European countries M - Y

Geography of Europe: Geography of Europe, the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or the larger Afro-Eurasia - Geology of Europe - Geological history of Europe
List of European countries by population and by area: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, including 50 generally recognised sovereign states - List of European countries by population, including 51 countries and 6 territories and dependencies located in Europe, broadly defined, as transcontinental countries are included if they are members of the Council of Europe - List of European countries by area, as some states are only partially located in Europe and are ranked according to the size of their European part only - Lists of countries in Europe by other - more or less distinguishing - features
European countries A - L




Malta - Geography of Malta - History of Malta - Demographics of Malta
Economy of Malta: Economy of Malta, main industries include tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services - Companies of Malta by industry
Petroleum in Malta: Petroleum in Malta - Luzzu oil field, located in the Mediterranean Sea, discovered in 2006 it will begin production in 2015
Energy in Malta: Energy in Malta, Malta produces almost all its electricity using oil, importing 100% of it
Agriculture in Malta: Agriculture in Malta - Lumi laring ta ghawdex - cultivation of oranges
Transport in Malta: Transport in Malta - Ports and harbours of Malta
Water transport in Malta: Water transport in Malta
Tourism in Malta: Tourism in Malta
Banking and banks in Malta: List of banks in Malta - Central Bank of Malta - Bank of Valletta - HSBC Bank Malta
March-November 2018 Pilatus bank case and investigative journalist: 22. März 2018: Maltas Finanzaufsicht MFSA hat die Absetzung des iranischen Chefs Nedschad der in einen Korruptionsskandal verwickelten Pilatus-Bank angeordnet, den die im Oktober ermordete maltesische Investigativjournalistin Daphne Caruana Galizia aufgedeckt hatte
November 2018 Pilatus bank closed over Iranian chairman fraud and corrupt payment charges: 5 November 2018: Maltese Pilatus bank, which was closed after its Iranian chairman and owner Ali Sadr Hasheminejad was charged in the USA in connection with money-laundering and fraud and was also accused of processing corrupt payments to Maltese officials by the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, has had its licence withdrawn by the European Central Bank
Taxation in Malta: Taxation in Malta
Politics of Malta: Politics of Malta - Constitution of Malta adopted on 21 September 1964 and amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2007
Political parties and trade unions in Malta: Political parties in Malta - Trade unions in Malta
Elections and parliament in Malta: Elections in Malta - Parliament of Malta
May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum: May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum, effectively a referendum on independence, as the new constitution made the country an independent Commonwealth realm
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
March 2008 Maltese general election: Maltese general election 8 March 2008 - 10 December 2012: Malta faces new elections after its government collapsed over negotiations for next year's budget
General election March 2013: Maltese general election 9 March 2013 - 10 March 2013: Addressing thousands of supporters at Floriana Granaries, newly elected PM Joseph Muscat says that the day of change has just dawned upon Malta
April 2014 Maltese presidential election: Maltese presidential election 1 April 2014 - Marie Louise Coleiro Preca appointed as the ninth President of Malta on 4 April 2014
European Parliament election 2014: European Parliament election 24 May 2014
June 2017 Maltese general election: 3 June 2017 Maltese general election - 4 juin 2017: Le premier ministre Muscat annoncé gagnant, dans l'espoir de retrouver une légitimité à l'égard d'une affaire des comptes au Panama
November/December 2017: 3 novembre 2017: Malte enterre ce vendredi la journaliste et blogueuse anticorruption Daphne Caruana Galizia, dont l'assassinat à la voiture piégée le 16 octobre a provoqué une onde de choc - 4 December 2017: Eight suspects have been arrested in Malta over the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, according to Malta's PM - 5 December 2017: Three Maltese men have been charged for the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia
May 2018: 28 May 2018: The family of the murdered Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia have had little chance to mourn her death because of continuing intimidation, threats and lies, according to her son
May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta: 25 May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta
September 2019 concerns over Daphne Caruana Galizia's death inquiry: 21 September 2019: Family of murdered Maltese journalist raise concerns over public inquiry, as Daphne Caruana Galizia’s family request meeting with Maltese PM over concerns about impartiality of panel, calling for greater scrutiny into a lack of accountability for criminal actions and political corruption
October 2019 serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2019: Pieter Omtzigt, a special rapporteur for the Council of Europe, has raised serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, saying 'individual officers may be doing their best, but the approach of the police force as a whole, and of the politicians responsible for it, does not match the prime minister’s promise to leave no stone unturned'
November 2019 Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested in Galizia case: 20 November 2019: Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested onboard his yacht as it was heading out to sea, in an operation linked to the murder of the Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, less than 24 hours after immunity offer from prosecution to an alleged middleman in exchange for information
26 November 2019 Maltese PM's aide and minister quit amid turmoil: 26 November 2019: Maltese PM’s chief of staff and tourism minister resigned in an escalation of the political turmoil surrounding the investigation into the murder of the prominent anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia in 2017
1 December 2019 Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder: 1 December 2019: Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder
12 January 2020 Malta gets new PM Labour leader Robert Abela: 12 January 2020: Malta gets new PM labour leader Robert Abela after Muscat departs over Daphne Caruana Galizia murde amid controversy surrounding investigation of journalist’s death
29 July 2021 Malta responsible for journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia's death, inquiry says: 29 July 2021: A public inquiry into the assassination of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia has found the state responsible for her death, as the report said the state had failed to recognise risks to the reporter's life and take reasonable steps to avoid them, after Caruana Galizia died in a car bomb attack near her home in October 2017
26 March 2022 general elections in Malta: 26 March 2022 general elections in Malta - Results of March 2022 election, as Labour Party won 162,707 votes or 55.11% and Nationalist Party 123,233 votes or 41.74%
Social movements and protests in Malta: Protests in Malta
October 2017 protests following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017: Journalists, politicians, private citizens, backers and detractors, all were quick to condemn the as-yet unknown perpetrators who murdered Malta's most known journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia - 17 October 2017: People gathered outside the law courts in Valletta this afternoon for a protest demanding justice following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia - 19 October 2017: Malta's journalists held a silent commemoration in Valletta today to mark their sorrow at the murder of blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia and to promise that the savage attack will not intimidate the profession - 22 October 2017: Thousands of Maltese call for justice in a protest held by a group of non-governmental organizations after journalist and anti-corruption blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia was killed last Monday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Malta: Maltese society - Human rights in Malta
Regions, districts and local councils of Malta: Subdivisions of Malta - Regions of Malta - Districts of Malta - Local councils of Malta
List of towns with and without a local council, with and without hamlet council: List of towns in Malta with a local council, with and without hamlet council, in Gozo with a local council, with and without hamlet council
Valletta city: Valletta city, the capital city of Malta and located in the South Eastern Region, the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938 inhabitants
Education in Valletta: Education in Valletta
Economy of Valletta: Economy of Valletta (Wirtschaft Vallettas)
History and timeline of Valletta: History and timeline of Valletta
Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule: Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule
21st century history of Valletta: Contemporary history of Valletta
Leeuwarden and Valletta European Capital of Culture in 2018: Valletta was the European Capital of Culture in 2018 together with The Netherlands' Leeuwarden
Rabat town: Rabat town in the Northern Region of Malta, with a population of 11,497 citizens in 2014. It adjoins the ancient capital city of Mdina, and a north-western area formed part of the Roman city of Melite until its medieval retrenchment
28 September 2021 Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath: 28 September 2021: Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath, after the EU member state has committed to achieving 11.5% target share of energy from renewable sources by 2030, and as the country's first solar footpath is taking shape in Rabat
Demographics of Malta: Demographics of Malta
Culture of Malta: Culture of Malta - Languages of Malta - Maltese language
Women and women's rights in Malta: Women in Malta - Maltese women by occupation
Since 1947 women in Maltese general elections and politics: Women in Maltese general elections, as 15 general elections have been contested since the granting of universal suffrage in Malta in 1947, as only 73 women have contested in these elections and number of men has exceeded 1000, but the number of women contesting general elections has increased over the years - Maltese women in politics
Maltese children: Maltese children
Education in Malta: Education in Malta
Schools in Malta: Schools in Malta - List of schools in Malta
Universities in Malta: Universities in Malta - University of Malta
Health in Malta: Health in Malta
Healthcare in Malta: Healthcare in Malta - List of hospitals in Malta
Media in Malta: Media in Malta
Newspapers in Malta: Newspapers published in Malta - List of newspapers in Malta
Radio and TV in Malta: Radio in Malta - Television in Malta
Internet in Malta: Internet in Malta
Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook 'Running Commentary': Running Commentary website, Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook - Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook's final blog on 16 October 2017
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
November 2017: 22 November 2017: The family of the murdered Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was a relentless critic of corruption in the country, are taking legal action against the police force for allegedly failing to ensure the investigation into her killing is impartial and independent
April 2018: 17 April 2018: The family of the murdered anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia believe that three men awaiting trial for the crime were acting on orders from inside Malta, and have expressed concern that elements within the government may be protecting whoever commissioned the killing
July 2019: 16 July 2019: Three men have been formally charged over the 2017 murder of Maltese anti-corruption journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was killed by a car bomb in November 2017
24 October 2020 children's book tells story of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 24 October 2020: Children's book tells story of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, as her friend Gattaldo recounts her battles against corruption for young readers, saying 'she has left a strong legacy and here in Malta I see it', 'there is a realisation that democracy doesn’t stop with the vote'
Crime in Malta: Crime in Malta
Since classical antiquity slavery in Malta: Slavery in Malta existed and was recognised from classical antiquity until the early modern period, common in many countries around the Mediterranean Sea, as the system reached its apex under Hospitaller rule, when it took on unprecedented proportions, largely to provide galley slaves for the galleys of the Order, as well as other Christian countries
Corruption in Malta: 28 February 2017: Overview of Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Malta by Transparency International
April 2021 Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’: 23 April 2021: Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’, as undercover investigation finds evidence that cash-for-passport practices revealed in Henley & Partners leak continue
Terrorism in Malta: Terrorism in Malta
1977 Murder of Karin Grech: 28 December 1977 Murder of Karin Grech
October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia:: 16 October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia
October 2017 bomb detonated via mobile phone message: 19 December 2017: Bomb was ‘organic explosive’ detonated via mobile phone message, sent from a boat off the island’s coast as part of a carefully planned operation lasting several months
Organized crime in Malta: Organized crime and 'Ndrangheta in Malta
Human trafficking in Malta: Human trafficking in Malta
Law and legal history of Malta: Law of Malta - Human rights in Malta and history
Judiciary of Malta: Judiciary of Malta
Law enforcement in Malta: Law enforcement in Malta - The Malta Police Force
2017 police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder: 17 October 2017: Police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder
Foreign relations of Malta: Foreign relations of Malta
Treaties of Malta: Treaties of Malta
Immigration to Malta: Immigration to Malta - Illegal immigration in Malta - May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck - 11 October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - September 2014 Malta migrant shipwreck - 17 September 2014: About 500 migrants may have been killed when people smugglers rammed their boat bound for Malta, drowning the vast majority of its passengers, including refugees from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Palestine, the IOM says after it debriefed two Palestinian survivors - 19 September 2014: World must vigorously pursue criminal gangs who doomed hundreds of migrants in the Mediterranean, IOM's William Lacy Swing says
Malta and the European Union: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese EU membership referendum: Maltese EU membership referendum March 2003
2013: 13. Oktober 2013: Nach dem Schiffsunglück am 11. Oktober zwischen Malta und Lampedusa sagt Joseph Muscat, Malta fühle sich in der Flüchtlingsproblematik von der EU im Stich gelassen
2017: 20 October 2017: As European parliament's Antonio Tajani says there was broad agreement among the EU27 on the need for some form of international involvement 'to fully clarify an event of unprecedented gravity', Pope Francis sent a rare letter of condolence to Malta following the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, amid calls from her sons for the island’s PM to resign and mounting pressure for an international investigation - 3 novembre 2017: La Commission européenne a demandé aux autorités maltaises de retrouver les 'barbares' qui ont tué la journaliste d'investigation Daphné Caruana Galizia mi-octobre
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU’s justice commissioner Vera Jourová to fly to Malta to meet officers investigating the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia after a damning report accused the authorities of seeking to delay and stall attempts to find those who wanted the journalist dead
Bilateral relations of Malta: Bilateral relations of Malta
Malta/France relations: Malta/France relations
1798-1800 French occupation of Malta: 1798-1800 French occupation of Malta
Malta/Germany relations: Malta/Germany relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
Since January 1941 German intervention: Since January 1941 German intervention
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
2017 sociétés 'boîte aux lettres': 10 mai 2017: Des milliers d'entreprises fictives enregistrées sur l'île de Malta et liées à de grands groupes allemands sont dans le viseur du fisc allemand
Malta/Italy relations: Malta/Italy relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta: June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
Malta/Libya relations: Malta/Libya relations
Malta/Russia relations: Malta/Russia relations
2016: 27 October 2016: Malta will not refuel Russia's 'death fleet' heading to Syria, after online petition to the Maltese government said the people of Malta did not want to be complicit in Russia's war crimes
Malta/Spain relations: Malta/Spain relations
Malta/Tunisia relations: Malte/Tunisia relations
2015: 9 July 2015: As Maltese holidaymakers strike Tunisia off their destination list following the Sousse terrorist attack in June, and British tourists decide to cut their holidays, some have declared in interviews and on social media they were determined to see their holiday through to the end to defy the terrorists
Malta/Turkey relations: Malta/Turkey relations
1565 Great Siege of Malta: 1565 Great Siege of Malta, when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller
Malta/United Kingdom relations: Malta/United Kingdom relations
1690–1967 British Mediterranean Fleet: British Mediterranean Fleet 1690–1967
1798-1800 Siege of Malta: Siege of Malta (1798–1800)
1813-1964 British Malta Colony: British Malta Colony 1813–1964
1964 Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence: Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence 1964
Malta/USA relations: Malta/USA relations
Environment of Malta: Environment of Malta - Natural history of Malta - Geology of Malta
Landforms of Malta: Landforms of Malta
Water in Malta: Water in Malta


Moldova - Geography of Moldova - Principality of Moldavia 1346–1859 - History of Moldova - Independence of Moldova since 1991 - History of independent Moldova - Demographics of Moldova
Economy of Moldova: Economy of Moldova - main industries include sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, shoes, textiles - Companies of Moldova by industry
Telecommunications in Moldova
Agriculture in Moldova: Agriculture in Moldova and food processing account for about 40% of GDP including wine, wheat, corn, barley, tobacco, sugar beet, soybeans, beef and dairy cattle
Moldovan wine: Moldovan wine
Tourism in Moldova: Tourism in Moldova
Banking and banks in Moldova: List of banks in Moldova - Since 1991 National Bank of Moldova
Economic history of Moldova and economic cycles: Economic history of Moldova
2006-2020 macroeconomic situation and development: 2006-2020 Macroeconomic situation, business and economic environment and development
Poverty in Moldova: Poverty in Moldova
Military of Moldova: Military of Moldova
Politics of Moldova: Politics of Moldova
Political parties in Moldova: Political parties in Moldova
Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party': Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party', a liberal pro-EU political party in Moldova, led by the former minister of Education of Moldova Maia Sandu, as the party was constituted on grounds of voluntary association of the citizens
Trade unions in Moldova: Trade unions in Moldova
Elections and politics in Moldova: Elections in Moldova
Moldovan parliamentary election 28 November 2010 - Pro-European Coalition since May 2013
Moldovan presidential election December 2011 – March 2012
November 2014 Moldovan parliamentary election: Moldovan parliamentary election 30 November 2014 - 29 November: Moldovan pro-Kremlin party leader flees to Moscow ahead of parliamentary ballot after court barred pro-Russian party over illegal funding - 30 November: Moldovans cast their ballots - 1 December: With 87.7% of the vote counted early Monday, the pro-Europe parties were ahead with about 44.4%, with 39.5% for the two pro-Russia parties
October 2016 Moldovan presidential election: 30 October 2016 Moldovan presidential election - 30 October 2016: Moldovans elect president for first time in 20 years - 31 October: Moldova presidential election heads to second round
November 2016: 14 November 2016: Igor Dodon becomes president-elect in Moldova getting alleged 52,29% of votes, while Maiya Sandu got 47,71%
December 2018: 14 December 2018: On 24 February 2019 Moldova will elect a new parliament based on a mixed electoral system adopted in July 2017 by the incumbent Democratic Party, led by oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc, and the nominally opposition Party of Socialists controlled by President Igor Dodon, but opposed by all the other major political parties
February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election and referendum: 24 February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election - A two-part referendum will be held in Moldova on 24 February 2019, alongside parliamentary elections, as voters will be asked whether the number of MPs should be reduced from 101 to 61 and whether MPs should be open to recall
June 2019 Pavel Filip called early election: 9 juin 2019: Le nouveau président, Pavel Filip, a dissous le parlement sur fond de crise alors que l'ancien dirigeant pro-russe ne voulait pas un entente entre russes et européens
June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova: June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova, led by Maia Sandu, inaugurated on 8 June 2019 in the middle of the 2019 Moldovan constitutional crisis when the Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional her designation for this position as well as the appointment of the Government of the Republic of Moldova, however on 15 June 2019 the Constitutional Court revised and repealed its previous decisions declaring the Sandu Cabinet to have been constitutionally created, but it was ousted in a motion of no confidence in the Parliament of Moldova on 12 November that same year and subsequently replaced by a government headed by Ion Chicu
September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election: 6 September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election
Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet: Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet led by Ion Chicu and formed two days after the Sandu Cabinet led by Maia Sandu was ousted in a vote of no confidence
November 2020 Moldovan presidential election: 1 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election - 1 novembre 2020: Les Moldaves élisent dimanche leur président sous l’œil attentif de Moscou qui souhaite voir le chef de l’État sortant réélu face aux candidats pro-européens, sur fond d’inquiétude liée aux mouvements de contestation secouant l’espace ex-soviétique
2 November 2020 CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7%: 2 November 2020: Moldova will hold a runoff presidential election after CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7% with nearly all ballots counted, as Sandu was also backed by about 70% of Moldovans who voted abroad
15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round: 15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round, candidate from the Action and Solidarity Party, former PM Maia Sandu, won the elections
20 November 2020 Moldova's president-elect Maia Sandu says Crimea is part of Ukraine: 20 November 2020: Moldova's president-elect, former PM Maia Sandu, says Crimea is part of Ukraine, adding she has repeatedly expressed respect for the territorial integrity of neighbouring country, as Ukrainian president Zelensky has already invited Sandu to visit Ukraine
22 October 2021 Moldova in state of emergency for a montb amid soaring world energy prices: 22 October 2021: Moldova’s parliament has approved a government-requested state of emergency until 20 November as it tries to ease gas shortages amid soaring world energy prices, as country wedged between Romania and Ukraine gets gas from Russia via its pro-Russian separatist region of Transnistria and Ukraine
6 March 2022 Moldova seeks USA support over Ukraine war refugees: 6 March 2022: Moldova seeks USA support over Ukraine war refugees, as some 120,000 people have crossed into the small country since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine last week
5 April 2022 Moldova to receive aid from EU donors: 5 April 2022: Moldova to receive aid from EU donors, as EU countries pledge more than $720m in aid to Moldova to help it cope with the fallout from Russia’s war in neighbouring Ukraine
Social movements and protests in Moldova: Protests in Moldova
1990/1991 'Bridge of Flowers': Bridge of Flowers
2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests: April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests
2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration: November 2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration in Moldova
2015 protest demanding an investigation of Moldova's state-owned savings bank: 4 May 2015: Thousands in Chisinau held a protest demanding an investigation into more than USD 1 billion that has gone missing from Moldova's state-owned savings bank and demanding the government do more to implement European reforms - 7 September 2015: Tens of thousands protest in Moldova, demand president's resignation and probe into bank fraud - 14 September: Anti-graft rally enters second week as more than 20,000 people rallied over the weekend - 5 October: Ongoing mass rallies demand action against corruption and the resignation of senior government officials - 26 November: Moldovan protesters begin hunger strike in tent city
April 2016 protests against influence of politically connected business people: 25 April 2016: Thousands of demonstrators demand government resignation and early elections, claiming the current government is under the influence of politically connected business people who dictate policy
November 2016 protests expressing discontent with the results of presidential elections: 14 November 2016: Thousands of people are protesting in the Moldovian capital Chisinau, expressing their discontent with the results of the recent presidential elections, accusing the authorities of a rigged election and demanding the third ballot, as Maiya Sandu pledges to appeal the ballot results and to consider each particular complaint


Society, demographics and human rights in Moldova: Moldovan society
Human rights in Moldova: Human rights in Moldova
Demographics, history of Moldova and history of the Jews in Bessarabia: Demographics of Moldova - Demographic history of Transnistria - History of the Jews in Bessarabia dating back hundreds of years, as in 1897 the Jewish population had grown to 225,637 of a total of 1,936,392, or 11.65%.
Cities and towns in Moldova: List of cities and towns in Moldova
Chisinau city: Chisinau city and the capital of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, and is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bâc, a tributary of the Dniester. According to the results of the 2014 census, the city proper had a population of 532,513 citizens, while the population of the Municipality of Chisinau (which includes the city itself and other nearby communities) was 700,00 inhabitants
Bîc river in Moldova: Bîc river in Moldova, a right tributary of the Dniester, originating in a spring in the village of Temeleu?i in west central Moldova. As it flows west and south, the upper Bâc cuts a deep canyon in the Codri Hills. It then flows through the town of Straseni into the Chisinau Sea reservoir, about 20km to the north and west of Chisinau city. The river then flows through the city along the northern edge of the center. After departing it flows further south and west through the town of Anenii Noi, and then empties into the Dnistr near the village of Gura Bîcului ('mouth of the Bîc')
History and timeline of Chisinau recorded since 1436: History of Chisinau recorded since 1436. Then, it has grown to become a significant political and cultural capital of South East Europe. In 1918 Chisinau became the capital of an independent state, the Moldavian Democratic Republic, and has been the capital of Moldova since 1991.
Since 1436 timeline of Chisinau: Timeline of Chisinau since 1436
19th century industrial age of Chisinau: History of Chisinau recorded since 1436. Then, it has grown to become a significant political and cultural capital of South East Europe. In 1918 Chi?inau became the capital of an independent state, the Moldavian Democratic Republic, and has been the capital of Moldova since 1991.
19th/20th century growing anti-Semitism in the Russian Empire and 1903 Kishinev pogrom In the late 19th century, especially due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chisinau, but 1903 Kishinev pogrom. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862 and to 125,787 by 1900. By the year 1900, 43% of the population of Chisinau was Jewish, one of the highest numbers in Europe
History of Chisinau 1918-1991 when the city became the capital of the Republic of Moldova: Since 1918 interwar period of Chisinau, Axis Powers 1939-1945 World War II as Chisinau was almost completely destroyed, as after the war, Bessarabia was fully integrated into the Soviet Union. Most of Bessarabia became the Moldavian SSR with Chisinau as its capital, and smaller parts of Bessarabia became parts of the Ukrainian SSR, and as between 1969 and 1971 a fight for the establishment of a Moldavian Democratic Republic brought secession from the Soviet Union and union with Romania, before Chisinau became the capital of the Republic of Moldova since 1991 following the establishment of new publications such as Glasul, Desteptarea, Tara, Sfatul Tarii, Limba Româna. The Popular Front of Moldova was formed in 1989.
21st century history of Chisinau: 21st century history of Chisinau
April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests: April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests in Chisinau, Cahul, Orhei, Balti, 13 cities in Romania including Bucharest, Washington, D.C., Boston, New York City, London, after the unrest began as a public protest following the announcement of preliminary election results on 6 April 2009, which showed the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova victorious, winning approximately 50% of the votes. Final results, published on 8 April, showed that the PCRM garnered 49.48% of the vote, gaining 60 parliament seats – one less than the three-fifths required for the party to control the presidential election. The opposition rejected the election results, accusing the authorities of falsification in the course of counting the votes and demanded new elections. - 8 April 2009: Romania blamed over Moldova riots, as Moldova, sandwiched between Romania and Ukraine, is the poorest country in Europe, where the average wage is just under $250 a month, as the people speak Romanian sharing many cultural links with Romania. However it was annexed by the Soviet Union in World War II and gained independence in 1991. There remains an unresolved conflict with the breakaway region of Trans-Dniester, which has run its own affairs, with Moscow's support, since the end of hostilities in a brief war in 1992, according to the BBC. The unrest was followed by May–June 2009 Moldovan presidential election, and July 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election.
3 November 2013 huge pro Europe demonstration in Chisinau: 3 November 2013 pro Europe demonstration took place in the capital Chisinau of Moldova. The demonstration was organised by three parties of the ruling coalition: Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Democratic Party of Moldova and Liberal Reformists Party. It's estimated that around 100,000 people participated at the demonstration, at that time being the biggest mass group or collection of groups of people, since Moldovan Declaration of Independence.
Balti city: Balti city in Moldova, the second largest city in terms of population, area and economic importance, after Chisinau. The city is one of the five Moldovan municipalities, and a major industrial, cultural and commercial centre and transportation hub in the north of the country. It is situated 127 kilometres north of the capital Chisinau, and is located on the river Raut, a tributary of the Dniester, on a hilly landscape in the Balti steppe
Raut river in Moldova: Raut river in Moldova, a right tributary of Dniester. Raut, generally navigable until 18-19th century, is navigable today only by small recreational boats. The towns Balti, Orhei and Floresti are located by the river.
History of Balti since the Middle Ages: History of Balti since the Middle Ages
Twentieth century up to 1989 history of Balti and Post-World War II period: Twentieth century up to 1989 history of Balti and Post-World War II period
Soroca city: Soroca city and municipality in Moldova, the administrative center of the Soroca District, situated on the Dniester river about 160km north of Chisinau and with a population of 22,196 citizens in 2014, as in 1919 its population was estimated at 35,000. It consisted mainly of Jews. Romanians, Germans and Russians also lived in the city. The city once had a Jewish population of around 18,000 but they are only 100 today and 20 of them are considered Jewish according to the halakha. In 2012, Soroca had an estimated 37,500 inhabitants.
Dniester river in Eastern Europe and Moldova: The Dniester river in Eastern Europe - in Ukrainian known as Dniester or Dnister, in Romanian as Nistru, in Russian as Dnestr, in Yiddish as Nester and in Lithuanian as Dniestra -, runing first through Ukraine and then through Moldova (from which it more or less separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again
Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky: Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky in the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky, Ukraine, located on the north-western shore of Black Sea at Dniester Estuary, to the south-west from Odessa. Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Seaport is mainly a freight seaport
Tiraspol city: Tiraspol city, the proclaimed capital of Transnistria region as breakaway state in Moldova, where it is the second largest city. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production. Tiraspol was founded by the Russian tsarist general Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups
Ancient history of Tiras (pol or city): History of Tyras spelled Tiras, a colony of the Greek city Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10km from the mouth of the Tiras, today Dniester River. In the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins. It was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC. In 56 AD the Romans restored the city and made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exist that feature heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Severus Alexander. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar.
Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky: Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky in the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky, Ukraine, located on the north-western shore of Black Sea at Dniester Estuary, to the south-west from Odessa. Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Seaport is mainly a freight seaport
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi city: Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi city, municipality and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Budjak. It also serves as the administrative center of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion, one of seven districts of Odessa Oblast. It is a location of a big freight seaport with a population of 48,197 citizens in 2021


Culture and languages of Moldova: Culture of Moldova - Languages of Moldova - Moldovan language - Moldovans - Controversy over linguistic and ethnic identity in Moldova
Education in Moldova: Education in Moldova
Schools in Moldova: Schools in Moldova
Universities and colleges in Moldova: Universities and colleges in Moldova
Health in Moldova: Health in Moldova
Disease outbreaks in Moldova: Disease outbreaks in Moldova
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Moldova: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Moldova as part of the worldwide pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2
31 October 2020 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova: 31 October 2020: 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova
Healthcare in Moldova: Healthcare in Moldova - Medical and health organizations based in Moldova
Hospitals in Moldova: Hospitals in Moldova
Media in Moldova: Mass media in Moldova - Mass media in Moldova by city (7 cities) - Mass media of Transnistria, the breakaway territory within the borders of Moldova, featuring both state-owned or supported outlets and opposition media. Publications are in Russian, with a single newspaper in each of the other two official languages, Moldovan (Romanian), and Ukrainian
Legislative framework for Moldova's media: Legislative framework for Moldova's media, as legislation is deemed rather good, yet cases of abuses and intimidations persist. The Constitution of Moldova guarantees to all citizens 'the freedom of thought, opinion, as well as freedom of expression in public by words, images, or any other possible means'
Newspapers in Moldocva: List of newspapers in Moldova
Broadcasting and radio in Moldova: Broadcasting in Moldova - Radio in Moldova - Broadcasting companies of Moldova - Public broadcasting in Moldova
Since 1958 television in Moldova: Since 1958 television in Moldova
Telecommunications in Moldova: Telecommunications in Moldova and in Transnistria
Internet in Moldova: Internet in Moldova
Crime in Moldova and Transnistria: Crime in Moldova - Crime in Transnistria
Corruption in Moldova: Corruption in Moldova - Corruption in Moldova, Business Anti-Corruption Portal's report
Organized crime in Moldova:
2015: 7 October 2015: Criminal gangs, with suspected ties to Russia, have made several attempts to sell radioactive bomb-making material to extremists through Moldova - 26 November 2015: Moldovan police detains a total of 13 suspected members of a paramilitary group allegedly planning to attack cities in Moldova, with the aim of creating separatist republics similar to those in eastern Ukraine
Drugs in Moldova: Drugs in Moldova
Foreign relations of Moldova: Foreign relations of Moldova
Political status of Transnistria: Political status of Transnistria - Transnistria - War of Transnistria 1992 - Human rights in Transnistria - Crime in Transnistria - Foreign relations of Transnistria - Transnistrian republic recognized only by three states with limited recognition
2015: 29 November 2015 Transnistrian legislative and municipal election
Moldova/European Union relations: Moldova/European Union relations
Since 1998 EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement: 1 July 1998: EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement - European Neighbourhood Policy since 2003 - Delegation of the EU to Moldova since 2005
2014 Moldova keen to join the EU in 2019: 29 April 2014: Moldova keen to join the European Union in 2019 - 28 June 2014: EU signs association agreements with Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia
Moldova/Germany relations: Moldova/Germany relations
1941-1944 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers: 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers and occupied 1941-1944
1941-1944 The Holocaust in Transnistria: The Holocaust in Transnistria
Moldova/Nato relations: Moldova/Nato relations - 12 May 2014: NATO criticizes idea of bringing Transnistria closer to Russia and calls on Moscow to 'respect Moldova's territorial integrity'
Moldova/Romania relations: Moldova/Romania relations - Union of Bessarabia with Romania 1918 - 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers and occupied 1941-1944
Moldova/Russia relations: Moldova/Russia relations - Following its victory in the Russo-Turkish War 1806–1812 the Russian empire annexed Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire - 'Bessarabia Governorate' eastern part of Moldavia annexed by Russia 1812–1917 - Moldavian Democratic Republic 1917-1918 - Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940 - Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic 1944-1991 - Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1941-1951
1991: Independence of Moldova since 1991
2006-2014: 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines - 19 April 2014: Moldovan PM Iurie Leanca expresses concern that Moldova could be Putin's next conquest
Moldova/Ukraine relations: Moldova/Ukraine relations - Euroregion Dniester - Dniester river
20th/21st centuries history of Moldova–Ukraine relations: 20th/21st centuries history of Moldova–Ukraine relations, as since 2006 Ukraine conceded several important economic privileges to Moldova
20th/21st century 'bilateral' relationship Transnistria and Ukraine: 20th/21st century 'bilateral' relationship between the 'Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic' - commonly known as Transnistria - and Ukraine. Ukraine does not officially recognize the independence of Transnistria. Nevertheless, it maintains special relations with Transnistria in the political, cultural and economic spheres.
Since 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine strained relations: Since the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine relations were strained, as Transnistrian president officially took no side in the 2022 Russian war against assaulted neigbour marked by brutal Russian war crimes
25 February 2022 Moldova braces for waves of refugees from Ukraine: 25 February 2022: As Moldova braces for waves of refugees from Ukraine, president Maia Sandu warns population that Moldova has awoken to 'a new, more violent, world', voicing deep concern about the security situation on her country’s border caused by Russia’s invasion, as Russia stationed about 1,500 to 2,000 soldiers in the breakaway Moldovan region of Transnistria
5 April 2022 Russian regime's Ukraine war also threatens food security in Western Balkans: 5 April 2022: ussia’s attack on Ukraine has sent shockwaves throughout the globe, rocking world energy markets and causing the worst refugee crisis in Europe since World War II, as the ripple effects from the war may soon be felt in the area of food security as well, and Western Balkan countries are bracing for impact
Environment of Moldova: Environment of Moldova - Natural history of Moldova - Geology of Moldova
Landforms and ecoregions of Moldova: Landforms of Moldova - Ecoregions of Moldova
Water and rivers of Moldova: Water in Moldova - Rivers of Moldova - List of rivers of Moldova
Environmental issues of Moldova: Current environmental issues of Moldova include overuse of pesticides and artificial fertilizers, groundwater contamination by lingering chemicals, poor farming methods, climate change
Natural disasters in Moldova: Natural disasters in Moldova
Earthquakes in Moldova: Earthquakes in Moldova
22 November 2014 Vrancea earthquake with a moment magnitude of 5.7, as the earthquake was felt in northern Bulgaria and the Moldovan city of Chisinau
Floods in Moldova: Floods in Moldova


