European Union - member states, potential and future EU enlargement(also some western European countries in 2021 are not EU members), EU Parliament elections 2024, 2021 elections in Europe, 2021 local electoral calendar, 2021 national electoral calendar EU states and worldwide and list of elections in 2021 and in 2022 by continent

(Article since June 2011)







Latvia - Geography of Latvia - History of Latvia - Demographics of Latvia
Economy of Latvia: Economy of Latvia - List of companies of Latvia - Companies of Latvia by industry
Agriculture in Latvia: Agriculture in Latvia
Politics of Latvia: Politics of Latvia - 1990 Constitution of Latvia and amendments
Political parties in Latvia: Political parties in Latvia
Politics and elections in Latvia: Elections in Latvia - Latvian parliamentary election 2 October 2010
2011: NZZ 24. Juli 2011: 95% für vorzeitige Parlamentsauflösung - Neuwahlen im September - Latvian parliamentary election 17 September 2011 - 17 September: Latvians vote in snap parliament poll - 18 September: 'Harmony Centre' wins the most votes (29%), 'Reform Party' wins 21% - NZZ 11. Oktober 2011: Neue Regierung in Lettland ohne Wahlsieger 'Harmonie-Zentrum'
2012: Latvian constitutional referendum 18 February 2012 - 19 February 2012: Latvia rejects making Russian an official language - NZZ 16. März 2012: Das Lettland des Jahres 2012 ohne jede Ehre - lettische Polizei schützt Gedenkmarsch lettischer Veteranen der Waffen-SS in der Hauptstadt Riga
2013: Latvian municipal elections 1 June 2013 - 28 November 2013: PM Dombrovskis resigns, taking political responsibility for supermarket collapse that killed 54 people and plunging the Baltic state into turmoil
2014: 1 janvier: Après l’Estonie en 2011, la Lettonie est le deuxième pays balte et le 18e pays à intégrer la zone euro
October 2014 Latvian parliamentary election: Latvian parliamentary election 4 October 2014 - 5 October 2014: The coalition of three current ruling parties with PM Laimdota Straujumahad won 56% of the votes
June 2015 Latvian presidential election: 3 June 2015 Latvian presidential election - 1 June 2015: Latvia presidential election held under shadow of aggressive Russia
October 2018 Latvian parliamentary election: 6 October 2018 Latvian parliamentary election
25 May 2019 European Parliament election in Latvia: 25 mai 2019 élections européennes en Lettonie
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Latvia: Latvian society - Demographics of Latvia - Human rights in Latvia
Districts of Latvia: Districts of Latvia
List of cities and towns in Latvia: Cities and towns in Latvia - Port cities in Latvia
Riga city: Riga city, the capital of Latvia and home to 627,487 inhabitants in 2020, which is a third of Latvia's population, also the largest city in the three Baltic states, as the city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the Baltic Sea - History of Riga begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River
Economy of Riga: Economy of Riga, one of the key economic and financial centres of the Baltic States, as roughly half of all the jobs in Latvia are in Riga and the city generates more than 50% of Latvia's GDP as well as around half of Latvia's exports, and as the biggest exporters are in wood products, IT, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, transport and metallurgy
Timeline of Riga since 12th century: Timeline of Riga since 12th century
1282 Riga joins confederation of market towns 'Hanseatic League': 1282 Riga joins commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns called 'Hanseatic League', as merchants in the 12th and 13th centuries settled in numerous cities on and near the east Baltic coast, such as Elblag, Torun, Tallinn, Riga, and Tartu, which became members of the Hanseatic League, primarily trading timber, furs, resin (or tar), flax, honey, wheat, and rye from the east to Flanders and England with cloth (and, increasingly, manufactured goods), as Metal ore (principally copper and iron) and herring came southwards from Sweden
Since 1330 Riga Castle on the banks of River Daugava: Since 1330 Riga Castle on the banks of River Daugava in Riga, as upon the castle's seizure by the Swedes, citizens constructed spacious annexes in 1641, and as the fortress was continually augmented and reconstructed between the 17th and 19th centuries
1656 Siege of Riga by the Russian Army: Siege of Riga by the Russian Army under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was the main event of the Russo-Swedish War 1656-1658
July-September 1812 Siege of Riga by Napoleon: July-September 1812 Siege of Riga, a military operation undertaken by war criminal Napoleon's 'Grande Armée' during the French invasion of Russia in 1812, as the French did not try to storm Riga and eventually withdrew in September 1812 heading to Moscow, as September 1812 Battle of Borodino became the largest and bloodiest battle involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties during the French invasion of Russia, that ended with about 300,000 French casualties, and about 80,000 German, 72,000 Polish, 50,000 Italian, and 61,000 victims from other nations
Since 1861 Riga Central Station: Since 1861 Riga Central Station, the main point of Riga due to its central location, and most forms of public transport stop in this area
Since 1914 WWI and September 1917 Germans in power in Riga: 3 September 1917 fall of Riga to German military's infiltration tactics and Germans in power amid German empire's military offensive on the Eastern Front
18 November 1918 Riga becomes capital of independent Latvia: 18 November 1918 Riga becomes capital of independent Latvia
Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga and elimination of the Jewish and Roma population: Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga, as elimination of the Jewish and Roma population began, with major mass killings taking place at Rumbula and elsewhere, committed by the 'Einsatzgruppe', the 'Wehrmacht' and Latvian collaborators, including the 500–1,500 members of the Arajs Kommando which alone killed around 26,000 Jews, as most most of the remaining Jewish people being rounded up and put into ghettos and the Riga Ghetto became crowded, later taken from the ghetto to the nearby Rumbula Forest and shot, and as - before the Soviet forces returned - all Jews under 18 or over 30 were shot, with the remainder moved to Stutthof concentration camp
July 1941 burning of the Riga synagogues: July 1941 burning of the Riga synagogues
July 1941-1943 Riga Ghetto in Maskavas Forštate and timeline: July 1941-1943 Riga Ghetto in Maskavas Forštate, a neighbourhood of Riga - Timeline of Riga Ghetto until end of November 1943, when all Jews removed from the ghetto, either by transport to another camp or by murder
November/December 1941 'Rumbula massacre': November/December 1941 'Rumbula massacre', in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga during the Holocaust, except for the Babi Yar massacre in Ukraine the biggest two-day Holocaust atrocity until the operation of the death camps, as about 24,000 of the victims were Latvian Jews from the Riga Ghetto and approximately 1,000 were German Jews transported to the forest by train, and as the massacre was carried out by the Nazi 'Einsatzgruppe' with supporters
December 1941 author of 'World History of the Jewish people' Simon Dubnow murdered by the Nazis: 8 December 1941 Jewish-born Russian historian, writer and activist Simon Dubnow (1860-1941), the son of a timber dealer and the renowned author of the ten-volume 'World History of the Jewish people', first published in German translation in 1925–1929, was murdered by the Nazis during the violent liquidation of the Riga ghetto
1943 - October 1944 Nazi 'Kaiserwald concentration camp': 1943 - October 1944 Nazi 'Kaiserwald concentration camp' near the Riga suburb of Mežaparks in Latvia, built in March 1943 as the first inmates of the camp were several hundred victims coming from Germany
Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45: Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45
1941-45 World War II losses in Latvia among the highest in Europe: 1941-1945 World War II losses in Latvia were among the highest in Europe, as estimates of population loss stand at 30% for Latvia
Since 1951-1961 Latvian Academy of Sciences: Since 1951-1961 Latvian Academy of Sciences, the official science academy of Latvia and an association of the country's foremost scientists, after the academy was founded as the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences located in Riga
Since 4 May 1990 restoration of independence: Since 4 May 1990 Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia
Since 1993 'Museum of the Occupation of Latvia': Since 1993 'Museum of the Occupation of Latvia', a museum and historic educational institution located in Riga
Since 1919/2014 National Library of Latvia: Since 1919/2014 National Library of Latvia, a national cultural institution, after the National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 and the first supervisor of the Library was Janis Misinš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography living in Riga 1862–1945
July 2016 Latvia and Riga joined the OECD: On 1 July 2016 Latvia and Riga joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Daugavpils city: Daugavpils city in south-eastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, and the second-largest city in the country after the capital Riga, which is located some 230 kilometres to its north-west
History of Daugavpils city: History and Jewish history of Daugavpils city
Liepaja city: Liepaja city in western Latvia, an important ice-free port located on the Baltic Sea and the largest city in the Kurzeme Region, also the third largest city in the country after Riga and Daugavpils with a population of 68,945 people in 2019
History of Liepaja: History of Liepaja
History of Liepaja during World War I 1914-1918: History of Liepaja during World War I 1914-1918
History of Liepaja during World War II 1939-1945: History of Liepaja during World War II 1939-1945
December 1941 Liepaja massacres by Nazi forces: December 1941 Liepaja massacres, a series of mass executions, many public or semi-public, in and near the city of Liepaja, as main perpetrators were detachments of the German 'Einsatzgruppen', the 'Sicherheitsdienst' or SD, the 'Ordnungspolizei', or ORPO, and Latvian auxiliary police, as about 5,000 Jews. lesser numbers of Roma, communists and the mentally ill were also killed
Economy of Liepaja: Economy of Liepaja
Jelgava city: Jelgava city in central Latvia, about 41 kilometres southwest of Riga with 55,972 inhabitants in 2019
History of Jelgava: History of Jelgava
July/August 1941 Jelgava massacres, the killing of Jelgava's Jewish population: July/August 1941 Jelgava massacres, the killing of the Jewish population of Jelgava, carried out by German police units under the command of Alfred Becu with a significant contribution by Latvian auxiliary police, responsible for 1,500-2,000 victims as 21 survivors were transported to Ilukste in August 1941
Since 1941/42 results and aftermath of Jelgava massacres as Jelgava itself was mostly destroyed in later fighting: Since 1941/42 results and aftermath of Jelgava massacres, as Jelgava itself was mostly destroyed in later fighting and liberation by the Soviet Army in World War II
Culture of Latvia: Culture of Latvia - Languages of Latvia - Latvian language
Education in Latvia: Education in Latvia
Health in Latvia: Health in Latvia
Latvian media: Latvian media - Lists of Latvian media
Newspapers in Latvia: Newspapers in Latvia
23 October 2014: As Russian regime tightens its grip on the country’s independent media, a group of self-exiled reporters set up shop in Latvia hoping to evade the censors
Crime in Latvia: Crime in Latvia
The Holocaust in Latvia during 20th century: The Holocaust in Latvia during 20th century, refers to the war crimes committed by Nazi Germany and collaborators victimizing Jews during the occupation of Latvia - Holocaust perpetrators in Latvia - Latvian collaborators with Nazi Germany - Kaiserwald concentration camp personnel
Massacres in Latvia: Massacres in Latvia - List of massacres in Latvia
Terrorist incidents in Latvia: Terrorist incidents in Latvia
1998 Riga bombing outside the 92-year old synagogue in Riga: 1998 Riga bombing outside the 92-year old synagogue in Riga
17 August 2000 department store 'Centrs' bombing: 17 August 2000 department store 'Centrs' bombing, as two blasts occurred in the lobby of the supermarket ten minutes apart, as one person died of their injuries and 35 were wounded in the attack
Man-made disasters in Latvia: Man-made disasters in Latvia
21 November 2013 over 50 people dead in supermarket collapse in Riga: 21 November 2013 Zolitude shopping centre roof collapse - 23 November 2013: Over 50 people dead in supermarket collapse in Riga
23 November 2013: 23 November 2013: Latvia's president demanded that the supermarket cave-in be treated as murder
24 November 2013 over 700,000 euros donated to victims of the Riga supermarket tragedy: 24 November 2013: Over 700,000 euros donated to victims of the Riga supermarket tragedy and their families, reports LETA
Human trafficking in Latvia: Human trafficking in Latvia
Law and legal history of Latvia: Law of Latvia - Legal history of Latvia - Since 1922 Constitutions of Latvia - Human rights in Latvia
Latvian courts and judges: Latvian judges
January-February 1946 Riga Trial of German Holocaust perpetrators: January-February 1946 Riga Trial in Latvia, as along with other German personnel Holocaust perpetrator Friedrich Jeckeln, German SS commander who served as a Higher SS and Police Leader in occupied eastern Europe and the Soviet Union during World War II, and the commander of one of the largest collection of 'Einsatzgruppen' death squads, also involved and responsible for Rumbula massacre, Babi Yar, and Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre since 1941, taken prisoner by Soviet troops near Halbe on 28 April 1945, was tried before a Soviet military tribunal in the Riga Trial in Latvia in 1946
Law enforcement in Latvia: Law enforcement in Latvia
Foreign relations of Latvia: Foreign relations of Latvia
Treaties of Latvia: Treaties of Latvia
Latvia/Belarus relations: Latvia/Belarus relations
Latvia/Estonia relations: Latvia/Estonia relations - 1 January 2014: Estonia's Andrus Ansip and Latvia's Valdis Dombrovskis together took out the first euro banknote in Riga
Latvia/Germany relations: Latvia/Germany relations
Baltic Germans: Baltic Germans
Since 1914 WWI and September 1917 Germans in power in Riga: 3 September 1917 fall of Riga to German military's infiltration tactics and Germans in power amid German empire's military offensive on the Eastern Front
Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga and elimination of the Jewish and Roma population: Since July 1941 German occupation of Riga, as elimination of the Jewish and Roma population began, with major mass killings taking place at Rumbula and elsewhere, committed by the 'Einsatzgruppe', the 'Wehrmacht' and Latvian collaborators, including the 500–1,500 members of the Arajs Kommando which alone killed around 26,000 Jews, as most most of the remaining Jewish people being rounded up and put into ghettos and the Riga Ghetto became crowded, later taken from the ghetto to the nearby Rumbula Forest and shot, and as - before the Soviet forces returned - all Jews under 18 or over 30 were shot, with the remainder moved to Stutthof concentration camp
July 1941-1943 Riga Ghetto in Maskavas Forštate and timeline: July 1941-1943 Riga Ghetto in Maskavas Forštate, a neighbourhood of Riga - Timeline of Riga Ghetto until end of November 1943, when all Jews removed from the ghetto, either by transport to another camp or by murder
November/December 1941 'Rumbula massacre': November/December 1941 'Rumbula massacre', in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga during the Holocaust, except for the Babi Yar massacre in Ukraine the biggest two-day Holocaust atrocity until the operation of the death camps, as about 24,000 of the victims were Latvian Jews from the Riga Ghetto and approximately 1,000 were German Jews transported to the forest by train, and as the massacre was carried out by the Nazi 'Einsatzgruppe' with supporters
December 1941 author of 'World History of the Jewish people' Simon Dubnow murdered by the Nazis: 8 December 1941 Jewish-born Russian historian, writer and activist Simon Dubnow (1860-1941), the son of a timber dealer and the renowned author of the ten-volume 'World History of the Jewish people', first published in German translation in 1925–1929, was murdered by the Nazis during the violent liquidation of the Riga ghetto
1943 - October 1944 Nazi 'Kaiserwald concentration camp': 1943 - October 1944 Nazi 'Kaiserwald concentration camp' near the Riga suburb of Mežaparks in Latvia, built in March 1943 as the first inmates of the camp were several hundred victims coming from Germany
Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45: Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45
1941-45 World War II losses in Latvia among the highest in Europe: 1941-1945 World War II losses in Latvia were among the highest in Europe, as estimates of population loss stand at 30% for Latvia
Latvia/Greece relations: Latvia/Greece relations
Trade between Greece and Latvia: Trade between Greece and Latvia - exports and imports include chemicals, processed foods, metals, clothing, raw fruit and vegetables, timber, minerals
Latvia/Israel relations: Latvia/Israel relations
31 October 2012 Latvia calls for development of economic relations and support for Latvia's OECD membership: 31 October 2012: Latvia's FM Rinkevics calls for development of economic relations and support for Latvia's OECD membership
Latvia/Lithuania relations: Latvia/Lithuania relations
Latvia/Russia relations: Latvia/Russia relations - Russians in Latvia
2014/2015: 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 23 October 2014: As Russian regime tightens its grip on the country’s independent media, a group of self-exiled reporters set up shop in Latvia hoping to evade the censors - 4 April 2015: Latvia to strengthen eastern border following Russian regime's intervention and war in Ukraine - 20 December 2015: NATO jets again intercept Russian plane over Baltic near Latvia

Lithuania - Geography of Lithuania - History of Lithuania - Demographics of Lithuania
Economy of Lithuania: Economy of Lithuania - main industries are metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry - List of companies of Lithuania - Companies of Lithuania by industry
Manufacturing companies of Lithuania
Energy in Lithuania: Energy in Lithuania - Renewable energy in Lithuania
2014: 19 October 2014: Lithuania's first LNG terminal ends Russian grip on Baltics
Agriculture in Lithuania: Agriculture in Lithuania - as of 2004, the agricultural sector employed about 227,000 persons and contributed about 6% of its GDP, crops include potatoes, barley, wheat, rye, legumes, and rapeseed, organic farming in Lithuania is expanding rapidly and could account for up to 15 percent of farm area by 2015
Forestry in Lithuania: Forestry in Lithuania
Water in Lithuania: Water in Lithuania - Rivers of Lithuania - Lakes of Lithuania - Baltic Sea and Curonian Lagoon
Tourism in Lithuania: Tourism in Lithuania - Visitor attractions in Lithuania - World Heritage Sites in Lithuania
Foreign trade of Lithuania: Foreign trade of Lithuania - 2 April 2015: Lithuania's main partners in exports and imports and foreign investment in 2014
Since the 1990s economic history of Lithuania and economic cycles: Since the 1990s economic history of Lithuania
2004-2017 annual GDP growth rate of Lithuania: 2004-2017 annual GDP growth rate of Lithuania
Taxation, budget and ministry of finance in Lithuania: Taxes in Lithuania - Ministry of Finance - State budget of the Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian Armed Forces: Lithuanian Armed Forces - Lithuania and NATO - Baltic Air Policing 2004-present
Politics of Lithuania: Politics of Lithuania - Constitution of Lithuania - Law of Lithuania - Political parties in Lithuania
Seimas: Seimas of the Lithuanian Republic is the unicameral Lithuanian parliament
Elections and politics in Lithuania: Elections in Lithuania - Lithuanian parliamentary election, 2008
October 2012 Lithuanian parliamentary election: Lithuanian parliamentary election, 2012 - 14 October 2012: Lithuanians have begun voting for a new parliament in a ballot seen as a test for policies to tackle the economic crisis - 15 octobre: Le parti populiste du Travail de Victor Uspaskich obtient 22,67%, devant le parti social-démocrate d'Algirdas Butkevicius 19,58% et le parti conservateur du Premier ministre sortant Andrius Kubilius 12,82% - 29 octobre: Le parti social-démocrate d'Algirdas Butkevicius avec 38 sièges dans le futur Parlement, le parti du Travail de Victor Uspaskich 30, les conservateurs 32 et l'Ordre et Justice 11
11 May 2014 Lithuanian presidential election: Lithuanian presidential election 11 May 2014 - 11 May: Lithuania goes to the polls spooked by Russian intervention in Ukraine - 12 May: Lithuanian president faces poll run-off after failing to gain 50% of votes
25 May 2014 European Parliament election in Lithuania: 25 May 2014 European Parliament election in Lithuania
October 2016 Lithuanian parliamentary election: 9/23 October 2016 Lithuanian parliamentary election - 11 October 2016: The composition of government will be significantly changed from the present one, as Peasant/Green party shows the most remarkable performance in October election - 23 octobre 2016: L'Union des paysans et Verts a remporté un succès surprise dimanche, au second tour des élections législatives lituaniennes, devant les conservateurs et les sociaux-démocrates
12 May 2019 Lithuanian presidential election: 12 May 2019 Lithuanian presidential election (26 May second round) - 13 mai 2019: L'économiste Gitanas Nauseda est arrivé en tête du premier tour de l'élection présidentielle en Lituanie et affrontera au second tour le 26 mai l'ex-ministre conservatrice des Finances Ingrida Simonyte
26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Lithuania: 26 mai 2019 élections européennes en Lituanie
August 2019 Vilnius synagogue closed following threats: 8 August 2019: Citing threats and 'incitement', the Lithuanian Jewish community on Tuesday announced that it was shutting its doors, and that of Vilnius’ only functioning synagogue, for an indefinite period, as Lithuanian nationalists fumed over decisions by the Vilnius municipality last week to rename a street that had been named after wartime diplomat and Hitler ally Kazys Skirpa, and to remove a plaque of Nazi collaborator Jonas Noreika at the entrance to the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
30 June 2020 Lithuania may dedicate 2021 to alleged perpetrator of Holocaust pogrom: 30 June 2020: Lithuania may dedicate 2021 to alleged perpetrator of Holocaust pogrom, as lawmakers seek to honor Juozas Luksa-Daumantas, accused of participating in the 1941 Lietukis Garage massacre in which locals tortured and beat dozens of Jews to death
October 2020 Lithuanian parliamentary election: 11 October 2020 Lithuanian parliamentary election - Opinion polls for October 2020 Lithuanian parliamentary election
Protests and social movements in Lithuania: Protests in Lithuania - Trade unions in Lithuania - Environmentalism in Lithuania
Since mid-1890s Vilna Group of Jewish Social-Democrats: Vilna Group was a circle of Jewish Social-Democrats which met secretly in the city of Vilna, then part of the Russian empire and now Vilnius in Lithuania, after the group was founded in the mid-1890s
1897-1921 General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia: 1897-1921 General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, generally called 'The Bund' or the 'Jewish Labour Bund', a secular Jewish socialist party initially formed in the Russian Empire and active between 1897 and 1920, as in 1917 the Polish part of the Bund, which dated to the times when Poland was a Russian territory, seceded from the Russian Bund and created a new Polish General Jewish Labour Bund which continued to operate in Poland in the years between the two world wars
Since 2002 Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation: Since 2002 Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation, a national trade union center in Lithuania founded by the merger of the Lithuanian Trade Union Unification and the Lithuanian Trade Union Centre, affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation and the European Trade Union Confederation
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Lithuania: Lithuanian society - Human rights in Lithuania
Regions and counties of Lithuania: Regions of Lithuania - 10 Counties of Lithuania - Municipalities of Lithuania - Municipalities of Lithuania by county - Elderships of Lithuania, the smallest administrative division of Lithuania
Cities in Lithuania: Cities in Lithuania - List of cities in Lithuania - Cities in Lithuania by county - Economies by city in Lithuania
Vilnius city: Vilnius city, the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221 inhabitants as of 2017 - History of Vilnius
Economy of Vilnius: Economy of Vilnius
Timeline of Vilnius: Timeline of Vilnius since 1323
Since 1440 Jewish house of prayer and later Great Synagogue of Vilna: Since 1440 Jewish house of prayer and later Great Synagogue of Vilna, destroyed by the Nazis during World War II, since 2011 plans of restoration
1794 Vilnius uprising: 1794 Vilnius uprising, when Polish and Lithuanian forces fought Russian forces occupying the city during the Kosciuszko Uprising, expelling the Russians from Vilnius
1897 General Jewish Labour Bund founded in Vilnius: 1897 General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia founded in Vilnius
Since 19 September 1915 German occupation: Since 19 September 1915 German empire's invasion of Vilna Governorate and 1915-1918 Lithuania District of German-controlled territory of Ober-Ost during World War I
June/July 1941 - August 1944 German invasion and Ponary massacre: June/July 1941 - August 1944 Ponary massacre, the mass murder of up to 100,000 people by German SD and SS and their Lithuanian collaborators, including Ypatingasis burys killing squads, during World War II - September 1941 - September 1943 Vilna Ghetto, a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius - 1943-1944 KP 562, the site of a Nazi forced labor camp for Jews in Vilnius, during the Holocaust - Since 1942 'Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye', a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II, founded by Communist and Zionist partisans
July 1944 liberation of Vilnius: July 1944 combined forces of the Soviet Red Army and the Polish Home Army liberated Vilnius
Since 1956 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Since 1956 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, the leader in technological sciences in Lithuania with 10 faculties including Antanas Gustaitis Aviation Institute, Architecture, Business Management, Civil Engineering, Creative Industries, Electronics, Environmental Engineering, Fundamental Sciences, Mechanics, Transport Engineering
August 2019 synagogue closed: 7 August 2019: Jewish leaders in the Lithuanian capital Vilnius are indefinitely closing the city's sole synagogue and community center following threats sparked by an emotional debate over the country's World War II-era history
Kaunas city: Kaunas city, the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life, with a population of 383,764 residents in 2017, while according to health insurance statistics, there are 437,283 inhabitants in Kaunas city and Kaunas district municipalities combined in 2018
Economy of Kaunas: Economy of Kaunas, a large center of industry, trade, and services in Lithuania, as the most developed industries in Kaunas include food and beverage industries, textile and light industries, chemical industry, publishing and processing, pharmaceuticals, metal industry, wood processing and furniture industry, amd most recently information technology and electronics
History and timeline of Kaunas: History and timeline of Kaunas
Klaipeda city and seaport: Klaipeda city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast, the third largest city in Lithuania and the capital of Klaipeda County
Economy and port of Klaipeda: Economy of Klaipeda, an industry, business, transport, education and science, health, tourism and administrative cente - Port of Klaipeda, the largest seaport of Lithuania and one of the few ice-free ports in northernmost Europe, serving as a port of call for cruise ships as well as freight transport
History of Klaipeda: History of Klaipeda
Demographics of Lithuania: Demographics of Lithuania
Demographic history of Lithuania: Demographic history of Lithuania - Lithuanian ethnographic regions
History of the Jews in Lithuania since the 8th century: History of the Jews in Lithuania since the 8th century
1941-1943 Vilna Ghetto: 1941-1943 Vilna Ghetto
September 2013: 23 septembre 2013: La Lituanie a marqué lundi le 70e anniversaire de la liquidation par l'Allemagne nazie du ghetto juif de Vilnius et d'une fin quasi totale de la riche culture juive de la ville, surnommée autrefois 'la Jérusalem du Nord'
August 2018: 5 August 2018: The Jewish cemetery of Siauliai, in northern Lithuania was desecrated and human remains were brought to the surface during digging connected to the laying of pipes, as local Jewish leaders say 'the cemetery is a cultural heritage site and all digging is prohibited there'
August 2019 synagogue closed following threats: 8 August 2019: Citing threats and 'incitement', the Lithuanian Jewish community on Tuesday announced that it was shutting its doors, and that of Vilnius’s only functioning synagogue, for an indefinite period, as Lithuanian nationalists fumed over decisions by the Vilnius municipality last week to rename a street that had been named after wartime diplomat and Hitler ally Kazys Skirpa, and to remove a plaque of Nazi collaborator Jonas Noreika at the entrance to the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Culture and languages of Lithuania: Culture of Lithuania - History of Lithuanian culture - Languages of Lithuania - Lithuanian language
Education in Lithuania: Education in Lithuania - Education in Lithuania by city or town
Schools in Lithuania: Schools in Lithuania - List of schools in Lithuania by county
Universities and colleges in Lithuania: Universities and colleges in Lithuania - List of universities and colleges in Lithuania
Health in Lithuania: Health in Lithuania
Healthcare in Lithuania: Medical and health organisations in Lithuania
Hospitals in Lithuania: Hospitals in Lithuania - List of hospitals in Lithuania
Media of Lithuania: Media of Lithuania
Newspapers in Lithuania: Newspapers published in Lithuania - List of newspapers in Lithuania
Broadcasting in Lithuania: Broadcasting in Lithuania
Internet in Lithuania: Internet in Lithuania
Crime in Lithuania: Crime in Lithuania
Since 19 September 1915 German occupation: Since 19 September 1915 German empire's invasion of Vilna Governorate and 1915-1918 Lithuania District of German-controlled territory of Ober-Ost during World War I
1941-1945 Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany: Occupation of the Baltic states by Nazi Germany 1941-1945 - Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany 1941-1945
/June/July 1941 - August 1944 German invasion, Ponary massacre and the Holocaust in Lithuania: June/July 1941 - August 1944 Ponary massacre, the mass murder of up to 100,000 people by German SD and SS and their Lithuanian collaborators, including Ypatingasis burys killing squads, during World War II - September 1941 - September 1943 Vilna Ghetto, a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius - The Holocaust in Lithuania - 1943-1944 KP 562, the site of a Nazi forced labor camp for Jews in Vilnius, during the Holocaust - Since 1942 'Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye', a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II, founded by Communist and Zionist partisans
September 2013: 23 septembre: La Lituanie a marqué lundi le 70e anniversaire de la liquidation par l'Allemagne nazie du ghetto juif de Vilnius et d'une fin quasi totale de la riche culture juive de la ville, surnommée autrefois 'la Jérusalem du Nord'
April 2017: 15 April 2017: 'Holocaust Escape Tunnel' documentary sheds new light on the attempt by 80 imprisoned men and women, mostly Lithuanian Jews, to make a break for freedom in the face of Nazi bullets
August 2018: 4 August 2018: An investigation by Jonas Noreika’s Chicago-born granddaughter, Silvia Foti, uncovered atrocities that her grandfather committed, followed by calls of the Lithuanian Jewish Community for the removal of the plaque for Jonas Noreika that is displayed prominently on a central wall of the library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences in central Vilnius 'before the Lithuanian Day of Remembrance of Jewish Victims of Genocide on September 23'
Corruption in Lithuania: Corruption in Lithuania
Human trafficking in Lithuania: Human trafficking in Lithuania
Domestic violence in Lithuania: Domestic violence in Lithuania
Law and legal history of Lithuania: Law of Lithuania - Legal history of Lithuania
Judiciary and courts of Lithuania: Courts of Lithuania
Law enforcement in Lithuania: Law enforcement in Lithuania
Foreign relations of Lithuania: Foreign relations of Lithuania
Treaties of Lithuania: Treaties of Lithuania
Nordic-Baltic Eight regional co-operation: Nordic-Baltic Eight or NB8 is a regional co-operation format that includes Sweden, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
2015: 3 September 2015: Aggression of the Russian Federation in Ukraine poses a challenge to security in Europe, the representatives of eight Nordic-Baltic countries say at a meeting on regional security in Copenhagen
Lithuania and the European Union: Lithuania and the European Union - Lithuanian European Union membership referendum May 2003 - European Parliament election June 2009, Lithuania - 28 novembre 2013: Le sommet entre l'UE et six anciennes républiques soviétiques à Vilnius devrait être terni par le refus de Kiev de signer un accord avec l'UE - 22 July 2014: Lithuania urges Europe to reject 'Mistralisation of European policy' referring to a 1.2 billion euro deal to supply Russia with two French 'Mistral' warships - 1 January 2015: Lithuania joins Eurozone
Bilateral relations of Lithuania: Bilateral relations of Lithuania
Lithuania/Belarus relations: Lithuania/Belarus relations
Belarus–Lithuania border
3 July 2021 Lithuania declared a state of emergency due to an influx of migrants over the last few days from Belarus: 3 July 2021: Lithuania has declared a state of emergency due to an influx of migrants over the last few days from Belarus, AP reports
Lithuania/Denmark relations: Lithuania/Denmark relations
Lithuania/Germany relations: Lithuania/Germany relations
1939 German ultimatum and 1941-1945 Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany: 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania - Klaipeda Region - Occupation of the Baltic states by Nazi Germany 1941-1945 - Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany 1941-1945
Resistance in Lithuania during World War II: Resistance in Lithuania during World War II
The Holocaust in Lithuania: The Holocaust in Lithuania - Vilna Ghetto
September 2013: 22 septembre 2013: La mémoire de la communauté juive de Lituanie revit sur internet - 23 septembre: La Lituanie a marqué lundi le 70e anniversaire de la liquidation par l'Allemagne nazie du ghetto juif de Vilnius et d'une fin quasi totale de la riche culture juive de la ville, surnommée autrefois 'la Jérusalem du Nord'
April 2017: 15 April 2017: 'Holocaust Escape Tunnel' documentary sheds new light on the attempt by 80 imprisoned men and women, mostly Lithuanian Jews, to make a break for freedom in the face of Nazi bullets
Lithuania/Greece relations: Lithuania/Greece relations
2015: 20 January 2015: Lithuania talks tough on Greece and calls for Europe to show a united front against Russia over Ukraine, saying countries need to stick to their promises - 2 April 2015: Lithuania calls for EU unity amid tensions with Russian regime, after Greece's Tsipras has made no secret of his opposition to a new round of sanctions
Lithuania/Israel relations: Lithuania/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Lithuania since the 8th century - The Holocaust in Lithuania - Jews in Lithuania today
2015: 14 March 2015: Israel opens its first embassy in Lithuania, pre-war home to 250,000 Jews
Lithuania/Poland relations: Lithuania/Poland relations - Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795 - Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II
Lithuania/Russia relations: Lithuania/Russia relations - Lithuanian–Russian wars - Third Partition of Poland - Baltic–Soviet relations 1918-1989
2013/2014: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union - 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 29 November 2014: Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite calls Russian regime a 'predatory neighbor, whose hands are stained with blood', urging all countries to help Ukraine because it is 'fighting not only for its own independence, but also for peace in Europe'
2015: 17 November 2015: Lithuania's and Sweden's foreign ministers have expressed concern about the escalation of military conflict between Russian militants and Ukraine's government forces in eastern Ukraine
2016: 1 July 2016: Concessions to Russian regime, including the roll-back of sanctions, would increase the threat to Europe's security, Lithuania's president Dalia Grybauskaite says - 30 August: Lithuania insists on the need to maintain and even strengthen the EU economic sanctions against Russia until the aggression is stopped in eastern Ukraine
Lithuania/Sweden relations: Lithuania/Sweden relations
Lithuania/Ukraine relations: Lithuania/Ukraine relations - Ukrainians in Lithuania
2009: 26 November 2009: Lithuania promises assistance on Ukraine's path to EU membership after Ukraine and Lithuania signed series of agreements
2014: 3 February 2014: Ukrainian regime allows injured activist Dmytro Bulatov to receive treatment in Lithuania - 6 February 2014: Ukrainian Dmytro Bulatov, who is currently undergoing treatment in Lithuania, says he was tortured 'by professionals' to confess to spying for the USA - 24 November: Lithuania vows to provide all possible military aid to Ukraine
Lithuania/USA relations: Lithuania/USA relations - 15 February 2015: USA reaffirms support for Lithuanian defence after government agrees to sign new cooperation deal
Environment of Lithuania: Environment of Lithuania - Geology of Lithuania - Climate of Lithuania
Landforms of Lithuania: Landforms of Lithuania
Forests of Lithuania: Forests of Lithuania, covering approximately 33% of Lithuania's territory
Water in Lithuania: Water in Lithuania
Environmental issues of Lithuania: Environmental issues of Lithuania include contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at former Soviet military bases

