(Article since June 2011)
Latvia - Geography of Latvia - History of Latvia - Demographics of Latvia
1282 Riga joins confederation of market towns 'Hanseatic League': 1282 Riga joins commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns called 'Hanseatic League'
, as merchants in the 12th and 13th centuries settled in numerous cities on and near the east Baltic coast, such as Elblag, Torun, Tallinn, Riga, and Tartu, which became members of the Hanseatic League, primarily trading timber, furs, resin (or tar), flax, honey, wheat, and rye from the east to Flanders and England with cloth (and, increasingly, manufactured goods), as Metal ore (principally copper and iron) and herring came southwards from Sweden
July-September 1812 Siege of Riga by Napoleon: July-September 1812 Siege of Riga, a military operation undertaken by war criminal Napoleon's 'Grande Armée' during the French invasion of Russia in 1812, as the French did not try to storm Riga and eventually withdrew in September 1812 heading to Moscow, as September 1812 Battle of Borodino became the largest and bloodiest battle involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties during the French invasion of Russia, that ended with about 300,000 French casualties, and about 80,000 German, 72,000 Polish, 50,000 Italian, and 61,000 victims from other nations
Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga and elimination of the Jewish and Roma population: Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga, as elimination of the Jewish and Roma population began, with major mass killings taking place at Rumbula and elsewhere, committed by the 'Einsatzgruppe', the 'Wehrmacht' and Latvian collaborators, including the 500–1,500 members of the Arajs Kommando which alone killed around 26,000 Jews, as most most of the remaining Jewish people being rounded up and put into ghettos and the Riga Ghetto became crowded, later taken from the ghetto to the nearby Rumbula Forest and shot, and as - before the Soviet forces returned - all Jews under 18 or over 30 were shot, with the remainder moved to Stutthof concentration camp
December 1941 Liepaja massacres by Nazi forces: December 1941 Liepaja massacres, a series of mass executions, many public or semi-public, in and near the city of Liepaja, as main perpetrators were detachments of the German 'Einsatzgruppen', the 'Sicherheitsdienst' or SD, the 'Ordnungspolizei', or ORPO, and Latvian auxiliary police, as about 5,000 Jews. lesser numbers of Roma, communists and the mentally ill were also killed
Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga and elimination of the Jewish and Roma population: Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga, as elimination of the Jewish and Roma population began, with major mass killings taking place at Rumbula and elsewhere, committed by the 'Einsatzgruppe', the 'Wehrmacht' and Latvian collaborators, including the 500–1,500 members of the Arajs Kommando which alone killed around 26,000 Jews, as most most of the remaining Jewish people being rounded up and put into ghettos and the Riga Ghetto became crowded, later taken from the ghetto to the nearby Rumbula Forest and shot, and as - before the Soviet forces returned - all Jews under 18 or over 30 were shot, with the remainder moved to Stutthof concentration camp
Lithuania - Geography of Lithuania - History of Lithuania - Demographics of Lithuania
Economy of Lithuania: Economy of Lithuania - main industries are metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
- List of companies of Lithuania
- Companies of Lithuania by industry
Since 1956 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Since 1956 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, the leader in technological sciences in Lithuania with 10 faculties including Antanas Gustaitis Aviation Institute, Architecture, Business Management, Civil Engineering, Creative Industries, Electronics, Environmental Engineering, Fundamental Sciences, Mechanics, Transport Engineering
Economy of Kaunas: Economy of Kaunas, a large center of industry, trade, and services in Lithuania, as the most developed industries in Kaunas include food and beverage industries, textile and light industries, chemical industry, publishing and processing, pharmaceuticals, metal industry, wood processing and furniture industry, amd most recently information technology and electronics
/June/July 1941 - August 1944 German invasion, Ponary massacre and the Holocaust in Lithuania: June/July 1941 - August 1944 Ponary massacre, the mass murder of up to 100,000 people by German SD and SS and their Lithuanian collaborators, including Ypatingasis burys killing squads, during World War II
Luxembourg - Geography of Luxembourg - History of Luxembourg - Demographics of Luxembourg
- September 1941 - September 1943 Vilna Ghetto, a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius
- The Holocaust in Lithuania
- 1943-1944 KP 562, the site of a Nazi forced labor camp for Jews in Vilnius, during the Holocaust
- Since 1942 'Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye', a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II, founded by Communist and Zionist partisans
April 2016: 3 April 2016: Findings of a yearlong investigation by the ICIJ of the 'Panama Papers' (also concerning the British Virgin Islands and other offshore havens), a giant leak of offshore financial records, expose global array of crime, corruption, offshore holdings of politicians and public officials from around the world including Putin, Assad associates, the family of China’s Xi Jinping, the king of Saudi Arabia, Poroshenko, the familiy of Pakistan's Nawaz Sharif, people in more than 200 countries and territories (Jackie Chan, Lionel Messi etc.), people and companies blacklisted because of evidence that they’d been involved in wrongdoing and war crimes, such as doing business with Mexican drug lords, terrorist organizations like Hezbollah or rogue nations like North Korea and Iran, the support of Assad's barrel bombs, and involving major banks including British banks, German banks, banks of Luxembourg, Switzerland's UBS, Credit Suisse and HSBC Private Bank
Luxembourg capital city, banking and administrative centre: Luxembourg city, the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, and 209 km from Cologne. The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of 31 December 2021, Luxembourg City has a population of 128,514 inhabitants, which is more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune Esch-sur-Alzette. The city's population consists of 160 nationalities. Foreigners represent 70% of the city's population, whilst Luxembourgers represent 30% of the population. The number of foreign-born residents in the city rises steadily each year. In 2022, Luxembourg was ranked as having the first-highest per capita GDP in the world at $137,950, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2019 Mercer worldwide survey of 231 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety, while it was ranked 18th for quality of living.
20th century Luxembourg: 20th century Luxembourg, as in late July 1914 war and in early August 1914
Malta - Geography of Malta - History of Malta - Demographics of Malta
, during World War I German occupation of Luxembourg begins in German empire's and Central Powers WWI until
autumn of 1918 after massive German spring offensive had been an unmitigated disaster, whereas the Allied counterattack, the Hundred Days Offensive, had driven the German Army back to its own borders. On 6 November the full withdrawal of German soldiers from Luxembourg was announced, and five days later Germany signed an armistice treaty, which brought an end to empire's brutal war after four years. One of the terms of the armistice involved the withdrawal of German soldiers from Luxembourg, along with the other occupied countries.