Poland - Geography of Poland - History of Poland - Demographics of Poland
Economy of Poland: Economy of Poland - main industries include machine building, iron and steel, mining coal, chemicals, ship building, food processing, glass
Companies of Poland by industry: Companies of Poland by industry - List of companies of Poland
Industry in Poland: Industry in Poland
Manufacturing companies of Poland: Manufacturing companies of Poland
Mines in Poland: Mines in Poland - List of mines in Poland - Copper mines in Poland
Coal mines in Poland: Coal mines in Poland
Mining disasters in Poland: Mining disasters in Poland
2016 earthquake caused a collapse at the Rudna copper mine: 1 December 2016: Eight people are dead, five more hospitalized, after a strong earthquake caused a collapse at the Rudna copper mine in Polkowice in southwestern Poland
Oil and gas industry in Poland: Oil and gas industry in Poland
Energy in Poland: Energy in Poland
Coal-fired power stations in Poland: Coal-fired power stations in Poland - around 95% of the nation's electricity is currently produced by burning coal
Nuclear energy in Poland: Nuclear energy in Poland
Renewable energy in Poland: Renewable energy in Poland
Wind power in Poland: Wind power, a minor source of electricity in Poland
Agriculture in Poland: Agriculture in Poland, vital for European and Global market because it produces a variety of agricultural, horticultural and animal origin products. The surface area of agricultural land in Poland is 15.4 million ha, which constitutes nearly 50% of the total area of the country,as its products include fruits, apples and vegetables, wheat, grains, feed grains, vegetable oil, potatoes and rye, sugar beets and triticale, rapeseed, cattle, meat, and dairy products
Types of farming in Poland, cultivation of four major grains, mixed farming: Types of farming in Poland as the quantity and quality of agricultural land ensured self-sufficiency and made considerable quantities of various agricultural products and processed foodstuffs available for export, and as grain production dominated Polish agriculture. The highest yields came from wheat, rye, barley, oats, as other major crops include potatoes, sugar beet, fodder crops, flax, hops, tobacco, and fruits. The northern and east-central regions of the country mainly offered poorer sandy soils suitable for rye and potatoes, as the richer soils of the central and southern parts of the country, excluding those at higher elevations, are making those regions the centers of wheat, sugar beet, hops, and tobacco production. The more accessible land at higher elevations is used to cultivate oats or was left as meadow and pastureland. In 1989 almost half of Poland's arable land was used for the cultivation of the four major grains, another 13% grew tomatoes. All regions of Poland raised dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs and poultry, and cultivated fruit, usually as an integral part of mixed farming
2018 main productions of agricultural products in Poland: 2018 main productions of agricultural products in Poland by quality and quantity, including 25 agricultural products, listed by 'Wikipedia'
2014-2020th Polish agriculture and EU: As Poland is part of the European Union and therefore subject to the CAP, Poland is one of the countries with the most subsidy-efficient farms and least reliant on them for investment, shown by inquiries about dependence of EU farms on subsidy payments including the question whether or how the CAP is helping EU agriculture to meet the targets set out in the European Green Deal in the 2020th, and including legislative framework, member states’ CAP strategic plans, governance framework, and political economy issues linked to effects on farm income
Forestry and forests in Poland: Forestry in Poland - Forests of Poland - List of Polish forest complexes in alphabetical order
Water in Poland: Water in Poland
Bodies of water, including Baltic Sea, Bays of Poland: Bodies of water, including Baltic Sea, Bays of Poland, Canals in Poland, Lakes of Poland, springs and rivers
Baltic Sea: Baltic Sea, arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain, as the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal since August 1933 - passing through the Lake Lagoda and Lake Onega -, and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal - Major tributaries of the Baltic Sea - Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea
Rivers in Poland, longest rivers: Rivers in Poland in alphabetical order - List of 28 longest rivers in Poland
Vistula river, 'Little White Vistula' and 'Black Little Vistula' and connected cities: Vistula river, the longest river in Poland and the 9th-longest river in Europe at 1,047km in length. The drainage basin, reaching into three other nations, covers 193,960 km2, of which 168,868 km2 is in Poland. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220m above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, the western part of Carpathian Mountains, where it begins with the 'Little White Vistula' and the 'Black Little Vistula'.[4] It flows through Poland's largest cities, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Plock, Wloclawek, Torun, Bydgoszcz, Swiecie, Grudziadz, Tczew and Gdansk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wislany) or directly into the Gdansk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta of six main branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Smiala Wisla, Martwa Wisla, Nogat and Szkarpawa). The river is often associated with Polish culture, history and national identity. It is the country's most important waterway and natural symbol
Major Polish cities connected by the Vistula river: MajorPolish cities connected by the Vistula river
Tributaries of the Vistula river: Tributaries of the Vistula river, listed in a range of right and left tributaries with a nearby city, from source to mouth
Narew river: Narew river primarily in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the river Vistula. The Narew is one of Europe's few braided rivers, with twisted channels resembling braided hair. Around 57km of the river flows through western Belarus
Bug river: Bug river, which flows through three countries with a total length of 774km, and a tributary of the Narew. The Bug forms part of the border between Ukraine and Poland for 185km and between Belarus and Poland for 178km, and is the fourth longest Polish river
Sola river in southern Poland: Sola river in southern Poland, a right tributary of the Vistula originating in the Western Beskids mountain range near the border with Slovakia, made up of the confluence of several small creeks at the village of Rajcza, then running downhill northeastwards through Zywiec Basin to the towns of Zywiec and Kety, forming the border between the Silesian and the Zywiec Beskids, and after 89km the Sola empties into the Vistula River after having passed the town of Oswiecim, flowing within metres of the Auschwitz concentration camp and today the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum
Oder river: Oder river in Central Europe. It is Poland's second-longest river in total length and third-longest within its borders after the Vistula and Warta. The Oder rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742km through western Poland, later forming 187km of the border between Poland and Germany. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches Dziwna, Swina and Peene that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea
Cities connected by the Oder river: Cities connected by the Oder river
Warta river: Warta river, rising in central Poland and flowing greatly north-west into the Oder. Poland's second-longest river's - within its borders after the Vistula - drainage basin covers 54,529 square km and it is navigable from Kostrzyn nad Odra to Konin, approximately half of its length. It is connected to the Vistula by the Notec and the Bydgoszcz Canal.
Notec river: Notec river in central Poland, the largest tributary of the Warta river, as most portions of the Notec are navigable, and as several locks and dams connect the Vistula and the Warta/Oder waterways
Transport in Poland: Transport in Poland
Rail transport in Poland: Rail transport in Poland
Road transport in Poland: Road transport in Poland
Air transport in Poland: Air transport in Poland
Water transport in Poland: Water transport in Poland, as country's most important waterway is the river Vistula. The largest seaports are the Port of Szczecin and Port of Gdansk. Marine transport in Poland has two main sub-groups, riverine and seaborne. On the Baltic Sea coast, a number of large seaports exist to serve the international freight and passenger trade; these are typically deep water ports and are able to serve very large ships, including the ro-ro ferries of Unity Line, Polferries and Stena Line which operate the Poland – Scandinavia passenger lines. - Water transport in Poland
Main trading artery Vistula river in Poland, Oder river: Major Polish cities connected by the Vistula river as the Vistula river with a drainage basin reaching into three other nations together with its tributaries connects dozens of country's cities - The Oder river in southern and western Poland is navigable over a large part of its total length
Main seaports and harbors in Poland: Main seaports and harbors in Poland
Tourism in Poland: Tourism in Poland, part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors, contributing to the country's overall economy. The most popular cities are Kraków, Warsaw, Wroclaw, Gdansk, Poznan, Szczecin, Lublin, Torun, Zakopane, the Salt Mine in Wieliczka and the historic site of Auschwitz, the NSDAP-ruled German empire's concentration camp in Oswiecim. The best recreational destinations include Poland's Masurian Lake District, Baltic Sea coast, Tatra Mountains (the highest mountain range of Carpathians), Sudetes and Bialowieza Forest.
Banking and banks of Poland: Banks of Poland
Since 1945 National Bank of Poland: Since 1945 National Bank of Poland, that controls the issuing of Poland's currency, the Polish zloty. The Bank is headquartered in Warsaw, and has branches in 16 major Polish cities. The NBP represents Poland in the European System of Central Banks, an EU organization
Stock exchanges in Poland: Stock exchanges in Poland
Poland, the euro and Law and Justice Party's nationalistic reasons: Poland and the euro in the EU since 2000/2001, as Poland does not use the euro as its currency. But under the terms of their 'Treaty of Accession with the European Union', all new Member States 'shall participate in the Economic and Monetary Union from the date of accession as a Member State with a derogation', which means that Poland is obliged to eventually replace its currency, the zloty, with the euro. 20 years after its intoduction in the EU, there is no target date for Polish euro adoption, and no fixed date for when the country will join ERM-II, as Euro adoption will require the approval of at least two-thirds of the Sejm to make a constitutional amendment changing the official currency from the zloty to the euro, but the 2020s ruling 'Law and Justice Party' opposes euro adoption for nationalistic reasons
Economic history of Poland and economic cycles: Economic history of Poland
Economic history in the period from 1989 to 2018: Economic growth in the period from 1989 to 2018, as Poland's GDP increased by 826.96%in after the abolishment of autocratic rule in Polsnd and eastern Europe
Main economic indicators between 1980 and 2020: 'Wikipedia' listed data show the main economic indicators between 1980 and 2020, showing significant decline in 2020 amid covid-19 pandemic since the beginning of the 2020s
21st century Polish property bubble: 21st century Polish property bubble, as real estate prices rose drastically from 2002 to 2008 in Poland
Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic's serious influence on the Polish economy: Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic and the isolation measures in response to it had a serious influence on the Polish economy, especially commerce, tourism and the hospitality industries
December 2021 OECD's quarterly national accounts including Poland: 4 December 2021 OECD's quarterly national accounts including Poland, quarterly growth rates of real GDP, change over previous quarter
Unemployment in Poland: Unemployment in Poland, history in the 21st century, regional distribution, reasons and consequences
Poverty and income inequality in Poland: Poverty and income inequality in Poland
Welfare in Poland: Welfare in Poland
Budget,debt and taxation in Poland: Budget and debt in Poland - Taxation in Poland
Politics of Poland: Politics of Poland - 1997 Constitution of Poland
Political parties in Poland: Political parties in Poland
Trade unions in Poland: Trade unions in Poland - History of trade unions in Poland
Since 1791 constitutions of Poland: Constitutions of Poland since 1791
21st century elections and politics in Poland: Elections in Poland - Präsidentschaftswahl in Polen 2010 - Selbstverwaltungswahlen in Polen 2010
2011 Polish parliamentary election: Polish parliamentary election 9 October 2011 - 10 October: Donald Tusk claims victory after lead in polls
10/24 May 2015 Polish presidential election: 10 May 2015 Polish presidential election - 11 May: Polish President Komorowski came second behind his opponent Duda in the first round and must now face him in a run-off - 25 May 2015: Poland elects right-wing president Duda who criticized predecessor’s apologies to Jews, as the Civic Platform party has been hurt by corruption scandals and many Poles are angry that the economic growth has only not trickled down to many Poles, with low wages and job insecurity
September 2015 Referendum in Poland: 6 September 2015 Polish referendum, asking voters whether they approve of introducing single-member constituencies for Sejm elections, maintaining state financing of political parties and introducing a presumption in favour of the taxpayer in disputes over the tax law
25 October 2015 Polish parliamentary election: 25 October 2015 Polish parliamentary election - 26 October: In Poland election Eurosceptics claim victory on anti-refugee rhetoric and welfare promises
December 2015: 24 décembre 2015: Le Sénat polonais a approuvé jeudi une loi très controversée sur le Tribunal constitutionne contre l'avis de L'UE - 30/31 December: New media law gives Polish government control of state-run television and radio, neglecting existing EU rules on media freedoms
2015/2016 Polish Constitutional Court crisis: 2015/2016 Polish Constitutional Court crisis - the ruling 'Law and Justice' party changed the court's decision-making power by prescribing a two-third majority vote and mandatory participation of at least 13 of the 15 judges on the Constitutional Tribunal, causing domestic and international protests
2016: 9 March 2016: Poland’s constitutional court has struck down a set of government reforms concerning its judges that have paralysed the country’s top court, but the government said that it would not recognise the ruling
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Poland's finance minister Morawiecki to replace Beata Szydlo as PM as administration gears up for series of elections
February 2018: 18 February 2018: Polish PM Morawiecki drew fresh criticism for paying his respects at the grave of Polish fighters who collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II, hours after sparking outrage for claiming that Jews were involved in perpetrating the Holocaust
October 2018 Polish local elections: 21. Oktober 2018 Selbstverwaltungswahlen in Polen - 21 October 2018: Poland’s ruling Law and Justice party PiS won Sunday’s local elections with a worse-than-expected result, as a coalition led by the main opposition Civic Platform came second with 24.7% and the agrarian Polish People’s Party took 16.6%, heralding a fierce contest for European, parliamentary and presidential votes in 2019 and 2020
August 2019 Duda government invites rabbi Michael Schudrich to honor 'Holy Cross Mountains Brigade': 7 August 2019: Polish Duda government invites rabbi Michael Schudrich to event honoring accused Nazi collaborators, who says he felt 'insulted' by the invitation, blasting ceremony for Swietokrzyska Brigade and condemning ‘dangerous’ historical revisionism
8 August 2019 Marshal of the Sejm Marek Kuchcinski resigns: 8 août 2019: Le président conservateur de la chambre basse du parlement polonais Marek Kuchcinski a annoncé jeudi sa démission pour avoir utilisé des avions gouvernementaux une centaine de fois à des fins personnelles
11 August 2019: 11 August 2019: Polish president, ruling party officials honors World War II group that collaborated with Nazis
3 September 2019: 3 September 2019: Pro-European opposition coalition in Poland has announced unexpectedly that its candidate for prime minister as the country heads toward an October election will be the deputy parliamentary speaker Malgorzata Kidawa-Blonska
October 2019 Polish parliamentary election: 13 October 2019 Polish parliamentary election - 14 October 2019: Poland’s ruling nationalist Law and Justice party has won Sunday’s parliamentary election, doing better than when it swept to power four years ago, according to nearly complete results
27 January 2020 Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Auschwitz death camp: 27 January 2020: 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz, Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Nazi death camp to honor its over 1.1 million mostly Jewish victims and to share their testimony as a stark warning amid a recent surge of anti-Semitic attacks on both sides of the Atlantic and especially fresh concerns over anti-Semitism in Europe, after war criminal Novichok-Putin, falsely accusing Poland of colluding with German Nazi dictator Hitler and contributing to the outbreak of World War II, spoke in Jerusalem on 23 January, and as Germany since 1961 refuses to rename Nazi general Erwin Rommel barracks in Augustdorf, continuing Nazi propaganda, misleading and indoctrinating young people and generations, as neo-Nazis and AfD since 2015 got stronger in Germany and elsewhere
June 2020 Polish presidential election: June 2020 Polish presidential election - 28 June 2020: Voting is under way in Poland’s presidential election, with the incumbent Duda up against a field of challengers including the liberal mayor of Warsaw, Rafal Trzaskowsk
12 July 2020 second round with Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff: 29 June 2020: Duda forced into second round against liberal challenger and Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff on 12 July - 11 July 2020: Ahead of election, Polish president rejects Holocaust restitution claims, as Andrzej Duda vows no reparations for assets seized from Jews during World War II
12 July 2020 Poles go to polls to vote: 12 July 2020: Poles go to polls to vote in tight presidential runoff, as liberal Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski seeks to upset conservative incumbent Duda, as first official results only expected Monday morning
13 July 2020 Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election: 13 July 2020: Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election, after results gave the incumbent 51.2% of votes with almost all the ballots counted, the national electoral commission said, as his Liberal challenger and mayor of Warsaw trailed with 48.8%
25 January 2022 Poland begins work on a new euro wall along the Belarus border: 25 January 2022: Polish contractors have begun work on a new 353 million euro wall along the Belarus border aimed at deterring refugee crossings following a crisis in the area last year, as 5.5-metre-high wall along 186km of the border has raised human rights concerns over how refugees will be able to seek asylum as well as environmental worries about the effect on wildlife along the mostly forested border
Protests in Poland: Protests in Poland - Polish trade union Solidarity
2012/2013 trade unions protest: 29 September 2012: Tens of thousands of opponents of Poland's centrist government massed in the capital for a protest called by trade unions and a catholic movement - 14 September 2013: Tens of thousands of Polish trade unionists are set to march through the capital in the finale of a four-day protest against the unpopular and increasingly fragile centre-right government
2015 protest against Polish Eurosceptic government: 13 December 2015: Thousands march against Polish Eurosceptic government over constitution spat - 20 December: Thousands of Poles have protested against the country's new government for the second time this month over constitutional row - 24 December: Poland's former president Lech Walesa warns over democracy in Poland, urging new election
2016 pro-democracy protests: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting - 23 January: Thousands of Poles marched through Warsaw to protests against their new conservative government's plan to increase its surveillance powers following moves to take more control of the judiciary and the media - 27 February: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters rally for 'free and open Poland' - 11 March: After Polish PM is refused to publish a ruling of the country's Constitutional Tribunal, protesters in favour of the court projected passages from the ruling onto the walls of the prime minister's chancellery on Wednesday night - 12/13 March 2016: Tens of thousands of people took to the streets in the Polish capital Warsaw, in Poznan and Wroclaw against the government's collision course with the country's top court to undermine judicial independence - 7 mai 2016: Plus de 240'000 manifestants à Varsovie souhaitent que la place de la Pologne soit préservée en Europe, montrant du doigt les conservateurs au pouvoir - 5 June: Former presidents lead 50,000 marchers in Warsaw in pro-democracy protests - 13 December 2016: Thousands protest against Law and Justice party threatening to reverse democratic gains made since 1989 - 17 December 2016: Mass protests in Poland over media restrictions
2017 defense of liberties: 6 mai 2017: Plusieurs dizaines de milliers de personnes ont manifesté samedi à Varsovie pour 'défendre la liberté', menacée par le pouvoir conservateur nationaliste de Kaczynski - 18 July 2017: Demonstrations took place at the weekend to protest against a series of moves by the ruling 'Law and Justice party' to assume power over the appointments of judges and members of the country’s supreme court - 22 July 2017: Tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Warsaw and cities across Poland for candlelit vigils to protest as the senate approved a supreme court overhaul, defying the EU and critics at home who say the legislation will undermine democratic checks and balances - 23 July 2017: Protesters across Poland warn of impending dictatorship
July 2018 protest against government's power over court appointments: 27 July 2018: Thousands of protesters have rallied in central Warsaw chanting 'Shame!' after Poland's president granted the nationalist government more power over court appointments
December 2018: 8 décembre 2018: Plus d'un millier de manifestants ont traversé samedi Katowice dans le sud de la Pologne pour demander aux participants à la conférence mondiale COP-24 d'agir rapidement en faveur du climat
January 2019 protest against stabbing of mayor Pawel Adamowicz: 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
May 2019 demonsration to support EU membership: 18 May 2019: Thousands are marching in the Polish capital to celebrate the nation’s European Union membership ahead of key European Parliament elections
30 October 2020 thousands protest against tightened abortion law: 30 October 2020: Pro-choice supporters hold biggest-ever protest against Polish government, as about 100,00o people take to the streets of Warsaw to oppose tightened abortion law
11 October 2021 more than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership: 11 October 2021: More than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership after a controversial court ruling raised concerns the country could eventually leave the bloc, as protest organisers said demonstrations took place in more than 100 Polish towns and cities on Sunday, and several cities abroad
Society, demographics, culture, human rights and religion in Poland: Polish society - Human rights in Poland - Religion in Poland
Voivodeships, counties and cities of Poland: Administrative divisions of Poland - 16 Voivodeships of Poland - 314 'land counties' (powiaty ziemskie) and 66 'city counties' (powiaty grodzkie) - Land counties of Poland by Voivodeship - Counties of Poland by city
Cities and towns in Poland: List of cities and towns in Poland - Cities and towns in Poland by Voivodeship - Economies by city in Poland - Port cities and towns in Poland
West Pomeranian Voivodeship: West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Szczecin, as territory's area equals 22 892.48 km² and in 2021, it was inhabited by 1 682 003 people. It borders on Pomeranian Voivodeship to the east, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the southeast, Lubusz Voivodeship to the south, the German federal-states of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and Brandenburg to the west, and the Baltic Sea to the north.
Pomeranian Voivodeship: Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland with the provincial capital Gdansk. It is bordered by West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeships to the south, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the east, and the Baltic Sea to the north. It also shares a short land border with Kaliningrad oblast and city (belonging since 1945 to the Soviet Union) on the Vistula Spit. The voivodeship comprises most of Pomerelia (the easternmost part of historical Pomerania), as well as an area east of the Vistula River
Gdansk city: Gdansk city, a Polish city on the Baltic coast with a population of 464,254 inhabitants, Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area, also the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and of Kashubia - History of Gdansk
Economy of Gdansk: Economy of Gdansk
Timeline of Gdansk since early Middle Ages: Timeline of Gdansk since early Middle Ages
20th century history of Gdansk and NSDAP ruled German empire's 1938-1945 World War II: 20th century history of Gdansk and NSDAP ruled German empire's 1938-1945 World War II, as - following the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland - Germany in October 1938 urged the Danzig territory's cession to Germany. On 1 September 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland, initiating World War II. On 2 September 1939 Germany officially annexed the Free City. The Nazi regime murdered the Polish postmen defending the Polish Post Office, one of the first war crimes during the war. Other Polish soldiers defending the Westerplatte stronghold surrendered after seven days of fighting. Kazimierz Rasinski was brutally tortured by Germans and murdered when he refused to reveal Polish communication codes. On 7 September NSDAP organised night parade on Adolf-Hitlerstrasse to celebrate success - With the start of the war the Nazi regime began its policy of extermination in Pomerania. Poles, Kashubians and Jews and the political opposition were sent to concentration camps, especially neighbouring Stutthof where 85,000 victims perished. Kashubian and Polish intelligentsia were killed in the Piasnica mass murder site, which is estimated to have had 60,000 victims. In the city itself hundreds of prisoners were subjected to cruel Nazi executions and experiments, which included castration of men and sterilization of women considered dangerous to the 'purity of Nordic race' and beheading by guillotine. The courts and judicial system in the annexed territories of Nazi Germany was one of the main ways to legislate an extermination policy against ethnic Poles. On 30 March 1945 the Soviet Red Army occupied Danzig.
21st century timeline of Gdansk: 21st century timeline of Gdansk
Since March 2017 Museum of the Second World War opened in Gdansk: On 23 March 2017 Museum of the Second World War opened in Gdansk
January 2019 stabbing of Gdansk's mayor Pawel Adamowicz at a charity event: 13 January 2019 stabbing of Pawel Adamowicz - 14 January 2019: Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the Polish city of Gdansk, has died after he was stabbed in the chest on stage at a charity concert - 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
1–19 September 2021 Men's European Volleyball Championship co-hosted in Gdansk: 1–19 September 2021 Men's European Volleyball Championship organised by Europe's volleyball body CEV, as for the second time, the EuroVolley was held in four countries including Poland, Czech Republic, Estonia and Finland
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship: Since 1999 Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn. The voivodeship has an area of 24,192 km2 and a population of 1,425,967 citizens in 2019
Olsztyn city: Olsztyn city on the Lyna River in northern Poland and the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The population of the city was estimated at 171,249 residents in 2020. Founded as Allenstein in the 14th century, Olsztyn was under the control and influence of the Teutonic Order until 1463, when it passed to the Polish Crown, what was then confirmed in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466. For centuries the city was an important centre of trade, crafts, science and administration in the Warmia region linking Warsaw with Königsberg. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772 Warmia was annexed by Prussia and ceased to be the property of the clergy. In the 19th century the city changed its status completely, becoming the most prominent economic hub of the southern part of the province of East Prussia. The construction of a railway and early industrialisation greatly contributed to Olsztyn's significance. Following World War II, the city returned to Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement
Stebark village, the 1410 'Battle of Grunwald' and WWI's August 1914 'Battle of Tannenberg': Stebark village (German 'Tannenberg'), a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. The village is chiefly known for two historic battles which took place there, the 1410 'Battle of Grunwald' and the 26–30 August 1914 'Battle of Tannenberg' in German emmpire's World War I
Lubusz voivodeship: Lubusz voivodeship in western Poland recalling the historic Lubusz Land name, although parts of the voivodeship belong to the historic regions of Silesia, Greater Poland and Lusatia. Until 1945, it mainly formed the Neumark within the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, today bordering West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the north, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the east, Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the south, and Germany (Brandenburg and Saxony) to the west.
Greater Poland Voivodeship: Greater Poland Voivodeship - also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship - in west-central Poland, created in 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno Voivodeships. The province is named after the region called Greater Poland or Wielkopolska, as the modern province includes most of this historic region, except for some western parts. It is second in area and third in population among Poland's sixteen voivodeships, with an area of 29,826 square km and a population of close to 3.5 million inhabitants. Its capital city is Poznan, as other important cities include Kalisz, Konin, Pila, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Gniezno (an early capital of Poland) and Leszno. It is bordered by seven other voivodeships including West Pomeranian to the northwest, Pomeranian to the north, Kuyavian-Pomeranian to the north-east, Lódz to the south-east, Opole to the south, Lower Silesian to the southwest and Lubusz to the west.
Lódz city: Lódz city, the third-largest city in Poland and former industrial hub with a population of 687,702 inhabitants in 2018, located in the central part of the country approximately 120 kilometres south-west of Warsaw
Economy and infrastructure of Lódz: Economy and infrastructure of Lódz
Education in Lódz: Education in Lódz, schools and universities, including the University of Lódz, Technical University of Lódz, Medical University of Lódz, National Film School in Lódz and the Academy of Fine Arts and Design, as number of students in the higher education establishments in Lódz is still growing, educating in the first quarter of the 21st century 113,000 students from Poland and other countries
History of Lódz: History of Lódz, as the city is located in central Poland and for hundreds of years it was a non-important village. The big change arrived at the first quarter of the 19th century when it was decided on a massive industrialization program and transformation of the town to a large industrial center
Timeline of Lódz: Timeline of Lódz since 18th century
1793 Lódz becomes part of expanding Prussia: 1793 Lódz becomes part of South Prussia with a population of 190 citizens, amid the expansion of the Kingdom of Prussia, and as Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years with its territory and its native population split between the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire
1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland: 1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland 1815–1867/1915 per Congress of Vienna
Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn' area of textile factories in Lódz: Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn', an area in the southern central part of Lódz which consists of a group of textile factories - mainly cotton spinning mills - and associated facilities, since the first decade of the 21st century the area undergoes major renovation and contains mixed-use development of offices and housing
1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue: 1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue
1899-1939 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz: Since 1899 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz, built from donations by the Jewish merchants including those expelled from Tsarist Lithuania and Belarus area, but burned to the ground by the Nazis on 11 November 1939 before the Lódz Ghetto was set up
June 1905 Lódz insurrection by Polish workers during the Russian Revolution: June 1905 Lódz insurrection, an uprising by Polish workers in Lódz against the Russian Empire and one of the largest disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland during the Russian Revolution of 1905, as Poland was a major center of revolutionary fighting in the Russian Empire in 1905–1907, and the Lódz insurrection was a key incident in those events as common demands were the improvement of workers' living conditions and greater rights for the Polish population, but insurgents were poorly armed and overwhelmed by the tsarist regular military
November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz following German aggession since August: November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz, fought between the German empire's Ninth Army, commanded by generals Erich Ludendorff and Mackensen and the Russian First, Second, and Fifth Armies, as assaulted forces counted 110,000 killed, wounded or captured soldiers
6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of ill prepared Poland after French and British pressure not to mobilize: 6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of Poland, fought between the armies of Poland and Nazi Germany in World War II, after reason for Poland's late and insufficient mobilization was pressure from the French and the British not to mobilize, and as since 29 August 1939, when the Poles re—started the mobilization against advice from Paris and London, it was too late - Since 1938 'Western betrayal' (and earlier) concerning the fact that France, the United Kingdom, and sometimes the USA failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military, and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish states during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II, also sometimes referring to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European states at the time, enabling World War II that lasted from 1939 to 1945, the Holocaust by Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe, and the August 1945 atomic bombings forcing Japanese war criminals to surrender
1940 Lódz (renamed 'Litzmannstadt') an important industrial city for the German war machine: By 1940 the city of Lódz was renamed Litzmannstadt and became an important industrial city for the German war machine, as munitions and uniforms were manufactured in the newly established 'Ghetto Litzmannstadt' by Jewish slave labor, as Jews from Poland, Germany, Benelux and Czechoslovakia as well as Roma people from Austria were brought to live and work there in appalling conditions, while most of them were taken for extermination in the Nazi death camps, until Lódz was taken by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945, and only 877 Jews survived to the moment of liberation from emerging and perishing German empire since 1793, 1848/1871, 1914 and 1939
Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, camp for Polish children, deportations: Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, established by the German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma, the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto, originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, then the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the Wehrmacht, as the number of people incarcerated in it was increased further by the Jews deported from the Third Reich territories
Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos: Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos - After the Germans in 1942 ordered the final liquidation of the ghettos, residents recognized the imminence of their deaths and they resisted in the forests, in the ghettos, and even in the death camps, mocked by their murderers claiming their inability to resist, as Nazi followers and protectors even today in Germany and elsewhere agree, or require understanding and dialogue with the Nazis, criticize resistance and resistance's violence that is only a response, or do not take a stand
Since 1945 University of Lódz: Since 1945 University of Lódz, founded as a continuation of educational institutions functioning in Lódz in the interwar period, including the Teacher Training Institute 1921–1928, the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences 1924–1928 and a division of the Free Polish University 1928–1939, and as a result of widespread cooperation with universities all over the world, including Université Jean Moulin Lyon, University of Texas at Austin, University of Baltimore, University of Maryland, Centria University of Applied Sciences Finland, students of the University of Lódz can graduate with dual diplomas
February 1971 Lódz textile workers' strike: February 1971 Lódz strikes, when textile workers began a strike action, in which the majority of participants were women, the only industrial action in pre-1980 Communist Poland that ended as a success
Since 2006 'Manufaktura' arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex: Since 2006 'Manufaktura', an arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex in Lódz, and a major tourist asset of the city, including the largest public square in Lódz, which acts as a venue for cultural and sports event
May 2019 effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto: 2 May 2019: Effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto, outside the headquarters of the city’s police station, as activist who says he is working to 'liberate Poland from American Jews occupation' shouted 'I did it, I hung a Jew'
Poznan city: Poznan city, one of the oldest cities in Poland on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs, as among its most important heritage sites are the Renaissance Old Town, Town Hall and Gothic Cathedral. Poznan is the fifth-largest Polish city with a population of 529,410 citizens in 2021, while the 'Metropolia Poznan', comprising Poznan County and several other communities, is inhabited by over 1.1 million people. It is one of four historical capitals of medieval Poland and the ancient capital of the Greater Poland region, currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. In the 21st century Poznan is a center of trade, technology, education, tourism and sports. It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and Adam Mickiewicz University, the third largest Polish university. The city serves as the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous Catholic archdioceses in the country. The city also hosts the Poznan International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's other renowned landmarks include the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Fara Church and the Imperial Castle.
Economy, culture, education and science of/in Poznan city: Economy, culture, education and science of/in Poznan city
Since 968 timeline and history of Poznan city: Timeline of Poznan city since 968, as the town in 1253 gains Magdeburg rights - History of Poznan city
1918–1919 Greater Poland uprising against German rule, reconstituted Second Polish Republic: 1918–1919 Greater Poland uprising against German rule. The uprising had a significant effect on the Treaty of Versailles, which granted a reconstituted Second Polish Republic the area won by the Polish insurrectionists. The region had been part of the Kingdom of Poland and then Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth before the 1793 Second Partition of Poland when it was annexed by the German Kingdom of Prussia. It had also, following the 1806 Greater Poland uprising, been part of the Duchy of Warsaw 1807–1815, a French puppet state during the Napoleonic Wars.
Since 1921 Poznan International Fair: Since 1921 Poznan International Fair, the biggest industrial fair in Poland, located in the centre of the city opposite the main railway station Poznan Glówny, in the centre of Poland and in the centre of Europe
Since 1939 Poznanskie Slowiki - Poznan Nightingales: Since 1939 Poznanskie Slowiki - Poznan Nightingales -, a leading Polish choir founded when the Germans expelled the priest of Poznan Cathedral Gieburowski, and when the choirboy Stefan Stuligrosz then aged 19 took up running of choir in Gieburowski's name. After the war the choir was recognised and in 1950 became the Boys' and Men's Choir of the Poznan Philharmonic. The choir toured the USA in 1963 and many countries worldwide thereafter
September/October 1939 – 1944 'Konzentrationslager Posen' Nazi German death camp: September/October 1939 – 1944 'Konzentrationslager Posen' Nazi German death camp set up in German-occupied Poland during World War II. The prisoners were mostly Poles from the Wielkopolska region. Many were representatives of the region's intelligentsia, often people who had been engaged in social and political life, as well as known Polish patriots and veterans of the Wielkopolska Uprising 1918–1919 and Silesian Uprisings. In the early stages of the camp's existence prisoners were generally executed within a week of arrival. In October 1939 an early experiment in execution by gas chamber was carried out by an SS chemist Dr. August Becker, whereby around 400 patients and staff from psychiatric hospitals in Poznan were gassed at Bunker No. 17. The extermination of mentally ill was conducted by SS-Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange of the Gestapo in occupied Poznan. Lange served with Einsatzgruppe VI during Operation Tannenberg. He and his men were responsible also for the murder of 2,750 patients at Koscian, about 1,100 patients at Owinska, as well as 1,558 patients and 300 civilian Poles at Dzialdowo. Prisoners in the following period included political and military activists in the Polish Underground State, as in April 1944 Fort VII became a Telefunken factory producing radio equipment for submarines and aircraft
1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June: 1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June, the first of several massive protests against the government of the Polish People's Republic, as demonstrations by workers demanding better working conditions began on 28 June 1956 at Poznan's Cegielski Factories but were met with violent repression. About 100,000 people gathered in the city centre near the local Ministry of Public Security building, when 400 tanks and 10,000 soldiers of the Polish military and the Internal Security Corps were ordered to suppress the demonstration, firing at the protesting civilians, causing dozens of victims and over a hundred injured people, including a 13-year-old boy. The Poznan protests were an important milestone on the way to the Polish October and the installation of a less Soviet-controlled government.
December 2008 UN Climate Change Conference at Poznan International Fair Congress Centre: 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference at Poznan International Fair Congress Centre between 1 December and 12 December 2008, as representatives from over 180 countries attended along with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations - Since 1997 United Nations climate change conferences
7-21 October 2022 Poznan 16th International Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition: 7-21 October 2022 Poznan 16th International Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in mid-northern Poland, on the boundary between the two historic regions from which it takes its name, Kuyavia and Pomerania. Its two chief cities, serving as the province's joint capitals, are Bydgoszcz and Torun.
Masovian Voivodeship: Masovian Voivodeship, the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish voivodeships with 5,411,446 inhabitants in 2019. Its principal cities are Warsaw with 1.783 million inhabitants in the centre of the Warsaw metropolitan area, Radom city with 212,230 inhabitants in the south, Plock city with 119,709 inhabitants in the west, Siedlce city with 77,990 citizens in the east, and Ostroleka with 52,071 citizens in the north. The capital of the voivodeship is the national capital Warsaw.
Masovian Voivodeship includes 42 powiats and 88 cities and towns: As Masovian Voivodeship is divided into 42 powiats (counties), 5 miasto na prawach powiatu (city counties) and 37 powiat ziemski (land counties) - further subdivided into 314 gminas, which include 85 'urban gminas' -, the voivodeship contains 88 cities and towns, listed by 'Wikipedia' in descending order of population and according to official figures for 2019
Warsaw city: Warsaw city, the capital and largest city of Poland, its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents in the 2020s
Economy of Warwaw: Economy of Warsaw
Timeline and history of Warsaw: Timeline of Warsaw - History of Warsaw
Since the Middle Ages city of Warsaw: Since the Middle Ages the city of Warsaw evolved from a cluster of villages to the capital of a major European power, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
November 1794 Battle of Praga and Russian victory: November 1794 Battle of Praga, or the Second Battle of Warsaw, a Russian assault of Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kosciuszko Uprising, followed by a massacre of the civilian population of Praga
November Uprising 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire: November Uprising 1830–1831, an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire, that began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw
January Uprising 1863-1864 against the Russian Empire: January Uprising 1863-1864, an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire
Polish Revolution of 1905: Polish Revolution of 1905 against the Russian Empire, as in 1905 and 1906 close to 7,000 strikes and other work stoppages occurred involving 1,3 million Poles, protesters demanded both improved conditions for workers and more political freedom for the Poles, and Russian empire contributed by trying to incite some anti-Jewish pogroms
Since 1914/1915 German bombing and invasion of Warsaw: After aerial bombing of the city in 1914 with airships, the German army entered Warsaw on 1 August 1915
Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw: Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the aerial bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939, it also may refer to German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, as during the course of the war approximately 84% of the city was destroyed due to German mass bombings, heavy artillery fire and a planned demolition campaign
Since September 1939 German siege of Warsaw, occupation and destruction: by September 1939 Siege of Warsaw by the invading German Army - April-May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of Jewish resistance against Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka - August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising - German planned destruction of Warsaw
History of Warsaw since 1945: History of Warsaw since 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended and most of Warsaw was in ruins
13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Middle East Conference: 13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Conference, hosted by Poland and the USA the issues of the event include 'terrorism and extremism, missile development and proliferation, maritime trade and security, and threats posed by proxy groups across the region' of Middle East and especially 'Iran’s influence and terrorism in the region' - 14 February 2019: '60 foreign ministers and representatives of dozen of governments, an Israeli PM and the foreign ministers of leading Arab countries stood together and spoke with unusual force, clarity and unity against the common threat of the Iranian regime', Israel's Netanyahu says in Warsaw - 14 February 2019: Israel's Netanyahu on Thursday called on Arab states to continue normalizing relations with Israel, as the Iranian regime, vowing to revenge, once again tries to blame Israel and the USA for an attack reportedly claimed by Jaish ul-Adl
April 2019: 23 April 2019: On the 76th anniversary of World War II uprising and destruction, foreign and Polish Jews gather in former Warsaw Ghetto for first seder since in 1943 the Jews imprisoned there began a bloody last stand against the Nazis, the largest single violent act of defiance by Jews during the Holocaust
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
19 April 2020 anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising amid covid-19: 19 avril 2020: Une multitude d'hommages intimes, sur place ou depuis les lieux de confinement, ainsi que des initiatives en ligne ont remplacé dimanche les cérémonies anniversaires habituelles aux héros du soulèvement du ghetto de Varsovie de 1943, remodelées à cause de la pandémie covid-19
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 mars 2022: Président Joe Biden prononcera samedi en Pologne un discours au 'monde libre', qui s'oppose à l'invasion de l'Ukraine par la Russie, et 'armée ukrainienne assure avoir détruit des chars et avions russes autour de Donetsk et Louhansk alors que Moscou affirme désormais concentrer son opération militaire à l'est de l'Ukraine, selon France24 'heure par heure'
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 March 2022: At Miday USA's FM Blinken and Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin meet with Ukrainian counterparts to discuss current issues, cooperation in political and defense directions, ahead of speech on Putin''s war against Ukraine, according to France24 'heure par heure'
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 March 2022: At Miday USA's FM Blinken and Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin meet with Ukrainian counterparts to discuss current issues, cooperation in political and defense directions, ahead of speech on Putin''s war against Ukraine, according to France24 'heure par heure'
Radom city: Radom city in east-central Poland, located approximately 100km south of the capital. It is situated on the Mleczna River in the Masovian Voivodeship, having previously been the seat of a separate Radom Voivodeship since 1975. Radom is the 14th largest city in Poland and the second-largest in its province with a population of 209,296 citizens as of 2020.
History of Radom city: History of Radom city
November Polish uprising 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire: November Uprising 1830–1831, an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire, that began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw
March-May 1848 Greater Poland uprising: March-May 1848 Greater Poland uprising of 1848, an unsuccessful insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. While the main fighting was concentrated in the Greater Poland region, fights also occurred in other part of the Prussian Partition of Poland, and protests were held in Polish inhabited regions of Silesia
January Polish uprising 1863-1864 against the Russian Empire: January Uprising 1863-1864, an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire
Polish Revolution of 1905: Polish Revolution of 1905 against the Russian Empire, as in 1905 and 1906 close to 7,000 strikes and other work stoppages occurred involving 1,3 million Poles, protesters demanded both improved conditions for workers and more political freedom for the Poles, and Russian empire contributed by trying to incite some anti-Jewish pogroms
19th century, 20th century history of Radom city and World War I: 19th century, 20th century history of Radom city: When so-called 'Central Powers' including Austro-Hungarian and German empires began World War I in July/August 1914, Radom was a big, rapidly developing town, one of the most significant industrial centres in the whole country. However, the years 1914–1918 severely deteriorated the town's economy. In 1915, upon their withdrawal from Poland, Russians plundered Radom from machines and natural resources, while the impoverishment of the local community during the war contributed to a serious crisis in trade, crafts and services, especially since the town was no longer able to sell its products on the Russian market. As a result of World War I, in the period of the 'Second Polish Republic' since 1918, Radom became part of Kielce Voivodeship. Re-established Poland maintained moderate economic development, with cultural hubs of Poland including Warsaw, Kraków, Poznan, Wilno, Lwów becoming major European cities.
20th century history of Radom city and World War II: 20th century history of Radom city and World War II, as on 1 September 1939 - the first day of the German empire's invasion of Poland - the German air force brutally raided the city. Radom became the capital of one of the occupiers' districts of the 'General Government'. In 1941, a ghetto was established in Radom housing about 34,000 Jews. Most of the ghetto's inhabitants died in the extermination camp in Treblinka. Radom was liberated by the Red Army on 16 January 1945.
1941-1944 'Radom Ghetto' set up by German NSDAP regime: Since March 1941 'Radom Ghetto', a Nazi ghetto set up in the city of Radom during occupation of Poland for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews. It was closed off from the outside officially in April 1941. A year and a half later, the liquidation of the ghetto began in August 1942, and ended in July 1944, with approximately 30,000–32,000 victims - men, women and children - deported aboard Holocaust trains to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp. Only a few hundred Jews from Radom survived German empire's war. Among Polish rescuers of Jews, Radom mental hospital's Dr. Jerzy Borysowicz as well as his medical staff in total secrecy organized that the Jews, including children, were receiving daily help. Borysowicz also treated Mordechai Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish Combat Organization instrumental in engineering the 'Warsaw Ghetto Uprising' in April-May 1943. Most of Jerzy Borysowicz' patients however, did not survive the Holocaust. In January 1945, the occupiers sent the last transport of prisoners from Radom to Auschwitz, but it only reached Czestochowa, while the remaining prisoners were massacred in Firlej. On 16 January 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army and then restored to Poland.
21st century history of Radom: 20th/21st century history of Radom, as in 1984, city limits were greatly expanded by including several settlements as new districts, and as Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers in 2007
Timeline of Radom since 1155: Timeline of Radom since high Middle Ages, as in 1155 Radom was first mentioned in a 'bull'
1505-1938 modern timeline of Radom: 1505-1938 modern timeline of Radom, as in 1935 Radom–Warsaw railway opened, significantly shortening rail distance between Warsaw and Kraków, and as in 1938 90,059 inhabitants lived in the city
1863-1864 uprising in Radom and following events: 1863-1864 mementos of the uprising also in Radom in January 1863 until automn 1864 and the following events, including the years before its outbreak. The 1863-64 uprising was the biggest national Polish rebellious bid for independence. Representatives of all social classes joined the ranks including craftsmen, young people, even nobility and gentry. It met with wide support from international public opinion. It was a guerrilla war in which there were about 1200 battles and skirmishes. Despite initial successes, the uprising ended in failure - as since 1848 in France, Belgium, German states, Austria and whole Europe - because there was no sufficient information, discussion and therefore cooperation in the revolutionary 'party', work together between the democratic progressive opposition factions, especially without modern media later in European and global history. Tens of thousands of insurgents were killed, nearly 1000 were executed, about 38,000 were sentenced to penal servitude or sent down to Siberia, and about 10,000 emigrated. One of the positive effects of the uprising was the affranchisement of peasants which was carried out more radically than anywhere else in this part of Europe
1939-1945 timeline of Radom in Word War II: 1939-1945 timeline of Radom in Word War II, see '20th century history of Radom city and World War II' described in the text above
Since 1945 contemporary timeline of Radom: Since 1945 contemporary timeline of Radom
In 2007 Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers: In 2007 Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers after in January 1999 the 'Law on the Universal Health Insurance' had come into force, replacing the system of general tax financing based on budgetary rules for resource allocation with a system of financing from health contributions, based on social health insurance rules
Since 2007 Radom Chamber Orchestra: Since January 2007 Radom Chamber Orchestra, known in Polish as Radomska Orkiestra Kameralna, established as a municipal cultural organisation in 2007 by the Radom city authorities, and made up today of sixteen musicians
2021–2022 Belarus–EU border refugee and migrant crisis involving West Asia's war regions: 2021–2022 Belarus–EU border crisis, a migrant crisis consisting of an influx of several tens of thousands of immigrants, primarily from West Asia's war regions, with smaller groups hailing from elsewhere in Asia and from parts of Africa to Lithuania, Latvia, and Poland via those countries' borders with Belarus. The crisis was triggered by the severe deterioration in Belarus–EU relations, following the 2020 Belarusian regime polls, in connection the 2020–2021 Belarusian protests and more
Since February 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis in Europe espially involving Poland: 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis, an ongoing refugee crisis in Europe since late February 2022 after Russian Putin regime's invasion of Ukraine. Almost 4.8 million refugees have since left Ukraine (as of 15 April 2022), while an estimated 7.1 million people have been displaced within the country (as of 1 April 2022). In total, more than ten million people – approximately one-quarter of the country's total population – had left their homes in Ukraine by 20 March. 90% of Ukrainian refugees are women and children.
Lublin Voivodeship: Lublin Voivodeship located in southeastern Poland, that was created in January 1999 out of the former Lublin, Chelm, Zamosc, Biala Podlaska and (partially) Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships. The region is named after its largest city and regional capital Lublin, and its territory is made of four historical lands.
Lublin city: Lublin city, the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical 'Lesser Poland'. In the 21st century it is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 338,586 citizens in 2020, the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and about 170km to the southeast of Warsaw by road. Since 1385 the city developped within the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo, and thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków. Its inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate, the Jewish Gate, in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated by Nazi Germany to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
Economy and infrastructure of Lublin: Economy and infrastructure of Lublin, as large car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciezarowych acquired by the South Korean Daewoo in the 1990s related to the Asian financial crisis practically collapsed. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market. With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries, and currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
History of Lublin city in the 19th, 20th and 21st century: History of Lublin city in the 19th and early 20th century, during NSDAP-ruled German empire's WWII until 1945 and in the post-war period
Timeline of Lublin since 501 AD, creation of settlements: Timeline of Lublin since 501 AD with the creation of 'Czwartek', considered the oldest early medieval settlement of Lublin. Archaeological excavations have revealed the remains of 20 residential half-dugouts and several cavities of an economic nature.
Early 20th century timeline of Lublin: Early 20th century timeline of Lublin, as in 1909 its population was 65,870 citizens and in July 1918 the Catholic University of Lublin was established
20th century timeline of Lublin, Nazi Germany's World War II and liberation by the Soviet army: 20th century timeline of Lublin, as on 4/% part of the Polish gold reserve was evacuated from Warsaw to Lublin by the Polish government during the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II, as on 7/8 September the Polish gold reserve was evacuated further east to Luck (today in Ukraine assaulted by Russia's Putin regime), as an 9 November 1939 the Germans carried out mass arrests of hundreds of Poles, including teachers, judges, lawyers, engineers and priests, as part of the 'Intelligenzaktion', as on 11 November the Germans carried out arrests of 14 lecturers of the Catholic University of Lublin, as on 17 November the Germans arrested around 60 of its students, as well as many local priests and lecturers of the local theological seminary, as on 23/24 December - Christmas eve - the Germans carried out an execution of 21 well-known and respected citizens of the region in Lublin, as on 25 December the German police carried out an execution of 10 Poles at the local Lemszczyzna brick factory, including local lawyers, professors, school principals and starosts of Lublin and Lubartów counties, as in 1940 the Germans committed many massacres, as in March 1941 Lublin Ghetto established by the occupiers and as in October the Majdanek concentration camp established by the occupiers, before in July 1944 the city captured by the Soviet Army.
1941-44 Majdanek Nazi concentration and extermination camp operated by the SS: Majdanek (or Lublin) Nazi concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It had seven gas chambers, two wooden gallows, and some 227 structures in all. Although initially intended for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to murder people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Polish Jews within their own occupied homeland. The camp, which operated from 1 October 1941 to 22 July 1944, was captured nearly intact. The rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of the camp's infrastructure, and Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed to remove most incriminating evidence of war crimes.
Since October 1964 Maria Sklodowska-Curie Monument in Lublin: Since October 1964 Maria Sklodowska-Curie Monument in Lublin dedicated to Polish physicist and chemist Marie Curie 1867–1934 depicted in a long robe and holding a book in her right hand. The pedestal inscriptions read 'To Maria Sklodowska-Curie, from the University Bearing Her Name, and from Society' and 'On the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the University 1944–1964' - In December 1903 Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and Henri Becquerel received the Nobel Prize in Physics, 'in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena', as Marie Curie continued her revolutionary work until her death in 1934, 11 years ahead of the first deployment of nuclear weapons during Axis powers' World War II by the USA to end Japanese empire's brutal war against the USA and Asian countries, to save hundred of thousands soldiers lifes in 1945, following received but ignored warnings
Since July 2020 'Lublin Triangle' of Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine: Since July 2020 Lublin Triangle, a regional alliance of three European countries – Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine – for the purposes of strengthening mutual military, cultural, economic and political cooperation and supporting Ukraine's integration into the European Union and NATO
Zamosc city: Zamosc, a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship 60 km from the border with Ukraine, with a population was 65,149 in 2014
Since 1580 history of Zamosc: Since 1580 history of Zamosc, when the city was founded by Jan Zamoyski on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea, modelled on Italian trading cities and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando Zamosc remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century
SSince 19th century history of Jews in Zamosc: Since 1588 history of Jews in Zamosc, when the first Jewish settlers were mainly the Sephardi Jews coming from Italy, the Catholic Monarchy of Spain, Portugal and Turkey, in the 17th century the newcomers were recruited among the Ashkenazi Jews, and before Germany's World War II more than 12,500 Jews lived in Zamosc, accounting for 43% of its population, today only 3 Jews are living in Zamosc
5 March 1871 Róza Luksemburg born in Zamosc city: 5 mars 1871 théoricienne marxiste Róza Luksemburg née à Zamosc dans l'Empire russe et actuelle Pologne, morte assassinée le 15 janvier 1919 à Berlin en Allemagne
1939-1945 during Germany's World War II occupation of Zamosc (Zamojszczyzna): 1939-1945 during Germany's World War II Zamosc was seized by the German army and occupation forces, creating an extermination camp in the Zamosc Rotunda where more than 8,000 people were killed, including displaced residents of the Zamosc region (Zamojszczyzna) and Soviet prisoners of war
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
1942-1944 Zamosc uprising: 1942-1944 Zamosc uprising, comprising World War II partisan operations against Germany's Generalplan-Ost forced expulsion of Poles from the Zamosc region and the region's colonization by German settlers, one of Poland's largest resistance operations of World War II
March 2018 commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and denial: 14. März 2018: Die in Zamosc an Rosa Luxemburg erinnernde Gedenktafel wurde auf Grundlage einer behördlichen Entscheidung entfernt und in ein Museum verbracht, der polnischen Regierungspolitik folgend und zum Schaden des Ansehens der Stadt - Commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebnecht since 15 January 1919 and July 1919 Versailles peace conference, agreements and then 'Treaty of Versailles' following WWI, not preventing World War II including the Holocaust
Silesia historical region: Silesia, a historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany, as its population is estimated at around 8,000,000 inhabitants in the 21st century. Silesia is split into two main subregions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east. Silesia has a diverse culture, including architecture, costumes, cuisine, traditions, and the Silesian language in Upper Silesia
History of Central European 'Silesia', in the 21st century including areas of 9 countries: History of Silesia, as in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. - late Bronze Age -, Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture. About 500 BC Scyths arrived, and later Celts in the South and Southwest. During the 1st century BC Silingi and other Germanic people settled in Silesia. For this period we have written reports of antique authors who included the area. Slavs arrived in this territory around the 6th century. The first known states in Silesia were those of Greater Moravia and Bohemia. In the 10th century, Mieszko I incorporated Silesia into Civitas Schinesghe, a Polish state. It remained part of Poland until the Fragmentation of Poland - Great Moravia, the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, possibly including territories which are today part of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Lower Silesia: Lower Silesia, the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, as in the Middle Ages Lower Silesia was part of Piast-ruled Poland. It was one of the leading regions of Poland, and its capital Wroclaw was one of the main cities of the Polish Kingdom. Lower Silesia emerged as a distinctive region during the fragmentation of Poland, in 1172, when the Duchies of Opole and Racibórz, considered Upper Silesia since, were formed of the eastern part of the Duchy of Silesia, and the remaining, western part was since considered Lower Silesia. During the Ostsiedlung, German settlers were invited to settle in the sparsely populated region, which until then had a Polish majority. As a result, the region became largely Germanised in the following centuries. In the late Middle Ages the region fell under the overlordship of the Bohemian Crown, however large parts remained under the rule of local Polish dukes of the Piast dynasty, some up to the 16th and 17th century.
Cities in Silesia: List of cities in Silesia with a population greater than 20,000 inhabitants in 2015
Wroclaw city: Wroclaw city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia, located on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south, as the official population of Wroclaw in 2020 was 643,782, with a further 1.25 million residing in the metropolitan area - History of Wroclaw that has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship, after the history of the city started at a crossroads in Lower Silesia, becoming one of the centres of the Duchy and then Kingdom of Poland, and briefly, in the first half of the 13th century, the centre of half of the divided Kingdom of Poland, as its historical affiliations since AD 800 include Duchy of Poland 985–1025, Kingdom of Poland 1025–1038, Duchy of Bohemia 1038–1054, Kingdom of Poland 1054–ca. 1325, Duchy of Silesia 1202–1335, Kingdom of Bohemia 1335–1469, Kingdom of Hungary 1469–1490, Kingdom of Bohemia 1490–1526/1742, Habsburg Monarchy 1526–1742, Kingdom of Prussia 1742–1871, German Empire 1871–1918, Weimar Germany 1918–1933, NSDAP ruled Germany 1933–1945, People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989 and Republic of Poland 1989–present
Timeline of Wroclaw: Timeline of Wroclaw
Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau: Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau, now Wroclaw, and one of the largest synagogues in the German Empire and a centre of Reform Judaism in Breslau, burnt down during the Kristallnacht pogrom which swept across Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938
Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology: Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
1944-1945 (6 May) Battle of Breslau: 1944-1945 Battle of Breslau, a three-month-long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia - after in August 1944 Adolf Hitler declared the city of Breslau to be a fortress (Festung), ordering that it must be defended at all costs - lasting to the end of World War II in Europe, after from 13 February 1945 to 6 May 1945 German troops in Breslau were besieged by the Soviet forces which encircled the city as part of the Lower Silesian Offensive Operation, and as the German garrison's surrender on 6 May was followed by the surrender of all German forces two days after the battle
Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction: Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction
After 13 May 1945 Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor: Polish Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor, after he led a delegation to Zagan on 13 May 1945
Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University: Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University, that has 22 international agreements of cooperation signed with other universities abroad, and as there is a wide exchange of students and teaching staff within the framework of the Socrates and Erasmus programmes of the EU, especially with France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Spain, the Netherlands and England
Since 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences: Since November 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (former Agricultural University and Agricultural Academy in Wroclaw), a state university established as an independent university and one of the best specialist universities in Poland, conducting training and research in the field of food, environmental and veterinary sciences
Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw: Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw, the only architecture museum in Poland, located in a 15th-century post-Bernardine set of buildings, including the St Bernardine of Sienna Church and a monastic quadrangle with a garden, as the Museum of Architecture was a founder-member of the International Confederation of Architectural Museums, and as its permanent exhibitions on display are 'Relics of Wroclaw's Mediaeval Architecture', 'Architectural Craft from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century'
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship: Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship, one of the 16 Polish voivodeships situated in southeastern Poland, in the historical region of Lesser Poland, and takes its name from the Swietokrzyskie mountain range. Its capital and largest city is Kielce.
Kielce city: Kielce city in southern Poland with 193,415 inhabitants. It has been the capital of the Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999 and used to be the capital of its predecessor, Kielce Voivodeship 1919–1939, 1945–1998. The city is in the middle of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, on the banks of the Silnica River, in the northern part of the historical Polish province of Lesser Poland, as Kielce has a history back over 900 years. Kielce - once an important centre of limestone mining - and its vicinity later became famous for natural resources like copper, lead and iron
Pinczów County in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship: Pinczów County in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central Poland. Its administrative seat and largest town is Pinczów, which lies 40km south of the regional capital Kielce. The only other town in the county is Dzialoszyce, lying 23km south-west of Pinczów
Bronocice village in Gmina Dzialoszyce district within Pinczów County: Bronocice village in Gmina Dzialoszyce district within Pinczów County. It lies approximately 4km south of Dzialoszyce, 26km south-west of Pinczów and 64 km south of the regional capital Kielce. In 1976 the Bronocice pot was discovered. Dating to approximately 3635–3370 BC, the pot bears the earliest known image of a wheeled vehicle
'Bronocice pot' - Nutzung des Rades zum Transport nördlich des Schwarzen Meeres vor 4000 v.Chr.: Bronocice pot with one of the earliest known depictions of what may be a wheeled vehicle discovered in the village of Bronocice near the Nidzica River in Poland. Attributed to the Funnelbeaker archaeological culture, radiocarbon tests dated the pot to the mid-fourth millennium BC. Today it is housed at the Archaeological Museum of the city of Kraków in southern Poland - Die ältesten Hinweise für die Nutzung des Rades zum Transport finden sich in Form von Miniaturrädern aus Ton nördlich des Schwarzen Meeres bereits vor 4000 v. Chr. Die Hinweise verdichten sich ab Mitte des 4. Jahrtausends über ganz Europa in Form von Wagenmodellen. Weitere mittelbare Hinweise auf die Anwendung als Wagenrad fanden sich z. B. in Form von Einritzungen auf einem Gefäß der Trichterbecherkultur in Bronocice bei Powiat Pinczowski in Polen
Pinczów town and Gmina Pinczó: Gmina Pinczó, an urban-rural gmina in Pinczów County, as its seat is the town of Pinczów 40km south of the regional capital Kielce. The gmina covers an area of 212.75 square kilometres, and as of 2006 its total population is 22,147 inhabitants. Gmina Pinczów also contains the villages and settlements of Aleksandrów, Bogucice Drugie, Bogucice Pierwsze, Borków, Brzescie, Bugaj, Byczów, Chrabków, Chruscice, Chwalowice, Gacki, Grochowiska, Kopernia, Kowala, Kozubów, Krzyzanowice Dolne, Krzyzanowice Srednie, Leszcze, Marzecin, Mlodzawy Duze, Mlodzawy Male, Mozgawa, Nowa Zagosc, Orkanów, Pasturka, Podleze, Sadek, Skowronno Dolne, Skowronno Górne, Skrzypiów, Stara Zagosc, Szarbków, Szczypiec, Uników, Winiary, Wlochy, Wola Zagojska Dolna, Wola Zagojska Górna, Zagórzyce, Zakrzów and Zawarza
Dzialoszyce town in Swietokrzyskie along important merchant route: Dzialoszyce town in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship with 1,117 inhabitants in 2004 - located on the Nidzica river, a tributary to the Vistula - was in the Middle Ages placed along a merchant route from Kraków to Wislica. The earliest mention of Dzialoszyce in historical records comes from 1220. In 1409 King Wladyslaw II Jagiello gave it a city charter according to Magdeburg rights, and in the 1920th the town had a Jewish community consisting of 5618 people, or 83.6% of its total population. The vast majority of the Jewish population was exterminated in the Holocaust by German Nazis during their occupation of Poland since 1939. After the war, Jewish survivors from Dzialoszyce submitted contributions to a Memorial Book. In subsequent years the town's population did not recover, and today it is less than one-fifth of what it was before the war.
Opole Voivodeship: Opole Voivodeship, the smallest and least populated voivodeship of Poland. The province's name derives from that of the region's capital and largest city, Opole. It is part of Upper Silesia. A relatively large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, and the German language is co-official in 28 communes. Opole Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Lódz Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, and the Czech Republic (Olomouc Region and Moravian-Silesian Region) to the south. Opole Province's geographic location, economic potential, and its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions (especially Lower Silesian and Silesian Voivodeships) and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praded/Pradziad Euroregion with its headquarter in Prudnik has facilitated economic, cultural and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Upper Silesia: Upper Silesia, the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic. Since the 9th century, Upper Silesia has been part of (chronologically) Greater Moravia, the Duchy of Bohemia, the Piast Kingdom of Poland, again of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as of the Habsburg monarchy from 1526. In 1742 the greater part of Upper Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire. After the First World War the region was divided between Poland (East Upper Silesia) and Germany (West Upper Silesia). After the Second World War, West Upper Silesia also became Polish as the result of the Potsdam Conference.
Cities in Silesia: List of cities in Silesia with a population greater than 20,000 inhabitants in 2015
Upper Silesian metropolitan area, Kraków metropolitan area, Czestochowa metropolitan area: Upper Silesian metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in southern Poland and northeast Czechia, centered on the cities of Katowice and Ostrava in Silesia and has around 5 million inhabitans. Located in the three administrative units, mainly Silesian Voivodeship, a small western part of Lesser Poland Voivodeship and a small east part of Moravian-Silesian Region. The polycentric metropolitan area lies within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as Silesian metropolitan area (5.3 million people) with nearby Kraków metropolitan area (1.3 million people) and Czestochowa metropolitan area (0.4 million people) create a great metropolitan area covering 7 million people.
Katowice city: Katowice city, the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, and the central city of the Upper Silesian metropolitan area. It is the 11th-most populous city in Poland, while its urban area is the most populous in the country and one of the most populous in the EU. As of December 31, 2020 estimate, Katowice has a population of 290,553 citizens, and is a central part of the Metropolis GZM, with a population of 2.3 million, and a part of a larger Upper Silesian metropolitan area that extends into the Czech Republic and has a population of 5-5.3 million people. Katowice is a center of commerce, business, transportation, and culture in southern Poland, with numerous public companies headquartered in the city or in its suburbs, important cultural institutions such as Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, award-winning music festivals such as Off Festival and Tauron New Music, and transportation infrastructure such as Katowice Korfanty Airport. In 2015, Katowice joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and was named a UNESCO City of Music.
Since 19th century Katowice's population: Katowice's population grew very fast between 1845 and 1960, fueled by the expansion of heavy industry and administrative functions. In the 60s, 70s and 80s, the city grew by another 100,000 people, reaching a height of 368,621 in 1988. Since then, the collapse of heavy industry, emigration, and suburbanization reversed the population development. Katowice lost approx. 75,000 people (20%) since the fall of communism in Poland, as - during the German empires second world war since September 1939 - the Nazi occupant committed severe crimes against the local Roma and Jewish communities, and most of them were eventually killed or transported by cattle wagons to concentration camps such as Auschwitz for complete extermination.
Tworków village: Tworków village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzyzanowice within Racibórz County in the Silesian Voivodeship, close to the Czech border. It lies approximately 3km west of Krzyzanowice, 10km south of Racibórz, and 62km south-west of the regional capital Katowice, ande has a population of 3,000 inhabitants in the 21st century
Geschichte Tworków seit dem 13. Jahrhundert: Im Mittelalter wurde Tworków vermutlich in der ersten Hälfte des 13. Jahrhunderts gegründet und als Angerdorf angelegt. 1258 übertrug es der böhmische König einem böhmischen Adligen. Daraus ergibt sich, dass Tworkau/Tvorkov damals zur mährischen Provinz Troppau und nach der Gründung des Herzogtums Troppau 1318 zu diesem gehörte. Auf der Pariser Friedenskonferenz 1919 beanspruchte die Tschechoslowakei das Gebiet, wie auch Polen. 1936 erfolgte die Umbenennung des Amtsbezirks Tworkau in Amtsbezirk Tunskirch. Am 2. November 1920 wurde Franciczek Adamik in Torkowa (Tworków) geboren, der später bis zum Beginn des 2. Weltkriegs in Schlesien als Schneider arbeitete. Er wurde als Zwangsarbeiter nach Deutschland verschleppt. Später gelang ihm die Flucht nach Sanok und er arbeitete wieder als Schneider, und begann in dieser Zeit einen geheimen Transport von Menschen über die Grenze nach Ungarn zu organisieren. 1940 entkam er bei einer Razzia und versteckte sich in Krakau, wurde jedoch wieder aufgespürt und zur Zwangsarbeit verurteilt. Noch einmal gelang ihm die Flucht und er verband sich 1942 mit der 'Armia Krajowa' und beteiligte sich an der Organisierung der Flucht von Juden aus dem Krakauer Ghetto. 1945 im Januar wurde er von der Gestapo verhaftet und in das Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen, dann nach Nordhausen und Dora gebracht, bis zu seiner Befreiung durch die Allierten. Im Konzentrationslager wurde Franciszek Adamik gezwungen an Leichenverbrennungen teilzunehmen. 1964 begann er Bilder aus dieser Zeit zu malen und erklärt wie er 'das Gemalte als Gefangener sah. Wenn man nur einmal eine Gaskammer in Funktion gesehen hat, vergißt man es nie.' 1993 konnten seine Bilder auch im Rahmen einer Veranstaltungsreihe 'Aufstand im Ghetto - Warschau 1943' in Osnabrück und Georgsmarienhütte von April bis Mai 1993 gezeigt werden.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland: Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland with a population of 3,404,863 citizens in 2019. It stretches far north, to Radom, and Siedlce, also including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Lublin, Kielce, Czestochowa, and Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Czestochowska - a broad range of hills stretching from Kraków to Czestochowa - and on the south by the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains. Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, and Slovakia - Prešov Region and Žilina Regions - to the south.
Kraków city: Kraków city, the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland, situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, and dating back to the 7th century
Vistula river: Vistula river, the longest river in Poland and the 9th-longest in Europe, as the river is often associated with Polish culture, history and national identity. It is the country's most important waterway, also trading route and natural symbol, and the term 'Vistula Land' can be synonymous with Poland
History of Kraków: History of Kraków, as first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia 876–879, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish governmen and became a leading centre of trade, but the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt practically identical, incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Boleslaw V who like Wroclaw introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens. In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the newly built fortifications. During 15th and 16th centuries many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture were created, including ancient synagogues in Kraków's Jewish quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the Old Synagogue, then various artists came to work and live in Kraków and Johann Haller established a printing press in the city.
Economy of Kraków: Economy of Kraków
Timeline of Kraków: Timeline of Kraków
Since 15th-century Old Synagogue: Since 15th-century Old Synagogue situated in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe, that remained one of the most important synagogues in the city until the German invasion of Poland in 1939, renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum
Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland: Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland
1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow': 1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow', an overwhelmingly Polish-speaking city-state as 14% of its population were Jews as the city of Kraków itself had a Jewish population reaching nearly 40%
February 1846 Kraków Uprising for national independence: February 1846 Kraków Uprising, an attempt to incite a fight for national independence and directed at the powers that partitioned Poland, in particular the nearby Austrian Empire, but ended with Austrian victory
1846-1918 'Grand Duchy of Kraków' part of the 'Empire of Austria': 1846-1918 Grand Duchy of Kraków, created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria in November 1846, as from 1846 to 1918 'Grand Duke of Kraków' was part of the official titulary of the 'Emperor of Austria'
1918-1939 Second Polish Republic: 1918-1939 Second Polish Republic
1939–1945 Kraków 'capital' of Nazi Germany's 'General Governorate': November 1939 – 19 January 1945 'General Governorate for the occupied Polish Region', a German zone of occupation established after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 at the onset of World War II
Since 1940/1941 German politician and lawyer Hans Frank and Kraków Ghetto: Since 1940/1941 Kraków Ghetto was one of five major metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the 'able workers' from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life, as the Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Belzec extermination camp as well as Plaszów slave-labor camp, and Auschwitz concentration camp
1939-1942 Kraków Ghetto establishment and mass murder called liquidation: In April 1940, German politician and lawyer Hans Frank, who served as head of the General Government, began the removal of Jews from the city of Kraków with the reasoning that the area '...will be cleansed and it will be possible to establish pure German neighborhoods...' within Kraków - 1939-1941/1942 Kraków Ghetto Jewish Council until in 1942 Nazi ghetto officials made David Gutter, the last chairman of the Kraków Ghetto
1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance: 1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance, stemmed from youth groups including Akiva, Iskra and Hahalutz Halochem, or the Fighting Organization of the Jewish youth, originally focused on providing support for education and welfare organizations within the ghetto and eventually establishing a magazine, and also focused on working with the Polish Underground and the Communist Partia Robotnicza, and ultimately focusing on more classical armed resistance actions
January 1945 Soviet army takes the city: January 1945 Soviet army takes the city, German occupation ends
Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Kraków: Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks, the second largest steel plant in Poland, in 2005 purchased by the Mittal Steel Company and now owned by Arcelor-Mittal, the largest steelmaker in the world
Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków: Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków
Subcarpathian Voivodeship: Subcarpathian Voivodeship in the southeastern corner of Poland. Its administrative capital and largest city is Rzeszów. In the WWI and WWII interwar period, it was part of the Lwów Voivodeship. The voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Rzeszów, Przemysl, Krosno and Tarnów and Tarnobrzeg Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local-government reforms adopted in 1998. The name derives from the region's location near the Carpathian Mountains.
Przemysl County: Przemysl County in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, on the border with Ukraine, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat is the city of Przemysl, constituting a separate city county. As of 2019 Przemysl County's total population is 74,234 citizens
L'attitude des Polonais vis-à-vis des Juifs et le 10 novembre 1941: Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale de l'empire allemand et malgré le comportement parfois hostile de la population, comme dans nombre d'autres pays occupés, la Pologne est le pays qui compte le plus grand nombre de Juste parmi les nations, titre décerné par le musée de Yad Vashem, grâce notamment aux actions du colonel Henryk Wolinski, du lieutenant-colonel Henryk Iwanski ou de l'enseignante Krystyna Adolnhowa. Le gouvernement polonais en exil fut le premier à diffuser - en novembre 1942 - des informations sur les camps d’extermination nazis à la suite des rapports de Jan Karski et de Witold Pilecki, membres d’Armia Krajowa. Le gouvernement polonais en exil est aussi le seul gouvernement à avoir mis en place une cellule de résistance dont l’objectif unique a été d’aider les Juifs en Pologne occupée, après le 10 novembre 1941 Hans Frank avait instauré la peine capitale pour des Polonais assistant les Juifs
Przemysl city: Przemysl city in southeastern Poland with 60,442 inhabitants in 2020. In 1999, it became part of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship as Przemysl owes its long and rich history to the advantages of its geographic location. The city lies in an area connecting mountains and lowlands known as the Przemysl Gate, with open lines of transportation, and fertile soil. It also lies on the navigable San River. Important trade routes that connect Central Europe from Przemysl ensure the city's importance. The Old Town of Przemysl is listed as a Historic Monument of Poland
21st century politics of Krosno/Przemysl constituency: Politics of Krosno/Przemysl constituency with members of Sejm elected from Krosno/Przemysl constituency
History of Przemysl since early Middle Ages until WWI 1914-1918: History of Przemysl, as city is the second-oldest city (after Kraków) in southern Poland, dating back to at least the 8th century, when it was the site of a fortified gord belonging to the Lendians, a West Slavic tribe. In the 9th century, the fortified settlement and the surrounding region became part of Great Moravia, since 1340 in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as since 1772 - as a consequence of the First Partition of Poland - Przemysl became part of the Austrian Empire, seeking expansion to increase the number of subjects as empires did since the Middle Ages
1914-1918 - 1939 history of Przemysl since Central Powers' World War I: History of Przemysl since Central Powers' World War I 1914-1918, inter-war years, World War II 1939-1945, beginning for the city of Przemysl with the Septemer 1939 NSDAP rulen German empire's 'Battle of Przemysl'
1939-1945 history of Przemysl during and since Axis Powers' World War II: Sepmter 1939 'Battle of Przemysl' and efence of the city during the German Invasion of Poland, as the Polish Army garrison of the former Austrian fortress of Przemysl managed to halt the advance of the invading 'Wehrmacht' for three days. The city was forced to surrender on 14 September, not exactly knowing what is to come, but beginning with 1939 Przemysl massacres carried out by the German soldiers and police against hundreds of Jews who lived in the city. In total over 500 Jews were murdered in and around the city and the vast majority of the city's Jewish population was deported across the San River into the portion of Poland that was occupied by the Soviet Union.
History of Przemysl in the postwar period until today: History of Przemysl in the postwar period, as due to the murder of Jews in the Nazi Holocaust and the postwar expulsion of Ukrainians' the city's population fell to 24,000
25 March 2022 USA president in Przemysl to witness refugee crisis caused by Putin's war against Ukraine: 25 March 2022: Just 60 miles from Ukraine, USA president Joe Biden saluted Poland on Friday for welcoming more than 2 million refugees who have fled Russia’s invasion. Then he met with humanitarian experts on the ground about what will be needed to mitigate the growing suffering. Biden said he had hoped to get even closer to the border but was prevented because of security concerns. Still, he said he wanted to visit Poland to underscore that the assistance it is providing is of 'enormous consequence' as Europe experiences the biggest refugee crisis since World War II - 25 March 2022: After Brussels summits USA's Biden heads to Poland to witness refugee crisis, as Russian commander reportedly killed by own troops, as Russia admits 1,351 soldiers dead and 3,825 wounded, as video appears showing Russian shelling of civilians receiving humanitarian aid in Kharkiv, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates on the 30th day of Putin's war crimes
Medyka village, population, history: Medyka village/town in Przemysl County, on the border with Ukraine. It is the seat of the municipality called Gmina Medyka. It lies approximately 13 kilometres east of Przemysl and 72 km east of the regional capital Rzeszów. In 2006 the village had a population of approximately 2,800 citizens. - Shehyni village of Yavoriv Raion in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine, hosting the administration of Shehyni rural hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Located at the border with Poland, known as the site of the Medyka-Shehyni border checkpoint, and situated 14km east of the city of Przemysl, it was first mentioned in 1515 in a royal charter under the name of Szechinie. For most of its existence the village belonged to the Land of Przemysl, the so-called key of estates including Medyka, Pozdziacz, Torki and Buców, centred on the manor in Medyka, all based on a local variant of Magdeburg law, dubbed Ruthenian law. Initially the peasants settled there were tasked with taking care of the royal stables in Medyka, with time their duty towards the owner of Medyka manor was modified to simple serfdom, with yearly rent paid in grain.
Early 20th century synagogue 'Synagoga w Medyce' in Medyka town, history: Since early 20th century synagogue 'Synagoga w Medyce'in Medyka town and history until 1939-1944 when it was devastated by NSDAP ruled German empire's invaders during empire's World War II
Mai/June 1935 'Anglo-German Naval Agreement': Mai/juin 1935 'traité naval germano-britannique' (Anglo-German Naval Agreement), un traité bilatéral signé le 18 juin 1935 - 18 juin 1815 'Battle of Waterloo' - par le Royaume-Uni et le Troisième Reich, entre Joachim von Ribbentrop pour les Allemands et Samuel Hoare pour les Britanniques. Sans concerter leurs alliés de la 'Première Guerre mondiale 1914-1918', ils autorisent le Troisième Reich à disposer d'une flotte de guerre au tonnage limité de façon permanente à 35% de celui de la Royal Navy, et Hitler aussitôt entreprit un vaste programme de construction navale. - French reaction to the '1935 Naval Pact' and impact
Participation de l'URSS en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, mais l'expansion du fascisme: Participation de l'Union soviétique en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, notamment par l'intermédiaire du Komintern, au nom de la lutte contre le fascisme. Plusieurs généraux républicains, membres du PCE, comme Juan Modesto ou Enrique Líster, ne sont pas sortis du rang, mais avaient été formés en URSS où ils avaient trouvé refuge au début des années 1930 - Bilan, victimes, réfugiés et exilés, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale a débuté avec la guerre civile qui oppose en effet de 1936 à 1939 républicains et nationalistes en Espagne, en Europe et au monde, et qui fait environ 400 000 morts. Dès 1936, les Européens y voient un conflit à portée universelle, elle marque l'expansion du fascisme.
September 1938 Munich Conference, without Soviet participation, German annexation of part of Czechoslovakia: At September 1938 Munich Conference Hitler's fierce anti-Soviet rhetoric was one of the reasons that Britain and France decided that Soviet participation in the 1938 Munich Conference on Czechoslovakia would be both dangerous and useless. In the Munich Agreement that followed the conference agreed to a German annexation of part of Czechoslovakia in late 1938, but in early 1939 it had been completely dissolved. The policy of appeasement toward Germany was conducted by the governments of British PM Neville Chamberlain and French PM Édouard Daladier. The policy immediately raised the question of whether the Soviet Union could avoid being next on Hitler's list. The Soviet leadership believed that the West wanted to encourage German aggression in the East and to stay neutral in a war initiated by NSDAP ruled German empire in the hope that Germany and the Soviet Union would wear each other out and put an end to both regimes. - The October/November 1917 'Decree on Peace', written by Vladimir Lenin, and passed by the emerging 'Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' deputies, proposing an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I, was never withdrawn
23 August 1939 'Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics': 23 août 1939 traité de non-agression entre l'Allemagne et l'Union soviétique, qui proclamait un renoncement au conflit entre les deux pays ainsi qu'une position de neutralité dans le cas où l'un des deux pays signataires était attaqué par une tierce partie. Chaque signataire promit de ne pas rassembler de forces qui seraient 'directement ou indirectement dirigées contre l'autre partie'.
History of Medyka town: History of Medyka town, as during the invasion of Poland in September 1939 the Polish 23rd Observation Escadrille was stationed in Medyka, and as German empire's invaders came later in their beginning World War II 1939-1945. Meanwhile the village was occupied by the Soviet Union - ahead of NSDAP ruled German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, planned and prepared by the German High Command since July 1940 - under which it was annexed to the newly formed Drohobych Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1941, it was occupied by Nazi Germany, and from 1944 again by the not defeated Soviet Union. It was eventually restored to Poland in 1948 during a revision of borders.
26 February 2022 'for Ukraine's refugees, Europe opens doors that were shut to others': 26 February 2022: 'For Ukraine's refugees, Europe opens doors that were shut to others', as 'New York Times' Lara Jakes reports, and as Washington's 'Al Jazeera' correspondent Kimberly Halkett came in late March 2022 to the small European village to report on the 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis
March 2022 Medyka welcomes refugees escaping Russian regime's war crimes in Ukraine: 16 March 2022: Polish border town Medyka - a primary crossing point for refugees - welcomes refugees from Ukraine, but will itself need help, as mayor of Medyka says ‘these refugees have lost almost everything. We need to help them. Even if that means we’ll have to learn to live with less’