Luxembourg - Geography of Luxembourg - History of Luxembourg - Demographics of Luxembourg
Economy of Luxembourg: Economy of Luxembourg
Companies of Luxembourg: List of companies of Luxembourg - Companies of Luxembourg by industry - Steel companies of Luxembourg
Steel company ArcelorMittal: Steel company ArcelorMittal - 30 June 2010: The European Commission fined 17 steel producers a total of 518 million euros for running a price-fixing cartel, with industry giant ArcelorMittal hit the hardest - 25 July 2012: ArcelorMittal closes plants also Spain - 1 October 2012: ArcelorMittal confirms it will permanently close two furnaces in north-eastern France, enraging workers - 24 January 2013: ArcelorMittal said that it would permanently close parts of a factory in Liège and that 1,300 jobs would be 'eliminated'
Agriculture in Luxembourg: Agriculture in Luxembourg includes wine, dairy and meat production
Transport in Luxembourg: Transport in Luxembourg, a small country with about 600,000 inhabitants, as nearly 200,000 people living in France, Belgium and Germany cross the border every day to work in Luxembourg
Rail transport in Luxembourg: Rail transport in Luxembourg - Since 1946 Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois
Road transport in Luxembourg: Road transport in Luxembourg
Since 2004 integrated traffic and landscape concept: Since 2004 integrated traffic and landscape concept, a spatial development plan which has been created in order to improve the spatial framework in terms of housing, economy, landscape and traffic in Luxembourg
Public transport in Luxembourg: Public transport in Luxembourg - Passenger rail transport in Luxembourg - Transport in Luxembourg City
December 2018: 5 December 2018: Luxembourg to become first country to make all public transport free, as government seeks to prioritise environment and end some of world’s worst traffic congestion
Financial companies in Luxembourg: Financial 'services' companies of Luxembourg
Banking and banks in Luxembourg: Banking in Luxembourg - Banks of Luxembourg - Espírito Santo Financial Group
July 2014: 18 July 2014: Espirito Santo family’s holding company, which owns a stake in Portugal’s second-largest bank, has filed for creditor protection
November 2014: 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal revealed in November 2014 by a journalistic investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, making available to the public tax rulings for over three hundred multinational companies based in Luxembourg
April 2016: 3 April 2016: Findings of a yearlong investigation by the ICIJ of the 'Panama Papers' (also concerning the British Virgin Islands and other offshore havens), a giant leak of offshore financial records, expose global array of crime, corruption, offshore holdings of politicians and public officials from around the world including Putin, Assad associates, the family of China’s Xi Jinping, the king of Saudi Arabia, Poroshenko, the familiy of Pakistan's Nawaz Sharif, people in more than 200 countries and territories (Jackie Chan, Lionel Messi etc.), people and companies blacklisted because of evidence that they’d been involved in wrongdoing and war crimes, such as doing business with Mexican drug lords, terrorist organizations like Hezbollah or rogue nations like North Korea and Iran, the support of Assad's barrel bombs, and involving major banks including British banks, German banks, banks of Luxembourg, Switzerland's UBS, Credit Suisse and HSBC Private Bank
Taxation in Luxembourg: Luxembourgish tax regime - Base Erosion and Profit Shifting - Luxembourg Leaks journalistic investigation conducted by the ICIJ, based on confidential information about tax rulings from 2002 to 2010 - 5 November 2014: Pepsi, IKEA, FedEx and 340 other international companies have secured secret deals from Luxembourg, allowing many of them to slash their global tax bills while maintaining little presence in the duchy, leaked documents reviewed by ICIJ journalists show - 9 December 2014: New leak reveals Luxembourg tax deals for Disney, Koch Brothers Empire, Microsoft etc. - 10 December 2014: Fresh allegations outlining the tactics Jean-Claude Juncker used when he was PM of Luxembourg to promote the country as the destination for multinational corporations - 1 January 2017: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker spent years in his previous role as Luxembourg’s prime minister secretly blocking EU efforts to tackle tax avoidance by multinational corporations, leaked documents reveal
Politics of Luxembourg: Politics of Luxembourg - Political parties in Luxembourg
Chambre des Députés
Government of Luxembourg: Executive branch
2013: 8 avril 2013: Le Luxembourg prêt à prendre des mesures pour limiter son secret bancaire - 11 juillet 2013: Jean-Claude Juncker démissionne en raison de la mise en cause de ses responsabilités politiques dans un scandale impliquant les services de renseignement
Elections and politics in Luxembourg: Elections in Luxembourg - Luxembourgian legislative election 2009 - Luxembourgish communal election, 2011
October 2013 Luxembourgian general election: Luxembourgian general election 20 October 2013 - 20 October 2013: Luxembourg goes to the polls on Sunday with PM Jean-Claude Juncker facing tough test - 20 October: Jean-Claude Juncker looks set to extend his 18 years running the nation, though his popularity is sliding, according to estimates - 22 October: Luxembourg parties eye coalition without Juncker - 25 October: Xavier Bettel, the mayor of Luxembourg City, asked to form the next government
October 2018 Luxembourg general election: 14 October 2018 Luxembourg general election
Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Luxembourg: Luxembourgian society - Demographics of Luxembourg - Human rights in Luxembourg
Culture of Luxembourg: Culture of Luxembourg - Languages of Luxembourg - Multilingualism in Luxembourg - Luxembourgish language
Education in Luxembourg: Education in Luxembourg
Health in Luxembourg: Health in Luxembourg
Crime in Luxembourg: Crime, comparative law and justice in Luxembourg
Corruption and white-collar crime in Luxembourg: Corruption in Luxembourg
2014 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal: 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal revealed in November 2014 by a journalistic investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, making available to the public tax rulings for over three hundred multinational companies based in Luxembourg
2016: 25 April 2016: The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists strongly condemns the upcoming trial of French journalist and ICIJ member Edouard Perrin and two whistleblowers by Luxembourg prosecutors over leaked documents that revealed widespread aggressive tax avoidance by some of the world’s largest companies - 29 June 2016: In a conviction condemned by ICIJ and Transparency International of LuxLeaks whistleblowers, former employee of PricewaterhouseCoopers Antoine Deltour convicted of 'theft' by a court in Luxembourg, following widespread aggressive tax avoidance and an unprecedented leak of controversial tax deals granted to many of the world’s largest corporations including Burberry, Pepsi, Ikea, Heinz, Shire Pharmaceuticals and others
Courts, criminal law and law enforcement in Luxembourg: Courts and Criminal Law in Luxembourg - Law enforcement in Luxembourg
2016: 26 April 2016: A trial of three people accused of involvement in the leaking of documents that revealed industrial scale tax avoidance has begun in Luxembourg, with attending MEPs vowing to propose a whistleblowers’ charter to prevent such cases in future
Foreign relations of Luxembourg: Foreign relations of Luxembourg
Treaties of Luxembourg: Treaties of Luxembourg
Luxembourg/European Union relations: European Investment Bank
2017: 1 January 2017: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker spent years in his previous role as Luxembourg’s prime minister secretly blocking EU efforts to tackle tax avoidance by multinational corporations, leaked documents reveal
Luxembourg/UN relations: Luxembourg and the United Nations
Bilateral relations of Luxembourg: Bilateral relations of Luxembourg
Luxembourg/Belgium relations: Luxembourg/Belgium relations
Luxembourg/France relations: Luxembourg/France relations
Luxembourg/Germany relations: Luxembourg/Germany relations
28 July 1914: The International Socialist Bureau (permanent secretariat in Brussels) urges the European working population and its organizations, to continue and intensify the battle for peace, for an arbitrational solution of the Austrian-Serbian crisis
1 August 1914-1918: 1 August 1914: German declarations of war on Russia on 1st August, on France on August 3, on Belgium on August 4, German troops invaded Luxemburg as early as 7:00 pm of August 1st without declaration, first of all occupying the railway station of Ulflingen - German occupation of Luxembourg during World War I - German war crimes in the 20th century
1939-1945: The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of the German invasion of the Low Countries and France during World War II since 10 May 1940 - German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II - Luxembourg in World War II
Luxembourgish collaboration with Nazi Germany and Holocaust: Luxembourgish collaboration with Nazi Germany - The Holocaust in Luxembourg - 13 February 2015: Luxembourg’s wartime bosses willingly cooperated with German Nazis in the persecution of Jews during the Holocaust, a government-commissioned study determined
Luxembourg Resistance: Luxembourg Resistance - 1942 Luxembourgish general strike to protest against a directive that conscripted Luxembourg youth into the Wehrmacht, German authorities responded violently by sentencing 21 strikers to death
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018
Luxembourg/Hungary relations: Luxembourg/Hungary relations
2016: 13 September 2016: Luxembourg’s FM Jean Asselborn has called for Hungary to be suspended or expelled from the EU over its increasingly hostile approach to refugees, as campaigners accuse Viktor Orbán’s government of whipping up xenophobia to block a European plan to relocate asylum seekers, and as rights groups and UN document that refugees and migrants at Hungary’s border are being summarily forced back, in some cases with cruel and violent treatment, without consideration of their claims for protection
Luxembourg/India relations: Luxembourg/India relations - Steel company ArcelorMittal
Luxembourg/Portugal relations: Luxembourg/Portugal relations
Espírito Santo Financial Group - 18 July 2014: Espirito Santo International, Holding company of Portugal's second-largest bank, files for creditor protection saying it can't meet its obligations
Luxembourg/Russia relations: 10 December 2013: Luxembourg's Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups
Luxembourg/United Kingdom relations: Luxembourg/United Kingdom relations - Steel company ArcelorMittal
Luxembourg/USA relations: Luxembourg/USA relations

Malta - Geography of Malta - History of Malta - Demographics of Malta
Economy of Malta: Economy of Malta, main industries include tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services - Companies of Malta by industry
Petroleum in Malta: Petroleum in Malta - Luzzu oil field, located in the Mediterranean Sea, discovered in 2006 it will begin production in 2015
Energy in Malta: Energy in Malta, Malta produces almost all its electricity using oil, importing 100% of it
Agriculture in Malta: Agriculture in Malta - Lumi laring ta ghawdex - cultivation of oranges
Transport in Malta: Transport in Malta - Ports and harbours of Malta
Water transport in Malta: Water transport in Malta
Tourism in Malta: Tourism in Malta
Banking and banks in Malta: List of banks in Malta - Central Bank of Malta - Bank of Valletta - HSBC Bank Malta
March-November 2018 Pilatus bank case and investigative journalist: 22. März 2018: Maltas Finanzaufsicht MFSA hat die Absetzung des iranischen Chefs Nedschad der in einen Korruptionsskandal verwickelten Pilatus-Bank angeordnet, den die im Oktober ermordete maltesische Investigativjournalistin Daphne Caruana Galizia aufgedeckt hatte
November 2018 Pilatus bank closed over Iranian chairman fraud and corrupt payment charges: 5 November 2018: Maltese Pilatus bank, which was closed after its Iranian chairman and owner Ali Sadr Hasheminejad was charged in the USA in connection with money-laundering and fraud and was also accused of processing corrupt payments to Maltese officials by the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, has had its licence withdrawn by the European Central Bank
Taxation in Malta: Taxation in Malta
Politics of Malta: Politics of Malta - Constitution of Malta adopted on 21 September 1964 and amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2007
Political parties and trade unions in Malta: Political parties in Malta - Trade unions in Malta
Politics, elections and parliament in Malta: Elections in Malta - Parliament of Malta
May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum: May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum, effectively a referendum on independence, as the new constitution made the country an independent Commonwealth realm
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
March 2008 Maltese general election: Maltese general election 8 March 2008 - 10 December 2012: Malta faces new elections after its government collapsed over negotiations for next year's budget
General election March 2013: Maltese general election 9 March 2013 - 10 March 2013: Addressing thousands of supporters at Floriana Granaries, newly elected PM Joseph Muscat says that the day of change has just dawned upon Malta
April 2014 Maltese presidential election: Maltese presidential election 1 April 2014 - Marie Louise Coleiro Preca appointed as the ninth President of Malta on 4 April 2014
European Parliament election 2014: European Parliament election 24 May 2014
June 2017 Maltese general election: 3 June 2017 Maltese general election - 4 juin 2017: Le premier ministre Muscat annoncé gagnant, dans l'espoir de retrouver une légitimité à l'égard d'une affaire des comptes au Panama
November 2017: 3 novembre 2017: Malte enterre ce vendredi la journaliste et blogueuse anticorruption Daphne Caruana Galizia, dont l'assassinat à la voiture piégée le 16 octobre a provoqué une onde de choc - 5 December 2017: Three Maltese men have been charged for the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia
May 2018: 28 May 2018: The family of the murdered Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia have had little chance to mourn her death because of continuing intimidation, threats and lies, according to her son
May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta: 25 May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta
September 2019 concerns over Daphne Caruana Galizia's death inquiry: 21 September 2019: Family of murdered Maltese journalist raise concerns over public inquiry, as Daphne Caruana Galizia’s family request meeting with Maltese PM over concerns about impartiality of panel, calling for greater scrutiny into a lack of accountability for criminal actions and political corruption
October 2019 serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2019: Pieter Omtzigt, a special rapporteur for the Council of Europe, has raised serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, saying 'individual officers may be doing their best, but the approach of the police force as a whole, and of the politicians responsible for it, does not match the prime minister’s promise to leave no stone unturned'
November 2019 Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested in Galizia case: 20 November 2019: Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested onboard his yacht as it was heading out to sea, in an operation linked to the murder of the Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, less than 24 hours after immunity offer from prosecution to an alleged middleman in exchange for information
26 November 2019 Maltese PM's aide and minister quit amid turmoil: 26 November 2019: Maltese PM’s chief of staff and tourism minister resigned in an escalation of the political turmoil surrounding the investigation into the murder of the prominent anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia in 2017
1 December 2019 Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder: 1 December 2019: Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder
12 January 2020 Malta gets new PM Labour leader Robert Abela: 12 January 2020: Malta gets new PM labour leader Robert Abela after Muscat departs over Daphne Caruana Galizia murde amid controversy surrounding investigation of journalist’s death
29 July 2021 Malta responsible for journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia's death, inquiry says: 29 July 2021: A public inquiry into the assassination of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia has found the state responsible for her death, as the report said the state had failed to recognise risks to the reporter's life and take reasonable steps to avoid them, after Caruana Galizia died in a car bomb attack near her home in October 2017
Social movements and protests in Malta: Protests in Malta
October 2017 protests following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017: Journalists, politicians, private citizens, backers and detractors, all were quick to condemn the as-yet unknown perpetrators who murdered Malta's most known journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia - 17 October 2017: People gathered outside the law courts in Valletta this afternoon for a protest demanding justice following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia - 19 October 2017: Malta's journalists held a silent commemoration in Valletta today to mark their sorrow at the murder of blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia and to promise that the savage attack will not intimidate the profession - 22 October 2017: Thousands of Maltese call for justice in a protest held by a group of non-governmental organizations after journalist and anti-corruption blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia was killed last Monday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Malta: Maltese society - Human rights in Malta
Regions, districts and local councils of Malta: Subdivisions of Malta - Regions of Malta - Districts of Malta - Local councils of Malta
List of towns with and without a local council, with and without hamlet council: List of towns in Malta with a local council, with and without hamlet council, in Gozo with a local council, with and without hamlet council
Valletta city: Valletta city, the capital city of Malta and located in the South Eastern Region, the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938 inhabitants
Education in Valletta: Education in Valletta
Economy of Valletta: Economy of Valletta (Wirtschaft Vallettas)
History and timeline of Valletta: History and timeline of Valletta
Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule: Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule
21st century history of Valletta: Contemporary history of Valletta
Leeuwarden and Valletta European Capital of Culture in 2018: Valletta was the European Capital of Culture in 2018 together with The Netherlands' Leeuwarden
Rabat town: Rabat town in the Northern Region of Malta, with a population of 11,497 citizens in 2014. It adjoins the ancient capital city of Mdina, and a north-western area formed part of the Roman city of Melite until its medieval retrenchment
28 September 2021 Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath: 28 September 2021: Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath, after the EU member state has committed to achieving 11.5% target share of energy from renewable sources by 2030, and as the country's first solar footpath is taking shape in Rabat
Demographics of Malta: Demographics of Malta
Culture of Malta: Culture of Malta - Languages of Malta - Maltese language
Women and women's rights in Malta: Women in Malta - Maltese women by occupation
Since 1947 women in Maltese general elections and politics: Women in Maltese general elections, as 15 general elections have been contested since the granting of universal suffrage in Malta in 1947, as only 73 women have contested in these elections and number of men has exceeded 1000, but the number of women contesting general elections has increased over the years - Maltese women in politics
Maltese children: Maltese children
Education in Malta: Education in Malta
Schools in Malta: Schools in Malta - List of schools in Malta
Universities in Malta: Universities in Malta - University of Malta
Health in Malta: Health in Malta
Healthcare in Malta: Healthcare in Malta - List of hospitals in Malta
Media in Malta: Media in Malta
Newspapers in Malta: Newspapers published in Malta - List of newspapers in Malta
Radio and TV in Malta: Radio in Malta - Television in Malta
Internet in Malta: Internet in Malta
Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook 'Running Commentary': Running Commentary website, Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook - Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook's final blog on 16 October 2017
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
November 2017: 22 November 2017: The family of the murdered Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was a relentless critic of corruption in the country, are taking legal action against the police force for allegedly failing to ensure the investigation into her killing is impartial and independent
April 2018: 17 April 2018: The family of the murdered anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia believe that three men awaiting trial for the crime were acting on orders from inside Malta, and have expressed concern that elements within the government may be protecting whoever commissioned the killing
22 July 2020 Caruana Galizia murder case middleman found with stab wounds ahead of court date: 22 July 2020: Self-confessed middleman in the murder of the Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, former taxi driver Melvin Theuma, has suffered multiple knife injuries to his neck, torso and wrist, hours before he was due to give evidence in the case
24 October 2020 children's book tells story of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 24 October 2020: Children's book tells story of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, as her friend Gattaldo recounts her battles against corruption for young readers, saying 'she has left a strong legacy and here in Malta I see it', 'there is a realisation that democracy doesn’t stop with the vote'
Crime in Malta: Crime in Malta
Since classical antiquity slavery in Malta: Slavery in Malta existed and was recognised from classical antiquity until the early modern period, common in many countries around the Mediterranean Sea, as the system reached its apex under Hospitaller rule, when it took on unprecedented proportions, largely to provide galley slaves for the galleys of the Order, as well as other Christian countries
Corruption in Malta: 28 February 2017: Overview of Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Malta by Transparency International
April 2021 Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’: 23 April 2021: Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’, as undercover investigation finds evidence that cash-for-passport practices revealed in Henley & Partners leak continue
Terrorism in Malta: Terrorism in Malta
1977 Murder of Karin Grech: 28 December 1977 Murder of Karin Grech
October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia
October 2017 bomb detonated via mobile phone message: 19 December 2017: Bomb was ‘organic explosive’ detonated via mobile phone message, sent from a boat off the island’s coast as part of a carefully planned operation lasting several months
Organized crime in Malta: Organized crime and 'Ndrangheta in Malta
Human trafficking in Malta: Human trafficking in Malta
Organized crime in Malta: Organized crime and 'Ndrangheta in Malta
Human trafficking in Malta: Human trafficking in Malta
Law and legal history of Malta: Law of Malta - Human rights in Malta and history
Judiciary of Malta: Judiciary of Malta
Law enforcement in Malta: Law enforcement in Malta - The Malta Police Force
2017 police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder: 17 October 2017: Police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder
Foreign relations of Malta: Foreign relations of Malta
Treaties of Malta: Treaties of Malta
Immigration to Malta: Immigration to Malta - Illegal immigration in Malta - May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck - 11 October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - September 2014 Malta migrant shipwreck - 17 September 2014: About 500 migrants may have been killed when people smugglers rammed their boat bound for Malta, drowning the vast majority of its passengers, including refugees from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Palestine, the IOM says after it debriefed two Palestinian survivors - 19 September 2014: World must vigorously pursue criminal gangs who doomed hundreds of migrants in the Mediterranean, IOM's William Lacy Swing says
Malta and the European Union: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese EU membership referendum: Maltese EU membership referendum March 2003
2013: 13. Oktober 2013: Nach dem Schiffsunglück am 11. Oktober zwischen Malta und Lampedusa sagt Joseph Muscat, Malta fühle sich in der Flüchtlingsproblematik von der EU im Stich gelassen
2017: 20 October 2017: As European parliament's Antonio Tajani says there was broad agreement among the EU27 on the need for some form of international involvement 'to fully clarify an event of unprecedented gravity', Pope Francis sent a rare letter of condolence to Malta following the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, amid calls from her sons for the island’s PM to resign and mounting pressure for an international investigation - 3 novembre 2017: La Commission européenne a demandé aux autorités maltaises de retrouver les 'barbares' qui ont tué la journaliste d'investigation Daphné Caruana Galizia mi-octobre
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU’s justice commissioner Vera Jourová to fly to Malta to meet officers investigating the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia after a damning report accused the authorities of seeking to delay and stall attempts to find those who wanted the journalist dead
Bilateral relations of Malta: Bilateral relations of Malta
Malta/France relations: Malta/France relations
1798-1800 French occupation of Malta: 1798-1800 French occupation of Malta
Malta/Germany relations: Malta/Germany relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
Since January 1941 German intervention: Since January 1941 German intervention
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
2017 sociétés 'boîte aux lettres': 10 mai 2017: Des milliers d'entreprises fictives enregistrées sur l'île de Malta et liées à de grands groupes allemands sont dans le viseur du fisc allemand
Malta/Italy relations: Malta/Italy relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta: June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
Malta/Libya relations: Malta/Libya relations
Malta/Russia relations: Malta/Russia relations
2016: 27 October 2016: Malta will not refuel Russia's 'death fleet' heading to Syria, after online petition to the Maltese government said the people of Malta did not want to be complicit in Russia's war crimes
Malta/Spain relations: Malta/Spain relations
Malta/Tunisia relations: Malte/Tunisia relations
2015: 9 July 2015: As Maltese holidaymakers strike Tunisia off their destination list following the Sousse terrorist attack in June, and British tourists decide to cut their holidays, some have declared in interviews and on social media they were determined to see their holiday through to the end to defy the terrorists
Malta/Turkey relations: Malta/Turkey relations
1565 Great Siege of Malta: 1565 Great Siege of Malta, when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller
Malta/United Kingdom relations: Malta/United Kingdom relations
1690–1967 British Mediterranean Fleet: British Mediterranean Fleet 1690–1967
1798-1800 Siege of Malta: Siege of Malta (1798–1800)
1813-1964 British Malta Colony: British Malta Colony 1813–1964
1964 Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence: Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence 1964
Malta/USA relations: Malta/USA relations
Environment of Malta: Environment of Malta - Natural history of Malta - Geology of Malta
Landforms of Malta: Landforms of Malta
Water in Malta: Water in Malta