- 1918–1919 Novemberrevolution und KPD-Gründung in Opposition zur Weltkriegsunterstützung der Ebert-SPD, 15. Januar 1919 Morde an Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht, Niederlage der Novemberrevolution und folgender Aufstieg der neugegründeten NSDAP unter Hitler, die seit Januar 1933 als beherrschender Teil der Reichsregierung das Deutsche Reich in eine nie dagewesene verbrecherische Diktatur umwandelte
Economy of Malta: Economy of Malta, main industries include tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services
- Companies of Malta by industry
October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia
- Geography of the Netherlands
- History of the Netherlands
- Dutch Revolt 1566–1648 against Spanish rule
- 1581–1795 Republic of the United Netherlands
- 1795–1806 Batavian Republic
- Napoleon's puppet 'Kingdom of Holland' 1806-1810
- 1815-1839 United Kingdom of the Netherlands
- Since 1830 Kingdom of the Netherlands
'Big Oil' name, used for the world's largest oil and gas companies: 'Big Oil', a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, onsidered to be BP, Chevron, Eni, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, TotalEnergies, ConocoPhillips, as Sinopec Group and the China National Petroleum Corporation, which are state-owned Chinese oil companies, had greater revenues in 2019 than any of the supermajors, also Saudi-Arabia's Saudi Aramco, Russia's Rosneft and Lukoil with operations and subsidiaries in more than 40 countries around the world, National Iranian Oil Company, and more
- List of largest oil and gas companies by revenue
20 July 2021 'Royal Dutch Shell' confirmed that it will appeal against the landmark Dutch court ruling: 20 July 2021: 'Royal Dutch Shell' has confirmed that it will appeal against the landmark Dutch court ruling calling for the oil giant to cut its carbon emissions faster, as court in The Hague reached the milestone verdict in May this year after Friends of the Earth and over 17,000 co-plaintiffs successfully argued that Shell had been aware of the dangerous consequences of CO2 emissions for decades, and that its climate targets did not go far enough, as now Shell’s chief executive Ben van Beurden said the company agrees that 'urgent action is needed' to reduce carbon emissions, vowing to accelerate its progress towards becoming a net zero carbon company, but said that Shell would still appeal against the ruling 'because a court judgment, against a single company, is not effective', ignoring that the cancellation of an important step fought for progress - that admittedly first will concern only one fossil fuel giant - is certainly not suitable for further progress against catastrophic consequences of climate change's global warming, in Africa, the Americas, Antarctica, Asia, Australie, Europe and EU countries including the former colonial Dutch empire's country 'The Nethelands', last week hit by unprecedented European floods, killing many citizens Europe e.i. today mourned in Belgium
Since 1936 Royal Palace of Amsterdam, one of three palaces in the Netherlands: Royal Palace of Amsterdam, one of three palaces in the Netherlands which are at the disposal of the monarch by Act of Parliament, built during the 'Dutch Golden Age' and made property of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1936
, as the other two are Noordeinde Palace
and Huis ten Bosch
, as the last German Emperor and King of Prussia lived in exile in the Netherlands from 1920 until his death in 1941
, where he purchased for 500,000 guilders 'Huis Doornas' as his residence-in-exile, based on family ties with Dutch Queen Wilhelmina, and as in 2014 Prince of Prussia Georg Friedrich, filed a claim on the estate which, in the 21st century, was rejected by Minister Jet Bussemaker
- Since 1936 Royal Dutch Shell's joint ventures, that in 2009 in the 21st century account for more than 21% of Nigeria's total petroleum production from more than eighty fields
- 7 July 2022: At 'Nigerian Oil and Gas conference' Dutch Shell's Osagie Okunbor said incessant incidents of oil thefts in Nigeria's Niger Delta has become an existential threat to oil companies, as the managing director revealed that the problem has caused the company to shut down two of its major pipelines, and as Petroleum Regulatory Commission disclosed that the country lost a whooping $1 billion to oil theft in Q1 2022 alone
Culture of the Netherlands: Culture of the Netherlands
- Languages of the Netherlands
Fake news in the Netherlands:
Organised crime and drug trafficking in the Netherlands:
a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Organised_crime_in_the_Netherlands">Organised crime in the Netherlands - Organised crime groups in the Netherlands
Aruba island: Aruba island, a small island with 116,576 citizens in 2019 and a constituent country of the 'Kingdom of the Netherlands' in the mid-south of the Caribbean Sea, about 29 kilometres north of the Venezuelan peninsula of Paraguaná and 80 kilometres northwest of Curaçaoa, as Curaçao and Aruba form the ABC islands. Collectively, and as Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, as the citizens of these countries are all Dutch nationals, and as Aruba's capital is Oranjestad
Economy of Curaçao and unemployment: Economy of Curaçao - main industries include petroleum refining, petroleum transshipment facilities, light manufacturing, financial services, tourism, defined by the World Bank as high income economy for parts of the population as the island has a well-developed infrastructure, with shipping, international trade, oil refining, and other activities related to the port of Willemstad (like the Free Trade Zone), also making a significant contribution to the economy, as the country's labor force of 63,000 people in 2008 was also determined by the unemployment of 10.3%
Since 17th century Dutch colony and 'importation' of enslaved Africans: Since 17th century Dutch the first Europeans to settle modern day Guyana, after in 1621 the government of the Netherlands gave the newly formed Dutch West India Company complete control over the trading post on the Essequibo, administering the colony, known as Essequibo, for more than 170 years, establishing a second colony on the Berbice River southeast of Essequibo in 1627, and, after indigenous populations died from diseases introduced by the Europeans, turning to the 'importation' of enslaved Africans, who rapidly became a key element in the colonial economy
- 1627-1815 Berbice region along the Berbice River in Guyana and a colony of the Netherlands, then ceded to the United Kingdom, merging with Essequibo and Demerara to form the colony of British Guiana in 1831, then in 1966 gaining independence as Guyana
Februar-December 1763 Berbice slave uprising: Februar-December 1763 Berbice slave uprising, a slave revolt in Guyana that began on 23 February, seen as a major event in Guyana's anti-colonial struggles, and when Guyana became a republic in 1970 the state declared 23 February as a day to commemorate the start of the Berbice slave revolt, as insurgents were eventually defeated in the spring of 1764 with the assistance of troops from neighbouring French and British colonies and from Europe including Dutch forces, executing 125 men and 3 women for participating in the rebellion
- Cuffy, an Akan man who was killed by the Dutch in 1763 during the uprising, and who was captured in his native West Africa and stolen for slavery to work in the plantations of the Dutch colony of Berbice in present-day Guyana, becoming famous because in 1763 he led the revolt of more than 2,500 slaves against the colony regime, and today he is a national hero in Guyana
2015: 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence'
- 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report
- 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
Netherlands/USA relations: Netherlands/USA relations
- 6 November: A group of lawyers, journalists and privacy advocates is taking the government to court to prevent Dutch intelligence using phone data illegally acquired by the US National Security Agency
July 2021 floods by heavy-violent rains in west- and central Europe: Since 12 July 2021 several European countries affected by catastrophic floods, causing deaths and widespread damage in the UK and across northern and central Europe, including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy
- July 2021 Hochwasser in West- und Mitteleuropa durch das Tiefdruckgebiet 'Bernd', vor allem in Belgien, Deutschland, Frankreich, Italien, Luxemburg, Niederlande, Schweiz, UK
- 15 July 2021: At least 38 people have died and dozens are missing or awaiting rescue from rooftops after heavy rain and floods caused buildings to collapse in the western German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North-Rhine Westphalia, 'The Guardian' reports
- 16 July 2021: Death toll exceeds 120 as Germany and Belgium worst hit by devastating floods, and as search for missing continues, with Netherlands, Switzerland and Luxembourg also affected
- Geography of Poland
- History of Poland
- Demographics of Poland
Agriculture in Poland: Agriculture in Poland, vital for European and Global market because it produces a variety of agricultural, horticultural and animal origin products. The surface area of agricultural land in Poland is 15.4 million ha, which constitutes nearly 50% of the total area of the country,as its products include fruits, apples and vegetables, wheat, grains, feed grains, vegetable oil, potatoes and rye, sugar beets and triticale, rapeseed, cattle, meat, and dairy products
