, indicate that defeating Islamic State terrorists not main goal of Russia in Syria, Nato general says - 30 September: European journalists for the first time managed to fix Russia's military presence and equipment in Syria, showing Russian military helicopters, aircrafts and AN-helicopters based at the Latakia airfield
October 2015: 1 October 2015: Russian Orthodox church backs Putin's 'holy war' in Syria - 1 October: Syrian Coalition and rebel factions condemn the Russian aggression against the Syrian people pointing out that the airstrikes on Homs and Hama where over 50 people were killed have exposed Russia's real intentions in front of the international community - 1 October: East Ghouta protest against Russia's military intervention in Syria condemning the massacres committed by the Russian air force against civilians and rejecting all forms of foreign intervention in Syria - 3 October 2015: Russian air force struck field hospitals providing medical care to civilians over the past two days, prompting the medical staff to declare a state of emergency and to evacuate all hospitals close to the Turkish border and in Hama province, Syrian Coalition says - 5 October 2015: A Russian TV forecaster predicts 'excellent weather' for bombing Syria, edited with footage from a bombing raid - 6 October: Russia drops more bombs on Syria - 7 October: Wave of Russian air strikes hit the Syrian provinces of Hama and Idlib early on Wednesday, also targeting towns close to the main north-south highway accompanied by regime forces and ground shelling - 7 October: Syrian Coalition slams Russia’s bombing of FSA’s Suqur al-Jabal Headquarters, stressing that the Russian airstrikes against Syrian rebels will boost Islamic State terrorists, adding that Islamic State targeted Suqur al-Jabal’s headquarters with a car bomb directly after the Russian air raid - 7 October: More than 90% of Russia’s military strikes in Syria have not been aimed at the Islamic State group or jihadists, and have instead targeted the moderate Syrian opposition, the USA State Department says - 8 October: An intense wave of Russian air strikes hit towns of Kafr Zita, Kafr Nabudah, Sayyad and the village of Lataminah in Hama province, as well as Khan Shaykhun and Alhbit in Idleb province, Reuters and monitoring group report - 8/9 October: Syrian National Coalition's Khaled Khoja says that the Russian invasion of Syria destabilizes the region and threatens its security, as Russian, Iranian and Syrian regime forces, supported by Russian air power, retreat from areas they have previously occupied in Hama’s northern countryside - 16 October 2015: Assad's army launches Aleppo offensive with Russian and Iranian support, the first time Iranian fighters take part on such a scale in war in Syria - 16 October 2015: The Russian air force committed an appalling massacre in the town of Terre Maaleh north of Homs when it targeted a bakery inside the town, killing civilians, mostly children, and wounding many others - 16 October 2015: An al-Souria Net correspondent in Homs has confirmed the accidental bombing of regime forces by Russian warplanes on Thursday, targeting many locations and killing two brigadiers and six soldiers - 16 October 2015: Russian-Iranian aggression on Syria has killed 878 civilians, including 86 children and 65 women, since 30 September, the largest number of victims recorded in Aleppo, where 301 civilians were killed, mostly as a result of the Russian aerial bombardment, in addition 142 people were killed in Homs, 137 Damascus and its suburbs, 100 in Dara’a, and 94 in Hama - 20 October 2015: About 120 persons died and wounded, including women and children, in a massacre by Russian warplanes in areas at the northern countryside of Lattakia - 20 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more airstrikes in the countryside of Lattakia, which resulted in the death of 7 people at least - 21 October 2015: 1,229 Syrians, including 125 children and 89 women, killed in Russian-Iranian aggression since 30 September, the largest number of victims was recorded in Aleppo province, where 402 civilians were killed, mostly as a result of the Russian aerial bombardment - 22 October: Russian regime tries to hide its casualties in Syria, as bodies of 26 soldiers were secretly transported to a Crimean port city - 22 October: At least three Syrian hospitals bombed since Russian airstrikes began, doctors say, as the latest attack kills at least 12 people at Sarmin hospital in Idlib province and as at least three of the victims are believed to be medical staff - 22 October 2015: The Russian airstrikes on several areas in Syria have led to a new wave of displacement, with approximately 1000 refugees arrived alone in Turkey over the past week - 23 October: Nine Russian air strikes have hit hospitals or field clinics operating in war-torn Syria, killing civilians and medical staff, Syrian medical organisation says - 23 October 2015: Russian warplanes carry out around 40 sorties on the area around Tir Mealla, Sesil, Mahatta and other areas in Homs province, as opposition factions manage to repel an attack on the town of Tir Mealla amid the unprecedented bombing campaign - 23 October 2015: 17 civilians, including six children and five women, reportedly killed in attacks of warplanes on the town of Talbeesa north of Homs - 24 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more airstrikes in Hama province targeting a field hospital