Netherlands - Geography of the Netherlands - History of the Netherlands - Dutch Revolt 1566–1648 against Spanish rule - 1581–1795 Republic of the United Netherlands - 1795–1806 Batavian Republic - Napoleon's puppet 'Kingdom of Holland' 1806-1810 - 1815-1839 United Kingdom of the Netherlands - Since 1830 Kingdom of the Netherlands
Demographics of the Netherlands: Demographics of the Netherlands
Economy of the Netherlands: Economy of the Netherlands - main industries are agriculture-related industries, metal and engineering products, electronic machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing - Economic history of the Netherlands 1500–1815 - Companies of the Netherlands by industry 21th century - Multinational companies headquartered in the Netherlands
Energy and fossil fuels in the Netherlands: Energy in the Netherlands - Fossil fuels in the Netherlands
Oil companies of the Netherlands: Oil companies of the Netherlands
2015 Royal Dutch Shell: Royal Dutch Shell Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom - 17 May 2015: Royal Dutch Shell accused of pursuing a strategy that would lead to potentially catastrophic climate change after an internal document acknowledged a global temperature rise of 4C - 18 December 2015: A Dutch appeals court ruled on Friday that Royal Dutch Shell can be held liable for oil spills at its subsidiary in Nigeria, potentially opening the way for other compensation claims against the multinational
29 January 2021 Dutch appeals court orders Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills also targeting Royal Dutch Shell: 29 January 2021: Dutch appeals court in The Hague has ordered Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills they say caused widespread pollution, as court in The Hague rejected Shell’s argument that the spills were the result of sabotage, instead ordering Shell’s Nigerian subsidiary to compensate the farmers for the losses caused by the oil spills in the two villages of Goi and Oruma in 2004 and 2005, also ruling that the parent company, Royal Dutch Shell, and its subsidiary must install warning equipment on its Oruma pipelines to limit the environmental damage in case of another spill
20 July 2021 'Royal Dutch Shell' confirmed that it will appeal against the landmark Dutch court ruling: 20 July 2021: 'Royal Dutch Shell' has confirmed that it will appeal against the landmark Dutch court ruling calling for the oil giant to cut its carbon emissions faster, as court in The Hague reached the milestone verdict in May this year after Friends of the Earth and over 17,000 co-plaintiffs successfully argued that Shell had been aware of the dangerous consequences of CO2 emissions for decades, and that its climate targets did not go far enough, as now Shell’s chief executive Ben van Beurden said the company agrees that 'urgent action is needed' to reduce carbon emissions, vowing to accelerate its progress towards becoming a net zero carbon company, but said that Shell would still appeal against the ruling 'because a court judgment, against a single company, is not effective', ignoring that the cancellation of an important step fought for progress - that admittedly first will concern only one fossil fuel giant - is certainly not suitable for further progress against catastrophic consequences of climate change's global warming, in Africa, the Americas, Antarctica, Asia, Australie, Europe and EU countries including the former colonial Dutch empire's country 'The Nethelands', last week hit by unprecedented European floods, killing many citizens Europe e.i. today mourned in Belgium
'Big Oil' name, used for the world's largest oil and gas companies: 'Big Oil', a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, onsidered to be BP, Chevron, Eni, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, TotalEnergies, ConocoPhillips, as Sinopec Group and the China National Petroleum Corporation, which are state-owned Chinese oil companies, had greater revenues in 2019 than any of the supermajors, also Saudi-Arabia's Saudi Aramco, Russia's Rosneft and Lukoil with operations and subsidiaries in more than 40 countries around the world, National Iranian Oil Company, and more - List of largest oil and gas companies by revenue
Renewable energy in the Netherlands: Renewable energy in the Netherlands
2017: 10 January 2017: Dutch trains become 100% powered by wind energy
Agriculture in the Netherlands: Agriculture in the Netherlands - Flower bulb cultivation in the Netherlands
Fishing in the Netherlands
Water in the Netherlands: Water in the Netherlands - Bodies of water of the Netherlands - Rivers of the Netherlands - Delta Works - Dams and dikes in the Netherlands - Flood control in the Netherlands, an important issue for the country as about two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding while it is among the most densely populated on Earth
Water supply and sanitation in the Netherlands: Water supply and sanitation in the Netherlands
Water transport in the Netherlands: Water transport in the Netherlands
Polders: Polders are low-lying tracts of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes and are at risk from flooding at all times - Polders of the Netherlands - Flood control in the Netherlands - 'Polder model', term used to describe the acclaimed Dutch version of consensus-based economic and social policy
Foreign trade of the Netherlands: Foreign trade of the Netherlands
Banks of the Netherlands: Banks of the Netherlands - 30 octobre 2013: Devenant la cinquième banque à être condamnée dans le cadre du scandale du Libor, la banque néerlandaise Rabobank doit payer une amende de 774 millions d'euros aux autorités de trois pays
Taxation in the Netherlands: Taxation in the Netherlands - Income tax in the Netherlands - Corporate tax in the Netherlands
Military of the Netherlands: Military of the Netherlands - Military equipment of the Netherlands - Naval ships of the Netherlands
Military history of the Netherlands: Military history of the Netherlands - 'Royal Netherlands Navy' since 8 January 1488
2013: 12 September 2013: Almost 67 years after thousands of Indonesian men were summarily executed in South Sulawesi as part of a ruthless campaign to crush a rebellion against Dutch colonial rule, the Netherlands officially apologized and announced a proposal to compensate victims of similar 'excesses'
2014: 2 February 2014: Dutch defence minister Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert tweets image of Norwegian, Swedish and German counterparts from Munich summit, saying female defence ministers pledge to break Europe's old boys' network
Politics of the Netherlands: Politcs of the Netherlands - Political parties in the Netherlands
2010: Niederlande Parlamentswahlen 2010 - 23 April: PM Mark Rutte resigns after failed austerity talks and the collapse of the partnership with far-right party - 26 April: Five Dutch political parties have agreed tough budget cuts days after the government collapsed over the measures
2012: Dutch general election 12 September 2012 - 12 September 2012: The Dutch are set to vote in a parliamentary election in which two pro-European political parties are neck and neck in the latest opinion polls - 13 September: Dutch voters back pro-European parties and Mark Rutte while the Freedom Party faces heavy losses
May 2014 European Parliament election in the Netherlands: European Parliament election 25 May 2014 in the Netherlands - 23 May 2014: Exit polls show far-Right and anti-Islam leader with 12.2% of vote, behind all pro-EU mainstream political parties
April 2016 Dutch Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement referendum: 6 April 2016 Dutch Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement referendum - 7 April 2016: 64% of Dutch referendum voters, from only 32% turnout, reject a Ukraine-European Union treaty on closer political and economic ties
October 2016: 11 October 2016: Netherland's ruling royals were and still are compensated for the taxes they must pay on their private assets, starting in the 70’s, when it was first decided that the royals will pay taxes on their personal assets
Since Januar 2017: The Guardian view on the Netherlands
Opinion polling for the 2017 Dutch general election: Opinion polling for the 2017 Dutch general election
March 2017 Dutch general election: 15 March 2017 Dutch general election - 16 March 2017: With half the votes counted, Dutch PM Rutte claims parliamentary election victory, as anti-EU and anti-Islam Wilders’s party sinks to third place and as a big winner proves to be GreenLeft in first ballot-box test for European countries in 2017
March 2018 Dutch municipal elections alongside with the Intelligence and Security Services Act referendum: 21 March 2018 Dutch municipal elections - 21 March 2018: Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act referendum, alongside with the municipal elections - 23 March 2018: Dutch municipal council election results
March 2019 anti-immigration populist party has won the most votes in elections for the upper house of parliament: 21 March 2019: An anti-immigration populist party has won the most votes in elections for the upper house of parliament in the Netherlands, days after a shooting in Utrecht, robbing the governing coalition of its majority and forcing it to seek new alliances
6 November 2020 new technology to cut e-bike road deaths: 6 November 2020: Electric bike motors will be shut down when entering residential or built-up areas of Amsterdam, under a government-funded project to cut road deaths from the increasingly powerful vehicles
14 January 2021 Dutch government faces collapse over child benefits scandal: 14 January 2021: Dutch government faces collapse over child benefits scandal, as coalition at risk amid fallout from tax authorities wrongly ‘hunting down’ thousands of families
15 January 2021 Dutch government resigns over child benefits scandal: 15 January 2021: Dutch government resigns over child benefits scandal, as PM Mark Rutte will stay on in caretaker capacity until general elections scheduled for 17 March
March 2021 Dutch general election: 17 March 2021 Dutch general election - Opinion polling for the March 2021 Dutch general election
18 March 2021 VVD and PM Rutte win Dutch general election: 18 March 2021: PM Mark Rutte claims fourth term as exit polls suggest the VVD party increased its share of seats as it won national ballot also seen as a vote on handling of covid-19 crisis, as pro-European D66 party, a member of Rutte’s outgoing coalition led by FM Sigrid Kaag finished second with 27 seats, as Dutch Labour party PvdA finished unchanged on 9 seats, as anti-Islam Freedom party (PVV) of Geert Wilders lost three seats compared finishing third equal with another of Rutte’s coalition partners, the Christian Democrats CDA, on 14 seats, while two other left-leaning parties, GreenLeft and the Socialist party, both lost almost half their seats to finish with 8 each
Kati Piri serving as a member of the House of Representatives since 2021: Dutch politician Kati Piri serving as a member of the House of Representatives since 2021, after - as a member of the Labour Party PvdA - she previously was a Member of the European Parliament within the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats from 2014 until 2021
17 September 2021 FM Sigrid Kaag resigned over government's handling of evacuations from Afghanistan: 17 September 2021: Dutch FM Sigrid Kaag has resigned after the lower house of parliament passed a motion of censure against the government over its handling of evacuations from Afghanistan amid the Taliban takeover in August, acknowledging that the government’s slow or muddled response to warnings about the situation in Afghanistan meant some local staff and people who had worked as translators for Dutch troops in the country had not been evacuated
17 September 2021 second Dutch minister resigns over Afghanistan evacuation scandal following censure in parliament: 17 September 2021: The Dutch defence minister Ank Bijleveld has resigned over the government’s handling of evacuations from Afghanistan, announcing her move one day after the Netherlands’ FM stepped down
Social movements and protests in the Netherlands: Social movements and protests in the Netherlands
Since 1940 Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands and February 1941 General Strike: 1941 February Strike, general strike organized during World War II in the Netherlands against the anti-Jewish measures and activities of the Nazi Germany, its direct causes were the pogroms held by the Germans in the Jewish neighbourhood of Amsterdam - Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, peaking at over 300,000 people in hiding in the autumn of 1944 - The Dutch underground press was part of the resistance to the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, paralleling the emergence of underground media across German-occupied Europe - Dutch Resistance members
2007-2011 Dutch 'pupil strike': Dutch 'pupil strike' in 2007 and 2011, series of student strikes against government's plans for quantity instead of quality of education
June/July 2015 protests over the death of Mitch Henriquez: 29 June 2015: Police clashed with protesters demonstrating against the death of Mitch Henriquez from the Dutch Caribbean island of Aruba after he was arrested by police at a music festival - 3 July 2015: After the fourth night of protests in The Hague following the death of a Caribbean tourist Mitch Henriquez and father of three, who died of asphyxiation at the hands of police, officers arrest about 200 people for breaching ban on public assembly
6 December 2018 people protesting the Dutch tradition of 'Black Pete' turning their backs to a holiday parade: 6 December 2020: People protesting the Dutch tradition of 'Black Pete' turn their backs to a holiday parade in the Netherlands, when on the Dutch St. Nicholas holiday parades are organized in which the saint 'Sinterklass' arrives to hand out candy and gifts, as these parades have taken on an increasingly political - and violent - tone because of Santa’s traditional blackface sidekick, and as growing number of Netherlanders who are protesting the tradition of St. Nicholas’ notorious assistant, however, have faced increasing pushback, when this year white supremacists raised Nazi salutes at the Sinterklass parade in Hoorn and flew neo-Nazi flags at the one in Zaandijk, and when in Eindhoven an estimated 250 white extremists chanted racist slogans and threw eggs and beer cans at people peacefully protesting the parade
2019-2021 Dutch farmers protests: 2019-2021 Dutch farmers protests characterised by the usage of tractors to block roads, occupy public spaces, as protesting farmers have frequently told media that they are motivated by a perceived lack of respect for their profession by the Dutch populace, media and politicians
7/8 July 2021 Dutch farmers continue protests: 7 July 2021: Farmers take part in tractor protest about pollution plans, fearing the loss of income and jobs amid tough competition - 8 July 2021: Dutch farmers continue protests over government's plans, as agriculture is vital for the European country exporting globally
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Netherlands: Dutch society - Human rights in the Netherlands - Multiculturalism in the Netherlands
Provinces of the Netherlands: Subdivisions of the Netherlands - Regions of the Netherlands - Provinces of the Netherlands
Municipalities and cities of the Netherlands: Municipalities of the Netherlands - List of cities in the Netherlands by province
Amsterdam city: Amsterdam, the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands - Amsterdam Metropolitan Area - Geography of Amsterdam
History and economy of Amsterdam: History and economy of Amsterdam
Culture in Amsterdam: Culture in Amsterdam - Tourist attractions in Amsterdam - Architecture of Amstderdam
Timeline of Amsterdam: Timeline of Amsterdam since 1270
1270 dam built on Amstel River: 1270 dam built on Amstel River
Since June 1621 Dutch West India Company and slave trade: Since June 1621 Dutch West India Company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors, with a granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the Dutch West Indies and given jurisdiction over Dutch participation in the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America
August 1904 International Socialist Congress in Amsterdam: August 1904 International Socialist Congress in Amsterdam, the Sixth Congress of the Second International, called on 'all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the eight-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace'
Since May 1940 Nazi Germany's invasion: Since May 1940 Nazi Germany's invasion despite the Netherlands' policy of neutrality, without a formal declaration of war, as German forces including 'Wehrmacht' 7th Panzer Division commanded by Nazi-General Erwin Rommel moved simultaneously into Belgium, Luxembourg and France
7 May 1945 German massacre on Dam square: 7 May 1945 shooting on Dam square during the liberation of Amsterdam, in the last days of World War II in Europe, as German soldiers fired machine guns into a large crowd gathered on Dam square to celebrate the end of the war, killing over 30 people
Since May 1945 'Dodenherdenking' (Remembrance of the Dead): Since May 1945 'Dodenherdenking' (Remembrance of the Dead) annually held on May 4 in the Netherlands, commemorating all civilians and members of the armed forces of the Kingdom of the Netherlands who have died in wars or peacekeeping missions since the beginning of the Second World War
24 September 2020 school friend of Anne Frank lays first stone at new Dutch Holocaust memorial featuring names of more than 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti: 24 September 2020: As site in Amsterdam’s Jewish Quarter will feature names of more than 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who were murdered in or on their way to Nazi concentration camps, a school friend of World War II Jewish diarist Anne Frank laid the first stone Wednesday at a new memorial under construction in Amsterdam to honor all Dutch victims of the Holocaust, after Dutch court cleared the way last year for the memorial to be constructed
December 2020 Amsterdam's Jewish Historical Museum exhibition shows 'Black Pete' tradition linked to anti-Semitism: 1 December 2020: Amsterdam's Jewish Historical Museum shows a new exhibition that features material that some hope might finally settle the question of whether depictions of 'Black Pete' are racist, as the museum’s director is clear that his institution is opposed to the custom, and as exhibition shows that Dutch teacher who in 1850 published the first illustrations of Black Pete in a children’s book, also was the author of a popular series of booklets about a hook-nosed Jewish soldier, showing 'Black Pete' tradition linked to anti-Semitism
4 June 2021 book offered to citizens exploring Amsterdam’s role in the organisation global slave trade and colonialism: 4 June 2021: Every Amsterdammer is being offered a free copy of a book exploring the city’s role in the organisation and management of the global slave trade as part of a wider reckoning with the Netherlands’ past, after last year the International Institute of Social History carried out research on behalf of the municipality of Amsterdam, as the results have now been made into a book 'Amsterdam and the history of slavery', as researchers uncovered the integral role played by Amsterdam administrators in the Dutch East India company and the West India company, as well as the investments made by high-profile individuals in slave ships and sugar plantations
Rotterdam city: Rotterdam, the second-largest city of the Netherlands located at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, Europe's largest port with a population of 633,471 inhabitants in 2017
Economy of Rotterdam: Economy of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam: Port of Rotterdam
Timeline of Rotterdam: Timeline of Rotterdam
The Hague city: The Hague city on the western coast of the Netherlands, the capital of the province of South Holland and also the seat of government of the Netherlands, with a metropolitan population of more than 1 million inhabitants, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands
Timeline of The Hague: Timeline of The Hague
1899 and 1907 international peace conferences and The Hague Conventions: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague
Utrecht city: Utrecht, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht, located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbationt, with a population of 345,080 inhabitants in 2017
Timeline of Utrecht: Timeline of Utrecht
Since 1636 Utrecht University: Since 1636 Utrecht University
1713-1715 Peace of Utrecht: The Peace of Utrecht, a series of peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht between April 1713 and February 1715
March 2019 Utrecht shooting: 18 March 2019 Utrecht shooting - 18 March 2019: 3 people killed, several hurt in suspected Dutch terror shooting, as police hunt suspected gunman - 19 March 2019: Dutch prosecutors have said they are seriously considering a possible terrorist motive for the shooting in Utrecht, and have so far been unable to find a link between the main suspect Gökmen Tanis and the three people who were killed
Groningen city: Groningen, the main municipality as well as provincial capital and the largest city in the north of the Netherlands with 231,037 inhabitants in 2019
Economy and demographics of Groningen: Economy and demographics of Groningen
Timeline of Groningen: History and timeline of Groningen
Groningen settlement tracing back to 3 AD: Archaeological evidence of a civilization in the region of Groningen stem from around 3950–3650 BC, as the first major settlement trace back to the year 3 AD
May-July 1594 Siege of Groningen: May-July 1594 Siege of Groningen during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War. as the Spanish conquerors (conquistadores since Middle Ages and in Groningen since 1536) surrendered the city on 22 July, abolishing Emperor Charles V and King of Spain's rule, that ended the region's autonomy
July-August 1672 Siege of Groningen by the Bishop of Münster: July-August 1672 Siege of Groningen during the Franco-Dutch war, ending all hope of the Bishop of Münster to push deeper into the Netherlands, as the Münster army was so weakened by the defeat that the Dutch army successfully reconquered much of the land that Münster had conquered just weeks earlier, and as every year since then the city of Groningen celebrates its victory as a local holiday on 28 August
1672 Bishop of Münster used 'perfidious and odious' toxic devices: 1672 during his siege of Groningen the Bishop of Münster employed several different explosive and incendiary devices, some of which had a fill that included Deadly Nightshade, intended to produce toxic fumes, as three years later the French and the Holy Roman Empire concluded the 'Strasbourg Agreement', which included an article banning the use of 'perfidious and odious' toxic devices
April 1945 Battle of Groningen and Canadian victims: April 1945 Battle of Groningen between a mixture of Nazi Germany's soldiers, Dutch and Belgian SS troops numbering 7,000 against the entire 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, as death toll included approximately 130 Germans, 43 Canadians, and 100 Dutch civilians, as for Canadians artillery support was forbidden out of fear of harming the civilian population, and as Germans and the 2nd Division, part of liberation forces in Europe, engaged again in battles such as the Battle of Grüppenbühren near Delmenhorst
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Netherlands: Demographics of the Netherlands - Ethnic groups in the Netherlands
Afro-Dutch: Afro-Dutch are residents of the Netherlands who are of Black African or Afro-Caribbean ancestry, from the former and present Dutch overseas territories of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Suriname, Cape Verdean and other African communities
Arab Dutch: Arab Dutch are citizens or residents of the Netherlands whose ancestry traces back to the Arab World
Berbers in the Netherlands: Berbers in the Netherlands are people of Berber descent living in the Netherlands, who generally call themselves Amazigh and not Maghrebis, estimated to number over 300,000 people
Chinese people in the Netherlands: Chinese people in the Netherlands
Curaçaoans in the Netherlands: Curaçaoans in the Netherlands
Dutch people: Dutch people - Dutch people by ethnic or national origin
Indians in the Netherlands: Indians in the Netherlands
Indo people: Indo people, about 431,000 people in 2001, describing Eurasian people who were a migrant population that associated themselves with and experienced the colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia that became Indonesia after World War II
History of the Jews in the Netherlands: History of the Jews in the Netherlands
2015: 24 January 2015: Following January terror attacks in Paris, Jewish communities ask for protection as attendance rates drop due to insecurity
2016: 26 January 2016: Marta Wise and Haim Roet to share personal testimony of Isaac Roet at Wednesday’s New York observance of International Holocaust Remembrance Day
2018: 25 February 2018: A Jewish grandmother, who was sentenced in absentia to death by public execution in 2013 by a Tehran court that convicted her of 'violating Islamic rules [of the] Islamic Revolution' for running an organization that found housing solutions for women with abusive husbands who could not obtain a divorce, won’t granted asylum by the Netherlands
Moroccan-Dutch: Moroccan-Dutch, immigrants from Morocco to the Netherlands and their descendants, and one of the larger immigrant groups, making up 10.4% of the country's total population of foreign background
2016: 9 December 2016: Geert Wilders has been found guilty of inciting discrimination against Dutch Moroccans, but the court cleared Wilders of the charge of inciting hatred and imposed no fine or sentence, ruling that a criminal conviction was sufficient punishment for a politician
Muslims in the Netherlands: Muslims in the Netherlands
Surinamese people in the Netherlands: Surinamese people in the Netherlands, about 350,000 people in 2013
6 February 2021 slave’s 400-year-old grave in Dutch Jewish cemetery now a Black pilgrimage site: 6 February 2021: After in 2013 a statue for Elieser was erected outside the Jewish cemetery by Opo Kondreman, an organization that aims to preserve the heritage of Netherlanders from the former Dutch colony of Suriname in South America, in his memory 'Elieser Day' pilgrimage is centered around the former slave’s gravestone inside the 406-year-old Beth Haim cemetery near Amsterdam, as in the post-colonial society that is still burdened by its complicity both in the Holocaust and the slave trade, Elieser’s grave has emerged as a multifaceted symbol of emancipation and a unique meeting place for the kingdom’s oldest ethnic minorities
Walloons in the Netherlands: Walloons in the Netherlands
Culture of the Netherlands: Culture of the Netherlands - Languages of the Netherlands
Art in the Netherlands: Art in the Netherlands - Architecture of the Netherlands
Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Dutch 'Golden Age' - List of people from the Dutch 'Golden Age' in sciences, exploration, architecture, painting, sculpture, literature and music - List of Dutch inventions and discoveries
Education in the Netherlands: Education in the Netherlands - Education in the Netherlands by province
Schools in the Netherlands: Schools in the Netherlands - List of schools in the Netherlands by province and city - Secondary schools in the Netherlands
12 June 2019 Anne Frank's friends meet students on Anne Frank’s 90th birthday: 12 June 2019: After Anne Frank attended Amsterdam’s Jewish Lyceum and after her 13th birthday party in 1942 was the last before hiding in the secret annex behind a canal-side house in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam during World War II, her friends meet students on Anne Frank’s 90th birthday
Universities and colleges in the Netherlands: Universities and colleges in the Netherlands - List of universities in the Netherlands - Universities and colleges in the Netherlands by type - Technical universities and colleges in the Netherlands - Maritime colleges in the Netherlands
Science and technology in the Netherlands: Science and technology in the Netherlands
Libraries in the Netherlands: Libraries in the Netherlands - List of libraries in the Netherlands
Archives in the Netherlands: Archives in the Netherlands - List of archives in the Netherlands
Museums in the Netherlands: Museums in the Netherlands - List of museums in the Netherlands by province and city
2018: 25 January 2018: A debate over the Netherlands’ colonial heritage and slave-trading past burst into the open this week after 'Mauritshuis', one of the country’s leading museums, came under fire for removing a bust of slave-trader founder from its lobby
Monuments and memorials in the Netherlands: Monuments and memorials in the Netherlands
1939-1945 World War II memorials and cemeteries in the Netherlands: World War II memorials and cemeteries in the Netherlands
1942-1945, 1970 and 2018 Nazi Westerbork detention camp and memorial: Since 1970 National Westerbork Memorial Memorial - Westerbork transit camp, a World War II Nazi refugee, detention and transit camp in the northeastern Netherlands to assemble Romani and Dutch Jews for transport to Nazi extermination camps and other concentration camps - 4 April 2018: Lost music of Holocaust victims returns to Westerbork transit camp, one of the largest facilities of its kind in Nazi-occupied Western Europe, where it was once heard
2014/2018 Monument to MH17 Flight victims, downed by Buk surface-to-air missile: 26 March 2018: Near an airbase in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, a monument to the victims of the MH17 crash was opened, titled 'The Connection' and consisting of bronze ribbons, forming a globe, with the inscription 'I will not forget you', forming a globe
24 September 2020 at new Dutch Holocaust memorial featuring names of more than 102,000 victims Anne Frank's friend lays first stone: 24 September 2020: As site in Amsterdam’s Jewish Quarter will feature names of more than 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who were murdered in or on their way to Nazi concentration camps, a school friend of World War II Jewish diarist Anne Frank laid the first stone Wednesday at a new memorial under construction in Amsterdam to honor all Dutch victims of the Holocaust, after Dutch court cleared the way last year for the memorial to be constructed
Health in the Netherlands: Health in the Netherlands
Medical outbreaks and health disasters in the Netherlands: Medical outbreaks in the Netherlands - Health disasters in the Netherlands
1999 Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak: 1999 Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak
2012 outbreak of Salmonella: 2012 outbreak of Salmonella
Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Netherlands: Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Netherlands and timeline - 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic data/Netherlands medical cases by province
8 April 2020 21,762 cases and 2,396 covid-19 deaths in the Netherlands: 8 April 2020: 21,762 positive tested persons and 2,396 reported deaths, as there are major regional differences in the covid-19 pandemic in the Netherlands
11 April 2020 24,413 cases and 2,643 covid-19 deaths in the Netherlands: 11 April 2020: The number of confirmed covid-19 cases in the Netherlands rose by 1,316 to 24,413, with 132 new deaths, bringing the country's cumulative death toll is 2,643, according to health authorities
14 April 2020 covid-19 cases in the Netherlands rose by 868 to 27,419: 14 April 2020: Confirmed covid-19 cases in the Netherlands rose by 868 to 27,419, health authorities said on Tuesday, with 122 new deaths, as total deaths in the country are at 2,945
1 May 2020 number of covid-19 cases rising to 39,791 and death toll to 4,893: 1 May 2020: The Netherlands' number of confirmed covid-19 cases has risen by 475 to 39,791, health authorities said on Friday, with 98 new deaths, and as the country's death toll stands at 4,893
Health disasters in the Dutch Caribbean: Health disasters in the Dutch Caribbean
Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Dutch Caribbean: Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic in the Dutch Caribbean
Healthcare in the Netherlands: Healthcare in the Netherlands
Hospitals in the Netherlands: List of hospitals in the Netherlands
2016 IVF laboratory scandal: 28 December 2016: University Medical Centre in Utrecht has launched an investigation after discovering that up to 26 women’s eggs may have been fertilised by the wrong sperm at its IVF laboratory
July 2018: 26 July 2018: Lana Huf-Germain, one of 183 pregnant women who took part in a programme to test whether the drug sildenafil would spur the growth of unborn children in the womb and in which 11 babies died, has spoken of going through a 'whirlwind' of emotions before she signed up
Drugs and drug policy of the Netherlands: Drugs in the Netherlands - Drug policy of the Netherlands - Cannabis in the Netherlands - 'Coffeeshops' are establishments where the sale of cannabis for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the Netherlands' local authorities
Sport in the Netherlands and history: Sport in the Netherlands - History of sport in the Netherlands - Sports governing bodies in the Netherlands
2012: 9 December 2012: Thousands of Dutch mourners walked in silence with candles and flowers to commemorate the fatal beating of volunteer football linesman Richard Nieuwenhuizen, who was attacked by a group of football players while refereeing an under-17 match, and died shortly after being kicked repeatedly by the youth players, who were 15 and 16 years old
Sport in the Netherlands by sport,by province and by city: Sport in the Netherlands by sport - Sport in the Netherlands by province - Sport in the Netherlands by city - Sports organisations of the Netherlands
Media of the Netherlands: Media of the Netherlands - Dutch media by province - Media in the Netherlands by city
Dutch journalists: Dutch journalists
6 July 2021 assassination attempt of Peter de Vries: 6 July 2021 murder of Peter R. de Vries, first reported as 6 July 2021 assassination attempt of Peter de Vries who was shot multiple times after leaving a TV studio in Amsterdam - 8 July 2021: In Amsterdam, the award-winning investigative journalist Peter R. de Vries was shot and critically injured on Tuesday, as De Vries has uncovered numerous crimes and police corruption, and as - most recently - he acted as an adviser to the chief witness in a major trial against members of a criminal gang
10 July 2021 Dutch nation reflects on how to end the grip of drug gangs: 10 July 2021: While Peter R de Vries fights for life in an Amsterdam hospital, the Dutch nation reflects on how to end the grip of drug gangs, as many are speculating whether it is coincidence that De Vries has recently been involved in a high-profile gangland drug and murder court case, known as the Marengo trial, where the public prosecutor is accusing 17 alleged gang members of being part of a 'well-oiled murder machine'”
15 July 2021 reporter Peter de Vries dies over a week after shooting attack in Amsterdam: 15 July 2021: The Dutch crime reporter Peter R de Vries has died just over a week after he was shot in the head in central Amsterdam, local media have reported, citing a statement released by the veteran journalist’s family
Newspapers in the Netherlands: Newspapers in the Netherlands
Radio and television in the Netherlands: Radio in the Netherlands - Television in the Netherlands
June 2018: 22 June 2018: The Netherlands’ main public broadcaster NOS retracts its claims that Israel threatens Iran with destruction and that land gained by the Jewish state in 1948 is 'occupied', amid protests by Dutch Jews and others who complained that the state-funded organization has an institutional anti-Israel bias
Internet in the Netherlands: Internet in the Netherlands - Net neutrality in the Netherlands
28 October 2020 Google is banning racist advertising in the run up to the 'Sinterklaas' festivities: 28 October 2020: Google is banning advertising in the run up to the 'Sinterklaas' festivities using sooty Piets as well as the traditional blackface version, after Dutch PM Mark Rutte, who once defended blackface as tradition, has now said he wants the custom to disappear in a decision coming as solidarity protests take hold in the Netherlands following the killing of George Floyd
Fake news in the Netherlands:
2017: 6 February 2017: Dutch anti-Islam MP Geert Wilders triggered a row over fake news with a biting Twitter message showing a photoshopped picture of another party leader surrounded by radical Islamists
Religion in the Netherlands: Religion in the Netherlands
History of religions in the Netherlands: History of religion in the Netherlands
History of the Jews in the Netherlands: History of the Jews in the Netherlands, after the earliest Jews arrived in the 'Low Countries', present-day Belgium and the Netherlands, during the Roman conquest, as documentary evidence dates from the 1100s, and as for several centuries the record reflects that the Jews were persecuted within the region and expelled on a regular basis
Since 15th century Sephardim or Sephardic Jews and since 17th century Ashkenazim: Since 15th century Sephardim or Sephardic Jews were native to Sepharad, the Hebrew name for Spain and Portugal, expelled or were forced to convert to Catholicism in the late 15th century through the Spanish Alhambra Decree of 1492, and later the Portuguese Edicts of 1496 and 1497, and Ashkenazim since 17th century
Since 2003 member loss of Christian groups: Since 2003 member loss of Christian groups according to church reports
22 October 2020 Dutch protestant church to admit failing Jews in Holocaust: 22 October 2020: The Protestant Church in the Netherlands will admit for the first time that it stayed silent as anti-Semitism rose before and during World War II, as less than one third of the 140,000 Jews who lived in the Netherlands survived World War II, and as many citizens as well as the Dutch police and railways actively conspired with their Nazi overlords to round up Jews and deport them to death camps, as now in 2020 the confession is set to be made public next month at the 82nd anniversary of the 'Kristallnacht' pogrom, when pro-Nazi mobs torched and ransacked synagogues and Jewish businesses across Germany
Crime in the Netherlands: Crime in the Netherlands
Racism and antisemitism in the Netherlands: Racism in the Netherlands - Antisemitism in the Netherlands
2014/2015: 10 September 2014: Jewish citizen and local artist Fabrice Schomberg nearly run down, called 'cancer' by passersby in The Hague - 7 October 2014: Fabrice Schomberg given permission to build sukkah on condition he dismantles it nightly to avoid becoming a Muslim vandalism target - 25 January 2015: Jewish leaders outraged over Dutch ship named after SS officer, who commandeered thousands for forced labor and said Jews are parasitic - 6 March 2015: Dutch police have launched an investigation into a northern Dutch trader who claims to be selling soap made by the Nazis that is made from the remains of Jews killed in the Holocaust - 2 April 2015: Anti-Semitic incidents rose 71% last year, Dutch Jewish watchdog says
Terrorism in the Netherlands: Terrorism in the Netherlands
Organised crime and drug trafficking in the Netherlands: a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Organised_crime_in_the_Netherlands">Organised crime in the Netherlands - Organised crime groups in the Netherlands
23 January 2021 alleged drug lord on world's most wanted list arrested in Amsterdam: 23 January 2021: Dutch police said they had arrested the alleged leader of an Asian drug syndicate who is listed as one of the world’s most wanted fugitives and has been compared to Mexican drug lord Joaquín 'El Chapo' Guzmán
Human trafficking in the Netherlands: Human trafficking in the Netherlands
Corruption in the Netherlands: Corruption in the Netherlands
Police brutality in the Netherlands: Police brutality in the Netherlands
2009: In 2009 police officers from Bleiswijk told a homeless man to dig his own grave, whilst threatening him with guns
2015: 1 July 2015: Five Dutch policemen suspected in death of detained Aruban Mitch Henriquez after videos were posted on the Internet showing him being pinned to the ground by five white male policemen - 3 July 2015: Police action probably killed Mitch Henriquez, according to prosecutor, as Dutch PM Mark Rutte denounces unrest and tells journalists, he is 'not planning to go in person to every neighbourhood where backward lilies are stirring up trouble'
Catholic Church sexual abuse cases in the Netherlands: Catholic Church sexual abuse cases in the Netherlands
December 2011: 16 December 2011: Dutch inquiry highlights widespread catholic institutions child abuse since 1945
September 2018: 16 September 2018: More than half of the Netherlands’ senior clerics were involved in covering up sexual assault of children between 1945 and 2010, a press report claimed on Saturday, further engulfing the Catholic church in a global abuse scandal
Law and legal history of the Netherlands: Law of the Netherlands - Legal history of the Netherlands - Constitution of the Netherlands - Human rights in the Netherlands
Judicial system of the Netherlands: Judicial system of the Netherlands - Courts in the Netherlands
June 2017 Srebrenica massacre: 27 June 2017: Dutch soldiers acting as UN peacekeepers were partly liable for the deaths of about 300 Muslim men massacred near Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslavian civil war, an appeals court in The Hague has ruled
October 2018 carbon emissions: 9 October 2018: A court in The Hague has upheld a historic legal order on the Dutch government to accelerate carbon emissions cuts, a day after the world’s climate scientists warned that time was running out to avoid dangerous warming
8 March 2020 MH17 families fear they still face a long road to justice as trial begins: 8 March 2020: The families of people killed when a Russian BUK missile shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over eastern Ukraine in 2014 set out 298 white chairs outside the Russian embassy on Sunday in a silent protest against Putin regime’s lack of cooperation and denial in the investigation into the downing of the passenger jet - 8 March 2020: MH17 families fear they still face a long road to justice as trial begins
29 January 2021 Dutch appeals court orders Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills also targeting Royal Dutch Shell: 29 January 2021: Dutch appeals court in The Hague has ordered Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills they say caused widespread pollution, as court in The Hague rejected Shell’s argument that the spills were the result of sabotage, instead ordering Shell’s Nigerian subsidiary to compensate the farmers for the losses caused by the oil spills in the two villages of Goi and Oruma in 2004 and 2005, also ruling that the parent company, Royal Dutch Shell, and its subsidiary must install warning equipment on its Oruma pipelines to limit the environmental damage in case of another spill
26 May 2021 court in the Hague ordered Royal Dutch Shell to cut its global carbon emissions by 45% by the end of 2030: 26 May 2021: A court in the Hague has ordered Royal Dutch Shell to cut its global carbon emissions by 45% by the end of 2030 compared to 2019 levels, in a landmark case brought by 'Friends of the Earth' and over 17,000 co-plaintiffs, as the oil giant’s sustainability policy was found to be insufficiently 'concrete' by the Dutch court in an unprecedented ruling that will have wide implications for the energy industry and other polluting multinationals
Since 1838 Supreme Court of the Netherlands: Since 1838 Supreme Court of the Netherlands
December 2019 Dutch supreme court upholds ruling demanding climate action: 20 December 2019: The Netherlands’ supreme court has upheld a ruling ordering the country’s government to do much more to cut carbon emissions, after a six-year fight for climate justice, saying the government had explicit duties to protect its citizens’ human rights in the face of climate change and must reduce emissions by at least 25% compared with 1990 levels by the end of 2020
European Court of Human Rights cases involving the Netherlands: European Court of Human Rights cases involving the Netherlands
Law enforcement in the Netherlands: Law enforcement in the Netherlands
Foreign relations of the Netherlands: Foreign relations of the Netherlands
Treaties of the Netherlands
Dutch Empire since 1543: Since 1543 Dutch Empire (Asia, Americas, Africa) to the mid-1950s - Evolution of the Dutch Empire and its territories - Economic history of the Dutch Empire - Former Dutch colonies
Since 1598 Dutch colonisation in Africa: Dutch colonisation in Africa
1598–1872 'Dutch Gold Coast' in West Africa: 1598–1872 'Dutch Gold Coast' in West Africa
Since 1652 Dutch colonization of South Africa: Dutch colonization of South Africa since 1652 - 1652–1806 Dutch Cape Colony - British colonization of South Africa since 1795-1910 - South African Wars 1879-1915 - Second Boer War - British dominion 'Union of South Africa' 1910-1961 - Apartheid in South Africa 1948-1994 - 1961 'Republic' South Africa following a whites-only referendum
1660–1760 'Dutch Slave Coast' in West Africa: 1660–1760 'Dutch Slave Coast' in West Africa (contemporary Ghana, Benin, Togo and Nigeria)
Since 1590s Dutch colonization of the Americas: Dutch colonization of the Americas - Since 1621 Dutch West India Company
Dutch Caribbean and Caribbean Netherlands: The Dutch Caribbean refers to territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea - Caribbean Netherlands
Aruba island: Aruba island, a small island with 116,576 citizens in 2019 and a constituent country of the 'Kingdom of the Netherlands' in the mid-south of the Caribbean Sea, about 29 kilometres north of the Venezuelan peninsula of Paraguaná and 80 kilometres northwest of Curaçaoa, as Curaçao and Aruba form the ABC islands. Collectively, and as Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, as the citizens of these countries are all Dutch nationals, and as Aruba's capital is Oranjestad
History of Aruba: History of Aruba, showing human presence from as early as circa 2000 BC, as Aruba's first proven inhabitants were the Caquetio Indians from the Arawak tribe, who migrated there from Venezuela to escape attacks by the Caribs, as fragments of the earliest known Indian settlements date back to about 1000 years, and as in 1636, Aruba was acquired by the Netherlands and remained under their control, only interrupted for some years during the Napoleonic wars
Demographics and ethnic groups in Aruba: Demographics and ethnic groups in Aruba, as its population is estimated to be 75% mixed European/Amerindian/African, 15% Black and 10% other ethnicities, and as the most used language is the Papiamento (Portuguese-based creole) language, spoken in the Dutch Caribbean
List of cities in Aruba: List of cities in Aruba
Economy of Aruba including oil production: Economy of Aruba, as exports include live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, and transport equipment, and as gold, aloe, oil and tourism industries with a labour force of 51,610 workers in 2007 produced a GDP of $3.369 billion in 2019 ($4.377 billion PPP in 2019)
19 June 2021 a review on history of fishing in Aruba: 19 June 2021: History of fishing in Aruba, as fishing has been a family tradition for ages in Aruba
Timeline and 20th-21st centuries history of Aruba: 20th-21st centuries history of Aruba and timeline
Since 1924 Lago Oil and Transport Co. Ltd and Aruba: Since 1924 Lago Oil and Transport Co. Ltd., a shipping company carrying crude oil from Lake Maracaibo to its transshipment facility on the island of Aruba, and 1941-1945 wartime during WWII
1941-1945 Battle of the Caribbean by NSDAP-ruled German empire's U-boats and Italian submarines: 1941-1945 Battle of the Caribbean, referring to a naval campaign waged during World War II that was part of the Battle of the Atlantic, as NSDAP-ruled German empire's U-boats and Italian submarines attempted to disrupt the Allied supply of oil and other material, sank shipping in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico and attacked coastal targets in the Antilles, as later improved Allied anti-submarine warfare eventually drove the Axis submarines out of the Caribbean region
Since 1985 steps for increasing autonomy, remaining promised: In March 1983, Aruba reached an official agreement within the Kingdom for its independence, to be developed in a series of steps as the Crown granted increasing autonomy, and in August 1985, Aruba drafted a constitution that was unanimously approved, but complete independence was rescinded in 1995
25 June 2021 Aruban general election: 25 June 2021 Aruban general election to elect all 21 members of Parliament - 19 June 2021: Aruba Election 2021, as following Aruba’s 2017 elections, the governing coalition was led until March by the social democratic People’s Electoral Movement (MEP) party together with political parties POR and RED
Environment of the Dutch Caribbean: Environment of the Dutch Caribbean
Curaçao island: Curaçao island, a Lesser Antilles island country in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands - Geography of Curaçao
History of Curaçao: History of Curaçao, first settled by the Arawaks, an Amerindian people native to the area, that are believed to have inhabited the island for many hundreds of years before the arrival of Europeans
Since 1651 European colonization of Curaçao and slave trade: Following European colonization since 1651, for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, the primary business of the colonial rulers was the slave trade, slaves arrived often from Africa and were bought and sold on the docks in Willemstad before continuing on to their ultimate 'destination', assisted by the Dutch 'West India Company' and the British 'Royal African Company' from Jamaica
August-September 1795 Curaçao slave revolt: August-September 1795 slave revolt took place in the Dutch colony of Curaçao, resulting in a month-long conflict on the island between escapees and the colonial government, ending with massacres, torture and executions by the white slaveholders
1815–1954 Dutch colony Curaçao and Dependencies: 1815–1954 Dutch colony Curaçao and Dependencies
1954–2010 Netherlands Antilles and dissolution 2010: 1954–2010 Netherlands Antilles consisting of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea - Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles 2010
Economy of Curaçao and unemployment: Economy of Curaçao - main industries include petroleum refining, petroleum transshipment facilities, light manufacturing, financial services, tourism, defined by the World Bank as high income economy for parts of the population as the island has a well-developed infrastructure, with shipping, international trade, oil refining, and other activities related to the port of Willemstad (like the Free Trade Zone), also making a significant contribution to the economy, as the country's labor force of 63,000 people in 2008 was also determined by the unemployment of 10.3%
Refinería Isla: Refinería Isla
Curaçao's financial services: Financial services in Curaçao, considered a tax haven - Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
Politics of Curaçao: Government of Curaçao within the Kingdom of the Netherlands - The politics of Curaçao reflect the tensions created by socio-economic inequalities as well as the racial hierarchies that are the legacies of colonialism and the Atlantic Slave trade, as decolonization and the ongoing political relationship between Curaçao and the Netherlands have been sites of tension, as in 2010 Curaçao became an autonomous country as part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, as Sint Maarten island also became autonomous, while the less-populated islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba are municipalities governed by the Netherlands
October 2010 Constitution of Curaçao: October 2010 Constitution of Curaçao, adopted by a 15 to 6 vote majority in the island council of Curaçao in September 2010, as in the initial vote on the constitution in July, the two-thirds majority required was not reached, after which new elections were held on 27 August, the newly elected island council could then adopt the constitution with an ordinary majority, entering into force on 10 October 2010, on the date of the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles
February 2021 CIA World Factbook detailing Curaçao's economy and society: 25 February 2021: CIA World Factbook detailing Curaçao's economy and society
19 March 2021 Curaçao general election two days after the 2021 Dutch general election: 19 March 2021 Curaçao general election, taking place in Curaçao two days after the 2021 Dutch general election
Curaçao society: Curaçao society
Demographics and ethnic groups in Curaçao: Ethnic groups in Curaçao
Afro-Curaçaoan: Afro-Curaçaoans make up the majority of Curaçao's population, after most slaves came from Ghana, also from Senegambia, Sierra Leone, the Windward Coast, Bight of Benin, the Bight of Biafra, Angola and specifically Loangos from Cabinda Province, and from Central Africa
History of the Jews in Curaçao: The history of the Jews in Curaçao since 17th century, when the first Sephardi Jewish immigrants from Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain arrived, founding Congregation Mikvé Israel-Emanuel, and by the mid-1700s, the community was the most prosperous in the Americas and many of the Jewish communities in Latin America, primarily in Colombia and Venezuela, resulted from the influx of Curaçaoan Jews, by the end of the 18th century the more than half of the white population of Curaçao was Jewish
Since 1651 involvement of Jews in the Transatlantic Slave Trade: 'In Curacao, which Marranos had helped found in 1651, Jews found their main outlet for selling slaves and Dutch manufactured goods along the Spanish Main', according to David Brion Davis' studies on slavery and his article 'Jews and the Slave Trade' (13 February 1994)
Culture and languages of Curaçao: Curaçao culture - Languages of Curaçao - Papiamentu, the most-widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having official status in Aruba and Curaçao, derived from African and Portuguese languages with some influences from American Indian languages, English, Dutch and Spanish
Suriname: - History of Suriname dates from 3000 BCE when Native Americans first inhabited the area, the largest tribes were the Arawaks, a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing, and the Caribs, present-day Suriname is the home to many distinct indigenous cultures
1667–1954 Dutch colony Surinam: 1667–1954 Dutch colony Surinam, a Dutch plantation colony in the Guianas, neighboured by the equally Dutch colony of Berbice to the west, and the French colony of Cayenne to the east, until December 1954, when Suriname became a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
1954-1975 Suriname constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands: 1954-1975 Suriname, constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands with autonomy, except in areas of defence, foreign policy, and nationality, and participating on a basis of equality with the Netherlands Antilles and the Netherlands itself in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becoming fully independent on 25 November 1975
Since 1600 Dutch colonization in Asia: Dutch colonization in Asia - Since 1602 Dutch East India Company - Military history of the Dutch East India Company - Württemberg Cape Regiment in the service of the Dutch East India Company
1605-1825 Dutch India: Dutch India 1605-1825 - Dutch colony Coromandel 1608-1825 - Dutch colony Malabar 1661–1795
Since 1603 Dutch East India Company in Indonesia: Dutch East India Company in Indonesia 1603-1800 - Dutch conquest of Indonesia - Dutch East Indies 1800–1942 - Dutch East Indies campaign 1941–42 - Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
1949–1962 Dutch colony 1949–1962 'Netherlands New Guinea': Dutch colony 1949–1962 'Netherlands New Guinea'
June 2021 book offered to citizens exploring Amsterdam’s role in the organisation global slave trade and colonialism: 4 June 2021: Every Amsterdammer is being offered a free copy of a book exploring the city’s role in the organisation and management of the global slave trade as part of a wider reckoning with the Netherlands’ past, after last year the International Institute of Social History carried out research on behalf of the municipality of Amsterdam, as the results have now been made into a book 'Amsterdam and the history of slavery', as researchers uncovered the integral role played by Amsterdam administrators in the Dutch East India company and the West India company, as well as the investments made by high-profile individuals in slave ships and sugar plantations
Bilateral relations of the Netherlands: Bilateral relations of the Netherlands
Netherlands/Afghanistan: The Netherlands/Afghanistan relations
20th/21st century Abdul Rahim Hatif's exile in the Netherlands: 20th/21st century Abdul Rahim Hatif served as one of the vice presidents of Mohammed Najibullah during the last years of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan since the 1988 elections, the serving as the first vice president 1991/1992 before the first fall of Kabul, the the acting President of Afghanistan for two weeks in 1992, after the resignation and before the later capture, torture and brutal assassination by the Taliban of President Najibullah, as Hatif went into exile and moved to the Netherlands, where he died on 19 August 2013
24 July 2021 Dutch politician Kati Piri demands protection of formder allies against the advancing Taliban: 24 July 2021: As Afghanistan imposes night curfew to curb Taliban criminals new advance, fighting against democracy and human rights since the 1980s in the country and also abroad, as Dutch politician Kati Piri serving as a member of the House of Representatives since 2021 calls to defend former Afghan supperters of the Dutch in the country, now fearing revenge, after western countries intervention since 2001 following the 9/11 attacks
Netherlands/Angola relations: Netherlands/Angola relations
1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola: 1641–1648 Dutch colony Loango-Angola, the name for the possessions of the Dutch West India Company in contemporary Angola and the Republic of the Congo
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Netherlands/Belgium relations: Netherlands/Belgium relations - Burgundian Netherlands 1384-1482 - United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815-1839 - Belgian Revolution 1830-1831, secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands establishing an independent Kingdom of Belgium - 1839 Treaty of London - the European powers recognized and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium, article VII required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral, and by implication committed the signatory powers to guard that neutrality in the event of invasion
Netherlands/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Netherlands/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
September 2013: 6 September 2013: The Dutch state is responsible for sending three Bosnian Muslims to their deaths when they were expelled from a UN compound at Srebrenica in 1995, the supreme court ruled
June 2017: 27 June 2017: Dutch soldiers acting as UN peacekeepers were partly liable for the deaths of about 300 Muslim men massacred near Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslavian civil war, an appeals court in The Hague has ruled
Netherlands/Brunei relations: 3 January 2012: Tainted ‘symbiotic partnership’ between Brunei regime and Shell
Netherlands/Ethiopia relations:
December 2017: 15 December 2017: Dual Ethiopian-Dutch national Eshetu Alemu, who served Ethiopia’s ruthless leader Mengesitu Haile Mariam in the late 1970s, convicted of war crimes including ordering the execution of 75 people and sentenced to life in jail by Dutch judges in the Hague
Netherlands/France relations: Netherlands/France relations - Duchy of Burgundy 1032–1477 - Timeline of Burgundian and Habsburg acquisitions in the Low Countries 1384-1549 - Burgundian Netherlands 1384–1482 - Kingdom of Holland 1806-1810 was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother Louis Bonaparte, following the Dutch Republic 1581–1795 separated from Spanish rule
Netherlands/Germany relations: Netherlands/Germany relations
1914-1918 German war crimes World War I: German war crimes World War I 1914-1918 - Buts de guerre des Empires centraux 1914-1918 - German war crimes since 1914 German invasion and 1914-1918 occupation of Belgium against 1839 Treaty of London - 1839 Treaty of London - the European powers recognized and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium, article VII required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral, and by implication committed the signatory powers to guard that neutrality in the event of invasion
1918 Wilhelm's flight, 1920-1941 exile for war criminal Wilhelm II in the Netherland against the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, expressly providing in article 227 for the prosecution of Wilhelm for war crimes: 10 November 1918 flight and 1920-1941 exile and asylum for last German emperor and war criminal Wilhelm II in the Netherlands' 'Huis Doorn' was based on monarchist and family ties with Netherlands' Queen Wilhelmina, in return Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, committing war crimes not yet seen and Wilhelm went undisturbed by the German 'Wehrmacht' - 1919 Peace Treaty of Versailles, Articles 227-230: 'The Allied and Associated Powers publicly arraign William II of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties. A special tribunal will be constituted to try the accused, thereby assuring him the guarantees essential to the right of defence.'
1940-1945 German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France: 'Slag om Nederland' part of 'Case Yellow', the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France during World War II
May 1940 German aerial bombardment of Rotterdam, German occupation: Aerial bombardment of Rotterdam, destroying almost the entire historic city centre and killing nearly nine hundred civilians, by the 'Luftwaffe' on 14 May 1940 - History of the Netherlands 1939-1945: German invasion and occupation - Anne Frank - The Holocaust in the Netherlands
Dutch resistance and 1941 February General Strike during World War II against Nazi Germany: Dutch resistance against German occupation and war crimes - 1941 February Strike, general strike organized during World War II in the Netherlands against the anti-Jewish measures and activities of the Nazi Germany, its direct causes were the pogroms held by the Germans in the Jewish neighbourhood of Amsterdam
June 1942 - 1944 'The Diary of Anne Frank': Since June 1942 Dutch language diary of Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands 'Het Achterhuis', Dagboekbrieven 14 Juni 1942 – 1 Augustus 1944, first published in 1947
2013: 2 September 2013: Germany tries 92-year-old member of the Nazi Waffen SS Siert Bruins for Nazi war crime
Netherlands/Greece relations: Netherlands/Greece relations
Netherlands/Guyana relations: Netherlands/Guyana relations
Since 17th century Dutch colony and 'importation' of enslaved Africans: Since 17th century Dutch the first Europeans to settle modern day Guyana, after in 1621 the government of the Netherlands gave the newly formed Dutch West India Company complete control over the trading post on the Essequibo, administering the colony, known as Essequibo, for more than 170 years, establishing a second colony on the Berbice River southeast of Essequibo in 1627, and, after indigenous populations died from diseases introduced by the Europeans, turning to the 'importation' of enslaved Africans, who rapidly became a key element in the colonial economy - 1627-1815 Berbice region along the Berbice River in Guyana and a colony of the Netherlands, then ceded to the United Kingdom, merging with Essequibo and Demerara to form the colony of British Guiana in 1831, then in 1966 gaining independence as Guyana
Februar-December 1763 Berbice slave uprising: Februar-December 1763 Berbice slave uprising, a slave revolt in Guyana that began on 23 February, seen as a major event in Guyana's anti-colonial struggles, and when Guyana became a republic in 1970 the state declared 23 February as a day to commemorate the start of the Berbice slave revolt, as insurgents were eventually defeated in the spring of 1764 with the assistance of troops from neighbouring French and British colonies and from Europe including Dutch forces, executing 125 men and 3 women for participating in the rebellion - Cuffy, an Akan man who was killed by the Dutch in 1763 during the uprising, and who was captured in his native West Africa and stolen for slavery to work in the plantations of the Dutch colony of Berbice in present-day Guyana, becoming famous because in 1763 he led the revolt of more than 2,500 slaves against the colony regime, and today he is a national hero in Guyana
22 January 2021 Dutch exhibition offers new insight into Berbice slave uprising: 22 January 2021: The Dutch national archives are showcasing a unique set of letters sent by a man known as Cuffy or Kofi and meaning 'born on Friday', the leader of the first organised slave revolt on the American continent to a colonial governor, in which the newly free man proposed to share the land, as the offer is said to provide a new insight into attempts to resist the brutal regimes of the colonial period, often overlooked in histories of enslaved people
Netherlands/India relations: Netherlands/India relations - Dutch India 1605-1825 - Dutch colony Coromandel 1608-1825 - Dutch colony Malabar 1661–1795 - Indians in the Netherlands - Netherlands India Chamber of Commerce and Trade NICCT is a non-commercial, voluntary association since 2003
2014: 22 September 2014: After a Greenpeace worker refused entry to India in a series of unfair treatments, after a leaked Indian intelligence report describing the organisation as 'a threat to national economic security' and after a Modi ban on Greenpeace donations, Indian government accused of systematic crackdown on charity’s activities
Netherlands/Indonesia relations: Netherlands/Indonesia relations - Dutch East India Company - Dutch East India Company in Indonesia 1603-1800 - Dutch conquest of Indonesia
1603-1942 Dutch East India Company in Indonesia and Dutch East Indies: Dutch East India Company - Dutch East India Company in Indonesia 1603-1800 - Dutch conquest of Indonesia - Dutch East Indies 1800–1942
Since 1603 military history of the Dutch East India Company and German support: Military history of the Dutch East India Company - Since 1606 battles involving the Dutch East India Company - 1623 Amboyna massacre - 1740 Batavia massacre - 18th/19th century Württemberg Cape Regiment in the service of the Dutch East India Company, German military unit which was stationed at the 'Cape of Good Hope'
1941-1942 Dutch East Indies campaign amid WWII: Dutch East Indies campaign during World War II
1945-1949 Indonesian National Revolution: Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1949
August 1945 Proclamation of Indonesian Independence: 17 August 1945 Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
October-November 1945 Battle of Surabaya: October-November 1945 Battle of Surabaya, fought between pro-independence and Republican Indonesian soldiers and militia against British and British Indian troops as a part of the Indonesian National Revolution and became a national symbol of Indonesian resistance - Since 10 November 1945 Indonesian Heroes' Day annually celebrated on 10 November commemorating the Republican pro-independence resistance against British and Dutch troops
1945-1949 Indonesian National Revolution and independence: Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1949 and Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence
1946/2013 Dutch colonial rule crimes and late apology: 12 September 2013: Almost 67 years after thousands of Indonesian men were summarily executed in South Sulawesi as part of a ruthless campaign to crush a rebellion against Dutch colonial rule, the Netherlands officially apologized and announced a proposal to compensate victims of similar 'excesses'
27 March 2020 Hague court orders Dutch state to pay out over colonial massacres: 27 March 2020: Hague court orders Dutch state to pay out over colonial massacres, as Indonesian Andi Monji forced to watch his father’s execution is among those who will get compensation, including widows and children of other executed men, mainly farmers, and as court recognised in its ruling that the sums granted the relatives of victims were 'disproportionate' (i.e. marginally) to the suffering caused, following crimes during hundreds of years never persecuted and punished
Netherlands/Iran relations: Netherlands/Iran relations
Iranians in the Netherlands
February 2018: 25 February 2018: A Jewish grandmother, who was sentenced in absentia to death by public execution in 2013 by a Tehran court that convicted her of 'violating Islamic rules [of the] Islamic Revolution' for running an organization that found housing solutions for women with abusive husbands who could not obtain a divorce, won’t granted asylum by the Netherlands
Iran/Netherlands trade relations and Anglo-Dutch oil company 'Shell': Iran/Netherlands trade relations - at least 65 Dutch companies have economic ties with the Iranian Islamic state and in spite of economic sanctions imposed by the USA and the EU, UK-registered Anglo-Dutch oil company 'Shell' continues to buy billions in crude oil from Iran each year
2010: 27 September 2010: Oil giant 'Shell' stepped up orders of Iranian crude while others halted trade amid sanctions imposed by UN, EU and USA
October 2017: m27 October 2017: Dutch government has admitted that technology from the Netherlands may have been used to develop weapons of mass destruction in Iran, Pakistan or Syria
Netherlands/Iraq relations: Netherlands/Iraq relations
9 September 2020 Mosul civilian first to be compensated for mistaken coalition bombing: 9 September 2020: An Iraqi man who lost his wife, daughter, brother and nephew in an airstrike after USA intelligence misidentified his home as an Islamic state headquarters, is believed to be the first civilian awarded compensation by coalition forces, as Basim Razzo, who cannot walk because of his injuries, has been made a 'voluntary offer' of nearly €1m by the Dutch government, whose F16 jets were responsible for the attack near the city of Mosul five years ago
Netherlands/Israel relations: Netherlands/Israel relations - History of the Jews in the Netherlands - 16 July 2014: Following its German sister company’s lead, the Dutch branch of Europe’s TUI travel giant has called off all tours of Israel due to the rocket fire there - 10 January 2015: Pro-Israel rally cancelled in Amsterdam over security concerns
Netherlands/Ivory Coast relations: Netherlands/Ivory Coast relations
2009: 17 October 2009: British newspaper Guardian can finally publish details of the Minton Report, a scientific study commissioned by Dutch oil trading company Trafigura about its own waste dumping in west Africa that had been leaked to the newspaper, containing damning evidence of the potentially toxic nature of the waste Trafigura dumped in Abidjan in the Ivory Coast
2012: 25 September 2012: More than six years after the dumping of large quantities of toxic waste in the Ivory Coast by Dutch 'Trafigura', there is still nothing to stop a similar disaster in developing countries because politicians and courts have failed to learn from the lessons, a new report has found
Netherlands/Liberia relations: Netherlands/Liberia relations
2017: 22 April 2017: Dutch timber trader Kouwenhoven was convicted by the Dutch appeal court of being an accessory to war crimes and arms trafficking for selling weapons to Liberia’s then president Charles Taylor during civil wars that involved mass atrocities
Netherlands/Malaysia relations: Netherlands/Malaysia relations - 27 July 2014: Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 families offer to counsel bereaved relatives of MH17 victims
Netherlands/Morocco relations: Netherlands/Morocco relations
2016: 9 December 2016: Geert Wilders has been found guilty of inciting discrimination against Dutch Moroccans, but the court cleared Wilders of the charge of inciting hatred and imposed no fine or sentence, ruling that a criminal conviction was sufficient punishment for a politician
Netherlands/New Guinea relations: Netherlands/New Guinea relations - Dutch colony 1949–1962 'Netherlands New Guinea' - Dutch Empire since 1543 - Dutch East Indies
Netherlands/Nigeria relations: Netherlands/Nigeria relations:
Royal family major shareholder of 'Royal Dutch Shell': 'Royal Dutch Shell' - Niederländisches Königshaus Großaktionär von 'Royal Dutch Shell'
Shell Nigeria:
Shell Nigeria: Shell Nigeria ('Royal Dutch Shell' accounts for more than 90% of Nigeria's total petroleum production)
2011 Nettogewinn von 'Royal Dutch Shell' 30,92 Mrd. USA-Dollar: 2011 Umsatz von 'Royal Dutch Shell' 470,17 Mrd. USA-Dollar, Nettogewinn 30,92 Mrd. USA-Dollar
October 2012 Dutch case against 'Royal Dutch Shell' over Nigeria spills: 11 October 2012: Dutch case against 'Royal Dutch Shell' over Nigeria spills to begin, as activists and Nigerian plaintiffs hope case will bring 'an end to the corporate crimes committed by oil giants'
2013 'Royal Dutch Shell' partly responsible for oil leaks that caused environmental damage in the Niger Delta region: 30 January 2013: Energy giant 'Royal Dutch Shell' partly responsible for oil leaks that caused environmental damage in the Niger Delta region, a Dutch court rules ordering the company to pay compensation to one Nigerian farmer - 13 September 2013: Niger delta communities devastated by giant oil spills caused by 'Royal Dutch Shell' have unanimously rejected a compensation offer from the company, calling it an insult, and cruel and derisory
December 2015 Nigerian farmers affected by oil pollution get green light to pursue case against Anglo–Dutch Royal Shell: 18 December 2015: Nigerian farmers affected by oil pollution get green light to pursue case against Anglo–Dutch Royal Shell, after appeals court ruled that Royal Shell can be held liable for oil spills at its subsidiary in Nigeria
29 January 2021 Dutch appeals court orders Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills also targeting Royal Dutch Shell: 29 January 2021: Dutch appeals court in The Hague has ordered Shell Nigeria to compensate farmers for major oil spills they say caused widespread pollution, as court in The Hague rejected Shell’s argument that the spills were the result of sabotage, instead ordering Shell’s Nigerian subsidiary to compensate the farmers for the losses caused by the oil spills in the two villages of Goi and Oruma in 2004 and 2005, also ruling that the parent company, Royal Dutch Shell, and its subsidiary must install warning equipment on its Oruma pipelines to limit the environmental damage in case of another spill
Netherlands/Palestinian territories relations: Netherlands/Palestinian territories relations
November 2019 funding for the PA cut over its salaries to terrorists: 21 November 2019: The Dutch government has cut funding for the Palestinian Authority over its salaries to terrorists serving time in Israeli jails
Netherlands/Russia relations: Netherlands/Russia relations
September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge
4 October: Greenpeace International applauds Dutch arbitration over Arctic 30 - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 16 October: Attack on Dutch deputy head of mission in Russia by unidentified assailants deepens Dutch-Russian rift - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise
2014: 24 April 2014: Several NATO member countries scrambled jets after a pair of Russian bomber planes approached their airspace over the North Sea
July-December 2014: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from an area in eastern Ukraine controlled by Russian-backed separatists - 19 July: Amid reports that pro-Russia separatists accused of shooting down MH17 flight remove corpses themselves and are looting credit cards and other possessions, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and more global politicians round on Vladimir Putin as separatists continue to block international inspectors attempting to identify and repatriate bodies - 20 July: As inspectors still denied access and anger mounts towards Russian regime, that is not yet ready to abandon separatists, UN considers resolution on Ukraine crash site access - 8 August: Dutch FM Timmermans fears that the Russian policy towards Ukraine can be applied in other countries, and it poses a threat to the whole of Europe - 29 November: More remains of victims from Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 arrive at Netherlands airport from crash site in pro-Russia separatists area, 289 victims identified - 19 December 2014: Bodies of MH17 victims ‘contain missile fragments', Ukraine's SBU security service says
2015: 8 October 2015: The 'Bellingcat' open source investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 summarizes that on 17 July 2014 a Buk missile launcher, originating from the 53rd Brigade near Kursk in Russia, travelled from Donetsk to Snizhne, was then unloaded and drove under its own power to a field south of Snizhne, where at approximately 4:20 pm it launched a surface-to-air missile that hit Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 as it flew over Ukraine, and was driven back on the morning of July 18 from Luhansk in Ukraine across the border to Russia, adding that 'alternative scenarios presented by the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey are at best deeply flawed, and at worst show a deliberate attempt to mislead using fabricated evidence' - 13 October: International investigators have concluded that Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down by a Russian-made BUK missile fired from rebel-held eastern Ukraine on 17 July 2014, a Dutch paper says ahead of the official report - 13 October: Dutch MH17 report suggests efforts were made by Russian-backed separatists to cover up causes of disaster, including a bungled autopsy in which metal fragments from a Russian-made Buk missile were deliberately removed, as the chairman of the safety board Tjibbe Joustra says to Dutch journalists in the corridor of parliament that the Buk missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists
2016: 4 January 2016: Dutch prosecutors say they will 'seriously study' claims by citizen journalists to have identified Russian soldiers implicated in the crash of flight MH17, shot down over eastern Ukraine in July 2014 - 5 January: Dutch FM Bert Koenders hopes that the format of the MH17 crash tribunal will be determined within next six months - 14 January 2016: Relatives of July 2014 MH17 victims demand release of radar data not given to the investigators by either the Russian or Ukrainian authorities, but what they say is key evidence - 24 February 2016: Bellingcat names those possibly involved in July 2014 MH17 crash, including Russia Defence Ministry and Putin - 24 February 2016: MH17 report identifies Russian soldiers suspected of downing Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 in Ukraine in 2014 - 24 February 2016: MH17 - Potential Suspects and Witnesses from the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade - A bellingcat Investigation 2015/2016
March 2018: 22 March 2018: The Government of the Netherlands has sent a bill to parliament allowing prosecution of any suspects in the case of MH17 downing over the territory of Ukraine
May 2018 Russia formally accused of downing MH17: 25 May 2018: Australia and the Netherlands have formally accused Russia of being responsible for downing a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet in July 2014, after international Joint Investigation Team identified the missile used to shoot down the plane as coming from Russia's armed forces, murdering all 298 people on board - 25 May 2018: Russian GRU officer Ivannikov involved in delivery of Buk to Donbas in July 2014, according Bellingcat team, The Insider and other investigators
25 May 2018: A group of 270 relatives of the Dutch victims of flight MH17 downed in July 2014 in Russian-occupied Donbas will lodge a complaint against Russia with the European Court of Human Rights ECHR
June 2018: 9 June 2018: A group of relatives of victims of the downing of flight MH17 held a silent protest in front of the Russian embassy in The Hague placing 298 empty chairs in the park opposite the embassy, saying '298 people, 80 of them forever children, have nothing to celebrate today. Their seats remain empty. Those who sealed their fate are silent and look away'
19 June 2019 first trial of three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian suspect announced: 19 June 2019: Marking the beginning of the Dutch criminal proceedings, Dutch prosecutors say three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian will be tried on murder charges for their role in the 2014 downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine, saying that evidence showed a direct line of military command between Ukrainian separatists and Russia's Putin regime, as suspects will be tried for murder in the case set to start in March 2020, according to Silene Fredriksz-Hoogzand, the mother of one of the 298 victims - 19 June 2019: Identifying the separatists linked to the downing of MH17 by Bellingcat Investigation Team
8 March 2020 families of people killed when Russian missile shot down MH17 flight set out 298 chairs outside Russian embassy: 8 March 2020: The families of people killed when a Russian BUK missile shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over eastern Ukraine in 2014 set out 298 white chairs outside the Russian embassy on Sunday in a silent protest against Putin regime’s lack of cooperation and denial in the investigation into the downing of the passenger jet - 8 March 2020: MH17 families fear they still face a long road to justice as trial begins
Netherlands/South Africa relations: Netherlands/South Africa relations
Since 1652 Dutch colonization of South Africa: Dutch colonization of South Africa since 1652
1652-1806 Dutch Cape Colony: 1652-1806 Dutch Cape Colony
Since 1652 Slavery in South Africa during Dutch rule: Since 1652 Slavery in South Africa during Dutch rule - Since 1652 Timeline of Slavery in the Cape Colony
1795-1994 continued European colonization, wars and apartheid: British colonization of South Africa since 1795-1910 - South African Wars 1879-1915 - Second Boer War - British dominion: Union of South Africa 1910-1961 - Apartheid in South Africa 1948-1994 - 1961 'Republic' South Africa following a whites-only referendum
Since 1994 democracy and majority rule in South Africa: Since 1994 South Africa transitioned from the system of apartheid to one of majority rule, after the election of 1994 resulted in a change in government with the African National Congress ANC coming to power
Netherlands/Spain relations: Netherlands/Spain relations - Seventeen Provinces 1549-1581 of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century - Dutch Revolt 1566–1648 was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain - 1581–1795 Republic of the United Netherlands existing from 1581 when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule - Economic history of the Netherlands 1500–1815
Netherlands/Syria relations:
2007 Dutch multinational Shell signed contract for oil and gas exploration with Assad regime: In 2007 Dutch multinational Shell signed a contract for oil and gas exploration with the Syrian Assad regime worth 42 million euros, as the Netherlands celebrated 400 years of official relations with Syria and as in the last ten years, Dutch companies have invested about 100 million euros a year in Syria
2014 Kurds in Netherlands protest 'Islamic State' attacking Kobani: 7 October 2014: Kurds in Netherlands storm the national parliament building in The Hague in protest against 'Islamic State' terrorists attacking the Kurdish town Kobani in northern Syria, watched by Turkish Erdogan regime
2015 Dutch FM Koenders says Assad cannot remain president of Syria: 18 February 2015: 'We cannot accept that those with blood of the Syrian people on their hands can be part of Syria's future', Dutch Foreign Minister Koenders says, adding that Assad cannot remain president of Syria
January 2016: 29 January 2016: The Netherlands currently has four F16 fighters flying missions over Iraq and will extend their mission to eastern Syria, PM Rutte says, also wanting to 'intensify’ the support for the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces in Iraq Kurdistan, as later in 2016 more Iraqi militias join Assad regime’s battle to destroy eastern Aleppo, murdering civilians in captured city districts before Christmas
January 2017 EU Parliament's Dutch MP criticizes the failure of EU to stand by the Syrian people: 4 January 2017: European Parliament's Dutch MP Marietje Schaake criticizes the failure of European countries to stand by the Syrian people in the war that has been waged on them by the Assad regime since 2011, calling the situation in Syria is 'a disgrace to our current generation'
May 2017 support for basic services discussion: 29 May 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif met with Netherlands Special Envoy for Syria Gerard Steeghs and Renko Verheij to discuss the latest developments in Syria, urging support for basic services projects
September 2020 Dutch government seeks to hold Syria accountable for torture: 19 September 2020: Dutch government seeks to hold Syria accountable for torture
Netherlands/Turkey relations: Netherlands/Turkey relations
2016: 24 avril 2016: Ebru Umar, éditorialiste néeerlandaise d'origine turque, a été interpellée par la police dans la nuit à son domicile de Kusadasi, dans l'ouest de la Turquie, pour des tweets visant le président turc
2017: 4 March 2017: The Netherlands have banned a planned rally in Rotterdam next week seeking the aupport of Turks living abroad for measures aimed at boosting the powers of Erdogan, as PM Rutte says 'that the Dutch public space is not the place for political campaigns in other countries' - 12 March 2017: The Netherlands says visit by Turkish family minister Kaya was 'irresponsible' as Turkey vows 'strong reprisal', after Turkish demonstrators made nationalist signs during a gathering outside the Turkish consulate in Rotterdam - 12 March 2017: As Turkey has already brought in diplomatic sanctions and told the Dutch ambassador to Ankara not to return, Dutch government defends Turkish consulate actions
2018: 5 February 2018: The Netherlands formally withdraws Turkish ambassador over 2017 row and will also not accept the appointment of a new Turkish ambassador to the Netherlands
Netherlands/Ukraine relations: Netherlands/Ukraine relations
2014: 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shot down near Hrabove with a surface-to-air missile - 19 July 2014: Kiev residents create MH17 memorial at Dutch embassy - 25/26 July: As Australia and Netherlands join renewed push to secure MH17 crash site Ukraine's acting PM Volodymyr Groysman wants parliament to allow Australian police and soldiers to take a lead role in securing the MH17 crash site
2016: 31 October 2016: Ukraine's Poroshenko says the Netherlands does not put the process of ratification of the Ukraine-EU Association Agreement to a halt and continues consultations, UNIAN reports
July 2019: 8 July 2019: Ukrainian Deputy Minister of Justice for European Integration Sergiy Petukhov has said the Netherlands has started the procedure of transferring the criminal case on the downing of MH17 from Ukraine
Netherlands/United Kingdom relations: Netherlands/United Kingdom relations - Anglo-Dutch Wars for control over the seas and trade routes 1652-1784
Economic relations - 'Royal Dutch Shell' Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company - 'Unilever' Anglo–Dutch multinational consumer goods company
September 2019 Netherlands and EU losing patience with Britain: 9 September 2019: EU is losing patience with Britain, warns UK’s closest EU ally Netherland's minister for trade Sigrid Kaag, expressing alarm at the 'breathtaking' developments in Westminster, the government’s failure to table alternatives to the Irish backstop, and doubt on Boris Johnson’s claim he is seeking new deal with Brussels
Netherlands/USA relations: Netherlands/USA relations - 6 November: A group of lawyers, journalists and privacy advocates is taking the government to court to prevent Dutch intelligence using phone data illegally acquired by the US National Security Agency
Environment of the Netherlands and climate change: Environment of the Netherlands
Natural disasters in the Netherlands: Natural disasters in the Netherlands
July 2021 floods by heavy-violent rains in west- and central Europe: Since 12 July 2021 several European countries affected by catastrophic floods, causing deaths and widespread damage in the UK and across northern and central Europe, including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy - July 2021 Hochwasser in West- und Mitteleuropa durch das Tiefdruckgebiet 'Bernd', vor allem in Belgien, Deutschland, Frankreich, Italien, Luxemburg, Niederlande, Schweiz, UK - 15 July 2021: At least 38 people have died and dozens are missing or awaiting rescue from rooftops after heavy rain and floods caused buildings to collapse in the western German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North-Rhine Westphalia, 'The Guardian' reports - 16 July 2021: Death toll exceeds 120 as Germany and Belgium worst hit by devastating floods, and as search for missing continues, with Netherlands, Switzerland and Luxembourg also affected