Types of farming in Poland, cultivation of four major grains, mixed farming: Types of farming in Poland as the quantity and quality of agricultural land ensured self-sufficiency and made considerable quantities of various agricultural products and processed foodstuffs available for export, and as grain production dominated Polish agriculture. The highest yields came from wheat, rye, barley, oats, as other major crops include potatoes, sugar beet, fodder crops, flax, hops, tobacco, and fruits. The northern and east-central regions of the country mainly offered poorer sandy soils suitable for rye and potatoes, as the richer soils of the central and southern parts of the country, excluding those at higher elevations, are making those regions the centers of wheat, sugar beet, hops, and tobacco production. The more accessible land at higher elevations is used to cultivate oats or was left as meadow and pastureland. In 1989 almost half of Poland's arable land was used for the cultivation of the four major grains, another 13% grew tomatoes. All regions of Poland raised dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs and poultry, and cultivated fruit, usually as an integral part of mixed farming Baltic Sea: Baltic Sea, arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain, as the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal since August 1933 - passing through the Lake Lagoda and Lake Onega -, and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal
- Major tributaries of the Baltic Sea
- Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea
Vistula river, 'Little White Vistula' and 'Black Little Vistula' and connected cities: Vistula river, the longest river in Poland and the 9th-longest river in Europe at 1,047km in length. The drainage basin, reaching into three other nations, covers 193,960 km2, of which 168,868 km2 is in Poland. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220m above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, the western part of Carpathian Mountains, where it begins with the 'Little White Vistula' and the 'Black Little Vistula'. It flows through Poland's largest cities, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Plock, Wloclawek, Torun, Bydgoszcz, Swiecie, Grudziadz, Tczew and Gdansk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wislany) or directly into the Gdansk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta of six main branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Smiala Wisla, Martwa Wisla, Nogat and Szkarpawa). The river is often associated with Polish culture, history and national identity. It is the country's most important waterway and natural symbol
Tourism in Poland: Tourism in Poland, part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors, contributing to the country's overall economy. The most popular cities are Kraków, Warsaw, Wroclaw, Gdansk, Poznan, Szczecin, Lublin, Torun, Zakopane, the Salt Mine in Wieliczka and the historic site of Auschwitz, the NSDAP-ruled German empire's concentration camp in Oswiecim. The best recreational destinations include Poland's Masurian Lake District, Baltic Sea coast, Tatra Mountains (the highest mountain range of Carpathians), Sudetes and Bialowieza Forest.
Poland, the euro and Law and Justice Party's nationalistic reasons: Poland and the euro in the EU since 2000/2001, as Poland does not use the euro as its currency. But under the terms of their 'Treaty of Accession with the European Union', all new Member States 'shall participate in the Economic and Monetary Union from the date of accession as a Member State with a derogation', which means that Poland is obliged to eventually replace its currency, the zloty, with the euro. 20 years after its intoduction in the EU, there is no target date for Polish euro adoption, and no fixed date for when the country will join ERM-II, as Euro adoption will require the approval of at least two-thirds of the Sejm to make a constitutional amendment changing the official currency from the zloty to the euro, but the 2020s ruling 'Law and Justice Party' opposes euro adoption for nationalistic reasons
Greater Poland Voivodeship: Greater Poland Voivodeship - also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship - in west-central Poland, created in 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno Voivodeships. The province is named after the region called Greater Poland or Wielkopolska, as the modern province includes most of this historic region, except for some western parts. It is second in area and third in population among Poland's sixteen voivodeships, with an area of 29,826 square km and a population of close to 3.5 million inhabitants. Its capital city is Poznan, as other important cities include Kalisz, Konin, Pila, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Gniezno (an early capital of Poland) and Leszno. It is bordered by seven other voivodeships including West Pomeranian to the northwest, Pomeranian to the north, Kuyavian-Pomeranian to the north-east, Lódz to the south-east, Opole to the south, Lower Silesian to the southwest and Lubusz to the west.
6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of ill prepared Poland after French and British pressure not to mobilize: 6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of Poland, fought between the armies of Poland and Nazi Germany in World War II, after reason for Poland's late and insufficient mobilization was pressure from the French and the British not to mobilize, and as since 29 August 1939, when the Poles re—started the mobilization against advice from Paris and London, it was too late
- Since 1938 'Western betrayal' (and earlier) concerning the fact that France, the United Kingdom, and sometimes the USA failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military, and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish states during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II, also sometimes referring to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European states at the time
, enabling World War II that lasted from 1939 to 1945
, the Holocaust by Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe
, and the August 1945 atomic bombings forcing Japanese war criminals to surrender
Since 1945 University of Lódz: Since 1945 University of Lódz, founded as a continuation of educational institutions functioning in Lódz in the interwar period, including the Teacher Training Institute 1921–1928, the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences 1924–1928 and a division of the Free Polish University 1928–1939, and as a result of widespread cooperation with universities all over the world, including Université Jean Moulin Lyon, University of Texas at Austin, University of Baltimore, University of Maryland, Centria University of Applied Sciences Finland, students of the University of Lódz can graduate with dual diplomas
Poznan city: Poznan city, one of the oldest cities in Poland on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs, as among its most important heritage sites are the Renaissance Old Town, Town Hall and Gothic Cathedral. Poznan is the fifth-largest Polish city with a population of 529,410 citizens in 2021, while the 'Metropolia Poznan', comprising Poznan County and several other communities, is inhabited by over 1.1 million people. It is one of four historical capitals of medieval Poland and the ancient capital of the Greater Poland region, currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. In the 21st century Poznan is a center of trade, technology, education, tourism and sports. It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and Adam Mickiewicz University, the third largest Polish university. The city serves as the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous Catholic archdioceses in the country. The city also hosts the Poznan International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's other renowned landmarks include the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Fara Church and the Imperial Castle.
1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June: 1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June, the first of several massive protests against the government of the Polish People's Republic, as demonstrations by workers demanding better working conditions began on 28 June 1956 at Poznan's Cegielski Factories but were met with violent repression. About 100,000 people gathered in the city centre near the local Ministry of Public Security building, when 400 tanks and 10,000 soldiers of the Polish military and the Internal Security Corps were ordered to suppress the demonstration, firing at the protesting civilians, causing dozens of victims and over a hundred injured people, including a 13-year-old boy. The Poznan protests were an important milestone on the way to the Polish October and the installation of a less Soviet-controlled government.
Masovian Voivodeship: Masovian Voivodeship, the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish voivodeships with 5,411,446 inhabitants in 2019. Its principal cities are Warsaw with 1.783 million inhabitants in the centre of the Warsaw metropolitan area, Radom city with 212,230 inhabitants in the south, Plock city with 119,709 inhabitants in the west, Siedlce city with 77,990 citizens in the east, and Ostroleka with 52,071 citizens in the north. The capital of the voivodeship is the national capital Warsaw.