in the town of Al-Latamneh - 24 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out several airstrikes on areas in Jabal al-Akrad and Jabal al-Turkman in Lattakia province - 24 October 2015: As Russian airstrikes push more migrants to flee to EU before borders shut and sea gets rougher, more Syrians risk deadly crossings to Greece after more than 502,000 refugees and migrants have entered Greece since the beginning of this year - 24 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Hama province - 25 October 2015: 500 Syrian civilians killed as Russia maintains deadly offensive and as less than 20% of Russian strikes have targeted IS - 26 October 2015: Human Rights Watch accuses Russia of war crimes in Syria - 26 October 2015: Russian warplanes bombed Qinnisrin school in southern rural Aleppo, destroying large parts of the building, also targeting the village of Sheikh Baraka in Idlib province, murdering a woman and her two children, wounding many civilians, and targeting the villages of Zitan, Khalsa, Khan Tuman and Al-Hadir in Aleppo province - 26 October: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Daraa province - 27 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama and Idlib province, killing civilians, and in Rif Damashq province - 28 October 2015: Russian warplanes carried out airstrikes on areas in Rif Dimashq province, in Deir Ezzor province, in Aleppo province, and in Hama and Idlib province - 28 October: Up to 30 civilians were killed and dozens wounded in Russian airstrikes across Syria yesterday, Syrian Coalition says - 29 October: Russian regime’s Syrian base in Latakia said to be a transit point for Iran’s supply of equipment and troops to Damascus - 29 October 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Daraa province, and in Aleppo province - 29 October 2015: A member in the medical staff of Al-Lataminah hospital died affected by injuries from airstrikes by Russian warplanes on the field hospital area in the northern countryside of Hama - 29 October 2015: The escalation of attacks by Russia’s air forces, which began in late September, had targeted 12 hospitals in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, including six supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, a MSF statement says - 30 October 2015: The Russian air force committed a new massacre in Syrian today hitting a market in the district of Douma, near Damascus, with ten guided missiles, killing 55 civilians and wounding 125 others, including women and children in an initial toll - 31 October 2015: In yet the bloodiest days since Russia began launching airstrikes on Syria, 227 civilians, including 43 children and 22 women, were killed in intensified air raids on Aleppo, Rural Damascus, Homs and Idlib, as the Russian airstrikes hit mainly residential areas, markets and field hospitals
November 2015: 1 November 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Idlib province - 2 November 2015: Warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, killing a child, and in Aleppo province - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 3 November 2015: Assistance Coordination Unit's relief worker Zakaria Hijazi was killed in a Russian airstrike in southern rural Aleppo and the head of Hama aid program Muyassar al-Hamdo died after succumbing to his wounds following a Russian air strike on Tamanaa village - 4 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama and Idlib province, in Homs province, and in Rif Damashq province - 5 November 2015: Massacres in Syria in October result in the deaths of at least 513 people including 159 children and 62 women, UK-based rights group reports, as Russian forces were responsible for 10 massacres - 5 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Homs province, and in Idlib province - 6 November 2015: Russian warplanes carried out more intensive airstrikes on areas in the towns and villages in Hama province, killing people including children, in Aleppo province - 7 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Idlib province - 8 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Lattakia province, and in Hama province - 9 November 2015: Motii Jalal's footage shows the moment a Russian airstrike hits the Sarmin National hospital in Idlib province, killing 12 people and injuring 20 - 10 November 2015: At least 24 Syrian civilians, including three children and a woman, reportedly killed Sunday in regime and Russian air strikes on rebel-held areas across Syria - 10 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province - 11 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province - 13 November 2015: Russia said to deploy advanced missile system in Syria's Lattakia - 13 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Hama and Idlib province, and in Rif Damashq province - 13 November 2015: The Russian air force carried seven air strikes on Benin in rural Idlib, two of which using internationally banned white phosphorous rockets, killing four civilians and wounding many more - 14 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Aleppo and Hama province - 15 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, also on areas of Saraqib wounding a number of civilians, and in Homs province - 16 November 2015: Russia does not consider Hezbollah a terrorist group, encouraging their common agression in Syria - 16 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Aleppo