Poland - Geography of Poland - History of Poland - Demographics of Poland
Agriculture in Poland: Agriculture in Poland
27 January 2020 Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Auschwitz death camp: 27 January 2020: 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz, Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Nazi death camp to honor its over 1.1 million mostly Jewish victims and to share their testimony as a stark warning amid a recent surge of anti-Semitic attacks on both sides of the Atlantic and especially fresh concerns over anti-Semitism in Europe, after war criminal Novichok-Putin, falsely accusing Poland of colluding with German Nazi dictator Hitler and contributing to the outbreak of World War II, spoke in Jerusalem on 23 January, and as Germany since 1961 refuses to rename Nazi general Erwin Rommel barracks in Augustdorf, continuing Nazi propaganda, misleading and indoctrinating young people and generations, as neo-Nazis and AfD since 2015 got stronger in Germany and elsewhere
28 June 2020 Polish presidential election: June 2020 Polish presidential election - 28 June 2020: Voting is under way in Poland’s presidential election, with the incumbent Duda up against a field of challengers including the liberal mayor of Warsaw, Rafal Trzaskowsk
12 July 2020 second round with Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff: 29 June 2020: Duda forced into second round against liberal challenger and Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff on 12 July - 11 July 2020: Ahead of election, Polish president rejects Holocaust restitution claims, as Andrzej Duda vows no reparations for assets seized from Jews during World War II
12 July 2020 Poles go to polls to vote: 12 July 2020: Poles go to polls to vote in tight presidential runoff, as liberal Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski seeks to upset conservative incumbent Duda, as first official results only expected Monday morning
13 July 2020 Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election: 13 July 2020: Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election, after results gave the incumbent 51.2% of votes with almost all the ballots counted, the national electoral commission said, as his Liberal challenger and mayor of Warsaw trailed with 48.8%
Protests in Poland: Protests in Poland - Polish trade union Solidarity
2012/2013: 29 September 2012: Tens of thousands of opponents of Poland's centrist government massed in the capital for a protest called by trade unions and a catholic movement - 14 September 2013: Tens of thousands of Polish trade unionists are set to march through the capital in the finale of a four-day protest against the unpopular and increasingly fragile centre-right government
2015: 13 December 2015: Thousands march against Polish Eurosceptic government over constitution spat - 20 December: Thousands of Poles have protested against the country's new government for the second time this month over constitutional row - 24 December: Poland's former president Lech Walesa warns over democracy in Poland, urging new election
2016: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting - 23 January: Thousands of Poles marched through Warsaw to protests against their new conservative government's plan to increase its surveillance powers following moves to take more control of the judiciary and the media - 27 February: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters rally for 'free and open Poland' - 11 March: After Polish PM is refused to publish a ruling of the country's Constitutional Tribunal, protesters in favour of the court projected passages from the ruling onto the walls of the prime minister's chancellery on Wednesday night - 12/13 March 2016: Tens of thousands of people took to the streets in the Polish capital Warsaw, in Poznan and Wroclaw against the government's collision course with the country's top court to undermine judicial independence - 7 mai 2016: Plus de 240'000 manifestants à Varsovie souhaitent que la place de la Pologne soit préservée en Europe, montrant du doigt les conservateurs au pouvoir - 5 June: Former presidents lead 50,000 marchers in Warsaw in pro-democracy protests - 13 December 2016: Thousands protest against Law and Justice party threatening to reverse democratic gains made since 1989 - 17 December 2016: Mass protests in Poland over media restrictions
2017: 6 mai 2017: Plusieurs dizaines de milliers de personnes ont manifesté samedi à Varsovie pour 'défendre la liberté', menacée par le pouvoir conservateur nationaliste de Kaczynski - 18 July 2017: Demonstrations took place at the weekend to protest against a series of moves by the ruling 'Law and Justice party' to assume power over the appointments of judges and members of the country’s supreme court - 22 July 2017: Tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Warsaw and cities across Poland for candlelit vigils to protest as the senate approved a supreme court overhaul, defying the EU and critics at home who say the legislation will undermine democratic checks and balances - 23 July 2017: Protesters across Poland warn of impending dictatorship
November 2017: 12 November 2017: As a smaller counter-protest by an anti-fascist movement took place and several women who chanted slogans were pushed and kicked by nationalists, tens of thousands of nationalists marched through Warsaw to mark Poland’s independence day, with some marchers expressing sympathy for xenophobic or white supremacist ideas - 24 November 2017: Thousands protested against proposed new judicial reforms in front of the Presidential Palace in Warsaw
July 2018: 27 July 2018: Thousands of protesters have rallied in central Warsaw chanting 'Shame!' after Poland's president granted the nationalist government more power over court appointments
December 2018: 8 décembre 2018: Plus d'un millier de manifestants ont traversé samedi Katowice dans le sud de la Pologne pour demander aux participants à la conférence mondiale COP-24 d'agir rapidement en faveur du climat
January 2019: 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
May 2019: 18 May 2019: Thousands are marching in the Polish capital to celebrate the nation’s European Union membership ahead of key European Parliament elections
11 October 2021 more than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership: 11 October 2021: More than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership after a controversial court ruling raised concerns the country could eventually leave the bloc, as protest organisers said demonstrations took place in more than 100 Polish towns and cities on Sunday, and several cities abroad
Society, demographics, culture, human rights and religion in Poland: Polish society - Human rights in Poland - Religion in Poland
Voivodeships, counties and cities of Poland: Administrative divisions of Poland - 16 Voivodeships of Poland - 314 'land counties' (powiaty ziemskie) and 66 'city counties' (powiaty grodzkie) - Land counties of Poland by Voivodeship - Counties of Poland by city
Cities and towns in Poland: List of cities and towns in Poland - Cities and towns in Poland by Voivodeship - Economies by city in Poland - Port cities and towns in Poland
Warsaw city: Warsaw, the capital and largest city of Poland, its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents
Economy of Warwaw: Economy of Warsaw
Timeline and history of Warsaw: Timeline of Warsaw - History of Warsaw
Since the Middle Ages city of Warsaw: Since the Middle Ages the city of Warsaw evolved from a cluster of villages to the capital of a major European power, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
November 1794 Battle of Praga and Russian victory: November 1794 Battle of Praga, or the Second Battle of Warsaw, a Russian assault of Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kosciuszko Uprising, followed by a massacre of the civilian population of Praga
November Uprising 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire: November Uprising 1830–1831, an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire, that began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw
January Uprising 1863-1864 against the Russian Empire: January Uprising 1863-1864, an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire
Polish Revolution of 1905: Polish Revolution of 1905 against the Russian Empire, as in 1905 and 1906 close to 7,000 strikes and other work stoppages occurred involving 1,3 million Poles, protesters demanded both improved conditions for workers and more political freedom for the Poles, and Russian empire contributed by trying to incite some anti-Jewish pogroms
Since 1914/1915 German bombing and invasion of Warsaw: After aerial bombing of the city in 1914 with airships, the German army entered Warsaw on 1 August 1915
Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw: Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the aerial bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939, it also may refer to German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, as during the course of the war approximately 84% of the city was destroyed due to German mass bombings, heavy artillery fire and a planned demolition campaign
Since September 1939 German siege of Warsaw, occupation and destruction: by September 1939 Siege of Warsaw by the invading German Army - April-May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of Jewish resistance against Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka - August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising - German planned destruction of Warsaw
History of Warsaw since 1945: History of Warsaw since 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended and most of Warsaw was in ruins
13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Middle East Conference: 13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Conference, hosted by Poland and the USA the issues of the event include 'terrorism and extremism, missile development and proliferation, maritime trade and security, and threats posed by proxy groups across the region' of Middle East and especially 'Iran’s influence and terrorism in the region' - 14 February 2019: '60 foreign ministers and representatives of dozen of governments, an Israeli PM and the foreign ministers of leading Arab countries stood together and spoke with unusual force, clarity and unity against the common threat of the Iranian regime', Israel's Netanyahu says in Warsaw - 14 February 2019: Israel's Netanyahu on Thursday called on Arab states to continue normalizing relations with Israel, as the Iranian regime, vowing to revenge, once again tries to blame Israel and the USA for an attack reportedly claimed by Jaish ul-Adl
April 2019: 23 April 2019: On the 76th anniversary of World War II uprising and destruction, foreign and Polish Jews gather in former Warsaw Ghetto for first seder since in 1943 the Jews imprisoned there began a bloody last stand against the Nazis, the largest single violent act of defiance by Jews during the Holocaust
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
19 April 2020 anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising amid covid-19: 19 avril 2020: Une multitude d'hommages intimes, sur place ou depuis les lieux de confinement, ainsi que des initiatives en ligne ont remplacé dimanche les cérémonies anniversaires habituelles aux héros du soulèvement du ghetto de Varsovie de 1943, remodelées à cause de la pandémie covid-19
Kraków city: Kraków, the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland, situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, and dating back to the 7th century - Timeline of Kraków - History of Kraków
Economy of Kraków: Economy of Kraków
Timeline of Kraków: Timeline of Kraków
Since 15th-century Old Synagogue: Since 15th-century Old Synagogue situated in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe, that remained one of the most important synagogues in the city until the German invasion of Poland in 1939, renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum
Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland: Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland
1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow': 1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow', an overwhelmingly Polish-speaking city-state as 14% of its population were Jews as the city of Kraków itself had a Jewish population reaching nearly 40%
February 1846 Kraków Uprising for national independence: February 1846 Kraków Uprising, an attempt to incite a fight for national independence and directed at the powers that partitioned Poland, in particular the nearby Austrian Empire, but ended with Austrian victory
1846-1918 'Grand Duchy of Kraków' part of the 'Empire of Austria': 1846-1918 Grand Duchy of Kraków, created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria in November 1846, as from 1846 to 1918 'Grand Duke of Kraków' was part of the official titulary of the 'Emperor of Austria'
1918-1939 Second Polish Republic: 1918-1939 Second Polish Republic
1939–1945 Kraków 'capital' of Nazi Germany's 'General Governorate': November 1939 – 19 January 1945 'General Governorate for the occupied Polish Region', a German zone of occupation established after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 at the onset of World War II
Since 1940/1941 German politician and lawyer Hans Frank and Kraków Ghetto: Since 1940/1941 Kraków Ghetto was one of five major metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the 'able workers' from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life, as the Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Belzec extermination camp as well as Plaszów slave-labor camp, and Auschwitz concentration camp
1939-1942 Kraków Ghetto establishment and mass murder called liquidation: In April 1940, German politician and lawyer Hans Frank, who served as head of the General Government, began the removal of Jews from the city of Kraków with the reasoning that the area '...will be cleansed and it will be possible to establish pure German neighborhoods...' within Kraków - 1939-1941/1942 Kraków Ghetto Jewish Council until in 1942 Nazi ghetto officials made David Gutter, the last chairman of the Kraków Ghetto
1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance: 1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance, stemmed from youth groups including Akiva, Iskra and Hahalutz Halochem, or the Fighting Organization of the Jewish youth, originally focused on providing support for education and welfare organizations within the ghetto and eventually establishing a magazine, and also focused on working with the Polish Underground and the Communist Partia Robotnicza, and ultimately focusing on more classical armed resistance actions
January 1945 Soviet army takes the city: January 1945 Soviet army takes the city, German occupation ends
Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Kraków: Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks, the second largest steel plant in Poland, in 2005 purchased by the Mittal Steel Company and now owned by Arcelor-Mittal, the largest steelmaker in the world
Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków: Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków
Lódz city: Lódz city, the third-largest city in Poland and former industrial hub with a population of 687,702 inhabitants in 2018, located in the central part of the country approximately 120 kilometres south-west of Warsaw
Timeline of Lódz: Timeline of Lódz since 18th century
1793 Lódz becomes part of expanding Prussia: 1793 Lódz becomes part of South Prussia with a population of 190 citizens, amid the expansion of the Kingdom of Prussia, and as Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years with its territory and its native population split between the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire
1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland: 1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland 1815–1867/1915 per Congress of Vienna
Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn' area of textile factories in Lódz: Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn', an area in the southern central part of Lódz which consists of a group of textile factories - mainly cotton spinning mills - and associated facilities, since the first decade of the 21st century the area undergoes major renovation and contains mixed-use development of offices and housing
1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue: 1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue
1899-1939 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz: Since 1899 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz, built from donations by the Jewish merchants including those expelled from Tsarist Lithuania and Belarus area, but burned to the ground by the Nazis on 11 November 1939 before the Lódz Ghetto was set up
June 1905 Lódz insurrection by Polish workers during the Russian Revolution: June 1905 Lódz insurrection, an uprising by Polish workers in Lódz against the Russian Empire and one of the largest disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland during the Russian Revolution of 1905, as Poland was a major center of revolutionary fighting in the Russian Empire in 1905–1907, and the Lódz insurrection was a key incident in those events as common demands were the improvement of workers' living conditions and greater rights for the Polish population, but insurgents were poorly armed and overwhelmed by the tsarist regular military
November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz following German aggession since August: November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz, fought between the German empire's Ninth Army, commanded by generals Erich Ludendorff and Mackensen and the Russian First, Second, and Fifth Armies, as assaulted forces counted 110,000 killed, wounded or captured soldiers
6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of ill prepared Poland after French and British pressure not to mobilize: 6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of Poland, fought between the armies of Poland and Nazi Germany in World War II, after reason for Poland's late and insufficient mobilization was pressure from the French and the British not to mobilize, and as since 29 August 1939, when the Poles re—started the mobilization against advice from Paris and London, it was too late - Since 1938 'Western betrayal' (and earlier) concerning the fact that France, the United Kingdom, and sometimes the USA failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military, and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish states during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II, also sometimes referring to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European states at the time, enabling World War II that lasted from 1939 to 1945, the Holocaust by Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe, and the August 1945 atomic bombings forcing Japanese war criminals to surrender
1940 Lódz (renamed 'Litzmannstadt') an important industrial city for the German war machine: By 1940 the city of Lódz was renamed Litzmannstadt and became an important industrial city for the German war machine, as munitions and uniforms were manufactured in the newly established 'Ghetto Litzmannstadt' by Jewish slave labor, as Jews from Poland, Germany, Benelux and Czechoslovakia as well as Roma people from Austria were brought to live and work there in appalling conditions, while most of them were taken for extermination in the Nazi death camps, until Lódz was taken by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945, and only 877 Jews survived to the moment of liberation from emerging and perishing German empire since 1793, 1848/1871, 1914 and 1939
Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, camp for Polish children, deportations: Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, established by the German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma, the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto, originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, then the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the Wehrmacht, as the number of people incarcerated in it was increased further by the Jews deported from the Third Reich territories
Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos: Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos - After the Germans in 1942 ordered the final liquidation of the ghettos, residents recognized the imminence of their deaths and they resisted in the forests, in the ghettos, and even in the death camps, mocked by their murderers claiming their inability to resist, as Nazi followers and protectors even today in Germany and elsewhere agree, or require understanding and dialogue with the Nazis, criticize resistance and resistance's violence that is only a response, or do not take a stand
Since 1945 University of Lódz: Since 1945 University of Lódz, founded as a continuation of educational institutions functioning in Lódz in the interwar period, including the Teacher Training Institute 1921–1928, the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences 1924–1928 and a division of the Free Polish University 1928–1939, and as a result of widespread cooperation with universities all over the world, including Université Jean Moulin Lyon, University of Texas at Austin, University of Baltimore, University of Maryland, Centria University of Applied Sciences Finland, students of the University of Lódz can graduate with dual diplomas
February 1971 Lódz textile workers' strike: February 1971 Lódz strikes, when textile workers began a strike action, in which the majority of participants were women, the only industrial action in pre-1980 Communist Poland that ended as a success
Since 2006 'Manufaktura' arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex: Since 2006 'Manufaktura', an arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex in Lódz, and a major tourist asset of the city, including the largest public square in Lódz, which acts as a venue for cultural and sports event
May 2019 effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto: 2 May 2019: Effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto, outside the headquarters of the city’s police station, as activist who says he is working to 'liberate Poland from American Jews occupation' shouted 'I did it, I hung a Jew'
Gdansk city: Gdansk city, a Polish city on the Baltic coast with a population of 464,254 inhabitants, Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area, also the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and of Kashubia - History of Gdansk
Economy of Gdansk: Economy of Gdansk
Timeline and history of Gdansk: Timeline of Gdansk - History of Gdansk
January 2019: 13 January 2019 stabbing of Pawel Adamowicz - 14 January 2019: Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the Polish city of Gdansk, has died after he was stabbed in the chest on stage at a charity concert - 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
Wroclaw city: Wroclaw city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia, located on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south, as the official population of Wroclaw in 2020 was 643,782, with a further 1.25 million residing in the metropolitan area - History of Wroclaw that has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship, after the history of the city started at a crossroads in Lower Silesia, becoming one of the centres of the Duchy and then Kingdom of Poland, and briefly, in the first half of the 13th century, the centre of half of the divided Kingdom of Poland, as its historical affiliations since AD 800 include Duchy of Poland 985–1025, Kingdom of Poland 1025–1038, Duchy of Bohemia 1038–1054, Kingdom of Poland 1054–ca. 1325, Duchy of Silesia 1202–1335, Kingdom of Bohemia 1335–1469, Kingdom of Hungary 1469–1490, Kingdom of Bohemia 1490–1526/1742, Habsburg Monarchy 1526–1742, Kingdom of Prussia 1742–1871, German Empire 1871–1918, Weimar Germany 1918–1933, NSDAP ruled Germany 1933–1945, People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989 and Republic of Poland 1989–present
Timeline of Wroclaw: Timeline of Wroclaw
Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau: Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau, now Wroclaw, and one of the largest synagogues in the German Empire and a centre of Reform Judaism in Breslau, burnt down during the Kristallnacht pogrom which swept across Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938
Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology: Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
1944-1945 (6 May) Battle of Breslau: 1944-1945 Battle of Breslau, a three-month-long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia - after in August 1944 Adolf Hitler declared the city of Breslau to be a fortress (Festung), ordering that it must be defended at all costs - lasting to the end of World War II in Europe, after from 13 February 1945 to 6 May 1945 German troops in Breslau were besieged by the Soviet forces which encircled the city as part of the Lower Silesian Offensive Operation, and as the German garrison's surrender on 6 May was followed by the surrender of all German forces two days after the battle
Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction: Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction
After 13 May 1945 Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor: Polish Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor, after he led a delegation to Zagan on 13 May 1945
Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University: Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University, that has 22 international agreements of cooperation signed with other universities abroad, and as there is a wide exchange of students and teaching staff within the framework of the Socrates and Erasmus programmes of the EU, especially with France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Spain, the Netherlands and England
Since 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences: Since November 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (former Agricultural University and Agricultural Academy in Wroclaw), a state university established as an independent university and one of the best specialist universities in Poland, conducting training and research in the field of food, environmental and veterinary sciences
Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw: Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw, the only architecture museum in Poland, located in a 15th-century post-Bernardine set of buildings, including the St Bernardine of Sienna Church and a monastic quadrangle with a garden, as the Museum of Architecture was a founder-member of the International Confederation of Architectural Museums, and as its permanent exhibitions on display are 'Relics of Wroclaw's Mediaeval Architecture', 'Architectural Craft from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century'
Zamosc: Zamosc, a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship 60 km from the border with Ukraine, with a population was 65,149 in 2014
Since 1580 history of Zamosc: Since 1580 history of Zamosc, when the city was founded by Jan Zamoyski on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea, modelled on Italian trading cities and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando Zamosc remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century
Since 1588 history of Jews in Zamosc: Since 1588 history of Jews in Zamosc, when the first Jewish settlers were mainly the Sephardi Jews coming from Italy, the Catholic Monarchy of Spain, Portugal and Turkey, in the 17th century the newcomers were recruited among the Ashkenazi Jews, and before Germany's World War II more than 12,500 Jews lived in Zamosc, accounting for 43% of its population, today only 3 Jews are living in Zamosc
1939-1945 during Germany's World War II occupation of Zamosc (Zamojszczyzna): 1939-1945 during Germany's World War II Zamosc was seized by the German army and occupation forces, creating an extermination camp in the Zamosc Rotunda where more than 8,000 people were killed, including displaced residents of the Zamosc region (Zamojszczyzna) and Soviet prisoners of war
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
1942-1944 Zamosc uprising: 1942-1944 Zamosc uprising, comprising World War II partisan operations against Germany's Generalplan-Ost forced expulsion of Poles from the Zamosc region and the region's colonization by German settlers, one of Poland's largest resistance operations of World War II
March 2018: 14. März 2018: Die in Zamosc an Rosa Luxemburg erinnernde Gedenktafel wurde auf Grundlage einer behördlichen Entscheidung entfernt und in ein Museum verbracht, der polnischen Regierungspolitik folgend und zum Schaden des Ansehens der Stadt
Demographics, demographic history and ethnic groups in Poland: Demographics of Poland - Demographic history of Poland
Ethnic groups in Poland: Ethnic groups in Poland - Ethnic minorities in Poland
Jews and history of the Jews in Poland: History of the Jews in Poland - History of the Jews in 20th-century Poland - 1921 there were 2,845,364 Jews living in the Second Polish Republic, by late 1938 that number has grown to approximately 3,310,000 mainly through migration from Ukraine and the Soviet Russia, from amongst the 6 million Polish citizens who perished during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, roughly half (or 3 million) were Polish Jews murdered at the Nazi-Germany's extermination camps of Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibór, and Chelmno, others died of starvation and maltreatment in the ghettos, only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil
2014/2015: 25 October 2014: With the newly built Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Poland, on whose soil Nazi Germany carried out the darkest acts of the Holocaust, is starting to re-connect with its other role in Jewish history as a home for 1,000 years to one of the world's biggest Jewish communities - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the Nazis in World War II
April 2018: 28 April 2018: In Krakow, Jews celebrate their community’s 'revival’ amid rising xenophobia
August 2019: 8 August 2019: Poland’s chief rabbi Michael Schudrich criticized the Duda government’s decision to honor World War II ultra-nationalist fighters and called his invitation to the event a 'personal insult'
Romani people in Poland and Polska Roma: Romani people in Poland - Polska Roma are the largest and one of the oldest ethnolinguistic sub group of Romani people living in Poland - Bergitka Roma
Belarusian minority in Poland: Belarusian minority in Poland
German minority in Poland: German minority in Poland
Silesians: Silesians are the inhabitants of Silesia, a region divided by the current boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic, and are considered to belong to a Polish ethnographic group, speaking a dialect of Polish
Ukrainians in Poland: Ukrainians in Poland
2016: 22 May 2016: As around one million Ukrainians work in Poland, Ukrainian Workers' Trade Union to be set up in Warsaw
Vietnamese people in Poland: Vietnamese people in Poland, forming one of the ethnic minorities in Poland, the third-largest Vietnamese community in the European Union, after Vietnamese people in France and Germany
Immigration to Poland and 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Immigration to Poland - 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 November 2015: Poland's new government will no longer accept migrants under European Union quotas after Friday's terror attacks in Paris - 2 December 2015: Detain refugees arriving in Europe for 18 months, Poland's European council president Tusk says
Languages and culture of Poland: Culture of Poland - Languages of Poland - Polish language - Music of Poland
Women in Poland: Women in Poland - Women's rights in Poland
Education in Poland: Education in Poland - History of education in Poland
Schools in Poland: Schools in Poland
Universities and colleges in Poland: Universities and colleges in Poland - List of universities in Poland - Timeline of Polish science and technology
Museums in Poland: Museums in Poland
National Museum of Poland: 'National Museum of Poland' is the common name for several of the country's largest and most notable museums
World War II museums in Poland: World War II museums in Poland
Museum of World War II in Gdansk: Museum of World War II in Gdansk - Homepage of the 'Museum of the Second World War' - Educational projects of the 'Museum of the Second World War'
2016/2017: 21 December 2016: Minister of Culture and National Heritage refuses to comply with the Provincial Administrative Court’s decision suspending the merger of museums - 24 January 2017: Fate of Polish WWII museum unclear amid battle over history, as Director Pawel Machcewicz says 'it’s very unusual for the creation of a historical exhibit to encounter such huge pressure from the government'
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews: POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto 1940-1943 - Jewish Historical Institute, a research foundation in Warsaw primarily dealing with the history of Jews in Poland - Ringelblum Archive
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
9 January 2020 Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel over snub: 9 January 2020: Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz over snub, after being told he would not be allowed to speak at the event, but Russian regime’s war criminal Vladimir Putin
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum: Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, a memorial and museum in Oswiecim, which includes the German concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau and is devoted to the memory of the murders in both camps during World War II
Warsaw Uprising Museum: Warsaw Uprising Museum, dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944
Health in Poland: Health in Poland
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Poland: Medical outbreaks in Poland - Disasters and man-made disasters in Poland
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland
22 April 2020 covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland: 22 April 2020: Showing highest number in post-soviet central Europe, confirmed covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland and some 16-17% of the infections were medical workers, now slowly easing restrictions on public life ahead of a presidential election set for May 10, as Poland has reported 404 deaths
Coal and environment of Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Healthcare in Poland: Healthcare in Poland - Medical and health organisations based in Poland
Hospitals in Poland: Hospitals in Poland - List of hospitals in Poland
Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw: Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw - 1878-1942 Bersohn and Bauman Children's Hospital in Warsaw, between 1905 and 1912 Janusz Korczak worked in the hospital as a pediatrician
Coal and environment of Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Media of Poland: Media of Poland - Lists of Polish media - Media in Poland by city
Newspapers in Poland: List of newspapers in Poland
Broadcasting in Poland: Broadcasting in Poland
2016 protests against state control of public broadcasting: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting
Internet in Poland: Internet in Poland
April 2018: 29 April 2018: Facebook removes Polish nationalist pages for anti-Semitic content
May 2019: 17 mai 2019: Facebook a fermé en Pologne 27 pages diffusant des fausses nouvelles ou des contenus haineux, à l'approche des élections européennes, a annoncé l'ONG de cybermilitantisme Avaaz
Cinema of Poland: Cinema of Poland
Lists of Polish films by decade: Lists of Polish films by decade
September 2019 Wanda Jakubowska’s film 'The Last Stage’: 13 September 2019: Seventy years after its Tel Aviv premiere, Wanda Jakubowska’s Polish film 'The Last Stage’ is being shown in Israel once again, one of first feature films about the Holocaust, the first to be filmed at Auschwitz
History of religion in Poland: History of religion in Poland Religion in Poland
Secularism and freedom of religion in Poland: Secularism in Poland - Freedom of religion according to the constitution of Poland
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 23 April 2019: 'The Catholic Church will never tolerate manifestations of contempt towards members of any nation, including the Jewish people', Polish bishop Rafal Markowski announced, after residents, among them children, hanged, beat and burned an effigy of Judas, represented by a stereotypical Jew, in southeast Poland's town of Pruchnik on Good Friday, a tradition practised since 18th century and today in some other villages
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Roman Catholic church sex abuse cases in Poland: Roman Catholic chruch sex abuse cases in Poland
May 2013: 16 May 2013: Two French journalists invited to an interview with a Polish priest, who is being investigated for alleged child abuse, were briefly held against their will by the priest
May 2019: 17 May 2019: Poland has raised jail terms for convicted paedophiles to a maximum of 30 years after a groundbreaking documentary on child sexual abuse among Polish priests prompted public outrage
Crime in Poland: Crime in Poland
Since 1939 German invasion and World War II crimes in Poland: Since 1939 German invasion, occupation and World War II crimes in Poland
Corruption in Poland: Corruption in Poland - surveys of Polish citizens reveal that corruption is perceived to be a major problem - Police corruption in Poland
Since 2002 Lew Rywin affair: Rywin affair was a corruption scandal in Poland, which began in late 2002 when Lew Rywin called in at the office of Adam Michnik, editor of Poland's largest daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza, offering in exchange for a bribe of 17.5 million USD to arrange for a change in a draft law aimed at limiting the print media's influence on radio and television
2002-2004 Orlengate: 2002-2004 Orlengate
2006/2007: Oleksy tapes
Racism and antisemitism in Poland: Racism in Poland, existing in a variety of forms over the course of its history as the Polish people themselves have been the victims of anti-Polish racism under the German Empire and during World War II - Antisemitism in Poland
Since 1918: Antisemitism in Poland since the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918
1939-1945: 10 February 2017: Drawing on Polish, Jewish and German records from the war and postwar periods, historian Jan Grabowski was able to document Poland's local population’s involvement in turning over and murdering the Jews who sought their help, but also the heroism of Poles who tried to rescue their Jewish neighbors and sometimes paid for it with their lives
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Poland: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
November 2015 burning of an effigy of a Jewish citizen: 19 November 2015: A Polish demonstration against taking in Muslim refugees ended with the burning of an effigy of an ultra-Orthodox Jew holding the flag of the European Union
November 2017 anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland: 13 November 2017: Anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland were among the racist epithets shouted by tens of thousands of far-right nationalists who marched Saturday in Warsaw to mark 99 years of the country’s independence, while counter-protesters rallied against fascism
January 2018 new bill against blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust: 27 January 2018: Amid escalating tensions between Israel and Poland over a new bill passed in the lower house of Poland’s parliament, which would outlaw blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center Yad Vashem said that 'while the term 'Polish death camps' is a historical misrepresentation', new Polish legislation may 'blur historical truths' on the help Germans received from Poles in Holocaust - 28 January 2018: Chairman of guides organization leading Holocaust tours asks for clarification regarding the legislation, which criminalizes holding Poles responsible for Nazi crimes
April 2019 anti-Semitic effigy hanged and burned in Polish Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual: 22 April 2019: 'Disturbed by this ghastly revival of medieval anti-Semitism', the World Jewish Congress expressed its 'disgust and outrage' following reports that an effigy made to look like a stereotypical Jew was hanged and burned in the Polish town of Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual, as residents including children beat and burned the effigy representing Judas, the discipline of Christ who betrayed him according to the New Testament, given a brimmed hat and sidelocks, making it resemble an ultra-Orthodox Jew, along with a long nose, a trope used by Nazi Germany and by anti-Semites worldwide to demonize and dehumanize Jews
19 December 2020 Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps according to Polish historian Krzyzanowski: 19 December 2020: Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps, as in study Polish historian Lukasz Krzyzanowski delves into postwar Radom, where Jews found new residents living in their stolen homes, and little empathy from the public
Hooliganism and riots in Poland: Football hooliganism in Poland - 11 November 2013: Polish independence day march in Warsaw marred by rioting young nationalists
Human trafficking in Poland: Human trafficking in Poland
Law and legal history of Poland: Law of Poland - Legal history of Poland - Constitutions of Poland - 1997 Constitution of Poland
Judiciary of Poland: Judiciary of Poland - Constitutional Tribunal since 1982/1986 - Regional Courts
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 24 April 2019: The attorney general in the Polish province of Jaroslaw has reportedly opened a criminal investigation into an anti-Semitic ritual enacted over the Easter holiday that involved an effigy of Judas represented by a stereotypical Jew being hanged, beaten and set alight, known as 'Judgment over Judas' dating back to the 18th century and continued to be regularly performed until the Second World War and the Holocaust, then´largely abandoned with only a couple of villages continuing it, Pruchnik in south-eastern Poland
Supreme Court of Poland: Supreme Court of Poland, the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts, supervises the adjudication in district, regional, and appeal courts in the areas of civil, criminal, family and labour law, and in military courts (circuit and garrison courts)
July 2018 supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf: 4 July 2018: Polish supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf has turned up for work in defiance of a retirement law which has been pushed through by the government but criticised by the EU for undermining judicial independence
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Law enforcement in Poland: Law enforcement in Poland
Foreign relations of Poland: Foreign relations of Poland
Treaties of Poland: Treaties of Poland
Poland's membership international organisations: Poland's membership international organisations
Poland/United Nations relations: 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 11 November 2013: Poland, a top EU polluter, hosts UN climate summit aiming to map out the main points of an ambitious global agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to be signed 2015 - 14 November: November 'Coal summit' in Warsaw stokes trouble at UN climate talks - 20 November: Polish environment minister sacked as he chairs UN climate talks - 21 November: The second-last day of the global climate change conference in Warsaw has seen 800 NGO delegates walk out of the talks over a lack of progress - 24 November: At the UN climate talks in Warsaw, rich and poor nations agree to commit to the reduction of greenhouse gases, waiting for a final deal in Paris in 2015
Since 1991 Poland member of the Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Poland and the European Union, since 2004 membership: Poland and the European Union
2003/2004 Polish EU membership referendum: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
Since 2015 reactions to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 EU and international reaction to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis
January 2016 EU inquiry: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
March 2017: 13 March 2017: Poland's government has accused the EU of 'cheating' and announced a 'negative' policy towards Brussels after losing a diplomatic campaign to oust its own former PM Tusk as European council president - 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
July 2017 efforts to reverse curbs on judicial freedom: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
November 2018 Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching: 8 November 2018: Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching on the 100th anniversary of Poland’s independence due to security concerns, followed by plans for an inclusive event Sunday that could be embraced by all citizens - 13 November 2018: Poland’s centennial celebration was stained by fear and hatred, as behind president and ordinary citizens thousands of nationalists carried horrifying symbols
11 October 2021 more than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership: 11 October 2021: More than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership after a controversial court ruling raised concerns the country could eventually leave the bloc, as protest organisers said demonstrations took place in more than 100 Polish towns and cities on Sunday, and several cities abroad
19 October 2021 Polish PM escalates war of words with EU over rule of law: 19 October 2021: Poland’s PM Mateusz Morawiecki has clashed with the European Commission and MEPs after accusing EU institutions of seeking to turn the country into a province, in an escalation of the battle between Warsaw and Brussels over the rule of law
Bilateral relations of Poland: Bilateral relations of Poland
Poland/Austria relations: Poland/Austria relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Poland/Brazil relations: Poland/Brazil relations
Polish Brazilians: Polish Brazilians, referring to Brazilians of full or partial Polish ancestry, arriving in Brazil in the late 19th century, and today 1,800,000–3 million people
1978 Poland's extradition request for war criminal Wagner rejected: Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Brazilian-Polish trade relationsBrazilian-Polish trade relations, as Brazil is Poland's main trading partner in Latin-America
Poland/Czech Republic relations: Poland/Czech Republic relations
Poland/Denmark relations: Poland/Denmark relations
Poland/France relations: Poland/France relations
Poland/Germany relations: Poland/Germany relations
1939-1945 German invasion of Poland 1939 and World War II: German invasion of Poland 1939, the beginning of World War II - War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II, called 'Schmutzstrecke' by German war criminals as for instance quartermaster-general Eduard Wagner - 'Germanisation' under Nazi Germany
1939-1945 World War II and the Holocaust in Poland: The Holocaust in Poland - Warsaw Ghetto - 18 October 2014: Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who in 1943 coined 'Genocide' in 1943 spent his life trying to stop it
19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 - Ringelblum Archive, a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group 'Oyneg Shabbos', which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation and started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943 - Ghetto uprisings
1939-1945 Polish resistance movement against German assault and occupation: 1939-1945 Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2013: 20 January 2013: For first time, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising diaries unveiled - 28 March 2013: German ZDF television drama about the Second World War has sparked outrage in Poland for trying to spread responsibility for the Holocaust - 1 April 2013: Cutting-edge 3D film 'Warszawa 1935' revives a Warsaw lost to war - 8 April: Thousands from across the globe marched solemnly at the former Nazi Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp to honour the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust during World War II
Poland/Israel relations: Poland/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Poland - Poland was a centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy ending with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772
1939-1945 German war crimes and the Holocaust in occupied Poland during World War II: German war crimes in occupied Poland during World War II 1939-1945 - Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland - The Holocaust in occupied Poland 1939-1945 - Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
October 1940 to May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto: 1940-1943 Warsaw Ghetto, the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II, the death toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto, between starvation, disease, deportations to extermination camps, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the subsequent razing of the ghetto, is estimated to be at least 300,000
1944–1946: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–46 - Kielce Pogrom against the Jewish community July 1946
2013: 2 October 2013: Hundreds of Polish and Israeli high-school students paid homage to the victims of the former Nazi death camp of Treblinka in a memorial event seeking to connect Israeli youths with today's Poland and expose Polish youths to Jewish history
2017: 25 October 2017: Polish bill governing compensation denies compensation for most Holocaust survivors, families
Poland/Israel relations: Poland/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Poland - Poland was a centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy ending with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772
1939-1945 German war crimes and the Holocaust in occupied Poland during World War II: German war crimes in occupied Poland during World War II 1939-1945 - Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland - The Holocaust in occupied Poland 1939-1945 - Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
October 1940 to May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto: 1940-1943 Warsaw Ghetto, the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II, the death toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto, between starvation, disease, deportations to extermination camps, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the subsequent razing of the ghetto, is estimated to be at least 300,000
1944–1946: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–46 - Kielce Pogrom against the Jewish community July 1946
2013: 2 October 2013: Hundreds of Polish and Israeli high-school students paid homage to the victims of the former Nazi death camp of Treblinka in a memorial event seeking to connect Israeli youths with today's Poland and expose Polish youths to Jewish history
2018: 1 February 2018: Israel condemns passing of Polish Holocaust law, as politicians and Yad Vashem voice outrage - 1 February 2018: Yad Vashem criticized the Polish Senate’s approval of a contentious Polish Holocaust bill that would outlaw blaming the Polish state or nation for crimes of the Holocaust committed in Poland and vowed to continue supporting research into the 'Polish population’s attitudes toward Jews during the Holocaust' - 8 February 2018: Holocaust survivors entered the Polish embassy compound in Tel Aviv protesting the Polish complicity bill - 10 February 2018: Adviser Andrzej Zybertowicz to Poland's president says that Israel's reaction to a law criminalizing some statements about Poland's actions during World War II stems from a 'feeling of shame at the passivity of the Jews during the Holocaust', in a new version of victim blaming - 18 February 2018: Netanyahu slams Holocaust remark by Polish PM in Munich, who said - questioned by journalist Ronen Bergman who told of his mother's narrow escape from the Gestapo in Poland after learning that neighbours were planning to denounce them - that the Holocaust had involved 'Jewish perpetrators' as well as Polish, as the audience at the Munich Security Conference stayed quiet, according to Haaretz correspondent Noa Landau
February 2019: 15 February 2019: Poland moves to end spat with Israel over PM comments, blames media manipulation, as PM Netanyahu denied suggestions of going along with historical revisionism, stating 'Here I am saying Poles cooperated with the Nazis. I know the history and I don’t whitewash it'
September 2019 Polish president blames Israel for anti-Semitic incidents: 27 September 2019: Polish president's blaming Israel for anti-Semitic incidents in his own country reportedly provoked a shocked and angry response by several participants at meeting with Jewish leaders in New York
14 January 2020 Polish Jewish community backs president’s decision to skip Holocaust event in Jerusalem: 14 January 2020: Calling Russian Putin regime's attempt to blame Poles for cooperation with Hitler 'a provocation', Poland’s largest Jewish communal group expressed its support for Polish president Duda’s decision to withdraw from Holocaust memorial event in Jerusalem on 23 January after being left off speakers’ list and as representatives of France, Germany (!), Russia, the UK, the USA would all speak at the memorial
22 January 2020 Auschwitz Museum's Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem: 22 January 2020: Director of Auschwitz Museum Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem accusing organizers of trying to replace annual ceremony in Poland, as Jerusalem event co-organized by people in Israel influenced by Moscow-born Moshe Kantor, who is said to be close to Russian regime's war criminal Vladimir Putin, allied with Hezbollah terrorists, Iranian and Syrian regime
Poland/Lebanon relations: 10 May 2005: Relations between Lebanon and Poland
Poland/Russia relations: Poland/Russia relations
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
Poland/Syria relations:
Poland/United Kingdom relations: Poland/United Kingdom relations
Poland/USA relations: Poland/USA relations
Poland/Vietnam relations: Poland/Vietnam relations since 1950
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Poland: Environmentalism in Poland
Coal and the environment in Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Water in Poland: Water in Poland
Natural disasters in Poland: Natural disasters in Poland