13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Middle East Conference: 13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Conference, hosted by Poland and the USA the issues of the event include 'terrorism and extremism, missile development and proliferation, maritime trade and security, and threats posed by proxy groups across the region' of Middle East and especially 'Iran’s influence and terrorism in the region'
- 14 February 2019: '60 foreign ministers and representatives of dozen of governments, an Israeli PM and the foreign ministers of leading Arab countries stood together and spoke with unusual force, clarity and unity against the common threat of the Iranian regime', Israel's Netanyahu says in Warsaw
- 14 February 2019: Israel's Netanyahu on Thursday called on Arab states to continue normalizing relations with Israel, as the Iranian regime, vowing to revenge, once again tries to blame Israel and the USA for an attack reportedly claimed by Jaish ul-Adl
19th century, 20th century history of Radom city and World War I: 19th century, 20th century history of Radom city: When so-called 'Central Powers' including Austro-Hungarian and German empires began World War I in July/August 1914, Radom was a big, rapidly developing town, one of the most significant industrial centres in the whole country. However, the years 1914–1918 severely deteriorated the town's economy. In 1915, upon their withdrawal from Poland, Russians plundered Radom from machines and natural resources, while the impoverishment of the local community during the war contributed to a serious crisis in trade, crafts and services, especially since the town was no longer able to sell its products on the Russian market. As a result of World War I, in the period of the 'Second Polish Republic' since 1918, Radom became part of Kielce Voivodeship. Re-established Poland maintained moderate economic development, with cultural hubs of Poland including Warsaw, Kraków, Poznan, Wilno, Lwów becoming major European cities.
1941-1944 'Radom Ghetto' set up by German NSDAP regime: Since March 1941 'Radom Ghetto', a Nazi ghetto set up in the city of Radom during occupation of Poland for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews. It was closed off from the outside officially in April 1941. A year and a half later, the liquidation of the ghetto began in August 1942, and ended in July 1944, with approximately 30,000–32,000 victims - men, women and children - deported aboard Holocaust trains to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp. Only a few hundred Jews from Radom survived German empire's war. Among Polish rescuers of Jews, Radom mental hospital's Dr. Jerzy Borysowicz as well as his medical staff in total secrecy organized that the Jews, including children, were receiving daily help. Borysowicz also treated Mordechai Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish Combat Organization instrumental in engineering the 'Warsaw Ghetto Uprising' in April-May 1943. Most of Jerzy Borysowicz' patients however, did not survive the Holocaust. In January 1945, the occupiers sent the last transport of prisoners from Radom to Auschwitz, but it only reached Czestochowa, while the remaining prisoners were massacred in Firlej. On 16 January 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army and then restored to Poland.
1863-1864 uprising in Radom and following events: 1863-1864 mementos of the uprising also in Radom in January 1863 until automn 1864 and the following events, including the years before its outbreak. The 1863-64 uprising was the biggest national Polish rebellious bid for independence. Representatives of all social classes joined the ranks including craftsmen, young people, even nobility and gentry. It met with wide support from international public opinion. It was a guerrilla war in which there were about 1200 battles and skirmishes. Despite initial successes, the uprising ended in failure - as since 1848 in France, Belgium, German states, Austria and whole Europe - because there was no sufficient information, discussion and therefore cooperation in the revolutionary 'party', work together between the democratic progressive opposition factions, especially without modern media later in European and global history. Tens of thousands of insurgents were killed, nearly 1000 were executed, about 38,000 were sentenced to penal servitude or sent down to Siberia, and about 10,000 emigrated. One of the positive effects of the uprising was the affranchisement of peasants which was carried out more radically than anywhere else in this part of Europe
Lublin city: Lublin city, the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical 'Lesser Poland'. In the 21st century it is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 338,586 citizens in 2020, the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and about 170km to the southeast of Warsaw by road. Since 1385 the city developped within the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo, and thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków. Its inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate, the Jewish Gate, in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated by Nazi Germany to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
20th century timeline of Lublin, Nazi Germany's World War II and liberation by the Soviet army: 20th century timeline of Lublin, as on 4/% part of the Polish gold reserve was evacuated from Warsaw to Lublin by the Polish government during the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II, as on 7/8 September the Polish gold reserve was evacuated further east to Luck (today in Ukraine assaulted by Russia's Putin regime), as an 9 November 1939 the Germans carried out mass arrests of hundreds of Poles, including teachers, judges, lawyers, engineers and priests, as part of the 'Intelligenzaktion', as on 11 November the Germans carried out arrests of 14 lecturers of the Catholic University of Lublin, as on 17 November the Germans arrested around 60 of its students, as well as many local priests and lecturers of the local theological seminary, as on 23/24 December - Christmas eve - the Germans carried out an execution of 21 well-known and respected citizens of the region in Lublin, as on 25 December the German police carried out an execution of 10 Poles at the local Lemszczyzna brick factory, including local lawyers, professors, school principals and starosts of Lublin and Lubartów counties, as in 1940 the Germans committed many massacres, as in March 1941 Lublin Ghetto established by the occupiers and as in October the Majdanek concentration camp established by the occupiers, before in July 1944 the city captured by the Soviet Army.
Silesia historical region: Silesia, a historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany, as its population is estimated at around 8,000,000 inhabitants in the 21st century. Silesia is split into two main subregions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east. Silesia has a diverse culture, including architecture, costumes, cuisine, traditions, and the Silesian language in Upper Silesia
History of Central European 'Silesia', in the 21st century including areas of 9 countries: History of Silesia
, as in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. - late Bronze Age -, Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture. About 500 BC Scyths arrived, and later Celts in the South and Southwest. During the 1st century BC Silingi and other Germanic people settled in Silesia. For this period we have written reports of antique authors who included the area. Slavs arrived in this territory around the 6th century. The first known states in Silesia were those of Greater Moravia and Bohemia. In the 10th century, Mieszko I incorporated Silesia into Civitas Schinesghe, a Polish state. It remained part of Poland until the Fragmentation of Poland
- Great Moravia, the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, possibly including territories which are today part of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Lower Silesia: Lower Silesia, the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, as in the Middle Ages Lower Silesia was part of Piast-ruled Poland. It was one of the leading regions of Poland, and its capital Wroclaw was one of the main cities of the Polish Kingdom. Lower Silesia emerged as a distinctive region during the fragmentation of Poland, in 1172, when the Duchies of Opole and Racibórz, considered Upper Silesia since, were formed of the eastern part of the Duchy of Silesia, and the remaining, western part was since considered Lower Silesia. During the Ostsiedlung, German settlers were invited to settle in the sparsely populated region, which until then had a Polish majority. As a result, the region became largely Germanised in the following centuries. In the late Middle Ages the region fell under the overlordship of the Bohemian Crown, however large parts remained under the rule of local Polish dukes of the Piast dynasty, some up to the 16th and 17th century.