province, also targeting the neighborhood Karam al-Trab and al-Myassar in the city of Aleppo, which led to the death of 2 persons at least and wounded others in al-Myassar neighborhood - 17 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, and in Idlib province causing casualties - 17 November 2015: Russian airstrikes target Khan Shekhon and kill civilians in Idlib province - 18 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Lattakia province - 19 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Aleppo and Idlib province, carrying out deadly raids on villages and towns - 20 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Aleppo province - 21 novembre 2015: Des bombardements menés par la Russie et la Syrie ont fait une quarantaine de victimes, dont 10 enfants et des dizaines d'autres blessées, vendredi dans l'est du pays - 21 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carried out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province - 22 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province, killing civilians, women and children - 23 November 2015: At least 30 civilians have been killed across Deir-ez-Zor province as Russian and Assad regime warplanes target Mayadin, Al-Bukamal, Al-Mohassan and areas surrounding Deir-ez-Zor military air base - 23 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in al-Raqqa and Idlib province - 23 November 2015: In yet new intensification of its aggression on Syria, the Russian air force bombed the headquarters of Free Aleppo University, the Faculty of Education, and the Faculty of Science in northern rural Aleppo - 23 November 2015: Russian air strikes on Deir Ezzor have caused dozens of civilian casualties, including women and children, Syrian Coalition's Khoja says stressing that instead of targeting ISIS headquarters, the Russian aggression has targeted civilians in Deir Ezzor who have made immense sacrifices on road to freedom - 24 November 2015: Russian warplanes targeted areas of the southern countryside of Aleppo and other areas of the northern countryside leading to injuries - 24 November 2015: FSA's General Ahmed Berri said that Turkey downed a Russian jet fighter after it bombed civilians in the town of Jisr al-Shughur and violated the Turkish airspace, revealing that the FSA fighters captured the one of the pilots while the second one was killed - 25 November 2015: Russian airstrikes on areas of the Turkman mount and on al-Akrad mount in Lattakia province - 25 November 2015: At least seven people died, 10 injured in an airstrike reportedly by Russian jets targeting an aid convoy in the northwestern Syrian town of Azaz near a border crossing with Turkey - 26 November: Syrian Coalition strongly condemns the Russian air force’s targeting of a relief aid convoy near Izaz, which left six civilians killed and burnt eight trucks, as Russia also intensified air strikes on the rebel-held villages along the Turkish border in northern rural Latakia
- 26 November 2015: Russian warplanes target areas in Homs province and in Aleppo province - 27 November 2015: Russia renewed its air strikes on aid vehicles near the Turkish border, targeting a convoy in Sarmada in Idlib province - 27 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Homs province, in Aleppo province, and in Idlib province - 27 November: Russian warplanes bombarded areas in Hama and Lattakia province - 28 November 2015: The Russian air force has intensified aerial attacks on areas in the provinces of Aleppo, Idlib and Latakia, targeting relief convoys, vital civilians facilities, a marketplace in Awijil, and a bus station Al-Dana, leaving dozens of civilian casualties - 28 November 2015: A man was killed by Russian airstrikes on Wadi al-Ahmar in Homs province - 28 November 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province - 28 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes raid areas of al-Taman’a, al-Maghara, Benech, and Ma’ra al-Nu’man in Idlib province, killing 3 people and wounding 6 in Ma’ra al-Nu’man - 28 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes target Der al-Asafir in Rif Damashq province, wounding a number of civilians - 29 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, killing at least a woman and a baby in the village of Jeb al-Rayyan and injuring people - 29 November 2015: Russian air strikes kill at least 18 people and wound dozens more in the town of Ariha in Idlib province on Sunday - 30 November 2015: Rose to 21 the including 4 children, the number of civilians who were killed by a massacre by Russian warplanes targeted Ariha city, reports of more human losses under the rubbish - 30 November 2015: Russian air strikes kill four civilians in the eastern suburbs of Damascus targeting the village of Deir al Asafir amid reports rebels have recaptured ground in eastern rural Damascus, while regime warplanes carried out more than 44 raids on Daraya west of Damascus, dropping more than 32 barrel bombs - 30 November 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes on I’zaz area in Aleppo province killing 2 persons while others wounded