Portugal - Geography of Portugal - History of Portugal - Portuguese Empire (from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999) - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 - Third Portuguese Republic since 1974 - Demographics of Portugal
Energy in Portugal: Energy in Portugal
Hydroelectric power stations in Portugal: List of hydroelectric power stations in Portugal
Wind power in Portugal: Wind power in Portugal
Portuguese wine: Portuguese wine
Fishing in Portugal: Fishing in Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Transport in Portugal: Transport in Portugal
Rail transport in Portugal: Rail transport in Portugal
Road transport in Portugal: Road transport in Portugal
Banking in Portugal: Banking in Portugal
Economic history of Portugal and economic cycles: Since 20th century economic history of Portugal
2010–14 Portuguese financial and economic crisis (ongoing): European sovereign debt crisis (2010-present) - 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal: 2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal
Military coups in Portugal: Military coups in Portugal
Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side: Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side
October 2017 Portuguese local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal
September 2019 Madeiran regional election: 22 September 2019 Madeiran regional election
2023 next Portuguese legislative election: On or before 8 October 2023 next Portuguese legislative election
Social movements, trade unions and protests: Portuguese protests
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Portugal: Portuguese society - Human rights in Portugal
November 1755 Lisbon earthquake: 1 November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
October 2017 local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal: Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal
Immigration to Portugal: Immigration to Portugal
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Portugal: Culture of Portugal
Women and women's rights in Portugal: Women in Portugal
Children and youth in Portugal: Childhood in Portugal - Youth in Portugal
Education in Portugal: Education in Portugal
Schools in Portugal: List of schools in Portugal
Colleges and universities in Portugal: List of universities and colleges in Portugal
Health in Portugal: Health in Portugal
Health disasters in Portugal: Health disasters in Portugal
Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments: Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments
Newspapers in Portugal: Newspapers in Portugal
Broadcasting in Portugal: Broadcasting in Portugal
Internet in Portugal: Internet in Portugal
Crime in Portugal: Crime in Portugal
Racism in Portugal: Racism in Portugal
Antisemitism in Portugal: Antisemitism in Portugal
History of the conversos since 15th century: History of the conversos since 15th century
Corruption in Portugal: Corruption in Portugal
Police corruption in Portugal: Police corruption in Portugal
Terrorism in Portugal: Terrorism in Portugal
Human trafficking in Portugal: Human trafficking in Portugal
Since 1982 Constitutional Court: Constitutional Court Portugal since 1982
Judiciary and courts of Portugal: Judiciary of Portugal - Courts in Portugal
Law enforcement agencies of Portugal and Polícia de Segurança Pública: Law enforcement in Portugal - Law enforcement agencies of Portugal - Polícia de Segurança Pública
Foreign relations of Portugal: Foreign relations of Portugal
1415-2002 Portuguese Empire: Portuguese Empire 1415-2002
Portugal/Africa relations: Portugal/Africa relations
Portugal and the United Nations: Portugal and the United Nations
10 November 1975 Portugal and UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly - Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Since 1986 Portugal and the European Union: Portugal and the European Union, membership since 1986/1993
Treaties of Portugal: Treaties of Portugal
Bilateral relations of Portugal: Bilateral relations of Portugal
Portugal/Angola relations: Portugal/Angola relations
Portugal/Benin relations:
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
Portugal/Equatorial Guinea relations:
Portugal/Germany relations: Portugal/Germany relations
Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations: Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations
1963-1974 Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence: Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence 1963-1974
Portugal/Hungary relations:
1560-1812 Goa Inquisition: Goa Inquisition 1560-1812
Portugal/Israel relations: Portugal/Israel relations
Portugal/Luxembourg relations: Portugal/Luxembourg relations
Portugal/East Timor relations: Portugal/East Timor relations
Portugal/Vatican relations: Portugal/Vatican relations