Demographics, demographic history and ethnic groups in Poland: Demographics of Poland - Demographic history of Poland
Ethnic groups in Poland: Ethnic groups in Poland - Ethnic minorities in Poland
Jews and history of the Jews in Poland: History of the Jews in Poland - History of the Jews in 20th-century Poland - 1921 there were 2,845,364 Jews living in the Second Polish Republic, by late 1938 that number has grown to approximately 3,310,000 mainly through migration from Ukraine and the Soviet Russia, from amongst the 6 million Polish citizens who perished during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, roughly half (or 3 million) were Polish Jews murdered at the Nazi-Germany's extermination camps of Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibór, and Chelmno, others died of starvation and maltreatment in the ghettos, only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil
2014/2015: 25 October 2014: With the newly built Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Poland, on whose soil Nazi Germany carried out the darkest acts of the Holocaust, is starting to re-connect with its other role in Jewish history as a home for 1,000 years to one of the world's biggest Jewish communities - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the Nazis in World War II
April 2018: 28 April 2018: In Krakow, Jews celebrate their community’s 'revival’ amid rising xenophobia
August 2019: 8 August 2019: Poland’s chief rabbi Michael Schudrich criticized the Duda government’s decision to honor World War II ultra-nationalist fighters and called his invitation to the event a 'personal insult'
Romani people in Poland and Polska Roma: Romani people in Poland - Polska Roma are the largest and one of the oldest ethnolinguistic sub group of Romani people living in Poland - Bergitka Roma
Belarusian minority in Poland: Belarusian minority in Poland
German minority in Poland: German minority in Poland
Silesians: Silesians are the inhabitants of Silesia, a region divided by the current boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic, and are considered to belong to a Polish ethnographic group, speaking a dialect of Polish
Ukrainians in Poland: Ukrainians in Poland
May 2016 around one million Ukrainians work in Poland: 22 May 2016: As around one million Ukrainians work in Poland, Ukrainian Workers' Trade Union to be set up in Warsaw
Vietnamese people in Poland: Vietnamese people in Poland, forming one of the ethnic minorities in Poland, the third-largest Vietnamese community in the European Union, after Vietnamese people in France and Germany
Immigration to Poland and 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Immigration to Poland - 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 November 2015: Poland's new government will no longer accept migrants under European Union quotas after Friday's terror attacks in Paris - 2 December 2015: Detain refugees arriving in Europe for 18 months, Poland's European council president Tusk says
Languages and culture of Poland: Culture of Poland - Languages of Poland - Polish language - Music of Poland
Women in Poland: Women in Poland - Women's rights in Poland
Education in Poland: Education in Poland - History of education in Poland
Schools in Poland: Schools in Poland
Universities and colleges in Poland: Universities and colleges in Poland - List of universities in Poland - Timeline of Polish science and technology
Museums in Poland: Museums in Poland
National Museum of Poland: 'National Museum of Poland' is the common name for several of the country's largest and most notable museums
World War II museums in Poland: World War II museums in Poland
Museum of World War II in Gdansk: Museum of World War II in Gdansk - Homepage of the 'Museum of the Second World War' - Educational projects of the 'Museum of the Second World War'
2016/2017: 21 December 2016: Minister of Culture and National Heritage refuses to comply with the Provincial Administrative Court’s decision suspending the merger of museums - 24 January 2017: Fate of Polish WWII museum unclear amid battle over history, as Director Pawel Machcewicz says 'it’s very unusual for the creation of a historical exhibit to encounter such huge pressure from the government'
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews: POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto 1940-1943 - Jewish Historical Institute, a research foundation in Warsaw primarily dealing with the history of Jews in Poland - Ringelblum Archive
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
9 January 2020 Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel over snub: 9 January 2020: Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz over snub, after being told he would not be allowed to speak at the event, but Russian regime’s war criminal Vladimir Putin
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum: Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, a memorial and museum in Oswiecim, which includes the German concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau and is devoted to the memory of the murders in both camps during World War II
Warsaw Uprising Museum: Warsaw Uprising Museum, dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944
Health in Poland: Health in Poland
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Poland: Medical outbreaks in Poland - Disasters and man-made disasters in Poland
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland
22 April 2020 covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland: 22 April 2020: Showing highest number in post-soviet central Europe, confirmed covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland and some 16-17% of the infections were medical workers, now slowly easing restrictions on public life ahead of a presidential election set for May 10, as Poland has reported 404 deaths
Coal and environment of Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Healthcare in Poland: Healthcare in Poland - Medical and health organisations based in Poland
Hospitals in Poland: Hospitals in Poland - List of hospitals in Poland
Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw: Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw - 1878-1942 Bersohn and Bauman Children's Hospital in Warsaw, between 1905 and 1912 Janusz Korczak worked in the hospital as a pediatrician
Media of Poland: Media of Poland - Lists of Polish media - Media in Poland by city
Newspapers in Poland: List of newspapers in Poland
Broadcasting in Poland: Broadcasting in Poland
2016 protests against state control of public broadcasting: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting
Internet in Poland: Internet in Poland
April 2018: 29 April 2018: Facebook removes Polish nationalist pages for anti-Semitic content
May 2019: 17 mai 2019: Facebook a fermé en Pologne 27 pages diffusant des fausses nouvelles ou des contenus haineux, à l'approche des élections européennes, a annoncé l'ONG de cybermilitantisme Avaaz
Cinema of Poland: Cinema of Poland
Lists of Polish films by decade: Lists of Polish films by decade
September 2019 Wanda Jakubowska’s film 'The Last Stage’: 13 September 2019: Seventy years after its Tel Aviv premiere, Wanda Jakubowska’s Polish film 'The Last Stage’ is being shown in Israel once again, one of first feature films about the Holocaust, the first to be filmed at Auschwitz
History of religion in Poland: History of religion in Poland - Religion in Poland - History of the Jews in Poland - Christianity in Poland - History of Christianity in Poland - Islam in Poland - Buddhism in Poland - Hinduism in Poland
Secularism and freedom of religion in Poland: Secularism in Poland - Freedom of religion according to the constitution of Poland
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 23 April 2019: 'The Catholic Church will never tolerate manifestations of contempt towards members of any nation, including the Jewish people', Polish bishop Rafal Markowski announced, after residents, among them children, hanged, beat and burned an effigy of Judas, represented by a stereotypical Jew, in southeast Poland's town of Pruchnik on Good Friday, a tradition practised since 18th century and today in some other villages
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Roman Catholic church sex abuse cases in Poland: Roman Catholic chruch sex abuse cases in Poland
May 2013: 16 May 2013: Two French journalists invited to an interview with a Polish priest, who is being investigated for alleged child abuse, were briefly held against their will by the priest
May 2019: 17 May 2019: Poland has raised jail terms for convicted paedophiles to a maximum of 30 years after a groundbreaking documentary on child sexual abuse among Polish priests prompted public outrage
Crime in Poland: Crime in Poland
Since 1939 German invasion and World War II crimes in Poland: Since 1939 German invasion, occupation and World War II crimes in Poland
Corruption in Poland: Corruption in Poland - surveys of Polish citizens reveal that corruption is perceived to be a major problem - Police corruption in Poland
Since 2002 Lew Rywin affair: Rywin affair was a corruption scandal in Poland, which began in late 2002 when Lew Rywin called in at the office of Adam Michnik, editor of Poland's largest daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza, offering in exchange for a bribe of 17.5 million USD to arrange for a change in a draft law aimed at limiting the print media's influence on radio and television
2002-2004 Orlengate: 2002-2004 Orlengate
2006/2007: Oleksy tapes
Racism and antisemitism in Poland: Racism in Poland, existing in a variety of forms over the course of its history as the Polish people themselves have been the victims of anti-Polish racism under the German Empire and during World War II - Antisemitism in Poland
Since 1918: Antisemitism in Poland since the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918
1939-1945: 10 February 2017: Drawing on Polish, Jewish and German records from the war and postwar periods, historian Jan Grabowski was able to document Poland's local population’s involvement in turning over and murdering the Jews who sought their help, but also the heroism of Poles who tried to rescue their Jewish neighbors and sometimes paid for it with their lives
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Poland: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
November 2015 burning of an effigy of a Jewish citizen: 19 November 2015: A Polish demonstration against taking in Muslim refugees ended with the burning of an effigy of an ultra-Orthodox Jew holding the flag of the European Union
November 2017 anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland: 13 November 2017: Anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland were among the racist epithets shouted by tens of thousands of far-right nationalists who marched Saturday in Warsaw to mark 99 years of the country’s independence, while counter-protesters rallied against fascism
January 2018 new bill against blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust: 27 January 2018: Amid escalating tensions between Israel and Poland over a new bill passed in the lower house of Poland’s parliament, which would outlaw blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center Yad Vashem said that 'while the term 'Polish death camps' is a historical misrepresentation', new Polish legislation may 'blur historical truths' on the help Germans received from Poles in Holocaust - 28 January 2018: Chairman of guides organization leading Holocaust tours asks for clarification regarding the legislation, which criminalizes holding Poles responsible for Nazi crimes
April 2019 anti-Semitic effigy hanged and burned in Polish Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual: 22 April 2019: 'Disturbed by this ghastly revival of medieval anti-Semitism', the World Jewish Congress expressed its 'disgust and outrage' following reports that an effigy made to look like a stereotypical Jew was hanged and burned in the Polish town of Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual, as residents including children beat and burned the effigy representing Judas, the discipline of Christ who betrayed him according to the New Testament, given a brimmed hat and sidelocks, making it resemble an ultra-Orthodox Jew, along with a long nose, a trope used by Nazi Germany and by anti-Semites worldwide to demonize and dehumanize Jews
19 December 2020 Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps according to Polish historian Krzyzanowski: 19 December 2020: Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps, as in study Polish historian Lukasz Krzyzanowski delves into postwar Radom, where Jews found new residents living in their stolen homes, and little empathy from the public
Hooliganism and riots in Poland: Football hooliganism in Poland - 11 November 2013: Polish independence day march in Warsaw marred by rioting young nationalists
Human trafficking in Poland: Human trafficking in Poland
Law and legal history of Poland: Law of Poland - Legal history of Poland - Constitutions of Poland - 1997 Constitution of Poland
1946-1948 Supreme National Tribunal: The Supreme National Tribunal was a war crime tribunal active in Poland from 1946 to 1948
1947 Auschwitz trial in Kraków: 1947 Auschwitz trial in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps built and operated by the German empire
Since 1982/1986 Constitutional Tribunal: Constitutional Tribunal since 1982/1986, the constitutional court established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions, its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland
Since 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis - National Council of the Judiciary, responsible for nominating judges and reviewing ethical complaints against sitting jurists - 12 July 2017: New law undermines the independence of the judiciary, rights group says
Judiciary and courts of Poland: Judiciary of Poland - Regional Courts
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 24 April 2019: The attorney general in the Polish province of Jaroslaw has reportedly opened a criminal investigation into an anti-Semitic ritual enacted over the Easter holiday that involved an effigy of Judas represented by a stereotypical Jew being hanged, beaten and set alight, known as 'Judgment over Judas' dating back to the 18th century and continued to be regularly performed until the Second World War and the Holocaust, then´largely abandoned with only a couple of villages continuing it, Pruchnik in south-eastern Poland
Supreme Court of Poland: Supreme Court of Poland, the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts, supervises the adjudication in district, regional, and appeal courts in the areas of civil, criminal, family and labour law, and in military courts (circuit and garrison courts)
July 2018 supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf: 4 July 2018: Polish supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf has turned up for work in defiance of a retirement law which has been pushed through by the government but criticised by the EU for undermining judicial independence
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Law enforcement in Poland: Law enforcement in Poland
Foreign relations of Poland: Foreign relations of Poland
Treaties of Poland: Treaties of Poland
Poland's membership international organisations: Poland's membership international organisations
Poland/United Nations relations, membership since 1945: Poland's ambassadors to the United Nations
2013 UN Climate Change Conference in Warsaw: 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 11 November 2013: Poland, a top EU polluter, hosts UN climate summit aiming to map out the main points of an ambitious global agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to be signed 2015 - 14 November: November 'Coal summit' in Warsaw stokes trouble at UN climate talks - 20 November 2013: Polish environment minister sacked as he chairs UN climate talks - 21 November: The second-last day of the global climate change conference in Warsaw has seen 800 NGO delegates walk out of the talks over a lack of progress - 24 November 2013: At the UN climate talks in Warsaw, rich and poor nations agree to commit to the reduction of greenhouse gases, waiting for a final deal in Paris in 2015
Since 1991 Poland member of the Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Poland and the European Union, since 2004 membership: Poland and the European Union
2003/2004 Polish EU membership referendum: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
Since 2015 reactions to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 EU and international reaction to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis
2016 EU inquiry: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
March 2017: 13 March 2017: Poland's government has accused the EU of 'cheating' and announced a 'negative' policy towards Brussels after losing a diplomatic campaign to oust its own former PM Tusk as European council president - 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
July 2017 efforts to reverse curbs on judicial freedom: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
November 2018 Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching: 8 November 2018: Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching on the 100th anniversary of Poland’s independence due to security concerns, followed by plans for an inclusive event Sunday that could be embraced by all citizens - 13 November 2018: Poland’s centennial celebration was stained by fear and hatred, as behind president and ordinary citizens thousands of nationalists carried horrifying symbols
19 October 2021 Polish PM escalates war of words with EU over rule of law: 19 October 2021: Poland’s PM Mateusz Morawiecki has clashed with the European Commission and MEPs after accusing EU institutions of seeking to turn the country into a province, in an escalation of the battle between Warsaw and Brussels over the rule of law
Bilateral relations of Poland: Bilateral relations of Poland
Poland/Austria relations: Poland/Austria relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Poland/Belarus relations: Poland/Belarus relations
Polish minority in Belarus: The Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially about 300,000 in 2009, forming the second largest ethnic minority in the country after the Russians, at around 3% of the total population
Belarusian minority in Poland: The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people in 2011, most of them living in the Podlaskie Voivodeship
20 September 2021 Poland accused Russia and Belarus of orchestrating a wave of illegal immigration: 20 September 2021: Poland accused Russia and Belarus of orchestrating a wave of illegal immigration at its land border, a day after four migrants were found dead at its Belarusian frontier, as thousands have been trying to cross from Belarus into EU members Latvia, Lithuania and Poland in recent weeks, and as EU suspects the influx of people mostly from the Middle East is being orchestrated by Belarusian autocratic Lukashenko in retaliation for sanctions on his regime
Poland/Brazil relations: Poland/Brazil relations
Polish Brazilians: Polish Brazilians, referring to Brazilians of full or partial Polish ancestry, arriving in Brazil in the late 19th century, and today 1,800,000–3 million people
1978 Poland's extradition request for war criminal Wagner rejected: Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Brazilian-Polish trade relationsBrazilian-Polish trade relations, as Brazil is Poland's main trading partner in Latin-America
Poland/Czech Republic relations: Poland/Czech Republic relations
Poland/Denmark relations: Poland/Denmark relations
Poland/France relations: Poland/France relations
Poland/Germany relations: Poland/Germany relations
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Prussian Partition: Since 1772 Prussian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
1939-1945 German invasion of Poland 1939 and World War II: German invasion of Poland 1939, the beginning of World War II - War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II, called 'Schmutzstrecke' by German war criminals as for instance quartermaster-general Eduard Wagner - 'Germanisation' under Nazi Germany
1939-1945 World War II and the Holocaust in Poland: The Holocaust in Poland - Warsaw Ghetto - 18 October 2014: Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who in 1943 coined 'Genocide' in 1943 spent his life trying to stop it
19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 - Ringelblum Archive, a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group 'Oyneg Shabbos', which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation and started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943 - Ghetto uprisings
1939-1945 Polish resistance movement against German assault and occupation: 1939-1945 Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2013: 20 January 2013: For first time, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising diaries unveiled - 28 March 2013: German ZDF television drama about the Second World War has sparked outrage in Poland for trying to spread responsibility for the Holocaust - 1 April 2013: Cutting-edge 3D film 'Warszawa 1935' revives a Warsaw lost to war - 8 April: Thousands from across the globe marched solemnly at the former Nazi Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp to honour the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust during World War II
2017: 25 October 2017: Polish bill governing compensation denies compensation for most Holocaust survivors, families
Poland/Israel relations: Poland/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Poland - Poland was a centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy ending with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772
1939-1945 German war crimes and the Holocaust in occupied Poland during World War II: German war crimes in occupied Poland during World War II 1939-1945 - Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland - The Holocaust in occupied Poland 1939-1945 - Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
October 1940 to May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto: 1940-1943 Warsaw Ghetto, the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II, the death toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto, between starvation, disease, deportations to extermination camps, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the subsequent razing of the ghetto, is estimated to be at least 300,000
1944–1946: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–46 - Kielce Pogrom against the Jewish community July 1946
2013: 2 October 2013: Hundreds of Polish and Israeli high-school students paid homage to the victims of the former Nazi death camp of Treblinka in a memorial event seeking to connect Israeli youths with today's Poland and expose Polish youths to Jewish history
2018: 1 February 2018: Israel condemns passing of Polish Holocaust law, as politicians and Yad Vashem voice outrage - 1 February 2018: Yad Vashem criticized the Polish Senate’s approval of a contentious Polish Holocaust bill that would outlaw blaming the Polish state or nation for crimes of the Holocaust committed in Poland and vowed to continue supporting research into the 'Polish population’s attitudes toward Jews during the Holocaust' - 8 February 2018: Holocaust survivors entered the Polish embassy compound in Tel Aviv protesting the Polish complicity bill - 10 February 2018: Adviser Andrzej Zybertowicz to Poland's president says that Israel's reaction to a law criminalizing some statements about Poland's actions during World War II stems from a 'feeling of shame at the passivity of the Jews during the Holocaust', in a new version of victim blaming - 18 February 2018: Netanyahu slams Holocaust remark by Polish PM in Munich, who said - questioned by journalist Ronen Bergman who told of his mother's narrow escape from the Gestapo in Poland after learning that neighbours were planning to denounce them - that the Holocaust had involved 'Jewish perpetrators' as well as Polish, as the audience at the Munich Security Conference stayed quiet, according to Haaretz correspondent Noa Landau
February 2019: 15 February 2019: Poland moves to end spat with Israel over PM comments, blames media manipulation, as PM Netanyahu denied suggestions of going along with historical revisionism, stating 'Here I am saying Poles cooperated with the Nazis. I know the history and I don’t whitewash it'
September 2019 Polish president blames Israel for anti-Semitic incidents: 27 September 2019: Polish president's blaming Israel for anti-Semitic incidents in his own country reportedly provoked a shocked and angry response by several participants at meeting with Jewish leaders in New York
14 January 2020 Polish Jewish community backs president’s decision to skip Holocaust event in Jerusalem: 14 January 2020: Calling Russian Putin regime's attempt to blame Poles for cooperation with Hitler 'a provocation', Poland’s largest Jewish communal group expressed its support for Polish president Duda’s decision to withdraw from Holocaust memorial event in Jerusalem on 23 January after being left off speakers’ list and as representatives of France, Germany (!), Russia, the UK, the USA would all speak at the memorial
22 January 2020 Auschwitz Museum's Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem: 22 January 2020: Director of Auschwitz Museum Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem accusing organizers of trying to replace annual ceremony in Poland, as Jerusalem event co-organized by people in Israel influenced by Moscow-born Moshe Kantor, who is said to be close to Russian regime's war criminal Vladimir Putin, allied with Hezbollah terrorists, Iranian and Syrian regime
Poland/Lebanon relations: 10 May 2005: Relations between Lebanon and Poland
2015: 1 December 2015: 'Is the life of a Beirut citizen worth less than the life of a Paris resident', Polish expert Margarita Sytnik says discussing terrorist threats
Poland/Lithuania relations: Poland/Lithuania relations - Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795 - Third Partition of Poland - Polish–Lithuanian War 1919-1920 - Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II
Poland/Russia relations: Poland/Russia relations
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
1939-2020 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)': 29 December 2020: Herman 'Likwornik would have been one of about 230,000 Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust by reaching the Soviet Union ..., the largest group of Polish Jews to survive the Holocaust, yet historians have paid scant attention to their ordeals', co-editor Katharina Friedla of an upcoming book about this group of survivors called 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)', says
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2014/2015 USA's commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine: 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 29 April: The Visegrad Group foreign ministers of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary condemn Russia's aggression against Ukraine
2016 Polish FM says Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war: 16 February 2016: Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war, Polish FM Witold Waszczykowski told the Munich Security Conference
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
Poland/Syria relations:
2014/2015: 2014/2015 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - 12 July 2015: 158 Syrian Christians who landed in Warsaw on Friday night are happy that they can start anew, but some fear for the families they left behind - 14 November 2015: Poland's new government will no longer accept migrants under European Union quotas after Friday's terror attacks in Paris
Poland/Ukraine relations: Poland/Ukraine relations - Ukrainians in Poland - History of the Ukrainian minority in Poland - Poles in Ukraine
1943-1944: 1943-1944 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the UPA
2013: 11 July 2013: Poland unveils Volyn WWII massacre memorial
2014: 29 April 2014: Poland opens consulate general in Donetsk - 22 September: Poland ready to export weapons to Ukraine - 28 November: Poland ratifies Association Agreement between Ukraine and EU - 23 December: Ukraine will be a member of NATO and the EU if the country meets alliance standards and if Ukrainian citizens wish so, Polish Defense Minister Tomasz Siemoniak says
2016: 22 May 2016: As around one million Ukrainians work in Poland, Ukrainian Workers' Trade Union to be set up in Warsaw
Poland/United Kingdom relations: Poland/United Kingdom relations
18th century, 19th and the beginning 20th century: Poland/United Kingdom relations in the 18th, 19th and the beginning 20th century
Since March/August 1939 Anglo-Polish agreement and military alliance: April/August 1939 Anglo-Polish agreement and military alliance for mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany
Since 1939 Polish government-in-exile: Polish government-in-exile, since 1940 in London - Since 1946 Federation of Poles in Great Britain
Since 1945, since 2004 Polish migration to the United Kingdom: Polish migration to the United Kingdom is the temporary or permanent settlement of Polish people, arriving in the UK after the 2004 enlargement of the EU and making them the largest foreign-born group in the country, as of 2015 the number of UK residents born in Poland was estimated at 831,000 and there is a wider population of British Poles, including the descendants of over 200,000 immigrants who settled in the UK after World War II
Poland/USA relations: Poland/USA relations
2014: 24 January 2014: Poland to look into new allegations about secret CIA jail - 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine
2015: 22 April 2015: Poland to build missile defense with USA - 13 June 2015: USA is hampering Poland’s investigation into a secret CIA prison by snubbing repeated requests for vital documents, including a Senate report detailing CIA prison locations and practices, Polish prosecutor says
April 2019: 22 April 2019: USA ambassador to Poland Georgette Mosbacher on Friday wished Jews a happy Passover in Polish, and also wished Poles a happy Easter on Sunday, but lawmaker in ruling party calls her blessings to Jewish community a ‘provocation', while organizer of yearly Independence Day march that government leaders joined last year decries 'pagans and traitorous Jews', saying 'Christ died and was resurrected also for you, pagans and traitorous Jews'
May 2019: 12 May 2019: Thousands of Polish nationalists marched to the USA Embassy in Warsaw Saturday, protesting that the USA is putting pressure on Poland to compensate Jews whose families lost property during the Holocaust
Poland/Vietnam relations: Poland/Vietnam relations since 1950
Vietnamese people in Poland: Vietnamese people in Poland, estimated to be between 30,000-40,000 forming the largest non European migrant community in Poland
Environment of Poland: Environment of Poland - Natural history of Poland
Protected areas of Poland: Protected areas of Poland - Biosphere reserves of Poland - Landscape parks in Poland
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Poland: Environmentalism in Poland
Coal and the environment in Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Water in Poland: Water in Poland
Natural disasters in Poland: Natural disasters in Poland - Weather events in Poland
Floods in Poland: Floods in Poland - 2010 Central European floods - 2013 European floods
Storms in Poland: 15 July 2012: One person killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland
Cold waves in Poland: 9 January 2017: Ten people have died in Poland as bitterly cold weather swept across Europe, bringing the toll number of hypothermia deaths in the country to 65 since November