December 2015: 1 December 2015: At least 60 people were killed when Russian airstrikes targeted a marketplace in the town of Ariha in Idlib provine, according to local activists - 1 December 2015: Russian terror warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes areas in Hama and Idlib province, killing 2 children in airstrikes on Kafar Taharim, and in Lattakia province - 1 December 2015: At least 4 women killed while other civilians wounded due to airstrikes carried out by suspected Russian warplanes on places in the city of al-Sikhnah east of Homs - 1 December 2015: A hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Homs partially destroyed in a 'double-tap' barrel bombing, killing seven people including a young girl and wounding many, latest in apparent escalation of strikes on medical facilities by Russian and Assad terror warplanes - 2 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province - 4 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Homs province - 4 December: Taken barely 10 minutes before the Russian bombs landed, last photos of five-year-old Raghat in the town of Habeet near Idlib, where she died in October alongside her grandfather and her cousin - 5 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, killing and wounding some civilians in the village of al- Arba’in, in Aleppo province, in Idlib province - 5 December 2015: Russia targets Free Syrian Army and ignores Islamic State terrorists in its ongoing air campaign in Syria, killing many civilians now in its third month, Syrian Coalition's Khaled Khoja says - 6 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Homs province, in Idlib province - 7 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province, in Homs province, and in Lattakia province - 8 December 2015: Russian warplanes hit an Assad army base, reportedly killing three soldiers and injuring 13, USA military official says - 8 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Lattakia province, in Idlib province, in Hama province - 8 December 2015: Rights group report documents at least 158 incidents of the targeting of vital facilities during November, with Syrian government forces responsible for 80 of the incidents while Russian forces were responsible for 60 - 8 December 2015: Stepping up airstrikes across almost all the Syrian territory over the past two days, Russian warplanes targeted populated areas and public markets in Damascus and Homs provinces as well as two schools in Kafr Hamra in rural Aleppo and the town of Kansafra in rural Idlib, killing nearly 160 civilians, including women and children, and injuring over 150 others - 9 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing several civilians, including women and children - 10 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing and wounding some people, in Homs province, and in Lattakia province - 10 December 2015: Fighter jets believed to be Russian launched several airstrikes across Syria, targeting towns in Rural Damascus, areas in Aleppo and Idlib killing dozens of civilians, including women and children, and wounding many - 11 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, and in Homs province - 12 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province - 13 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Lattakia province - 14 December 2015: At least 45 civilians including ten children have been killed by heavy regime rocket fire and airstrikes targeting besieged Syrian rebel strongholds Douma, Harasta, Saqba and Arbin east of Damascus that also hit a school - 14 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 14 December 2015: Rights groups say they documented 113 people killed across Syrian on Sunday, including 23 children and 16 women, as the district of Douma in eastern Ghouta bore the brunt of the Russian airstrikes using cluster and vacuum bombs - 15 December 2015: In response to the recent massacres in Douma and Eastern Ghouta by Russian warplanes, activists in Damascus launch a campaign distributing leaflets with pictures of Russia's Putin reading 'the murderer of Syrian people' - 15 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, in Rif Damashq province, also carrying out more airstrikes on Douma and al-Nashabiyya in the Eastern Ghouta, and in Lattakia province - 16 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Lattakia province, and in Rif Damashq province - 17 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in al-Hasakah province 18 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 19 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, killing more children, in Aleppo province, killing civilians, in Idlib province, trargeting the city of Jeser al-Shogour west, killing at least 7 children and 7 women in a massacre, one of them pregnant, and again in Idlib province, targeting the town of al-Najiyyah, and in Rif Dimashq province - 19 December: Just hours after UN security council roadmap to peace agreed in New York, Putin says Russia ready to increase military role in Syria - 20 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, in Hama and in Idlib provinces, killing and wounding civilians - 20 December 2015: Suspected Russian warplanes kill scores of people in the Syrian city of Idlib, targeting a busy market place in the heart of the city, several government buildings and residential areas - 21 December 2015: Russian airstrikes on Idlib, targeting health and public services centers as well as apartment buildings in the city center, killing 50 civilians and wounding 170 others, violates UNSC resolution 2254, Syrian Coalition says - 21 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province, killing citizens including at least a woman, in Rif Damashq province targeting Douma, killing 5 civilians, including