Romania - Geography of Romania - History of Romania - Demographics of Romania
Economy of Romania: Economy of Romania
Agriculture in Romania: Agriculture in Romania
Elections and politics in Romania: Elections in Romania
2015: 9 June 2015: Romanian parliament blocks investigation into forgery, money-laundering, tax evasion and conflict of interest in connection with PM Victor Ponta - 13 July 2015: Romanian prosecutors charged PM Victor Ponta as part of a corruption probe, piling more pressure on the embattled politician to resign - 22 July: Romania’s president has signed into law legislation that punishes Holocaust denial and the promotion of the fascist Legionnaires’ Movement with prison sentences of up to three years - 18 September: Victor Ponta indicted on charges of forgery, money laundering as part of corruption sweep, mainly concerning his time as a lawyer prior to taking office - 29 September: Thousands protest as Romanian PM Ponta withstands no-confidence vote - 4 November: Romanian PM and government resign after protests - 16 November: Prime minister-designate Dacian Ciolos has named a government, tapping European Union experts as well as private and non-profit sectors leaders to steer the country until elections next year
May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania
24 November 2019 Romanian presidential election runoff: 10 November 2019 Romanian presidential election second round
Social movements and protests: Social movements and protests in Romania
2012–14 Romanian social unrest: 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas - 2012–14 Romanian social unrest
2015: 2015 Romanian protests - 2 November 2015: Thousands of people marched through Bucharest to commemorate the victims after a Romanian club fire death toll was raising to 30, which also left nearly 200 injured during a rock concert that featured the use of fireworks indoors - 4 November: Tens of thousands of Romanians are marching against government corruption, angry that licences are given for businesses which do not pass necessary health and safety tests - 6 November: Massive anti-corruption rallies continued in Bucharest's University square for the third night, calling for the reform of the political class and public administration which are widely seen as corrupt - 9 November: Anti-corruption protests continue in Romania, calling for change amid the political class, as fire death toll rises
2017 Romanian protests: 2017 Romanian protests - in January 2017, days after the PSD government was sworn in, massive protests took place throughout Romania against the government ordinance bills that were proposed by the Ministry of Justice regarding the pardoning of certain committed crimes, and the amendment of the Penal Code, especially regarding the abuse of power - 2 February 2017: Protesters have clashed with police in Bucharest after hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets in cities across Romania in anger at the government’s decriminalising of a string of corruption offences - 6 February 2017: An estimated half a million Romanians have continued to protest against the government, with many calling on it to quit even after it scrapped the corruption legislation that sparked a week of public outrage - 12 February 2017: Among the of placards of mass anti-government protests in Romania many read 'Hands off DNA', Romania’s national anti-corruption directorate founded in 2003 and at the forefront of the country’s fight against official misconduct - 13 February 2017: Tens of thousands gathered in Bucharest to call for the government to stand down, despite resignation of justice minister
August 2018 Romanian protests: August 2018 Romanian protests - 11 August 2018: Tens of thousands of people took part in in Friday's protest in Bucharest and several other Romanian cities against corruption and low wages, as more than 400 people were injured by police using tear gas, pepper spray and water cannons, as several police officers were also hurt, as president Iohannis 'firmly condemn(ed) riot police's brutal intervention, strongly disproportionate to the actions of the majority of people', and as video footage posted on social media show police beating non-violent protesters holding their hands up - 12 August 2018: Tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered in the Romanian capital Bucharest returning to the streets without fear in a huge anti-corruption protest on Saturday, 24 hours after more than 450 people were hurt, many needing treatment, and about 30 arrested
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Romania: Romanian society - Human rights in Romania
Cities, towns and metropolitan areas in Romania: List of cities and towns in Romania - Metropolitan areas in Romania
Timeline of Bucharest since the late Middle Ages: Timeline of Bucharest shown since the late Middle Ages
Demographics, ethnic groups and minorities of Romania: Demographics of Romania - Ethnic groups in Romania - Minorities of Romania
Immigration to Romania: Immigration to Romania
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Romania: Culture of Romania
Health in Romania: Health in Romania
Disease outbreaks in Romania; Disease outbreaks in Romania
Healthcare in Romania: Healthcare in Romania
Medical and health organizations based in Romania: Medical and health organizations based in Romania - Medical education in Romania
Hospitals in Romania: List of hospitals in Romania
Newspapers in Romania: Newspapers published in Romania
Broadcasting in Romania: Broadcasting in Romania
Internet in Romania: Internet in Romania
Crime in Romania: Crime in Romania
Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania: Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania
Human trafficking in Romania: Human trafficking in Romania
Law enforcement and Romanian Police: Law enforcement in Romania - Romanian Police
Foreign relations of Romania: Foreign relations of Romania
Treaties of Romania: Treaties of Romania
Romanian membership in international organsisations and the EU: Romanian membership in international organsisations and in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Romania: Bilateral relations of Romania
Romania/Bulgaria relations: Romania/Bulgaria relations
Romania/Canada relations: Romania/Canada relations
Romania/Canada trade relations: Romania/Canada trade relations
Romania/Germany relations: Romania/Germany relations
History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Romania and the Holocaust in Romania - June 1941 Iasi pogrom
Romania/Hungary relations: Romania/Hungary relations
Romania/Israel relations: Romania/Israel relations
Romanian Jews in Israel: Romanian Jews in Israel
Romania/United Kingdom relations: Romania/United Kingdom relations

Slovakia - Geography of Slovakia - History of Slovakia - Demographics of Slovakia
Mines in Slovakia: Mines in Slovakia
Agriculture in Slovakia: Agriculture in Slovakia
Social movements and protests in Slovakia:
March 2018 protests following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak: 2 mars 2018: Des milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Bratislava et dans d'autres villes de Slovaquie en mémoire du journaliste d'investigation Jan Kuciak assassiné, qui était spécialisé dans les enquêtes sur des fraudes fiscales et des détournements de subventions - 9 March 2018: In protests called the biggest since the 1989 Velvet revolution, tens of thousands of Slovaks have rallied to demand the resignation of PM Robert Fico’s government following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak that has shocked the central European nation and stoked anger over sleaze in public life, also calling for foreign experts to join the team investigating the killings - 16 March 2018: Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Slovakia on Friday to call for snap elections following crisis over journalist’s death, saying the premier’s resignation was not enough to address what they see as a corrupt government
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Slovakia: Slovak society - Human rights in Slovakia
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Education in Slovakia: Education in Slovakia
Schools in Slovakia: Schools in Slovakia
Universities and colleges in Slovakia: Universities and colleges in Slovakia
Health in Slovakia: Health in Slovakia
Telecommunications in Slovakia: Telecommunications in Slovakia
Internet in Slovakia: Internet in Slovakia
Crime in Slovakia: Crime in Slovakia
Racism and antisemitism in Slovakia: Racism in Slovakia - Antisemitism in Slovakia
Slovak mafia: Slovak mafia
Human trafficking in Slovakia: Human trafficking in Slovakia
Constitutional Court of Slovakia: Constitutional Court of Slovakia
Law enforcement in Slovakia: Law enforcement in Slovakia
Foreign relations of Slovakia: Foreign relations of Slovakia
Treaties of Slovakia: Treaties of Slovakia
Membership in international organisations: Slovakia's membership in international organisations
Bilateral relations of SlovakiaBilateral relations of Slovakia: Bilateral relations of Slovakia
Slovakia/Czech Republic relations: Slovakia/Czech Republic relations
Slovakia/Germany relations: Slovakia/Germany relations
1939-1945 Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia: Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia
History of the Jews in Slovakia, the Slovak Republic 1939-1945 and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Slovakia - The Slovak Republic and the Holocaust
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe: Anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe 1944–46
August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising: August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising
Slovakia/Hungary relations: Slovakia/Hungary relations
Hungarians in Slovakia: Hungarians in Slovakia
Slovaks in Hungary: Slovaks in Hungary
February 1947 Paris Peace Treaties: February 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
2009 ban of Hungarian President from Slovakia: 2009 ban of Hungarian President from Slovakia
Slovakia/Italy relations: Slovakia/Italy relations
Slovakia/Russia relations: Slovakia/Russia relations
Forests of Slovakia: Forests of Slovakia
Water in Slovakia: Water in Slovakia
Environmentalism in Slovakia: Environmentalism in Slovakia
Natural disasters in Slovakia: Natural disasters in Slovakia
2013 European floods: 2013 European floods

Slovenia - Geography of Slovenia - History of Slovenia - Demographics of Slovenia
Agriculture in Slovenia: Agriculture in Slovenia - Slovenian wine
Banking in Slovenia: Banking in Slovenia - Bank of Slovenia
Elections and politics in Slovenia: Elections in Slovenia
November 2017 Slovenian presidential election second round: 12 November 2017 Slovenian presidential election second round
May 2019 European Parliament election in Slovenia: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Slovenia
Social movements and protests: Protests in Slovenia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Slovenia: Slovenian society - Human rights in Slovenia
Demographicy and ethnic groups in Slovenia: Demographics of Slovenia - Ethnic groups in Slovenia
Immigration to Slovenia: Immigration to Slovenia
Culture and languages of Slovenia: Culture of Slovenia - Languages of Slovenia
Education in Slovenia: Education in Slovenia
Internet in Slovenia: Internet in Slovenia
Crime in Slovenia: Crime in Slovenia
Foreign relations of Slovenia: Foreign relations of Slovenia
Treaties of Slovenia: Treaties of Slovenia
July-December 2021 Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union: 1 July 2021 - 31 December 2021 Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union
Bilateral relations of Slovenia: Bilateral relations of Slovenia
Slovenia/European Union relations: Slovenia and the European Union - Euroscepticism in Slovenia
Istria - Slovene Istria
Slovenia/USA relations: Slovenia/USA relations