Wroclaw city: Wroclaw city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia, located on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south, as the official population of Wroclaw in 2020 was 643,782, with a further 1.25 million residing in the metropolitan area
- History of Wroclaw that has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship, after the history of the city started at a crossroads in Lower Silesia, becoming one of the centres of the Duchy and then Kingdom of Poland, and briefly, in the first half of the 13th century, the centre of half of the divided Kingdom of Poland, as its historical affiliations since AD 800 include Duchy of Poland 985–1025, Kingdom of Poland 1025–1038, Duchy of Bohemia 1038–1054, Kingdom of Poland 1054–ca. 1325, Duchy of Silesia 1202–1335, Kingdom of Bohemia 1335–1469, Kingdom of Hungary 1469–1490, Kingdom of Bohemia 1490–1526/1742, Habsburg Monarchy 1526–1742, Kingdom of Prussia 1742–1871, German Empire 1871–1918, Weimar Germany 1918–1933, NSDAP ruled Germany 1933–1945, People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989 and Republic of Poland 1989–present
Pinczów town and Gmina Pinczó: Gmina Pinczó, an urban-rural gmina in Pinczów County, as its seat is the town of Pinczów 40km south of the regional capital Kielce. The gmina covers an area of 212.75 square kilometres, and as of 2006 its total population is 22,147 inhabitants. Gmina Pinczów also contains the villages and settlements of Aleksandrów, Bogucice Drugie, Bogucice Pierwsze, Borków, Brzescie, Bugaj, Byczów, Chrabków, Chruscice, Chwalowice, Gacki, Grochowiska, Kopernia, Kowala, Kozubów, Krzyzanowice Dolne, Krzyzanowice Srednie, Leszcze, Marzecin, Mlodzawy Duze, Mlodzawy Male, Mozgawa, Nowa Zagosc, Orkanów, Pasturka, Podleze, Sadek, Skowronno Dolne, Skowronno Górne, Skrzypiów, Stara Zagosc, Szarbków, Szczypiec, Uników, Winiary, Wlochy, Wola Zagojska Dolna, Wola Zagojska Górna, Zagórzyce, Zakrzów and Zawarza
Opole Voivodeship: Opole Voivodeship, the smallest and least populated voivodeship of Poland. The province's name derives from that of the region's capital and largest city, Opole. It is part of Upper Silesia. A relatively large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, and the German language is co-official in 28 communes. Opole Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Lódz Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, and the Czech Republic (Olomouc Region and Moravian-Silesian Region) to the south. Opole Province's geographic location, economic potential, and its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions (especially Lower Silesian and Silesian Voivodeships) and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praded/Pradziad Euroregion with its headquarter in Prudnik has facilitated economic, cultural and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Upper Silesia: Upper Silesia, the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic. Since the 9th century, Upper Silesia has been part of (chronologically) Greater Moravia, the Duchy of Bohemia, the Piast Kingdom of Poland, again of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as of the Habsburg monarchy from 1526. In 1742 the greater part of Upper Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire. After the First World War the region was divided between Poland (East Upper Silesia) and Germany (West Upper Silesia). After the Second World War, West Upper Silesia also became Polish as the result of the Potsdam Conference.
Katowice city: Katowice city, the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, and the central city of the Upper Silesian metropolitan area. It is the 11th-most populous city in Poland, while its urban area is the most populous in the country and one of the most populous in the EU. As of December 31, 2020 estimate, Katowice has a population of 290,553 citizens, and is a central part of the Metropolis GZM, with a population of 2.3 million, and a part of a larger Upper Silesian metropolitan area that extends into the Czech Republic and has a population of 5-5.3 million people. Katowice is a center of commerce, business, transportation, and culture in southern Poland, with numerous public companies headquartered in the city or in its suburbs, important cultural institutions such as Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, award-winning music festivals such as Off Festival and Tauron New Music, and transportation infrastructure such as Katowice Korfanty Airport. In 2015, Katowice joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and was named a UNESCO City of Music.
Since 19th century Katowice's population: Katowice's population grew very fast between 1845 and 1960, fueled by the expansion of heavy industry and administrative functions. In the 60s, 70s and 80s, the city grew by another 100,000 people, reaching a height of 368,621 in 1988. Since then, the collapse of heavy industry, emigration, and suburbanization reversed the population development. Katowice lost approx. 75,000 people (20%) since the fall of communism in Poland, as - during the German empires second world war since September 1939 - the Nazi occupant committed severe crimes against the local Roma and Jewish communities, and most of them were eventually killed or transported by cattle wagons to concentration camps such as Auschwitz for complete extermination.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland: Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland with a population of 3,404,863 citizens in 2019. It stretches far north, to Radom, and Siedlce, also including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Lublin, Kielce, Czestochowa, and Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Czestochowska - a broad range of hills stretching from Kraków to Czestochowa - and on the south by the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains. Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, and Slovakia - Prešov Region and Žilina Regions - to the south.
History of Kraków: History of Kraków, as first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia 876–879, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish governmen and became a leading centre of trade, but the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt practically identical, incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Boleslaw V who like Wroclaw introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens. In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the newly built fortifications. During 15th and 16th centuries many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture were created, including ancient synagogues in Kraków's Jewish quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the Old Synagogue, then various artists came to work and live in Kraków and Johann Haller established a printing press in the city.
Medyka village, population, history: Medyka village/town in Przemysl County, on the border with Ukraine. It is the seat of the municipality called Gmina Medyka. It lies approximately 13 kilometres east of Przemysl and 72 km east of the regional capital Rzeszów. In 2006 the village had a population of approximately 2,800 citizens.
- Shehyni village of Yavoriv Raion in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine, hosting the administration of Shehyni rural hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Located at the border with Poland, known as the site of the Medyka-Shehyni border checkpoint, and situated 14km east of the city of Przemysl, it was first mentioned in 1515 in a royal charter under the name of Szechinie. For most of its existence the village belonged to the Land of Przemysl, the so-called key of estates including Medyka, Pozdziacz, Torki and Buców, centred on the manor in Medyka, all based on a local variant of Magdeburg law, dubbed Ruthenian law. Initially the peasants settled there were tasked with taking care of the royal stables in Medyka, with time their duty towards the owner of Medyka manor was modified to simple serfdom, with yearly rent paid in grain.
Participation de l'URSS en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, mais l'expansion du fascisme: Participation de l'Union soviétique en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, notamment par l'intermédiaire du Komintern, au nom de la lutte contre le fascisme. Plusieurs généraux républicains, membres du PCE, comme Juan Modesto ou Enrique Líster, ne sont pas sortis du rang, mais avaient été formés en URSS où ils avaient trouvé refuge au début des années 1930
- Bilan, victimes, réfugiés et exilés, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale a débuté avec la guerre civile qui oppose en effet de 1936 à 1939 républicains et nationalistes en Espagne, en Europe et au monde, et qui fait environ 400 000 morts. Dès 1936, les Européens y voient un conflit à portée universelle, elle marque l'expansion du fascisme.
Jews and history of the Jews in Poland: History of the Jews in Poland
- History of the Jews in 20th-century Poland - 1921 there were 2,845,364 Jews living in the Second Polish Republic, by late 1938 that number has grown to approximately 3,310,000 mainly through migration from Ukraine and the Soviet Russia, from amongst the 6 million Polish citizens who perished during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, roughly half (or 3 million) were Polish Jews murdered at the Nazi-Germany's extermination camps of Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibór, and Chelmno, others died of starvation and maltreatment in the ghettos, only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil
1978 Poland's extradition request for war criminal Wagner rejected: Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Poland/Lebanon relations: 10 May 2005: Relations between Lebanon and Poland
- Geography of Portugal
- History of Portugal
- Portuguese Empire (from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999)
- Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974
- Third Portuguese Republic since 1974
- Demographics of Portugal
Economy of Portugal: Economy of Portugal - main industries include textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, building materials
- Economic history of Portugal
- Companies of Portugal by industry 21th century
Agriculture in Portugal: Agriculture in Portugal - products include cereals, grapes and wine, fruits, oranges, cherries, horticulture and floriculture products, beet sugar, sunflower oil, cork, tobacco, fish
2010–14 Portuguese financial and economic crisis (ongoing): European sovereign debt crisis (2010-present)
- 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
10 November 1975 Portugal and UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly
- Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Portugal/Equatorial Guinea relations:
15 March 2022 granting of citizenship to the Russian oligarch and Putin's ally Roman Abramovich: 15 March 2022: A rabbi’s arrest, reports of irregularities in the approval process, and demands for transparency: The granting of citizenship to the Russian oligarch and Putin's ally Roman Abramovich has attracted public attention to the Portuguese passports industry, 'Haaretz' reports
- Geography of Romania
- History of Romania
- Demographics of Romania
Elections and politics in Romania: Elections in Romania
2012–14 Romanian social unrest: 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas
- 2012–14 Romanian social unrest
Transylvania region in central Romania and history since 2nd century BC: Transylvania historical region in central Romania, bordering to the east and south the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains, as broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western Romanian regions Crisana, Maramures and occasionally Banat. Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, and is well known for the cities of Cluj-Napoca, Brasov, Sibiu, Târgu Mures, Alba Iulia, Sighisoara.