a woman, her two female children and another woman, and wounding others - 21 December 2015: Human Rights Watch denounces Russia’s extensive use of cluster bombs in Syria - 22 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama and in al-Raqqa province, in Idlib province targeting the city of Khan Sheikhoun and the towns of al-Kindah, al-Najiyyah and Bdama in the western countryside of Idlib, and in Aleppo province - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces - 23 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, in Aleppo province, killing more children and women, in Lattakia province - 24 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Homs province, in Idlib province, killing and wounding many civilians, in Aleppo province - 25 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing and wounding more civilians and children, and in Homs province - 26 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, also carrying out several raids on hospital areas in the town of Hraytan, again in Homs province, targeting Tadmur city with missiles in 23 airstrikes, again in Aleppo province - 26 December 2015: Russia’s assassination of rebel commanders is deliberate targeting of the Syrian Revolution, Syrian Coalition says - 27 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, killing 3 civilians while wounding 20 others - 28 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, in Aleppo province, in Hama province, targeting the villages of Aydoun, al-SatHiyyat, al-Tloul and al-Homor, in Rif Damashq province, targeting al-Batra and al-Maqali’ areas in Qalamon, again in Aleppo province, targeting the neighborhood of al-Rashidin in the city of Aleppo, again in Homs province, targeting areas of the electricity management area, Qasr al-Her school, Tadmur city, and al-Sena’ia area, killing four civilians including a child - 29 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, killing a child in the town of al-Sheikh Meskin, in Aleppo province, targeting neighborhoods in the city of Aleppo and the villages of Tal Msibin and Tal Jbin, the towns of Deir Jamal, Tal Ref’at and I’zaz city, killing 6 civilians, including a child and a woman, in Idlib province - 30 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, targeting the villages and towns of Hayyan and Hraytan, Tal Msibin and Tal Jbin, al-Mallah area, Handarat, I’zaz city and the town of Kafar Naha - 30 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Rif Damashq province, also targeting the city of Arbin, in Daraa province, targeting the town of Sheikh Meskin, and in Homs province - 31 December 2015: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, targeting Ma’arzita, Saraqib and a camp for displaced civilians near Shekh Mustafa, and in Lattakia province - 31 December 2015: Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has documented the death of nearly 55,219 persons during 2015, including killed 20,977 civilians and 2,574 children
January 2016: 2 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 3 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting the towns of Nawa, Busra al-Harir and Sheikh Miskeen, in Aleppo province, targeting Tall Rifaat and Mennig and carrying out more deadly airstrikes on areas near Azaz city and in Mare, and in Lattakia province - 4 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 5 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, targeting the town of Selma - 5 January 2016: Syrian Network for Human Rights says that the Russian air force has committed 50 massacres between October and January, most of which occurred in the provinces of Damascus, Aleppo, Homs and Idlib, and claiming the lives of over 6,000 people - 6 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more deadly airstrikes in Lattakia province - 7 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Aleppo province, targeting areas in the town Bazzaah and reportedly killing eight citizens including women and children, in Daraa province, targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin and also targeting areas near Nawa city, and in Deir Ezzor province - 7 January 2016: 12 people reportedly killed in Russian airstrikes that targeted the area located between the towns of Zamalka and Hazza in eastern Ghouta - 7 January 2016: Turkey's Davutoglu says that Russia has become a partner of the Syrian regime, which is brutally bombing civilians in Syria, and the world should not tolerate a situation where Syrians are fleeing the bombing, adding that the UN Security Council and Russia are responsible for the tragedy unfolding in Syria - 8 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, and in Aleppo province - 9 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting Sheikh Meskin with 12 airstrikes - 10 January 2015: At least 57 people killed in a massacre by Russian warplanes targeting the Administrative Court in Maarrat al-Nu’man - 10 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Homs province, and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting Sheikh Meskin with 25 airstrikes, in Idlib and Lattakia province, killing a citizen woman, a man and a child, and in Aleppo province - 11 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin, in Lattakia province, targeting Salma and the towns and villages of Jabal al-Akrad and Jabal al-Turkman, and in Hama province - 11 January 2016: At least eight children were killed along with their teacher in