Spain - Geography of Spain - History of Spain - 'Reconquista' period 718-1492 on the Iberian peninsula, coming before the discovery of the Americas and the period of colonial empires - Spanish colonization of the Americas since 1492 - Spanish American wars of independence 1808-1833 - Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939 - Demographics of Spain
Automotive industry in Spain: Automotive industry in Spain
Construction and civil engineering companies of Spain: Construction and civil engineering companies of Spain
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Spain: Chemical companies of Spain - Pharmaceutical companies of Spain
Forestry in Spain: Forestry in Spain
Drought in Spain: Drought in Spain
Transport in Spain: Transport in Spain
2011/2012 Spain's unemployment rate rose to 22,8%: 27 January 2012: Spain's unemployment figure passes five million (5,3 million) in the last quarter of 2011, the rate rose to 22,8% - 13. März 2012: In 2012 erwartet Spanien einen Rückgang seiner Wirtschaftsleistung um 1,7%, hat mit 22,9% bereits die höchste Arbeitslosenquote in der EU und bekommt sein Defizit von ca. 6% nicht unter Kontrolle - 3 April: Spain's jobless rate at 23.6% in February - 23. April 2012: Spanien zu Jahresbeginn 2012 in Rezession - 27 April: Spanish unemployment hits record 5.64 million at the end of March 2012 - 9 May: Spanish lender Bankia to be partly nationalised - 25 May: Spain's Bankia seeks 19bn-euro bailout from government - 1. Juni: Zunehmende Kapitalflucht aus Spanien - 10 June: Spain asks for eurozone help - 11. Juni: EU: Troika soll Spanien überwachen - 25 juin 2012: L'Espagne officiellement demande l'aide européenne pour sauver ses banques
Cooperatives in Spain: Cooperatives in Spain
Poverty in Spain:
Wealth in Spain: Wealth in Spain
Spanish billionaires: Spanish billionaires
Politics of Spain: Politics of Spain - List of Constitutions of Spain - Spanish Constitution of 1812, established in March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, supporting land reform and free enterprise, one of the most liberal constitutions of its time - Federal Constitution of the First Republic of Spain 1873–1874 - The Spanish Constitution of 1931, approved by the Constituent Assembly in 1931, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939 and of the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected - The Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum and is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy
Political parties in Spain: List of political parties in Spain
Elections, referendums and politics in Spain: Elections in Spain - Referendums in Spain
March 2004 election results: Electoral outcome, heavily influenced by the aftermath of the Madrid train bombings on 11 March, as the PP government kept blaming the terrorist organization ETA for the bombings, even in spite of mounting evidence suggesting the involvement of Islamist groups that would have been perceived as the direct result of Spain's involvement in the Iraq War, which had been highly unpopular among the public, then described by some media as an 'unprecedented electoral upset', following abuse of the PP's absolute majority throughout the legislature, with a focus on Spain's involvement in Iraq, was said to have helped fuel a wave of discontent against the incumbent ruling party, with the government's mismanagement on the bombings serving as the final catalyst for change to happen, as 11 million votes and 42.6%, the opposition Spanish PSO increased by 3.1 million, and the PP, which opinion polls earlier in the year had predicted would secure a diminished but still commanding victory, lost 35 seats resulting in the worst defeat for a sitting government since 1982, and as the 75.7% turnout was among the highest since the Spanish transition to democracy
2011 Spanish general election: Spanish general election 20 November 2011
September 2017: 21 September 2017: A day after Spanish Guardia Civil officers raided regional government buildings and arrested 14 senior officials, regional president of Catalonia Carles Puigdemont has accused the Spanish government of acting 'beyond the limits of a respectable democracy' and violating fundamental rights as it strives to prevent independence referendum - 27 September 2017: The Catalan regional government has accused the Spanish authorities of behaving like Turkey, China and North Korea by blocking websites designed to help people vote in Sunday’s independence referendum - 28 September 2017: UN human rights experts have weighed in on the escalating row over Catalonia’s independence referendum, warning the Spanish authorities that their 'worrying' efforts to halt Sunday’s poll appear to violate fundamental rights and risk stifling debate 'at a critical moment for Spain’s democracy'
October 2017 Catalan independence referendum: 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum - 1 October 2017: 38 injured as riot police attack protests, while Catalans cast independence votes in peaceful defiance of Spanish government - 2 October 2017: Preliminary results of Catalan referendum show 90% in favour of independence, after raids on ballot stations by riot police left hundreds of Catalans injured - 4 October 2017: Catalonia’s president Puigdemont has accused King Felipe of Spain of acting as a mouthpiece for the Rajoy government after Catalonia’s independence referendum was marred by police violence and as the country wrestles with the crisis - 6 October 2017: After hundreds of people were injured by Spanish police attempting to stop independence referendum by raiding polling stations, beating voters and firing rubber bullets at crowds, Spanish government has apologised for police violence strangely insisting that the region’s political leaders are to blame - 10 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont says he has mandate to declare independence but proposes waiting 'a few weeks' to encourage dialogue - 11 October 2017: Rajoy threatens Catalonia with direct rule after Catalan offer of talks - 12 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont accuses Rajoy of ignoring call for talks, as vice-president Junqueras says that 'a sincere dialogue is what the international community wants and what Catalonia expects, not confrontation and new threats', and as Human Rights Watch documents that police used excessive force in Catalonia during referendum, calling for an independent report into the violence - 13 October 2017: As the central government in Madrid appears to be hostage to some of the most reactionary forces in Spanish society, Spain’s need for a new constitution is greater than Catalonia’s need for independence, historian John Payne says - 17 October 2017: Rajoy government has signalled a hardening line over Catalonia by jailing the leaders of two of the largest separatist organisations in a move seen as taking Rajoy closer to imposing central rule over Catalonia - 22 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont said in a televized speech that the decision by PM Rajoy to fire the regional government and force a new election is 'the worst attack against the institutions and the people of Catalonia since the military dictatorship of Francisco Franco' - 28 October 2017: Rajoy government takes direct control of Catalonia, firing the region’s defiant separatist government a day after Catalan lawmakers passed a declaration of independence for the prosperous northeastern region, and calls fresh elections - 28 October 2017: Calling for 'democratic opposition' to the takeover Catalonia's Puigdemont vows 'peaceful resistance' - 31 October 2017: Catalan leaders facing rebellion charges flee to Belgium
May 2019 Spanish regional and local elections: 26 May 2019 Spanish regional elections - 26 May 2019 Spanish local elections
May 2019 European Parliament election in Spain: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Spain
10 November 2019 xenophobic Vox party puts 'menace’ of migrant children at centre: 10 November 2019: Xenophobic Vox party puts 'menace’ of migrant children at centre of election drive
Social movements and protests in Spain: Protests in Spain - Labour movement in Spain
Since 1855 Labour disputes in Spain: Since 1855 Labour disputes in Spain
2011-2012 Spanish protests: 2011–12 Spanish protests
February-June 2012: 19 février 2012: Des centaines de milliers d'Espagnols sont descendus dans les rues pour protester contre la réforme du travail - 11 März: Hunderttausende demonstrieren in 60 spanischen Städten gegen die Arbeitsmarktreformen und Sparmassnahmen der Regierung, Gedenken an Bombenanschläge 2004 - 29. März: Generalstreik in Spanien - Protest gegen Arbeitsmarktreform - 30 March: Spanish workers angry at the labour 'reform' staged general strike on Thursday, bringing factories and ports to a standstill - protests across the country - 29. April 2012: Zehntausende Spanier demonstrieren gegen das neue Sparpaket, das insbesondere im Gesundheits- und Bildungsbereich Kürzungen vorsieht - 12 May: Spain's 'indignants' to take over streets - 13 May: Thousands march against economic gloom in Spain - 22 May: Spanish school and university protest at education cuts - 15 June: Striking Spanish miners clash with police in Asturias - Asturian miners' strike June 2012 - 28 June: Spanish pensioners are joining in a wave of social protests in Spain
July-December 2012: 11 juillet 2012: Arrivés à Madrid, les mineurs grévistes manifestent pour défendre leurs emplois - 11 July: Spain's government announces budget cuts, sales tax rising from 18% to 21% etc. amid protests of thousands - 16 juillet: Des milliers de fonctionnaires manifestent, spontanément, à Madrid contre le plan de rigueur du gouvernement - 20 juillet: Des centaines de milliers contre le plan de rigueur, manifestants dispersés violemment à Madrid - 22. Juli: Tausende arbeitslose Demonstranten gegen die unsoziale Regierungspolitik nach Sternmarsch in Madrid - 11 September: More than a million people gather in Barcelona, accusing Madrid government of dragging them into economic trouble - 15 September: Tens of thousands of people have rallied in Spain and Portugal to protest against fresh austerity measures - 22. September: Tausende protestieren in Madrid gegen Sparmassnahmen und fordern Entmachtung der Banker - 25 September: Spanish riot police fires rubber bullets at protesters injuring several people as thousands rally against austerity - 30 septembre: Une nouvelle manifestation anti-austérité dégénère à Madrid - 7 octobre: Quelques milliers de manifestants à Madrid contre l'austérité - 13 October: Thousands protest in Spain, Portugal against austerity cuts - 27 October: Several thousand people have marched to Spain's parliament in an anti-austerity protest, but were held back from surrounding the building - 10 November: Spain anti-bank protest decries second evictee suicide - 19 décembre: Des milliers de manifestants devant l'Assemblée régionale de Madrid pour protester contre les coupes dans le budget de la santé publique
January-June 2013: 14 January: Thousands demonstrated in Madrid against plans to privatise parts of their public health care system - 27 January 2013: Anger mounts over corruption in recession-hit Spain - 12 February: As Spain debates reform fresh anti-eviction protests after evictees committed suicide - 16 février: Manifestations dans toute l'Espagne pour mettre fin aux expulsions - 24 February: Tens of thousands marched through cities across Spain to protest economic policy, the privatisation of public services and political corruption - 10 March: Thousands march in cities across Spain protesting government austerity policies, unemployment - 14 mars: Des milliers d'étudiants espagnols ont manifesté jeudi à Madrid contre les coupes budgétaires qui frappent les écoles et les universités - 15 April: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Madrid on Sunday to demand the abdication of Spain's scandal-hit monarchy - 18 avril: Pendant les députés adoptent une loi controversée contre les expulsions plusieurs dizaines de militants anti-expulsions ont manifesté leur colère près du Congrès des députés - 21 April: Thousands of doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers marched in Madrid to protest against government spending cuts and plans to partly privatise medical services - 25 avril: La police espagnole a dispersé jeudi à coups de matraque des manifestants rassemblés près du Congrès des députés à Madrid, ripostant à des jets de projectiles - 12 mai: Deux ans après, les Indignés sont de retour à la Puerta del Sol - 1 June: Thousands protest Europe crisis in Madrid on Saturday in a string of demonstrations across Europe
July-December 2013: 15 July: Protesters, outraged by the corruption allegations at a time of recession and record unemployment, rallied outside the Popular Party's Madrid headquarters - 19 août: Manifestation des pêcheurs espagnols contre la construction du récif de Gibraltar par les autorités britanniques - 12 septembre: Les partisans de l'indépendance de la Catalogne ont formé une chaîne humaine d'environ 400 km le long de la côte méditerranéenne pour réclamer un référendum sur l'autodétermination de la région autonome - 22 septembre: Manifestation à Madrid pour défendre la santé publique - 17 October: Scientists held a minute of silence at universities across Spain to protest against drastic cuts to the country's science budget - 17 October: Respite for families in Spain mass eviction protest - 27 octobre: Des victimes de l'ETA manifestent pour réclamer justice après l'arrêt des juges du CEDH qui pourrait entraîner la libération de dizaines de militants de l'ETA - 14 November: Madrid street sweepers and public parks gardeners strike against plans to cut their salaries by up to 40 percent and slash 1,135 jobs hampers Spanish capital's image and tourism - 24 novembre: Manifestations contre l'austérité en Catalogne et Andalousie - 1. Dezember: Im Nordwesten Spaniens haben tausende Menschen gegen das Urteil zum Untergang des Öltankers 'Prestige' protestiert - 5 décembre: Les victimes de la police franquiste réclament 'justice et vérité' à Madrid
2014: 12 January: Huge silent march in Bilbao after ban on Eta prisoner rally, victims of Eta violence said the march made a mockery of their suffering - 22 March: Tens of thousands 'marching for dignity' in Madrid against Rajoy's tax increases and budget cuts - 4 April: Tens of thousands took to the streets in cities across the country to demonstrate against the government’s austerity measures - 2 June 2014: Tens of thousands in more than 60 Spanish towns and cities took to the streets to demand a referendum on the future of the monarchy after Juan Carlos' abdication - 6 June: Spanish protesters across Spain and Europe call for a referendum on the monarchy and for a republic - 29 November 2014: Thousands stage anti-government protest in Madrid against austerity, unemployment and corruption - 20 December: Thousands of people protest in Spanish cities such as Barcelona, Bilbao and Madrid against a new law that sets hefty fines for offences such as burning the national flag and demonstrating outside parliament buildings or strategic installations
2015 anti-austerity movement and protests in Spain: 2015 anti-austerity movement and protests in Spain since 2011
January 2015 protests: 31 January 2015: Tens of thousands join Podemos anti-austerity rally in Madrid demanding change in Spain - 22 March: Thousands of people took part in a 'march for dignity' in Madrid to protest against austerity measures on the eve of a closely-watched regional election in Andalusia - 11 August 2015: About 200 people took to the square in Salou in protest against 50-year-old Senegalese Mor's death, who jumped from a balcony on the third floor in an attempt to escape police who raided his house on Tuesday morning - 11 September: Nearly 1.5 million Catalans took to the streets of Barcelona to rally for independence, as the region’s politicians launched their campaigns for a looming election - 5 November 2015: More than 430,000 people have signed a petition opposing government's plans to create optional bullfighting course for students aged 15 to 17
2017 protests: 18 February 2017: Tens of thousands of demonstrators march in Barcelona following mayor’s call to challenge the Spanish government over its failure to accept country’s quota of migrants agreed in 2015 - 27 August 2017: Hundreds of thousands march in Barcelona to show unity after terrorist attacks - 11 September 2017: Up to a million Catalans have gathered in Barcelona to call for independence less than three weeks ahead of referendum on 1 October - 20/21 September 2017: Protests in Barcelona after Spanish police raid Catalan government buildings, as tens of thousands rallied to protest searches and arrests - 21 September 2017: Podemos as well as regional parties backed a demonstration in Madrid to protest the raids in Barcelona against organizers of the independence referendum, saying 'Detencions NO', 'Democrácia SI'
October 2017 Catalonia general strike: 3 October 2017: Catalonia holds general strike in protest over referendum violence - 3/4 October 2017: An estimated 700,000 people rally in Barcelona outside the headquarters of Spain’s national police force amid strikes in protest at police violence during the Catalonian independence referendum - 8 October 2017: Mired by fascist salutes from Falange party members in Madrid, while shouting slogans such as 'Puigdemont to Prison' or 'Long live the National Police and Civil Guard', that injured 900 people in Barcelona, and organized by an anti-independence group under the slogan 'Let’s recover our senses', tens of thousands also took to Barcelona streets for anti-independence rally - 17 October 2017: Hundreds of thousands of people have taken to the streets of Catalonia to protest against a Madrid judge’s decision to detain pro-independence leaders Jordi Sánchez and Jordi Cuixart, as tensions between the Madrid and Barcelona governments continue to rise - 22 October 2017: 450,000 protesters rally in Barcelona after Rajoy government moves to impose direct rule over Catalonia and arrest region’s president
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Spain: Spanish society - Human rights in Spain
22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election: 22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election
Economy of Bilbao: Economy of Bilbao
19 June 1937 Franco fascists capture Bilbao following April 1937 Guernica masscre by NSDAP ruled German empire: 19 June 1937 Franco fascists capture Bilbao following April 1937 Guernica masscre by NSDAP ruled German empire and Italian fascists
Catalonia and Catalan history: Catalonia - History of Catalonia - Catalan constitutions, the first constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of 1283, the last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705 - Catalan Republic, proclaimed 1641, 1873, 1931 and 1934 - 1934 Proclamation of the Catalan Republic within the Spanish state by the President of the Generalitat Lluís Companys - 1939–1975 Catalonia under Franco's dictatorship - 1939/1940 Lluís Companys exiled, detained and extradited by Nazi German secret police Gestapo to their fascist Spanish allies, tortured and beaten, sentenced to death and executed at Montjuïc Castle in Barcelona on 15 October 1940 - 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, a constitutional law defining the region of Catalonia as an autonomous community within the Kingdom of Spain and one of seventeen such statutes granted, in various forms and capabilities, to the different autonomous communities of Spain since 1970s transition to democracy of the, on 18 June 2006 a referendum altering the statute to expand the authority of the Catalan government was approved
Culture and languages of Catalonia: Catalan culture - Languages of Catalonia - Catalan language
Municipalities of Catalonia: 948 Municipalities of Catalonia as of 2015
133 BCE Romans in power in Barcino: 133 BCE Romans in power in Barcino
Since 1462 sieges of Barcelona: Since 1462 sieges of Barcelona
Since 1888 world's fairs in Barcelona: Since 1888 world's fairs in Barcelona
Since 2010 Catalan autonomy and independence protests: July 2010 Catalan autonomy protest and protests in Catalonia since 2010
Girona and province of Girona: Province of Girona - Girona
Tarragona and province of Tarragona: Province of Tarragona - Tarragona
1980 first Catalan regional election since 1930s: 20 March 1980 Catalan regional election
June 2006 Catalan constitutional referendum: 18 June 2006 Catalan constitutional referendum
October 2017 Catalan independence referendum: 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum - 2 October 2017: The Catalan regional government is holding an emergency meeting to discuss the next steps towards declaring independence from Spain a day after millions of Catalans voted in a tumultuous poll that left more than 800 people injured - 6 October 2017: The Catalan government will defy the Spanish constitutional court by pressing ahead with a parliamentary debate to discuss Sunday’s referendum result - 9 octobre 2017: Maire de Barcelone Ada Colau s'est prononcée contre une déclaration d'indépendance - 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights - 10 October 2017: Catalan government suspends declaration of independence, after Tusk appealed to Puigdemont to step back from a unilateral declaration of independence and begin dialogue with the Spanish PM Rajoy - 23 October 2017: Catalan MPs to discuss response to Rajoy government's move towards direct rule - 30 October 2017: Rajoy government’s resolve faces crucial test as Catalan independence group calls for widespread campaign of civil disobedience
October 2012 Galician parliamentary election: Galician parliamentary election 21 October 2012
2011 Madrid Assembly election: Madrid Assembly election 22 May 2011
Demographics and ethnic groups in Spain: Demographics of Spain - Ethnic groups in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834 - Converso
Islam in Spain and 'Reconquista' 722-1492: Islam in Spain - Reconquista 722-1492
Immigration to Spain: Immigration to Spain
Culture and languages of Spain: Culture of Spain - Languages of Spain
Women in Spain: Women in Spain
Children in Spain:
Youth in Spain: Youth in Spain
Schools in Spain: Schools in Spain
Health in Spain: Health in Spain
2009 flu pandemic in Spain: 2009 flu pandemic in Spain
Since January 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Spain: Since January 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Spain
Health disasters in Spain: Health disasters in Spain
Water supply and sanitation in Spain: Water supply and sanitation in Spain
October 2014 Spanish health workers attack poor training for combating Ebola virus: 8 October 2014: Spanish health workers attack poor training for combating Ebola virus after infection of Spanish nurse
Lists of Spanish media by autonomous community, province and city: Media in Spain by city - Spanish media by autonomous community - Catalan media - Agència Catalana de Notícies
Newspapers in Spain: Newspapers in Spain
Telecommunications in Spain: Telecommunications in Spain
Internet in Spain: Internet in Spain
Human rights in Spain: Human rights in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834 - Converso - Auto-da-fé
Republicanism in Spain: Republicanism in Spain
1873-1874 First Spanish Republic: First Spanish Republic 1873-1874
1931-1939 Second Spanish Republic: Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939
Contemporary Spanish monarchy: Contemporary Spanish monarchy
Royal household of Spain: Royal household of Spain
Racism and antisemitism in Spain: Racism in Spain - Antisemitism in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834
2018: 30 June 2018: Defying multiple rulings in Spain that declared boycotting Israel illegal, the City Council of Sagunto near Valencia Tuesday declared itself an 'Israeli apartheid-free space', as some 50 municipalities have passed resolutions in recent years endorsing BDS in catholic embossed Spain, more than in any other European country
Slavery in Spain and in the Spanish New World colonies: Slavery in Spain - Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies
Crime in Spain: Crime in Spain
War crimes of the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and aftermath: War crimes of the Spanish Civil War
March 1937 Bombing of Durango: 31 March 1937 Bombing of Durango
1 April 1937 Bombing of Jaén: 1 April 1937 Bombing of Jaén
26 April 1937 Bombing of Guernica: 26 April 1937 Bombing of Guernica
May 1937 Bombardment of Almería: May 1937 Bombardment of Almería
May 1938 Bombing of Alicante: May 1938 Bombing of Alicante
January 1939 Bombing of La Garriga: 28/29 January 1939 Bombing of La Garriga
In 2012 Spain's Supreme Court barred Garzón, who also investigated Francoist crimes against humanity, from the legal profession for 11 years: 17. Januar 2012: Richter Garzón, der u.a. Franco-Verbrechen und einen Korruptionsskandal der Partido Popular untersuchen ließ, droht durch die spanische 'Justiz' Berufsverbot - 29 January 2012: Thousands have joined a demonstration in Madrid in support of human rights judge Baltasar Garzón - 1. Februar 2012: Erstmals sagen Opfer der Franco-Diktatur vor Gericht aus - 9. Februar 2012: Ein zu konsequenter Demokrat für ein überschätztes Spanien in der Krise - Berufsverbot gegen Richter Garzón verhängt mittels eines Schandurteils des Obersten Madrider Gerichts zugunsten der konservativen Volkspartei und der Franco-Anhänger - 9 February 2012: Spanish judge Baltasar Garzon vows to fight conviction - 20. Februar 2012: Amtsenthebung Garzóns endgültig - 27 February 2012: Spanish human rights investigator Baltasar Garzón escaped a second conviction for abuse of his powers when the supreme court declared him not guilty in a case involving his investigation of crimes committed under the Franco dictatorship, but the decision came too late to save Garzón's career as an investigating magistrate as the the supreme court had already disbarred him in a separate case for wiretapping conversations between defence lawyers and their clients in a corruption investigation involving PM Mariano Rajoy's People's party
Terrorism in Spain: Terrorism in Spain
Neo-Nazi terrorism in Spain:
2013-2016 Memoria de Yolanda González: 2013-2016 Memoria de Yolanda González
List of ETA attacks since 1961: List of ETA attacks since 1961 - ETA
2006 Madrid-Barajas Airport bombing: 2006 Madrid-Barajas Airport bombing
Islamist terrorism in Spain: Islamist terrorism in Spain
Corruption in Spain: Corruption in Spain
2013 Political corruption in Spain and Rajoy's Popular Party PP: 1 February 2013: The newspaper El País reports that PM Rajoy and other conservative politicians had received regular payments from a previously undisclosed account run by treasurers of his Popular Party - 3 April 2013: A Spanish judge charged King Juan Carlos's daughter in a corruption probe into alleged misuse of public funds by her husband Inaki Urdangarin - 9 July 2013: Spanish newspaper El Mundo has published documents, admitted by Barcenas for the first time, showing PM Mariano Rajoy and other top politicians received illicit payments - 15 juillet 2013: L'opposition exige la démission de Mariano Rajoy après la publication de messages échangés entre le Premier ministre et l’ex-trésorier du Parti populaire - 24 juillet 2013: Le président andalou démissionne, sur fond de corruption - 1 August 2013: Rajoy admits he trusted 'delinquent’ party official
White-collar crime in Spain:
Gangs in Spain: Gangs in Spain
October 2020 Spain becomes cannabis hub as criminals fill tourism void: 11 October 2020: Spain becomes cannabis hub as criminals fill tourism void
Violence against women in Spain: Violence against women in Spain
2015 list of incidents of violence against women in Spain: List of incidents of violence against women in Spain
Law and legal history of Spain: Law of Spain - Legal history of Spain - Since 1812 Constitutions of Spain - March 1812 Spanish Constitution drafted and adopted by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War, establishing the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, freedom of the press, and supporting land reform and free enterprise - December 1931 Constitution of Spain, approved by the Constituent Assembly, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic founded 14 April 1931 and in force until 1 April 1939, in the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected - Spanish Constitution of 1978, enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy
Courts in Spain: Courts in Spain
14 June 2019 Catalan blocked from joining EU parliament: 14 June 2019: Spanish court blocks jailed Catalan leader from joining EU parliament
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Spain
1492–1975 Spanish Empire: Spanish Empire 15th century to the 1970s
1415-2002 Portuguese Empire: Portuguese Empire 1415-2002
Spain/Africa relations:
1912-1956 Spanish protectorate in Morocco: 1912-1956 Spanish protectorate in Morocco established 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate, as Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara, as the northern zone became part of independent Morocco in April 1956, shortly after France had ceded its protectorate French Morocco, as Spain finally ceded its southern zone through the Treaty of Angra de Cintra in April 1958 after the short Ifni War, and as the city of Tangiers was excluded from the Spanish protectorate and received a special internationally-controlled status as Tangier International Zone
1936-1939 Francoist military coup and war against the Spanish Republic since 1931: 1936-1939 Francoist military coup and war against the second Spanish Republic 1931-1939
1939-1975 Francoist Spain: 1936/1939-1975 Francoist Spain
1939-1945 Axis ship-watching activities in the Gibraltar area: 1939-1945 Axis ship-watching activities in the Gibraltar area
1940-1944 resupply of Nazi Germany's submarines in Spain: 1940-1944 Resupply of Nazi Germany's submarines in Spain
1940-1945 Occupation of Tangier: 1940-1945 Occupation of Tangier
1946-1958 Spanish West Africa grouping of Spanish colonies along the Atlantic coast: 1946-1958 Spanish West Africa, a grouping of Spanish colonies along the Atlantic coast of northwest Africa
Since 1986 Spain in the EU: Since 1986 Spain in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Spain: Bilateral relations of Spain
Spain/Bangladesh relations: Spain/Bangladesh relations - Inditex S.A.
Spain/Brazil relations: Spain/Brazil relations
Spain/Colombia relations: Spain/Colombia relations
Spain/Egypt relations: Spain/Egypt relations
Spain/Germany relations: Spain/Germany relations
1936-1939: 1936-1939 German involvement in the Spanish Civil War following the military coup of July 1936 against the Spanish democracy, with German dictator Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Franco and fascist Spain
Spain/Guatemala relations: Spain/Guatemala relations
Before the 15th century pre-Columbian societies in 'Mesoamerica': Before the 15th century pre-Columbian societies in 'Mesoamerica' - Pre-Columbian era
Since 15th century Spanish colonization of the Americas and Guatemala: Spanish colonization of the Americas since 1492
Since 1524 Afro-Guatemalan: Afro-Guatemalan since 1524
Spain/Israel relations: Spain/Israel relations
Spain/Latin America relations: Spain/Latin America relations
1519-1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: 1519-1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
1532-1572 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire: 1532-1572 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Spain/Libya relations: Spain/Libya relations
Spain/Mexico relations: Spain/Mexico relations
March 2019 Mexican demand for apology for crimes against indigenous people but Sánchez reacts angrily: 26 March 2019: After Mexican president López Obrador wrote to King Felipe VI demanding that he apologise for crimes committed against Mexico’s indigenous people during the conquest 500 years ago, saying 'there were massacres and oppression', 'the so-called conquest was waged with the sword and the cross', 'they built their churches on top of the [indigenous] temples', and 'let us ask forgiveness first', Spain's Pedro Sánchez government reacted angrily to López Obrador’s letter, conservative People’s party leader says 'it’s scandalous ignorance and a real affront to Spain and its history', also saying 'we didn’t colonise, what we did was to make Spain larger', but Podemos party says López Obrador 'has every right to ask the king to apologise for the abuses of la conquista'
Spain/Morocco relations: Spain/Morocco relations
Since 1859 Spanish colonial wars in Morocco: Spanish colonial wars in Morocco since 1859
1913–1956 Spanish 'Protectorate' in Morocco: Spanish 'Protectorate' in Morocco 1913–1956
1497 Conquest of Melilla: 1497 Conquest of Melilla
1909-1910 Second Melillan campaign: 1909-1910 Second Melillan campaign
Spain/Netherlands relations: Spain/Netherlands relations
1549-1581 Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands: 1549-1581 Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century
Spain/Switzerland relations: Spain/Switzerland relations
April 2018: 5 April 2018: Italian and French national Hervé Falciani, the whistleblower who exposed wrongdoing at HSBC’s Swiss private bank freely sharing a list of 130,000 names of organisations and individuals who were using the Swiss banking system to launder money and evade taxes freely with authorities in the EU, India and Argentine, is facing extradition from Spain to Switzerland after his arrest in Madrid widely seen as a favour to the Swiss in the hope that Switzerland will extradite two Catalan and republican fugitives, after Spanish tax authorities recovered some €300m in unpaid tax from some of the 637 Spaniards who appeared on Falciani’s list and despite Spain’s national court rejected a Swiss extradition request in 2013 on the grounds that the charge of violating bank secrecy was not an offence in Spain if the secrecy was used as a cover for serious offences
Spain/Syria relations: Spain/Syria relations
Spain/Turkey relations: Spain/Turkey relations
Spain/United Arab Emirates relations: Spain/United Arab Emirates relations
24 June 2021 Gibraltar abortion referendum: 24 June 2021 Gibraltar abortion referendum
Spain/Holy See–Vatican relations: Spain/Holy See–Vatican relations
Environmental organisations based in Spain: Environmental organisations based in Spain