Portugal - Geography of Portugal - History of Portugal - Portuguese Empire (from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999) - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 - Demographics of Portugal
Economy of Portugal: Economy of Portugal - main industries include textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, building materials - Economic history of Portugal - Companies of Portugal by industry 21th century
Mining and mines in Portugal: Mining in Portugal - Mines in Portugal - Since 1988 Neves-Corvo mine, a zinc-copper mine in Castro Verde Municipality - Minas da Panasqueira, a set of mining operations between Cabeço do Pião and the village of Panasqueira
Energy in Portugal: Energy in Portugal
Fossil fuels in Portugal: Fossil fuels in Portugal - Oil and gas companies of Portugal
Electricity sector in Portugal: Electricity sector in Portugal, in 2014 electricity was generated by 30% hydroelectricity, 27% natural gas, 22% wind, 20% coal and 1% solar - List of power stations in Portugal
Hydroelectric power stations in Portugal: List of hydroelectric power stations in Portugal
Wind power in Portugal: Wind power in Portugal
Agriculture in Portugal: Agriculture in Portugal - products include cereals, grapes and wine, fruits, oranges, cherries, horticulture and floriculture products, beet sugar, sunflower oil, cork, tobacco, fish
Portuguese wine: Portuguese wine
Forestry in Portugal: Forestry in Portugal - Forests of Portugal
Fishing in Portugal: Fishing in Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Transport in Portugal: Transport in Portugal
Water transport in Portugal: Water transport in Portugal - Ports and harbours of Portugal - Port of Lisbon - Shipping companies of Portugal
Rail transport in Portugal: Rail transport in Portugal
Road transport in Portugal: Road transport in Portugal
Banking in Portugal: Banking in Portugal
Banco Espírito Santo - 3 August 2014: Portugal's central bank announced a plan to rescue the troubled lender Banco Espirito Santo forming a 'good bank' which will receive a $6.6 bn cash injection from Portugal's bailout fund
2015: 25 July 2015: Former head of collapsed Portugese bank BES Salgado put under house arrest
Economic history of Portugal and economic cycles: Since 20th century economic history of Portugal
2010–14 Portuguese financial and economic crisis (ongoing): European sovereign debt crisis (2010-present) - 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal: 2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal
2012/2013: 16. Mai 2011: EU und IWF Milliardenkredit für Portugal - 23. März 2012: Allein in 2011 haben 150.000 Portugiesen ihr Land verlassen - in den letzten fünf Jahren waren es 500.000 Emigranten - 16. August 2012: Bruttoinlandprodukt im Vergleich mit dem Vorquartal um 1,2% niedriger - schwache Inlandnachfrage - Arbeitslosenquote mit Rekord von 15,0% - 8 November 2013: IMF approves a nearly two-billion-euro loan installment for Portugal
Portuguese military: Since 12th century Portuguese Armed Forces - Military history of Portugal
Wars and battles involving Portugal: List of wars involving Portugal - Battles involving Portugal - Naval battles involving Portugal
Military coups in Portugal: Military coups in Portugal
28 May 1926 military coup d'état: 28 May 1926 coup d'état, military coup ending the Portuguese First Republic and initiating the National Dictatorship, that would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974
Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side: Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side
Politics of Portugal: Politics of Portugal - Constitutions of Portugal since 1911, preceded by constitutions of 1822, following the Liberal Revolution of 1820, and 1838 after the Liberal Wars - 1976 Constitution of Portugal
Political parties in Portugal: Political parties in Portugal
Trade unions in Portugal: Trade unions in Portugal
1961-1974 Portuguese Colonial War in Africa: Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 against the emerging movements of independence in Portugal's African colonies
April 1974 Carnation Revolution and third republic: April 1974 Carnation Revolution initiated by military officers who opposed the regime, but soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance, lead to the fall of the fascist 'Estado Novo' and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies - Processo Revolucionário Em Curso - Portuguese transition to democracy - Third Portuguese Republic since 1974
Elections in Portugal since the 1974 'Carnation Revolution': Elections in Portugal since the 'Carnation Revolution' of 1974
April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election: 25 April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election
Portuguese legislative election 2011: Portuguese legislative election 2011 - 5. Juni 2011: Niederlage der sozialistischen Partei - 18 June 2011: Prime Minister unveils new 11-member cabinet - 28. Juni 2011: Vorstellung des Sparprogramms der neuen Regierung - 18. Juli 2011: Neues Haushaltsloch - Ankündigung weiterer Sparschritte
2012: 3 October 2012: Portugal outlines tax increases replacing previous plan that had to be abandoned in the face of widespread opposition and anti-austerity protests - 15 October: Government unveils harsh austerity budget
2013: 6 April 2013: Portugal's centre-right government condemned the constitutional court's rejection of the tough 2013 budget, saying that the decision makes it difficult to make budget cuts promised to creditors - 3 May: Portugal is planning to cut 30,000 civil service jobs and to raise the retirement age by one year to 66 - 26 septembre: La Cour constitutionnelle portugaise rejette la simplification des licenciement
June 2015: 2 June 2015: The Portuguese Parliament recently enacted Law 30/2015, aiming to comply with the recommendations addressed to Portugal on corruption by GRECO, UN and OECD, making amendments to several laws
October 2015 Portuguese legislative election: 4 October 2015 Portuguese legislative election - 5 October 2015: Centre-right and pro-austerity coalition retains power but could lose majority, as opposition Socialists of former Lisbon mayor Antonio Costa took 32.4% the vote
November 2015: 11 November 2015: Opposition alliance toppled the country's minority conservative government in a parliamentary vote on Tuesday
January 2016 Portuguese presidential election: 24 January 2016 Portuguese presidential election - 24 January: In Portugal’s presidential election Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa gains 52.4% of the vote to capture the mostly ceremonial post
October 2017 Portuguese local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
October 2017: 19 October 2017: Portugal’s interior minister de Sousa has been replaced amid criticism over the government’s handling of a series of deadly forest fires that have killed more than 100 people in four months
March/April 2019 prison becomes museum of resistance: 31 March 2019: On 27 April 2019, the 45th anniversary of the Peniche fortress prison’s closing, used to hold dissidents under Portugal’s dictatorship, and following the Carnation revolution, the fortress will reopen as the National Museum of Resistance and Freedom
May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal
September 2019 Madeiran regional election: 22 September 2019 Madeiran regional election
October 2019 Portuguese legislative election: 6 October 2019 Portuguese legislative election - Opinion polling for the 2019 Portuguese legislative election
7 October 2019 socialists won general election: 7 October 2019: Taking 36.65% of the vote, followed by the center-right Social Democrats with 27.9%, PM Antonio Costa’s Socialists won general election marked by low turnout after presiding over a period of solid economic growth following years of austerity
27 October 2019: 27 octobre 2019: Le nouveau gouvernement socialiste portugais, qui a prêté serment samedi, prévoit d'augmenter le salaire minimum de 25% et veut aussi fermer les deux dernières centrales à charbon d'ici à la fin de son mandat de quatre ans
28 September 2020 Portugal records surge in racist violence: 28 September 2020: Portugal records surge in racist violence as neo-fascim linked movement rises and campaigners call for urgent institutional response after attacks and death threats targeting MPs, academics and activists
January 2021 Portuguese presidential election: 24 January 2021 Portuguese presidential election - Candidates of the 2021 Portuguese presidential election, including Ana Gomes (former Socialist Party MEP), André Ventura (CHEGA), João Ferreira (PCP), Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (president since 2016), Marisa Matias (Left Bloc BE MEP) - Opinion polling for the 2021 Portuguese presidential election
24 January 2021 Portuguese going to poll amid global and local crises: 24 janvier 2021: En dépit d’une situation critique sur le plan sanitaire, les Portugais ont commencé à voter dimanche pour une élection présidentielle qui doit sceller la reconduction du candidat sortant, le conservateur modéré Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
September/October 2021 Portuguese local elections: September/October 2021 Portuguese local elections and main parties - Opinion polling for the 2021 Portuguese local elections
26 de Setembro 2021 resultados território nacional: 26 de Setembro 2021 resultados território nacional, PS 34,22%, 1.711.725 votos (2021 Portuguese local elections)
30 January 2022 early Portuguese legislative elections: 30 January 2022 early Portuguese legislative elections to elect members of the Assembly of the Republic as all 230 seats to the Assembly of the Republic will be at stake, after in October 2021 the budget proposed by the Socialist minority government was rejected by the Assembly - Opinion polling for the 2022 Portuguese legislative election - Portuguese politician Catarina Soares Martins, the national coordinator of the Left Bloc since 2012 and a member of the Assembly since 2009, professionally trained as a linguist and active in theater
31 January 2022 Portugal’s ruling Socialists won an outright parliamentary majority: 31 January 2022: Portugal’s ruling Socialists won an outright parliamentary majority in Sunday’s snap general election, securing a strong new mandate for PM Antonio Costa, as the result boosted by a higher than expected turnout despite the covid-19 pandemic
11 August 2022 young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court amid European heatwaves and wildfires: 11 August 2022: Following 2022 European heatwaves and wildfires, young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court, as Cláudia Agostinho, her siblings and cousins will have case heard at European court of human rights
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Portugal: Protests in Portugal
2011: 2011 Portuguese protests - 24 novembre 2011: Le portugal va tourner au ralenti avec une grève générale contre l'austerité
2012: NZZ 22. März 2012: Generalstreik, zu dem der grösste Gewerkschaftsverband CGTP aufgerufen hat, gegen Sparmassnahmen unter dem Diktat von EU und IMF - 16 September: More than 100.000 people took to the streets of Lisbon and other cities to protest against fresh austerity measures - NZZ 22. September: Nach den jüngsten landesweiten Protesten will die portugiesische Regierung besonders umstrittene neue Sparmassnahmen nicht umsetzen - 29 September: Thousands in new rally against Portuguese austerity - 13 October 2012: Thousands protest in Spain, Portugal against austerity cuts
2013: 17 February 2013: Thousands of protesters rallied in Portugal against austerity measures imposed on the country by its international creditors - 2 February 2013: Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese demonstrate in Lisbon and other cities demanding an end to austerity measures dictated by an international bailout and for the centre-right government to resign - 27 juin 2013: Une grève générale de 24 heures à l'appel des deux principaux syndicats du pays contre la politique d'austérité draconienne paralyse le Portugal - 19 octobre: Des dizaines de milliers de manifestants se sont mobilisés au Portugal et en Italie contre les nouvelles mesures d'austérité annoncées par leur gouvernement respectif - 26 October: Thousands of demonstrators protested in Portugal against salary cuts and public sector reforms - 1 novembre: Plusieurs milliers de Portugais manifestent devant le Parlement pour protester contre les coupes sévères dans les dépenses publiques prévues par le budget 2014 - 21 novembre: Des milliers de policiers, gendarmes et autres fonctionnaires des forces de l'ordre manifestent contre l'austérité
2014: 25 April: Protests over EU-imposed austerity have overshadowed the 40th anniversary of democracy in Portugal
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Portugal: Portuguese society - Human rights in Portugal
Regions, districts and municipalities in Portugal: Subdivisions and administrative divisions of Portugal - Regions of Portugal - 2 Autonomous Regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira - 18 Districts of Portugal - 308 Municipalities of Portugal - 3,091 Freguesia
Cities and towns in Portugal: List of cities in Portugal - List of towns in Portugal - List of Portuguese municipalities by population - Metropolitan areas Lisbon and Porto
Lisbon: Lisbon, the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 and with a population of around 3 million people in its urban area - Economy of Lisbon - Civil parishes and bairros of Lisbon
Timeline of Lisbon: Timeline of Lisbon since 205 BCE, Roman municipio in Lusitania province
Since 1139 Kingdom of Portugal: Since 1139 Kingdom of Portugal and since 1256 Lisbon capital
April 1506 Lisbon massacre of Jews: April 1506 Lisbon massacre, in which a crowd of Catholics persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy, thirty years before the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal and nine years after the Jews were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1497
November 1755 Lisbon earthquake: 1 November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
Since 1974 'Third Portuguese Republic': Since 1974 Lisbon the capital of the 'Third Portuguese Republic'
October 2017 local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
January 2019 police brutality: 31 January 2019: Police brutality reveals Portugal's urban reality, as viral video of police violence, showing officers beating, pushing and dragging anyone who came into their path, brings national attention to the long-ghettoised community in 'Bairro da Jamaica' neighbourhood on the southern outskirts of greater Lisbon
Demographics of Portugal: Demographics of Portugal - Ethnic groups in Portugal
Afro-Portuguese: Afro-Portuguese are descendants or migrants issuing from the former Portuguese African colonies Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde and Mozambique, even if residual numbers originate in other Sub-Saharan African countries
Angolans in Portugal: Angolans in Portugal form the country's second-largest group of African migrants, after Cape Verdeans
Brazilians in Portugal: Brazilians in Portugal, represent approximately 25% of the foreign population in Portugal and 106,961 people
Cape Verdeans in Portugal: Cape Verdeans in Portugal, in 2008 Portugal’s National Statistics Institute estimated that there were 68,145 Cape Verdeans who legally resided in Portugal
Indians in Portugal: Indians in Portugal, including recent immigrants and people who trace their ancestry back to India, together number around 70,000
History of the Jews in Portugal: History of the Jews in Portugal, reaching back over two thousand years and directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula
Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal: Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal, as on 5 December 1496 King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims - Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition, formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of King John III, after Manuel I had asked for the installation of the Inquisition, but it was only after his death that Pope Paul III acquiesced, in the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal: Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal
2016: 31 December 2016: The UK’s decision to leave the EU has fuelled an 80-fold increase in the number of British Sephardic Jews seeking Portuguese citizenship under a recent law intended to make amends for their ancestors’ expulsion from the Iberian peninsula more than 500 years ago, forced to convert to Catholicism or burned at the stake
6 October 2019 recently naturalized Sephardic Jews vote: 6 October 2019: Thousands of Israelis, recently naturalized Jews of Sephardic descent who recently received Portuguese citizenship, were eligible to vote in Sunday’s Portuguese national elections for the first time
Immigration to Portugal: Immigration to Portugal
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 22 février 2016: Portugal propose aux pays européens subissant 'une forte pression migratoire' d'accueillir jusqu'à 10'000 réfugiés, tout en voyant une opportunité pour repeupler ses régions de l'intérieur
Culture of Portugal: Culture of Portugal
Women and women's rights in Portugal: Women in Portugal
Children and youth in Portugal: Childhood in Portugal - Youth in Portugal
Education in Portugal: Education in Portugal
Schools in Portugal: List of schools in Portugal
Colleges and universities in Portugal: List of universities and colleges in Portugal
Health in Portugal: Health in Portugal
Health disasters in Portugal: Health disasters in Portugal
2014 Portugal legionellosis outbreak: 2014 Portugal legionellosis outbreak was an outbreak caused by Legionella bacteria in multiple cities of Portugal's Lisboa district
Healthcare in Portugal: Healthcare in Portugal - Hospitals in Portugal
Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments: Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments
Portuguese media: Portuguese media - Media in Portugal by city
Censorship in Portugal: Censorship was a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history up until the Carnation Revolution in 1974, as from its earliest history Portugal was subject to laws limiting freedom of expression
Newspapers in Portugal: Newspapers in Portugal
Broadcasting in Portugal: Broadcasting in Portugal
Internet in Portugal: Internet in Portugal
Crime in Portugal: Crime in Portugal
Racism in Portugal: Racism in Portugal
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
January 2019 police brutality: 31 January 2019: Police brutality reveals Portugal's urban reality, as viral video of police violence, showing officers beating, pushing and dragging anyone who came into their path, brings national attention to the long-ghettoised community in 'Bairro da Jamaica' neighbourhood on the southern outskirts of greater Lisbon
28 June 2021 white Portuguese man sentenced to 22 years for murder of black actor: 28 June 2021: A Portuguese court has sentenced a white man who shot dead a black actor in a busy street last year to more than two decades in jail, in a case that has put racism and the country’s colonial past in the spotlight, after Bruno Candé of Guinean origin was shot several times by a white Portuguese man, Evaristo Marinho, at Avenida de Moscavide about six miles from Lisbon’s city centre, in July 2020
Antisemitism in Portugal: Antisemitism in Portugal
Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal: Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal, as on 5 December 1496 King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims
April 1506 Lisbon massacre of Jews: April 1506 Lisbon massacre, in which a crowd of Catholics persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy, thirty years before the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal and nine years after the Jews were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1497
1536-1821 Portuguese and Goa inquisition: Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition, formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of King John III, after Manuel I had asked for the installation of the Inquisition, but it was only after his death that Pope Paul III acquiesced, in the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition - Since 1560 Goa Inquisition, a colonial era Portuguese institution between the 16th- and 19th-century to stop and punish heresy against Christianity in Asia
History of the conversos since 15th century: History of the conversos since 15th century
Corruption in Portugal: Corruption in Portugal
Since 2004 'Apito Dourado' affair: Since 2004 'Apito Dourado' affair is a sports corruption scandal in Portuguese football, involving suspects of corrupting or attempting to corrupt referees
Since 2009 'Face Oculta' scandal: Since 2009 'Face Oculta' Portuguese nationwide political corruption, money-laundering and corporate tax evasion scandal
2013 political corruption in Portugal: 2013 Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer reveals that political parties, Parliament, the judiciary and the military are the most corrupt institutions in Portugal
January 2018: January 2018: Companies face an overall moderate risk of corruption when doing business in Portugal, and corruption and abuse of power are most prevalent in the areas of urban planning and public procurement, according to Business Anti-Corruption Portal
Police corruption in Portugal: Police corruption in Portugal
Terrorism in Portugal: Terrorism in Portugal
Human trafficking in Portugal: Human trafficking in Portugal
Law and legal history in Portugal: Law of Portugal - Legal history of Portugal - Constitutions of Portugal since 1911, preceded by constitutions of 1822, following the Liberal Revolution of 1820, and 1838 after the Liberal Wars
Since 1982 Constitutional Court: Constitutional Court Portugal since 1982
Judiciary and courts of Portugal: Judiciary of Portugal - Courts in Portugal
Since 1833 Supreme Court of Justice: Supreme Court of Justice of Portugal since 1833, the highest court of law in Portugal without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court
Law enforcement agencies of Portugal and Polícia de Segurança Pública: Law enforcement in Portugal - Law enforcement agencies of Portugal - Polícia de Segurança Pública
2015: 20 May 2015: Outrage in Portugal over police beating of man in front of his children
Foreign relations of Portugal: Foreign relations of Portugal
Wars and battles involving Portugal: List of wars involving Portugal - Battles involving Portugal - Naval battles involving Portugal
1415-2002 Portuguese Empire: From the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999 Portuguese Empire 1415-2002
Portugal/Africa relations: Portugal/Africa relations
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets - Since 16th century Iberian Slave Trade, Portugal and Spain under the same monarch until 1640, were the pioneers of the transatlantic slave trade - Atlantic slave trade - more than half of the slave trade took place during the 18th century with the British, Portuguese and French being the main carriers - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1975
2001 Durban conference acknowledgement of the slave trade and slavery as crime against humanity: 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
September 2018 Lisbon museum plan: 17 September 2018: Lisbon museum plan stirs debate over Portugal's colonial past, as critics say 'Museum of the Discoveries' would glorify slavery and other historical abuses
Portugal and the United Nations: Portugal and the United Nations
10 November 1975 Portugal and UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly - Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Since 1986 Portugal and the European Union: Portugal and the European Union, membership since 1986/1993
March 2021 Council of Europe calls on Portugal to do more to confront its colonial past and its role in the slave trade: 25 March 2021: Europe’s top human rights body has called on Portugal to do more to confront its colonial past and its role in the transatlantic slave trade in order to help fight racism and discrimination in the country today, as the comments by the Council of Europe come amid an escalating debate in Portugal over how to remember its history as the country prepares to unveil its first memorial to victims of slavery
Treaties of Portugal: Treaties of Portugal
Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Bilateral relations of Portugal: Bilateral relations of Portugal
Portugal/Afghanistan: Portugal/Afghanistan
21 May 2022 National Institute of Music of Afghanistan, women’s orchestra Zohra in exile in Portugal: 21 May 2022: National Institute of Music of Afghanistan and women’s orchestra Zohra in exile in Portugal after in the summer of 2021, with the return of the Taliban, they had to leave their instruments behind and flee, as Emirate of Qatar prepares its territory hit by heatwaves for Worl Cup 2022 amid ongoing catastrophic covid-19 pandemic
Portugal/Angola relations: Portugal/Angola relations
1482-1975 colonial history of Angola: The colonial history of Angola is considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Cão in 1482, settlement since Novais's establishment of São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575, the Portuguese government formally incorporated Angola as a colony in 1655
Slavery in Angola: Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola: 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1961-1974 War of Liberation and Angolan War of Indepencence: Angolan War of Indepencence 1961-1974 - 1961-1974 'Portuguese Colonial War', in the former colonies 'War of Liberation', was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies, the Portuguese regime in Portugal itself was overthrown by a military coup in 1974 and the change in government brought the conflict to an end
Since 2009: In 2009 the Central Bank of Angola was victim in a fraud case of about $160 million that were transferred to overseas accounts, revealed by the Portuguese newspaper Diário de Notícias in 2011 several supects were sentenced up to eight years in prison and there are still investigations going on in Portugal and Angola
2011: 16 November 2011: Portugal seeks Angola investment - PM Coelho visit
2014: 28 July 2014: It was announced that the Angolan state takes over the majority of Banco Espirito Angola, as its Angolan partners inject fresh capital of about US$3 billion into the Angolan bank
Portugal/Benin relations:
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Benin's Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
Portugal/Bolivia relations: Portugal/Bolivia relations - 3 July 2013: Snowden drama ensnares an angry Bolivia after France and Portugal were reportedly acting under US pressure to rescind permission for President Evo Morales' plane to traverse their airspace
Portugal/Brazil relations: Portugal/Brazil relations, beginning in 1532 with the establishment of São Vicente, the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas - Portuguese colonization of the Americas since 1494 - Territorial evolution of colonial Brazil
1500–1815 Colonial Brazil and slavery: 1500–1815 Colonial Brazil, slaves especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery, the economic exploitation was based first on brazilwood extraction in the 16th century, sugar production in the 16th–18th centuries, finally on gold and diamond mining in the 18th century - Slavery in Brazil
During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries resistance of slaves: Resistance of slaves during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries - Quilombo settlements founded by people of African origin, mostly escaped slaves, later these escaped African slaves in some cases would help provide shelter and homes to other minorities of marginalised Portuguese, Brazilian aboriginals, Jews and Arabs, and/or other non-black, non-slave Brazilians
1815-1825 'United Kingdom' of Portugal and Brazil: 1815-1825 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Since 1822 Independence of Brazil: Since 1822 Independence of Brazil, comprising a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824
1822-1825 War of Independence of Brazil: 1822-1825 War of Independence of Brazil between the newly independent Empire of Brazil and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820
January 1835 Malê slave rebellion: January 1835 Malê revolt, slave rebellion in Brazil following the Haitian Revolution 1791-1804
Portugal/China relations: Portugal/China relations - Portuguese colony Macau 1537–1999 - Slavery in Portuguese Macau and the coast of China
Portugal/Equatorial Guinea relations:
1472-1778 Portuguese and Dutch slave trade: Since 1472 the Portuguese developed Bioko island for sugarcane crops, in 1642 the Dutch East India Company established trade bases centralizing from there its slave trade in the Gulf of Guinea, but in 1648 the Portuguese appeared again on the island, replacing the Dutch Company with one of their own, also dedicated to slave trading - Spanish immigration to Equatorial Guinea - 1778 Treaty of El Pardo of two colonial powers aiming at resolving long-standing territorial disputes linked to 1761–1763 Spanish–Portuguese War and 1776–1777 Spanish–Portuguese War - 'Río Muni' was ceded by Portugal to Spain in 1778 in the Treaty of El Pardo, as the Spanish hoped to collect slaves to work in their other overseas possessions
Portugal/Germany relations: Portugal/Germany relations
1914-1915 German campaign in southern Portuguese Angola: October 1914 – July 1915 German campaign in Angola, the campaign in southern Portuguese Angola took place before a formal state of war had been declared, the German empire didn't declare war on Portugal until 9 March 1916 - October-December 1914 Germans raided the Portuguese fort at Cuangar and attack the town and commune of Naulila
1894-1916 German Kionga Triangle in Portuguese Mozambique: 1894 the German empire established an outpost south of the Rovuma River designated as the border between the German and Portuguese colonies, naming the area Kionga Triangle - on 9 March 1916 during World War I Germany declared war on Portugal and the Portuguese military seized the disputed area in April 1916
November 1917 Battle of Ngomano: November 1917 Battle of Ngomano fought between the German Empire and Portugal during the East African Campaign of World War I
April 1918 Battle of the Lys: April 1918 Battle of the Lys, also known as the Fourth Battle of Flanders, and casualties, including British, French, Portuguese and German
1941-1945 Portuguese wolfram export to Germany: After the invasion of the Soviet Union and as Nazi Germany became dependent on Portugal and Spain for its wolfram supplies in producing war munitions, Portuguese Salazar's 'Estado Novo' set up an export quota system in 1942 supplying equal division of products to belligerents, Salazar's regime survived the horrors of war significantly wealthier
Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations: Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations
1474-1974 'Portuguese Guinea' West African colony of Portugal: 1474-1974 'Portuguese Guinea', a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau
Since the 15the century Portuguese slave trade: Since the 15the century Portuguese era of the slave trade
1963-1974 Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence: Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence 1963-1974
2012: 22 October 2012: Guinea-Bissau accuses Portugal of backing a coup bid after a gun battle that claimed at least seven lives
Portugal/Hungary relations:
Since 2015 'Football Leaks': Since 2015 'Football Leaks', initially a website created by Rui Pinto, the largest leak in the history of sports revealing 'murky' financial transactions in the world of European professional football and exposes the tax tricks employed by some of the continent's biggest stars, refers to the series of investigations published in December 2016 and November 2018 by media partners of the European Investigative Collaborations
March 2019: 5 March 2019: Portuguese Rui Pinto, who was detained in Hungary on a European arrest warrant issued by Portuguese authorities and linked to the Football Leaks website, is set to be extradited to Portugal after spending time under house arrest in Hungary, a court said on Tuesday, a move his lawyers oppose as they defend him as a 'whistleblower' and not a criminal
Portugal/India relations: Portugal/India relations - Indians in Portugal, including recent immigrants and people who trace their ancestry back to India, together number around 70,000
Portuguese India 1505–1961: Portuguese India 1505–1961 - Slavery in India under European colonial powers - Portuguese Conquest of Goa 1510
1560-1812 Goa Inquisition: Goa Inquisition 1560-1812
1961: 22 Indians killed by Portugal in the liberation of Goa 1961 ending 456 years of Portuguese colonial rule
Portugal/Israel relations: Portugal/Israel relations
Jewish Portuguese history: History of the Jews in Portugal, reaching back over two thousand years and directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula - Jewish Portuguese history
Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Portugal/Luxembourg relations: Portugal/Luxembourg relations
Espírito Santo Financial Group - 18 July 2014: Espirito Santo International, Holding company of Portugal's second-largest bank, files for creditor protection saying it can't meet its obligations
Portugal/Mozambique relations: Portugal/Mozambique relations
1498–1975 'Portuguese Mozambique' colony: 1498–1975 'Portuguese Mozambique' colony and overseas province of the Portuguese Empire
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1890-1972 Mozambique 'royal companies': 1891-1972 Mozambique royal company operating in Portuguese Mozambique, that had the concession of the lands in the Portuguese colony corresponding to the present provinces of Manica and Sofala in central Mozambique - 1890-1920 Niassa royal company in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique, then known as Portuguese East Africa, that had the concession of the lands that include the present provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa
Since 1890 royal companies and chibalo forced labour system: The power of the royal companies was based on the chibalo system, a forced labor policy, which forced the Mozambicans to work on plantations, cotton fields and on public works projects, additionally Mozambicans were forced to pay hut taxes that kept them in debt. The chibalo system enabled the Niassa Company to establish plantations and to force peasants to work for them and prevent them from growing their own crops for sale
1964-1974 Mozambican War of Indepencence: Mozambican War of Indepencence 1964-1974 - September 1974 Lusaka Accord between the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique FRELIMO and the Portuguese government installed after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon
Portugal/South Africa relations: Portugal/South Africa relations - October 2007: Political relations between Portugal and South Africa from the end of the second World War until 1974 - 1 June 2015: South Africa beach service to be held in Cape Town, near recently discovered wreck site of Portuguese ship that went down with 212 slaves on board in 1794
Portugal/East Timor relations: Portugal/East Timor relations
1702–1975 'Portuguese Timor' Portuguese colony: 1702–1975 'Portuguese Timor' Portuguese colony, during most of this period Portugal shared the island of Timor with the Dutch East Indies
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless
1974-2002 end of Portuguese and foreign rule in East Timor: 1974-2002 End of Portuguese and foreign rule in East Timor, following the 1974 Carnation Revolution and the beginning of the decolonisation process for Portuguese territories in Asia and Africa, and following the end of Indonesian occupation in 1999 and a UN administered transition period, East Timor became formally independent in 2002
Portugal/Vatican relations: Portugal/Vatican relations
Since 1536: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
2015: 10 July 2015: Visiting Latin America Pope Francis apologises in Bolivia for the sins and crimes of the Catholic Church against the indigenous peoples during the colonial conquest of the Americas since 1492, also saying that a 'new colonialism' is now threatening them, represented in "corporations, loan agencies, certain 'free trade' treaties, and the imposition of measures of 'austerity'"
Environment of Portugal: Environment of Portugal - Natural history of Portugal - Geology of the Iberian Peninsula - Geology of Portugal - Climate of Portugal
Ecoregions in Portugal: List of ecoregions in Portugal
Forests in Portugal: Forests of Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Portugal: Environmental issues in Portugal include soil erosion, air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions, water pollution, especially in coastal areas - Environmentalism in Portugal
Natural disasters in Portugal: Natural disasters in Portugal - Natural disasters in the Azores
Heatwaves and wildfires in Portugal: Wildfires in Portugal
2012/2013: 4 September 2012: Portugal seeks EU help to fight forest fires - 30 August 2013: Wildfires in Portugal have claimed five lives, officials say
2016: 2016 Portugal wildfires are a series of wildfires that burned across mainland Portugal and the Madeira archipelago in the north Atlantic Ocean during August - 10 août 2016: Les incendies qui font rage sur l'île portugaise de Madère ont fait trois morts dans la nuit et un millier de personnes ont dû être évacuées
June 2017: June 2017 Portugal Wildfires - 18 June 2017: At least 57 people have been killed by huge forest fires in central Portugal, with many dying in their cars as they tried to flee the flames
October 2017: October 2017 Iberian wildfires - Octubre 2017 Incendios al noroeste de la península ibérica - 16 October 2017: 6 people killed in Spain, Portugal as wildfires fanned by hurricane Ophelia
July-August 2018 heatwave and wildfires in Portugal: 2018 heat wave in Portugal and Spain - 4 August 2018: More than 740 firefighters battled a forest fire in southern Portugal on Saturday as temperatures climbed to near record highs in the Iberian Peninsula amid a Europe-wide heatwave that has brought drought and wildfires from Greece to Sweden - 6 août 2018: Plus de 1150 pompiers luttent contre l'incendie dans le sud du pays
July 2019 wildfires in Portugal: 21 July 2019: About 1,800 firefighters have been struggling to contain wildfires in central Portugal that have injured 20 people, including eight firefighters
11 August 2022 young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court amid European heatwaves and wildfires: 11 August 2022: Following 2022 European heatwaves and wildfires, young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court, as Cláudia Agostinho, her siblings and cousins will have case heard at European court of human rights
Floods and landslides in Portugal: Landslides in Portugal
2010: February 2010 Madeira floods and mudslides
Earthquakes in Portugal: Earthquakes in Portugal
1755: November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
1969: February 1969 Portugal earthquake
1980: January 1980 Azores Islands earthquake