- Since 2nd century BC documented history of Transylvania, as in the 20th century in August 1940 during Axis Powers World War II, the northern half of Transylvania 'Northern Transylvania' was annexed to Hungary by the second Second Vienna Award, leaving Southern Transylvania to Romania. On 19 March 1944, following the occupation of Hungary by the Nazi German army through Operation Margarethe, Northern Transylvania came under German military occupation. After King Michael's Coup, Romania left the Axis and joined the Allies, and fought together with the Soviet Union's Red Army against Nazi Germany, regaining Northern Transylvania. In the 21st century 'Transylvania proper' is included within the Romanian counties of Alba, Bistrisa-Nasaud, Brasov, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Mures, Salaj and Sibiu, including several regions
Sibiu city in Transylvania: Sibiu city in Transylvania, a historical region of Romania. Located some 275km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of the Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania, as in the 21st century the city is a well-known tourist destination for both domestic and foreign visitors. Known for its culture, history, gastronomy and diverse architecture, which includes the iconic houses with eyes that gave Sibiu its nickname, the city has garnered significant attention since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2004, its historical center began the process of becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiu was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2007.
Since 18th century modern history of Sânnicolau Mare: Since 18th century modern history of Sânnicolau Mare, as the European revolutionary year 1848 was also felt in Sânnicolau Mare, and many locals participated in the revolutionary battles, even constituting an area called Sânnicolau Mare Sârbesc, as in the period since 1860s dozens of workshops, manufactories, banks, bakeries, slaughterhouses, doctor's offices, veterinary clinics etc. developped, followed by Central Powers World War I, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire, the rise of Axis powers and World War II
Culture, press, media, literature and music of Sânnicolau Mare: Culture, press, media, literature and music of Sânnicolau Mare, as the city is the birthplace of Béla Bartók and the birthplace of Emilia Lungu-Puhallo, the first woman journalist in Banat and Transylvania
- 1881-1945 composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók
Culture of Romania: Culture of Romania
- Geography of Slovakia
- History of Slovakia
- Demographics of Slovakia
Social movements and protests in Slovakia:
26 February 2022 tens of thousands of Ukrainians escape Putin's war by crossing borders to the west: 26 February 2022: Tens of thousands of Ukrainians are fleeing from Russian regime's war against Ukrainians, crossing borders to the west in search of safety as Putin regime pounded their capital and other cities with air raids, as cars were backed up for several kilometres at some border crossings, and as authorities in Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova mobilised to receive them, offering shelter, food and legal help. Many walked through the night while others escaped the east of the country by train, car or bus. Many were greeted by awaiting relatives and friends, as the UN refugee agency has said about 150,000 people have so far fled Ukraine into neighbouring countries in the wake of the Russian invasion.
- Geography of Slovenia
- History of Slovenia
- Demographics of Slovenia
Economy of Slovenia: Economy of Slovenia, as main industries in the country include ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machine tools
- List of companies of Slovenia
- Companies of Slovenia by industry
12 Slovenian regions, 212 municipalities, local communities and districts: In 2000, Slovenia has been divided into 12 statistical regions grouped into two cohesion regions including Eastern Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Littoral–Inner Carniola regions and Western Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst regions
- 212 municipalities of Slovenia, further divided into local communities and districts
- Slovene Istria
Slovenia/Ukraine relations: Slovenia/Ukraine relations, as Slovenia recognized Ukraine's independence on 11 December 1991, and diplomatic relations were established three months later, on 10 March 1992. In 2004, Ukraine opened the Embassy of Ukraine in Slovenia, the Embassy of Slovenia in Ukraine was opened in April 2004 in Kyiv. With the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, together with other EU countries Slovenia has condemned the Russian aggression and has taken steps such as closing Slovenia's airspace to Russian flights and boycotting sports events held in Russia. In the morning of 1 March 2022, a Russian missile 3M54-1 Kalibr struck Freedom Square in central Kharkiv destroying the Slovene consulate in the city. The following day, the Slovenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs summoned the Russian ambassador and handed over a diplomatic note of protest requesting an apology and compensation for the damages. After the Russian invasion of Ukraine started, Slovenia, as one of the EU countries, imposed sanctions on Russia, and Russia added all EU countries to the list of 'unfriendly nations'.
- Geography of Spain
- History of Spain
- 'Reconquista' period 718-1492 on the Iberian peninsula, coming before the discovery of the Americas and the period of colonial empires
- Spanish colonization of the Americas since 1492
- Spanish American wars of independence 1808-1833
- Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939
- Demographics of Spain
Agriculture in Spain: Agriculture in Spain - products include citrus fruits, grapes and wine, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olives, olive oil, cereal grains, and fodder grasses, cotton, dairy products, livestock products, poultry
Poverty in Spain:
Politics of Spain: Politics of Spain
- List of Constitutions of Spain
- Spanish Constitution of 1812, established in March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, supporting land reform and free enterprise, one of the most liberal constitutions of its time
- Federal Constitution of the First Republic of Spain 1873–1874
- The Spanish Constitution of 1931, approved by the Constituent Assembly in 1931, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939 and of the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected
- The Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum and is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy
March 2004 election results: Electoral outcome, heavily influenced by the aftermath of the Madrid train bombings on 11 March, as the PP government kept blaming the terrorist organization ETA for the bombings, even in spite of mounting evidence suggesting the involvement of Islamist groups that would have been perceived as the direct result of Spain's involvement in the Iraq War, which had been highly unpopular among the public, then described by some media as an 'unprecedented electoral upset', following abuse of the PP's absolute majority throughout the legislature, with a focus on Spain's involvement in Iraq, was said to have helped fuel a wave of discontent against the incumbent ruling party, with the government's mismanagement on the bombings serving as the final catalyst for change to happen, as 11 million votes and 42.6%, the opposition Spanish PSO increased by 3.1 million, and the PP, which opinion polls earlier in the year had predicted would secure a diminished but still commanding victory, lost 35 seats resulting in the worst defeat for a sitting government since 1982, and as the 75.7% turnout was among the highest since the Spanish transition to democracy
October 2017 Catalan independence referendum: 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum
- 1 October 2017: 38 injured as riot police attack protests, while Catalans cast independence votes in peaceful defiance of Spanish government
- 2 October 2017: Preliminary results of Catalan referendum show 90% in favour of independence
, after raids on ballot stations by riot police left hundreds of Catalans injured
- 4 October 2017: Catalonia’s president Puigdemont has accused King Felipe of Spain of acting as a mouthpiece for the Rajoy government after Catalonia’s independence referendum was marred by police violence and as the country wrestles with the crisis
- 6 October 2017: After hundreds of people were injured by Spanish police attempting to stop independence referendum by raiding polling stations, beating voters and firing rubber bullets at crowds, Spanish government has apologised for police violence strangely insisting that the region’s political leaders are to blame
- 10 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont says he has mandate to declare independence but proposes waiting 'a few weeks' to encourage dialogue
- 11 October 2017: Rajoy threatens Catalonia with direct rule after Catalan offer of talks
- 12 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont accuses Rajoy of ignoring call for talks, as vice-president Junqueras says that 'a sincere dialogue is what the international community wants and what Catalonia expects, not confrontation and new threats'
, and as Human Rights Watch documents that police used excessive force in Catalonia during referendum, calling for an independent report into the violence
- 13 October 2017: As the central government in Madrid appears to be hostage to some of the most reactionary forces in Spanish society, Spain’s need for a new constitution is greater than Catalonia’s need for independence, historian John Payne says
- 17 October 2017: Rajoy government has signalled a hardening line over Catalonia by jailing the leaders of two of the largest separatist organisations in a move seen as taking Rajoy closer to imposing central rule over Catalonia
- 22 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont said in a televized speech that the decision by PM Rajoy to fire the regional government and force a new election is 'the worst attack against the institutions and the people of Catalonia since the military dictatorship of Francisco Franco'
- 28 October 2017: Rajoy government takes direct control of Catalonia, firing the region’s defiant separatist government a day after Catalan lawmakers passed a declaration of independence for the prosperous northeastern region
, and calls fresh elections
- 28 October 2017: Calling for 'democratic opposition' to the takeover Catalonia's Puigdemont vows 'peaceful resistance'
- 31 October 2017: Catalan leaders facing rebellion charges flee to Belgium
Galicia autonomous community: Galicia autonomous community of Spain, located in the northwest Iberian Peninsula, and including the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra. Located in Atlantic Europe, it is bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Cantabrian Sea to the north. It had a population of 2,701,743 inhabitants in 2018. Galicia has over 1,660km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, Cortegada Island, which together form the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, and the largest and most populated, A Illa de Arousa. The area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, and takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people.