Sweden - History of Sweden - Geography of Sweden - Urban areas in Sweden - Demographics of Sweden
Swedish Armed Forces: Swedish Armed Forces
Political parties in Sweden: - Political parties in Sweden
Swedish labour movement: Swedish labour movement
Trade unions in Sweden: Trade unions in Sweden
Elections and politics in Sweden: Elections in Sweden - Government of Sweden
Since 1969 policies and views of Swedish PM Olof Palme: Policies and views of Olof Palme, PM since 1969
September 2010 Swedish general election: Swedish general election 19 September 2010
April 2012 Swedish culture minister Liljeroth cutting cake designed like an African tribal woman: April 2012: Swedish culture minister Lena Adelsohn Liljeroth cutting cake designed like an African tribal woman - demands to resign
May 2019 European Parliament election in Sweden: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Sweden
10 June 2020 Sweden identifies dead man as main suspect in 1986 murder of PM Palme: 10 June 2020: Sweden identifies dead man, Stig Engstrom who died in 2000, as main suspect in 1986 murder of PM, closes probe
Social movements and protests in Sweden: Protests in Sweden - Swedish labour movement
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Sweden: Swedish society - Human rights in Sweden - Religion in Sweden
Demographics of Sweden and people by ethnic or national origin: Demographics of Sweden - Swedish people by ethnic or national origin and ethnic groups in Sweden
History of the Jews in Sweden: History of the Jews in Sweden
Contemporary immigration to Sweden and countries of origin: Immigration to Sweden - Contemporary immigration to Sweden - Countries of origin for persons born abroad
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Women and women's rights in Sweden: Women in Sweden - Women's rights in Sweden
Children and children's rights in Sweden: Ombudsman for Children in Sweden - Swedish children's literature
Health in Sweden: Health in Sweden
Medical outbreaks in Sweden: Medical outbreaks in Sweden
Since January 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Sweden: Since January 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Sweden
Hospitals in Sweden: Hospitals in Sweden
Media of Sweden: Media of Sweden
Crime in Sweden: Crime in Sweden
Tax evasion in Sweden: Tax evasion in Sweden
Racism in Sweden: Racism in Sweden
Nazism and antisemitism in Sweden: Nazism in Sweden - Antisemitism in Sweden
Organized crime in Sweden: Organized crime in Sweden
28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme: 28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme
2010 Stockholm bombings: 2010 Stockholm bombings
Violence in Sweden: Violence in Sweden
Arson in Sweden: Arson in Sweden
October 1998 Gothenburg discothèque fire: 29 October 1998 Gothenburg discothèque fire
April 2000 Bäckaby Old Church arson attack: 28 April 2000 Bäckaby Old Church arson attack
2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden: 2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden
Since 2014/2015 Arson attacks on asylum centres in Sweden: Since 2014/2015 Arson attacks on asylum centres in Sweden
May 2016 riots in Sweden: May 2016 riots in Sweden
October 2016 Malmö Muslim community centre arson: October 2016 Malmö Muslim community centre arson
2017 Rinkeby riots: February 2017 Rinkeby riots
Judiciary of Sweden: Judiciary of Sweden
Supreme Court of Sweden: Supreme Court of Sweden
Law enforcement in Sweden: Law enforcement in Sweden
Swedish Prosecution Authority: Swedish Prosecution Authority
Foreign relations of Sweden: Foreign relations of Sweden
Sweden's participation in international organizations: Sweden's participation in international organizations
March 1953 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a 5-year term: March 1953 United Nations Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a 5-year term
September 1957 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a second term: September 1957 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a second 5-year term
June 2015 UN's Ban Ki-moon receives report on Dag Hammarskjöld’s death: 12 June 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon receives report probing new information on Dag Hammarskjöld’s death
Bilateral relations of Sweden: Bilateral relations of Sweden
Sweden/Bangladesh relations: Sweden/Bangladesh relations
1914-1918 Swedish neutrality during WWI: Swedish neutrality during Word War I 1914-1918
1915 Neutral Swedish ship torpedoed without warning by German submarine: 13 March 1915: First neutral ship Swedish S.S. 'Hanna' torpedoed without warning and sunk by German submarine
1918 following German 'spring offensive' and admission Ludendorff in a Swedish admirer's country home: First Quartermaster-general of the Imperial Army's Great General Staff since 1916, Erich Ludendorff then became the chief policymaker in a de facto military dictatorship that dominated the central European country for the rest of the war. After Germany's defeat, he contributed significantly to the NSDAP party's rise to power and World War II - 21 March – 18 July 1918 'Kaiser's Battle' (spring offensive) led by Ludendorff, as on 29 September 1918 Ludendorff and Hindenburg suddenly told an incredulous Kaiser that they could not guarantee the integrity of the Western front 'for two hours' and they must have an immediate armistice. Since spring and summer 1918 Ludendorff also became the most prominent promoter of 'the stab-in-the-back myth', saying 1919 'Paris Peace Conference', juin 1919 'Traité de Versailles' and October 1919 the 'League of Nations' were the result of a treasonous conspiracy by Marxists, Freemasons and Jews League of Nations - Vargen och lammet är en antik fabel efter Aisopos
Humanitarian efforts during World War II: Sweden's humanitarian efforts during World War II
1975 BRD embassy occupation in Stockholm by terrorists of the Red Army Faction: 24 April 1975 West German embassy occupation in Stockholm carried out by terrorists of the Red Army Faction
Sweden/Israel relations:Sweden/Israel relations
Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association: Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association, nationwide since 1978
Nobel Prize since 1901 and Right Livelihood Award: Nobel Prize since 1901 - Right Livelihood Award
2014 Nobel prizes: 6 October 2014: British-American John O'Keefe, Norwegian Edvard and May-Britt Moser win the Nobel Medicine Prize for discovering how the brain navigates - 8 October: Eric Betzig, William Moerner and Stefan Hell win the Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing optical microscopy to study the interplay between molecules inside cells, including the aggregation of disease-related proteins - 9 October: French novelist Patrick Modiano wins the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature - 10 octobre: Prix nobel de la paix 2014 pour leur lutte contre l'oppression des enfants et pour le droit à l'éducation à Malala Yousafzai et Kailash Satyarthi - 25 September 2014: USA whistleblower Snowden wins Swedish human rights award for 'revealing the unprecedented extent of state surveillance' - 2 December 2014: Co-winning 'alternative Nobel', Snowden calls on UN to protect privacy
Sweden/Poland relations: Sweden/Poland relations
Sweden/Russia relations: Sweden/Russia relations
Sweden/Rwanda relations: Sweden/Rwanda relations
Sweden/South Africa relations: Sweden/South Africa relations
Sweden/Turkey relations: Sweden/Turkey relations - Turks in Sweden
Sweden/United Kingdom relations: Sweden/United Kingdom relations
Sweden/USA relations: Sweden/USA relations
Since 17th-century Swedish colonization of the Americas: Swedish colonization of the Americas since 17th-century
19th and early 20th centuries Swedish emigration to the USA: Swedish emigration to the USA in the 19th and early 20th centuries
Climate change in Sweden: Climate change in Sweden
Natural disasters in Sweden: Natural disasters in Sweden
Weather events in Sweden: Weather events in Sweden
2005 Cyclone Gudrun: January 2005 Cyclone Gudrun
2007 Cyclone Per: January 2007 Cyclone Per
Landslides in Sweden: Landslides in Sweden
Heat waves and wildfires in Sweden: Skogsbränder i Sverige
2014 Swedish heat wave: 2014 Swedish heat wave
2010 Swedish cold waves: 2010 Swedish cold waves




Future enlargement - candidates

Iceland - Geography of Iceland - Geology of Iceland - History of Iceland - Demographics of Iceland
Energy in Iceland: Energy in Iceland
Geothermal power in Iceland: Geothermal power in Iceland
Fishing in Iceland: Fishing in Iceland
Economic history of Iceland: Economic history of Iceland
2008-2011 Icelandic financial crisis: 2008-2011 Icelandic financial crisis
Politics of Iceland: Politics of Iceland - 1 juillet 2012: Réélection du président Olafur Ragnar Grimsson
2012 Icelandic constitutional referendum: Icelandic constitutional referendum, 20 October 2012
Social movements and protests in Iceland: Protests in Iceland
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Iceland: Icelandic society - Human rights in Iceland
Economy of Reykjavík: Economy of Reykjavík
Since 1911 University of Iceland: Since 1911 University of Iceland
Culture of Iceland: Culture of Iceland
Women in Iceland: Women in Iceland
Education in Iceland: Education in Iceland
Health and healthcare in Iceland: Health in Iceland - Healthcare in Iceland
Media of Iceland: Media of Iceland
Internet in Iceland: Internet in Iceland
Crime in Iceland: Crime in Iceland
Corruption in Iceland: Corruption in Iceland
Law and legal history of Iceland: Law of Iceland - Legal history of Iceland
Foreign relations of Iceland: Foreign relations of Iceland
Iceland/Norway relations: Iceland/Norway relations
Environment of Iceland: Environment of Iceland
Climate of Iceland: Climate of Iceland
Forests in Iceland: List of forests in Iceland
Islands of Iceland: List of islands of Iceland
Water and rivers of Iceland: Water in Iceland - List of rivers of Iceland
Natural disasters in Iceland: Natural disasters in Iceland
Volcanism of Iceland: Volcanism of Iceland
March-June 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull: March-June 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull
May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn: May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn
2014–2015 eruption of Bárðarbunga: 2014–2015 eruption of Bárðarbunga

North Macedonia - Geography of North Macedonia - History of North Macedonia - Demographic history of North Macedonia - Demographics of North Macedonia - 12 June 2018 Greek-Macedonian agreement on the name 'Republic of North Macedonia' for the former constituent country of Yugoslavia, entering into force on 12 February 2019
Coal mines in North Macedonia: Coal mines in North Macedonia
Energy in North Macedonia: Energy in North Macedonia
Renewable energy in North Macedonia: Renewable energy in North Macedonia
Hydroelectric power stations in North Macedonia: Hydroelectric power stations in North Macedonia
Agriculture in North Macedonia: Agriculture in North Macedonia
Transport in North Macedonia: Transport in North Macedonia
Rail transport in North Macedonia: Rail transport in North Macedonia
Road transport in North Macedonia: Road transport in North Macedonia
Banks and banking in North Macedonia: List of banks in North Macedonia
National Bank of North Macedonia: National Bank of North Macedonia
Economic history of North Macedonia and economic cycles: Economic history of North Macedonia
Unemployment in North Macedonia: Unemployment in North Macedonia
Taxation in North Macedonia: Taxation in North Macedonia
Political parties in North Macedonia: Political parties in North Macedonia
November 1990 Macedonian parliamentary election: 11 November 1990 Macedonian parliamentary election
Social movements and protests in North Macedonia:
2011 Macedonian protests: 2011 Macedonian protests
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in North Macedonia: North Macedonian society
July 1963 Skopje earthquake: July 1963 Skopje earthquake
Demographics and demographic history in North Macedonia: Demographics of North Macedonia - Demographic history of North Macedonia
Ethnic groups in North Macedonia: Ethnic groups in North Macedonia
Immigration and refugees in North Macedonia:
Culture and languages of North Macedonia: Macedonian culture - Languages of North Macedonia - Macedonian language
Education in North Macedonia: Education in North Macedonia
Schools in North Macedonia: Schools in North Macedonia
Health in North Macedonia: Health in North Macedonia
North Macedonian media: Macedonian media
Newspapers in North Macedonia: Newspapers in North Macedonia
Broadcasting in North Macedonia: Radio in North Macedonia - Television in North Macedonia
Internet in North Macedonia: Internet in North Macedonia
Since 2015 Macedonian border barrier: Since 2015 Macedonian border barrier
Crime in North Macedonia: Crime in North Macedonia
Corruption in North Macedonia: Corruption in North Macedonia
North Macedonian mafia: Macedonian mafia
Human trafficking in North Macedonia: Human trafficking in North Macedonia
Terrorism in North Macedonia: Terrorism in North Macedonia
Law enforcement in North Macedonia: Law enforcement in North Macedonia
North Macedonian police: Macedonian police
Foreign relations of North Macedonia: Foreign relations of North Macedonia
Treaties of North Macedonia: Treaties of North Macedonia
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
North Macedonia/European Union relations: North Macedonia/European Union relations
Since 2000 accession of North Macedonia to the EU: Since 2000 accession of North Macedonia to the European Union
June 2018 Prespa agreement between Greece and North Macedonia: < href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prespa_agreement">12 June 2018 Prespa agreement between Greece and North Macedonia, under the United Nations' auspices, resolving a long-standing dispute over the latter's name
Bilateral relations of North Macedonia: Bilateral relations of North Macedonia
North Macedonia/Albania relations: North Macedonia/Albania relations
2015: 21 August 2015: Macedonian police drove back migrants and refugees trying to enter from Greece on Friday after a night spent stranded in no-man's land by an emergency decree effectively sealing the Macedonian frontier - 22 August: Refugees, most of them Syrians, at Macedonia border spent night in open fields - 22 August: Thousands of migrants rushed past baton-wielding Macedonian police who were attempting to stop them entering Macedonia from Greece, police fired stun grenades and several were injured in the clashes - 23 August: After overwhelming police forces, who threw stun grenades and lashed out with batons before apparently abandoning a bid to stem their flow through the Balkans to western Europe, hundreds of migrants crossed from Greece into Macedonia gathering at Gevgelija train station - 10 September 2015: Refugees struck by baton-wielding police at Greece-Macedonia border, many are refugees from Syria, driven from their homes by violence there and worsening conditions for refugees in surrounding countries due to funding shortfalls in aid - 20 November 2015: Freezing refugees and migrants spend night at North Macedonia-Greece border after Macedonia began granting passage to refugees from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan only
North Macedonia/Russia relations: North Macedonia/Russia relations
North Macedonia/Ukraine relations: North Macedonia/Ukraine relations
Environmental issues in North Macedonia: Environmental issues in North Macedonia
Natural disasters in North Macedonia: Natural disasters in North Macedonia
Earthquakes in North Macedonia: Earthquakes in North Macedonia
1963 Skopje earthquake: 1963 Skopje earthquake
Floods in North Macedonia: Floods in North Macedonia

Montenegro - Geography of Montenegro - History of Montenegro
Agriculture in Montenegro: Agriculture in Montenegro
Water in Montenegro: Water in Montenegro
Political parties in Montenegro: List of political parties in Montenegro
Parliament of Montenegro: Parliament of Montenegro
Elections and politics in Montenegro: Elections in Montenegro
2006 Montenegrin independence referendum: 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum
2009 Montenegrin parliamentary election: Montenegrin parliamentary election, 2009
Protests in Montenegro: Protests in Montenegro
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Montenegro: Montenegrin society
Human rights in Montenegro: Human rights in Montenegro
Regions and municipalities of Montenegro: 3 regions of Montenegro - 23 municipalities of Montenegro
Cities in Montenegro: List of cities in Montenegro
Demographics and ethnic groups in Montenegro: Demographics of Montenegro - Ethnic groups in Montenegro
Culture and languages in Montenegro: Culture in Montenegro - Languages in Montenegro
Women in Montenegro: Women in Montenegro
Youth policy in Montenegro: Youth policy in Montenegro
Education in Montenegro: Education in Montenegro
Health in Montenegro: Health in Montenegro
Attacks and threats against journalists in Montenegro: Attacks and threats against journalists in Montenegro
Internet in Montenegro: Internet in Montenegro
Crime in Montenegro: Crime in Montenegro
Corruption in Montenegro: Corruption in Montenegro
Violence in Montenegro: Violence in Montenegro
Human trafficking in Montenegro: Human trafficking in Montenegro
Law enforcement in Montenegro: Law enforcement in Montenegro
Foreign relations of Montenegro: Foreign relations of Montenegro
Montenegro/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Montenegro/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Montenegro/Russia relations: Montenegro/Russia relations
Montenegro/Serbia relations: Montenegro/Serbia relations
Montenegro/United Kingdom relations: Montenegro/United Kingdom relations
Montenegro/USA relations: Montenegro/USA relations
Water in Montenegro: Water in Montenegro

Serbia - Geography of Serbia - History of Serbia - Demographics of Serbia - Demographic history of Serbia
Agriculture in Serbia: Agriculture in Serbia
Banking in Serbia: Banking in Serbia
Taxation in Serbia: Taxation in Serbia
Elections and politics in Serbia: Elections in Serbia
May 2012 Serbian parliamentary election: Serbian parliamentary election 6 May 2012
May 2012 Serbian presidential and local elections: Serbian presidential election 6 May 2012 - Serbian local elections 6 May 2012 - 6 May 2012: Serbians will vote on Sunday in presidential, parliamentary and local elections - 7 mai: Boris Tadic et le nationaliste Nikolic au second tour - 9 May: The Socialists agree to revive their coalition with the Democrats saying they will back Tadic in the presidential run-off - 20 May: Incumbent President Tadic has conceded defeat in the presidential run-off against rightist opposition leader Nikolic - 10. Juli: Einigung von SPS, SNS und URS auf Koalitionsabkommen, Regierungschef soll am 23. Juli der sozialistische Parteichef Ivica Dacic werden - 27 July: Milosevic’s former spokesman Ivica Dacic became Serbia’s new Prime Minister promising to promote reconciliation in the Balkans - NZZ 3. August: Funktionär aus Milosevic-Ära wird Geheimdienstchef
Protests and social movements in Serbia: Protests in Serbia
October 2000 overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic: October 2000 protests and the overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Serbia: Serbian society - Human rights in Serbia
Districts, municipalities and cities of Serbia: 29 districts of Serbia - Municipalities and cities of Serbia
Cities in Serbia: List of cities in Serbia
Since 1440 sieges of Belgrade: Since 1440 sieges of Belgrade
December 1914 Austrians bombard and capture Belgrade: December 1914 Austrians bombard and capture Belgrade
April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia: April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade - The Holocaust in Yugoslavia
June 2006 Belgrade capital of independent Serbia: June 2006 Belgrade becomes the capital of independent Serbia
Timeline of Novi Sad: History and timeline of Novi Sad
Arabs in Serbia: Arabs in Serbia
Bosniaks of Serbia: Bosniaks of Serbia
Hungarians in Serbia: Hungarians in Serbia
Romani people in Serbia: Romani people in Serbia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Health in Serbia: Health in Serbia
Healthcare in Serbia: Healthcare in Serbia
Newspapers in Serbia: Newspapers in Serbia
Internet and telecommunications in Serbia: Internet in Serbia - Telecommunications in Serbia - Serbian Wikipedia
Crime in Serbia: Crime in Serbia
War crimes in Serbia: War crimes in Serbia
Axis occupation of Vojvodina: Axis occupation of Vojvodina
Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars: Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars
1998/1999 Kosovo Albanian and Serbian war crimes in the Kosovo War: 1998/1999 Kosovo Albanian and Serbian war crimes in the Kosovo War
Corruption in Serbia: Corruption in Serbia
2014 political corruption in Serbia: 2014 overview of political corruption in Serbia
2015 stagnation in fight against corruption in Serbia: Stagnation in fight against corruption in 2015, according to Transparency Serbia
Organised crime in Serbia and Serbian mafia: Organised crime in Serbia - Serbian mafia
Terrorism in Serbia: Terrorism in Serbia
Law enforcement in Serbia: Law enforcement in Serbia
Foreign relations of Serbia: Foreign relations of Serbia
Treaties of Serbia: Treaties of Serbia
Immigrants to Serbia: Immigrants to Serbia
Serbia in intergovernmental organizations: Serbia in intergovernmental organizations
Bilateral relations of Serbia: Bilateral relations of Serbia
Serbia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Serbia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Serbia/Croatia relations: Serbia/Croatia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence
Serbia/Italy relations: Serbia/Italy relations
Serbia/Lebanon relations: Serbia/Lebanon relations
Serbia/Syria relations: Serbia/Syria relations
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Natural disasters in Serbia: Natural disasters in Serbia
Earthquakes in Serbia: Earthquakes in Serbia
Floods in Serbia: 2006 European floods

Turkey Türkei - History of Turkey - Geography of Turkey - Demographics of Turkey
Coal mining disasters in Turkey: Coal mining disasters in Turkey
Electric power in Turkey: Electric power in Turkey
Economic history of Turkey and economic cycles: Economic history of Turkey
2001 Turkish economic crisis: 2001 Turkish economic crisis
Since 2008 Global recession: Global recession since 2008
Since March 2020 socio-economic impact of coronavirus pandemic in Turkey: Since March 2020 socio-economic impact of the Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Turkey
Unemployment in Turkey: Unemployment in Turkey
Poverty in Turkey: Poverty in Turkey
Turkish military: Turkish Armed Forces
Military history of Turkey: Military history of Turkey
World War I crimes by the Ottoman Empire: World War I crimes by the Ottoman Empire
1914-1923 Armenian Genocide: 1914-1923 Armenian Genocide
1914-1924 Assyrian genocide: 1914-1924 Assyrian genocide
1913-1922 Greek genocide: 1913-1922 Greek genocide
Labour Battalions of the Ottoman Empire: Labour Battalions of the Ottoman Empire
1939-1945 Turkey during World War II: 1939-1945 Turkey during World War II
Human rights of Kurdish people and suppression in Turkey: Human rights of Kurdish people and suppression in Turkey - Persecution of Kurds in Turkey
1937-1938 Dersim rebellion and Turkish military operations: 1937-1938 Dersim rebellion and Turkish military operations
Since 1978 Kurdish–Turkish conflict and 1978–present timeline: Since 1978 Kurdish–Turkish conflict - 1978–present timeline of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict
Since 1984 Kurdish villages depopulated by Turkey: Since 1984 Kurdish villages depopulated by Turkey
Since 2015 Kurdish–Turkish conflict: Since 2015 Kurdish–Turkish conflict
Since 1960 list of Turkish coups d'état and attempts: Since 1960 list of Turkish coups d'état and attempts
Military budget of Turkey: Military budget of Turkey
Since 1359 history of taxation and fiscal organization in Turkey: Since 1359 history of taxation and fiscal organization in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey
Jizya per capita tax in the Ottoman Empire: Jizya per capita yearly tax in the Ottoman Empire levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law - 'Devshirme' (tax of sons) practice
Since 2005 Turkish Revenue Administration: Since 2005 Turkish Revenue Administration
Grand National Assembly of Turkey: Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Political parties, political party alliances, trade unions and human rights organizations in Turkey: Political parties in Turkey - Political party alliances in Turkey - Trade unions in Turkey - Human rights organizations based in Turkey
September 2010 Turkish constitutional referendum: 12 September 2010 Turkish constitutional referendum
January-September 2012: 6 January 2012: Ex-army head Ilker Basbug has been remanded in custody in a widening probe into the so-called Ergenekon network - 26. März 2012: Türkischer Ex-Armeechef Basburg wegen Putsch-Vorwürfen vor Gericht - 4 April 2012: General Kenan Evren to face court in landmark case for his role in 1980 coup that shaped the country for decades - 8. Mai 2012: Wieder mehrere Offiziere festgenommen im Zusammenhang mit der Vertreibung des früheren Ministerpräsidenten Erbakan aus dem Amt 1997 - 10. Mai 2012: Die türkische Justiz hat am Mittwoch Untersuchungshaft gegen sechs aktive Generäle und fünf pensionierte Generäle verhängt - 4 August: Turkey retires 40 'coup plot' generals - 21 September: Turkish court sentences three former generals to life in prison in the trial of hundreds of military officers accused of plotting
2013/2014 corruption scandal in Turkey: 2013/2014 corruption scandal in Turkey - 26 décembre: Remaniement ministériel majeur en Turquie sur fond de scandale financier - 27 December: Three lawmakers quit Turkish ruling party AKP over corruption scandal - 8 janvier 2014: Le gouvernement turc a continué les purges au sein de la police nationale sur fond de scandale de corruption, limogeant les préfets de police de 16 provinces
1 November 2015 Turkish general election: 1 November 2015 Turkish general election
April 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum: 16 April 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum - 16/17 April 2017: Turkey’s Erdogan hails 'historic' referendum win as opposition claims fraud, preparing to contest the reported results of 51.41% and 48.59% - 17 avril 2017: Alors que la diaspora turque dans son ensemble s'est prononcée en faveur du texte renforçant les pouvoirs du chef de l'Etat turc, en France avec 64,86%, en Allemagne avec 63,07%, où la diaspora turque est très importante, la tendance est inversée en Suisse - 17 April 2017: The Turkish referendum on presidential powers took place on an 'unlevel playing field' and in a political environment where fundamental freedoms were curtailed, including restrictions on media outlets and arrests of journalists, European observers say - 19 April 2017: Turkey’s high election board rejects appeals from the main opposition parties against referendum result citing the controversial last-minute decision by the same board to allow the counting of possibly hundreds of thousands of unstamped ballots that 'contradicted the law'
February 2018: 1 février 2018: Un tribunal d'Istanbul fait marche arrière et décide de ne pas remettre en liberté conditionnelle le président d'Amnesty international en Turquie, jugé pour appartenance à une 'organisation terroriste' et détenu depuis juin 2017 - 11 février 2018: Le principal parti prokurde de Turquie HDP élit de nouveaux chefs ce dimanche, dont un remplacera Demirtas qui est toujours en prison, au moment où le Parti démocratique des peuples HDP est le seul parti élu au parlement à s'opposer à l'offensive militaire menée par le régime d'Erdogan dans l'enclave syrienne d'Afrine - 11 February 2018: 3rd 'Peoples' Democratic Party' Ordinary Congress elected chairwoman Pervin Buldan and chairman Sezai Temelli - 12 février 2018: Erdogan régime reproche aux deux responsables du HDP des déclarations faites sur l'offensive lancée à Afrine en Syrie - 12 February 2018: Number of arrested protesters over Erdogan's illegal Afrin assault reaches 666 in Turkey
Social movements, protests and repression in Turkey: Protests in Turkey
2013 protests in Turkey: 2013 protests in Turkey
May/June 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey: May 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey
May 2014: 1 May 2014: Riot police uses tear gas and water cannon on 1 May to prevent demonstrators defying a ban on protests on Istanbul's central Taksim Square - 14 May: Thousands of protesters clashed with police in Ankara and Istanbul, accusing the government and mining industry of negligence after deadly Soma coal mine disaster on 13/14 May - 15 May: The Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions is backing a one day strike in protest at mine safety after Soma mine disaster - 15 May: Turkey outraged as PM Erdogan's aide kicks protester held on the ground by special forces police in Soma after coal mine disaster - 15 May: Miners and mourners scorn government that 'laughs at our pain' - 16 May: Teargas, plastic bullets and water cannons used on protesters at scene of worst industrial accident amid anger at PM's offhand remarks towards victims - 17 May: Miner Erdal Bicak who survived Soma disaster says company to blame - 20 May: The main labour union in Soma called on thousands of workers to down tools at mines run by the same operator until the sites have been properly inspected - 23 May: After clashes between police and protesters left two dead, including a 15-year-old boy, Erdogan expresses little remorse for the violence - 31 May: Protesters in Istanbul, Ankara and Adana mark nationwide anti-government protest anniversary, facing in Istanbul 25,000 police officers firing teargas, water cannon and arresting dozens
2015: 15 February 2015: Street protests across Turkey after student Ozgecan Aslan was killed for resisting rape - 16 February 2015: Police detained five women protesters who unfurled a banner atop of a building in Istanbul's Taksim square to denounce brutal murder of 20-year old student Ozgecan Aslan that triggered outrage across the country - 22 March: Kurds call on Turkish government to meet their demands at celebrations to mark New Year in Istanbul - 1 May 2015: Hundreds of flag-waving protesters gathered in the Besiktas neighbourhood, where they were held back by lines of police closing off streets to traffic to stop May Day rallies at the central Taksim Square - 1 May: Turkish police use water cannon and tear gas on May Day in Istanbul to push back activists from Taksim Square during first major protests since government passed security bill - 22 July 2015: Turkish police fired tear gas and water cannon against hundreds of protesters who took to streets in Istanbul to condemn the suspected 'Islamic State' deadly suicide attack in the Kurdish majority town of Suruc near the Syrian border and Kobani, also detaining and injuring protesters in other demonstrations - 27 July: Thousands chant anti-government slogans in Cizre and violence flares between Kurdish protesters and Turkish forces after the funeral of a demonstrator who died protesting against military strikes targeting Kurdish camps in northern Iraq - 10 September: Pro-Kurdish politicians, including cabinet ministers, attempting to march to Cizre in south-east Turkey to protest against a week-long military curfew in the town have been blocked by security forces - 3 October 2015: Turkish journalists rally to protest diminishing media freedom - 10 October: Riot police used water cannon and tear gas to disperse several hundred protesters in Ankara marching for a Kurdish fighter who was killed in Kobani early in September while fighting against Islamic State and whose family have been struggling to bring his body back to Turkey for burial - 10 October: Impromptu protests began in Istanbul on Saturday evening in response to the Turkish government’s handling of the Ankara terror attack, blaming the authorities for the twin bomb attacks that targeted a peace rally in the capital earlier on Saturday and killed more than 90 people - 11 October: Thousands gather in Ankara to pay respects to activists killed in bombings during the peace rally on Saturday, saying the police had failed to provide any security measures to protect the rally’s attendees and had even teargassed relatives of the victims as they arrived at the scene of the attack looking for their loved ones - 12 October: Thousands of mourners gather across Turkey for the funerals of victims of Saturday’s bombings during the peace rally in Ankara - 13 October: Demonstrators scuffle with riot police during a rally in Istanbul to commemorate the 97 victims and over the government's response to the Ankara bombings - 27 November 2015: Hundreds of Turks have rallied against Russian and Syrian offensives on the province of Latakia, an area mainly controlled by ethnic Turkmens, as Russian forces continue launching heavy bombardment - 29 November 2015: Lawyer and human rights defender Tahir Elci, who faced a criminal charge for supporting Kurdish rebels, has been killed in an attack in south-east Turkey in which a police officer also died, while he and other lawyers were making a press statement - 29 novembre: Quelque 50'000 personnes ont assisté dimanche à Diyarbakir, dans le sud-est de la Turquie, aux obsèques du célèbre avocat kurde Tahir Elçi tué par des hommes armés non identifiés - 20 December: Turkish police teargas protesters in Istanbul calling for an end to curfews in the south-east, where the military has increased operations against Kurdish militants
2016: 10 February 2016: Riot police use water cannon, smoke grenade to disperse Kurds protesting curfews in the southeast province of Diyarbakir - 6 March: Turkish police fire tear gas for second day after seizing newspaper to disperse hundreds of the newspapers' supporters, dozens of people were overcome by the gas and collapsed onto the street - 6/7 March 2016: Attacked by violent police firing rubber bullets, women march in Istanbul marking International Women’s Day two days early after the city’s governor banned their rally planned for March the 8, citing 'security' concerns - 24 juillet 2016: Un rassemblement de soutien à la démocratie est prévu dimanche 24 juillet sur la place Taksim à Istanbul huit jours après l'échec du coup d'Etat et alors que les purges massives lancées depuis par le pouvoir turc continuent - 24 juillet: 'Ni coup d'Etat, ni diktat', des milliers de Turcs se sont réunis dimanche en début de soirée sur la place Taksim à Istanbul - 25 July: Many thousands of Turks in the first cross-party rally condemn coup attempt amid a purge of suspected state enemies and torture claims - 21 August: Hundreds of Turks gathered in the Turkish capital to voice their anger and frustration at the government following a suicide bomb attack at a wedding in the southeastern city of Gaziantep, that killed at least 51 people and is seen as a revenge attack on Kurds - 5 November 2016: Using water cannons and tear gas, police attempt to disperse protesters in central Istanbul after arrest orders against opposition newspaper's staff following arrests of pro-Kurdish leaders
December 2019 police violently broke up anti-rape demonstration in Istanbul: 9 December 2019: Turki