Romania - Geography of Romania - History of Romania - Demographics of Romania
Economy of Romania: Economy of Romania - main industries include electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining - Companies of Romania - Companies of Romania by industry
Industry of Romania: Industry in Romania - Construction industry of Romania - Automotive industry in Romania
Arms industry in Romania: Arms industry in Romania
Mining industry of Romania: Mining industry of Romania
Coal mines in Romania: Coal mines in Romania - Coal mining disasters in Romania
Energy in Romania: Energy in Romania - Energy infrastructure in Romania - Energy policy of Romania
Fossil fuels and petrochemical industry in Romania: Fossil fuels in Romania - Romania has the largest oil reserves in Central and Eastern Europe (except Russia) and the second largest natural gas reserves (except Russia) - Petrochemical industry in Romania - Oil fields in Romania - Oil shale mines in Romania - Oil pipelines in Romania - Natural gas pipelines in Romania
Electric power in Romania: Electric power in Romania with 62.42% non-renewable energy sources - Power companies of Romania
Hydroelectricity, solar and wind power in Romania: Hydroelectricity in Romania, 27.36% of total electric power and the second most important source of electricity generation after the fossil fuels - Wind power in Romania - Solar power in Romania
Nuclear power in Romania: Nuclear power in Romania, in 2007 nuclear power generation was an estimated 21,158 million kilowatts, or 23.1% of total electric power, nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities
Agriculture in Romania: Agriculture in Romania employs about 29% of the population and contributes about 8.1% of GDP - products include wheat, vegetables, dairy products, pork, poultry, apples, fruits and wine - Rice production in Romania - Romanian wine - Agricultural universities and colleges in Romania
1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991 land reforms: In 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991 four major land reforms have taken place in Romania
Forestry and forests in Romania: Forestry in Romania - Forests of Romania
Water in Romania: Water in Romania - Bodies of water of Romania - Black Sea - Black Sea region - Since 1992 Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
2004-2009 Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea: 2004-2009 Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea of the International Court of Justice, establishing a maritime boundary including the continental shelf and exclusive economic zones for Romania and Ukraine
Rivers of Romania: Rivers of Romania - Alphabetic lists of rivers of Romania - Longest rivers of Romania - Rivers of Romania by county - Rivers of Romania by subbasin
Danube: Danube is Europe's second-longest river after the Volga River, located in Central and Eastern Europe - The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in Romania's Tulcea County, while its northern part, on the left bank of the Chilia arm, is situated in Ukraine's Odessa Oblast - List of tributaries of the Danube - Since 1994 International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
Water supply and sanitation in Romania: Water supply and sanitation in Romania
Transport in RomaniaTransport in Romania - Rail transport in Romania - Road transport in Romania and roads in Romania
Water transport in Romania: Water transport in Romania - Ports and harbours of Romania - List of ports in Romania by region
List of rivers of Romania and drainage areas: List of rivers of Romania which entirely or partially flow through Romania, listed by 'Wikipedia' by the length of the rivers on Romanian territory, but also including the drainage area
Tourism in Romania: Tourism in Romania - Visitor attractions in Romania
Foreign trade of Romania: Foreign trade of Romania
Banking in Romania: Banking and list of banks in Romania
Economic history and economic cycles in Romania: Economic history of Romania - Social class in Romania - 1980s austerity policy in Romania
2002-2007 Romanian property bubble: 2002-2007 Romanian property bubble
Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe: Great Recession in Europe since 2007 and Romania
2007-2017 growth and economic cycles in Romania: Growth and economic cycles in Romania 2007-2017
Labor in Romania: Labor in Romania - Labor disputes in Romania - Welfare in Romania
Wealth in Romania: Wealth in Romania
Taxation in Romania: Taxation in Romania
Budget of Romania: Budget of Romania 2013
2014: 26 June 2014: Romania’s budget deficit reaches EUR 1.1 bln in five months - 29 July 2014: Romanian Government revises budget upwards, adds EUR 305 mln to expenditures
Politics of Romania: Politics of Romania - 1866, 1923, 1838, 1948, 1952, 1965 and 1991 Constitutions of Romania - 1991 Constitution of Romania
Political parties in Romania: Political parties in Romania
Trade unions in Romania: Trade unions in Romania
Elections and politics in Romania: Elections in Romania
2015: 9 June 2015: Romanian parliament blocks investigation into forgery, money-laundering, tax evasion and conflict of interest in connection with PM Victor Ponta - 13 July 2015: Romanian prosecutors charged PM Victor Ponta as part of a corruption probe, piling more pressure on the embattled politician to resign - 22 July: Romania’s president has signed into law legislation that punishes Holocaust denial and the promotion of the fascist Legionnaires’ Movement with prison sentences of up to three years - 18 September: Victor Ponta indicted on charges of forgery, money laundering as part of corruption sweep, mainly concerning his time as a lawyer prior to taking office - 29 September: Thousands protest as Romanian PM Ponta withstands no-confidence vote - 4 November: Romanian PM and government resign after protests - 16 November: Prime minister-designate Dacian Ciolos has named a government, tapping European Union experts as well as private and non-profit sectors leaders to steer the country until elections next year
May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania
24 November 2019 Romanian presidential election runoff: 10 November 2019 Romanian presidential election second round
Social movements and protests in Romania: Protests in Romania
2012–14 Romanian social unrest: 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas - 2012–14 Romanian social unrest
2015: 2015 Romanian protests - 2 November 2015: Thousands of people marched through Bucharest to commemorate the victims after a Romanian club fire death toll was raising to 30, which also left nearly 200 injured during a rock concert that featured the use of fireworks indoors - 4 November: Tens of thousands of Romanians are marching against government corruption, angry that licences are given for businesses which do not pass necessary health and safety tests - 6 November: Massive anti-corruption rallies continued in Bucharest's University square for the third night, calling for the reform of the political class and public administration which are widely seen as corrupt - 9 November: Anti-corruption protests continue in Romania, calling for change amid the political class, as fire death toll rises
2017 Romanian protests: 2017 Romanian protests - in January 2017, days after the PSD government was sworn in, massive protests took place throughout Romania against the government ordinance bills that were proposed by the Ministry of Justice regarding the pardoning of certain committed crimes, and the amendment of the Penal Code, especially regarding the abuse of power - 2 February 2017: Protesters have clashed with police in Bucharest after hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets in cities across Romania in anger at the government’s decriminalising of a string of corruption offences - 4 février 2017: La crise se poursuit, les manifestations aussi - 6 February 2017: An estimated half a million Romanians have continued to protest against the government, with many calling on it to quit even after it scrapped the corruption legislation that sparked a week of public outrage - 12 February 2017: Among the of placards of mass anti-government protests in Romania many read 'Hands off DNA', Romania’s national anti-corruption directorate founded in 2003 and at the forefront of the country’s fight against official misconduct - 13 February 2017: Tens of thousands gathered in Bucharest to call for the government to stand down, despite resignation of justice minister
August 2018 Romanian protests: August 2018 Romanian protests - 11 August 2018: Tens of thousands of people took part in in Friday's protest in Bucharest and several other Romanian cities against corruption and low wages, as more than 400 people were injured by police using tear gas, pepper spray and water cannons, as several police officers were also hurt, as president Iohannis 'firmly condemn(ed) riot police's brutal intervention, strongly disproportionate to the actions of the majority of people', and as video footage posted on social media show police beating non-violent protesters holding their hands up - 12 August 2018: Tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered in the Romanian capital Bucharest returning to the streets without fear in a huge anti-corruption protest on Saturday, 24 hours after more than 450 people were hurt, many needing treatment, and about 30 arrested - 12 août 2018: Des milliers de Roumains se sont rassemblés pour le troisième soir consécutif à Bucarest et dans d'autres villes de Roumanie et ont demandé la démission de Viorica Sancila et dénoncé la corruption au sein du gouvernement social-démocrate
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Romania: Romanian society - Human rights in Romania
Cities, towns and metropolitan areas in Romania: List of cities and towns in Romania - Metropolitan areas in Romania
20th/21st centuries timeline of Bucharest: 20th century and 21st centuries timeline of Bucharest
Transylvania region in central Romania and history since 2nd century BC: Transylvania historical region in central Romania, bordering to the east and south the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains, as broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western Romanian regions Crisana, Maramures and occasionally Banat. Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, and is well known for the cities of Cluj-Napoca, Brasov, Sibiu, Târgu Mures, Alba Iulia, Sighisoara. - Since 2nd century BC documented history of Transylvania, as in the 20th century in August 1940 during Axis Powers World War II, the northern half of Transylvania 'Northern Transylvania' was annexed to Hungary by the second Second Vienna Award, leaving Southern Transylvania to Romania. On 19 March 1944, following the occupation of Hungary by the Nazi German army through Operation Margarethe, Northern Transylvania came under German military occupation. After King Michael's Coup, Romania left the Axis and joined the Allies, and fought together with the Soviet Union's Red Army against Nazi Germany, regaining Northern Transylvania. In the 21st century 'Transylvania proper' is included within the Romanian counties of Alba, Bistrisa-Nasaud, Brasov, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Mures, Salaj and Sibiu, including several regions
Sibiu city in Transylvania: Sibiu city in Transylvania, a historical region of Romania. Located some 275km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of the Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania, as in the 21st century the city is a well-known tourist destination for both domestic and foreign visitors. Known for its culture, history, gastronomy and diverse architecture, which includes the iconic houses with eyes that gave Sibiu its nickname, the city has garnered significant attention since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2004, its historical center began the process of becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiu was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2007.
Demographics, ethnic groups and minorities of Romania: Demographics of Romania - Ethnic groups in Romania - Minorities of Romania
Immigration to Romania: Immigration to Romania
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Romania: Culture of Romania
Universities in Romania: List of universities in Romania
Health in Romania: Health in Romania
Disease outbreaks in Romania; Disease outbreaks in Romania
Healthcare in Romania: Healthcare in Romania
Medical and health organizations based in Romania: Medical and health organizations based in Romania - Medical education in Romania
Hospitals in Romania: List of hospitals in Romania
Newspapers in Romania: Newspapers published in Romania
Broadcasting in Romania: Broadcasting in Romania
Internet in Romania: Internet in Romania
Crime in Romania: Crime in Romania
Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania: Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania
Law enforcement and Romanian Police: Law enforcement in Romania - Romanian Police
Foreign relations of Romania: Foreign relations of Romania
Treaties of Romania: Treaties of Romania
Romanian membership in international organsisations and the EU: Romanian membership in international organsisations and in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Romania: Bilateral relations of Romania
Romania/Bulgaria relations: Romania/Bulgaria relations
Romania/Canada relations: Romania/Canada relations
Romania/Canada trade relations: Romania/Canada trade relations
Romania/Germany relations: Romania/Germany relations
Romania/Hungary relations: Romania/Hungary relations
Romania/Israel relations: Romania/Israel relations
Romanian Jews in Israel: Romanian Jews in Israel
Romania/Turkey relations: Romania/Turkey relations
Romania/United Kingdom relations: Romania/United Kingdom relations
Forests in Romania: Forests of Romania
Water in Romania and Black Sea: Water in Romania - Bodies of water of Romania - Black Sea
Natural disasters in Romania: Natural disasters in Romania