a Russian air strike that hit a school in the town of Anjara in Aleppo province on Monday, also injuring at least 20 people, all of them children and teachers - 11 January 2016: 15 casualties including 12 children in the massacre by warplanes in the western countryside of Aleppo, as three schools were targeted by Russian aircrafts in the town of Ain Jara - 11 January 2016: Russia supplies Islamist terrorists Hezbollah with heavy weapons, as Hezbollah, Iran and Russia work closely to prop up Assad regime - 12 January 2016: Rose to 43 including 4 children and 6 women, the number of civilians who were killed in 3 massacres by Russian warplanes in Sarmada, Ma’raa al-Nu’man and Saraqib in Idlib province - 12/13 January 2016: Russian warplanes carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, killing 5 civilians at least and wounding dozens, in Rif Damashq province, in Hama province, and in Lattakia province, as regime forces and Hezbollah attack Salma town - 13 January 2016: 80 civilians killed and dozens wounded in Russian airstrikes on northern Syria - 14 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province, targeting areas of Khan al-Asal, of Azaz and the towns and villages of Mare’, Malkiyyeh and Mar’anaz, in Daraa province, also targeting areas in the town of Sheikh Meskin, in Hama province, and in Homs province - 15 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province - in Homs and in Rif Damashq province - 16 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Rif Damashq province, in Aleppo province, targeting al-Malkiyyeh and also areas in al-Bab city, causing injuries and casualties including children and women, in Idlib province - 17 January 2016: 12 civilians from one family, 9 children and 3 women, were killed in the massacre carried out when warplanes, not known whether they were Russian or Syrian warplanes, targeted areas in the Filon village south of Idlib - 17 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 18 January 2016: Russian war criminals targeting al-Sakhour marketplace and northern town of Ma'rasset al-Khan in Aleppo province using fighter jets murder at least 15 civilians - 19 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Aleppo province - 19 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, targeting the villages of Hirbnafsah and Talaf - 20 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama and in Idlib province, killing and injuring several people - 21 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Deir Ezzor and Idlib province, causing many casualties - 23 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Idlib province, and in Lattakia province - 24 January 2016: Rose to 164 including 43 children and 25 women the number of people who were killed in the past 72 hours by massacres committed by Russian and Syrian warplanes in the towns of Tabia, Jazira, Khesham, and al-Bolel in the eastern countryside of Der-Ezzor - 24 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province - 25 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Lattakia province, in Daraa province, and in Rif Damashq province - 25 January 2016: The Syrian interim government says that the Russian air force has bombed a total of 25 schools across Syria since the start of the Russian aggression against Syria in 2015 - 25 January 2016: Nearly 104 civilians, mostly women, children, and the elderly, reportedly killed in Russian airstrikes and shelling by ballistic missiles on Sunday, concentrated on rebel-held areas in Idlib, Lattakia and Aleppo provinces - 26 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Daraa province, in Idlib province, in Rif Damashq province, in Aleppo province, and in Lattakia province - 27 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province - 27 January 2016: A total of 30 civilians, including women and children, killed and many more wounded in Russian airstrikes on rebel-held areas across Idlib province, targeting a public market in the town of Ariha, a residential area in the town of Jarjanaz, the town of Tarmanin and the towns of Saraqib, Tamana’a and Al-Najiya - 27 January 2016: Dozens of civilians reportedly killed and injured in Russian airstrikes on the town of Mheimidah in western rural Deir Ezzor, as the Russian air force also bombed the towns of Al-Mayadin, Abu Hamam and Al-Shuheil in rural Deir ezzor, causing civilian casualties - 27 January 2016: SOHR was able to document the death of 471 civilians including 127 children and 56 women, since the beginning of January 2016 until last night January 27th, they were all killed by Russian airstrikes targeted different Syrian provinces - 28 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Hama province, in Aleppo province, also targeting Anadan charity hospital area in the northern countryside killing a nurse and injuring 10 other people, in Homs province, in Deir Ezzor province, also targeting Mhimideh town, Abu Hamam town, al-Kharita town and killing many people including women and children - 29 January 2016: Russian warplanes killed five people and wounded 40 others in strikes on the town of Kafarlaha in Homs province, using cluster munitions and 'advanced' missiles - 29 January 2016: Russian warplanes and warplanes believed to be Russian carry out more airstrikes in Deir Ezzor province - 29 January 2016: As 15 civilians are killed and dozens wounded as a result of a Russian airstrike on the town of Kafar Takharim in Idlib pro