- Economy of Galicia
Vigo city: Vigo city and municipality in the province of Pontevedra, within the autonomous community of Galicia. Located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, it sits on the southern shore of an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, the Ria de Vigo, the southernmost of the so-called Rías Baixas. The municipality, with a population of 295,364 citizens in 2019 including rural parishes, is the most populous municipality in Galicia. The area of the municipality includes the Cíes Islands, part of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park. Vigo is one of the region's primary economic agents, owing to the French Stellantis Vigo Plant and to its port. Close to the Portugal–Spain border, Vigo is part of the Galicia–North Portugal Euroregion.
Port of Vigo: Port of Vigo, the biggest fishing port in the world and one of the busiest in transportation. It is home of the world's largest fishing company Pescanova. In 2008, unloaded fish reached 751,971 tonnes. Vigo is the base for the big fishing companies which have prominent presence in countries such as Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique, Australia, Argentina, the Falkland Islands, Chile and Peru, among others. Fish is sent all over Spain and abroad to countries like Portugal, Italy, France and other more distant markets including Asia.
Gijón port city: Gijón city and port in north-western Spain, the largest city and municipality by population in the autonomous community of Asturias. It is located on the coast of the Cantabrian Sea in the Bay of Biscay, in the central-northern part of Asturias, approximately 24km north-east of Oviedo and 26km from Avilés. With a population of 271,780 citizens in 2019, Gijón is the 15th largest city in Spain, forming part of a large metropolitan area that includes twenty councils in the center of the region, structured with a dense network of roads, highways and railways and with a population of 835,053 inhabitants in 2011. During the 20th century, Gijón developed as an industrial city in the steel and naval industries. However, due to the decline in manufacturing in these industries, in recent years Gijón is undergoing a transformation into an important tourist, university, commercial and R&D center.
Catalonia and Catalan history: Catalonia autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Most of the territory (except the Val d'Aran), lies on the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to the south of the Pyrenees mountain range. Catalonia is administratively divided into four provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city, Barcelona is the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the fifth-most populous urban area in the EU. It comprises most of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales. It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan
- History of Catalonia
- Catalan constitutions, the first constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of 1283, the last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705
- Catalan Republic, proclaimed 1641, 1873, 1931 and 1934
- 1934 Proclamation of the Catalan Republic within the Spanish state by the President of the Generalitat Lluís Companys
- 1939–1975 Catalonia under Franco's dictatorship
- 1939/1940 Lluís Companys exiled, detained and extradited by Nazi German secret police Gestapo to their fascist Spanish allies, tortured and beaten, sentenced to death and executed at Montjuïc Castle in Barcelona on 15 October 1940
- 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, a constitutional law defining the region of Catalonia as an autonomous community within the Kingdom of Spain and one of seventeen such statutes granted, in various forms and capabilities, to the different autonomous communities of Spain since 1970s transition to democracy of the, on 18 June 2006 a referendum altering the statute to expand the authority of the Catalan government was approved
Autonomous community of Castile and León does not have a legally established capital city: The Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León does not have a legally established capital city, because the region's 1983 statute of autonomy did not name a capital city. The articles referred only to the 'seat of government', that could only be fixed with a two-thirds approval in the Cortes of Castile and León. In 1987, President of the Junta of Castile and León José María Aznar approved that the basic bodies of regional rule - the presidency, Junta and the Cortes - would be located in Valladolid. One reason for the lack of the official capital is that the merger of Castile and León as one autonomous community caused uproar in the latter, which wanted to be separate. Other autonomous bodies are in the capitals of other provinces of the region. The High Court of Justice of Castile and León is in Burgos, the Court of Audits is in Palencia, the Advisory Council is in Zamora, the Ombudsman is in León. In March 2009, the Junta of Castile and León apologised for textbooks that named Valladolid as capital, saying that it was an honest confusion of its status as a seat. In February 2010, the PP party in Valladolid City Hall rejected a Spanish Socialist Workers' Party proposal for the city to become the official capital, saying it could 'provoke eight motions against it' from the other provincial capitals. In September 2019, José Antonio de Santiago Juárez of Valladolid's PP made a proposal of the same matter, which was opposed by the party leadership.
Valladolid city: Valladolid city, the primary seat of government of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is also the capital of the province of the same name. It has a population around 300,000 people in 2021, and located roughly in the centre of the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula's Meseta Central, at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers 15km before they join the Duero, surrounded by winegrowing areas. The area was settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, after 1072 growing in prominence within the context of the Crown of Castile, being endowed with fairs and different institutions such as a collegiate church, University, Royal Court and Chancellery and a royal mint. The city was briefly the capital of the Habsburg Monarchy between 1601 and 1606. The city then declined until the arrival of the railway in the 19th century, and with its industrialisation into the 20th century.
Castile-La Mancha autonomous community: Castile-La Mancha autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara and Toledo, it was created in 1982. The government headquarters are in Toledo. The region largely occupies the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula's Inner Plateau, including large parts of the catchment areas of the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Júcar, while the northeastern relief comprises the Sistema Ibérico mountain massif. It is bordered by Castile and León, Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's regions. Albacete, Guadalajara, Toledo, Talavera de la Reina and Ciudad Real concentrate the largest urban areas in the region.
- Cortes of Castile-La Mancha
Toledo city: Toledo city, the capital of the province of Toledo and the de jure seat of the government and parliament of the autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha. Located on the banks of the Tagus in central Iberia, Toledo is known as the 'Imperial City' because it was the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Spain, and as the 'City of the Three Cultures' for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims, and Jews reflected in its history. It was the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Councils of Toledo. By the end of the 7th century the bishop of Toledo was the leader of all other bishops in Hispania, a situation unusual in Europe. It was also unmatched as a symbolic center of monarchy. Under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toledo multiple persecutions (633, 653, 693 CE) and stake burnings of Jews (638 CE) occurred; the Kingdom of Toledo followed up on this tradition (1368, 1391, 1449, 1486–1490 CE) including forced conversions and mass murder and the rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo in 1212 CE, scetching Spain's further way into the early modern age, in European wars and Spanish empire's colonization of the Americas. The city had a long history in the production of globally feared bladed weapons. As of 2015, the municipality had a population of the small number of 83,226 citizens.
Andalusia autonomous community: Andalusia autonomous community the southernmost territory in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest autonomous community in the country, and officially recognised as a 'historical nationality'. The territory is divided into the eight provinces of Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville. Its capital city is Seville. The seat of the High Court of Justice of Andalusia is located in the city of Granada. Andalusia is located south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha, west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea, east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean, and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. The small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a 1.2 kilometres land border with the Andalusian portion of the province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir river.
- History of Andalusia
- Parliament of Andalusia
- 22 March 2015 Andalusian parliamentary election
- 23 March 2015: The Socialists winning 35% percent of the vote will continue to govern Andalusia as anti-austerity party Podemos wins 15 seats
Arabs in Spain: Arabs in Spain today are expatriates from a range of Arab countries, particularly Morocco, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, and Iraq, and also small groups from Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Jordan and Sudan, estimated to be between 702,000 and 1,600,000 - 1,800,000 people
Children in Spain:
23 March 2020 Spain's coronavirus death toll reached 2,182, adding 462 fatalities overnight: 23 March 2020: Spain's coronavirus death toll reached 2,182, adding 462 fatalities overnight, health ministry says, as the number of cases registered in Spain rose to 33,089 up from 28,572 cases on Sunday
2018: 30 June 2018: Defying multiple rulings in Spain that declared boycotting Israel illegal, the City Council of Sagunto near Valencia Tuesday declared itself an 'Israeli apartheid-free space', as some 50 municipalities have passed resolutions in recent years endorsing BDS in catholic embossed Spain, more than in any other European country
- 23 March 2020: Spain has nearly 4,000 health workers infected with the coronavirus, more than one in ten of total confirmed cases, as nurses, doctors and other health workers say they are not getting enough protective kits
1936-1975 Francoist crimes against humanity: White Terror, also known as The Francoist Repression, was the series of political actions taken by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and during the first decade of Francisco Franco's dictatorship, for years since 1936 the mass killings of the loyalists to the Second Spanish Republic 1931–39 included the Popular Front, liberals, Socialists, Trotskyists, Communists, anarchists, Protestant Christians, freethinkers, intellectuals, Freemasons, and Catalan and Basque separatists
Neo-Nazi terrorism in Spain:
White-collar crime in Spain:
Law and legal history of Spain: Law of Spain
- Legal history of Spain
- Since 1812 Constitutions of Spain
- March 1812 Spanish Constitution drafted and adopted by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War, establishing the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, freedom of the press, and supporting land reform and free enterprise
- December 1931 Constitution of Spain, approved by the Constituent Assembly, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic founded 14 April 1931 and in force until 1 April 1939, in the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected
- Spanish Constitution of 1978, enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy
1914-1918 Spanish 'neutrality' in the First World War: 24 Februar 2011: 'At what cost?: Spanish neutrality in the First World War', 2009, by Carolyn S. Lowry, University of South Florida, saying 'while one expects adversity in war, the First World War left no nation untouched, and even the neutral powers did not escape unscathed, particularly Spain. The case of Spain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries shows the ultimate demise of one of Europe’s greatest empires. While Spain had dominated the continent in earlier centuries, its great empire fell far behind as the world expanded through industrialization and further imperial conquest', and as now Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare campaign ravaged Spanish shipping, exacerbating economic hardships
1618-1648 Thirty Years' War: 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War in Central Europe (mainly present-day Germany) was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as the deadliest European religious war in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers including the Spanish Empire, Austria, Hungary, Poland, England, France, Sweden, Russian Tsardom, Ottoman Empire etc., employing relatively large mercenary armies, resulting in millions of casualties
1936-1939: 1936-1939 German involvement in the Spanish Civil War following the military coup of July 1936 against the Spanish democracy, with German dictator Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Franco and fascist Spain
1936-1945: Since November 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact between NSDAP-Germany and the Empire of Japan, formation of so-called 'Axis Powers' including Italy, revised pact including Spain, Hungary, Manchukuo, Finland, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Slovakia, China-Nanjing, Turkey (observer) and World War II
- Spanish 'Blue Division' active in the German Army 1941-1943 on the Eastern Front of the Second World War
- History of Sweden
- Geography of Sweden
- Urban areas in Sweden
- Demographics of Sweden
PM Andersson said 'it’s very important that we do have these security assurances' from Europe and Nato: 7 September 2022: Sweden’s Social Democratic PM Magdalena Andersson has said the country is at a pivotal moment as it prepares for its most critical election in years, in which rightwing populists with neo-Nazi roots are likely to become the second biggest party. The election comes at a tumultuous time for Sweden, against the backdrop of growing hostility from Russia as it prepares to join Nato, a Europe-wide energy crisis, and violence on the streets. PM Andersson said she did not consider Russia a 'direct military threat', but she added 'it’s very important that we do have these security assurances that we got from the UK, the USA, France, Germany and many other countries during our Nato application. We’re very grateful for that, it means a lot to us'. Calling for Europe to become less dependent on Russian gas, she said gas and electricity prices must be 'decoupled'.
28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme: 28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme
18 September 1961 UN Secretary-General Hammarskjöld killed in Northern Rhodesia plane crash: On 18 September 1961, UN Secretary-General Hammarskjöld was en route to negotiate a cease-fire between UN Operation in the Congo forces and Katangese troops under Moise Tshombe, as his Douglas DC-6 airliner crashed near Ndola, Northern Rhodesia and now Zambia, and Hammarskjöld perished in the crash, as did all but one of the 16 passengers, who died from injuries a few days later, setting off a succession crisis at the UN
- UN special report and three official inquiries into the circumstances that led to the crash, the Rhodesian Board of Investigation, the Rhodesian Commission of Inquiry, and the United Nations Commission of Investigation
Future enlargement - candidates
- Geography of Iceland
- Geology of Iceland
- History of Iceland
- Demographics of Iceland
Politics of Iceland: Politics of Iceland
- 1 juillet 2012: Réélection du président Olafur Ragnar Grimsson
- Geography of North Macedonia
- History of North Macedonia
- Demographic history of North Macedonia
- Demographics of North Macedonia
- 12 June 2018 Greek-Macedonian agreement on the name 'Republic of North Macedonia' for the former constituent country of Yugoslavia, entering into force on 12 February 2019
Social movements and protests in North Macedonia:
April-July 2016 Macedonian protests: April-July 2016 Macedonian protests, mostly in Skopje, Macedonia, also in Bitola, Strumica, Kumanovo, Prilep, Kocani, Stip, Tetovo and other cities, caused by halting of investigation against former PM Gruevski and other politicians, wiretapping scandal involving Gruevski, and police brutality
- 14 April 2016: Demonstrations continue in Macedonia after presidential ‘pardon' in wiretapping scandal
- 16 April 2016: Protests on streets of Skopje for fourth night as country grapples with crisis following decision to halt investigations into more than 50 public figures, including top politicians embroiled in a wire-tapping scandal