Russia - History of Russia - History of Russia since 1992
Geography, demographics and ethnic groups of Russia: Geography of Russia - Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
Manufacturing companies of Russia: Manufacturing companies of Russia
Automotive industry in Russia: Automotive industry in Russia
Military-Industrial Commission of Russia: Military-Industrial Commission of Russia
Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records: Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
Coal mining disasters in Russia: Coal mining disasters in Russia
Environmental impact of the coal industry: Environmental impact of the coal industry
Oil and gas industry in Russia:
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September 2013: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace holds global protests calling for Russia's release of 30 Greenpeace activists after being jailed for protests against Arctic oil drilling - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 23 octobre: Réduction des charges retenues contre les écologistes Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme' - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention
Safety at work in Russia: Safety at work in Russia
February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow: February 2004 Transvaal Park roof collapse in Moscow
February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow: February 2006 Basmanny market roof collapse in Moscow
August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident: August 2009 Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia
July 2015 Omsk building collapse: July 2015 Omsk building collapse
April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan: April 2017 PepsiCo warehouse's roof collapse in Lebedyan
Dairy in Russia: Dairy
September 2012 Russia Livestock and Products Annual 2012: 12 September 2012: Russia Livestock and Products Annual 2012
Siberian agriculture: Siberian agriculture
Fishing industry in Russia: Fishing industry in Russia
Water supply and sanitation in Russia: Water supply and sanitation in Russia
Irrigation in Russia: Irrigation in Russia
Rivers of Russia: Rivers of Russia, draining into the Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Asian part is drained into the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean - List of rivers of Russia as the country can be divided into a European and an Asian part. The dividing line is generally considered to be the Ural Mountains. The European part is drained into the Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Asian part is drained into the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are Pechora, Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina.In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenisei, the Angara, the Lena, the Amur, the Yana, the Indigirka, and the Kolyma
Volga river: The Volga, the longest river in Europe. Situated in Russia, it flows through Central Russia to Southern Russia and into the Caspian Sea. The Volga has a length of 3,531 km, and a catchment area of 1,360,000 km2. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and of drainage basin. It is widely regarded as the national river of Russia. The old Russian state, the Rus' Khaganate, arose along the Volga between the late-8th and mid-9th centuries AD. Historically, the river served as an important meeting place of various Eurasian civilizations, as the river flows in Russia through forests, forest steppes and steppes. Four of the ten largest cities of Russia, including the nation's capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's drainage basin, and the river has got a symbolic meaning in Russian culture.
Railway accidents in Russia: Railway accidents in Russia
Road transport in Russia: Road transport in Russia
Water transport in Russia: Water transport in Russia
Bridge disasters in Russia: Bridge disasters in Russia
September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse: September 2006 Yekaterinburg bridge collapse
Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia: Aviation accidents and incidents in Russia
Maritime incidents in Russia: Maritime incidents in Russia
Railway accidents and incidents in Russia: Railway accidents and incidents in Russia
Road incidents in Russia: Road incidents in Russia
Foreign trade of Russia: Foreign trade of Russia
Russian arms exports: Russian arms exports
Banking and banks in Russia: Banking in Russia - List of banks in Russia
Since 1991 economic history of the Russian Federation, economic cycles and crises: Economic history of the Russian Federation since 1991
1998 Russian financial crisis: 1998 Russian financial crisis
2008-2009 Russian financial crisis, recession and unemployment: 2008-2009 Russian financial crisis - Great Recession in Russia
December 2014 crumbling ruble and GDP growth forecast cut: 2 December: Crumbling ruble, which has been badly buffeted by a plunge of almost 40% in oil prices, prompts central bank action - 2 December: Economics ministry cuts its GDP growth forecast of 1.2% in 2015 to a 0.8% fall amid financial fallout over Ukraine and lower oil prices - 11 December: Russia’s central bank failed to stem a further dramatic fall in the rouble on Thursday despite raising the headline interest rate to 10.5% - 15 December: Russian central bank raises interest rate to 17% to prevent rouble’s collapse - 17 December: Russia’s financial turmoil shows little sign of easing as the rouble continues to fluctuate against major currencies in volatile trading - 29 December: Russian recession fears as economy shrinks for first time in five years
Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic: Since February 2020 economic impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Russia and regime's measures
Since 1991 privatization, Russian oligarchs and billionaires: Since 1991 Privatization in Russia - Russian oligarchs - Russian billionaires
2 March 2022 Russian World Bank adviser Boris Lvin quits in protest at invasion of Ukraine: 2 March 2022: Russian World Bank adviser Boris Lvin quits in protest at invasion of Ukraine
Military of the 'Russian Federation': Military of the Russian Federation
Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria and Ukraine: Russian Armed Forces casualties in Syria
2017 Russian losses in Syria, soldiers dying for Putin and Assad: 2 August 2017: Russian losses in Syria jump in 2017, Reuters estimates show
Military equipment and weapons of Russia: Military equipment of Russia - Weapons of Russia
October 2019 new Russian submarine intercontinental missile: 30 October 2019: New Russian submarine test fires intercontinental missile for first time
Russian regime's military exercises: Russian regime's military exercises
List of Russian military accidents: List of Russian military accidents since 1990s
2008 submarine K-152 Nerpa accident: 2008 Russian submarine K-152 Nerpa accident
September 2013 nuclear submarine fire: 16 September 2013: Russian nuclear submarine catches fire
25 October 2019 soldier killed eight other soldiers:
: 25 October 2019: A Russian soldier on Friday opened fire on fellow troops at a Siberian military base, killing eight and wounding another two, officials said
War resisters in Russia:
Russia and weapons of mass destruction: Russia and weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union and Russia: Nuclear weapons program of the Soviet Union - Nuclear missiles of Russia
Nuclear weapons test sites of the Soviet Union and Russia:
1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Nuclear Weapons Test Site in Kazakhstan: 1949-1991 Semipalatinsk Nuclear Weapons Test Site in Kazakhstan
Intercontinental ballistic, nuclear and guided missiles of Russia: Intercontinental ballistic missiles of Russia - Nuclear missiles of Russia - Guided missiles of Russia
21st century Russian hypersonic missiles, production and use: 21st century hypersonic cruise missiles in production and use by Russia - UdSSR und dann Russland forschten seit den 1980er-Jahren an Hyperschallwaffen, wobei das zunnehmend aggressivere russische Putin Regime seine Bemühungen seit 2001 deutlich erhöhte als Reaktion auf die USA-amerikanischen Abwehrmöglichkeiten (!). Das zunehmend autokratische Regime vefügt mittlerweile im 21. Jahrhundert über mehrere Hyperschallwaffen-Programme, inkl. nuklear bestückter Hyperschall-Gleiter 'Awangard' (!), der per ICBM (2021 mit der SS-19 Stiletto, möglicherweise zukünftig mit der RS-28 'Sarmat', Einführung nach Verzögerungen 2022) gestartet wird, fermer 'SS-N-33 Zirkon' schiffsgestützte Marschflugkörper zur Bekämpfung von Land- und Seezielen mit Geschwindigkeiten zwischen Mach 6 und Mach 8 und wahrscheinlicher Einführung 2023, ferner 'Ch-47M2 Kinschal' luftgestützte Rakete (Abwandlung der Iskander-Rakete) die Geschwindigkeiten bis zu Mach 10 erreichen soll, 2018 erfolgreich mit einer MiG-31 getestet und 2022 im Angriffskrieg gegen die unabhängige Ukraine erstmals während einer Kriegshandlung gegen die Bevölkerung und ihre Verteidigung eingesetzt
17 March 2022 Russia has accelerated efforts in research and use of hypersonic weapons technology: 17 March 2022: Although Russia has conducted research on hypersonic weapons technology since the 1980s, it accelerated its efforts in response to USA missile defense deployments in both the USA and Europe, and in response to the USA withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 2001, Putin regime stated that 'the US is permitting constant, uncontrolled growth of the number of anti-ballistic missiles' (!). Russia is pursuing two hypersonic weapons programs — the Avangard and the 3M22 Tsirkon (or Zircon) — and has reportedly fielded the Kinzhal ('Dagger”'), a maneuvering air-launched ballistic missile. 'Avangard' is a hypersonic glide vehicle launched from an intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM, giving it 'effectively unlimited range'. Reports indicate that Avangard is currently deployed on the SS-19 Stiletto ICBM, though Russia plans to eventually launch the vehicle from the Sarmat ICBM. Sarmat is still in development, although it is scheduled to be deployed by the end of 2022.
20 March 2022 Russia’s use of hypersonic missiles against Ukraine appears to mark a shift in strategy: 20 March 2022: Russia’s use of hypersonic missiles against Ukraine appears to mark a shift in strategy in response to its losses on the battlefield, one that may signal a new phase of the war while serving to show the world its abundant firepower. Western military analysts point to dictator Putin’s ground campaign getting bogged down, with Russian troops failing to achieve their initial objectives and underestimating the scale of Ukraine’s resistance, as it happened in Assad's, Khamenei's, Putin's war against the Syrian people since early 2011, leading to war crimes including sieges, massacres, mass murder using chemical weapons, brutal air attacks on cities including Syria's second largest city of Aleppo (murderous Battle of Aleppo 2012–2016 against city's population and aftermath at least until March 2022)
18 August 2022 2022 Russia deploys hypersonic missiles in Kaliningrad: 18 août 2022: La Russie annonce avoir déployé des avions équipés de missiles hypersoniques à Kaliningrad
Russia's military forces under the direct control of the 'Security Council of Russia': Russian Armed Forces comprise the world's fifth-largest military in terms of active-duty personnel, with at least 2 million reserve personnel. Their branches consist of the Ground Forces, Navy, and Aerospace Forces, as well as three independent arms of service including the Strategic Rocket Forces, Airborne Forces, and Special Operations Forces. Russian Armed Forces, alongside the Border Guard of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the National Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), the Federal Protective Service (FSO), the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) form Russia's military services under the direct control of the Security Council of Russia
7 August 2022 Russia’s private military contractor Wagner comes out of the shadows in Ukraine war: 7 August 2022: Russia’s private military contractor Wagner comes out of the shadows in Ukraine war, as mercenary group does not officially exist but is playing a more public role and openly recruiting in Russia. Three billboards in the Ural city of Yekaterinburg shine a light on what was once one of Russia’s most shadowy organisations, the private military contractor Wagner. 'Motherland, Honour, Blood, Bravery. WAGNER', one of the posters reads. Another, which locals said first appeared on the outskirts of the country’s fourth largest city in early July, depicts three men in military uniform next to the words “Wagner2022.org”. The billboards, which can be seen in several Russian cities, are part of Wagner’s efforts to recruit fighters to join its ranks in Ukraine. They also serve as a testament to the transformation the group has undergone since Moscow launched its invasion over five months ago, from a secretive mercenary organisation shrouded in mystery to an increasingly public extension of Russia’s military efforts in Ukraine.
Military budget of Russia: Military budget in Russia - 20. Februar 2012: Putins Wahlprogramm der Aufrüstung Rußlands mit 575 Mrd. Euro in den kommenden 10 Jahren - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen weltweiter Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - mit einem Anstieg um 580 Prozent steigerte vor allem Syrien die Waffenimporte seit dem Jahr 2002 deutlich - 17. April: Rußland und China erhöhen ihre Militärausgaben auch 2011 kräftig - 31 July: Putin announces that a total of 51 surface warships and 24 submarines, including 16 nuclear submarines, will enter into service in the Russian Navy by 2020 - 12. August 2012: Russland will sein Militär u.a. mit 1600 neuen Flugzeugen und Helikoptern aufrüsten - 14 April 2014: Russian defence spending rises by 4.8% to $88bn, devoting larger share of GDP on military than USA for first time since 2003 - 15 December 2014: Russian arms sales soar on domestic spending
Federal budget of Russia: Federal budget of Russia
Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation: Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation
Ministry of Internal Affairs in Russia: Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation
Russian internal troops, Intelligence Community, Federal Security Service FSB, law enforcement agencies, repression and corruption: Russian Intelligence Community - Security Council of Russia
FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing: FSB's legal power to engage in targeted killing
Penal system in Russia and Federal Penitentiary Service: Penal system in Russia - Federal Penitentiary Service - Prisons in Russia - Corrective labor colony
Torture in Russia: Torture in Russia
Police brutality in Russia: Police brutality in Russia
Crime in Russia: Crime in Russia
Nationalism and racism in Russia: Russian nationalism - Racism in Russia
Antisemitism in the Russian empire since the 18th century: Antisemitism in the Russian Empire
Since 1904: 1904/1 February 2000: According to the Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine the anti-Semitic pamphlet 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion' 1904 were concocted by Russian propagandist Mathieu Golovinski as part of a monarchist scheme to persuade Czar Nicholas II that the capitalist modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot - 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' ordered to be studied in German classrooms by the Nazi Party since 1933 - 'Jewish Bolshevism' is part of the Jewish World Conspiracy theory that Jews control the world - Contemporary Middle East imprints of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' - many Arab governments funded new printings of the Protocols and taught them in their schools as historical fact - The Charter of the Hamas, issued on 18 August 1988, explicitly refers to 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'
Antisemitism in the Russian Federation since 1991: Antisemitism in the Russian Federation
Notable hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia: Hate crimes and murder of anti-fascist activists in Russia
Religion and freedom of religion in Russia: Religion in Russia - Freedom of religion in Russia
Since 2013 amended blasphemy law in Russia: Blasphemy and blasphemy law in Russia
Legal history and law of Russia: Legal history of Russia - Law of Russia
Repression and political crime in Russia: Repression, political crime and killed journalists in Russia
16 November 2009 Death of Sergei Magnitsky: Death of attorney Sergei Magnitsky in Polonium-Putin's custody 16 November 2009 - 9. April: Das Verfahren gegen eine Gefängnisärztin wegen des Todes des prominenten russischen Anwalts und Menschenrechtsaktivisten Sergej Magnitski in Untersuchungshaft vor mehr als zwei Jahren wird in Moskau wegen Verjährung eingestellt - 28 December: A Moscow court acquitts prison doctor Kratov charged with the death of lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after his pancreatitis went untreated - an investigation by Russia's presidential council on human rights had concluded he was severely beaten and denied medical treatment - 28 January 2013: A Russian court has opened the posthumous fraud trial against Sergei Magnitsky, a lawyer who died in prison in 2009 after accusing state officials of a multimillion-dollar tax scam - 11 March 2013: 'Trial' of dead lawyer Sergei Magnitsky to begin in Russia - relatives say it's inhuman to try a dead man and the trial is revenge by the Kremlin - 22 March: Russia court begins proceedings against deceased lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in jail after an alleged beating - 11 July 2013: In 'one of the most shameful moments for Russia since the days of Joseph Stalin', tortured and severely beaten Sergei Magnitsky posthumously found guilty of fraud by a Moscow court after his violent death in custody - 22 March 2017: Russian lawyer Nikolai Gorokhov who represents the family of Sergei Magnitsky is in intensive care after falling from the fourth floor of his apartment building, according to unconfirmed reports
27 octobre: Accusée à tort de terrorisme, la Tchétchène Zara Mourtazalieva a vécu près d’une décennie dans une colonie pénitentiaire de Mordovie - 24 November: UN report voices concern at Moscow's failure to investigate widespread allegations of torture
February 2015 Murder of Boris Nemtsov: 27 February 2015 murder of Boris Nemtsov in Moscow - 28 February 2015: Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov reportedly shot four times in the back by a killer in a passing car in the centre of Moscow two days before Nemtsov was due to lead a major opposition rally in Moscow - 28 February: Politicians worldwide condemn the assassination of Boris Nemtsov, pressing the Russian regime to ensure that the killing is thoroughly investigated, as Boris Nemtsov allies fear killers of Russian politician will escape justice - 2 March: Immediately after murder, Russian investigators removed all evidence of Russian troops in Ukraine from Nemtsov apartment - 2 March: Nemtsov's Ukrainian companion Anna Duritskaya says being held against her will after murder - 3 March: Foreign officials barred from attending Boris Nemtsov funeral - 8 March: Zaur Dadayev, one of the men detained on suspicion of killing Boris Nemtsov, reportedly served nearly a decade in a police unit in the Russian region of Chechnya - 10 March 2015: Boris Nemtsov's friend Ilya Yashin rejects regime's allegation, as Russia's Putin this week awards Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov a medal for 'professional achievements, public activities', and as this Ramzan Kadyrov praises Chechen Zaur Dadayev publicly to be 'a true patriot of Russia', who is now charged by Russian authorities with the murder of Boris Nemtsov - 11 March: Former law enforcement officer Dadayev charged with involvement in the murder of opposition leader Boris Nemtsov has claimed that he was forced to confess to the killing, monitoring group that visited Dadayev and two other suspects in jail allegedly found evidence that the confession had been forced - 12 March: Zhanna Nemtsova, the daughter of assassinated Boris Nemtsov, says Vladimir Putin must bear responsibility for his death - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May 2015: Russian State Duma committee refuses to investigate Nemtsov's murder
Terrorism in Russia: Terrorism in Russia
1 January 1918 Saint Petersburg assassination attempt on Lenin: 1 January 1918: As Lenin's car drove away from Mikhailovsky Manège, a group of terrorists - among them the best sharpshooters in the former Russian Army - who were hiding in ambush in the next lane began shooting, shattering the car's windshield where Lenin was sitting in the back seat with Fritz Platten, but 'Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down (and) Platten’s hand was' met and wounded - 1 January 1918: After his 'Speech at the send-off of the socialist army’s first troop tains' in Saint Petersburg's Mikhailovsky Manège, an assassination attempt was made on Lenin returning to the Smolny, when a bullet went through the car's windscreen and passed over his head, and the Swiss Communist Fritz Platten, who was with Lenin, was wounded
Society, demographics, culture and languages in Russia: Russian society




History and timeline of Arkhangelsk: History and timeline of Arkhangelsk
Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages: Early history of Arkhangelsk since the Middle Ages


Timeline of Saint Petersburg: Timeline of Saint Petersburg
17th–18th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg: 17th–18th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg
Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences: Since 1724 The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences
19th/20th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg: 19th/20th centuries timeline of Saint Petersburg
1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 February Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed: 12 March 1917 Petrograd Soviet formed
1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia: 1917 October Revolution in Petersburg and Russia
Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre: Since 1922 Bryantsev Youth Theatre
Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School for gifted children: Since 1934 Leningrad Secondary Art School, the first art school for gifted children
Since 1936, 2011, and March 2022 Prokofiev's symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf': 1936 symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf' op. 67, a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev, as a narrator tells a children's story, while the orchestra illustrates it, and that became Prokofiev's most frequently performed work and one of the most frequently performed works in the entire classical repertoire - 8 June 2011 Sergej Prokofiev's 'Peter and the Wolf' - In 2009 published by Oxford University Press, Simon Morrison recounts Prokofiev's Soviet years in his book 'The People's Artist', describing Prokofiev's return to Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930th, facing the rising NSDAP ruled German empire preparing its 'Blitzkrieg' operations in the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War, the September 1939 Invasion of Poland, the summer 1940 'Blitzkrieg' against the Low Countries and France, and since June 1941 German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union, first involving a number of breakthroughs and encirclements by motorised forces 'to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia', allowing the 'Luftwaffe' to achieve total air supremacy over all the battlefields within the first week, as during the Battle of Moscow October 1941 - January 1942, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative.
1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad: 1941-1944 German siege of Leningrad
Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad: Since 1945 timeline of post-war recovery of Leningrad
1991 Vladimir Poutine quitte le KGB pour commencer une carrière politique à 'Saint-Petersbourg': En 1991 - après 15 ans de bons et loyaux services - Vladimir Poutine quitte le KGB pour commencer une carrière politique au côté d'Anatoli Sobchak, le maire de 'Saint-Petersbourg'. Sobchak perd la mairie en 1996 et Poutine se met donc au service d'Anatoli Tchoubaïs, chef de l'administration présidentielle. Boris Eltsine, au vu du passé de Poutine, le nomme à la tête du FSB (le nouveau nom du KGB). Poutine devient un bavard sans scrupules depuis 1991 en contre-révolution russe, après en 1917 la révolution de février et plus tard de novembre fait chuter en quelques jours l'Ancien régime tsariste, que l'immense majorité du peuple (paysans, ouvriers, petite-bourgeois...) en était venu à détester.
22 June 2022 volunteers arranged candles in St Petersburg to commemorate Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union: 22 June 2022: Some 150 volunteers arranged 50-thousand candles in St Petersburg early on Wednesday to commemorate the 81st anniversary of Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union. NSDAP ruled Germany launched 'Operation Barbarossa', a massive invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941, followed by never seen war crimes, as World War II losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000 both civilian and military, although exact figures are disputed. The post-Soviet government of Russia puts the Soviet war losses at 26.6 million. - 23 January 1930 – 1 July 1944 Tanya Savicheva, a Russian child diarist who endured the siege of Leningrad during World War II. During the siege, Savicheva recorded the successive deaths of each member of her family in her diary, with her final entry indicating her belief to be the sole living family member. Although Savicheva was rescued and transferred to a hospital, she succumbed to intestinal tuberculosis in July 1944 at age 14. Her image and the pages from her diary became symbolic of the human cost of the siege of Leningrad, and she is remembered in St. Petersburg with a memorial complex on the Green Belt of Glory along the Road of Life. Her diary was used during the Nuremberg Trials as evidence of the Nazis’ crimes.
Pushkin municipal town in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg: Pushkin municipal town with a population of 92,889 citizens in 2010, located in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg 24 kilometers south from its center, and as its railway station is directly connected by railway to the Vitebsky Rail Terminal of the city. Pushkin was founded in 1710 as an imperial residence named 'Tsarskoye Selo' ('Tsar's Village'), receiving status of a town in 1808. The first public railways in Russia, Tsarskoye Selo Railways, were opened here in 1837 and connected the town to the capital, St. Petersburg. After the October Revolution, the town was renamed to 'Detskoye Selo' ('Children's Village'). Its name was further changed in 1937 to Pushkin to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. The town contains an ensemble of the 18th century 'Tsarskoye Selo', following October/November 1917 and also today a museum complex including the 'Catherine Palace', 'Alexander Palace' and other buildings and associated parks
Since 1995 'St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class', 1898 'RSDL Party': Since 1995 'St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class', a Marxist group in the St. Petersburg region founded by Vladimir Lenin, Julius Martov, Gleb Krzhizhanovsky and others, uniting 20 different Marxist study circles, but Lenin dominated the league through the 'central group'. Its main activity was agitation amongst the workers of St Petersburg and the distribution of socialist leaflets to the factories there. Towards the end of 1895, the League had prepared the first issue of their new newspaper, Rabocheye Delo. It was ready to go to press when it was seized by the gendarmes during a raid on the house of Vaneyev, on December 20. Six League members were arrested, Lenin among them. When the news spread among the workers of the Shlisselburg Highway that the discovery and arrest were facilitated by an agent provocateur, N. N. Mikhailov. Later the group's organization contributed to the founding of the 'Russian Social Democratic Labor Party' in 1898. Lenin went on to become the leader of the Bolshevik faction of the party, while Martov became leader of the Menshevik faction, after the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903. - Since 1883 'Emancipation of Labour', the first Russian Marxist group. It was founded in exile by Georgi Plekhanov, Vasily Ignatov, Vera Zasulich, Leo Deutsch, and Pavel Axelrod, at Geneva in Switzerland in 1883
Published 1899 Lenin's early economic work 'The Development of Capitalism in Russia': Published 1899 'The Development of Capitalism in Russia', an early economic work by Lenin written whilst he was in exile in Siberia, published in 1899 under the pseudonym of 'Vladimir Ilyin', and established his reputation as a major Marxist theorist, after he has managed to examine a large amount of literature on the Russian economy, enabling the author to attack the Populist claim that Russia could avoid the stage of capitalism, and that the rural commune could serve as the basis for communism. Instead Lenin argued that the rural communes had already been wiped out by capitalism and statistics showed the degree to which feudalism was already dying in Russia. Lenin noted the growth of a national market for goods in Russia replacing local markets, the tendency to grow cash crops rather than rely on subsistence agriculture and a growth of individual rather than communal property ownership. Lenin also noted the growth of class division amongst the peasants with a growing division between a landholding rural bourgeoise and a mostly landless rural proletariat recruited from a diminishing middle peasantry. Lenin saw a community of interest between rural and urban proletariat and the possibility of a worker–peasant alliance against the representatives of capital. - Works by Vladimir Lenin listed by 'Wikipedia'


Novgorod Oblast: Novgorod Oblast, a federal subject of Russia as its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod with a population of 634,111 citizens in 2010. Novgorod Oblast borders with Leningrad Oblast in the north and in the northwest, Vologda Oblast in the east, Tver Oblast in the southeast and in the south, and Pskov Oblast in the southwest. The western part is a lowland around Lake Ilmen, while the eastern part is a highland. In the center of the oblast is Lake Ilmen, one of the largest lakes in Central Russia. The major tributaries of Lake Ilmen are the Msta, which originates in the east of the Valdai Hills and collects the rivers in the east of the oblast, the Lovat, the Pola, and the Polist, which all flow to the lake from the south, and the Shelon, flowing from the southwest. The only outflow of the lake is the Volkhov, a major tributary of Lake Ladoga. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are located in the oblast.
History of Novgorod city since 9th century, trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks: History of Novgorod city, documented since 9th century, when Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks - The 'Varangians' - the name given by Eastern Romans to Vikings, mostly Swedes -, as between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard which later also included Anglo-Saxons. According to the 12th-century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik - 'Garðaríki', the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of Rus', as 9th century map shows Varangian or Rus' settlements, location of Slavic tribes and settlements, and mid-9th century Khazar influence
Since 882 princely state within Kievan Rus': Since 882 princely state within Kievan Rus'
In the high Middle Ages Norway ties, then 'Hanseatic League' ties with European cities: In the high Middle Ages Viking kings and yarls came from Norway to Novgorod seeking refuge or employment. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof). Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Mstislavich, the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the 'Hanseatic League', was the easternmost kontor, or entrepôt, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (sable, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts - Die 'Hanse' - im Frühmittelalter eine Gruppe von Kaufleuten, die gemeinsam Handel trieben und bestimmte Privilegien im Ausland genossen - hatte sich aus der 'Kaufmannshanse' zur 'Städtehanse' entwickelt, also einem Zusammenschluss von Städten zum Schutz der Kaufleute und der Handelswege. Städtebündnisse und Landfriedensbündnisse dienten demselben Zweck. Die Handelsaktivitäten der Lemgoer Kaufleute seit dem 13. Jh. spiegelten sich in zahlreichen Bürgschaftsurkunden und Verbindungen und lassen sich so bis Nowgorod, Lübeck, Antwerpen oder Riga belegen.
1136–1478 Novgorod Republic: 1136–1478 Novgorod Republic
January 1570 Tsar Ivan's massacre of Novgorod and subjugation: January 1570 Massacre of Novgorod, an attack launched by Tsar Ivan IV 'The Terrible' oprichniki on the city of Novgorod, subjugation of Novgorod as the Tsar took out the brunt of his sadistic anger on the population of Novgorod, namely the upper and middle classes. The peasantry suffered a more generic, though equally brutal, punishment, amid the brutality directed at the more prominent members of society, as - with tortures visited on the upper and middle classes - peasants and paupers were treated with disregard and disdain, albeit of a broader nature. The oprichniki centered its attack on the townspeople around two main objectives to increase the royal treasury and to terrorize the lower classes into submission. Ivan's fear of conspiracies and revolution in any combination, led him to try to quell disaffection and discourage revolutionary tendencies, generally through the manipulation of fear and violence, then Ivan ordered an attack on the trade streets of Novgorod, hoping to cripple the middle-class merchants (generally considered to be the seat of discontented revolutionary ideas) in order to suppress popular insurrection and guarantee dependency and submission. The oprichniki were to seize all profitable goods and destroy shops and storehouses, then move into the suburbs, where their instructions were to loot and destroy homes and kill all inhabitants who resisted (and, periodically, even those who complied), regardless of age or sex. Cold, hunger, and disease also killed the hundreds of families that were evicted and exiled from the city and surrounding villages. The famines that had plagued the area for the previous years (exacerbated by the oprichniki's razing of the farm land on their trek to Novgorod) had drawn many of the poor from the surrounding land into the city for shelter. With little regard for the lives at stake, the tsar ordered the collected paupers and beggars expelled from the city in the middle of winter, abandoning them to die of exposure or starvation.
Since 1570 devastated Novgorod Republic officially became a thing of the past: After previous blows dealt to the city by Ivan and his grandfather, the 1570 attack, massacre by Ivan IV contributed heavily to the decline of the once great city of Novgorod. An attack from one's own ruler, especially one as devastating to life and property as Ivan's campaign against Novgorod, was crippling. After the attack, many of the inhabitants either fled the city to escape persecution from Moscow, or died from increasingly damning conditions, exacerbated by high taxes and food shortages and the epidemics that tend to accompany poor living conditions that followed. As part of his attack Ivan burned the fields, laying waste roughly 90% of the arable land surrounding Novgorod. Coupled with the crop failures of the years before, this would create a massive food shortage (and cause supply problems for Russia in the Livonian war). With the loss of the majority of its production capacity and the economy essentially in ruins, Novgorod, a city that, until Ivan III, rivaled Moscow for the seat of power in Russia, lost its political standing and the Novgorod Republic officially became a thing of the past.


History of Pskov Oblast: History of Pskov Oblast
Since 903 Timeline of Pskov: Timeline of Pskov since 903
Economy of Pskov and veche republic: Economy of Pskov, that has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West. Archaeological data shows the presence of imported goods in Pskov in the 10th and 11th centuries. This was due to the extensive trade contacts of emerging cities with Scandinavia, which also was the source of Russian military elite since the 10th century. Archaeological excavation revealed a large variety of found articles, among them Byzantine coins, bronze and copper items, confirming that Pskov was not an economically isolated region and shows extensive trade contacts with both the West and the East. Pskov republic started to be recognized as a sovereign state after Treaty of Bolotovo was concluded in 1348, which granted political independence from the Novgorod Republic. This happened just ten years before the establishment of the Hanseatic League - commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns, which played a major part in Pskov economic development. Pskov at that was a veche republic, where all free people were considered its citizens with the right to participate in governing of their city-state, which was expressed in veche assemblies and election of local officials.
20th century timeline of Pskov: 20th century timeline of Pskov


Kursk Oblast comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities: Administrative divisions of Kursk Oblast, comprising 28 districts, 10 cities/towns and 2,771 rural localities
Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast: Cities and towns in Kursk Oblast
Economy and infrastructure of Kursk: Economy and infrastructure of Kursk
1943 'Battle of Kursk' blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter: 1941-1943 during Axis powers' World War II Kursk was occupied by NSDASP and SS Germany between 4 November 1941 – 8 November 1943, as in July 1943 the Germans launched 'Operation Citadel' in an attempt to recapture Kursk, as during the resulting 'Battle of Kursk', the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement between Soviet and German forces, which is widely considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history, and as Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union and the final stage, blocking the way of further Nazi Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' in the coming up winter - Soviet army's resistance and defense campaign was a strategic Soviet success, as for the first time, a major German offensive had been stopped before achieving a breakthrough, despite German empire was using more technologically advanced armour than in previous years, yet unable to break through the in-depth Soviet defences, caught off guard by the significant operational reserves of the Red Army, as this result changed the pattern of operations on the Eastern Front, with the Soviet Union gaining the operational initiative, but the Soviet victory was costly, with the Red Army losing considerably more men and materiel than the German Army, finally enforcing the Soviet Union's larger industrial potential and pool of manpower, as Nazi 'Blitzkrieg' general Guderian wrote 'with the failure of Zitadelle we have suffered a decisive defeat', long before 1944 'Operation Overlord' against NSDAP Germany and the Italian puppet 'Social Republic', (established by Kesselring's, Rommel's, von Rundstedt's, von Weichs' and Löhr's 'Operation Achse')
Since 1944 T-34 tank as a war memorial in Kursk: Since 1944 as a war memorial in Kursk T-34 tank, a Soviet medium tank introduced in 1940, famously deployed with the Red Army during World War II against NSDAP-ruled German empire's brutal aggression since June 1941 with 'Blitzkrieg' operations, sieges, use of starvation as weapon against millions of humans, deportations, mass murder, as T-34 tanks since 1941/42 were mainly produced in Chelyabinsk (called 'Tank City', where work force increased to 60,000 workers by 1944, from 25,000 during non-military production, and as workers and machinery from Leningrad's Voroshilov Tank Factory were incorporated into the Ural Factory), and as - after the industrial complex surrounding the Dzerzhinsky Tractor Factory in Stalingrad continued to work double shifts throughout the period of Soviet withdrawal (September 1941 - September 1942) to make up for production lost and produced 40% of all T-34s during this period - the factory became surrounded by heavy fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942/43 with desperate: manufacturing innovations necessitated by material shortages, with unpainted T-34 tanks driven out of the factory directly to the battlefields around it, so that Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942 despite Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' - German empire's 'Panzer IV' 1939-1945 produced by Krupp, Vomag and 'Nibelungenwerk', later in Syria until 'Six-Day War', then ruled by Ba'th regime - Vomags (Vogtländische Maschinenfabrik), Geschäft mit dem Krieg seit 1914 und innerhalb von 4 Jahren einer der größten Rüstungsproduzenten der Armee des kaiserlichen Deutschen Reiches, und seit 1939-1945 profitmachender Rüstungsbetrieb des NSDAP berrschten 'Dritten Reiches', zu einem 'Musterbetrieb' deutscher Rüstung aufgestiegen, der von 1944-1945 in Mehltheuer in einem Außenlager des KZ Flossenbürg hunderte von weiblichen Häftlinge Zwangsarbeit für die Vomag - deren Produkte bedient und befehligt von skupellosen Verbrechern im Dienste größenwahnsinniger Politiker incl. Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres seit 1944 Heinz Guderian und GFM Erwin Rommel ihre Familien vernichten halfen - verrichten ließ - 1914-1945 armaments products produced for profit in 'Krupp Industries', employing workers conscripted by the NSDAP, SS and Gestapo regime from across Europe - Since 1864 rifle manufacturer and WWII armament poducer's 'Nibelungenwerk' (Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG) armament products produced for profit in Upper Austria - 1940s Tiger German heavy tanks of World War II that operated beginning in 1942 in Africa, in the Soviet Union and in France, usually in independent heavy tank battalions - Since 1935, Henschel began manufacturing Panzer I tanks produced for profit - also responsible for license production of the Dornier Do 17Z medium bomber -, as during World War II since 1939 it began large-scale production of the Panzer III, becoming the sole manufacturer of the Tiger I - and alongside Porsche the Tiger II - and as in 1945 the company had 8,000 workers working in two shifts each of 12 hours, and forced labour was used extensively




Economy of Moscow: Economy of Moscow
Timeline of Moscow since European Middle Ages: Timeline of Moscow since European Middle Ages
879–1240 Kyivan Rus' federation of East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic peoples in Eastern and Northern Europe: Kievan Rus' or Kyivan Rus', a loose federation of East Slavic, Baltic and Finnic peoples in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. The Rurik dynasty would continue to rule parts of Rus' until the 16th century with the Tsardom of Russia. At its greatest extent, in the mid-11th century, it stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the majority of East Slavic tribes.
Since 2nd century BC history and timeline of the 'Kremlin': History and timeline of the 'Kremlin' site, that had been continuously inhabited by Finnic peoples, especially the Meryans, since the 2nd century BC. The East Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow', and the word 'Kremlin' was first recorded in 1331. - Since 1586 Tsar cannon during the reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, the son of Ivan the Terrible - As history of Russian bell founding goes back to the 10th century, the original Tsar Bell since 16th century crashed to the ground in a fire in the mid-17th century and was broken to pieces, as the second Tsar Bell since 1655 was again destroyed by fire in 1701, as the third was finally successfully raised in the summer of 1836 by the French architect Auguste de Montferrand and placed on a stone pedestal, and as its broken slab alone is nearly three times larger than the world's largest bell hung for full circle ringing, the tenor bell at Liverpool Cathedral, and French enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher Voltaire - famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity (especially the Roman Catholic Church) and of slavery, as well as his advocacy of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state - once joked that the Kremlin's two greatest items were a bell which was never rung and a cannon (the Tsar Pushka) that was never fired
Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway: Since 1851 Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway
Since 1 January 1918 assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin: Since 1 January 1918 several assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin
30 August 1918 assassination attempt on Lenin that killed him in 1924: 30 August 1918 Russian revolutionary politician Vladimir Lenin spoke at an arms factory in southern Moscow, but before he had entered his car to leave Fanny Kaplan called out to him and fired three shots with a Browning pistol as one passed through his neck, punctured part of his left lung and stopped near his right collarbone, and the other lodging in his left shoulder, then Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin refusing to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention, the doctors were brought in to treat him but could not remove the bullets outside a hospital, as despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived, but his health never fully recovered from the attack and it is believed the shooting contributed to the strokes that incapacitated and eventually killed him in 1924
Since 1935 Biblioteka Imeni Lenina station of the Moscow Metro, also shelter: Since 1935 Biblioteka Imeni Lenina, a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro, opened on 15 May 1935 as a part of the first stage of the Metro and situated in the very centre of the city under Mokhovaya Street - Moscow metro and stations were built not only as public transport, as he deepest stations of the Moscow metro reach 84 meters, the height of 28 storey building, as depth of the tunnels usually ranges from 35-55 meters. In 1930-s the country was already preparing for a possible war. During the German empire's 1941 Siege of Moscow, metro stations were used as air-raid shelters. Council of Ministers moved its offices to the platforms of Mayakovskaya, where Stalin made public speeches on several occasions. Another station Chistye Prudy accommodated the headquarters of the Air Defense. Following the defeat of German empire in May 1945 and since then during the so-called 'Cold War', many Moscow stations built are very deep and were planned as shelters in the event of nuclear attack.
Since 1936, 2011, and March 2022 Prokofiev's symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf': 1936 symphonic fairy tale for children 'Peter and the Wolf' op. 67, a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev, as a narrator tells a children's story, while the orchestra illustrates it, and that became Prokofiev's most frequently performed work and one of the most frequently performed works in the entire classical repertoire - 8 June 2011 Sergej Prokofiev's 'Peter and the Wolf' - In 2009 published by Oxford University Press, Simon Morrison recounts Prokofiev's Soviet years in his book 'The People's Artist', describing Prokofiev's return to Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930th, facing the rising NSDAP ruled German empire preparing its 'Blitzkrieg' operations in the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War, the September 1939 Invasion of Poland, the summer 1940 'Blitzkrieg' against the Low Countries and France, and since June 1941 German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union, first involving a number of breakthroughs and encirclements by motorised forces 'to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia', allowing the 'Luftwaffe' to achieve total air supremacy over all the battlefields within the first week, as during the Battle of Moscow October 1941 - January 1942, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative.
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis: October 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis
February/August 2004 Moscow Metro bombings: February 2004 Moscow Metro bombing - August 2004 Moscow Metro bombing
March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings: March 2010 Moscow Metro bombings
9 May 2022 Ukrainian Mockery Version of Den' Pobedy: 9 May 2022 Ukrainian Mockery Version of Den' Pobedy - 15 January 2011: Das sowjetische Lied 'Straßen' wurde einige Wochen nach dem Ende des deutschen Angriffskrieges geschrieben, von der Sowjetunion und den Westallierten siegreich abgeschlossen mit der Befreiung Europas inkl. Polens, aber mit allein für die Sowjetunion weit über 20 Millionen Kriegstoten - World War II casualties of the Soviet Union - Since February casualties of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, causing Europe's largest refugee crisis since WWII with more than 8.8 million Ukrainians fleeing the country and a third of the population displaced. The invasion also caused global food shortages, while on 16 June 2022 the Ukrainian defense minister told CNN that he believed tens of thousands of Ukrainians had died, adding that he 'hoped' that the true death toll was below 100,000 - On 2 May 1945 Soviet army soldier Aleksey Khaldei from Yuzovka assisted by Private Kovalev from Kiev scaled the now pacified Reichstag in Berlin to take a picture. Khaldei was born to a Jewish family in Yuzovka (now Donetsk) and was obsessed with photography since childhood, having built his first childhood camera with his grandmother's eyeglasses. His father and three of his four sisters were murdered by the Nazis during the war, as the Ukrainian soldier in May 1945 was carrying with him a large flag, sewn from three tablecloths for this very purpose by his uncle.
24 July 2022 Moscow chess robot grabs and breaks finger of seven-year-old 'opponent': 24 July 2022: Moscow chess robot - in a game of strategic thinking without violence, but that cannot always be said of machines and especially Russian robots - grabs and breaks finger of seven-year-old 'opponent', exactly how Russian defence ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov - as usual in Moscow today - alleged that Putin's military in Ukraine is always using 'high-precision weapons' in its very 'special military operation' to terrorize its neighbour - July 2022: 80 years after the beginning of German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Russia blocks move on 'Killer Robots Ban', as 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots' Stephen Goose said 'Russia demonstrated conclusively that the CCW is unlikely to make any meaningful progress on this issue'
22 November 2022 dictator Putin will meet mothers of soldiers fighting in Ukraine on 27 November: 22 November 2022: Russian dictator Putin will meet mothers of soldiers fighting in Ukraine, because Russia celebrates Mother’s Day on 27 November


Landforms and rivers of Ryazan Oblast: Landforms of Ryazan Oblast - Meshchera Lowlands - Rivers of Ryazan Oblast
Politics of Ryazan Oblast: Politics of Ryazan Oblast
History and timeline of Ryazan Oblast: History of Ryazan Oblast
Timeline of Rostov-on-Don: Timeline of Rostov-on-Don
Since 1438 timeline of Kazan: Timeline of Kazan since 1438
20th and 21st centuries timeline of Kazan: 20th and 21st centuries timeline of Kazan
Timeline of Volgograd: Timeline of Volgograd
Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad: Commemoration of the battle of Stalingrad
Timeline of Omsk since 18th century: Timeline of Omsk since 18th century
Timeline and history of Tomsk since 17th century: History and timeline of Tomsk since 17th century
Kemerovo Oblast: Kemerovo Oblast, a federal subject of Russia located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian Mountains. The oblast, which covers an area of 95,500 square kilometers, shares a border with Tomsk Oblast in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Altai Republic in the south, and with Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai in the west. Kemerovo is the administrative center of the oblast, though Novokuznetsk is the largest city in terms of size. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most urbanized regions, with over 70% of the population living in its nine principal cities. Its ethnic composition is predominantly Russian, but Ukrainians, Tatars, and Chuvash also live in the oblast. The population was 2,763,135 citizena in 2010. - Geography of Kemerovo Oblast
History of Irkutsk Oblast: History of Irkutsk Oblast
Administrative and municipal divisions of Irkutsk Oblast: Administrative and municipal divisions of Irkutsk Oblast
History of Irkutsk city since 19th century: History of Irkutsk city, after in the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and they developed much of the city's cultural heritage. They had wooden houses built that were adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations. Many still survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them. By the end of the 19th century, the population consisted of one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. As a result, Irkutsk became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia.
Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Demographics of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast: Economy of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Since 8th century timeline of Khabarovsk: History and timeline of Khabarovsk, founded in the 8th century
Timeline of Vladivostok: Timeline of Vladivostok
Demographics and ethnic groups in Russia:Demographics of Russia - Ethnic groups in Russia
History of ethnic groups in Russia: History of ethnic groups in Russia
Since 1996 Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia: Russian Jewish Congress for revival of the Jewish life in Russia since 1996
Literature in Russia: Literature in Russia
History of literature in Russia: History of literature in Russia
Women in Russia: Women in Russia
Gender pay gap in Russia: Gender pay gap in Russia
Domestic violence in Russia: Domestic violence in Russia
Women's rights in Russia: Women's rights in Russia
Children and youth in Russia: Childhood in Russia - Youth in Russia
Orphans in Russia: Orphans in Russia
Schools in Russia: Schools in Russia
Universities and colleges in Russia: Universities and colleges in Russia
Science and technology in Russia: Science and technology in Russia
Libraries and archives in Russia: Libraries in Russia - Archives in Russia
Health in Russia: Health in Russia
Medical outbreaks, health disasters and crimes in Russia: Health disasters in Russia - Medical outbreaks in Russia - Man-made disasters in Russia
Since 17th century documented famines in Russia: Since 17th century documented famines in Russia - Russian famine of 1601–03
Major health issues in Russia: Major health issues in Russia
Drugs in Russia: Drugs in Russia
Doping in Russia: Doping in Russia - Doping in sport
July 2016: 13 July 2016: In the Russian regime's inverted world, athlete Darya Klishina branded a 'traitor' after she agreed to compete under a neutral flag at next month’s Olympics thanking the IAAF for allowing her to compete - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 19 July 2016: Several former Olympians who now serve on the International Olympic Committee’s athletes’ commission have warned of catastrophic consequences if the organisation does not ban Russia completely from the Rio Games - 25 July 2016: The World Anti-Doping Agency is 'disappointed' its recommendation to ban Russia from next month's Olympic Games in Rio has been rejected by the International Olympic Committee, saying the IOC's decision will inevitably mean 'lesser protection for clean athletes'
December 2016: 9 December 2016: Over 1000 Russian athletes from over 30 disciplines were involved in state-sponsored doping programme in 2011-2015, including London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games winners and medalists, and that also helped forging fake doping probes results by involving special services, World Anti-Doping Agency's report on Russian doping row says - 14 December 2016: Russia deprived of bobsleigh 2017 World Championship in Sochi - 24 December 2016: Following Sochi's loss last week of the right to host February's bobsleigh and skeleton world championships, Biathlon and speed skating events February/March 2017 taken away from Russia over doping scandal - 27 December 2016: Russian officials admit for the first time to a state-backed campaign of doping that involved hundreds of the country’s athletes, as the acting director of Russia’s national anti-doping agency Anna Antseliovich and others in a serie of interviews detail that 'it was an institutional conspiracy' concerning the entire Olympic movement
Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics - 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi - 7 October 2013: Russia has installed an all-encompassing surveillance system at the site of next year's Winter Olympic Games in Sochi that will allow security services to listen in on athletes and visitors, security analysts say - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups - 23 December: Nadezhda Tolokonnikova calls for foreign countries to boycott February's Winter Olympics, hours after she was freed from jail - 23/24 December: Benjamin Netanyahu joins Barack Obama, David Cameron, Francois Hollande and others in rejecting Sochi invite - 12 February 2014: Russian environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko who campaigned against ecological damage from construction work for the Sochi Olympics is to spend three years in a prison colony
Killed journalists in Russia: List of journalists killed in Russia
In July 2013 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed): 9 July 2013: 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed), CPJ says
Since 2012 journalists killed in Russia under Putin: Since 2012 Journalists killed in Russia again under Putin
Assassinated Russian journalists: Assassinated Russian journalists
Since 1991 Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Since 1991 Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Cyberwarfare by Russia: Cyberwarfare by Russia
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
Pressure on independent media and control: Pressure on independent media
2014: 14 janvier 2014: Le journaliste américain David Satter a affirmé qu'il avait été expulsé de Russie après avoir travaillé sur les manifestations pro-européennes en cours en Ukraine depuis novembre - 14 January: Russia has barred US journalist David Satter who is critical of Putin for five years - 14 March 2014: Putin regime censors media by blocking websites, adding Alexei Navalny blog and opposition news sites to banned list amid ongoing Ukraine crisis - 15 March 2014: Russian propaganda war in full swing over Ukraine, alleging Ukraine government is run by anti-Semitic fascists - 17 March 2014: Putin regime's TV says Russia could turn USA to 'radioactive ash' - 22 April 2014: 'Russian Facebook' founder Durov flees country after selling his share in the company under pressure from the security services - 27 September 2014: Curbs on foreign ownership will gut Russia's media after Russian parliament passed a law calling foreign ownership in domestic media assets at 20% and hitting some of the world's largest media companies
Media opposition in Russia:
Politics, repression, elections, social movements and protests in Russia: Political repression in Russia - Protests in Russia
Legislative election December 2011 and protests: Russian legislative election 4 December 2011 - 4 December: Russians voting in parliamentary poll amid allegations of violations of election law - 'Golos' leader Liliya Shibanova was held for several hours, her laptop confiscated - 5 December: Putin party suffers setback - reports of mass fraud and more than hundred detained pro democracy protesters - 5 December: 'United Russia', Putins tea party movement, wins election but ... - 5 December: Russia elections - OSCE sees 'numerous violations - 6 December: Activists detained after protests over results of criticised election - 6 December: Protesters defy rally ban in Moscow - 8 December: Gorbachev calls on Russia to annul vote - 8 December: Putin accuses foreign countries, the USA over poll protests - in Prague Medvedev says investigation of election results possible - 10 December: Moscow braces for fresh protests amid anger over disputed polls - 11 December: Tens of thousands demonstrate against alleged vote fraud and demand end to Putin's rule in largest rallies in years across Russia - 11 December: Medvedev orders probe into poll allegations - 13. Dezember: Kündigungen in russischen Medien nach Wahlberichterstattung - Journalisten-Union verurteilt Zensur - 25 December: Tens of thousands rally in growing protest against electoral fraud as Kremlin panel says it has proof of mass violations in parliamentary poll three weeks ago
Presidential election March 2012 and protests: Russian presidential election 4 March 2012 - 5 March: Putin alleges victory with more than 60 per cent of vote was fair, but rivals and opposition allege fraud and call for protests - 6 mars: L'OSCE a dénoncé lundi une présidentielle russe 'biaisée' marquée par d'importantes irrégularités - 6 mars: Interpellation de plusieurs centaines de manifestants anti-Poutine - 6 March: Police in Moscow and Saint Petersburg break up protests against Putin's victory in Russian presidential vote - 7 mars: l'opposition appelle à de nouvelles manifestations malgré les centaines d'interpellations de la veille - 10 mars: L'opposition russe manifeste contre la victoire du président Poutine - 12 mars: Les enquêteurs ukrainiens n'ont pas trouvé de preuves de la préparation en février par deux suspects arrêtés en Ukraine d'un attentat contre Vladimir Poutine, à moins d'une semaine de la présidentielle du 4 mars remportée par l'ex-agent du KGB - 16 March: While political opponents of the president-elect Putin are sentenced to prison, political cronyism is alive and well - 18 March: Dozens held at Moscow protest over 'pro-Putin' TV film that accused the opposition of paying anti-government protesters
August 2012: 1. August: Die russischen Behörden haben gegen den bekannten Kreml-Kritiker Alexei Nawalny Anklage wegen Veruntreuung erhoben - 7 August: Russian prosecutors ask for three-year sentence for the punk group who protested in a cathedral against Putin - 7. August: Im Büro des Putin-Kritikers Alexei Nawalny werden Abhörwanze und Kamera entdeckt - 15. August: Solidaritätskundgebung in Moskau für inhaftierte Punk Band Musikerinnen aufgelöst - 17 August: Punk protesters get two-year jail sentences - 17 August: The EU, US and human rights groups have condemned jail sentences imposed on three members of Russian punk band as 'disproportionate' - 26 August: Two members of anti-Kremlin punk band escape from Russia - 28. August: Acht Jahre Straflager für russische Aktivistin Taissja Ossipowa
October 2012: 7 October: Russian police arrest anti-Putin protesters calling for answers in the death of journalist and Kremlin critic Anna Politkovskaya six years ago - 10 octobre: Le procès en appel du groupe de punk-rock reprend dans l'ombre de Poutine - 10 October: Russian appeals court frees one anti-Kremlin punk band member, keeps two in jail - 14 October: First elections held for regional governors since Putin banned such direct voting 2004 - 17 October: Putin's investigators opened criminal proceedings against prominent protest leader Sergei Udaltsov, saying a documentary on a pro-Kremlin TV channel showed evidence he had plotted mass disorder and placing him under house arrest - 18 October: Opposition aide Konstantin Lebedev charged with plotting mass anti-government riots and could face a 10-year jail term - 21 October: Opposition forces in Russia are holding a three-day national ballot to elect a leadership tasked with focusing the fight for fair elections - 23 October: Russian opposition elected a new opposition leadership to fight for election reform, the biggest vote-getter was Alexei Navalny - 23 October: Russia's lower house votes to broaden high treason laws - 27 October: Several Russian opposition leaders have been detained while demonstrating against the claimed torture of fellow activist Leonid Razvozzhayev
October 2013: 13 October: Several dozen journalists took to the streets of Saint Petersburg to demand the release of Denis Sinyakov, detained on piracy charges along with the crew of the Greenpeace 'Arctic sunrise' - 15 October: Russian police rounded up more than 1,600 migrants on Monday in Moscow after rioting and violence against migrants swept through southern neighbourhood - 16 October: Putin's political rival Alexei Navalny faces five years in jail - 17 octobre: L'opposant Alexeï Navalny accueilli par des partisans à son retour en train à Moscou, après que sa peine de 5 ans de camp a été commuée en sursis - 27 octobre: Plusieurs milliers de personnes dont Alexeï Navalny ont participé à une marche autorisée dans le centre de Moscou contre le régime de Poutine et pour soutenir les prisonniers politiques - 29 octobre: Des centaines de Moscovites ont rendu hommage mardi aux victimes des répressions staliniennes, en lisant le nom de milliers d'habitants de la capitale russe fusillés en 1937 et 1938
December 2013: 22 December 2013: At a press conference in Berlin barely two days after he was freed from a Russian jail, Mikhail Khodorkovsky vowed to do all he can to ensure the release of other political prisoners in Russia - 23 December: Out of jail, Punk band member Maria Alyokhina slammed her early release under a Kremlin amnesty as a 'PR stunt' from Putin - 23 December: Punk band member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, freed on Monday in a Kremlin-backed amnesty, slammed Russia's prison system and said that the whole country is built like a penal colony
February-April 2014: 12 February 2014: Environmentalist Yevgeny Vitishko jailed for three years after Sochi Games protest - 20 February: After being detained by police in Sochi, Russian punk group women beaten with whips by Cossacks - 25 February: Outside trial over anti-Putin rally 2012 Russian police detain hundreds protesting against jailing of activists - 2014 Russian anti-war protests - 2 March: While authorities accommodated and encouraged a pro-government rally, a smaller protest against Ukraine intervention down the street was not sanctioned - 2 March: Protesters in Moscow against Russian military intervention in Ukraine were quickly detained by police - 15 March: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters marched in central Moscow against Kremlin-backed referendum in Crimea - 14 April: About 5,000 Russians, some waving Ukrainian flags, rallied in Moscow to protest at what they say is a government crackdown on independent media intended to stifle debate about the crisis in Ukraine - 28 April: Criticising environmental and state corruption leads to threats, intimidation and the impossibility to object to grand projects which have the authorities behind them, exiled Suren Gazaryan says
July-December 2014: 24 July: Russian opposition leader Sergei Udaltsov convicted of organising rioting at anti-Putin protest along with activist Leonid Razvozzhayev in trial human rights groups call 'mockery of justice' - 5 August: Russian authorities have banned a Siberian independence march, in sharp contrast to the treatment of separatists in Crimea and eastern Ukraine - 17 August: Pro-federalism protests in Siberia banned and at least nine activists, calling for greater regional autonomy in Russia, detained by police over protests - 21 September: A huge column of protesters marched through Moscow to protest against Putin's role in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict that has claimed nearly 3,000 lives and pitted Russians against Ukrainians - 30 novembre: Pour la première fois depuis des années, les personnels de santé descendent dans la rue dans plusieurs grandes villes de Russie, à Moscou ils vont manifester contre la fermeture de nombreux hôpitaux - 14 December: Hundreds march in Moscow to protest against healthcare and education reforms - 30 December: Opposition activist Navalny gets 3.5-year suspended sentence in his controversial fraud trial as his brother was handed a 3.5-year prison term - 30/31 December 2014: Navalny again detained after joining protest in Moscow
January-June 2015: 5 January: After receiving suspended sentence amid ongoing house arrest, Putin regime critic Alexei Navalny says he would no longer comply with the absurd terms of his house arrest and cuts off monitoring tag - 7 January: Alexei Navalny defies house arrest to go to his local store, quickly intercepted by three men who escorted him home - 20 January: Hundreds of Russians marched in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, six years after lawyer Stanislav Markelov and journalist Anastasia Baburova were murdered by nationalists - 28 February: Just a day before a planned protest against Putin's rule Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov shot dead in Moscow - 1 March: Tens of thousands march in memory of murdered politician Boris Nemtsov in Moscow, as many members of the democratic opposition blame regime and state-controlled media for pushing people toward aggression - 1/2 March: Protesters, most of them of Russian or Ukrainian origin, rallied in New York near the Russian mission to the UN to denounce the murder of regime critic Boris Nemtsov, despite fear of reprisals to themselves or family members back in Russia - 16 April: Police and special forces searched the Moscow office of Open Russia, a rights network led by Khodorkovsky, for protest flyers - 18 April: Russian opposition parties of murdered Boris Nemtsov and anti-corruption blogger Navalny form alliance against Putin ahead of 2016 parliamentary elections - 29 April: Russian Ministry of Justice has cancelled the registration of the Progress Party of Alexei Navalny - 14 May 2015: The report 'Putin. War', the work of murdered Boris Nemtsov published on the website 'Putin. Results' - 18 May: Russian anti-war protesters outside a key military headquarters in Tolyatti have demanded Russian regime withdraws regular servicemen from Ukraine, after two soldiers were captured on Ukrainian soil on May 16 - 24 May 2015: Putin signs law for shutting down 'undesirable' organizations - 28 May 2015: Putin has turned Ukrainans and Russians into enemies, Russian opposition activist Ilya Yashin says visiting Kyiv in support of report on Russian intervention - 7 June 2015: Several thousand protesters including scientists and intellectuals took to the streets of Moscow to express fears for the future of scientific research, after regime crackdowns - 9 June: Russian regime's 'Investigative Committee' launches a criminal inquiry against Ilya Ponomaryov, the lone State Duma representative to vote against the 2014 annexation of Crimea from Ukraine - 19 June 2015: My father was killed by Russian propaganda, says Nemtsov's daughter Zhanna Nemtsova
July/August 2015: 5 August 2015: An online petition signed by more than 170,000 people calls on the regime to rethink new law ordering destruction of sanction-busting imports and banned EU food products, saying it is grotesque to destroy food in a country where millions still live below the poverty line - 11 August: As Russian regime continues mass destruction of banned food in retaliation for sanctions, online petition calling to overturn the decision has already gained 340,000 signatures
September 2016 Russian legislative election: 18 September 2016 Russian legislative election - 18 September 2016: The elections to Russia's State Duma violate international law because they take place in occupied Crimea as well, Ukrainian Foreign Ministry's Maryana Betsa says - 19 September 2016: Sweden, USA, Romania, Denmark, Estonia and Lithuania declared they do not recognize Russian MP's to be elected in Crimea - 19 September 2016: Pro-Putin party wins in Russian election, but nationwide turnout in Sunday's polls was only 47%, which analysts attribute largely to apathy amid hardships of an economic slowdown - 19 September 2016: Statistical analysis of Sunday’s parliamentary election results appears to show evidence of some of the same irregularities that plagued the 2011 State Duma contest, according to the 'Moscow Times' and 'Slon news' website
29 September 2016: 29 September 2016: A hundred years after an epochal movement in Russia against war and its causes, only 300 people protest in Moscow against the start of the Russian regime’s murderous Syria bombing campaign, as the main driver of public opinion remains the slavishly pro-regime state media and its worldwide allies, as doctors in Aleppo say that the Russian and Assad regime's warfare is testing the conscience of the world, giving account that 'children ... are coming to us as body parts', and as a Dutch-led international investigation team states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014 in Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
Since March 2017 Russian protests: Since March 2017 Russian protests
May/June 2017: 14 May 2017: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Moscow in a rally against a bill to tear down Soviet-era low-rise apartment buildings and force them to live in high-rise blocks - 9 June 2017: Russia's Alexei Navalny claims, if he is elected president, he is ready to withdraw Russian troops from the occupied areas of eastern Ukraine and hold a fair referendum in the Russian-annexed Crimea - 13 June 2017: Over 1,500 people were detained mainly in Moscow and St Petersburg at nationwide anti-corruption protests and demonstrations, as Navalny supporters face court who himself was arrested at his block of flats before he could even make his way to the protest and quickly slapped with a 30-day jail sentence - 13 June 2017: As 800 people were detained in Moscow and 900 in St Petersburg, several protesters were sentenced to 15 days in jail, including the opposition politician Ilya Yashin and political partner of Boris Nemtsov, who was murdered in 2015 - 23 June 2017: Russian opposition politician and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny barred from standing against Putin in election, according to the regime’s Central Election Commission saying he was ineligible to run for office
February/March 2018: 12 February 2018: Yabloko opposition party warns of a string of attacks on political and civic activists in St. Petersburg in the past month, including the late January death of local activist Konstantin Sinitsyn, the beating of human rights activist Dinar Idrisov and the kidnapping and reported torture of antifascist activists Viktor Filinkov, Igor Shishkin and Ilya Kapustin - 25 février 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont défilé dimanche à Moscou pour rendre hommage à l'ancien opposant à Vladimir Poutine, abattu le 27 février 2015 en plein centre de la capitale russe alors qu'il travaillait sur un rapport concernant le conflit en Ukraine - 25 February 2018: At least three people were detained at the Moscow march, as about 7,600 democrats gathered to honor slain opposition politician Boris Nemtsov and as rallies were also held in several other cities, including St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg - 25 February 2018: Disparate political movements in opposition to Russia's Putin came together for a brief few hours to march in the memory of murdered opposition politician Boris Nemtsov - 17 March 2018: Days before Russia’s presidential elections, police are trying to seize documents that give activist observers access to polling stations and independent elections watchdog Golos has unexpectedly seen its office lease revoked
May 2018: 5 May 2018: Pro-democracy and anti-Putin protest rallies titled 'He's not our tsar' launched across Rusian cities, set up by supporters of the Russian opposition's Alexei Navalny, also saying 'Enough lies' and 'Enough war' - 5 mai 2018: Plusieurs manifestants qui se sont réunis pour contester l'investiture de Poutine, ont été interpellés 'de manière brutale' - 7 May 2018: The infamous 'Cossacks' who were seen whipping and beating up peaceful protesters at a #notourtsar rally in Moscow had previously taken part in Donbas hostilities as part of Putin regime's proxy forces in his hybrid war against Ukraine and are to patrol the streets of the Russian capital at the World Cup - 11 mai 2018: L'opposant Navalny de retour au tribunal pour avoir organisé des manifestations avant l'investiture de Poutine pour un quatrième mandat, dispersées manu militari par la police assistée d'unités paramilitaires
July 2018 protests against retirement age hike: 1 July 2018: Thousands of Russians protested on Sunday in 39 cities across the country over a government decision to increase the retirement age, but there were no demonstrations in the cities hosting the World Cup because of security restrictions in force during the tournament - 19 July 2018: From Omsk to St. Petersburg, Russians took to the streets to protest the government’s controversial pension reform program that would see a hike in the country’s retirement age, a plan announced the day the football World Cup began, and that would see the age raised gradually from 60 to 65 for men, and from 55 to 63 for women - 29 juillet 2018: Des dizaines de milliers de Russes à Moscou et dans des dizaines d'autres villes ont participé samedi à des manifestations organisées à travers le pays par le Parti communiste contre un projet de hausse de l'âge du départ à la retraite
June 2019 journalist Ivan Golunov detained and severely beaten: 8 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov, known for investigating corruption among Moscow city officials, was detained in central Moscow on Thursday on his way to a meeting with a source and has been charged with large-scale drug trafficking, but his lawyer, his employer and colleagues say he has been framed - 9 June 2019: Russian journalist Ivan Golunov released and moved to house arrest after hundreds of supporters picket police HQ, pending trial on drug charges - 10 June 2019: In a show of rare solidarity, Russia's three major newspapers put out nearly identical front pages to support detained journalist Ivan Golunov, as Kommersant, Vedomosti and RBK, among the most respected daily newspapers in Russia, published a joint editorial under the headline 'I am/We are Ivan Golunov', calling for a transparent probe into the case of the prominent investigative journalist
11/12 June 2019 charges against Golunov dropped, protesters detained: 11 June 2019: Thousands of protesters are to march in Moscow in support investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, arrested on controversial drug-dealing charges that are widely seen as an attempt to silence his reports on corruption, as more than 20,000 people have so far expressed an interest on Facebook in attending the march on Wednesday - 11 juin 2019: Les autorités russes ont disculpé mardi le journaliste d'investigation Ivan Golounov, qui été accusé de trafic de drogue dans une affaire qui a provoqué l'indignation de la société civile - 12 June 2019: At least 423 people reportedly detained in central Moscow as protesters rallied to demand that charges be brought against the police officers who planted drugs on investigative journalist Ivan Golunov, whose arrest sparked widespread public anger
29 February protest against Putin regime: 29 février 2020: L'opposition défile contre Vladimir Poutine
13-17 January 2021 Navalny will return to Russia: 13 janvier 2021: Empoisonné en août et en convalescence en Allemagne, l’opposant russe Navalny annonce qu’il rentrera en Russie le 17 janvier - 13 January 2021: Alexey Navalny says he will return to Russia on Sunday after being poisoned, and after recent reporting from investigative group Bellingcat and CNN revealed that Russia's FSB had formed an elite team specializing in nerve agents that trailed Navalny for years - 17 January 2021: Alexei Navalny to fly into Moscow in challenge to Putin, as fascist Putin regime is likely to seek retaliation for a Bellingcat investigation that traced the movements of an FSB hit team that shadowed Navalny around Russia for years, and as Navalny himself elicited a confession by telephone from one of the men who took part in the operation
23 January 2021 over 2,000 citizens arrested in Russia at Navalny rallies: 23 January 2021: The OVD-Info monitor reported that Putin regime's police seized at least 2,131 demonstrators at the protests held in dozens of Russian cities, with 795 arrests carried out in the capital Moscow, including the wife of jailed regime critic Alexei Navalny, as riot police hauled off demonstrators and beat others with batons, as protests took place in temperatures of minus-50 Celsius, following criminal arrest of regime critics, and as demonstrators also rallied outside Russian embassy in Tel Aviv in solidarity with Russian democrats - 23 January 2021: Calling for Navalny's release, tens of thousands protest in Russia, spanning from Kaliningrad in the west to Vladivostok in the far east, as the turnout of those calling for the opposition leader’s release from jail far surpassed many protesters’ expectations
25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny says he is forced to watch state TV in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control: 25 August 2021: Alexey Navalny gives first interview from prison camp, saying he is forced to watch state television in prison and decries ‘culture of snitching’ and constant control
Since 24 February 2022 ongoing anti-war demonstrations/protests against Putin regime's invasion of Ukraine: Since 24 February 2022 ongoing anti-war demonstrations and protests in Russia against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, that sparked immediate daily protests in cities across Russia and worldwide, as Russian Putin regime's authorities have tried to intimidate the protesters through a total of 5,794 arrests by the end of Sunday 27 February - Since 24 February 2022 national and international pro-Ukrainian protests have occurred at several of Russia's embassies and consulates abroad, including those in meanwhile 59 global countries, listed by 'Wikipedia', page last edited on 1 March 2022 - Since 24 February 2022 International reactions - listed alphabetically by continent and countries - to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, also including intergovernmental and international organizations, political parties, opposition politicians and other political groups, international human rights organizations, non-governmental organizations and non-political groups, listed by continent and countries by 'Wikipedia', page last edited on 1 March 2022


2018 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2018
2019 list of clashes in the North Caucasus: List of clashes in the North Caucasus in 2019
Politics of Chechnya: Politics of Chechnya
15 July 2021 how public ‘apologies’ are used against domestic abuse victims in Chechnya: 15 July 2021: Activists say Ramzan Kadyrov’s regime uses televised confessions ‘under duress’ to hold back women’s rights, despite changes in society, as Khalimat Taramova only a couple of weeks fled her home, where she said she was subjected to violence after going against her family’s wishes, and sought help from a group of women’s rights activists, the Marem project, who let her stay in a flat in the neighbouring republic of Dagestan, then pleading for the Chechen authorities not to come looking for her, and days later the flat was raided by more than 20 men working for the Russian police and Chechen security forces, according to a journalist and activist who was present, as two activists say they were beaten and detained, and Taramova was taken back to Chechnya
Dagestan: Dagestan
April 2017 beatings and death threats part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers: 2 April 2017: Beatings and death threats are part of daily life for two activists who save people and free brick workers enslaved in the remote Russian republic of Dagestan
Ingushetia: Ingushetia
August 2012 six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague: 19 August 2012: Six policemen have died in Ingushetia region in a suicide bombing at the funeral of their colleague
Foreign relations of Russia: Foreign relations of Russia
Wars involving the Russian Empire: Wars involving the 1721-1917 Russian Empire
Gorbachev's domestic policies: Domestic policies
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
Since 1999/2000 Putin's KGB-regime and Russia's foreign policy: Russia's foreign policy and Putin regime since 1999/2000
Propaganda and cyberwarfare in the Russian Federation: Propaganda in the Russian Federation
Since 2013/2014 Ukrainian crisis in Russian media and critical reactions in Russia: Since 2013/2014 media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis and critical reactions in Russia
Since 2003 'web brigades' and 'Internet Research Agency': Since 2003 Russian 'web brigades' (known as Russia's troll army, Russian bots, Kremlinbots, troll factory, or troll farms) are state-sponsored anonymous Internet political commentators and trolls linked to the Russian Putin regime, participants report that they are organized into teams and groups of commentators that participate in Russian and international political blogs and Internet forums using sockpuppets and large-scale orchestrated trolling and disinformation campaigns to promote pro-Putin and pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 'Internet Research Agency' (known in Russian Internet slang as the Trolls from Olgino), a Russian company based in Saint Petersburg and engaged in online influence operations on behalf of Russian business and political interests
Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation: Propaganda and use of social media in the Russian Federation
Since 2011 Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2011 Russian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2011 vetoed UN Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China: Vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions on Syria, vetoed by Russia and China since 2011
Since 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War: Since 2015 Russian military intervention in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2016: 22 January 2016: Russian warships make display of might in eastern Mediterranean off coast of Syria - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases, actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - 6 July 2016: Three Palestinians were killed and at least five injured by apparent Russian airstrikes on Monday targeting the Khan al-Shih neighborhood southwest of Damascus which is considered a Palestinian refugee camp, causing heavy damage to civilian houses and destroying a building housing the foundation’s Child Friendly Space, according to the Jafra Foundation - 14 November 2016: Russian regime's warplane MiG-29 has crashed into the eastern Mediterranean as it was coming in to land on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier off the coast of Syria - 21 November 2016: Russian MiG-29 jet fighter from the Admiral Kuznetsov carrier reportedly crashed into the sea because the arrestor gear rope snapped and engine failure
Since 2014 Crimea annexation following Russian military intervention in Ukraine:
International membership of the Russian Federation, obstruction and aggression: International membership of the Russian Federation - Multilateral relations of Russia
Russia/United Nations relations: Russia/United Nations relations
Gorbachev's foreign policy: Foreign policy
2014: 5 March 2014: UN special envoy, Dutch diplomat Robert Serry, was forced to abandon a mission to Ukraine's Russian-occupied Crimea region after being stopped by armed men and besieged inside a cafe by a hostile crowd shouting 'Russia! Russia!' - 13 March 2014: The UN Security Council is discussing a possible resolution that would reaffirm Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity - 15 March: Russia vetoes UN resolution against Crimea referendum - 27 March: Backing Ukraine’s territorial integrity, UN General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid - 29 March: Russia threatened several Eastern European, Asian and African states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a UN resolution against its annexation of Crimea, UN diplomats say - 2 April: In a diplomatic blow to Russia, the UN will continue to view Crimea as part of Ukraine in line with a General Assembly resolution - 14 April: As UN Security Council meets over Ukraine and well-organised pro-Russian attackers using Russian-origin automatic weapons, Britain's UN ambassador says Russia had massed tens of thousands of well-equipped troops near the Ukrainian border in addition to the 25,000 troops it recently moved into Crimea to seize it - 13 June 2014: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 17 June: Russia again finds no support at UN Security Council for a resolution on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine - 6 August: UN Security Council supports Ukraine, points to Russia as a source of military crisis
2015: 1 March 2015: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Saturday condemned the assassination of Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov adding that he expects the perpetrators to be brought to justice swiftly - 19 March: Russia refuses to participate in UN Security Council meeting on Crimea - 21 March 2015: Russia to block UN mission in Donbas and will not vote in the UN Security Council on the draft resolution to deploy peacekeepers, regime's Lavrov says - 24 October 2015: UNHCR's Amin Awad says that Russian airstrikes and increased fighting around the Syrian city of Aleppo had contributed to the 'dynamic of displacement', with about 30,000 displaced, as the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs puts the number at 50,000 - 31 October 2015: Making reference to the 'brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international humanitarian law', which was characterized by indiscriminate attacks on civilians areas, such as one reported yesterday in a marketplace in Syria and credited to government forces, UN's Ban Ki-moon along with the head of the ICRC calls for action to stop suffering by ending conflict, saying 'Enough is enough' - 2 November 2015: Assad regime’s air force is dropping dozens of barrel bombs on areas across Syria, just one day after Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin’s announcement that the Assad regime stopped the use of barrel bombs - 3 November 2015: At least 191 civilians were killed in Douma during the month of October as regime and Russian air strikes targeted several neighborhoods of the city, with 74 deaths recorded over the last three days - 2 December 2015: Citing Russia's bombing of the Al-Khafsa water treatment facility in Aleppo province on Thursday Unicef's Hanaa Singer condemns airstrikes cutting water supplies to Aleppo, noting that 'the rules of war, including those meant to protect vital civilian infrastructure, continue to be broken on a daily basis'
Russian regime and the international criminal court:
Putin regime's war crimes, regime's terrorism and politics of lying:
Russia/Europe relations:
Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership: Since 1996 Arctic Council Russian membership
Arctic policy of Russia and territorial claims: Arctic policy of Russia - Territorial claims in the Arctic
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform and environmental issues - 2013 Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 29 septembre: Un tribunal russe a ordonné dimanche le placement en détention pour deux mois de six autres membres de l'équipage du navire de Greenpeace, l'Arctic Sunrise - 4 octobre: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 17 octobre: 11 Prix Nobel de la Paix écrivent à Poutine prenant la défense des 30 membres d'équipage d'un navire de Greenpeace arrêtés en septembre - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise - 23 octobre: La Russie réduit les charges de l'équipage Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme', punissable de sept ans - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention - 16 November: Greenpeace organised protests in 263 cities around the world on Saturday to mark two months since 30 of its environmental activists were jailed in Russia - 21 novembre: Huit militants de Greenpeace libérés sous caution en Russie - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea orders Russia to free Greenpeace activists - 25 December: Russia drops charges against 19 Greenpeace activists - 27 December: Dutch Greenpeace activist Faiza Oulahsen who spent more than two months in Russian prison says the ordeal has made her 'even more dedicated' to saving the Arctic environment - 28 décembre: Des militants de Greenpeace amnistiés demandent des excuses à la Russie - 25 August 2015: A court in the Netherlands has ordered Russia to pay compensation for seizing the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise during a protest against an offshore oil platform two years ago, ruling that Russia violated international maritime conventions
Bilateral relations of Russia: Bilateral relations of Russia
Russia/Afghanistan relations: Russia/Afghanistan relations
31 October 2022 Russia recruiting Afghan special forces who fought with USA to fight in Ukraine: 31 October 2022: Afghan special forces soldiers who fought alongside American troops and then fled to Iran after the chaotic USA withdrawal last year are now being recruited by the Russian military to fight in Ukraine, three former Afghan generals have told the Associated Press. They said the Russians want to attract thousands of the former elite Afghan commandos into a 'foreign legion' with offers of steady, $1,500-a-month payments and promises of safe havens (if they survive, otherwise a place in the heaven like Afghan president since 1986 Mohammad Najibullah) for themselves and their families so they can avoid deportation home to what many assume would be death at the hands of the Taliban - 1947 – 27 September 1996 Mohammad Najibullah's resignation in 1992, shortly after which the Taliban took over Kabul. After a failed attempt to flee to India, Najibullah lived in the UN headquarters until his assassination by the Taliban after their capture of the city
Russia/Africa relations: Russia/Africa relations
23 April 2022 Russia has deployed its 'Wagner Group' in operations across at least half a dozen African nations: 23 April 2022: Russia has deployed the 'Wagner Group' with Russian mercenaries in military operations across at least half a dozen African nations.
Russia/Argentina relations: Russia/Argentina relations
Russia/Armenia relations: Russia/Armenia relations
Russia/Australia relations: Russia/Australia relations
June 2018 Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia: 8 June 2018: Australian government joins UK in state boycott of World Cup 2018 in Russia
Russia/Austria relations: Russia/Austria relations
Russia/Belarus relations: Russia/Belarus relations
April 2015 Lukashenko refuses to attend 'Victory Day Parade in Mocow' with Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend
Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Russia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Russia/Burkina Faso relations: Russia/Burkina Faso relations
18 October 2016 gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso: 18 October 2016: Gold occurrences are widespread in Burkina Faso
Russia/Cameroon relations: Russia/Cameroon relations
Russia/Canada relations: Russia/Canada relations - Uranium One
Russia/Central African Republic relations: Russia/Central African Republic relations
August 2018 journalists killed near Sibut researching criminal actions of the Russian military firm Wagner: 1 August 2018: Three Russian journalists ambushed and killed Monday evening near the village of Sibut in the CAR were researching the actions of the Russian military firm Wagner with links to Putin, which has also been active in Syria and Ukraine, according to the 'Investigations Management Centre', also saying Kirill Radchenko, Alexander Rastorguyev and Orkhan Dzhemal were traveling to the north of the country to talk to a UN representative there - 4 August 2018: As murdered journalists were chasing Russian regime's mercenaries in the CAR, deaths put spotlight on Russia's murky activities in Africa - 8 August 2018: Russian TV Dozhd's Vasily Polonsky says the three Russian journalists who were killed in the CAR managed to record videos of bases of the Russian Wagner mercenaries, adding that other journalists agree that it was not robbery or an attack by thieves and local criminals but a planned attack
Russia/PR of China relations: Russia/PR of China relations (since 1991)
Russia/Cyprus relations: Russia/Cyprus relations
Russia/Czech Republic relations: Russia/Czech Republic relations
2017: