Europe



Economy of Europe - Economy of the European Union - Economies of EU member states, GDP, growth, deficit and unemployment since 2011 - List of the largest trading partners of the European Union, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls, and in the eurozone trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members
Economic history of Europe - Companies of Europe

Arms production in Europe since the early modern period - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Weapons by country

Energy in Europe - Energy and energy policy in the European Union - 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, European Union directive requiring that 20% of the energy consumed within the European Union is renewable, target pooled among the member states
Fossil fuels in Europe and in the European Union: Fossil fuels in the European Union and fossil fuels by country - European countries by fossil fuel use (% of total energy)
2017: 28 September 2017: Governments of 11 European nations are providing subsidies totalling more than £80bn a year to fossil fuel industries, survey shows
Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 and list of countries by oil imports: Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 - List of countries by oil imports
Imports of natural gas into the European Union: Imports of natural gas into the European Union
2015: 28 November 2015: Russian regime's pipeline projects have run into trouble with the EU's anti-monopoly rules, as the dependence on a single source of gas is seen as threat to the EU's energy security
Electric power in Europe and in the European Union: Electric power in Europe - Electric power in the European Union
Nuclear power in Europe and in the European Union: Nuclear power in the European Union - Nuclear energy policy by country in Europe
Renewable energy in Europe and in the European Union: Renewable energy in Europe - Renewable energy in the European Union

Transport in Europe - Transport and the European Union - Transport infrastructure in Europe
Aviation in Europe: Aviation in Europe - Environmental impact of aviation
2015: 16 November 2015: Huge variation in fuel efficiency between transatlantic airlines, with British Airways and Lufthansa emitting 51% more carbon dioxide than the cleanest flyers, as European parliament study suggests that aviation and shipping will continue to increase their share of global emissions, predicting that by 2050 aviation will account for 22% of the total, and shipping 17%
Rail transport in Europe: Rail transport in Europe
Road transport in Europe: Road transport in Europe - Public transport in Europe - Cycling in Europe
Water transport in Europe: Water transport in Europe
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply in the European Union

Fishing in the European Union - Fishing in the North Sea
EU's 'Agriculture and Fisheries Council' and common fisheries policy: Common Fisheries Policy is the fisheries policy of the European Union - Agriculture and Fisheries Council, one of the configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the European Union member states, its competencies include the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy
August 2018: 29 August 2018: UK scallop fishermen clashed with French rivals in Channel, trying to protect stocks of the shellfish - 29 août 2018: La Commission européenne appelle à un accord 'à l'amiable' après des affrontements entre marins français et anglais sur la coquille Saint-Jacques

Agriculture in Europe - European Union and agriculture
2016: 28 April 2016: Agriculture will play a crucial role in addressing the planet’s most pressing challenges, whether on food production, health or the preservation of the environment, special report shows
Forestry in Europe: Forestry in Europe

List of the largest trading partners of the European Union - the EU is the largest exporter in the world and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls
Treaties entered into by the European Union
EU free trade agreements
EU/Africa and the Middle East economic and trade relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations
2016: 15 September 2016: Major European oil companies and commodity traders including Dutch Trafigura, Vitol and British BP are exploiting weak fuel standards in African countries to export highly polluting fuels that they could never sell at the pumps in Europe, according to a new report - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe - 7 December 2016: Africa's crackdown on tax avoidance project designed to improve audit capacities and ensure multinationals observe local tax laws
EU/The Americas economic and trade relations: European Union/The Americas relations
EU/Asia-Pacific economic and trade relations: European Union/Asia-Pacific relations - The EU is China's largest trading partner, and China is the EU's second largest trading partner, mostly of industrial and manufactured goods, between 2009 and 2010 alone EU exports to China increased by 38% and China's exports to the EU increased by 31%, however there are sources of tension, such as human rights and the EU's arms embargo on China
Since 1972: Since 1972 European Union-ASEAN relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two organizations, the European Union EU and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN
EU/Central Asia economic and trade relations: European Union/Central Asia relations

Banking and banks in Europe: List of banks in Europe
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission - 12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas

Economic history of Europe and business cycles: Economic history of Europe and business cycles - Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe - Great Recession worldwide following the financial crisis since 2007 - European debt crisis affecting the countries of the eurozone since early 2009, when a group of 10 central and eastern European banks asked for a bailout - Causes of the European debt crisis
June/July 2011: 20. Juni 2011: EU Einigung am 20. Juni 2011 auf "Europäischen Stabilitätsmechanismus" ESM ab 2013 - 20. Juni 2011: Besorgnis des IWF über Europas Schuldensituation - 26. Juni 2011: Chinas Staatsfonds steht zu Euro-Investitionen - 11. Juli 2011: EU-Justizkommissarin will Macht der Rating-Agenturen brechen
August 2011: 12. August 2011: Belgien, Frankreich, Griechenland, Italien und Spanien verfügen Verbote sog. 'Leerverkäufe' im Börsenhandel, teils nur befristet - 25. August 2011: Frankreich, Italien und Spanien verlängern Verbot von sog. 'Leerverkäufen', d.h. insoweit von Spekulation auf den Ruin eben dieser Länder
September 2011: 28. September 2011: Strengere Regeln für Euro-Stabilitätspakt verabschiedet - 29. September 2011: Spanien und Italien verlängern Verbot von 'Leerverkäufen'
October 2011: 27 October 2011: EU leaders agree to a last-minute deal on eurozone debts and reducing Greek debts - 31 octobre 2011: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro a atteint 10,2% de la population active en septembre 2011
November 2011: 4 November 2011: Greek eurozone crisis and G20 meeting - current events - Lessons to learn: - Chapter: The form of value - Chapter: Productive and unproductive labour
December 2011: 8 December: European countries face eurozone crisis summit in Brussels still without any idea to disempower banks and to democratise credit - 9 December 2011: Brussels summit rejects EU wide treaty change
January/February 2012: 14 January 2012: EU criticises Standard&Poor's ratings downgrade of nine eurozone countries - 31 January 2012: Eurozone unemployment hits new record at the end of 2011 reaching a rate of 10,4 per cent - 21 février 2012: L'Eurogroupe approuve le plan d'aide de 130 milliards d'euros à la Grèce - 23. Februar 2012: Laut Konjunkturprognose der EU-Kommission rutschen die Euro-Länder in Rezession von 0,3%
April/May 2012: 2 avril 2012: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro est à son plus haut depuis 1999 et a atteint 10,8% de la population active en février 2012 - 2 May 2012: For all 17 nations in the eurozone, the jobless rate rose again to 10.9%, the highest since the euro was formed in 1999 - 16. Mai 2012: EU-Parlament und EU-Finanzminister vor Verhandlungen zu Eigenkapitalregeln für Banken
June 2012: 1 June 2012: Eurozone unemployment at 11%, in the 27-nation EU the jobless rate 10.3%, up from 10.2% - 10 June 2012: Spanish bank bailout request welcomed - 29 June 2012: Eurozone agrees to use its bailout fund to support struggling banks directly
July/August 2012: 2 July 2012: Unemployment in the eurozone hit 11.1% in May while the downturn in its manufacturing sector continued - 25 July 2012: Libor fixing to become criminal offence, EU justice commissioner Viviane Reding says - 2 August 2012: ECB's Draghi reaffirms promise to do 'whatever it takes' to save euro - 14 August 2012: Eurozone economy shrinks by 0.2% - 31 August 2012: Unemployment across the 17-nation eurozone hit a record 18 million in July
September/October 2012: 6 September: ECB's Mario Draghi unveils bond-buying euro debt plan - 1 October: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a fresh high of 18.2 million in August - 8 October: Eurozone unlocks $650bn crisis rescue fund - 13 October: The EU has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, which is worth a million euros, for six decades of work in advancing peace in Europe - 18 October: EU Brussels summit to focus on eurozone crisis - 19 October: At the EU Brussels summit compromise deal reached on eurozone bank supervisor - 23 October: The European Commission has backed plans from 10 countries to launch a financial transactions tax - 31 October: Eurozone unemployment jumps to fresh high of 18.49 million in September, unemployment rate up to 11.6% (a year earlier 10.3%)
November/December 2012: 6 November: The European Court of Auditors said there were errors in allocating about 5bn euros from the 2011 EU budget - 7 November: Eurozone jobless to peak near 12% in 2013,the EU autumn forecasts says - 30 November: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a record high in October, with more than 170.000 extra jobs lost and youth joblessness at almost 24 per cent, as the economy slumped into recession - 13 December: Eurozone agrees ECB banking supervision rules
January/February 2013: 8 January 2013: Eurozone unemployment reaches new high in 2012, as more than 26 million people are now unemployed across the EU - 28 February 2013: EU agrees to cap banker bonuses
April/May 2013: 2 April 2013: The euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 12.0 % in February 2013 - 15 mai 2013: Selon une première estimation de l'Eurostat, le Produit intérieur brut de la zone euro s'est replié de 0,2% au premier trimestre - 31 May: One in four youths is jobless as unemployment across the eurozone reaches record of 19.38 million people or 12.2%
September-November 2013: 27 septembre: Le budget UE 2013 accuse un trou de 20 milliards d'euros - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments
2014: 1 January 2014: European labour market opens for Romanians, Bulgarians - 5 June: As the eurozone economy is only growing at 0.2%, ECB slashes interest rate to 0.15%
26 October 2014: Twenty-four European banks fail European Banking Authority financial stress tests
2015: 22 January 2015: ECB president Mario Draghi pledges €60bn monthly top-up until September 2016 in quantitative easing move to save currency bloc - 20 February: Eurozone ministers gather for crucial Greece talks - 19 March: EU leaders set for crunch Greek talks at Brussels summit - 20 March: EU summit in Brussels demands Greece produce economic blueprint quickly - 20 March: EU offers funds to Greece in return for urgent reforms - 24 March: Greece promises list of reforms by next Monday to unlock cash and avoid default - 29 June 2015: Turmoil hits the financial world after capital controls imposed in Greece and banks are shut for a week, triggering a new phase of the eurozone crisis - 23 September: Volkswagen crisis and Chinese economy fears weigh on markets - 13 November 2015: The eurozone economy slowed in the three months to September 2015 as exports to large developing economies weakened
2017: 28 July 2017: Economic confidence across the eurozone has inched up to its highest level in a decade, as countries beat UK with solid growth in Q2
2018: 14 August 2018: The eurozone economy has shrugged off growing trade tensions to grow faster than previously estimated in the three months to the end of June, as GDP was also up 0.4% in the 28 EU countries

Demographics of Europe: Demographics of Europe - Demographics of Europe, as of 2010 Europe's population within the standard physical geographical boundaries was 740 million according to the United Nations - Demographics of the European Union, as of 2014 the population of the EU of 28 member states is about 507.4 million people - Ethnic groups in Europe - History of Europe - European society by country

Social class in Europe - Labor in Europe - Labour in the European Union
Trade unions in Europe - Trade unions in the European Union
List of federations of trade unions in Europe - European trade union federations
Since 1973: Since 1973 European Trade Union Confederation - European Trade Union Confederation by country
European labour law - Since 1989 Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers - Co-determination - European Employment Strategy

Human rights in Europe: Human rights in Europe - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country - List of Human Rights organisations
2015: 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive', wanting to host only cultural events and exhibits
2016: 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 15 March 2016: Macedonia forcibly ('they hit everyone – women, children, men') returns thousands of exhausted refugees to Greece, after desperate men, women and children fled Greek camp a day earlier - 15 March 2016: Seeing Macedonian authorities sending people back in trucks to Greece late at night, dropping children off shivering, wet and disoriented, 'Save the Children' criticizes 'the wholly inadequate response of European leaders to this crisis, which treats people like bargaining chips and leaves them stranded with no safe plan for their future' - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie
2017: 1 October 2017: Muted response from EU leaders over police crackdown in Catalonia, as Belgian PM Michel and senior MEP Verhofstadt among the few national leaders to denounce violence and human right groups also condemn the violence

European Court of Human Rights - Cour européenne des droits de l'homme - Site officiel
2014: 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 13 June 2014: Ukraine filed a lawsuit at the European Court of Human Rights concerning the kidnapping by terrorists of orphans from Snizhne - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European Court of Human Rights
2015: 14 April 2015: ECHR postpones Ukraine's lawsuit against Russia over the actions of the Russian regime in Donbas and Crimea for six months at Russian request - 3 December 2015: Ukrainian citizens have filed 700 complaints to the ECHR against the Russian Federation in connection with military actions in Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the occupation of Crimea, as the court is expected to make the first ruling on these complaints in the near future
January 2016: 13 January 2016: ECHR to rule on prison term for Russian activist Kashapov, who was arrested in December 2014 for criticizing Crimea annexation by Russian regime in 2014
May 2016: 21 May 2016: Australian law firm wants compensation from Russian regime for MH17 crash and its President Putin on behalf of families of victims of July 2014 catastrophe, the relevant application was submitted on 9 May 2016 to the European Court of Human Rights (Cour européenne des droits de l'homme)
May 2016: 31 May 2016: Russian regime must pay editor for breaching freedom of expression rights of Yelena Mikhaylovna Nadtoka, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Vecherniy Novocherkassk, who was found guilty in 2004, in a breach of her rights under article 10 of the European convention, of causing insult to a politician, ECHR rules saying that the newspaper’s article sought to complain of corruption on the part of the mayor of Novocherkassk, which was a subject of public interest
October 2016: 11 October 2016: Chess master Garry Kasparov wins a case against Russian regime at the European Court of Human Rights for unlawful arrest in 2007 and violation of his right to attend a rally in Samara he missed as a result of his detention in Moscow
January/February 2017: 26 January 2017: 'Among the Council of Europe member, the majority of judgments defining at least one violation of the European Convention on Human Rights in 2016 was delivered against Russia (222 judgments)', followed by Turkey with 77 judgments, the ECHR says - 10 February 2017: Ukrainian librarian Natalya Sharina held under house arrest in Russia since October 2015, has taken her case to the European court of human rights
April 2017: 13 April 2017: Russian authorities failed to take sufficient steps to stop the 2004 Beslan school siege in North Ossetia in which more than 330 people were killed, the European court of human rights has ruled
June 2017: 20 June 2017: Russian law '2013 federal statute' encourages homophobia and discrimination, the European court of human rights has ruled, in a sharply worded rebuke to the Russian regime
September 2017: 25 September 2017: Portuguese schoolchildren from the area struck by the country’s worst forest fires are seeking crowdfunding, supported by the NGO Global Legal Action Network, to sue 47 European countries, alleging that the states’ failure to tackle climate change threatens their right to life
October 2017: 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's Catalan plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights
March 2018: 20 March 2018: Turkey acted illegally by detaining journalists Mehmet Altan and Sahin Alpay who were arrested in the wake of the military coup attempt in July 2016, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled, saying there had been a violation of personal liberty and security under Article 5/1 of the European Convention
May 2018: 25 May 2018: A group of 270 relatives of the Dutch victims of flight MH17 downed in July 2014 in Russian-occupied Donbas will lodge a complaint against Russia with the European Court of Human Rights ECHR
July 2018: 18 July 2018: Investigative journalist Anna Politkovskaya’s murder inquiry in Russia was 'inadequate and violated human rights’, as those who commissioned the killing have not yet been identified, the European Court of Human Rights ruled, ordering Russia to pay 20,000 euros in damages to relatives of murdered journalist
July 2018: 18 July 2018: European Court of Human Rights found that Russia had violated five articles of the European Convention on Human Rights in its arrest and conviction of the Pussy Riot protest group in 2012, sentencing three members to two years in prison after performing a protest song in a Moscow cathedral

Since 2007 European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights ECCHR, an independent, nonprofit non-governmental organization focusing on legal issues and the enforcement of human rights by holding state and non-state actors responsible for egregious abuses
June 2018 legal claim against Italy: 29 June 2018: After Italian officials allegedly met with Syria's top military adviser, legal claim against Italy filed by ECCHR at the European commission alleging violation of EU rules

Asylum and right of asylum in Europe: Asylum in the European Union - Right of asylum in the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk
Since 2015: Since 2015 Border barriers constructed during the European refugee and migrant crisis - Since June 2015 Hungarian border barrier - 28 November: Soldiers in Macedonia have begun erecting a metal fence on the country's southern border with Greece
2016: 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE
June 2018 EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants: 12 June 2018: Unable to tackle causes of refugee crises, EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants, as new border infrastructure, including scanners, automated number plate recognition systems, mobile laboratories for sample analysis, the establishment of teams of sniffer dogs, will be prioritised
June 2018 sharp fall in number of people seeking asylum in EU: 18 June 2018: The EU’s asylum office counted 728,470 applications for international protection in 2017, a 44% reduction on the 1.3m applications the previous year, after more than 1 million people entered the EU in 2015, many fleeing the war in Syria

Causes of refugee crises include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate crises, economic hardship
Since 2011 Syrian refugees due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people: Migrant motives in the European refugee and migrant crisis since 2014/2015 - primarily credited to the inundation of refugees due to political and social conflicts in regions such as Syria, the greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria due to Assad's, Iranian and Russian war against the Syrian people
2016: 2008-2016 List refugees and total population of concern by UN region, includes 21,288,728 people in Africa in 2016, 31,168,078 people in Asia in 2016, 8,061,269 people in Latin America in 2016, and 6,210,994 people in Europe in 2016
June 2018: 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees on 7 June 2018

Culture in Europe: Culture in Europe and Languages in Europe - Languages in the European Union - List of endangered languages in Europe
Education in Europe and Education in the European Union: Education in Europe - Education in the European Union - Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
European Schools: European Schools, private-authority sponsored schools controlled jointly by the governments of the Member States of the EU and regarded as public institutions to provide a multilingual and multicultural education for nursery, primary and secondary level pupils
History of science and science and technology in Europe: History of science - Science and technology in Europe
European Union and science and technology, European Research Area: European Union and science and technology - European Research Area - Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
European Space Agency ESA: European Space Agency ESA, an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space since 1975, with 22 member states and headquartered in Paris, having worldwide staff of about 2,000 and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion in 2016
October 2016: 20 October 2016: Hopes are fading for Schiaparelli lander, part of the ExoMars 2016 mission jointly operated by ESA with the Russian regime's space agency Roscosmos, after mission control lost contact - 28 October 2016: ESA released images of its doomed Mars lander, showing a giant crater caused by impact, and scattered components
July 2018 water 'lake' revealed on Mars: 25 July 2018: Using Marsis, a radar instrument on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, researchers have found evidence of an existing body of liquid water on Mars
August 2018 'Aeolus': Since 22 August 2018 Atmospheric Dynamics Mission 'Aeolus' Earth observation satellite - 23 August 2018: ESA launched a rocket from French Guyana to put a satellite into orbit as part of what company Arianespace called the world’s first space mission to map the Earth’s wind on a global scale, as Aeolus will boost climate research and weather forecasting, particularly in data blindspot of the tropics
Health and healthcare in Europe: Health in Europe by country - Health and healthcare in Europe, provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level as most European countries have universal health coverage - Health and the European Union - Health-EU Portal is an official web portal of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General that facilities the access of public-related health information to EU citizens
October 2016: 17 October 2016: Use of some of the strongest antibiotics available to treat life-threatening infections has risen to record levels on European farms across the major countries of the EU, according to new data from the European Medicines Agency
September 2018: 11 September 2018: Air pollution is now 'the biggest environmental risk' to public health in Europe but governments are failing to adequately deal with the crisis, the EU Court of Auditors has found
Health disasters in Europe by country, health crises healthcare and environmental issues: Health disasters in Europe by country and by health crises
Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
EU's Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks: Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, providing the European Commission with the scientific advice on questions relating to the toxicity and ecotoxicity of chemicals, biochemicals and biological compounds whose use may have harmful consequences for human health and the environment - European Food Safety Authority - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety - Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
2015: 23 March 2015: The UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer says that three pesticides, the herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in USA's Monsanto's Roundup – and the insecticides malathion and diazinon, were 'probably' carcinogenic and two others, which have already been outlawed or restricted, were 'possibly' so
2016: 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation

Media and media freedom in Europe and the EU: European media
Media freedom in Europe - Media freedom, censorship and repression in Russia - Media freedom in the EU - Censorship in Europe - Since 2015 European Centre for Press and Media Freedom
Since the early 1990s assaults on journalists in Russia: Since the early 1990s assaults on journalists, denial of entry and deportation of foreign journalists in Russia
Since 2008 Media in Russia regulated by Roskomnadzor: Roskomnadzor 'Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media' re-established in Russia in May 2008
2014/2015: 17 June 2014: Ukrainian lawmakers call on the International Federation of Journalists, the European Federation of Journalists, the Association of European Journalists, and the Reporters without Borders regarding the information aggression of the Russian media against Ukraine - 11 September 2015: A group of European newspaper editors, includign papers in Hungary and Slovakia, united in an appeal to the EU to take decisive action to deal with the international refugee crisis
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak: February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak and Martina Kušnírová - 28 February 2018: A vigil has been held in Slovakia for journalist Jan Kuciak whose death police believe is likely linked to his work as a reporter of the news website Aktuality.sk focused mainly on investigating tax fraud of businesspeople connected to Slovak politicians - 28 February 2018: Slovakian journalist Ján Kuciak was investigating political corruption linked to an Italian mafia group at the time of his murder, according to a summary of his 'last investigation' published on Wednesday
April 2018: 13 April 2018: Hungarian journalists admit role in forging anti-migrant 'atmosphere of fear' ahead of Victor Orbán’s election victory this week, as the 'Guardian' spoke to several employees of the taxpayer-funded MTVA network to hear the inside story of how its channels pumped out government messaging, and at times false stories, with the goal of winning support for Orban's anti-immigration message
European newspapers: Newspapers in Europe
Broadcasting in Europe: Broadcasting in Europe - Radio in Europe - Television in Europe
Internet in Europe: Internet in Europe - European news websites
Since 2004 history of internet censorship in Russia: Internet censorship in Russia - Since 2004 history of internet censorship in Russia
August 2018: 3 August 2018: EU is to launch an EU-wide initiative to combat voter manipulation through social media, as concerns grow about the issue ahead of European parliament's elections 2019 and as EU'S justice commissioner Vera Jourová says national governments needed to coordinate their efforts to tackle fake news and the misuse of personal data in micro-targeted political advertising
Journalism in Europe: Journalism in Europe - European Federation of Journalists - Journalism organisations in Europe
Investigative journalism: Investigative journalism
Since 2003 GIJN: Since 2003 Global Investigative Journalism Network - GIJN website
Since 2006 OCCRP: Since 2006 Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project - OCCRP website
Since 2010 TBIJ: Since 2010 Bureau of Investigative Journalism

Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Since 1949: Since 1949 Council of Europe treaties - Treaties entered into by the European Union
May 1949: May 1949 Statute of the Council of Europe creating the council, the original signatories were Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom, as of 2013 it has been ratified or acceded to by 47 European states, nearly all European states with the exception of Belarus and Vatican City
1950: November 1950 European Convention on Human Rights
1961: October 1961 European Social Charter, the basic rights set out in the Charter are housing, health, education, labour rights, full employment, reduction of working hours, equal pay for equal work, parental leave, social security, social and legal protection from poverty and social exclusion, free movement of persons and non-discrimination, also the rights of migrant workers and that of the persons with disabilities
1979: September 1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats
2005: 2005 Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, also into force since June 2007 in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine, as of July 2016 it has been ratified by 35 states - International conventions related to terrorism and counter-terrorism cases, including the 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, the 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
European Convention on Human Rights - European Court of Human Rights
2016: 21 mai 2016: Les familles des victimes du vol MH17 de la Malaysia Airlines, abattu alors qu'il survolait l'Ukraine en 2014, poursuivent en justice la Russie et son président Poutine auprès de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE made up of 324 parliamentarians from the national parliaments of the Council of Europe's 47 member states - Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Council of Europe's decision-making body comprisiong the Foreign Affairs Ministers of the member states, in collaboration with the Parliamentary Assembly it is the guardian of the Council's fundamental values, and monitors member states' compliance with their undertakings
'Venice Commission' advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent experts of constitutional law and created in 1990 after the fall of the Berlin wall, at a time of urgent need for constitutional assistance in Central and Eastern Europe
2014: 11 April 2014: Russian lawmakers stripped of voting rights at Council of Europe over Russian regime's annexation of Crimea - 6 May: Ukraine dominates Council of Europe meeting, but Russian regime rules out holding a second international meeting in Geneva - 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European court of human rights
2015: 18 March 2015: PACE report highlights Russian orchestration of east Ukraine conflict
2016: 7 January 2016: Council of Europe urges Poland’s president not to sign controversial media law that threatens press freedom - 29 February 2016: 'Venice Commission' publishes a draft opinion on the state of law in Poland, with a warning that democracy might be in peril in the country
April 2016: 15 April 2016: European Council has stressed the need to re-open Crimea to regular monitoring to safeguard the human rights of 2.5 million people - 22 April 2016: The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe calls for release of all prisoners in Donbas, punishment of those responsible
September 2016: 13 September 2016: Ukrainian side may suspend the membership in PACE if the powers of the Russian delegation are recognized, in spite of the illegitimate nature of the elections to the State Duma of Russia on the territory of annexed Crimea, Ukraine says
October 2016: 10 October 2016: The Council of Europe awards its Václav Havel human rights prize to the Iraqi activist Nadia Murad, who was an Islamic State terrorists' captive before becoming the face of a campaign to protect her Yazidi people - 12/13 October 2016: Russia claimed guilty by PACE resolution of aggression and responsible for crimes in occupied Ukrainian territories, also calling 'legal remedies for human rights violations on the Ukrainian territories outside the control of the Ukrainian authorities' - 14 octobre 2016: Un attaché parlementaire turc du Conseil de l'Europe et membre de du parti AKP du président Erdogan a vandalisé une œuvre d'art, une caricature représentant Mahomet avec une bombe à la place du turban, exposée au siège de l'organisation européenne à Strasbourg
January 2017: 27 January 2017: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe condemns Russia for its terrorist activities in Ukraine, as 'the deputies of all PACE political groups, except the united left, have condemned the actions of the Russian special services aiming to assassinate member of the Parliament of Ukraine Anton Gerashchenko'
April 2017: 26 April 2017: Pace votes to restart monitoring Turkey putting the country back on a watchlist over 'serious concerns' about democracy and human rights, a process it had relaxed in 2004, putting pressure on the EU to reassess relations with Ankara
October 2017: 11 October 2017: PACE passes resolution to lift political sanctions against Russian regime, rejecting amendments proposed by the Ukrainian delegation

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE - Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media - OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
OSCE ministerial council meetings
2013: 20th OSCE Ministerial Council in Kyiv, Ukraine, 5/6 December 2013 - 5 décembre 2013: Lors du sommet à Kiev de l'OSCE Didier Burkhalter a appelé l'Ukraine à surmonter les divisions Est-Ouest et à respecter les manifestants
2014: 21 March 2014: OSCE to send observers to Ukraine as quickly as possible, Russian Putin regime says no Crimea mandate - 18 April: Ukraine OSCE peacemakers say they need more help and another 350 monitors to make Geneva deal work - 22 April: OSCE mission arrives in Sloviansk - 22 April: Antiterrorist center in Ukraine's east ensures work of OSCE mission - 24 April: OSCE chief monitor Apakan concerned about escalating violence in Donetsk region - 24 April: OSCE's Guldimann says Geneva accords helped stop escalation, confirming plans to increase the OSCE mission up to 500 monitors - 25 April: Ponomarev's pro-Russian separatists, who captured Vice journalist Simon Ostrovsky, hold OSCE military observers captive after their bus was seized - 3 May: All OSCE observers captured in Sloviansk released through joint efforts, FM Deshchytsia says adding that terrorists there are listening only to Russia - 7 May: At a meeting with OSCE Chairman Didier Burkhalter in Moscow, Putin calls on Ukrainian separatists to reschedule May 11 'referendum', adding that presidential elections in Ukraine, scheduled for May 25, are a step in the right direction - 27 May: The OSCE SMM loses contact with monitors near the city of Donetsk - 29 May: Pro-Russian separatists in Slovyansk claim to be holding four OSCE observers - 30 May: A second group of 5 OSCE observers went missing a day after pro-Russian separatists announced they were holding a four-member team of OSCE monitors - 12 June: OSCE wants to participate in negotiations with terrorists, as there is still no contact with kidnapped groups of observers in southeastern Ukraine - 13 June: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 27 June: Release from captivity of OSCE group of four observers confirmed but Luhansk-based team has not yet been released - 29 June: Pro-Russia separatists release second Ukraine OSCE monitor group - Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine since June 2014
July-December 2014: 3 July: Trilateral contact group proposed to resume before July 5 to reach a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine, controlled by OSCE observers - 1 August: Trilateral contact group in Minsk agree on release of hostages in eastern Ukraine - 10 September: Donetsk region waiting for 250 more OSCE observers - 20 September: Memorandum on ceasefire in Donbas signed in Minsk, concerning a security zone and the withdrawal of all foreign mercenaries - 4 October: OSCE observers admit to carrying armed pro-Russian separatists in their car - 8 October: OSCE mission in eastern Ukraine expanded to 92 people - 27 October: OSCE praises democratic manner of elections and firmness of Ukrainians - 31 October: OSCE outraged at Russian actor Porechenkov's shooting in Donetsk at the positions of Ukrainian forces in a helmet with the inscription 'Press' - 8 December 2014: Ukrainian president Poroshenko urges OSCE to promote ceasefire in Donbas tomorrow - 26 December: Following the recent meeting in Minsk, OSCE vows to help deliver Ukrainian humanitarian aid to Donbas - 31 December: After meeting in Luhansk including OSCE no statements made
2015: 5 January 2015: OSCE doubles its mission in Donbas - 13 January: Situation in Donbas gets worse, OSCE says - 31 January: Situation in Donbas deteriorates rapidly impacting civilians, OSCE says - 1 February: OSCE blames pro-Russian separatists for failed Ukraine talks in Minsk - 15 February: Russian-backed militants refuse to allow monitors from the OSCE to reach the encircled town of Debaltseve after a ceasefire took effect on Sunday - 17 February: OSCE reports ceasefire is not holding fully in Donetsk city, Debaltseve and Luhansk - 17 February: OSCE observers not allowed inspecting 19 trucks from the so-called Russian 'humanitarian convoy' in Luhansk - 18 February: OSCE calls on Russian-backed militants to immediately stop offensive - 7 March: OSCE urged to double the number of its observers in Ukraine to 1,000 - 19 March: Poroshenko's peace plan should be used along with Minsk accords, OSCE says - 26 March: OSCE reported continuing clashes near the village of Shyrokyne east from Mariupol - 9 April: OSCE mission ascertains that Ukrainian side withdraws heavy weapons at all visited locations - 30 April: Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine starts video conference, as Ukraine's Leonid Kuchma wants Minsk subgroups to start work soon - 4 May: Trilateral contact group may meet in Minsk on May 6 - 5 May: OSCE records nearly 700 explosions, using heavy mortars and machine guns, artillery and tanks, near Donetsk airport and Shyrokyne village during the past weekend - 6 May: The leaders of the so-called 'DPR' and the 'LPR' Zakharchenko and Plotnytsky have decided not to take part in the Trilateral Contact Group meeting in Minsk on 6 May - 7 May: In Minsk Trilateral Contact Group agreed to send observers from each subgroup to the contact line in Donbas - 7 May: OSCE observers have no access to checkpoints on border with Russia, also claiming that use of Grad multiple rocket launcher systems by Russian-backed militants is alarming - 8 May: Tripartite Contact Group agrees on four fundamental issues of further cooperation, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 7 August: The Trilateral Contact Group on settlement of the situation in Donbas will meet in Minsk on 26 August, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 9 August: Four OSCE cars destroyed in arson attack in militant-occupied Donetsk overnight - 13 August: OSCE at the Russian checkpoints of Gukovo and Donetsk reports that dumper trucks continue transporting coal from Donbas to Russia - 26 August 2015: Ukraine and representatives of Russian-led militant groups have tentatively agreed to abide by the ceasefire agreed in February starting on the beginning of the school year September 1 - 9 September: Trilateral Contact Group's working group on political issues will meet in Minsk on September 15-16, OSCE representative Martin Sajdik says - 24 September: The risk of new escalation in Donbas remains, OSCE says, as too many weapons remain in the territory - 30 September: Ukraine contact group agrees to pullback more weapons from the front line in Donbas, leaving Ukraine still not in control of its territory and border with Russia, as a 40th Russian truck convoy arrives in east Ukraine - 16 October 2015: British delegation to the OSCE requests the Russian delegation to explain the presence of Russian Buratino Multiple Rocket Launcher in militant-controlled area in Donbas - 19 November: The ceasefire situation in Ukraine's two war-torn regions remains unstable, according to OSCE
2016: 2 February 2016: Ukraine's military spokesmen accuse OSCE monitors of failing to respond to the increased number Russian-backed militant attacks - 22 March 2016: OSCE human rights chief raises concerns over Russian regime's Savchenko verdict, calling for release to Ukraine - 7 May 2016: OSCE monitors in Ukraine report the presence of seven T-72 tanks in the militant-occupied city of Luhansk, which is a violation of Minsk agreement - 11 May: Militant 'parades' in occupied territories in eastern Ukraine violate Minsk deal, OSCE says - 20 May: OSCE ready to send an armed police mission to help conduct elections in eastern Ukraine - 28 May: OSCE monitors to Ukraine's Ertugrul Apakan condemns violence against watchdog in east, after monitors came under fire and had a drone shot down - 2 June: Russian-backed separatists block OSCE from occupied Luhansk in eastern Ukraine - 2 June: OSCE's Martin Sajdik expresses concern about the shelling of the Special Monitoring Mission representatives working in Donbas and ceasefire violations which led to the military and civilian casualties - 25 June 2016: Monitors of the OSCE in Donbas are facing systemic obstacles to prevent them from carrying out their duties, which mostly occur in the areas not controlled by the Ukrainian authorities, OSCE says - 4 July 2016: OSCE slams Russia's violations of human rights in Crimea - 4 August 2016: OSCE's Hug says, that Minsk contact group ignores numerous ceasefire violations, promoting unpunishment - 16 September 2016: Minsk Group fails to agree on withdrawal of forces in Donbas as Ukraine categorically opposes the alteration of the demarcation line and changing Mink agreements to satisfy Russian proxies - 19 October 2016: OSCE monitor says most of restrictions are in separatist-held areas of eastern Ukraine, adding that 'impunity for violations and interference in the OSCE mandate is an open invitation to commit more', ahead of 'Normandy Four' meeting in Berlin to discuss the Minsk agreements - 11 November 2016: The conflict in eastern Ukraine is on the brink of a major escalation as the security situation deteriorated sharply over the past week, the OSCE warns - 18 November 2016: Triliteral contact group in Minsk discusses only modalities of the probable election in Russia-occupied Donbas, not a certain draft bill on it, Verkhovna Rada's Iryna Herashenko says, as OSCE warns about a possible attack on Mariupol, also reporting the biggest number of ceasefire violations along the frontline in Donbas in 2016 - 2 December 2016: Russia's deliberate escalation in Donbas makes Minsk ineffective, USA Ambassador Baer says
July 2017: 9 July 2017: OSCE PA condemns Russian aggression in Ukraine
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Ukraine reports three attacks on OSCE drones in Russian-occupied Donbas since Easter truce, one of the drones was downed near Miusynsk

Crime in Europe
Racism in Europe: Racism in Europe - 2015 Signatory countries of the United Nations 'International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination'
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1884 German colonial rule in Africa, forced labour under German rule during 1939-1945 World War II and German politics of extermination and starvation: 1884-1914 German colonial rule in Africa was an expression of nationalism highlighting racist views of mankind and characterized by the use of repressive violence - Forced labour under German rule during World War II - Extermination through labour - 'Hunger Plan' developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food entailing the death by starvation of millions of Slavs following the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union
2001 Durban conference acknowledgement of the slave trade and slavery as crime against humanity: 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
Since 2001/2006 France's recognition of slavery as a crime against humanity: On 10 May 2001, the French Senate adopted a law that recognized the trade of slaves as a crime against humanity, in 2006 May 10 was held to be a national date of commemoration of the abolition of slavery, a legislation resulting from Christiane Taubira's lifelong efforts to promote the historical and cultural heritage of French overseas territories
Antisemitism in Europe: Antisemitism in Europe - Timeline of antisemitism - Holocaust denial in the European Union
Since the Middle Ages: Anti-Semitism in Europe became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
15th-19th century 'Limpieza de sangre': 15th-19th century 'Limpieza de sangre' racist legislation, referred to those who were considered pure 'Old Christians', without recent Muslim or Jewish ancestors, or within the context of the empire (New Spain and Portuguese India) usually to those without ancestry from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Asia, or Africa
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834
Nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first century: History of antisemitism in the 19th, 20th and 21th century
Antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe 1938-1945: Since the middle ages antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe 1938-1945 - The Holocaust in Germany, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis, also outside Europe under Axis occupation, in North Africa's 'Italian Libya', in Tunisia under Vichy-France rule etc. - The Holocaust by country
Since 1939 Jewish Archive in Francoist Spain: Jewish Archive in Francoist Spain 1939-1975 - instructions of the Francoist 'Directorate of General Security' the provincial governors of Spain assembled records of all Jews who lived in Spain, whether or not they were Spanish, recording 6,000 Jews living in Spain, that were handed to Heinrich Himmler's SS in Germany in 1941 and were included in Adolf Eichmann's Jewish Population Census, tabled at the Wannsee Conference, chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, in January 1942
Since 1938 Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe: Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe - Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe by country
2014/2015: 22 July 2014: After anti-Semitic protests and violence in their countries over the conflict in Gaza three EU foreign ministers pledge to fight 'acts and statements that cross the line to anti-Semitism' - 26 July 2014: European anti-Semitism is focus as Jewish groups, senators meet in Washington - 7 August 2014: Antisemitism on rise across Europe as attacks go beyond Israel-Palestinian conflict, experts say - 16 January 2015: European Jewish Congress demands that the EU ramp up it’s efforts to protect its Jewish citizens - 25 January 2015: Jewish leaders call for Europe-wide legislation outlawing antisemitism - 27 January 2015: Steven Spielberg raises alarm on persistent and surged anti-Semitism in Krakow speech
April 2018: 11 April 2018: Feelings of insecurity are widespread among European Jews as a result of the resurgence of the extreme right, a heated anti-Zionist discourse on the left and radical Islam, according to a global study of antisemitism
May 2018: 14 May 2018: After the German Nazis adopted the phrase 'The Jews are our misfortune', in 2018 a banner with the colors of the Israeli flag that said 'The state Israel is our misfortune' was held by neo-Nazis in Dortmund, expressing their alleged solidarity with Palestinians by waving PLO flags against both the opening of the USA embassy in Jerusalem and the founding of the State of Israel, as EU foreign policy chief appears to side with anti-Semitic Iranian regime
30 May 2018: In Italy, poll indicates, 25% 'unwilling’ to have a Jew in the family, in Britain 23%, in Austria 21%, in Germany 19%, and the mostly Catholic nations of Spain, Portugal and Ireland also had high non-acceptance levels at 13, 18 and 18 percent, respectively
Nationalism and fascism in Europe: Nationalism in Europe - Nationalist movements in Europe - White nationalism in Europe - White supremacy in Europe - Fascism in Europe - Nazi parties by country
20th-century National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany and collaborating states: National Socialism, also commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party, Nazi Germany, and collaborating organizations and states - Italian Fascism - Austrofascism - Fascism in Spain
Nationalist, racist and fascist parties and politics in Europe: List of active nationalist parties in Europe - List of nationalist organizations - List of far-right political parties by country - List of fascist movements by country - Right-wing populism and political parties by country - Far-right politics in different countries
Since 1945 white nationalist, racist and fascist organizations in Germany: List of white nationalist organizations in Germany - Neo-Nazism in Germany and Europe
Since 1945 Neo-Nazism in Germany: Neo-Nazism in Germany - Neo-Nazism by continent
Neo-Nazism in Europe: Neo-Nazism in Europe
2004-2009 'European National Front': 2004-2009 'European National Front' coordinating structure of European nationalist parties, including National Democratic Party of Germany
2015: 21 March 2015: EU far-right parties set to gather in St. Petersburg for Russian forum, as Russian regime courts EU far-right, neo-Nazi movements
2016: 24 June 2016: UK vote sparks EU referendum demands of anti-immigration and racist parties
2017: 21 January 2017: Far-right party leaders from France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands meet in the German city of Koblenz on Saturday to present their vision for Europe that would dismantle the European Union - 4 June 2017: Far right raises £50,000 to target boats on refugee rescue missions in Mediterranean - 7/8 September 2017: Invited by German AfD's von Storch, who called on European border guards to use firearms to deter illegal immigrants, including women and children, and speaking at Berlin's Spandau Citadel British promoter of 'Brexit' Nigel Farage receives a standing ovation from German neo-Nazi linked AfD party, as he whipped up anti-EU sentiment
March 2018: 5 March 2018: Russian networks worked to boost xenophobic and neo-fascist discourse in Italy ahead of elections, according to Spanish newspaper 'El País'
26 March 2018: French to charge two men with anti-Semitic murder of 85-year-old Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll who had managed as a child to evade the notorious 1942 roundup of over 13,000 Jews in Paris during World War II, as fewer than 100 of those who were detained at the so-called Vel d’Hiv cycling track and then sent to the Nazi-Germany's death camps survived - 27 March 2018: Family members of Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death and set on fire in her Paris apartment, told Israeli media she had known one of her assailants, a Muslim neighbor, since he was seven years old, as police admits that Mireille Knoll had previously called police and complained that the neighbor had threatened to kill her
June 2018 Neonazis in Volgograd: 21 June 2018: English football supporters have caused outrage by singing an anti-Semitic song and throwing Nazi salutes in a local pub before England's World Cup match in Volgograd, where more than a million Soviet soldiers died to stop the German assault since 1941, 75 or 77 years ago
June 2018 Nazi Heinrich Himmler's daughter employed by BND: 29 June 2018: Germany’s foreign intelligence service BND employed the daughter of top Nazi Heinrich Himmler in the early 1960s, although she never renounced her father or Nazism, remained active in far-right extremism all her life, fought to defend her father’s reputation and aided in the defense of SS members and Nazi war criminals
Pan-European nationalism: Pan-European nationalism - Nationalisme européen - List of nationalist organizations
Since 2002: 'Le Bloc identitaire – Le mouvement social européen' ist ein Zusammenschluss von regionalen Gruppen in Frankreich und benachbarten frankophonen Regionen wie der Romandie und der Wallonie seit 2002, um eine angebliche 'europäische Identität' gegen kulturelle 'Überfremdung' etwa durch muslimische Einwanderung zu verteidigen
'Mouvance identitaire' en Europe, des groupes qui se proclament également identitaires, tels que l'Identitäre Bewegung en Allemagne, partiellement reliée à 'Pegida', et en Autriche, qui se réclame de la mouvance identitaire, ou 'Nordiska Förbundet' en Scandinavie, 'Causa Identitária' au Portugal, 'l’Union Nationaliste & Identitaire Suisse', Génération Identitaires Flandre et Mouvement Nation en Belgique, en Italie
Use of chemical weapons in Europe, since 1899 prohibited under the Hague Convention: Use of chemical weapons by country and in Europe, since 1899 prohibited under the Hague Convention
Since 1914 Germany's use of chemical weapons: Chemical warfare, following Germany's earliest uses of chemical weapons in October 1914, when shells containing the irritant dianisidine chlorosulfonate were fired at British troops near Neuve-Chapelle in France
Since 1939 during World War II use of poison gas by Nazi Germany: Since 1939 during World War II millions of Jews and other victims were gassed by Nazi Germany with carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide (including Zyklon B), remaining the deadliest use of poison gas in history
March 2018 'novichok' poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal: 4 March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal with a 'novichok' nerve agent
June 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings: 30 June 2018 Amesbury poisonings with a 'novichok' nerve agent of the same kind used in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury
September 2018: 5/6 September 2018: Two Russian nationals Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov named and charged by British police and prosecutors over the novichok poisoning of Sergei and Julia Skripal in March in Salisbury, as Britain to lay out case against Russian regime at UN with PM Theresa May saying suspects were GRU officers, pointing to Putin, explicitly blamed by security minister Ben Wallace - 6 September 2018: Russia has come under a sustained barrage of almost universal condemnation as nations lined up at the UN security council to decry its role in the Salisbury chemical weapons attacks - 7 September 2018: Sergei Skripal, poisoned in Britain with 'novichok' nerve agent, appears to have been working in recent years with intelligence officers in Spain, a country locked in a pitched battle with Russian organized crime groups, some with ties to the Russian government
Terrorism in Europe and in the EU: Terrorism in Europe - Terrorism in the European Union - Reactions to terrorist attacks
Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe: Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe - Nationalist terrorism in Europe - Far-right politics in different countries - Terrorism in Europe by country
Islamic terrorism in Europe 2014–present
March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks: 11-22 March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks committed by Mohammed Mera, targeting French Army soldiers and children and a teacher from a Jewish school in the cities of Montauban and Toulouse
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: 24 May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo and Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket terror attack in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket siege and terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris
International reactions to the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting - 17 January 2015: Europe on high alert following anti-terror raids and arrests of suspected Islamist militants - 19 January: Manhunts, death threats as Europe on high terror alert
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 13/14 novembre 2015: Sept attaques à Paris font plus d'une centaine de morts - 13/14 novembre 2015: Attentats du 13 novembre 2015 en Île-de-France, réactions internationales
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids
14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when armed Tunisian Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples
December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack: 19 December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack
March 2017: 22 March 2017 terrorist attack on Westminster Bridge, in Parliament Square and within the grounds of the Palace of Westminster in central London
April 2017: Attentat du 20 avril 2017, sur l'avenue des Champs-Élysées à Paris Karim Cheurfi, né le 31 décembre 1977 à Livry-Gargan, armé d'une kalachnikov tire sur un fourgon de policiers, tuant un de ces derniers en blessant deux autres et touchant une passante, avant d'être abattu
May 2017: 22 May 2017 Manchester Arena bombing - 23 May 2017: More than twenty people, including children, were killed and dozens injured when a man detonated a bomb at a pop concert by USA's Ariana Grande
June 2017: 3 June 2017 London attacks - 4 June 2017: The three assailants who killed seven people and injured over 40 others, reportedly shouting 'this is for Allah', in a terror attack were shot dead by British police within eight minutes of the stabbing and car-ramming spree in London, UK's general election campaigning suspended
August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack: 17 August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack, when a van was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas, killing 13 and injuring at least 100 - Domestic and international reactions to the 2017 Barcelona attack
Corruption in Europe: Corruption in Europe - Perception of corruption in Europe
2015: 15 April 2015: Lack of control over lobbyists threatens to undermine European democracies, Transparency International says calling for tight new regulation
2016: 22 April 2016: The Isle of Man and Gibraltar among a group of 22 jurisdictions that signed up to a new information-sharing initiative of Europe’s five largest economies Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Spain in response to 'Panama Papers' revelations, to tackle criminals that use corporate secrecy to hide corruption, money laundering and tax evasion
EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report: EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report - 3 February 2014: The true cost of corruption in the EU is at least 120bn euros annually, the Home Affairs Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom says presenting the first EU-wide anti-corruption report
Corruption in the Media: Overview of Corruption in the Media - 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says - 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
White collar crime, tax evasion, tax avoidance, money laundering, fraud etc. in Europe: Fraud in the European Union - White-collar criminals by nationality
2013: 4 February 2013: European police said Monday that they had uncovered a vast criminal network involved in fixing hundreds of matches, including Champions League and World Cup qualifiers - 2013 European horse meat contamination scandal - 21 février 2013: La viande chevaline en lieu et place du bœuf déjà décelée en 2003, pour Eurofins le scandale actuel n’est pas une surprise
2015: 20 May 2015: Regulators announce penalties against British Barclays, JP Morgan, Citigroup, Royal Bank of Scotland, Switzerland's UBS and USA's Bank of America Merrill Lynch, called 'the cartel', for manipulating the foreign exchange markets 2007-2013
2016: 18 August 2016: The President of European Olympic Committees and Olympic Committee of Ireland Patrick Hickey arrested for illegal tickets sale in Rio de Janeiro, at least six more persons could be involved in the plot
July 2017: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors
September 2018: 20 September 2018: The European commission has described the €200bn money-laundering case at Denmark’s Danske Bank as 'the biggest scandal' in Europe, after Danske Bank's Borgen has resigned admitting that the vast majority of €200bn flowing through its Estonian branch was money-laundered cash flowing illegally out of Russia, the UK and the British Virgin Islands
Organized crime in Europe: Organized crime groups in Europe - Gangs in Europe - Organized crime by nation - People murdered by organized crime
2015: 7 August 2015: Five men charged with murder of 200 migrants in Mediterranean who died when the boat they were travelling to Europe on capsized
2017: 16 October 2017 Murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia
2018: 22/25 February 2018 Murder of Ján Kuciak - 9 March 2018: Protests in Slovakia and Europe against sleaze in public life following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak, calling for foreign experts to join the team investigating the killings
European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes: European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes - Global surveillance can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century and the United Kingdom/USA Agreement, later expanded to create the 'Five Eyes alliance' - Global surveillance disclosures 2013–present
2015: 30 April 2015: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker expects that German government gets to the bottom of Brussels spy scandal after Germany reportedly snooped on the EU and France at Washington's behest
Police brutality and torture in Europe: Police brutality in Europe - Torture in Europe
2016: 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time
Women's rights and abuse of women in Europe: Women in Europe - Women's rights in Europe - 6 March 2014: FRA report reveals extensive abuse of women in European Union
Human trafficking in Europe: Human trafficking in Europe - Human trafficking by country

Law in Europe: Law in Europe and by country
Courts in Europe: Courts in Europe
Law enforcement in Europe: Law enforcement in Europe - Law enforcement agencies in Europe
Europol: Since 1998 Europol, the law enforcement agency of the EU to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states - Since 2002 European Confederation of Police, the umbrella organization of 33 trade unions from 26 European countries, which represent a total of more than 500,000 police officers, as its goals include enhancing the efficiency of police work under democratic control, the creation of norms for the qualifications of police employees, the preservation of the civil status of police officers, and the prevention of the privatization of police duties - Since 2002 Eurojust, an agency of the EU dealing with judicial co-operation in criminal matters among agencies of the member states, seated in The Hague

Environment of Europe: Environment of Europe - Environment of the European Union
Air pollution in the EU: Air pollution in the European Union - Air quality and EU legislation
September 2018: 11 September 2018: Air pollution is now 'the biggest environmental risk' to public health in Europe but governments are failing to adequately deal with the crisis, the EU Court of Auditors has found
Climate and climate change in Europe: Climate of Europe - Climate change in Europe
2017: 4 August 2017: Deaths from weather disasters could increase 50-fold in Europe by the start of the next century if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or protect citizens, researchers are warning
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply and sanitation in the European Union
August 2018: 2 August 2018: Freshwater fish are suffocating in rivers across Europe during the heatwave
Environmental issues by country: Environmental issues by country
Since 2014 diesel emissions scandal: Since 2014 International diesel emissions scandal, raising awareness over the high levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide range of carmakers, including BMW, Citroen, Fiat, Ford, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes, Peugeot, Renault, Volkswagen group and Volvo - 28 February 2018: 'Dieselgate' - a timeline of Germany's car emissions fraud scandal
2016: 8 December 2016: Amid mounting frustration in Brussels over what EU officials see as governments colluding with the powerful car industry, the European Commission is wielding its biggest available stick in an attempt to force nations to clamp down on diesel cars spewing health-harming nitrogen oxide pollution
2017: 15 May 2017: The global human health impact of the diesel emissions scandal has been revealed by new research showing a minimum of 38,000 people a year die early due to the failure of diesel vehicles to meet official limits in real driving conditions, as most of the deaths are in Europe, where highly polluting cars are the main culprit, and in China and India
February 2018: 22 February 2018: 'We can't just stop breathing', a global scandal, made in Germany
May 2018: 4 May 2018: Former VW boss Winterkorn can avoid USA jail by staying in Germany, after indictment says that Winterkorn conspired with other VW employees to defraud the USA, commit wire fraud, and violate the country's Clean Air Act - 17 May 2018: The European Commission sent six countries, including Germany, France and the UK, to Europe’s highest court ECJ for breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits and for failing to meet EU air quality standards, in a long-running process of crimes, denials and shady tricks
September 2018: 17 September 2018: Three years after the Dieselgate scandal erupted, number of highly polluting diesel vehicles pumping out toxic emissions on Europe’s streets still growing and has risen to 43 million - 19 September 2018: EU probes German car makers including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen and Audi for suspected collusion to cheat emission tests
Waste in Europe: Waste in Europe - Waste in the European Union
Food waste in the European Union: Food waste in the European Union
2016: 13 July 2016: Action to cut food waste gains momentum across Europe, after France’s ban on supermarkets throwing away unwanted food has led to greater calls for laws on food waste
Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
2017 Egg contamination scandal: July/August 2017 Egg contamination scandal in EU's Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - 3 August 2017: Millions of eggs are being recalled from shops and warehouses in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium after they were found to contain high levels of a toxic insecticide banned from use in the production of food for human consumption - 12 August 2017: Scandal involving eggs contaminated with insecticide spread to 15 EU countries, Switzerland and as far away as Hong Kong, as the European Commission calls for a special meeting on the growing crisis
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
Environmental policy of the European Union: Environmental policy of the European Union
2000: December 2000 Water Framework Directive, EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies
2015: 28 October 2015: EU caves in to auto industry pressure for weak emissions limits and test procedure, which will allow car manufactures to emit more than twice legal limit of NOx
2017: 6 January 2016: New European data reveal that modern diesel cars produce 10 times more toxic air pollution than heavy trucks and buses, due to the much stricter testing applied to large vehicles in the EU, according to the researchers behind the report
May 2018: 17 May 2018: Paris, Brussels, Madrid, suffering from high levels of dangerous nitrogen oxides emmissions caused in part by diesel vehicles, seek to annul EU legislation that eased car emmission limits
European Climate Change Programme: European Climate Change Programme

Natural disasters in Europe
European windstorms: European windstorms
2007 Kyrill storm: Kyrill (storm) 2007
2013 St. Jude storm, Cyclone Bodil and Orkan Dirk: St. Jude storm October 2013 - Cyclone Bodil December 2013 - 5 December 2013: European storm turns deadly, threatens huge tidal surge - Orkan Dirk 23. - 25. Dezember 2013
October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia: October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia
October 2017 storm Herwart: Oktober 2017 Sturmtief Herwart - 30 October 2017: At least six people have died in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic as a result of storm Herwart, while fallen trees and damage to railway lines have left thousands of travellers stranded
2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season: 2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season - January 2018 Storm Eleanor
2017–2018 Western Europe windstorm season: 2017–2018 Western Europe windstorm season - 3 janvier 2018: La tempête Eleanor (Burglind), quatrième de la saison, a causé plusieurs accidents, tuant une personne en France et perturbant le trafic - 18. Januar 2018 Sturmtief Friederike - 19 January 2018: Deadly gales halt trains and flights across north-west Europe
Floods in Europe: Floods in Europe
2002 European floods: 2002 European floods
2005 European floods: 2005 European floods
2009 European floods: 2009 European floods
2010 Central European floods: 2010 Central European floods
2011 European floods: 2011 European floods
2013 European floods: 2013 European floods - 3 juin 2013: Des inondations et des glissements de terrain provoqués par des pluies diluviennes dans plusieurs pays d'Europe ont fait quatre morts et au moins huit disparus, et des centaines de personnes ont été évacuées
May 2014 Southeast Europe floods: May 2014 Southeast Europe floods, causing over 2,000 landslides across the Balkan region and spreading damage across many towns and villages
May/June 2016 European floods: May/June 2016 extreme flooding began after several days of heavy rain in central Europe, mostly Germany and France, but also Austria, Belgium, Romania, and Moldova
October 2016 mediterranean floods: 11 October 2018: The search continues for missing people following flash flooding events in Spain, Italy, and France
Heat waves in Europe: Heat waves in Europe
2003 European heat wave: 2003 European heat wave
2006 European heat wave: 2006 European heat wave
2017 European heat wave: Hitze und Unwetter in Europa 2017 - 2 August 2017: Alert in Europe over rising temperatures, with more than 40 degrees in some regions
2018 European heat waves: 2018 European drought and heat wave is a period of unusually hot weather that has led to record-breaking temperatures and wildfires in many parts of Europe during the spring and summer of 2018, part of a larger heat wave affecting the northern hemisphere - 27 July 2018: The heatwave searing northern Europe was made more than twice as likely by climate change, according to scientists - 3 août 2018: La canicule tue deux personnes en Espagne, un ouvrier d'origine nigériane, qui travaillait sur un chantier d'autoroute près de Murcie, et un senior qui entretenait son jardin potager à Murcie - 6 August 2018: Heat kills thousands of fish in River Rhine, as Europe is in the throes of a heat wave that is impacting life in many different ways - 6 August 2018: Swiss aid drought-hit farmers, pull dead fish from Rhine
Wildfires in Europe: Wildfires in Europe
2017: 18 juillet 2017: De violents incendies de forêt font rage depuis plusieurs jours dans le sud de l'Europe, notamment au Portugal, en France, en Italie et en Croatie où les flammes ont atteint la banlieue de Split, la deuxième ville du pays
Cold waves in Europe: Cold waves in Europe
Early 2012 European cold wave: Early 2012 European cold wave
January 2017 European cold wave: January 2017 European cold wave - 8 January 2017: Heavy snowfall and below-freezing temperatures cause death and chaos across Europe - 11 January 2017: Cold snap in large parts of Europe causes hardship especially among migrants, the homeless and the elderly
2018 European cold wave: 28 février 2018: La vague de froid qui s'est abattue ces derniers jours sur l'Europe avait fait une quarantaine de morts, dont de nombreux sans-abri
Earthquakes in Europe: Earthquakes in Europe
Earthquakes in Greece
Earthquakes in Italy - 2009 L'Aquila earthquake - 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
Earthquakes in Russia
Earthquakes in Spain - 2011 Lorca earthquake
Earthquakes in Yugoslavia




European Union: European Union
Treaties and law of the European Union: Treaties of the European Union - European Union law
1992 Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, led to the creation of the single European currency, and has been amended by the treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon
2004 Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 but was replaced by the Treaty of Lisbon following the French European Constitution referendum in 2005 and the Dutch European Constitution referendum in 2005
Common values of the European Union's member states: Common values of the European Union's member states are human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law, respect for human rights, minority rights, free market, member states support the principles of pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity, equality of the sexes
Since 2007/2009 Treaty of Lisbon amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union - Since 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Citizenship of the European Union: Citizenship of the European Union - EU's freedom of movement for workers - European Union's internal market
2015: 15 November 2015: Calls across Europe for tightening of borders grow louder after Paris Islamic State's terror attacks

Human rights in Europe and in the European Union - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country
2015/2016: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' European Union report examining migration and asylum, discrimination and intolerance, counterterrorism, Croatia, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK
European Convention on Human Rights and Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Since 1950/1953 European Convention on Human Rights, international treaty to respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe - Since 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, its legal status was uncertain until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009
European Court of Human Rights: European Court of Human Rights
Asylum and right of asylum in the European Union: Asylum in the European Union - Right of asylum in the European Union - European Asylum Curriculum EAC is an EU Member State initiative intending to enhance the capacity and quality of the European asylum process as well as to strengthen practical cooperation among the European asylum/immigration systems - European Asylum Support Office, agency to strengthen EU Member States practical cooperation on asylum, enhance the implementation of the Common European Asylum System CEAS, and support Member States under particular pressure - Since 1990 Dublin Regulation, a EU law that determines the EU Member State responsible to examine an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention and the EU Qualification Directive, within the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response' November 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk - 21 September 2015: As ministers of EU member states, divided over how to distribute the influx of refugees, are meeting for more talks, at least 13 refugees drowned off the coast of Turkey, the latest to perish as they try to escape brutal conflicts, known by Europeans and others since many years - 3 November 2015: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands more refugees to Europe, as UNHCR reports 30% in increase in refugees since Russia began bombing Syria - 14 November 2015: Islamic State's terror attacks in Paris have increased fears amongst the refugees, many fleeing from Islamic State terrorists in Iraq and Syria and Assad's, Russia's and Iran's war crimes, that more borders will shut and that they will not be welcomed so readily by European communities - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
2016: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 18 June 2016: MSF rejects EU funding in protest at the way Europe has responded to the refugee crisis - 30 August 2016: Tens of thousands migrate through Balkans since route declared shut in springtime - 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time

Elections to the European Parliament
May 2014 European Parliament election: European Parliament election 22–25 May 2014 - 27 May 2014: Far-right parties sweeping EU vote should serve as warning sign
European Parliament: European Parliament
2013: 6 February 2013: After catches have declined from 8.07 million tonnes in 1995 to just 4.94 million tons in 2010, the EU parliament has pushed for a drastic reform of fishing policy in a landmark vote seeking to end decades of overfishing - 16 avril 2013: Le Parlement européen freine le plan de lutte de l'UE contre le réchauffement climatique - 23 octobre: En réaction aux révélations d'espionnage le Parlement européen demande la suspension d'un accord avec les USA sur les données bancaires
2014: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies - 18 September: In a resolution the European Parliament urges EU member states to cancel South Stream agreement and disconnect Russian banks, reaffirming also the prospect of Ukraine as a EU member - 27 November: EU parliament approves resolution calling on the EU to consider ordering search engines to separate their commercial services from their businesses
2015: 10 March: EU Parliament calls in fraud squad over National Front suspicions - 26 March: European Parliament has overwhelmingly voted for providing Ukraine with EUR 1.8 bln in macro-financial aid - 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I, despite undermining by German SPD-Schulz - 9 June 2015: MEPs advocate for extension and strengthening of sanctions against Russia during the debate on EU-Russia relations - 10 June: European Parliament's TTIP vote, and even debate over controversial dispute mechanism allowing big companies to bypass national courts, postponed by a margin of just two votes - 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive' - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision
2016: 28 April 2016: European MPs urge governments to carry out airdrops of food and medicines to relieve starving Syrian civilians trapped in areas that are besieged by Assad’s forces - 27 September 2016: Investigative journalists discuss 'Panama papers' in EU Parliament as EU seeks to develop plans to tackle widespread tax abuse through anonymous offshore companies - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 27 October/13 December 2016: Yazidi women, who escaped Islamic State terrorists' slavery and now advocate Yazidi community rights, win Sakharov prize and will receive the price on 13 December at noon in Strasbourg
2017: 18 January 2017: Berlusconi ally Tajani elected head of European parliament, following pact with Guy Verhofstadt’s liberals and cements centre-right’s dominance of top EU jobs - 28 février 2017: Une commission du Parlement européen a approuvé mardi un rapport d'enquête sur le scandale des moteurs diesel truqués de Volkswagen, qui dénonce 'la mauvaise gestion' de la Commission et des Etats membres après le scandale - 14 March: Polish MEP who said women must earn less than men because they are weaker, smaller and less intelligent has been handed unprecedented penalties by the European parliament - 4 July 2017: Jean-Claude Juncker accuses MEPs of failing to show respect for a small country describing the European parliament as ridiculous after only a few dozen MEPs turned up to a debate dedicated to assessing Malta’s six months in the EU presidency chair, also overshadowing the debate on the refugee and migrant crisis since 2014, as the EU still struggles in 2017 to forge a common response to the thousands and thousands of people arriving from north Africa and the Middle East or dying in the Mediterranean
2018: 27 March 2018: Members of European parliament raise concerns about cronyism and conflicts of interest at hiring of Juncker successor, as Eurosceptics already seized on the affair

European Commission and Politics of the European Union
2012: 3 October 2012: EU nuclear reactors need repair according to a leaked draft-report by the European Commission - 22 November 2012: EU nations face tough budget summit - 23 November: EU leaders warn budget deal far off - 13 décembre: Accord à l'arrachée sur la supervision des banques européennes
2013: 8 February 2013: EU leaders in Brussels edged towards a 2014-2020 budget deal that would fix the bloc's ceiling for overall spending at €960 billion - 15 March 2013: EU summit begins amid anti-austerity protests - 14 mai: Réunion des Européens pour avancer sur l'évasion fiscale - 30 May: The European Commission gives major economies France and Spain extra time to trim their deficits as it laid down economic targets - 28 juin: L'UE veux concentrer sur 2014 et 2015 6 milliards d'euros de crédits budgétaires, afin de financer un mécanisme garantissant à de jeunes chômeurs de retrouver un emploi, un stage, une formation ou un apprentissage, et approuve le projet de budget 2014-2020 - 24 octobre 2013: Sommet de l'UE dominé par Lampedusa et l'espionnnage américain - 25 octobre: Initiative franco-allemande pour réglementer le renseignement - 25 octobre: Face à l'immigration aucune précision de l'UE n'est toutefois prévue avant juin 2014 - 8 November: EU executive backs trade chief caught in tax-fraud case - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments - 4 December: EU fines eight banks record 1.7 bn euros for rate fixing - 19 December: EU agrees on banking union ahead of summit
2014: 3 February 2014: Corruption in Europe costs the EU economy at least 120bn euros annually, the European Commission says - 28 May: After European Parliament election EU leaders agree to review priorities to win back public support - 28 June: EU promised to address Britain's concerns about the future of the EU after nominating Jean-Claude Juncker as the next European Commission president - 15 July: Jean-Claude Juncker elected European Commission president - 24 October: EU agrees to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and to 27% targets for renewable energy market share and increase in energy efficiency improvement - 24 October: EU finance ministers are to convene an emergency meeting after the disclosure of a demand for some countries to contribute billions more to the EU budget - 19 December: EU summit backs an investment plan aimed at kickstarting Europe's stalling economy, decision of new sanctions against Russia over its annexation of the Crimea reportedly not taken
2015: 9 March 2015: EU chief Juncker plans European army saying that 'with its own army, Europe could react more credibly to the threat to peace in a member state or in a neighbouring state' - 23 April 2015: EU to restore rescue operations after latest Mediterranean migrant boat disasters - 23 April: EU summit to offer resettlement to only 5,000 refugees - 23 April: Rights group condemns proposed EU refugees plan as 'totally inadequate' - 5 May 2015: Britain should get a fair deal in the EU but cannot impose its agenda on the bloc's other 27 members, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker answers after UK's Cameron has said he wants to be able to limit an influx of people from other EU states to Britain - 19 May: EU foreign ministers approve naval force to tackle people smugglers - 17 June: EU plan for refugee crisis in jeopardy as countries struggle to agree - 18 June: Greece's future in EU at stake as ministers gather for talks - 18/19 June: After eurozone finance ministers talks with Greece's Varoufakis failed, more emergency meetings and an EU emergency summit on Monday announced - 22 June: EU meeting in Brussels as Greece's Tsipras again demands debt relief and markets surge on hopes of last-minute deal - 23 June: Eurozone politicians in Brussels cautiously welcome new reform proposals by Greece as a possible basis for an agreement, saying that there is still a lot of work to be done to reach deal this week - 25 June: No deal reached in Greek debt crisis after another long night of talks, despite creditors' ultimatum, ahead of another crunch eurogroup meeting and then the EU leaders summit tonight - 26 June: Talks between eurozone finance ministers resume on Saturday as Greece has to make its €1.6bn payment to the International Monetary Fund on Tuesday - 30 June: EU's Juncker makes last-minute offer to Greece but Tsipras unmoved - 30 June: Hopes of last-minute deal on decision day for Greek PM Tsipras, as Greece faces deadline for reaching deal with creditors and making €1.6bn IMF payment, otherwise it will lose €7.2bn bailout funds - 6 July: European politicians will meet for crisis talks and the ECB faces a crucial decison over whether to its funding freeze after Greece's referendum 'no' vote - 7 July: Eurozone finance ministers and leaders meet in new efforts to find a common way out of Greek crisis - 8 July: Unless Greek government presents convincing details entailing more austerity as the basis for its third bailout in five years, all 28 national EU leaders are to gather in Brussels on Sunday in emergency session to discuss how to contain the fallout from Greece’s financial collapse - 8 July: After months of Greek government's second-rate theatre Europe has five days to find a shift - 9 July: Greek government seeks new EU loan to avert 'Grexit' and economic collapse, urged to deliver a detailed economic package - 10 July: After it has submitted a package of tough austerity measures Tsipras' government urges MPs to back bailout plan - 11 July: Eurozone creditors meet to discuss latest Greek proposals and to decide, after PM Tsipras received backing from his MPs - 12 July: Eurozone ministers will resume talks on Sunday after failing to reach agreement tonight on Greece’s request for a third bailout - 13 July: After Eurozone agreed that Greece should receive a new aid programme, several national parliaments must give their approval, including the Greek parliament - 16 July: ECB and Eurogroup consider next steps after Greek parliament's 'Yes' vote - 17 July: Eurozone's national votes on the Greek bailout 2015 - 17 July: German MPs debate Greek bailout - 17 July: EU agrees €7bn loan as Germany backs new Greek bailout talks - 15 August: Eurogroup’s approval of a third bailout for Greece means the country’s place in the Eurozone is not under threat, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker says - 19 August: Eurozone finance ministers and ESM agree 86-billion-euro bailout deal for Greece - 9 September 2015: Saying the response to this crisis should be the first priority of the EU, Jean-Claude Juncker gives details of a quota plan to resettle 160,000 refugees in the European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 September: EU interior ministers are gathering in Brussels for emergency talks on how to tackle the mounting refugee crisis a day after Germany reintroduced borders - 15 September: EU ministers can’t agree on what to do with 120,000 refugees, as Czech Republic, Slovakia and others oppose common plans to help desperate people and take strain off Greece, Italy and others - 21 September: Eastern Europe foreign ministers to meet in Luxembourg to discuss international refugee and migrant crisis - 22 September: EU ministers to discuss binding quotas, as Hungarian army given power to block refugees and Central European states resist refugee quotas - 22/23 September: European ministers adopt refugee relocation plan in Brussels - 23 September: EU summit amid resentment over quota deal in refugee crisis - 24 September: EU emergency talks with pledge of hundreds of millions of euros to help transit countries, as European council president Tusk criticises 'open doors and windows' policy - 24 September: EU without common policy on refugee crisis, as some politicians open their mouth widely and border disputes worsen - 15 October: EU summit issues today include Ukraine ceasefire, the refugee and migrant crisis, the economy, climate change, and efforts to support countries like Turkey to tackle refugee crisis - 16 October: EU offers Turkey 'action plan' on migration crisis - 26 October: EU and Balkans agree plan for 100,000 places in reception centres for refugees and a 17-point plan to manage the flow of refugees in the Balkans, including more shelter, border registration and increased naval operations - 20 November: EU ministers agree tighter border checks as Paris death toll rises to 130 - 5 December: Home affairs ministers push forward passenger data changes to store the names and credit card information of all passengers on flights into and out of the EU - 17 December 2015: Migrant crisis tops agenda of final EU summit of 2015
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government - 26 January: Schengen scheme on the brink after Amsterdam EU talks - 18/19 February 2016: EU summit in Brussels without invited Turkey but with special rights demanding UK's Cameron who will 'walk away' from talks if no EU deal - 20 February: Following EU summit deal Cameron takes Brussels plan to cabinet - 2 March: EU's Schengen members urged by European Commission to lift border checks to save passport-free zone - 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation - 7 March: International refugee and migrant crisis summit of EU and Turkey in Brussels - 7/8 March: 'One in, one out', the EU's simplistic answer to the refugee crisis, not even settled as decision delayed until a summit next week to flesh out the details of Turkey's new demands - 8 March 2016: UN refugee agency has concerns over the deal reached between the EU and Turkey that would see refugees sent back to Turkey, where some nationalities lack protection - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE - 17 March: EU member states and Turkey meet in Brussels to discuss a plan to stop migrants and refugees coming to Europe - 18 March: Deal between the EU and Turkey to stem the flow of refugees and migrants to Europe is hanging in the balance, over a decades-long dispute about the divided island of Cyprus - 18 March: EU's deal with Turkey means all those arriving in Greece from Sunday can expect to be returned to Turkey - 20 March: Greece delays sending refugees back to Turkey under EU deal saying they are waiting for extra personnel to implement the deal and will struggle to enforce it - 6 April: EU to set out proposals for overhaul of European asylum rules - 8 April: EU 'will toughen plans to make firms disclose offshore tax bills' in the wake of the Panama Papers - 23 April 2016: EU finance ministers agree to propose joint list of tax havens and approve plan to automatically exchange data on shell company owners - 27 April: Tusk rejects Tsipras request for EU summit on Greece bailout - 25 mai: Les ministres des Finances de la zone euro se sont engagés à alléger à terme la dette grecque si certaines conditions sont réunies - 13 July 2016: European officials have finalised plans to create a common EU asylum system and refugee resettlement scheme, which critics believe will be a further betrayal of refugee rights - 30 August: More tax deals involving some of the world's biggest companies from Amazon to Starbucks in the European commission's sights after EU's ruling against USA's 'Apple', the biggest blow dealt by Brussels so far in a long-running battle against multinationals and their tax avoidance - Informal EU meeting of the 27 heads of state or government on 16 September 2016 in Bratislava - 29. Oktober 2016: EU-Kommissar CDU-Oettinger nennt Chinesen bei Vortrag in Hamburg 'Schlitzaugen' und spricht von 'Kommunisten'-Blockade der Wallonie bei den CETA Verhandlungen zwischen Canada und der EU - 30 October 2016: German EU commissioner CDU-Oettinger accused of racism after remarks about Chinese, calls for his resignation follow failure to apologise for remarks
2017: 1 January 2017: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker spent years in his previous role as Luxembourg’s prime minister secretly blocking EU efforts to tackle tax avoidance by multinational corporations, leaked documents reveal - 27 September 2017: The Swedish truckmaker Scania, which is owned by Volkswagen, has been fined €880m by the European commission for price fixing - 25 octobre 2017: La Commission européenne a annoncé qu'aucun vote des Etats membres n'a eu lieu sur le renouvellement de la licence du glyphosate, après elle a abaissé sa proposition à une période d'utilisation réduite entre cinq et sept ans - 5 December 2017: EU named and shamed 17 countries in its first ever tax haven blacklist and put a further 47 on notice, including British overseas territories and the crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man - 15 December 2017: EU to force firms to reveal true owners in wake of Panama Papers, but anti-corruption campaigners criticise failure to include trusts in corporate ownership requirements
June 2018: 29 June 2018: According to the text signed at the EU summit, the 28 member states call on the Russian regime to recognize responsibility for the shooting down of the Malaysian Boeing 777 flight MH17, which was downed in the Donetsk region on 17 July 2014 - 30 June 2018: Cracks emerged Friday in Europe’s hard-fought summit deal on migration, as EU President Donald Tusk warned there was no guarantee it would work and France and Austria ruled themselves out of hosting migrant centres, as 'Medecins Sans Frontieres' said agreement aimed to turn away even the most vulnerable people from Europe’s shores, and the bodies of three babies were recovered and around 100 people were missing after a migrant boat sank off the coast of Libya on Friday
September 2018: 19 septembre 2018: Migrants et Brexit au menu des 28 à Salzbourg
EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
July 2018: 18 July 2018: Google has been hit with a landmark €4.34bn fine by the EU over 'serious illegal behaviour' to secure the dominance of its search engine on mobile phones since 2011
Budget of the European Union: Budget of the European Union
Common Agricultural Policy of the EU: Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union
2015: 27 July 2015: Demonstrations of French farmers against cheap imports and falling prices prevent over 400 trucks from bringing in agricultural goods from Germany and Spain as president insists government is 'by their side'
Common Fisheries Policy of the EU: Common Fisheries Policy of the EU
Regional policy of the EU: Regional policy of the European Union
History of the euro, European Central Bank, European Stability Mechanism and Banking Union: History of the euro - The European Central Bank is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 18 EU member states - The Eurogroup meeting of the finance ministers of the eurozone exercises political control over the currency and related aspects of the EU's monetary union such as the Stability and Growth Pact - Eurozone
The European System of Central Banks is composed of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 European Union Member States
2012: European Stability Mechanism since 2012 - 2012 Banking Union in the EU is the transfer of responsibility for banking policy from the national to the EU level, initiated in 2012 as a response to the Eurozone crisis
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
2014: 19 August 2014: The Single Resolution Mechanism implements in participating Member States the EU's Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms found to be in danger of failing - 4 November 2014: Single Supervisory Mechanism, granting the European Central Bank a supervisory role to monitor the financial stability of banks based in participating states, starting from 4 November 2014
2015: 19 June 2015: ECB staves off collapse of Greek banking system with emergency funding, as Greece's PM Tsipras sides with Putin regime in Moscow for financial support, saying 'we are ready to go to new seas to reach new safe ports' - 6 July: ECB decides to maintain the emergency liquidity assistance keeping Greek banks afloat at the level set on June 26 adjusting the collateral demanded from Greek banks in return for the assistance - 16 July: ECB hands Greece extra €900m in emergency funds as eurozone finance ministers scramble to assemble €7bn bridging finance to keep Greek economy afloat
2018: 19 February 2018: The reputation of the European Central Bank is under the spotlight after the detention of its policymaker Ilmars Rimsevics over bribery allegation, who is questioned on charge relating to bank accused of doing business with North Korea
European Investment Bank
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development since 1991
2015: 2 July 2015: Lidl supermarket chain owned by one of Germany’s wealthiest families given almost $1bn in public development funding over past decade by World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and others as it expands into eastern Europe
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission

Social movements and protests in the European Union
Since 2000: Crisis situations and unrest in Europe since 2000
2003: 15 February 2003 Anti-War Protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressing opposition to the imminent Iraq War, some of the largest protests took place in Europe
2011: 2011 'Occupy Wall Street' locations worldwide - 15. Oktober 2011: 'Occupy Wall Street' kommt nach Europa (Deutschland, England, Frankreich, Italien, Schweiz, Spanien)
2012: 11 February 2012: Tens of thousands in co-ordinated protests across Europe opposing a controversial 'anti-piracy' agreement - 12 February 2012: Europeans in many countries protest against controversial EU internet pact 'ACTA' - 26. Februar 2012: Erneut Demonstrationen von Zehntausenden in ganz Europa gegen 'ACTA' - 19 May 2012: 20.000 march at Frankfurt 'Occupy' protest rally - 14 November 2012: General strikes in Spain and Portugal will spearhead the day of action called by European unions and joined by activists as anger over governments' tight-fisted policies boils over - 14 November: Workers across the European Union have staged a series of protests and strikes against rising unemployment and spending cuts
2013: 27 February 2013: French writer (Occupy movement), diplomat, member of the French resistance during World War II and concentration camp survivor, Stéphane Hessel has died at the age of 95 - 1 June 2013: Thousands protest Europe crisis in Madrid on Saturday in a string of demonstrations across Europe
2015: 13 September 2015: Tens of thousands of Europeans hit the streets in several countries on Saturday to show solidarity with huge numbers of refugees entering the continent amid the international refugee and migrant crisis - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards, smaller protests were also held in other EU cities, including Amsterdam - 19 October 2015: Thousands of people demonstrated in the capitals of France, Spain and Italy on Sunday in solidarity with Israel, as the wave of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories continued unabated - 19 December: Marking International Migrants Day, Greeks and migrants took to the streets of Athens calling on European leaders to stop erecting fences and to open the borders for refugees and migrants fleeing countries torn by war and poverty
2016: 28 February 2016: Protests against Russian aggression in Ukraine in European countries France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain have taken place on 28 February 2016, two years after Russian regime forces began their invasion of Crimea - 19 March: Thousands of people marched in London, Athens, Barcelona, Vienna, Amsterdam and several Swiss cities voicing their support for refugees and migrants on Saturday, the day after the EU and Turkey sealed a deal designed to tackle the international refugee and migrant crisis - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 18 April 2016: Thousands of people, including victims and their families, walked through central Brussels on Sunday in a 'march against terror and hate', almost one month after 'Islamic State' terrorists' attacks
October 2016: 5 October 2016: Demonstrators gathered in Brussels near the headquarters of the EU Council and the European Commission to protest against the brutal attacks by the Assad and Russian forces on the liberated areas in Syria, especially in Aleppo, calling for saving Aleppo and stopping the indiscriminate bombardment of civilians, slamming the international community’s 'dubious' silence over the continued bombing and mass forced displacement of civilians by the Assad regime and its allies - 22 octobre 2016: Quelque 6000 personnes ont manifesté ce samedi à Amsterdam contre le CETA et pour déclarer leur soutien à la Wallonie
December 2016: 14 December 2016: Protests and vigils were held in cities across the world including Ankara, Beirut, Istanbul and Paris on Tuesday and Wednesday to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being committed against civilians by the Assad regime and its Hezbollah, Iranian and Russian allies - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where after all hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy - 18 December: Doctors, nurses and medics have staged a protest outside Parliament in London against Russian, Iranian and Assad's attacks on their professional colleagues trying to save lives in Syria as thousands of people in Germany and in France were protesting against Assad's ongoing war in Syria
2017: 5 February 2017: From London and Paris to New York and Washington, thousands of people took to the streets to protest USA president Trump’s travel ban amid a fierce legal battle over the order
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Nearly 50,000 people marched through the European quarter of Brussels on Thursday night in support of Catalan independence and the region’s ousted president Carles Puigdemont, who has avoided arrest in Spain by taking refuge in Belgium - 17 December 2017: Ahead of International Migrants Day on 18 December and calling for more facilities to accommodate asylum seekers, migrant charities, rights advocates and concerned citizens marched along the French Riviera, also calling on authorities to allow migrants to enter France from Italy - 31 December 2017: Iranian regime opponents held demonstrations Saturday in France and Germany to show support for opposition groups who have held rallies inside their country in recent days
February 2018 protests against Assad's Rif Dimashq bombing campaign: 23 February 2018: Demonstrations were held in European cities and capitals to show solidarity with the people of the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta which is under a ferocious bombing campaign by regime forces who are backed by Russian air force
March 2018: 2 March 2018: Tens of thousands of Slovaks marched in a national rally to honor journalist Jan Kuciak and his girlfriend, who were shot dead as Kuciak was working on a story about the influence of the Italian mafia in Slovakia, as similar marches were being held in some 25 towns and cities across the country and in cities abroad, including London, Paris and Brussels
May 2018: 29 May 2018: Critics note that protest includes no mention of the nearly 4,000 Palestinians who have died in the Syrian conflict since 2011, mostly at the hands of Assad and his allies in their war against the Syrian people, as demonstrators outside the meeting place in Brussels of EU foreign ministers protest deaths, including many Israelis, related to hostilities between Israel and Palestinians since 2008
August 2018: 10 August 2018: Almost 400 Ryanair flights scheduled for Friday have been grounded because of pilot strikes, as employees in Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands are staging a 24-hour walkout over pay and conditions

European Union law is a body of treaties and legislation, such as Regulations and Directives, which have direct effect or indirect effect on the laws of member states of the European Union - Law enforcement in Europe - Judiciary of the European Union - Relationship between the European Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights - European Union and the International Criminal Court
Primacy of European Union law: Primacy of European Union law, an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails, the norms of national law have to be set aside - Conflict of laws
Schengen Information System: Schengen Information System
EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
2017: 24 July 2017: Germany's largest car maker Volkswagen AG has asked Europe's antitrust watchdog to scrutinize decades of coordination efforts by the country's main auto manufacturers amid growing concern they might have breached antitrust regulations
Anti-fraud Office in Europe: European Anti-fraud Office
2015: 3 June 2015: European Anti-Fraud Office says it received 1,417 allegations of fraud in 2014 and recommended that the EU tries to claw back 900 million euros lost because of suspected fraud
2018: 5 January 2018: Secret report by the EU’s antifraud office calls on EU officials in Brussels to take 'appropriate measures' over a farm and hotel owned by Czech PM Andrej Babiš’s Agrofert and alleged 'irregularities'
Data protection in the EU and Europe:
Since 1995/1998 Data Protection Directive: Since 1995/1998 Data Protection Directive is a EU directive which regulates the processing of personal data within the EU and an important component of EU privacy and human rights law - National data protection authorities are authorities tasked with information privacy. In the European Union and the EFTA member countries their status was formalized by the Data Protection Directive - List of national data protection authorities in the European Economic Area, Europe and some other countries
Since 1996 'Article 29 Working Party' advisory body: Since 1996 Article 29 Working Party, an advisory body made up of a representative from the data protection authority of each EU Member State, the European Data Protection Supervisor and the European Commission
Since 2004 European Data Protection Supervisor: Since 2004 European Data Protection Supervisor, an independent supervisory authority whose primary objective is to ensure that European institutions and bodies respect the right to privacy and data protection when they process personal data and develop new policies - EU Commission Data Protection Officer is a position in the European Commission responsible for independently ensuring the application of data protection
Since 2016/2018 General Data Protection Regulation: Since 2016/2018 General Data Protection Regulation, a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the EU and the European Economic Area, also addressing the export of personal data outside the EU and EEA, aiming primarily to give control to citizens and residents over their personal data and to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying the regulation within the EU - Comité européen de la protection des données, établie 2018

European Court of Justice - Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union - List of members of the European Court of Justice
List of European Court of Justice rulings: List of European Court of Justice rulings by subject - Court of Justice of the European Union case law
July 2012: 12. Juli 2012: Der Europäische Gerichtshof hat in einem wegweisenden Urteil die Rechte von Bauern und kleinen Agrargemeinschaften gegenüber internationalen Saatgutkonzernen gestärkt
April 2014: 8 April 2014: EU Court of Justice rejects requirement to keep data of telecom users and declares the Data Retention Directive invalid
October 2015: 6 October 2015: USA digital data storage systems do not provide sufficient privacy from state surveillance, the European court of justice has ruled
March 2017: 14 March 2017: Employers may bar staff from wearing visible religious symbols, the European Court of Justice rules in its first decision on the issue of women wearing Islamic headscarves at work, saying that ban on visible wearing of political, philosophical or religious sign does not constitute direct discrimination
July 2017: 26 July 2017: European court of justice rules that the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas should remain on the EU terrorism blacklist, finds that the lower court's 2014 ruling was based on media reports, not legal reasoning, and refers the case back
July 2017: 28 July 2017: European court of justice has ordered Poland to immediately halt large-scale logging in the ancient, protected and Unesco-listed Bialowieza forest, one of many cases that has pitted the nationalist, eurosceptic government in Warsaw against the bloc
September 2017: 6 September 2017: EU's Court of Justice has dismisses complaints by Slovakia and Hungary about EU migration policy, dealing a blow to the Hungarian PM Orbán and his allies in central Europe over the bitterly contested policy of refugee quotas
May 2018: 17 May 2018: The European Commission sent six countries, including Germany, France and the UK, to Europe’s highest court ECJ for breaching EU standards for nitrogen dioxide limits and for failing to meet EU air quality standards, in a long-running process of crimes, denials and shady tricks

General Court EGC, a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union, hearing actions taken against the institutions of the European Union by individuals and member states, although certain matters are reserved for the European Court of Justice, decisions of the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice, but only on a point of law

Foreign relations of the European Union - History of colonialism - Emigration from Europe - Asylum in the European Union - Immigration to Europe - Illegal immigration to Europe
2014-2018 World War I centenary: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 14 January 2014: Diaries from British soldiers describing life on the frontline during World War One are being published online by the British National Archives - 16 January 2014: How countries across Europe will mark centenary - 26 June 2014: Ahead of a summit in Brussels European prime ministers and presidents attend first world war ceremony in Ypres joining a minute of silence at the Menin Gate to remember the millions who died in the war - 5 August 2014: European politicians in the industrial town of Liege commemorated the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I by warning of lessons to be learned in the face of today's many crises, including Ukraine
2014-2020 World War II 75th Anniversary Commemoration: 75 years later the British website 'World War II Today' continues to follow the war through to August 1945 - Aftermath of World War II - Aftermath of World War II by country - Aftermath of the Holocaust - Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe by country
2011-2018 the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another: 8 April 2018: Haaretz' Anshel Pfeffer describes how the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another, saying that in the history of war, no war crime has been so well documented and so predictable to those who had it in their power to prevent it from recurring
Foreign trade of the EU: List of the largest trading partners of the European Union
Third-country relations of the EU: Third-country relations of the European Union
List of diplomatic missions of the EU and European External Action Service since 2010: List of diplomatic missions of the European Union - Since 2010 European External Action Service - European External Action Service (Website) - News service and press releases
European Union/Afghanistan relations: European Union/Afghanistan relations
Since 2001: Since 2001 military involvement in Afghanistan by EU member states, as 25 of the EU members contribute to the 43-nation NATO-led ISAF mission, also making a considerable contribution in other areas
Since June 2016: United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union following June 2016 referendum - 1839 to 1842 British East India Company's invasion of Afghanistan, the 'First Anglo-Afghan War'
2016: 3 October 2016: The EU has signed an agreement with the Afghan government allowing its member states to deport an unlimited number of the country’s asylum seekers, and obliging the Afghan government to receive them
European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations - The EU's relations with Africa - Immigration to Europe - African immigration to Europe
2009: 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2011: 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2012: September 2012 Baradan Bay, Turkey migrant boat disaster - December 2012 Lesbos, Greece migrant boat disaster
2013: October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 4 octobre 2013: Le naufrage d’un navire de migrants clandestins au large de Lampedusa soulève la question de la gestion des flux migratoires par l’Europe - 8 octobre: Les Européens sont appelés mardi à montrer une plus grande solidarité après la tragédie de Lampedusa - 8 October: EU pushes for sea patrols in wake of migrant shipwreck - 9 octobre: Barroso et Letta accueillis mercredi sur l'île de Lampedusa, par les huées et les insultes d'habitants - 11/12 October: Dozens of people died on Friday when a boat carrying around 250 migrants capsized between Sicily and Tunisia, a week after the 3 October 2013 migrant shipwreck - 13 October 2013: The shipwreck off Malta on October 11 that claimed the lives of more than 30 migrants revealed yet another facet of Syria's humanitarian nightmare - the largest displacement of people in decades - 25 October: Nearly 700 refugees including dozens of Eritreans have been rescued off Sicily in five operations, as leaders grapple with the issue of illegal immigration at a EU summit - 29 November: Six people believed to be Syrians dead as immigrant boat trying to reach Greece sinks off Turkey
2014: 13 May 2014: At least 14 people were killed and 200 went missing after a boat packed with migrants sank near Italy - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to Central African Republic to stop clashes - 2 April 2014: Africans and Europeans hold crisis talks at EU-Africa summit on the escalating violence in the Central African Republic - 20 June: At a UNHCR conference marking World Refugee Day Malta's Helena Dalli says that Europe has 'a lot to do to make up for the damage it had caused' - 14 September: At least 15 Gaza migrants killed as boat capsizes in Mediterranean - 26 September: Almost 300 mostly Syrian rescued refugees refuse to disembark in Cyprus demanding to be taken to Italy - 29 September: Migrants trying to reach more prosperous countries have died at a rate of eight every day for the past 14 years, the majority of them trying to get to Europe, according to IOM - 20 October: Ebola tops EU meeting in Luxembourg with warnings crisis is at 'tipping point' - 31 December: Italy's navy has taken control of a ship adrift in the Adriatic Sea with hundreds of mainly Syrian migrants on board
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response'
2015: 1 January 2015: Catastrophe avoided as runaway ship with 768 people on board on a collision course with Italy's rocky shoreline stopped by Gallipoli's coastguard - 2 January 2015: Sierra Leone-flagged vessel, second in four days to be abandoned by crew in rough seas with 450 migrants on board, being towed to Italy - 3 January 2015: People smugglers likely raked in more than US$1.0 million from the hundreds of desperate 'ghost ships' migrants abandoned off the coast of Italy, IOM says - 3 January: After 'ghost ship' Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean, 360 Syrians emerged - 20 January 2015: EU to launch anti-terror projects with Muslim nations - 9 February: At least 29 migrants die of hypothermia after Italian coastguard rescue with small patrol boats - 17 March: EU to name new special envoy Fernando Gentilini to Mideast peace process - 16 April: EU under pressure over migrant rescue operations in the Mediterranean after 400 lives lost in latest incident - 17 April: Muslim migrants had thrown 12 Christians overboard during a recent crossing from Libya, police says, and an aid group says another 41 people were feared drowned in a separate incident - 19 April: EU plans urgent talks after up to 700 African migrants feared dead when boat capsizes near Libya - 20/21 April: EU emergency meeting results in decision to boost maritime patrols in Mediterranean, broaden search-and-rescue mandate and to launch military operations against migrant-smugglers in Libya, as UN refugee agency, after speaking to survivors of the disaster, confirms 800 migrants died in the shipwreck off Libya on Sunday - 12 May: Many would-be migrants to EU die unrecorded, study of Free University of Amsterdam says - 21 May: After Italian PM Renzi described people-smugglers as 'the slave traders of the 21st century', leading migration experts have denounced plans for military action against Libyan smugglers as reminiscent of the actions of countries that enabled the 16th to 19th century British, French etc. slave trade - 30 May: EU naval mission rescues more than 4,200 migrants in Mediterranean in 24 hours - 6/7 June 2015: More than 2000 migrants rescued from people traffickers in Mediterranean, as operations go on - 16 June: Italian police forcibly remove migrants stranded near French border - 26 June: Agreeing a plan to share out the care of people fleeing war and poverty in north Africa and the Middle East, EU meeting finally reaches deal on resettling 60,000 asylum seekers securing exemptions for Hungary, Bulgaria, while the UK has opted out of the scheme - 1 July 2015: The sea route to Europe, the Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees
July-December 2015: 10 July: Twelve migrants have died after their overcrowded rubber dinghy sank off the coast of Libya, the Italian Coast Guard said, while some 823 were rescued in the latest events - 18 July: Impoverished Greece flooded by new wave of migrants - 25 July: As long as the bloody civil war in Syria continues with no end in sight, the number of refugees who see the perilous journey to Europe as their last chance for a future will continue to rise - 1 August: Migrants trying to sail from Turkey to Greece are increasingly reporting being attacked by gunmen trying to prevent them from reaching Europe - 6 August: Over 200 migrants attempting the perilous journey across the Mediterranean were feared to have drowned after their overcrowded fishing boat capsized off Libya - 12 August: Up to 50 migrants reportedly went missing after a large rubber dinghy sank in the Mediterranean, while more than 1,500 were picked up from other vessels in the past 24 hours - 18 August: Macedonia becomes another frontline of Europe's refugee crisis - 19 August: Nearly 110,000 migrants were tracked entering the EU in July by irregular means, official data show, setting a record as the influx continues, notably of Syrians reaching Greek islands from Turkey - 23 August: Italy's coastguard coordinated the rescue of around 3000 migrants in the Mediterranean after receiving distress calls from more than 20 overcrowded vessels drifting in waters off Libya - 26 August: Bodies of about 50 migrants found in hull of boat rescued off Libyan coast - 27/28 August: Discovery of dozens of dead migrants in an abandoned refrigerated lorry found on an Austrian motorway near the Hungarian border shocks Europe - 28 August: Up to 200 bodies discovered floating off the coast of Zuwara, one of Libya’s main people-smuggling hubs, in the latest tragedy of the European migration and refugee crisis - 2 September: Migrant and refugee flows continue as countries on Schengen border say they are doing everything they can - 3 September: People rush into Budapest Keleti railway station and try to board trains following the blocking and a re-opening of the station and an ongoing confusion in deeply divided EU, now waiting for a special meeting of EU ministers on September 14 - 10/11 September 2015: European countries inside and outside the EU bitterly divided over their responses to the tens of thousands of refugees heading west and north - 16 September 2015: Refugees and migrants head for Croatia to avoid Hungarian fence - 17 September: Refugees and migrants accumulate at Hungarian border with Serbia after EU-member Hungary brings in tough new measures, using use tear gas and water cannons and detaining dozens - 17 September: Thousands of refugees enter Croatia after Hungary's crackdown
October-December 2015: 2 October 2015: In the paupers’ section of Lesbos cemetery, volunteers, strangers, Israeli and Palestinian activists attend funerals for unidentified migrant victims, including kids, who drowned in the Aegean Sea - 7 October: EU military operation against refugee and migrant traffickers in the Mediterranean begins - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 29 October: Horrendous scenes reported after worsening weather caused boats to capsize in the Aegean Sea, killing at least 11 refugees and migrants, including several children - 30 October: Two boats reportedly sink off Greece, leaving at least 22 people dead - 2 November 2015: As 218,000 migrants and refugees crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in October 2015, the coming winter is already threatening to expose thousands to harsh conditions - 4 November 2015: Unicef's Marie-Pierre Poirier informs the media after she has completed a one week mission in Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia, amid rising numbers of refugees, women and children on the move and bad weather - 11 November 2015: Over 800,000 refugees and migrants reached Europe after crossing the Mediterranean Sea since the start of the year, IOM says - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 12 November: Sweden and Slovenia became the latest European nations to tighten borders as African leaders warned their EU counterparts at a summit in Malta against building a 'fortress' Europe and as the European Commission is setting up a €1.8-billion 'trust fund' for Africa - 24 November: EU countries' development money being spent on tackling refugee crisis and border security rather than fighting poverty and inequality, European NGO confederation says - 6 December: As thousands of people continue to arrive at the Greece-Macedonia border daily, small numbers of refugees and migrants who had been denied entry into Macedonia have opted to go back to Athens - 19 December: Eighteen refugees and migrants drown after boat sinks off Turkey's southwestern coast - 23 diciembre: Más de 40 muertos en el Egeo en cuatro días, la mitad de ellos niños
Januar-March 2016: 22 January 2016: At least 15 migrants including eight children drowned when their boats capsized off the Greek islands of Kalolimnos and Farmakonisi - 28 janvier 2016: 24 réfugiés et migrants dont dix enfants sont morts noyés lors d'un nouveau naufrage jeudi matin au large de l'île grecque de Samos en mer Egée, tandis que onze sont portés disparus - 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 30 January: At least 10,000 unaccompanied child refugees have disappeared after arriving in Europe, 5,000 in Italy alone, according to the EU’s criminal intelligence agency - 31 January 2016: Ten children were among at least 37 migrants who drowned in the Aegean Sea after their boat capsized as they attempted the crossing from Turkey to Greece, 75 people were rescued - 2 February 2016: Nine migrants, including two babies drowned off Turkish coast, as more than 62,000 refugees and migrant arrivals reported in Greece last month - 8 February 2016: At least 27 refugees, including 11 children, drowned after a boat trying to reach the Greek island of Lesbos capsized two miles off the Turkish coast - 13 February 2013: Over 80,000 refugees and migrants have already arrived in Europe since the beginning of 2016, the majority of those arriving in January 2016 were women and children making up nearly 58%, over 400 have died trying to cross, according to UNHCR's Melissa Fleming - 17 February: Croatia sends over two hundred migrants and refugees including women and children from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Syria back to Serbia, now at a UNHCR centre in the border town of Sid - 23 February: Thousands of refugees stranded in Greece amid tightened border control by Macedonia - 26 February: Two refugees tried to commit suicide at a makeshift refugee camp at a central square in the city of Athens amid growing frustrations over border closures which have left tens of thousands stranded in the country - 28 February: Humanitarian challenges mounting at Greek/Macedonian border, as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass, and UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees - 1 mars 2016: Depuis janvier 2016 plus de 130'000 personnes ont rejoint l'Europe par la Méditerranée, selon le HCR qui dénonce l'incapacité de l'Europe, au bord d'une crise humanitaire, 'à trouver des solutions' - 2 mars 2016: La Macédoine a laissé passer sur son territoire environ 170 réfugiés alors que côté grec 10'000 migrants continuaient d'attendre, selon les autorités locales grecques - 5 March: Refugees and migrants stranded at Greece-Macedonia border face another day of frustration - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 9 March 2016: Slovenia and Croatia ban transit of refugees to other European countries - 10 March: At least five migrants dead after boat sank off Turkish coast attempting to reach Greek Island of Lesbos, the Turkish Coast Guard rescued 9 people - 11 March: Thousands of refugees and migrants, many already ill, trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia, facing food shortages and unsanitary conditions as rains continue to pour down on flimsy tents and an already waterlogged ground - 12 March: Around 1,100 refugees remain stranded in a refugee camp on the Macedonian side of the Serbian border, another 500 are stranded in the no-man's land between the two countries - 12 March 2016: A video shows Turkish coastguard using sticks against a boat full of refugees and migrants as they sail to Greece in the Aegean Sea - 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 13 March 2016: Relentless rain and biting cold turn despair into suffering for thousands of refugees and migrants stranded on Greece's border with Macedonia and in the so-called no man's land - 14 March 2016: At the Idomeni camp on the Greek-Macedonian border, conditions are getting worse after heavy rains in recent days have turned much of the ground into a swamp - 15 March: Macedonia reportedly sent back to Greece about 1,500 migrants and refugees, who crossed the border hiking for hours along muddy paths and forded a rain-swollen river to get around the border fence where they were detained by Macedonian forces - 19 March: Refugees and migrants at the Greek border camp of Idomeni say they are as determined as ever to reach Western Europe and appear undeterred by an accord between Turkey and the EU aimed at stemming the flow of people from the Middle East and North Africa - 21 March: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe - 22 March 2016: UNHCR has stopped transporting refugees and migrants arriving on Lesbos from Turkey to a reception facility as their subsequent freedom of movement is no longer guaranteed, a UNHCR spokesman says, referring to last week's EU-Turkey deal - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 26 mars: es autorités grecques ont commencé à évacuer des réfugiés et migrants bloqués dans le camp d'Idomeni à la frontière avec la Macédoine - 27 March 2016: Hundreds take part in protest at Macedonia border as Greece tries to evacuate overwhelmed Idomeni camp and hundreds of hopeful refugees return to Greece’s overwhelmed Idomeni camp following rumours
April-June 2016: 2 April 2016: Protests of migrants and refugees in Greece mount before EU-Turkey migrant deal takes effect and as UNHCR warns against immediate refugee returns to Turkey - 3 April 2016: 50,000 migrants in Greece in turmoil over their fate as EU deal set to come into effect - 4 April: First boats returning migrants and refugees from Greece arrive in Turkey - 6 April 2016: Refugees block Greece-Macedonia border crossing to protest deportation - 8 avril: Les migrants retenus sur les îles grecques de Lesbos et de Chios vivent dans des conditions 'effroyables', selon un rapport - 8 April: Greece ferries migrants to Turkey under EU pact - 9 April: Five migrants, four women and one child, drown off Greek island of Samos after boat capsized - 10 April: Macedonian police use teargas on migrants at Greek border in Idomeni - 11 April: At least 260 people were hurt on Sunday when Macedonian police fired tear gas at refugees and migrants and hundreds were treated by medical units also for wounds caused by plastic bullets and for other injuries, according to 'Doctors Without Borders' - 13 avril 2016: La police macédonienne a tiré des gaz lacrymogènes et des grenades assourdissantes mercredi contre des migrants qui manifestaient le long de la barrière de la frontière macédonienne à Idomeni - 16 April 2016: 'Only those who see the eyes of those small children that we met at the refugee camps will be able to immediately recognize, in its entirety, the bankruptcy of humanity and solidarity that Europe has shown these last few years to these, and not only these, people', Church of Greece's Ieronymos II says at Moria Refugee Camp in Lesbos - 16 avril 2016: Le pape rentre de Grèce avec 12 réfugiés syriens - 16 avril 2016: L'association européenne SOS Méditerranée annonce avoir secouru 116 migrants ce samedi - 20 April 2016: Up to 500 migrants might have drowned in Mediterranean tragedy, UNHCR says - 1 May 2016: Ninety-nine refugees and migrants are believed to have drowned in two separate incidents off the coast of Libya over the weekend - 13 May 2016: At least 800 migrants were rescued off the coast of Sicily on Thursday, among them at least 150 Syrians, the Italian coast guard and the UN refugee agency said - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 24 mai 2016: L'évacuation du camp de réfugiés et migrants comptant 8400 personnes à Idomeni à la frontière greco-macédonienne a commencé, en présence de nombreuses forces policières - 28 May 2016: The Italian navy recovers the bodies of 45 people who drowned on Friday, while dozens of others are still missing in the third major tragedy in the Mediterranean in as many days, as Russian regime's Putin and Greece's Tsipras sign several economic deals on Friday during the war criminal's visit to Greece aimed at reinforcing a relationship with his accessory - 31 mai 2016: Près de 205'000 réfugiés et migrants sont arrivés par la mer en Europe depuis janvier tandis que 2500 d'entre eux périssaient, selon OIM et HCR - 3 June 2016: Hundreds of people were rescued from a migrant boat that capsized south of the Greek island of Crete on Friday, but it is feared that many more are missing
July/August 2016: 2 juillet 2016: Près de 71'000 migrants sont arrivés en 6 mois en Italie, selon le ministère italien de l'Intérieur - 7 juillet 2016: Les équipes de pompiers italiens ont récupérées les corps de 217 migrants morts noyées dans le naufrage d'un chalutier en avril 2015 - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie - 19 juillet: Plus de 2500 migrants embarqués sur des bateaux bondés ont été recueillis mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 25 juillet 2016: Les corps de 87 migrants morts noyés en tentant de gagner l’Europe ont été retrouvés depuis vendredi sur une plage de Sabrata, une ville côtière dans l’ouest de la Libye - 29 juillet: Plus de 3400 migrants ont été secourus vendredi au large des côtes libyennes, selon les gardes-côtes italiens - 31 juillet: Cinq migrants sont morts en Méditerranée dimanche au large de la Libye, selon les garde-côtes italiens, qui ont coordonné le sauvetage de plus de 6'500 personnes depuis jeudi - 2 août 2016: Plus de 4'000 migrants et réfugiés ont perdu la vie sur la route de la Méditerranée depuis le début de l'année, selon OIM - 5 August 2016: More than 100 migrants have broken through police barriers at the Italian border town of Ventimiglia and made their way into France, as France's Hollande and Italy's Renzi applaud Iranian, Russian and Syrian Assad regime in Rio de Janeiro - 30 August: Startling images have emerged of refugees being rescued off the coast of Libya, showing what has become an everyday occurrence in the southern Mediterranean Sea over the past three years
September 2016: 2 septembre 2016: Un an après la publication de la photo du petit Syrien Ayan gisant sur une plage, environ 500'000 enfants auraient été exploités par des passeurs depuis début 2015 parmi les demandeurs d'asile en Europe, selon l'Unicef
October 2016: 4 October 2016: About 6,055 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe rescued from sea in a single day, as at least nine people died and a pregnant woman and a child had been taken by helicopter to a hospital in Lampedusa - 6 October 2016: EU launches tough border force to curb refugee and migrant crisis - 26 octobre 2016: Cette année, ce ne sont pas moins de 3800 réfugiés et migrants qui ont perdu la vie en tentant de rallier l'Europe - 27 October: About 100 people are feared missing after a boat sank off the coast of Libya, amid mounting evidence that already dangerous conditions are worsening for migrants crossing the Mediterranean sea to get to Europe
November 2016: 2 November 2016: As 60% of Gambia's population live in poverty, as Gambians represent the fourth-largest group of arrivals to Italy, as Gambian president Jammeh dismisses the economic worries of Gambian migrants and as Gambia’s information minister critizises the lack of action by European nations to protect migrants, the goalkeeper of Gambia’s national women’s football team dies crossing the Mediterranean - 3 November 2016: At least 239 dead in two refugee and migrant boat shipwrecks off Libya in Mediterranean, survivors tell UN on Italian island of Lampedusa - 17 November 2016: About 100 people are feared to have drowned off the coast of Libya after their smuggler abandoned them on the high seas without a motor, increasing the Mediterranean death toll this year to an unprecedented 4,700
December 2016: 23 December 2016: About 100 people are missing and feared dead after two boats capsized off Italy, increasing the estimated death toll among migrants in the Mediterranean this year to at least 5,000, according to UN agencies
January 2017: 10 January 2017: Thousands of refugees are enduring freezing temperatures in flimsy tents across Greece as a result of the arctic blast that has swept across Europe - 24 January 2017: Thousands of refugee children sleeping rough in sub-zero Serbia, says UN - 25 January 2017: Cold weather reignites fears for refugees poorly sheltered in Greece - 30 janvier 2017: Plus de 1360 migrants ont été secourus dans des conditions souvent difficiles depuis vendredi, et trois retrouvés sans vie, à bord d'une douzaine d'embarcations parties de Libye
March 2017: 2 March 2017: European countries have accepted less than 10% of the 160,000 refugees they promised to move to safety from unsanitary and cramped camps in Italy and Greece, leading the European commission to warn it will 'accept no more excuses' - 24 mars 2017: Au moins 11 personnes sont mortes noyées vendredi après le naufrage d'un bateau de migrants au large de la Turquie, huit personnes ont été secourues et trois étaient toujours portées disparues
April 2017 EU 'leaving migrants to drown': 14 April 2017: More than 2,000 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe reportedly plucked from the Mediterranean on Friday in a series of dramatic rescues as one person was found dead - 15 April 2017; EU 'leaving migrants to drown' say rescuers who saved 2,000 from Mediterranean in single day - 28 April 2017: Frustration mounts among locals on Chios island, where refugees feel like prisoners with no hope of getting to mainland Europe
May 2017: 9 May 2017: The final toll of dead and missing from two refugee shipwrecks off Libya at the weekend has risen to 245, according to UNHCR
June 2017: 5 June 2017: EU commits 50 million euros to combat terrorism in West Africa
July 2017 EU accused of 'wilfully letting refugees drown': 4 juillet 2017: Plus de 100'000 migrants et réfugiés sont arrivés depuis janvier 2017 en Europe en traversant la Méditerranée, selon OIM - 29 July 2017: EU accused of 'wilfully letting refugees drown' as NGOs face having rescues suspended in the Mediterranean
August: 2017: 25 August 2017: European countries including Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK are poised to begin the process of returning refugees to Greece, as migrants seeking reunification with their family members, mostly in Germany, step up protests in Athens
September 2017: 1 September 2017: At least 8,500 people have died or disappeared while attempting to cross the Mediterranean since the death of three-year-old Syrian boy Alan Kurdi, whose body washed ashore in Turkey in 2015 - 11 September 2017: A clampdown on Europe’s eastern borders has forced refugees and migrants to choose more dangerous routes as the death toll in the Mediterranean continues to rise despite a drop in the overall number of arrivals, according to the UN, as more than 22,500 migrants have reportedly died or disappeared globally since 2014, according to the IOM - 29 September 2017: Greece is experiencing a dramatic rise in the number of refugees and migrants entering the country, exacerbating already deplorable living conditions on island camps
October 2017: 25 October 2017: Emergency response teams from Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, as well as Spain, Italy and France, gathered in Israel to learn how to work together and to overcome the common enemy 'natural disasters' as part of an exercise sponsored by the European Union
November/December 2017: 29 November 2017: 5th African Union - European Union summit in Abidjan, youth, unemployment, migration, terrorism on agenda - 17 December 2017: Libya’s coastal guard has rescued more than 250 illegal migrants trying to leave the North African country in small boats bound for Italy, according to officials - 17 December 2017: Ahead of International Migrants Day on 18 December and calling for more facilities to accommodate asylum seekers, migrant charities, rights advocates and concerned citizens marched along the French Riviera, also calling on authorities to allow migrants to enter France from Italy
January/February 2018: 6 janvier 2018: Au moins 25 personnes sont mortes noyées au large de la Libye dans le naufrage d'une embarcation transportant jusqu'à 150 migrants - 4 février 2018: Repérés par un bateau espagnol, les corps de près d'une vingtaine de migrants noyés ont été repêchés entre l'Espagne et le Maroc
March/April 2018: 17 mars 2018: Au moins 14 personnes, dont quatre enfants, se sont noyées dans la nuit dans le naufrage dans le sud-est de la mer Egée d'un bateau, selon la police grecque - 22 avril 2018: Onze migrants morts en mer, 263 secourus au large de la Libye
3 June 2018: 3 June 2018: Dozens drown and rescuers save at least 60 lives after vessel with about 180 people onboard sank off Tunisia coast
11 June 2018 SOS Mediterraneee rescue ship denied entry to Italy and Malta: - 11 June 2018: Migrants stranded at sea, as Italy and Malta close doors and new populist Italian government refuses to open port to SOS Mediterraneee rescue ship carrying 629 people, including 123 unaccompanied minors and seven pregnant women, amid fight with Maltese government over who is responsible for asylum seekers, as farther west in the Mediterranean Spain’s maritime rescue service saved 334 migrants and recovered four bodies from boats it intercepted trying to reach Europe, and as UN says at least 785 migrants have died crossing the sea so far this year - 12 June 2018: Spanish FM Borrell attacks 'ostrich politics' in row over rescued migrants, saying the new government was 'banging its fist on the table' ahead of a meeting of European leaders to discuss migration and asylum at the end of June, as 'MSF welcomes the important gesture of humanity from Spain to disembark in Valencia'
12 June 2018 EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting refugees and migrants: 12 June 2018: EU to triple spending to €5bn a year targeting illegal migration
14 June 2018: 14 juin 2018: Une soixantaine de Syriens à bord d'un bateau ont été secourus au large de l'île méditerranéenne de Chypre, a annoncé jeudi la police chypriote
16 June 2018: 16 June 2018: Italy bars two more refugee ships from ports
17 June 2018: 17 June 2018: Aquarius migrants arrive in Spain after rough week at sea
22 June 2018: 22 June 2018: Around 220 migrants drowned off Libya in two days, bringing to at least 1,000 the number to die this year on the main migratory route linking Africa and Europe, according to the UN - 22 juin 2018: Avant le mini-sommet européen sur les migrations, l'Italie maintient sa ligne dure envers les ONG aidant les migrants en danger
27 June 2018: 27 juin 2018: Le 'Lifeline', qui attendait depuis une semaine un port d'accueil, attendu à Malte avec 233 migrants
30 June 2018: 30 juin 2018: Un bateau d'une ONG a secouru 59 migrants au large de la Libye, et après le refus de l'Italie de l'accueillir, il fait cap vers Barcelone
July 2018: 3 July 2018: More than 200 migrants have drowned at sea in the Mediterranean in the past three days, taking the death toll for the year to more than 1,000 and prompting fears that human traffickers are taking greater risks because of a crackdown imposed by the Italian government and the Libyan coastguard - 16 juillet 2018: Les centaines de migrants qui restaient bloqués sur des navires ont finalement pu débarquer dans la ville sicilienne Pozzallo, grâce à l'engagement de pays européens voisins - 18 July 2018: Proactiva Open Arms, a Spanish rescue group, accused both a merchant ship sailing in international waters and the Libyan coastguard of abandoning three people in the Mediterranean, including a woman and a toddler who died, after the coastguard intercepted a boat carrying 160 people heading for Europe - 28 juillet 2018: Selon l'OIM au moins 1500 migrants ont déjà péri en Méditerranée en 2018 - 29 July 2018: 334 migrants rescued by Spanish coastguard - 31 July 2018: Italian 'Asso 28', an oil rig support vessel, allegedly broke international law by returning 108 people rescued from Mediterranean to Tripoli
August 2018: 11 août 2018: Le navire humanitaire Aquarius géré par SOS Méditerranée et Médecins Sans Frontières a secouru vendredi 141 personnes au large des côtes libyennes lors de sa première mission depuis qu'il a repris la mer - 15 août 2018: Le navire humanitaire Aquarius est arrivé mercredi à Malte où il a été finalement été autorisé à accoster après avoir erré plusieurs jours en Méditerranée avec 141 migrants épuisés à son bord - 18 août 2018: Un navire des garde-côtes italiens était bloqué depuis 48 heures au large de Lampedusa avec à bord 177 migrants secourus entre Malte et l'île italienne et que personne ne veut laisser débarquer - 21 August 2018: Standoff in Italian port as Salvini refuses to let refugees disembark - 26 August 2018: Prosecutors in Sicily open an inquiry over Interior Minister Salvini's refusal to allow over 100 rescued migrants off the coastguard ship Diciotti for 'illegal confinement, illegal arrest and abuse of power', as church, tiny Albania and Ireland agree to take the 140 migrants
September 2018: 3 September 2018: Fewer people are making the journey across the Mediterranean to Europe, but the proportion of those losing their lives while trying has risen sharply, UN says - 6 September 2018: Arrest of Syrian 'hero swimmer', who saved 18 refugees in 2015 by swimming their waterlogged dingy to the shores of Lesbos with her Olympian sister, and now accused of people smuggling, espionage and membership of a criminal organisation, puts European refugee crisis in a further spotlight - 10 septembre 2018: Plus de 100 migrants ont péri au début du mois dans le naufrage de deux embarcations au large des côtes libyennes, selon MSF - 25 September 2018: Aquarius with 58 people onboard cannot disembark in Marseille, says French minister, after Panamanian authorities revoked the Aquarius vessel’s registration in a move described by Médecins Sans Frontières and SOS Méditerranée, which operated the vessel, as 'a major blow” to its humanitarian mission', claiming that Panama was forced to revoke the registration after coming under pressure from the Italian government
European Union/Armenia relations: European Union/Armenia relations
Since 2009 'Eastern Partnership' initiative: Since 2009 'Eastern Partnership' initiative of the EU with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine
April 2015 European Parliament's recognition of the Armenan Genocide during WW I committed by Turkey: 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I
European Union/Belarus relations: European Union/Belarus relations
2012/2013: 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row - 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
2015: 21 November 2015: EU temporarily suspended package of sanctions on Belarus despite lack of change in Minsk regime
European Union/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
2016: 15 February 2016: Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for EU membership
European Union/Canada relations: European Union/Canada relations - Canada–Europe relations - 18 October 2013: The EU and Canada reached a free-trade agreement
2016: 13 October 2016: Canada's Trudeau warns EU over CETA reluctance, presuming to say that its failure to ratify CETA deal with Canada will undermine the block’s 'usefulness', as German court gives no free ticket for CETA’s approval - 22 October: Wallonia continues to have concerns about threat of an independent court system to settle disputes between states and foreign investors, which critics say may be used by multinationals to dictate public policy, following CETA’s approval - 27 octobre: La Belgique est parvenue à arrêter une position commune sur CETA, que pourrait permettre aux Européens de signer cet accord, malgré un calendrier incertain - 27 October: CETA debate continues - 30 October: Trudeau off to sign EU trade deal after plane returns briefly with mechanical issues - 30 October: EU and Canada sign free trade deal
European Union/Chad relations: European Union/Chad relations
2016: 16 May 2016: Chadian torture documentary at Cannes film festival sheds light on one of Africa’s least-known mass killings, as some 40,000 people were murdered during Habré’s eight-year reign of terror between 1982 and 1990, while the west looked the other way
European Union/PR of China relations: European Union/PR of China relations
2013/2014: 5 juin 2013: Les panneaux solaires chinois taxés par Bruxelles à partir du 6 juin à 11,8%, plus tard à 47,6% en moyenne si la Commission ne parvient pas à trouver un accord avec Pékin - 27 July 2013: EU deal with China over solar-panel dispute and minimum prices - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows
2016: 4 December 2016: The grim truth of Chinese factories producing the west’s Christmas toys, as undercover investigation by China Labor Watch exposes low wages, hazardous chemicals and overtime beyond legal limits
2017: 29 January 2017: China must investigate a harrowing account of torture by a detained lawyer and release several political prisoners, the EU has demanded in a rare statement amid a deteriorating human rights situation under president Xi Jinping - 2 June 2017: EU and China vow to keep fighting global warming joining states around world in show of solidarity after Trump’s announces USA pullout from climate accord
European Union/Egypt relations: European Union/Egypt relations - 29 July 2013: EU's Ashton arrives in Cairo for talks Monday amid crisis - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief
European Union and France: European Union and France - The 'Inner Six' Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West-Germany were the six founding member states of the European Communities
Since 2002 tax haven Monaco: Tax haven Monaco's absence of a personal income tax has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy 'tax refugee' residents who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco - 24 October 2002 Franco-Monégasque treaty greatly increases Monaco’s ability to conduct it own foreign relations, alleging that the Principality is an independent and sovereign State - Franco-Monégasque economic and political ties, including an agreement that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco and companies doing more than 25% of their business outside the country would be taxed at French rates
2016: 26 May 2016: The EU, France and Monaco
2017: 31 janvier 2017: Marine Le Pen est accusée d'avoir rémunéré des cadres du Front national avec l'argent du Parlement européen
European Union/Honduras relations: European Union/Honduras relations
2016: 20 April 2016: The daughter of murdered environmental leader Berta Cáceres has called for a suspension of European aid to Honduras and investment in its hydro projects until the country complies with human rights norms
European Union/Hungary relations: European Union/Hungary relations
2015: 22 May 2015: Amid growing unease over constitutional changes made by Hungary’s rightwing government, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker welcomed Hungarian PM Orban at Riga summit, greeting him with 'Hello, dictator' - 24 June 2015: Hungary defies EU rule on asylum seekers - 31 August 2015: Condemned by many EU officials, Hungary continues construction of border fence with Serbia directed against desperate refugees
July 2018: 19 July 2018: European Commission sent a formal letter of notice to Hungary, the first step of an infringement procedure, over the government’s 'Stop Soros' law, threatening aid workers and human rights advocates working with asylum-seekers with up to a year in prison
September 2018: 15 September 2018: Hungary vows to challenge the European Parliament vote, paving the way for sanctions, as most Hungarians think the parliament’s decision to trigger Article 7 disciplinary procedures against Hungary was fair, according to an Euronews poll
European Union/India relations: European Union/India relations - 20 March 2013: EU foreign policy chief Ashton defends Italy's breach of trust over two marines on trial for murder in India
European Union/Iran relations: European Union/Iran relations
Since 2011: EU restrictive measures against Iran, since 2011, the EU has also adopted restrictive measures related to Iranian regime's violations of human rights
2013/2014: 7 September 2013: EU court strikes down sanctions imposed on seven Iranian companies despite reported links to Iran’s illicit nuclear activities - 20 January 2014: EU and USA suspend sanctions against Iran after IAEA confirmed Iran's regime has begun halting sensitive nuclear activities - 8/9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton visits Iran for first time, nuclear issue on agenda - 9 March: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 25 November 2014: The EU extended a freeze on certain sanctions against Iran after negotiations aimed at curbing the country's nuclear programme were prolonged by seven months
2015: 3 April 2015: IAEA welcomes that Iran is set to allow the agency more access to its nuclear sites in a framework agreement on Iran's nuclear program reached in Lausanne E3+3 and Iran negotiations on Thursday - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful
2016: 8 March 2016: EU expresses support for Iranian women resistors struggling against government oppression - 25 April 2016: French-Iranian citizen Afshar who left Iran in 2009 after facing espionage charges has been sentenced to six years in jail following her return to the country to visit her critically ill mother - 16 May 2016: French Foreign Ministry staffer Nazak Afshar with dual citizenship awaits appeal on prison sentence in Iran - 11 July 2016: Iran indicts three dual nationals including British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been held in solitary confinement, reports say - 19 July 2016: Iranian regime defends international deal's secret document easing nuke program restrictions, as FM Zarif says paper obtained by AP that shows Iran will be able to get within 6 months of a bomb in a decade is a 'matter of pride’ - 28October 2016: EU’s foreign policy chief Mogherini in Tehran to meet once again smiling child killers and shake bloody hands
2017: 29 July 2017: USA and European allies Britain, France and Germany urged Iran to halt all ballistic missile activity after regime tested a satellite-launch rocket in what USA denounced as a 'provocative' act - 4 August 2017: Amnesty International urges EU's Federica Mogherini to use a visit to Iran to demand that Iranian regime immediately release all imprisoned human rights activists - 13 August 2017: Israel's Mossad chief Cohen noted that in the two years since the signing of the Iran nuclear deal, known formally as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Tehran regime has not abandoned its desire to develop nuclear weapons, and that the agreement 'only reinforced that trend and strengthened Iranian aggression in the region'
November 2017: 2 November 2017: Iran’s trade with the EU stood at €13.1 billion in the eight months ending August 2017, almost double compared with the same period of last year, as Iran-Germany trade increased in 2017 by 19% and Israeli Chief Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says that a genocide is being perpetrated in Syria by the Assad regime and its allies, insisting that there is a moral responsibility to stop the bloodshed of civilians
January 2018: 4 January 2018: To repulse Trump, the Iranian regime needs the Europeans, remaining silent so far in response to the killing of protesters during the 2017/2018 series of protests, as the Iranian theocratic regime spends billions on proxy wars throughout the Mideast
May 2018: 9 May 2018: As Iranian lawmakers vow response 'US and Zionists will regret’, burning a piece of paper representing the nuclear deal and shouting 'Death to America!', France's, Germany's and the UK's governments vow, in a show of unity against the USA on Tuesday, to uphold the Iran nuclear deal, despite USA president’s decision to withdraw from it saying that his administration 'will be instituting the highest level of economic sanction' against the Iranian regime
15 May 2018: Zarif, minister of the Iranian regime committing war crimes together with the Assad and Putin regime, gave an upbeat assessment after a 'good and constructive' meeting with EU's Mogherini, as USA hits Iran’s central bank officials with terror sanctions for helping terrorist group Hezbollah
July 2018: 2 July 2018: Belgium, France and Germany have detained six people, including an Iranian diplomat posted in Vienna, over an alleged plot to bomb a weekend rally by an exiled Iranian opposition group in France, as Iranian regime's Rouhani arrived in Bern on his visit to Switzerland and Austria that regime said was of 'crucial importance' for 'cooperation' between the regime and Europe, telling Swiss president that Israel is 'illegitimate' at a joint press conference
August 2018: 23 August 2018: The European Union agreed 18 million euros ($20.6 million), as part of a wider package of 50 million euros, in aid for Iran on Thursday - 24 August 2018: Israel's PM Benjamin Netanyahu slams the European Union’s financial support package for Iran as a 'big mistake' and said it was like a 'poison pill to the Iranian people and to the efforts to curb Iranian aggression in the region and beyond the region', as Iranian regime attempted to conduct a terror attack on European soil just weeks ago - 25 August 2018: USA slams EU for sending 'wrong message’ with 'aid package' meaning European taxpayers' money for the Iranian regime, as new envoy for Iran says 'more money in the hands of the Ayatollah means more money to conduct assassinations' in Europe
September 2018: 25 September 2018: EU said its members would set up a payment system to allow oil companies and businesses to continue trading with the Iranian regime in a bid to evade sanctions, siding with its state-sponsored terrorism and war once again, as Iran video threatens missile strikes on UAE and Saudi Arabia, also threatening Israel - 27 September 2018: Israel had identified a 'secret atomic warehouse' in Tehran, containing nuclear equipment and radioactive material, according to Israeli PM Netanyahu, calling for new sanctions against Iran and accusing European leaders of 'appeasement' for opposing them
October 2018: 2 October 2018: France blames Iranian regime for foiled bomb attack near Paris in June, saying Iranian ministry of intelligence, which is part of Rouhani’s government, ordered attack on opposition MEK
European Union/Iraq relations: European Union/Iraq relations - 13 August 2014: EU allows states to arm Iraqi Kurds but fails to reach a joint stance on arming Kurds fighting IS terrorists - 15 August: EU backs supply of arms to Kurdish fighters against Islamic terrorists in Iraq, insisting that deliveries should be approved by the new government in Baghdad
European Union/Israel relations: European Union/Israel relations
2013/2014: 8 November 2013: A fifth of Jewish respondents in an EU survey said they had experienced an anti-Semitic incident in the past 12 months, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency says - 26 novembre: Accord UE-Israël sur la coopération scientifique - 9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 18 July: Israel working to ensure EU foreign ministers don’t mix settlements with Gaza at upcoming meeting - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 21 May: The Palestinians, not Israel, walked out of USA-led negotiations 2013/2014, Israel's Hotovely tells EU's Mogherini
2016: 10 February 2016: EU and Israel said in talks to restore ties hurt by the EU’s new labeling guidelines for West Bank and Golan Heights products
December 2017: 11 December 2017: Fending off widespread international criticism, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in Brussels that recognizing Jerusalem as his country’s capital made peace possible, rather than distancing the prospect of an agreement with the Palestinians, as EU's Mogherini insists the city will have to be a shared capital, condemns attacks on Jews worldwide
May 2018: 10 May 2018: EU, British PM back Israel’s right to defend itself from Iranian strikes, as Israeli PM Netanyahu says Iran rocket fire #crossed a red line and we reacted accordingly’, also urging the international community to unite and cut Iranian regime's 'tentacles of evil' spreading in Syria - 25 May 2018: Israel calls on EU to end funding to pro-boycott groups, saying some of the groups have links to terror groups while receiving EU money, adding that the financial support violates the EU’s stated policy that it opposes boycotts against the Jewish state - 29 May 2018: EU condemns ‘unacceptable indiscriminate attack’ on Israel from Gaza, as European envoy highlights mortar shell that fell outside kindergarten, saying 'I know the resilience of communities in southern Israel'
June 2018: 6 June 2018: As Israeli PM Netanyahu ends his visit to Germany, France, UK, diplomatic source quoted as saying there is 'widespread agreement' on ending Iranien regime's military presence in Syria
September 2018: 27 September 2018: Israel had identified a 'secret atomic warehouse' in Tehran, containing nuclear equipment and radioactive material, according to Israeli PM Netanyahu, calling for new sanctions against Iran and accusing European leaders of 'appeasement' for opposing them
European Union/Italy relations: Italy and the European Union
2016: 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit
March 2018: 30 March 2018: Italy receives Assad’s head of secret services Ali Mamlouk in violation of EU legislative acts against the Assad regime
European Union/Japan relations: European Union/Japan relations - 7 octobre 2013: Airbus signe sa première grosse commande avec le Japon
European Union/Kenya relations: European Union/Kenya relations
2018: 19 January 2018: EU criticised for its ‘poor response’ after indigenous herder Robert Kirotich was killed during a forced eviction for a water conservation project it funds in Kenya
European Union/North Korea relations: European Union/North Korea relations - EU-Democratic People's Republic of Korea DPRK relations (EU website)
Since 2006 EU restrictive measures against North Korea: Since 2006 EU restrictive measures against North Korea, the EU has implemented the restrictive measures imposed through resolutions of the UN Security Council and has reinforced them through its own measures, targeting the DPRK's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missile-related programmes
European Union/South Korea relations: European Union/South Korea relations
Since 2001 Europe–Korea Foundation: Since 2001 Europe–Korea Foundation, the philanthropic arm of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in Korea EUCCK, an NGO and a separate entity financially independent from the EUCCK
Since 2009/2011 European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement: Since 2009/2011 European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement
European Union/Lebanon relations: European Union/Lebanon relations
2013: 22 July 2013: EU to decide on blacklisting Hezbollah - 22 July 2013: EU ministers have agreed to put the military wing of Lebanese group Hezbollah on the EU terror list, now facing visa ban and asset freezes
2014: 17 December 2014: After an EU court's decision, body led by EU foreign Policy chief Federica Mogherini releases statement saying that the EU upholds the 'Quartet principles' that bans engagement with Hamas until it forswears terrorism - 21 March 2014: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe
July 2017: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account
European Union/Libya relations: European Union/Libya relations
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 19 April 2016: Libya offered security help by European Union as UN-backed PM Fayez Seraj appeals for aid to fight 'Islamic State' terrorists and rebuild country - 24 mai 2016: Quelque 550 migrants qui tentaient de rejoindre l'Europe par la mer ont été arrêtés mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 29 May 2016: UNHCR says it is now certain that last week was the deadliest since April 2015 as more than 700 refugees and migrants feared dead in three Mediterranean sinkings and as rescue teams describe shocking scenes
2017: 27 February 2017: NGO rescues off Libya encourage traffickers, the head of the EU border agency Frontex Leggeri says, calling for rescue operations to be re-evaluated and adding that NGOs work ineffectively with security agencies - 9 September 2017: German NGO Sea-Eye resumes migrant rescue operations off Libya
September 2017: 25 September 2017: European leaders are embracing Libyan general Khalifa Haftar, a former CIA asset, who has ordered his soldiers to commit war crimes, according to new evidence that has been analysed by senior legal experts
December 2017: 12 December 2017: European leaders stand accused by rights group of being knowingly complicit in the torture and exploitation of thousands of migrants and refugees by the EU-financed Libyan coastguard and officials running the country’s detention camps
July 2018: 20 July 2018: Libya rejects EU plan for refugee and migrant centres, after Italy in June proposed reception and identification centres in Africa as a means of resolving divisions among European governments
European Union and Malta: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
April 2018: 18 April 2018: Following Tuesday’s launch of the Daphne Project, a collaboration between international media organisations, politicians across Europe have demanded that Malta’s chief of police broaden the investigation into the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia so that it pursues more aggressively those 'with a motivation for silencing' the anti-corruption journalist
European Union/Middle East relations: European Union/Middle East relations - EU/Bahrain relations - EU/Iraq relations - EU/Iran relations - EU/Israel relations - EU/Jordan relations - EU/Lebanon relations - EU/Morocco relations - EU/Palestinian territories relations - EU/Syria relations - EU/Turkey relations - EU/Yemen relations
Since 2002 'Quartet on the Middle East': Since 2002 'Quartet on the Middle East'
Since 2003 Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly: Since 2003 Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly
Since 2010 Euro-Mediterranean free trade area: Since 2010 Euro-Mediterranean free trade area including the European Union, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian territories and Tunisia
2011-2018 the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another: 8 April 2018: Haaretz' Anshel Pfeffer describes how the West failed to prevent one Syrian chemical attack after another, saying that in the history of war, no war crime has been so well documented and so predictable to those who had it in their power to prevent it from recurring
May 2018 Iran’s nuclear archive: 5 May 2018: European intelligence officials briefed in Israel on Iran’s nuclear archive
European Union/Moldova relations: European Union/Moldova relations - 1 July 1998: EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement - Delegation of the EU to Moldova since 2005 - 29 April 2014: Moldova keen to join the European Union in 2019 - 28 June: EU signs association agreements with Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia
European Union/Palestinian relations: European Union/Palestinian territories relations - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza - 6/7 August 2014: European countries propose EU mission to open Gaza crossing with a plan for the rehabilitation of Gaza, which calls for its demilitarization but at the same time demands Israel ease the blockade of the enclave - 15 August 2014: EU offers to oversee Gaza border crossings and to work to prevent illegal arms flows, insisting on a durable truce and an disarmament of terrorist groups in the Strip - 18 December 2014: A European Parliament resolution to recognize 'Palestine' as a state only in principle linking the recognition with the resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, passed with 498 votes - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 20 May: In visit with EU foreign minister Mogherini, Palestinian Abbas repeats demand for Israeli settlement freeze, release of prisoners and sets preconditions for peace process - 27 October 2015: In Brussels meeting with EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini, PA president Abbas cites disappointment among young generation, feeling of hopelessnes, fearing deterioration amid wave of terror attacks - 27 October 2015: EU's Mogherini urges Abbas and Netanyahu to meet Quartet ‘in days’, saying Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only get worse with each round of violence
European Union and Poland: European Union/Poland relations
2003/2004: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
July 2017: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom - 26 July 2017: EU executive to start legal action against Poland over judiciary reform - 20 December 2017: The European commission triggers process that could see Poland stripped of voting rights in Brussels, over legal changes that the EU claims threaten the independence of the judiciary
September 2018: 18 September 2018: Poland was banned Monday from the EU body representing the member states’ judicial institutions after controversial Polish government reforms, saying recent reforms mean the country cannot guarantee the independent delivery of justice
European Union and Romania: European Union and Romania
August 2018: 15 August 2018: Political science team says Eastern European countries such as Romania are experiencing a return to authoritarianism some 30 years after the Prague Spring uprising as the ruling government tightens its grip on power - 17 August 2018: EU authorities are facing calls to defend the rule of law in Romania, a week after more than 400 people were injured in mass protests against corruption and changes to the judicial system
European Union/Russia relations: European Union/Russia relations
Russia in the European energy sector - Documented examples of energy sector incidents
30 October 2013: European Union to probe allegations of Russia spying during G20 summit - 29 November: Russia cannot 'veto' its ties with East Europe nations, European Union says - 16 December: European countries bordering Russia's territory of Kaliningrad say they are worried at reports that Moscow has put nuclear-capable missiles there - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups
2014: Since March 2014, the EU has progressively imposed restrictive measures against Russia, adopted in response to the Russian illegal annexation of Crimea and the deliberate destabilisation of Ukraine
Since March 2014: Cyprus, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia are among the EU states most skeptical about the EU sanctions against Russia and have repeatedly called for review of sanctions
March-December 2014: 11 March: EU tells Russia to start Ukraine talks or face sanctions - 13 March: EU agreed on a framework for sanctions on Russia - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU drafts plans for much more substantive sanctions if Putin presses ahead with Russian territorial expansion - 29 March: Russia reportedly retaliated against sanctions imposed by Western countries over its annexation of Crimea - 11 April: USA accuses Russia after Putin warning on gas supplies to Europe - 11 April: EU demands Russia honour its gas commitments - 17 April: European Parliament votes to impose tougher sanctions on Russia due to its military aggression against Ukraine - 27 May: EU awaits constructive steps from Russia after Ukrainian elections - 28 May: EU should make Russia take its mercenaries from Ukraine, Poland's Donald Tusk says - 17 July: USA and EU significantly strengthened sanctions on Russian regime over Ukraine, with USA for the first time directly targeting Russia's banking, military and energy sectors - 25/26 July: EU expands Russian oligarch sanctions blacklist in wake of MH17 crash and broad economic measures against regime are looking increasingly likely - 29 July: EU governments agree to impose sweeping sanctions on Russian regime, targeting state-owned banks, imposing an arms embargo, restricting sales of sensitive technology and the export of equipment for the country's oil industry - 16 August: EU wants Russia not to cover military aggression with humanitarian situation, calling on its regime to put an immediate stop to the flow of arms, military advisers, armed personnel, and to withdraw its forces from the border - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: New EU sanctions against Russia targeting Russian oil firms, defence companies and banks over the crisis in Ukraine enter into force - 16 October: Candidate countries for EU membership join EU sanctions against Russia - 17 October: Putin under pressure from EU leaders to commit to fragile peace plan for eastern Ukraine as violence continues to spread across region despite ceasefire - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 30 October: Recognition of illegal Donbas 'elections' reportedly to strengthen EU sanctions against Russia - 17 December: EU insists on implementation of all points of the Minsk agreements, Federica Mogherini says in Kyiv demanding full respect for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity
2015: 11/12 January: Meeting of foreign ministers a few days before possible east Ukraine summit, as Russia doesn't prove ceasefire commitment and violence spikes in region - 29 January: EU to debate fresh Russia sanctions - 30 January: EU extends sanctions against Russia - 6 February 2015: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel in truce talks in Ukraine and Russia as TV report from Debaltseve shows 'a town almost too dangerous to live in' due to Russian weapons - 7 February: France, Germany and Russia agree to draft Ukraine peace plan that would also include proposals from Ukraine`s President Poroshenko - 8 February: German chancellor Angela Merkel 'disappointed' by Russian attitude but says proposal for demilitarised zone to end conflict is 'worth trying' - 9 February: Normandy format foreign ministers representatives to meet today in Berlin to prepare Minsk meeting on Wednesday - 16 February: More EU sanctions on Russia come into effect on Monday over Russian regime's intervention in east Ukraine - 20 February: France and Germany promise fresh sanctions on Russian regime if the second peace deal brokered in Minsk to end the conflict in Ukraine is not observed - 26 February: EU calls Russia responsible for Nadia Savchenko's state of health - 4 March 2015: Britain, France, Germany, Italy, EU head Donald Tusk and USA called for a 'strong reaction' from the international community to any major violation of a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine as they seek to further pressure Russia over the conflict - 8 March: EU divisions exposed as Russia evades sanctions - 12 March: EU leaders want to tackle Russian 'disinformation' on Ukraine war - 17 March: EU nations called to maintain economic sanctions on Russian regime over its annexation of Crimea and support for separatists until Minsk II ceasefire agreement has been fully implemented - 17 March: Let's not repeat the Munich betrayal of 1938, write Czech and Slovak public intellectuals in an open letter to representatives of EU, France, Germany, U.K., and USA with an appeal to provide more assistance to Ukraine in order to help itself to defend against the Russian aggression - 20 March: EU's Russia sanctions extended to end-2015, EU president Donald Tusk says after a summit in Brussels - 2 April: EU condemns as 'a blatant violation of the right to freedom of expression' the closure of the Crimean Tatar ATR TV, following searches of its premises and attacks on its journalists in the past weeks - 14 April: 'Normandy Four' call on the withdrawal of even more weaponry in Donbas - 20 April: EU will officially complain that Gazprom was hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets - 31 May: EU criticises Russian entry ban on 89 European politicians, including outspoken critics of Russian regime, and military leaders, similar to a list for USA citizens - 4 June: Fighting near Maryinka in eastern Ukraine is the most serious violation of the Minsk agreements by Russian-backed separatists, EU says - 5 June: EU extends sanctions against occupied Crimea for another year, as Germany's Angela Merkel says Russia's participation in G7 not possible without return of Crimea to Ukraine, and Canada's Stephen Harper says that Putin regime cannot be allowed to return to G7 because there 'really is no point in having a dialogue' - 22 June: EU prolongs sanctions against Russian regime over aggression in Ukraine - 30 July 2015: Six more states - Montenegro, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, as well as Ukraine - support the extension of sanctions against Russia until 31 January 2016 - 12 August: The EU notes that the sharp deterioration of the situation in Donbas, which is connected with the attacks of pro-Russian separatists on the positions of Ukrainian militaries, contradicts the Minsk agreements - 16 September: The European Union does not recognize and condemns the electoral processes conducted by Russia in the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea - 12 October: EU foreign ministers urge Russian regime to halt its military intervention in Syria and call for protection of civilians to become an international priority, saying that Assad bore the greatest responsibility for the 250,000 dead and linking 'the systematic targeting of civilians by the regime' to 'mass displacements' - 3 December 2015: EU plans to extend economic sanctions against Russia for another six months - 15 December: EU foreign ministers indicate need to extend Russian sanctions
February-June 2016: 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 28 February 2016: Several European diplomats have paid tribute to the slain Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, visiting the spot in Moscow where the Putin regime critic was gunned down - 7 March 2016: EU to extend sanctions against Russia until 15 September - 7 March 2016: European Union's Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini calls for Nadiya Savchenko's immediate, on humanitarian grounds, release and all other illegally detained Ukrainian citizens - 9 March: Members of the European Parliament urge EU to impose personal sanctions against Russia's Putin and 28 others - 18 March: Russian takeover of Crimea remains 'direct challenge to international security', EU's Federica Mogherini says, warning of worsening human rights situation in the occupied Black Sea region - 26 May: EU officials insist restrictions against Russian regime are to remain unless the Minsk protocol is fully implemented - 21 June: EU extends sanctions against Russia for another six months
October 2016: 17 October 2016: Mogherini rules out EU sanctions on Russia over Syria - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit
February-June 2017: 28 February 2017: The European Parliament has called on the international community to increase pressure on Russia due to unlawful criminal prosecution of Ukrainian citizens on political grounds - 27 March 2017: European Union calls 'on the Russian authorities to abide fully by the international commitments it has made, including in the Council of Europe … to uphold these rights and to release without delay the peaceful demonstrators that have been detained', after tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Russia on Sunday - 14 June 2017: Nord Stream 2 project, that involves piping gas directly from Russia to Germany through the Baltic sea, is unaffected by sanctions and its progress means that Europe is excoriating the Putin regime diplomatically while at the same time promising to inflate the same regime with billions of gas dollars - 19 June 2017: EU prolongs for one year restrictive measures against Russia over Crimea annexation
November/December 2017: 25 November 2017: The EU is stepping up its campaign to counter disinformation and fake news from Russia by spending more than €1m a year on its specialist anti-propaganda unit East Stratcom taskforce - 21 December 2017: EU prolongs economic sanctions against Russia, targeting the energy, financial, defence sectors and the area of dual-use goods, by six months until 31 July 2018
March 2018: 19 March 2018: EU backs Britain in wake of Russian poisoning in Salisbury, after UK foreign secretary Boris Johnson stated 'we actually have evidence within the last 10 years that Russia has not only been investigating the delivery of nerve agents for the purpose of assassination, but has also been creating and stockpiling novichok'
20 March 2018: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker and USA's Trump have broken ranks with western disapproval for Russia's Putin, issuing their congratulations to the former KGB spy for his electoral success even as diplomats were flown out of the UK in retribution for the Salisbury nerve agent attack, and as Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who became Russia’s richest man during the dissolution of the Soviet Union when he owned the Yukos oil company, recognises that if Russia's Putin wants him dead 'no amount of security measures can prevent that' delivering the message 'that you can’t escape from the special services' - 22 March 2018: Europe needs a collective defence strategy to counter Russia, Guy Verhofstadt says - 23 March 2018: EU recalls ambassador from Russia as leaders back May over Salisbury - 23 March 2018: At least 10 EU nations to expel Russian diplomats in response to the use of a nerve agent in Salisbury, described as an 'attack on European sovereignty' - 26 March 2018: Countries across Europe and allies of the UK, including Australia and the USA, have announced the expulsion of dozens of Russian regime's diplomats in a common response to the 'novichok' nerve agent attack in Salisbury
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Ukraine's former president Viktor Yushchenko says in an interview he hopes Europe will wake up to the threat posed by Russia in the wake of the poisonings in Salisbury
Calls to boycott the soccer World Cup in Russia 2018: 12 April 2018: A number of EU member states may announce a diplomatic boycott on the World Cup 2018 in Russia, according to RFE/RL's correspondent in Brussels Rikard Jozwiak - 18 April 2018: Dozens of members of the European Parliament have signed a letter calling on EU governments to boycott the soccer World Cup tournament in Russia this summer, citing Russian Putin regime's 'mockery' of European values
May 2018 EU calls on Russia to acknowledge responsibility for MH17: 25 May 2018: The EU has called on Russia to acknowledge its responsibility for the downing of Malaysia's flight MH17 over occupied Donbas on 17 July 2014, after the Netherlands' government has begun to take steps to hold Russia accountable for the downing of the MH17 flight
June 2018: 11 June 2018: The European Parliament will hold a debate and vote on a resolution related to violation of human rights in Russia - 14 June 2018: EU Parliament has overwhelmingly passed a resolution calling on Russian authorities to release Ukrainian filmmaker Oleh Sentsov and all the other 'illegally detained Ukrainian citizens' in Russia and Russia-annexed Crimea 'immediately and unconditionally', as political groups in the chamber also wanted to include a call for an EU diplomatic boycott of the soccer World Cup that kicks off in Russia on 14 June 14, followed by a call on 'the EU to make a statement to condemn human rights violations in Russia and the attempt to hide them under the cover of the FIFA World Cup' - 18 June 2018: EU extends sanctions against Russia over Crimea annexation by one year
August 2018: 21 August 2018: UK's FM Jeremy Hunt is to urge the EU to stand shoulder to shoulder with the USA administration by imposing more comprehensive sanctions against Russia, saying Vladimir Putin has made the world 'a more dangerous place', and that after a chemical weapons attack in England, the EU should apply more pressure to protect western democracy
European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations: European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations
2015: 8 June 2015: EU vows to make 'every effort' to free Saudi blogger Badawi - 29 October 2015: Saudi Arabia urged by EU lawmakers to free blogger Raif Badawi sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for insulting Islam, as he wins the EU’s Sakharov prize for human rights - 16 décembre 2015: Ensaf Haidar a reçu le prix Sakharov pour la liberté de l'esprit du Parlement européen au nom de son mari Raef Badaoui, détenu en Arabie saoudite pour 'insulte' envers l'islam
European Union/Sudan relations: 13 May 2016: Sudan and the European Union
2017: 28 February 2017: The EU is facing calls to rethink its cooperation with Sudan on migration flows after scores of refugees were whipped, fined, jailed and deported from Khartoum last weekend following a peaceful protest over a huge rise in visa processing fees
European Union/Switzerland relations: European Union/Switzerland relations - 10 February 2014: Swiss voters back limit on immigration - 10 février 2014: Le vote sur l'initiative UDC contre l'immigration intéresse la presse européenne - 15 February: Swiss vote on immigration boosts far-right parties through Europe
European Union/Syria relations: European Union/Syria relations
2013: 27 May 2013: EU to discuss arms embargo on Syria, ending this week either helping Syrian opposition or the Assad regime - 28 May: EU ends arms embargo on Syrian opposition, maintaining stiff economic sanctions against Assad's regime - 7/8 September: European Union blames Bashar Assad for chemical weapons attack in Damascus, calls the attack in Damascus a war crime and a crime against humanity, adding that a strong response is essential to make clear there is no impunity - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - 17 October: Syrian refugees stranded at Milan rail hub - 20 October: A boatload of 254 Syrian and Egyptian migrants including 94 minors landed in Italy on Sunday after a perilous voyage through rough seas from Egypt - 13 December 2013: EU failing Syria refugees, human rights group says
2014: 11 April 2014: With all doors rapidly closing shut, tens of thousands of refugees from war-torn Syria end up in the EU's poorest state Bulgaria - 26 June: Thousands of Syrian children risking death to reach Europe, report says - 25 July: Reluctance to arm moderate rebels increases extremists’ influence, Syrian Coalition's Nasr al-Hariri says - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015
2015: 16 April 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini stresses the importance of achieving a political transition in Syria through a peaceful solution that guarantees the departure of Bashar al-Assad - 20 April 2015: Syrian Coalition regrets the ongoing failure of the international community to find a solution for the problem of displaced Syrians who are drowning in the Mediterranean Sea while trying to seek refuge in Europe - 25 May 2015: 2,157 Syrians, 75 percent of whom are women and children, drowned in the Mediterranean sea since 2011 while trying to escape to Europe, rights group's report claims - 24 June: Syrian Coalition's al-Maleh has set off on a tour of several European capitals to raise the Syrian issue again on the levels of human rights, pushing for opening international investigation into Assad’s crimes - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision - 15 July 2015: A yearlong analysis by the FBI has concluded that the torture photographs of Syrian political prisoners are authentic, providing powerful new evidence to support charges of the Assad regime’s extensive human rights violations - 29 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the international community to shoulder its humanitarian and ethical responsibilities towards the Syrian people and to work on ending the Syrian refugees’ crisis - 2 September: Young Syrian boy found lying face-down on a beach near Turkish resort of Bodrum was one of at least 12 Syrians who drowned attempting to reach Greece - 4 September: Abdullah Kurdi, the father of two children who drowned with their mother as they attempted to reach Greece from Turkey, is preparing to take their bodies back to Kobani in Syria for burial - 6 September: A newborn baby boy found dead on Greek island of Kos after his parents reached the shores in a boat, as Greece is struggling to cope with a wave of refugees from the war in Syria and as refugees and migrants clash with police on another Greek island - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 20 October: At a meeting with the EU reprehensive Lara Scarpetta, the Syrian Coalition’s political committee stressed that the Russian airstrikes are exclusively targeting civilians and rebel fighters allowing ISIS to extend its territory, urging the EU to take firm stand of the Russian aggression and to increase humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees - 6 November: Syrian Coalition submitted a memorandum to the EU containing a legal study on the unlawfulness of the Russian aggression on Syria, documenting war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by Assad and Russia - 16 December: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to condemn the continued indiscriminate use of violence by the Assad regime and Russia carried out by its aircrafts against civilians in Syria - 19 December: UN refugee chief Guterres calls for 'massive resettlement' of Syrians in Europe
2016: 16 January 2016: New UN chief for refugees Filippo Grandi says he hopes Europe's refugee and migration crisis will be solved soon if the necessary political decisions are made - 6 February 2016: European Commission 'extremely worried', USA's Obama administration 'deeply concerned' about the worsening humanitarian crisis due to Assad regime's barbaric onslaught, backed by the Russian regime, the Iranian regime and foreign militias - 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 15 February: Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaite calls for responding to Russia’s violations of international law in Syria and Ukraine, warning that failing to respond to Russia’s actions will put Europe’s security at risk - 21 April 2016: During a meeting between the Syrian Coalition and European External Action Service's officials, Anas al-Abdah says any solution that does not lead to Assad’s departure is doomed to fail - 27 April 2016: EU's Mogherini rules out political future role for Assad in Syria - 23 May 2016: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to salvage political process through reviving the cessation of hostilities agreement and playing a more active role in Syria - 27 May 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bahra calls for EU pressure on Russia to accelerate political solution - 14 June 2016: Russia’s continued aggression on Syria disrupts Geneva negotiations, Syrian Coalition says in Brussels, meeting with European officials to discuss stepping up efforts to reach a political solution - 17 June: EU promises to respond to the Syrian opposition’s requests to step up its engagement on the political track of the Syrian file and create conditions for a substantive resumption to the Geneva talks ending to the monopoly of the USA and Russian regime over the solution in Syria - 28 June 2016: Syrian HNC's Basma Qadamani calls on the EU to impose sanctions on Russian companies involved in the delivery of arms shipments to the Assad's regime which uses them to indiscriminately bomb liberated areas across Syria - 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 19 July 2016: As at least 500 civilians were killed in aerial attacks by the Assad regime and Russia forces on Aleppo and its countryside between 11-19 July mainly directed on the rebel-held areas, Syrian Coalition's Yahya says that the Syrian people lost confidence in the international community as more get killed every day - 20 July: Syrian Coalition's Anas Alabdah sent a letter to the foreign ministers of the USA-led coalition in the wake of the horrific massacres committed in the town of Manbij by aircrafts which claimed the lives of over 125 civilians, calling for suspension of the coalition’s airstrikes
October 2016: 11 October 2016: As British MPs debate the war in Syria and possible ways to end the bloodshed, in contrast to other European parliaments like the German that not by hazard never discussed Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, the medics and rescue teams of east Aleppo are going about their grim daily task of picking through rubble left by airstrikes and patching up survivors - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18/19 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime, and that 'it is unacceptable that some member nations of the European Union continue to defend Russia against credible action and lighten pressure on it despite their ability to immediately stop the disaster occurring in eastern Aleppo' - 19 October 2016: Russian convoy of warships, including an aircraft carrier carrying fighter bombers, passes Britain, monitored by governments and politicians, since nearly 6 years concerned about their discussion threads with brutal criminals and Russian, Iranian and Assad terrorists and not about the victims, on its way to Syria where it is thought they will participate in a final assault on the besieged city of Aleppo, where children are coming as body parts to surviving doctors in out bombed hospitals - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria
November 2016: 30 November 2016: Syrian Coalition's Fahd calls upon the European Union to intervene urgently to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of civilians currently trapped in eastern Aleppo, also calling on the EU to play a more effective role commensurate with its position in the international community - 30 November 2016: 'As Assad’s forces, backed by the Russians, make their final move on Syria’s second city, the world can only count the cost of a humanitarian and military disaster it failed to stop', the British newspapter Guardian says
December 2016: 1 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Anas Abdah urges 15-member group of friends of the Syrian people as well as to international and regional organizations to press for stopping the brutal bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia air forces - 14 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Fahd calls upon the European countries and the USA to take urgent, concrete action to stop the massacres being committed by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies in besieged eastern Aleppo - 15 December 2016: ‘More than words are needed to save civilians’, the mayor of east Aleppo Brita Hagi Hasan says as he arrives in Brussels to address the EU summit, wanting European countries to send monitors to ensure thousands of residents trying to flee the besieged Syrian city make it out safely - 16 December 2016: EU leaders condemn Russia and Iran over Aleppo carnage, as German chancellor accuses the Kremlin and Tehran of 'crimes' that 'must be avenged'
January/February 2017: 4 January 2017: European Parliament's Dutch MP Marietje Schaake criticizes the failure of European countries to stand by the Syrian people in the war that has been waged on them by the Assad regime since 2011, calling the situation in Syria is 'a disgrace to our current generation' - 16 January 2017: After nearly six years of Assad's ongoing war against the Syrian people, European Union foreign ministers in Brussels discuss to continue discussions on the EU's role in supporting a full ceasefire and a genuine political transition in Syria - 14 February 2017: Syrian National Coalition calls on the EU to assume a more active role in pushing forward the negotiations for a political solution in Syria - 21 February 2017: Demanding support of the the EU and the USA, the Syrian Network for Human Rights calls for a preliminary prosecution of the users of chemical weapons in mandated regional tribunals
April 2017: 5 April 2017: Syrian Coalition sent letters to 26 countries and international organizations, including the UN, the EU, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, explaining the repercussions of the chemical attack by the Assad regime against civilians in the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib on Tuesday - 26 April 2017: French intelligence has proof that Assad forces were behind Khan Sheikhoun sarin attack
May 2017: 8 May 2017: Syrian Coaltion's Riad Seif stresses need to develop relations with the EU in meeting with EU foreign affairs advisor Lara Scarpitta - 9 May 2017: Almost four years ago, Italian forces ignored a sinking ship full of Syrian refugees and let more than 250 including 60 children drown, says leaked audio - 17 May 2017: EU's Federica Mogherini said that the entire EU 'is united behind the goal of a political solution to the war, and the means to achieve it' as she stressed accountability for war crimes as key to resolving the conflict in Syria and as Syrian Coalition's Nazir Hakim warned that international inaction towards the Assad regime’s use of chemical and non-conventional weapons against the Syrian people risks creating security threats affecting the whole world - 29 May 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif met with Netherlands Special Envoy for Syria Gerard Steeghs and Renko Verheij to discuss the latest developments in Syria, urging support for basic services projects, as France's Macron hosts Russia's war criminal Putin in Versailles - 30 May 2017: EU extends sanctions on Assad regime for another year, adds 3 ministers to list
June 2017: 5 June 2017: In Brussels Syrian Coalition calls for greater EU role in Syria to curb regime violence, saying that Europe has failed to take action to end the crimes of the Assad regime, Russia and Iran - 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses
July 2017: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account - 17 July 2017: EU imposes sanctions against 16 additional persons of the Assad regime, including 8 high-ranking military officials and 8 'scientists', for their role in the development and use of chemical weapons against the civilian population
October 2017: 9 October 2017: EU Officials reportedly urging Syrian opposition to accept war criminal Assad remaining, pursuing 'normalization' with Assad through the diplomatic and security fields - 11 October 2017: USA urges allies to sanction Hezbollah and disrupt its activities, as Iran-backed group has been heavily involved in the crimes against the Syrian people - 28 October 2017: Human Rights Watch has urged the international community to slap sanctions on the Assad regime after UN investigators blamed Assad regime forces for a sarin gas attack that killed dozens back in April 4
January/February 2018: 23 January 2018: About 10,900 persons reportedly killed by the International Coalition’s warplanes in 40 months including thousands of civilians including hundreds of children and women - 21 February 2018: France says that the bombings on eastern Ghouta by the Assad regime and its allies targeting 'inhabited areas and civilian infrastructure, including medical facilities ... constitute a serious violation of international humanitarian law' - 22 February 2018: Germany's Angela Merkel calls for end to 'massacre' in Syria, condemning the Syrian regime for targeting 'its own people', 'the killing of children, the destruction of hospitals' - 25 February 2018: The response to years of atrocities enacted by the Syrian Assad regime and his allies has been shameful, European, North American countries and their allies should reconsider their policy and change their response to brutality and impunity, the director of foreign policy at the Centre for European Reform Ian Bond says
March 2018: 16 March 2018: Members of the European Parliament have called for the establishment of a Syrian war crimes tribunal and the referral of Syria to the International Criminal Court as attacks by the Assad regime continue to cause mounting civilian casualties in many areas across Syria, particularly in eastern Ghouta, as rights group slams seven years of 'catastrophic failure’ of the international community in Syria - 17 March 2018: Syrian Kurds call the EU to condemn Turkey
April 2018: 4 April 2018: British, French, German and USA's joint statement marking the first anniversary of the chemical massacre in Khan Shaykhun, as Russian-backed Assad regime forces carry out raids on areas in Idlib province, amid increased aerial bombardments - 25 April 2018: As an EU donor conference aims to raise up to $6bn to help Syrians displaced both inside and outside the country, head of the UN’s humanitarian task force for Syria Jan Egeland warns Idlib could be next Syrian disaster zone in 'marathon of pain', now lasting 'two years longer than the second world war' - 25 April 2018: Donor conference for Syrian refugees falls $5bn short of UN target - 30 April 2018: SNHR documents in a report the deaths of 64 civilians, including 12 children, at the hands of regime forces and their Russian allies in the two weeks since the USA-British-French military strike, that has done little to stem the flow of civilian deaths
May 2018: 2 May 2018: In a documenting report SNHR says that the Assad regime and its backers killed dozens of civilians across Syria in April 2018, adding at a meeting that brought together seven European countries, that accountability for war crimes in Syria is essential to bring an end to 'hopelessness and exhaustion that have afflicted the Syrian society' - 13 May 2018: As SOHR says that about 85% of more than half a million people killed in Syria since 2011 were civilians killed by Assad, his Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian allies, and after Europe has done nothing to end the war crimes, German chancellor Angela Merkel, receiving a peace award from Franciscan monks, says on 12 May 2018 that Europe needs to do more to end the war in Syria, while neo-Nazi linked 'Alternative for Germany' speaks at Catholic Convention in the city of Münster
September 2018: 9 September 2018: As Putin incites more atrocities in Syria, Europe is exposed as craven, the Guardian's Nick Cohen says
European Union/Togo relations: Relations entre le Togo et l'Union européenne
European Union/Tunisia relations: The European Union is Tunisia's first trading partner with a total trade amounting to approximately €20.6 billion in 2012 - Association Agreement with the EU since July 1995
2018: 12 February 2018: Growing unemployment, dwindling wages and tax hikes in Tunisia trigger rise in illegal migration and concerns over terrorism, as downturn drives European exodus
June 2018: 3 June 2018: Dozens drown and rescuers save at least 60 lives after vessel with about 180 people onboard sank off Tunisia coast
European Union/Turkey relations: European Union/Turkey relations - accession to the European Union fraught with obstacles by Turkey - 22 October 2013: The EU has agreed to resume long-running talks on Turkey’s membership, scheduled for November 5 - 7 June: Turkey must investigate the excessive use of force by police against anti-government protesters, EU Enlargement Commissioner Stefan Fuele says in Istanbul
2015: 15 April 2015: Turkey's Erdogan says Turkey would disregard the European Parliament's vote later on Wednesday on the 1915 mass killings of Armenians - 6 October 2015: EU and Turkey join forces to thwart Russia's Syria intervention - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 30 November 2015: EU has offered Turkey three billion euros to help Syrian refugees in Turkey in return for Turkish help in stemming migrant flows
2016: 19 February 2016: EU and Turkey to hold special summit on the international refugee and migrant crisis in early March - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 23 March: Turkey prepares list of 25,000 Syrian refugees to send to Europe in 'exchange' for refugees and migrants to be returned from Greece to Turkey - 24 April 2016: After facing judge and arrest ('Police at the door. No joke') over tweets deemed critical of president Erdogan, Dutch journalist Ebru Umar blocked from leaving Turkey, a country wanting accession to the EU - 6 May 2016: Visa-free travel deal between the EU and Turkey on the brink of collapse, after Erdogan insisted he would not change Turkey’s anti-terrorism laws, a key condition of the agreement because used in the country to prosecute journalists and government critics - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 18 July 2016: European politicians urge Turkey's government to respect rule of law after failed coup
24 novembre 2016: Les députés du Parlement européen demandent le gel des négociations d'adhésion avec la Turquie et dénoncent le recul des droits de l'homme et la répression 'disproportionnée' en cours depuis le coup d'Etat manqué
2017: 13 March 2017: Turkey threatens to re-evaluate a key deal to halt the flow of migrants to Europe in a dramatic escalation of its diplomatic row with EU member states, as Erdogan defies pleas from Brussels to tone down his rhetoric, repeating accusations of European 'nazism' and support of terrorism and suspends high-level political contacts with the Netherlands - 18 April 2017: European Commission calls on Turkey to investigate alleged irregularities in Sunday's referendum boosting the powers of Turkish president Erdogan, also urging him to show restraint after his narrow victory
March 2018: 17 March 2018: Syrian Kurds call the EU to condemn Turkey - 16/17 March 2018: At least 16 casualties, including 2 pregnant women, and more injured people in a massacre by Turkish forces targeting the only hospital in Afrin city, as Turkish forces try to break into the city from its north - 17 March 2018: More than 150,000 people reportedly displaced in the last few days from Syria’s Afrin town
European Union/Ukraine relations: European Union/Ukraine relations
2012/2013: 3. Mai 2012: Die EU-Kommission boykottiert die EM in der Ukraine - Plan on Priority Measures for European Integration of Ukraine for 2013 - 24 novembre: Des dizaines de milliers d'Ukrainiens manifestent pour un rapprochement avec l'UE - 28 November: Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in the shadow of Ukraine’s decision to scrap deal with the EU following pressure from Moscow - 29 novembre: L'Europe ne convainc pas le gouvernement de l'Ukraine de se tourner vers l'Ouest - 30 November: Tear gas fills Kiev's Liberty Square as critics of president's decision to block EU trade deal are dispersed by force - 1 December: Yanukovych government's bloody crackdown leads to call for sanctions - 10 décembre: Attendue à Kiev, Ashton redoute un 'déraillement' de la crise - 12 December: Ukraine diplomatic battle heats up over Yanukovych EU agreement claim
2014: 20 February 2014: EU and US consider sanctions against Yanukovich after Kiev crackdown - 21 février: Face aux violences à Kiev l'Union européenne annonce les premières sanctions - 24 February: European nations scramble to support Ukrainian democracy - 24 February 2014: USA and European allies warn Putin regime against Ukraine grab amid break-up fears - 4 March: USA-Europe rifts surfacing as Putin regime tightens Crimea grip and EU ministers spare trade sanctions - 5 March: EU offers Ukraine $15 billion, but help hinges on IMF deal - 6 March: EU leaders to hold emergency talks to decide how strongly they should respond to Russia's troop deployment in Ukraine's Crimea region - 6/7 March: USA and EU impose sanctions for Russia's 'violation of sovereignty' of Ukraine and warn Russia to seek a diplomatic solution - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU signs landmark association agreement with Ukraine - 7 April: Ukraine's president to address parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe over pro-Russian threats to the democratic institutions and attacks in eastern Ukraine - 17 April: EU to launch free trade with Ukraine on 1 November 2014 - 24 April: All persons illegally detained by armed groups in Eastern Ukraine must be immediately released and separatists must immediately hand in arms, EU says - 24 April: EU recognizes the right of the Ukrainian authorities to take security measures to protect the sovereignty of the state - 2 May: Ukraine, EU, Russia fail to agree on price for Russian gas for Ukraine - 8 May: Unauthorized local referenda have no democratic legitimacy and can only lead to further escalation in Ukraine, EU's Maja Kocijancic says - 13 May: EU has officially announced that it will not recognize 'illegal and illegitimate referenda' of separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine - 13 May: EU gives Ukraine 1 bln euros in macro-financial aid - 14 May: Pro-Russian separatists kill seven Ukrainian soldiers in a bloody ambush questioning new Europe push for Ukraine talks - 15 May: EU opens market for Ukrainian goods and services with about 98% of duties nullified - 23 June: EU to send security mission to Ukraine - 24 June: EU completed technical preparations for signing association deal with Ukraine on June 27 - 28 June: Ukraine signs historic trade and economic pact with EU - 12 July: EU imposes sanctions on A. Borodai, leader of Donetsk 'republic', and 10 others, facing travel bans and asset freezes, as clashes continue in east - 26 July: EU sends advisers to assist the Ukrainian government in imposing the rule of law in rebel areas - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: Expressing support for all defenders of Ukraine's sovereignty, EU Commissioner Stefan Fule asks Ukrainian authorities to support residents of Donbas - 7 October: EU sends in drones to save Ukraine truce - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 22 October: Ukraine to get about EUR 2 bln in EU financial assistance - 29 November: EU acts against pro-Russia separatists and their political parties with more sanctions
2015: 10 February 2015: A meeting of representatives of 'Norman Quartet' in Berlin has yielded 'some tangible results' for the negotiations of the leaders of the four states in Minsk on February 11 concerning eastern Ukraine, Ukraine's Andriy Melnyk says - 11 February: Ukraine's president Poroshenko to address EU summit on Thursday, EU's Donald Tusk says adding that the summit will assess the situation in Ukraine, relations with Russia and discuss 'appropriate actions' - 12 February: Ceasefire for eastern Ukraine agreed in Minsk - Minsk II - on 11/12 February 2015 Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany agreed in Minsk to a package of measures to alleviate the ongoing war in the Donbass region of Ukraine - 13 February: In Brussels European worries voiced about potential escalation of fighting before truce on Sunday - 17 February: French, Ukrainian presidents and German chancellor discussed ceasefire violations on telephone stressing that OSCE observers must have free access to the Donbas conflict zone, also calling Russia's Putin to withdraw heavy weapons from the frontline - 19 February: Ukraine and EU agree on immediate response to further Russian-backed aggression against Ukraine after brutal seizure of Debaltseve - 25 February: Partnership with Ukraine determined priority in new EU energy strategy - 3 March: New talks of the 'Normandy Four' in Berlin on March 6 suggested - 19 March: EP International Trade Committee approves allocation of EUR 1.8 billion to Ukraine - 21/22 May: 4th Summit of Eastern Partnership begins, as the EU's approach to the eastern partnership including Ukraine is high on agenda in Riga - 22 May: EU leaders and their colleagues of six former Soviet republics concluded Riga summit by issuing a joint declaration on maintaining their 'Eastern Partnership', but EU membership of eastern partners not considered in Riga - 21 September: EU's Federica Mogherini says Donbas elections must be organised by Ukraine - 3 October: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel address the press after so-called 'Normandy Four' Paris summit, saying France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine had agreed that local elections in eastern Ukraine planned by Russia-backed separatists on 18 October could not go ahead, as Ukraine's president Poroshenko and Russia's Murder-Putin leave Ukraine ceasefire talks in Paris without comment - 26 October: Ukraine's local elections are democratic, EU says - 9 November: EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini due in Ukraine for talks, saying that Ukraine remains top priority of the European agenda and re-affirming the EU's committment to sanctions on Russia - 12 November: An IMF mission and EU's commissioner for trade Cecilia Malmström in Kyiv to discuss Ukraine-EU free trade zone
2016: 1 February 2016: Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko urges Europe to keep sanctions in place until Russia 'gets out of Donbas' - 14 February: EU's Mogherini supports anti-Russian sanctions until Minsk deal fully implemented - 28 May: Representatives of the EU and the UN Development Programme have signed an agreement with the governors of Donetsk and Luhansk regions to allocate EUR 10mln for the restoration of effective management and development of local communities - 30 September 2016: EU Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström announces additional market access preferences for Ukraine - 15 October 2016: Ukrainian president Poroshenko believes that Russia will not terminate its policy of aggression until the world is united to stop Russian Putin regime, calling 'to make every effort to unmask the manifestation of Russian aggression wherever we only can – in Donbas, in the case of the downed MH17, and in Aleppo', emphasizing the importance of solidarity of the whole world in this issue and further extension of sanctions against Russia - 20 October 2016: 'Normandy Four' states agree to develop a 'road map' of the implementation of the Minsk agreements till November, Ukrainain president says, and Ukraine should regain control of its eastern border with Russia at the end of Minsk - 17 November 2016: EU states give conditional approval to visa-free travel for Ukraine
2017: 10 May 2017: The EU will announce the simplification of the visa regime with Ukraine in a few days, according to EU's Federica Mogherini also saying the EU would never recognize the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia
February 2018: 28 February 2018: The EU, EU Member States, the European Parliament and International Organizations were today in Brussels briefed on the dire humanitarian situation faced by 4.4 million conflict-affected people in eastern Ukraine
April 2018: 3 April 2018: Former Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko urges Europe to unite and wake up to Russia's 'medieval policy', following the Salisbury poisoning using 'novichok' - 3 April 2018: 'Normandy Four' summit reportedly may take place without Russia in May to discuss deployment of a UN peacekeeping mission in Donbas - 29 April 2018: Ukraine calls on international community to put more pressure on Russia over escalation in Donbas
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU Parliament supported the European Commission's proposal to allocate the fourth package of macro-financial assistance to Ukraine, amounting to EUR 1 billion
European Union/United Kingdom relations: European Union/United Kingdom relations
Since 1975: June 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum - Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom - United Kingdom and the euro
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and USA agencies - 2 June 2014: British PM Cameron accused of blackmail and threats as he tries to stop Jean-Claude Juncker becoming president of the European commission - 24 October 2014: EU demand for extra £1.7bn from UK prompts emergency meeting as PM Cameron says the demand is 'unacceptable' - 16 December 2015: Flirting with leaving the EU 'very dangerous', John Major says
2016: 15 mai 2016: Pour défendre une sortie de l'Europe l'ex-maire de Londres et chef de file du camp pro-Brexit Boris Johnson compare l'UE à Hitler
June 2016 'Brexit': 23 June 2016 UK EU membership referendum - United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union - 24 June 2016: We want Britain out as soon as possible, EU parliament leader says after UK 'Brexit' voting - 25 June 2016: Emergency meetings as EU pushes for UK to act on leave vote
March 2017: 25 March 2017: Britain’s decision to leave the EU has been described by the Italian PM Paolo Gentiloni as 'closed nationalism' that belongs in the past, during a summit in Rome, where prime ministers and presidents reaffirm commitment to unity - 29 March 2017: Leaked European parliament resolution and EU response to article 50 takes tough line on transitional deal with the UK
April 2017: 10 April 2017: In a letter to Holyrood signed by 26 MEPs as well as members of national and regional parliaments in Germany, Ireland, Greece, Spain and Belgium, European politicians say that Scotland would be 'most welcome' to rejoin the EU as a full member if it voted for independence - 28 April 2017: Europe could allow a united Ireland to join EU after Brexit
May 2017: 27 May 2017: We need deal with the EU to combat terror, experts tell UK prime minister Theresa May
Since 19 June 2017 Brexit negotiations: Brexit negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union - UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union - EU negotiating directives for Brexit - 20 June 2017: UK caves in to EU demand to agree Brexit divorce bill before trade talks - 23 June 2017: UK plan for EU citizens' rights is vague and inadequate, EU officials say, as May urged by campaign groups to match EU's offer on rights of Britons living in Europe - 8 December 2017: 'Progress' in Brexit talks announced after May's dash to Brussels
European Union/United Nations relations: European Union/United Nations relations
Since 1961 WEOG: Since 1961 Western European and Others Group WEOG with 28 member states, one of five unofficial Regional Groups in the UN that act as voting blocs and negotiation forums formed since 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from regional groups - List of members of the UN Security Council and members of Regional Groups
2014/2015: 8 April 2014: UN urges full inclusion of Roma people in decision-making in Europe, marking International Romani Day
2015/2016: 12 May 2015: EU urges UN to back its plan to confront the Mediterranean migrant crisis by using military force against smugglers - 27 May: Europe must do more to help migrants crossing the Mediterranean, UN's Ban Ki-moon says ahead of a visit to Brussels, as a planned EU naval operation awaits approval, adding that any approach should also look at the 'roots' of the problem in countries of origin - 17 September 2015: Hungary's treatment of refugees is shocking and unacceptable, UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon says - 17 November 2015: UN blasts Hungary for 'disgusting' demonisation of refugees - 22 November 2015: UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM criticise the newly imposed restrictions in the Balkans, saying that profiling of refugees and migrants on the basis of nationality is creating an increasingly untenable situation
2016: 27/28 February: UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees, as humanitarian challenges mount at Greek/Macedonian border and as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass following refusals of other European countries - 8 March 2016: The UN high commissioner for refugees Filippo Grandi questions the legality of an outline deal struck by the EU and Turkey saying he is very concerned that a hasty EU deal with Turkey could leave Syrian refugees unprotected and at risk of being sent back to a war zone
European Union and the International Criminal Court: European Union and the International Criminal Court
European Union/USA relations: European Union/USA relations
2012/2013: 13 December 2012: European Court of Human Rights rules that Khaled el-Masri was an innocent victim of extraordinary rendition, torture and ill-treatment by US CIA-agents - 7 June 2013: Europeans call for answers over US web spying - 8 June 2013: European Union concerned by US surveillance revelations showing the US government organising a huge dragnet of Internet and phone data, tapping servers of nine Internet giants - 30 June: US bugged European Union offices, computer networks, according to cited secret NSA documents calling the EU a 'target' - 30 June: Angry European Union demands answers over alleged US bugging - 2 July 2013: Amid reports that the US did not spare even its allies and friends from its spying operations, USA President Obama responds that all nations spy on each other - 4 July 2013: EU seeks dual talks on US surveillance, free trade deal - 6 septembre: Le secrétaire d'Etat américain John Kerry part pour l'Europe pour vanter auprès de ses homologues de l'UE le projet de frappes contre le régime d'Assad - 24 October: Immigration and US spying to dominate EU summit - 25 October: EU leaders warn USA 'spying' and damaged trust could harm fight against terror - 29 octobre 2013: Les Etats-Unis face à la colère des Européens visés par les opérations d'espionnage de l'administration Obama - 2 November: Europe's spies reportedly work together on mass surveillance - 20 December: GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies - 26 March 2014: EU-USA summit in Brussels - 20 January 2015: Rights group calls on European countries to admit CIA cooperation and to detail their roles in operations involving torture - 23 October 2015: EU appears to have broken a promise to reinforce environmental protections in a leaked draft negotiating text submitted in the latest round of TTIP talks in Miami
TTIP and TiSA: 'Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP' is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the USA - Trade in Services Agreement TiSA is a proposed international trade treaty between 23 Parties, including the EU and the USA
2016: 3 mars 2016: Des ONG portent plainte contre Monsanto et l'Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments pour distorsion d'analyses afin de prouver l'innocuité du pesticide glyphosate - 13 April 2016: Whistleblowers fear prosecution under new European Trade Secrets law - 1 May: Leaked negotiating texts for TTIP deal between Europe and the USA show USA's attempts to lower or circumvent EU protection for environment and public health, Greenpeace says - 20 September: Far-reaching global trade deal 'Trade in Services Agreement Tisa' being negotiated in secret could threaten the goals of the Paris climate deal by making it harder for governments to favour clean energy over fossil fuels, a leak of the latest negotiating text shows
2017: 2 February 2017: European parliament’s main political parties are making an unprecedented attempt to block USA's Trump’s likely choice as ambassador to the European Union from EU buildings, who said 'I helped bring down the Soviet Union', 'so maybe there’s another union that needs a little taming' - 3 February 2017: Arriving at a summit in Malta French president Hollande described recent comments by the USA's Trump as unacceptable and warned there would be no future for Europe’s relations with the USA 'if this future isn’t defined in common' - 3 February: Europeans critizise USA's Trump over his anti-EU rhetoric, accusing him of a lack of respect, as Theresa May’s attempts to position herself as a bridge with the new USA president were roundly rejected at a summit in Malta
June 2018: 1 June 2018: EU opens WTO case against Trump's steel and aluminium tariffs
Transatlantic relations and Nato: Transatlantic relations - North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
2013: 2 September 2013: NATO's secretary-general Rasmussen claimed he had seen evidence convincing him Assad regime was behind the deadly chemical weapons attack near Damascus and said it would send a dangerous signal to dictators if the world did not respond firmly
2014: 2 March 2014: NATO meets on Ukraine, says Russia risks destabilizing Europe - 15 March: NATO's Anders Fogh Rasmussen says a planned referendum in Ukraine's Crimea region would violate international law - 16 March: Hackers calling itself 'cyber berkut' in Russian rather than Ukrainian brought down several public NATO websites with cyber-attacks on Saturday - 29 March: Norway's Stoltenberg to become next NATO chief - 1 April: NATO to bolster its military presence in eastern Europe as it sees no sign that Putin regime is withdrawing tens of thousands of troops from the Ukrainian border - 2 April: NATO suspends cooperation with Russia over its annexation of Crimea and will draft measures to strengthen its defences and reassure Eastern European countries - 8 April: NATO's chief warned Russian regime that it would be committing a historic mistake if it intervened further in Ukraine, urging it to step back after pro-Kremlin militants seized government buildings in several cities in the east - 10 April: As Russian military amassing near Ukraine border are 'ready to go,' NATO's Europe commander says USA troops may be sent to alliance member states in Eastern Europe now feeling at risk - 11 April: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 24 July: NATO continues to see evidence of weapons being moved into Ukraine from Russia since the downing of Malaysian MH17 airliner - 8 August: NATO ready to help Ukraine reform defense - 20/21 September: NATO's General Breedlove hopeful about Saturday's announced agreement saying that Ukraine ceasefire is 'in name only' and Russian forces still operating in Ukraine - 24 September: Situation in Ukraine will be a priority for new NATO secretary general Stoltenberg in October - 30 September: Over half of Ukrainians see Ukraine in NATO, poll says - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law - 30 October: Nato jets intercept Russian warplanes following 'unusual level of air activity' over Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Black Sea - 2 December: NATO, Ukraine concerned about build-up of Russia's military presence in Black Sea - 3 December: NATO steps up actions to deal with Ukraine crisis, announcing the establishment of an interim spearhead force
2015: 22 January 2015: NATO confirms Russian troops shift to Ukraine - 5 February: Russian-backed separatists trying to occupy new territories in Donbas, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg says - 7 February: Nato's Philip Breedlove not ruling out delivery of weapons and military equipment by member states to Ukraine - 20 February: Ceasefire in Ukraine observed 'in name only' and Russian regime has created a formidable army in eastern Ukraine, says Nato's Philip Breedlove, as leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia speak on the phone once again and discuss the crumbling ceasefire once more - 9 March: Nato's Philip Breedlove warns that Russian army is still in Ukraine despite Minsk peace deal - 21 March: NATO ready to consider Ukraine's bid for membership, if Ukraine decides to submit it - 24 April: No third party has the right to interfere in a decision for membership, Nato says, repeating that it is ready to consider Ukraine's bid - 23 June: USA pledges support for NATO rapid response force to protect Europe - 23 November: Today Inter-Parliamentary Council Ukraine-NATO will discuss the escalation of the security situation in Ukraine, as well as challenges created by Russia by its hybrid warfare technology faced by NATO Member States and its partner countries, and will consider further political and practical support to counter Russian aggression in Ukraine - 1 December 2015: NATO invites Montenegro to join security alliance
2016: 31 May 2016: Defence spending by Europe's NATO states reportedly set to rise for the first time in nearly a decade, figures show, as fears over Russian aggression and the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean stoke anxiety over security across the continent - 22 June 2016: Nato's Jens Stoltenberg says UK staying in the EU is key to fighting terrorism
2017: 25 May 2017: Video shows Montenegro PM at Nato photocall in the new headquarters in Brussels pushed aside by USA's Trump
February 2018: 1 February 2018: 'The silence of the Nato members is unacceptable when one of their members is killing civilians by the dozens', Afrin's Syrian Democratic Council's Ilham Ahmad says after Turkish regime’s assault, criticized as illegal under international law also by German lawmakers, has killed dozens of civilians, including women and children, wounded several hundred, and led thousands of locals and displaced refugees to flee - 2 February 2018: Syrian Kurds outraged over Turkish and allied Islamic forces' mutilation of female fighter Barin Kobani, who took part in a USA-backed campaign to drive the Islamic State terrorists from the northern town of Kobani
March 2018: 18 March 2018: NATO eyes changes at July summit in Brussels after novichok nerve agent attack in Salisbury blamed on a 'more aggressive' Russian regime showing 'a pattern we’ve observed for some years'
April 2018: 14 April 2018: All NATO allies have expressed their full support for last night's military actions to degrade the Syrian regime's chemical weapons capability, according to Jens Stoltenberg
11/12 July 2018 Brussels NATO Summit: 11/12 July 2018 Brussels NATO Summit - 10/11 July 2018: Europe worries as USA's Trump heads to NATO Summit ahead of his upcoming sit-down with 'Novichok'-Putin, as Trump slams German government, saying 'Germany is a captive of Russia', and as European politicians and energy experts believe Nord Stream 2 will make Europe dependent on Russian gas

Common Security and Defence Policy of the EU, involving the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter - European External Action Service, the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU, led by the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is also President of the Foreign Affairs Council and Vice-President of the European Commission, and carries out the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, including the Common Security and Defence Policy - Since 2004 EU Military Staff
Defence forces of the European Union - Since 1992/1995 European Corps (Eurocorps), an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg in France, with five countries participating in the corps as member nations and five associated nations - Since 2005/2007 EU Battlegroup, a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union
History of the EU's defence policy: History of EU's Common Security and Defence Policy
June 2018: 25 juin 2018: La France et 8 autres pays européens vont lancer lundi un nouveau mécanisme de coopération européenne de défense




Albania - Geography of Albania - History of Albania - Battle of Kosovo 1389 - Albanian resistance during World War II - People's Socialist Republic of Albania 1944-1992 - History of post-Communist Albania - Demographics of Albania
Economy of Albania: Economy of Albania - main industries are perfumes and cosmetic products, food and tobacco products, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower - Companies of Albania by industry
List of oil and gas fields in Albania - Patos-Marinza Oil Field
Mines in Albania
Agriculture in Albania: Agriculture in Albania - main agricultural products are tobacco, figs, olives, wheat, maize, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, honey, dairy products, and traditional medicine plants
Infrastructure in Albania: Infrastructure in Albania - Energy in Albania - Transport in Albania
Tourism in Albania: Tourism in Albania - Visitor attractions in Albania - World Heritage Sites in Albania
Taxation in Albania: Taxation in Albania
Politics of Albania: Politics of Albania - Constitution of Albania 1998
Political parties and trade unions in Albania: Political parties in Albania - Socialist Party of Albania - Socialist Movement for Integration - Trade unions in Albania
Elections, government and politics in Albania: Elections in Albania
June 2013 Albanian parliamentary election: Albanian parliamentary election 23 June 2013 - 23 June 2013: After shooting in the northwestern Lac region, in which an opposition activist was killed and a Democrat candidate wounded, the main opposition PS and the ruling coalition claim victory in the deeply polarised country - 26 June: Rama's left-of-centre coalition captured 84 seats in the 140-member parliament to 56 for Democratic party's coalition
December 2013: 29 December 2013: The Albanian parliament adopted 2014 budget of 3.25 billion euros, with a public deficit estimated at 6.6% of GDP
June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election: 25 June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election - 25 June 2017: Albania’s Socialist Party looked set to win Sunday’s parliamentary vote, an exit poll showed, which would give the ruling party a mandate to push judicial reforms vital for membership of the EU
Social movements and protests in Albania: Protests in Albania
2011: 2011 Albanian opposition demonstrations
2015: 18 December 2015: Thousands of opposition protesters have gathered in front of Albania's parliament demanding the resignation of the government as rampant corruption allegedly driving Albanians to seek asylum in Western Europe
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Albania: Albanian society
Demographics and ethnic groups in Albania: Demographics of Albania - Ethnic groups in Albania
Albanians: Albanians
Aromanians in Albania: Aromanians, Latin ethnic group native to the southern Balkans
Greeks in Albania: Greeks in Albania
Jews in Albania: History of the Jews in Albania dates back about 2,000 years - The Holocaust in Albania consisted of murders, deportations and crimes against humanity committed against Jews, Slavs, Roma and other minorities in Albania by German, Italian and Albanian collaborationist forces while the country was under Italian and German occupation during World War II
Romani people in Albania: Romani people in Albania
Serb minority in Albania: Serb minority in Albania
Human rights and freedom of religion in Albania: Human rights in Albania - Freedom of religion in Albania
Languages and culture of Albania: Culture of Albania - Languages of Albania
Education in Albania: Education in Albania
Health in Albania: Health in Albania
Albanian media: Albanian media
Crime in Albania: Crime in Albania
Corruption in Albania: Corruption in Albania - Political scandals of Albania
Organised crime in Albania: Organised crime in Albania
Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997: Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997
List of massacres in Albania since 1943: List of massacres in Albania since 1943 - 9 July 1943 Massacre of Borovë
Albanian law: Albanian law - Constitution of Albania - Legal history of Albania
Judiciary of Albania: Judiciary of Albania
Courts in Albania
Law enforcement in Albania: Law enforcement in Albania
Foreign relations of Albania: Foreign relations of Albania
Treaties of Albania: Treaties of Albania
Albania/Bulgaria relations: Albania/Bulgaria relations
Albania/PR of China relations: Albania/PR of China relations - Albania in the Chinese Sphere 1958-1978 - Sino-Albanian split 1978
Albania/EU relations: Albanian EU accession bid 2009
Albania/Germany relations: Albania/Germany relations - Albania during World War I 1914-1918 - Principality of Albania 1914-1917, 1920-1925 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Italy relations: Albania/Italy relations - Italian protectorate over Albania 1917–1920 - Italian invasion of Albania 1939 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Kosovo relations: Albania/Kosovo relations
Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations: Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations - Demographic history of Macedonia and Albania - Ideology of 'Greater Albania' - Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 2001 - 2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence - Smilkovci lake killings 2012
Albania/Serbia relations: Albania/Serbia relations
Albania/Turkey relations: Albania/Turkey relations - Albanian Declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire on 28 November 1912
Albania/USA relations: Albania/USA relations
Environment of Albania: Environment of Albania - Climate of Albania - Biodiversity of Albania
Environmental issues in Albania: Environmental issues in Albania, includung air and water pollution, waste and deforestation
Conservation in Albania: Conservation in Albania - Protected areas of Albania - Institute for Environmental Policy in Albania
Water in Albania: Water in Albania - Rivers of Albania
Natural disasters in Albania: Natural disasters in Albania
Floods in Albania: Floods in Albania
2009–2010 Albania floods: 2009–2010 Albania floods refer to several periods of major flooding in the northern regions of Albania around Shkodra, Lezhë and Durrës


Austria - Geography of Austria - History of Austria - Demographics of Austria
Economy of Austria: Economy of Austria - main industries include construction, machinery, metals, vehicles and parts, food, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, chemicals, tourism - List of companies of Austria
Mining in Austria: Mining in Austria
Energy in Austria: Energy in Austria
Fossil fuels in Austria: Fossil fuels in Austria - Petroleum in Austria - Oil and gas companies of Austria
Electricity in Austria: Electricity in Austria, in 2010 28.5% came from fossil fuels, 68.6% from hydropower and the remainder from other sources
Hydroelectric power stations in Austria: Hydroelectric power stations in Austria
Solar and wind power in Austria: Solar power in Austria - Wind power in Austria
Agriculture in Austria: Agriculture in Austria, agricultural and forestry output is heavily concentrated in field crops, meat, and dairy products, with most of it coming from animal husbandry
Water in Austria: Water in Austria
Rivers and lakes of Austria: Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - List of lakes of Austria - List of dams and reservoirs in Austria
Danube: Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe
Water transport in Austria: Water transport in Austria
Tourism in Austria: Tourism in Austria - Tourist attractions in Austria - Austria–Slovenia border
Banking in Austria: Banking in Austria - Banks of Austria - Hypo Group Alpe Adria - bank scandal - 14 December 2009: Austria nationalises ailing Hypo Group Alpe Adria
8. April 2013: Nach Luxemburg beginnt auch in Österreich das Bankgeheimnis zu bröckeln
Taxation in Austria: Taxation in Austria
Politics of Austria: Politics of Austria - Political parties in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Elections and politics in Austria: Elections in Austria
2008: 28 September 2008 Austrian legislative election
2010: 25 April 2010 Austrian presidential election - 10 October 2010 Viennese state election
2013: 3 March 2013 Carinthian state election - 3 mars 2013: En Carinthie les différents instituts de sondages donnent autour de 32% (contre 28,8% en 2009) au candidat social-démocrate Peter Kaiser contre seulement autour de 21% au gouverneur sortant de l'Etat régional - Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 2013
September 2013 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2013 Austrian legislative election - 29 septembre: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour 6,4 millions d'électeurs qui doivent renouveler les 183 députés de leur Conseil national - 29 septembre: La coalition sortante des sociaux-démocrates et conservateurs remporte la majorité absolue, forte poussée de l'extrême droite
2014 European Parliament election: Austria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015 Styrian and Vienna election: 31 May 2015 Styrian state election, Social Democrats win Styrian state election, securing 29.29% of the vote despite Freedom party gains - 11 October 2015: Social Democrats win Vienna election, securing 39.5% of Sunday’s vote, ahead of the Freedom party on 31%
24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election: 24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election - 25 April 2016: Far-right and anti-immigration 'Freedom' party's Norbert Hofer takes 36% of the vote as candidates from the two governing parties fail to make runoff
April 2016: 28 April 2016: Austrian MPs to bring in some of Europe’s most stringent asylum legislation, days after a far-right politician won the first round of the country’s presidential elections
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Faymann quits as Austrian chancellor - 21 May 2016: Far-right Austrian presidential candidate Hofer accused of lying over Jerusalem terror incident
22 May Austrian presidential election second round - 23 mai 2016: Alexander Van der Bellen, former Green party leader, elected president in Austria in narrow defeat for far right
July 2016: 1 juillet 2016: Après un coup de théâtre sans précédent de l'invalidation du résultat de l'élection présidentielle par la Cour constitutionnelle les Autrichiens vont retourner aux urnes pour élire un président
December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election: 4 December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election - 5 December 2016: Austria’s voters have resoundingly rejected anti-immigration and eurosceptic Hofer’s bid to become EU’s first far-right president, instead electing former leader of the Green party Van der Bellen who said he would be an 'open-minded, liberal-minded and above all a pro-European president', a result greeted with relief
January 2017: 30. Januar 2017: SPÖ und ÖVP stimmen neuem Regierungspakt zu
October 2017 Austrian legislative election: 15 October 2017 Austrian legislative election - 16 October 2017: Stoking concerns about a record influx of migrants into Europe following the failure of the international community to tackle crises in the Middle East and Africa, Austria's 'People’s Party' got 31.4% of the vote, the 'Freedom Party' came in second with 27.4% and the 'Social Democratic Party of Austria', which now governs in coalition with 'People’s Party', got 26.7% - 24 October 2017: Austria’s Sebastian Kurz on Tuesday agreed to hold coalition talks with the FPÖ, potentially rekindling an alliance previously dubbed a 'pact with the devil' by the media
December 2017: 15/16 December 2017: Having Nazi roots and campaigning on an anti-immigrant platform Austria’s anti-immigration FPOe and the OeVP agreed a coalition deal - 20 December 2017: Rise of 'Freedom Party' founded in 1956 by a former SS officer raises fears Austria hasn’t learned from Nazi past
January/February 2018: 11 January 2018: The Jewish Community of Vienna, which represents most Jews in Austria, continues long-standing policy of boycotting the 'Freedom Party' with its Nazi roots, as Israel also rejects meetings with party ministers - 24 January 2018: FPÖ candidate for state office Udo Landbauer was a member of student fraternity whose songbook contains Nazi lyrics - 21 Februar 2018: Austrian Jewish students disrupted cabinet minister Fassmann’s speech at a conference on anti-Semitism over the fact that Kurz government includes politicians from the 'Freedom Party' known for anti-Semitic and racist incidents involving its members and leaders
Social movements, criticism and protests in Austria: Protests in Austria
2009: 2009 student protests in Austria
2013: 2 February 2013: Nine protesters have been arrested for civil disorder in demonstrations against a right-wing ball in Vienna's imperial Hofburg Palace - 20 April 2013: Austrians disagree with their government over the need to maintain the country's banking secrecy, according to polls which showed a majority in favour of lifting the controversial measure
2015: 31 January 2015: Austrian police hold 38 people as thousands protest outside controversial palace ball in Vienna
September 2015: 1 September 2015: About 20,000 people took to the streets of Vienna on the eve of 1 September to demonstrate against ill-treatment of refugees, after the bodies of 71 people were found on Austria’s A4 motorway in an abandoned truck last week and as the European refugee and migrant crisis escalates - 1 September 2015: Along with several hundred citizens wanting to pay respect to refugees, Vienna and Austrian officials hold memorial for 71 refugees found dead in an abandoned lorry
2016: 1 May 2016: Around 80,000 people on May Day in Vienna greeted SPÖ's Faymann with loud boos and calls to step down, following the ruling coalition’s handling of the refugee and migrant crisis, rising unemployment and disastrous defeat in presidential ballot
December 2017: 18 December 2017: Thousands protest as natioalist ministers enter government in Austria, following a deal of ÖVP with the 'Freedom party' founded after the second world war by former members of the Nazi party
January 2018: 13/14 January 2018: Thousands of Austrians gathered to protest against the new coalition government, which includes the FPO founded by former Nazis, with a march in Vienna, carrying placards reading 'Never Again' and chanting slogans such as 'Don't Let Nazis Govern'
June 2018: 30 juin 2018: Plus de 80'000 personnes ont manifesté samedi face à la volonté du gouvernement d'étendre à 12 heures par jour et à 60 par semaine la durée maximale autorisée de travail
October 2018: 4 octobre 2018: Plusieurs milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Vienne pour ressusciter les 'manifestations du jeudi' de l'année 2000 contre le premier gouvernement de coalition entre ÖVP et FPÖ
Austrian society, demographics, culture and human rights: Austrian society - Human rights in Austria - Legal history of Austria
Demographics of Austria: Demographics of Austria - Austrians - Ethnic groups in Austria - Ethnic groups in Vienna
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria begins with exodus of Jews from Palestine under Roman occupation - History of the Jews in Vienna - History of the Jews in Salzburg
Romani people in Austria: Romani people in Austria
Arabs in Austria: Arabs in Austria, the people from Arab countries, particularly Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Jordan
Filipinos in Austria: Filipinos in Austria
Hungarians in Austria: Hungarians in Austria
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria
Turks in Austria: Turks in Austria
Immigration and refugees in Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
2014-2016: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Since 2015 Austrian border barrier: Austrian border barrier is a border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia, as a 'response' to the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 15 mai 2015: La Croix-Rouge a vivement critiqué la création de camps de tentes pour les demandeurs d'asile en Autriche, annoncé par le gouvernement - 28 August 2015: More than 70 migrants were found dead in an abandoned lorry on Austria’s A4 motorway between Neusiedl and Parndorf, registered to a Romanian citizen from the Hungarian city of Kecskemét - 29 August 2015: Three young children are recovering in hospital in Braunau from severe dehydration after police in Austria stopped a truck with 26 refugees and migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Bangladesh inside - 31 August: Austria toughens border controls in trafficking clampdown - 1 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees arrive from Hungary in Vienna and ran towards the next trains heading for Germany - 5 September: A first bus carrying refugees who have been stranded in the Hungarian capital reached the Austrian border early Saturday, after Austria and Germany agreed to take in refugees - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 7 September: As Thousands of refugees arrive by foot, buses, and trains to Vienna, Austrians offer food and water to arriving refugees - 10 September: Thousands more migrants stream into Austria from Hungary - 20 September 2015: Around 13,000 people entered Austria on Saturday, according to the Red Cross, after being shunted through Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia and forced away from these EU members - 23 October: As thousands more refugees and migrants have crossed from Slovenia to Austria, travelling for days from the Serbian border with Croatia, Austrian officials ask EU for more assistance to tackle refugee crisis
2016: 18 February 2016: Austria's announcement to limit the number of refugees allowed to enter its territory receives a sharp rebuke from the European commission which branded the move 'plainly incompatible' with international law
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy
2018: 2 mars 2018: Cinq migrants, quatre Iraniens et un Pakistanais, abandonnés dans le froid par des passeurs ont été secourus vendredi sur une autoroute du sud-est de l'Autriche où ils marchaient pour certains pieds nus
Culture and languages of Austria: Culture of Austria - Languages of Austria - Austrian German - Vienna culture
Music in Austria: Music in Austria
Viennese classical period of music: Viennese classical period of music in the 18th and 19th century - Musical development - 1732-1809 Joseph Haydn, born in Rohrau - 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg - 1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, born in Bonn - 1797-1828 Franz Schubert, born in Vienna
Education in Austria: Education in Austria
Schools in Austria: Schools in Austria
Health in Austria: Health in Austria
Healthcare in Austria: Healthcare in Austria
Hospitals in Austria: Hospitals in Austria - List of hospitals in Austria by city
'Steinhof' and 'Am Spiegelgrund' hospitals and Nazi regime's euthanasia programme: 'Steinhof' hospital in Vienna - during the Second World War, some 700 children were tortured and murdered in the hospital - Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO) became the head prison doctor in 'Am Steinhof' hospital in 1955, ill-famed for his proven involvement in the killing of at least nine children with physical, mental and/or emotional/behavioral characteristics considered 'unclean' by the Nazi regime under its Euthanasia Program as Gross was head of the Spiegelgrund children's psychiatric clinic for two years during World War II, and as his role in hundreds of other cases of infanticide remained unclear - Am Spiegelgrund clinic - Action T4 euthanasia centres
April 2002: 29 April 2002: The remains of the last two of almost 800 children and babies killed in Vienna in the Nazi regime's euthanasia programme, who had been kept ntil recently in the cellar of the Spiegelgrund children's clinic in Vienna, where they died and where, until the early 90s, they remained under the supervision of Dr Heinrich Gross (SPO), who is alleged to have murdered them were laid to rest during a joint funeral and memorial service at Vienna central cemetery yesterday
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Austrian Dr Hans Asperger, after whom Asperger syndrome is named, was an active participant in the regime of National Socialism, assisting in the Third Reich’s euthanasia programme and supporting the concept of racial hygiene by deeming certain children unworthy to live, according to a study by medical historian Herwig Czech, following eight years of research
Media of Austria: Media of Austria - Newspapers in Austria
Internet in Austria: Internet in Austria
Crime in Austria: Crime in Austria
Austrian National Socialism: Austrian National Socialism, formed at the beginning of the 20th century taking a concrete form on 15 November 1903 when the German Worker's Party DAP was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic, its political organization DNSAP banned in early 1933 revived and made part of the German NSDAP after the German annexation of Austria in 1938
Antisemitism in Austria: Antisemitism in Austria - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria - März 1945 Massaker von Rechnitz - 13 July 2017: 'My aunt had a dinner party, and then she took her guests to kill 180 Jews' in March 1945, journalist Sacha Batthyany reveals more than 60 years later
Antisemitism and Neo-Nazism in contemporary Austria: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria - Neo-Nazism in Austria
2015: 11 February 2015: Call to kill Jews is legal criticism of Israel, Austrian prosecutor says - 4 April 2015: Anti-Israel protesters call 'Kill the Jews' in Vienna as Bosnian soccer fans join pro-Palestinian rally
2016: 20 octobre 2016: Un policier autrichien a été condamné à neuf mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir crié 'Heil Hitler' à un automobiliste lors d'un contrôle routier
2018: 16 February 2018: Anti-Semitic hate speech incidents in Austria at all-time high, according to watchdog Forum Against Anti-Semitism, saying expression of hatred towards Jews has become more 'socially acceptable'
Corruption in Austria: 10 December 2010: Rampant corruption in Austria - 14 June 2013: Vienna prosecutors this week charged nine people, including the deputy governor of the Austrian National Bank, over suspected bribes and kickbacks for banknote contracts with Azerbaijan and Syria - 14. September 2013: Haftstrafen für verdeckte Parteienfinanzierung der Telekom Austria in der Höhe von 960.000 Euro an das von Haider gegründete 'Bündnis Zukunft Österreich' im Herbst 2006
Human trafficking in Austria: Human trafficking in Austria
Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria: Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria - Sexual abuse scandal in Vienna archdiocese
Political scandals in Austria: Political scandals in Austria
2011 cash for influence scandal - 9 August 2012: Former Austrian interior minister and Euro MP, Ernst Strasser, has been charged in Vienna with corruption
Law and legal history of Austria: Austrian law - Legal history of Austria - Constitutional history of Austria - Constitution of Austria - Federal Constitutional Law is the centerpiece of the constitution of the Republic of Austria
Courts in Austria: Courts in Austria
Law enforcement in Austria: Law enforcement in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria: Foreign relations of Austria
Wars involving Austria and military history of Austria: Wars involving the Habsburg Monarchy - Wars involving Austria - Military history of Austria
Treaties of Austria: Treaties of Austria - United Nations Charter and since 1955 Austrian membership - Treaties entered into by the European Union
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government - 26 October 1955 Austria's Declaration of Neutrality - the Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed itself to declare its neutrality
Austia's membership in international organisations: Austia's membership in international organisations
Austria/United Nations relations: Austria/United Nations relations
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
Austria/European Union relations: Austria/European Union relations - Euroscepticism in Austria
1994 EU membership referendum: 1994 Austrian European Union membership referendum
Immigration to Austria and border barrier: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - Austrian border barrier
Bilateral relations of Austria: Bilateral relations of Austria
Austria/Belgium relations: Austria/Belgium relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Austria/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations:
1878-1914: Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 - Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878-1918 - Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 - Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Since 1908 Austro-Hungarian 'Schutzkorps' militia's persecution of Serbs the first large-scale persecution of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina because of their ethnicity
1914-1918: 28 June 1914 Assassination in Sarajevo - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo - July Crisis 1914 - Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign (World War I) 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War I casualties
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Brazil relations: Austria/Brazil relations
Since 1940, 1951-1967 Austrian protection of Nazi war criminal Stangl: 1 July 2017: Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka, since 1940 superintendent of the T-4 Euthansia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim, commandant of Sobibor from March 1942 until September 1942, when he was transferred to Treblinka, always dressed in white riding clothes, since 1951 in Brazil where he was given an engineering job, since 1959 working at a Volkswagen AG factory, for years his responsibility in the mass murder of men, women and children had been known to the Austrian authorities, but Austria did not issue a warrant for Stangl’s arrest until 1961, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested in Brazil
Austria/Czech Republic relations: Austria/Czech Republic relations - Austrian Empire
Austria/France relations: Austria/France relations
1792-1797 War of the First Coalition against the French Revolution: 1792-1797 War of the First Coalition, the wars that several European powers fought against the French First Republic founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government
Austria/Germany relations: Austria/Germany relations - History of the Holy Roman Empire 962–1806 - Military history of the Holy Roman Empire - Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 - Military history of Austria
1914-1945: July Crisis 1914 - 5/6 July 1914 Hoyos Mission and 'Blank cheque' in Berlin - World War I 1914-1918 - German occupation 1938: "Anschluss" - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2012-2013: 12 October 2012: Vienna will erect first monument to remember the thousands of people executed by the Nazis for deserting or refusing to serve in the military during World War II - 10 mars 2013: Des historiens exhument le passé nazi de l'orchestre philharmonique de Vienne - 12 mai 2013: Plus de 10.000 personnes venues de plus de 50 pays ont commémoré dimanche le 68e anniversaire de la libération du camp de concentration nazi de Mauthausen
2014: 24. Oktober 2014: Denkmal für die Verfolgten der NS-Militärjustiz als zentrale österreichische Gedenkstätte für Deserteure des NS-Regimes am Wiener Ballhausplatz von Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer der Öffentlichkeit übergeben
2015: 5. Mai 2015: Nach Berichten, daß der BND dem USA-Geheimdienst NSA beim Ausspionieren österreichischer Behörden geholfen habe, erstattet Österreich Strafanzeige
June 2018: 16 juin 2018: L'exécutif autrichien a demandé à l'Allemagne des explications après de nouvelles allégations visant les services secrets allemands, accusés d'avoir espionné un grand nombre d'institutions et d'entreprises en Autriche, dont des ambassades et organisations internationales
Austria/Hungary relations: Austria/Hungary relations - Hungarians in Austria - History of the Hungarians in Vienna
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary 1867-1918
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918
Austria/Israel relations: Austria/Israel relations
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria
1938-1945: The Holocaust in Austria - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2014: 24 July 2014: Israeli footballers assaulted by pro-Palestinians during match in Bischofshofen
Austria/Italy relations: Austria/Italy relations
1848/1849 First Italian War of Independence and first aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice: First Italian War of Independence 1848-1849 following Revolution of 1848 in the Italian states - Republic of San Marco 1848-1849 reconquered by Austrian troops following a long siege and an Austrian bombardment 1849 - 1849 First aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice
1914-1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary's and Germany's campaign against Italy in World War I 1914-1918 - Deutscher Giftgaseinsatz und Massenmord an Italiern entschied im Herbst 1917 die Schlacht bei Kobarid (19. Mai 1998)
2016: 2 avril 2016: L'Autriche envoie l'armée à la frontière italienne contre un afflux de migrants et de réfugiés cherchant à gagner le nord de l'Europe - 27 April 2016: Austria plans Italian border fence to control refugee and migrant flow, as Italy says Brenner Pass restrictions would be illogical and against EU rules
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy, as Brussels urged Europe to help Italian authorities manage an 'unprecedented' arrival of people from north Africa
Austria/Poland relations: Austria/Poland relations - Partitions of Poland conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria
Austria/Serbia relations: Austria/Serbia relations - Serbs in Austria
July 1914: 23 July 1914: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia - July 1914 preparations for the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, content and Serbian response - 28/29 July 1914: Austria has declared war upon Serbia and Austro-Hungarian troops reportedly invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz
1914-1918: 1914-1918 Serbian Campaign (World War I)
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Slovenia relations: Austria/Slovenia relations
Austria-Slovenia border: Austria–Slovenia border - Austrian border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia against refugees from Syrian and some other countries in the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 November 2015: Austria has put up barbed wire at a border crossing with Slovenia used by hundreds of refugees and migrants despite chancellor's pledge
Austria/Switzerland relations: Austria/Switzerland relations - Duchy of Austria 1156–1453 - House of Habsburg originally from Aargau - Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1516 - Swiss Confederacy, reformation, Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 and recognition of independence of Switzerland from the 'Holy Roman Empire' - The Congress of Vienna 1814/1815 re-established Swiss independence, European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality - During both World War I 1914-1918 and World War II 1939-1945 Switzerland's 'neutrality' allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry
Austria/Syria relations: Austria/Syria relations
2016: 15 January 2015: The Syrian community in Austria calls on the Austrian Government to cut off economic relations with the Assad regime and to expel its ambassador to Vienna
Austria/Turkey relations: Austria/Turkey relations - Turks in Austria
1529: 1529 Siege of Vienna, first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna
1683: Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months
1683-1699: Great Turkish War 1683-1699 between the Ottoman Empire and several contemporary European powers joined into 'Holy League'
1787–1791: Austro-Turkish War 1787–1791 - Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
1914-1918: Austrian and Ottoman empires allies during the First World War
2017: 5. März 2017: Bundeskanzler Christian Kern hat sich für ein EU-weites Verbot von Wahlkampfauftritten türkischer Politiker ausgesprochen und wirft Erdogans Regime vor, 'Menschenrechte und demokratische Grundrechte mit Füßen' zu treten
Austria/Ukraine relations: Austria/Ukraine relations - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918 - a big portion of West Ukraine (Galicia and Carpathia) were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today consisting of Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 - during the war Ukraine was occupied by the Central powers military force including the Austrian military that drove Bolsheviks out of the country
1918: Februar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine–Central Powers
2015: 1 May 2015: An Austrian court refuses to extradite Ukrainian tycoon in gas trading and chemicals Dmytro Firtash to the USA over corruption charges, indicted in 2013 along with a member of India's parliament and four others
Austria/United Kingdom relations: Austria/United Kingdom relations
Environment of Austria: Environment of Austria - Natural history of Austria
Protected areas of Austria: Protected areas of Austria
Environmental issues in Austria: Environmental issues in Austria, including waste disposal, pollution, noise, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels, as well as emissions by the iron, steel, and ceramics industries
Water in Austria: Water in Austria - Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe - List of lakes of Austria
Natural disasters in Austria: Natural disasters in Austria
Floods in Austria: Floods in Austria
June 2009 European floods: June 2009 European floods
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods
Avalanches in Austria: Avalanches in Austria


Belarus - Geography of Belarus - History of Belarus - Demographics of Belarus
Economy of Belarus: Economy of Belarus - main industries include petrochemicals, potash, foodstuffs, timber, metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, textiles, radios, refrigerators - List of companies of Belarus - Companies of Belarus by industry ?risis of 2011 - 4. Juni 2011: Putin hilft Lukaschenko mit 3 Mrd. $ - 5. August: Weißrussischer Staatsbetrieb 'Belaruskali' erhält 2 Mrd. Dollar Kredit von 'Deutscher Bank' und russischer 'Sberbank'
Energy in Belarus: Energy in Belarus
2016: 9 August 2016: 30 years after world’s worst nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Belarus, which saw a quarter of its territory contaminated in the disaster, is building its first energy plant powered by the atom, as neighbouring countries denounce 'Soviet-style secrecy’ over accidents during energy site’s construction
Agriculture in Belarus: Agriculture in Belarus - products include grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax, beef, milk
Banking in Belarus: Banking in Belarus
Politics of Belarus: Politics of Belarus - Presidential election 2010
2012: Parliamentary election 23 September 2012 - 23 September: Belarus is holding parliamentary elections without the country's main opposition parties, after a boycott was called on the grounds of election irregularities and illegal detentions - 24. September 2012: Nach 'Parlamentswahl' Opposition voraussichtlich ohne Mandat - 24 September: Western observers of parliamentary election say the election was 'not competitive from the start'
2015: 16 April 2015: Belarus imposes ‘social parasite’ law to fine unemployed, now facing an unemployment tax from the government - 29 August 2015: Belarusian opposition call on their supporters to boycott October's presidential poll, saying it has already been rigged - 24 September: At a rally in the Belarusian capital Minsk opposition leader Statkevich calls for presidential election boycott since opposition figures were barred from running
October 2015 Belarusian presidential election: 11 October 2015 Belarusian presidential election - 12 October: Lukashenko wins fifth term - 13 October: Belarusian presidential election fell short of democratic standards, international monitors say
September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election: 11 September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election - 12 September 2016: Anna Konopatskaya of the United Civil Party became the first opposition parliamentarian in Belarus in 20 years
Social movements and protests in Belarus: Belarusian democracy movement
2010: December 2010 election crackdown
2011/2012: 2011 Belarusian protests - 14. Mai 2011: Andrej Sannikow zu 5 Jahren Straflager verurteilt - 20. Mai: Weitere Haftstrafen für Opposition - EU-Sanktionen? - 30. Juni 2011: Erneut Festnahmen von zahlreichen Demonstranten und Reportern - 3 July 2011: Violence and arrests in a crackdown on anti-government protests - 7. Juli 2011: Wieder Festnahmen bei Protesten in Minsk und anderen Städten - 13. Juli 2011: Polizei in Minsk prügelt Demonstranten - 20. Juli 2011: Klatschen gegen das Regime in Weißrußland - 8. Oktober 2011: Angesichts der Wirtschaftskrise fordern Demonstranten Neuwahlen von Präsident und Parlament - 13 March 2012: Belarus added to web censorship blacklist - 25. März 2012: Tausende bei regierungskritischer Kundgebung - Freilassung politischer Gefangener und demokratische Reformen gefordert - 23. Juni 2012: Der Journalist Andrzej Poczobut wegen angeblicher Präsidentenbeleidigung verhaftet
2015: 11 October 2015: Hundreds of opposition protesters marched in the capital Minsk on the eve of a presidential election, as opposition leaders say Belarusian presidential election is a sham
2016: 12 September 2016: Several hundred people have gathered in Minsk in protest of the parliamentary elections on Sunday, saying new vote must be held and demanding that the resignation of Lukashenko
2017: Since February 2017 Belarusian protests - 17 March 2017: 'Basta' and 'we are not slaves', these are the most popular slogans brandished at the Belarusian protests, which have seen thousands take to the streets and more than 100 people detained in a government crackdown - 23 March 2017: Human rights organisations have called on Belarusian authorities to drop all charges immediately against writers, publishers and journalists who have been arrested following a wave of nationwide protests, demanding the cancellation of the newly introduced Presidential Decree No. 3, which imposes a tax on the unemployed
March 2018: 25 March 2018: Scores of protesters were arrested Sunday in the capital of Belarus as supporters of the country’s repressed opposition tried to hold a march to mark the 100th anniversary of the short-lived Belarusian People’s Republic of 1918-19, seen by the opposition as the foundation of an independent Belarus
Society, demographics, languages, culture and human rights in Belarus: Belarusian society
Human rights in Belarus: Human rights in Belarus - Government-sponsored hostage-taking in Belarus - Persecution of political dissidents, Extrajudicial use of judiciary, Harassment and censorship of independent media, Authorities interfere in trade-union elections and independent trade-union leaders have been dismissed from their positions, Antisemitism in Belarus
2013: 29 November 2016: As Belarus remains highly repressive, with the authorities suppressing virtually all dissent and severely impeding freedoms of association and assembly, the EU has good reason to maintain its sanctions and press for an end to abuses, Human Rights Watch says
2016: 12 October 2016: Belarus resumes executions after EU sanctions dropped, as human rights report details abuse used to extract confessions in only European country to use death penalty
Demographics and ethnic groups in Belarus: Demographics of Belarus - Ethnic groups in Belarus
Languages and culture of Belarus: Culture of Belarus - Languages of Belarus - Belarusian language
Education in Belarus: Education in Belarus
Healthcare in Belarus: Healthcare in Belarus
Belarusian media: Belarusian media - Newspapers in Belarus
2010: Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 154th in 'Press Freedom Index 2010'
2015: 9 October 2015: Journalists in Belarus face fines and arrest as they attempt to provide an alternative to pro-Lukashenko state channels
Internet in Belarus: Internet in Belarus
Censorship in Belarus: Censorship in Belarus
Crime in Belarus: Crime in Belarus
Corruption in Belarus: Corruption in Belarus
Human trafficking in Belarus: Human trafficking in Belarus
Law and legal history of Belarus: Belarusian law - Legal history of Belarus - Constitution of 3 May 1791 - 20th century Constitutions of Belarus - Amendments of the Constitution of Belarus and 1996 and 2004 Belarusian referendums
Courts and Supreme Court of Belarus: Court System of Belarus - Supreme Court of Belarus
2017: 27 August 2017: Belarus court clears way for luxury apartments to be built on top of Jewish cemeteries
Law enforcement in Belarus: Law enforcement in Belarus
Foreign relations of Belarus: Foreign relations of Belarus
Treaties of Belarus: Treaties of Belarus
Belarusian membership in international organisations: Belarusian membership in international organisations
2012: 6. Juli 2012: UN-Menschenrechtsrat ernennt Sonderberichterstatter zur Prüfung der Menschenrechtslage in Weissrussland
Bilateral relations of Belarus: Bilateral relations of Belarus
Belarus/European Union relations: Belarus/European Union relations - 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row - 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
Belarus/Germany relations: Belarus/Germany relations - Belarus in World War II - Military history of Belarus during World War II - Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany - Nazi war crimes in Belarus - The Holocaust in Belarus - Minsk Ghetto - Maly Trostenets extermination camp
Belarusian resistance during World War II
2012: 24. August 2012: Von 2008-2011 Schulung von Polizei und Miliz des Innenministeriums Weißrußlands in Deutschland für Einsätze gegen Demonstranten, sog. 'Rädelsführer' etc., auf Veranlassung der Regierung Merkel
Belarus/Lithuania relations: Belarus/Lithuania relations
Belarus/Russia relations: Belarus/Russia relations - Yamal–Europe pipeline - 2004 Russia–Belarus gas dispute - 2007 Russia–Belarus energy dispute - 2009 Russian ban of Belarusian dairy products
2015: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend - 7 October 2015: Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base, Lukashenko says following protests against his rule and reported Russian plans to beef up military presence
Belarus/Sweden relations: Belarus/Sweden relations - 3. August 2012: Weissrussland verweist den schwedischen Botschafter, der sich mit Oppositionspolitikern getroffen haben soll, des Landes - 8 October 2015: Svetlana Alexievich wins 2015 Nobel prize in literature
Belarus/Syria relations: Belarus/Syria relations
2017: 15 September 2017: Belarus seen quietly helping Assad boost missile program, as analyst Ronen Solomon links Belarusian regime to Syrian Assad regime's military facility allegedly bombed by Israel this month
Belarus/Ukraine relations: Belarus/Ukraine relations - Belarus–Ukraine border - 1991 Belavezha Accords
2016: 26 August 2016: Independence of Ukraine and Belarus is only way to develop bilateral relations, Belarus FM during the opening ceremony of a residential complex of the Belarusian Embassy to Ukraine
Environment of Belarus: Environment of Belarus
Protected areas of Belarus: Protected areas of Belarus - Forests of Belarus
Environmental issues in Belarus: Environmental concerns and current issues in Belarus
Since 1986 legacy of Chernobyl Disaster: Since 1986 legacy of pollution the Chernobyl Disaster
Water in Belarus: Water in Belarus


Belgium - Belgique - Geography of Belgium - History of Belgium - Demographics of Belgium
Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - main industries include engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum - Companies of Belgium - Companies of Belgium by industry
Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium
2016: 3 January 2016: Belgian ageing nuclear reactor Doel 1 shut down on Saturday again, just three days after it was restarted
Banking and Financial Services and Markets Authority of Belgium: Financial Services and Markets Authority - Banks in Belgium
2011/2012: 10 October 2011: Belgian government will take full control of the Belgian arm of Franco-Belgian Dexia bank - 9 November 2012: France and Belgium agree to pump a further 5.5bn euros into bank Dexia, after it reported another large loss
Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders - the 5 most important agricultural products in 2013 are pork (1.46 billion euros), dairy products (844 million euros), beef (712 million euros), vegetables (602 million euros) and ornamental horticulture products (512 million euros)
Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium, dating back to 1831
Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium
Political parties and trade unions in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium - Trade unions in Belgium
Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium
2010: Belgian general election 13 June 2010 - 2010–2011 Belgian government formation
2010-2013: 8. Juli 2011: Belgiens designierter Premier Elio Di Rupo gibt im Juli 2011 auf - 8 October: Belgian parties strike key reform deal to end political crisis - 21 novembre: Le socialiste Elio di Rupo, Premier ministre pressenti, a presenté sa démission - 27 November: Belgian leaders agree on federal budget - 13 juillet 2012: Le Parlement belge a adopté à 106 voix contre 42 le projet de loi 'scindant' l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
Belgian provincial and municipal elections, 14 October 2012 - 14/15 October: Local elections have resulted in widespread gains for the Flemish Nationalist Party, which wants to divide the country - 15 octobre: Le chef des indépendantistes flamands, vainqueur des municipales à Anvers en Belgique, a lancé un appel au Premier ministre Elio Di Rupo pour qu'il négocie avec lui une réforme de l'État ouvrant la voie à une confédération
2014: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to 44
May 2014 Belgium Federal and regional elections: Belgian federal election 25 May 2014 - Belgian regional elections 25 May 2014 - 26 May 2014: First estimates give 33% of the vote in Flanders to the New Flemish Alliance
May 2014 Belgium European Parliament election: Belgium European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May-October 2014: 2014 Belgian government formation - 8 October: The Francophone liberal Charles Michel will become Belgium’s PM
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium
2011: 2. Dezember 2011: In Brüssel gewerkschaftliche Großdemonstration von Zehntausenden gegen Sparpolitik
2012-2014: 30 January 2012: Strike set to bring Belgium to a halt - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 December 2014: Air, train links cut as national strike begins against the new government's austerity policies
2016: 17 avril 2016: Des milliers de personnes ont rendu hommage, dimanche à Bruxelles, aux 32 morts des attentats du 22 mars
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Nearly 50,000 people marched through the European quarter of Brussels on Thursday night in support of Catalan independence and the region’s ousted president Carles Puigdemont, who has avoided arrest in Spain by taking refuge in Belgium
2018: 26 février 2018: Quelque 10'000 personnes ont manifesté dimanche à Bruxelles dans le froid pour témoigner leur solidarité avec les migrants et exiger du gouvernement belge une politique migratoire 'plus humaine'
Society, demographics, human rights and culture in Belgium: Belgian society
Human rights in Belgium: Human rights in Belgium
Minority and employees' rights in Belgium: Minority and employees' rights in Belgium
Demographics of Belgium: Demographics of Belgium - Belgians - Belgian people by ethnic or national origin - Immigrants to Belgium
Flemish people: Flemish people
Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia
History of the Jews in Belgium: History of the Jews in Belgium - History of the Jews in Antwerp - Great Synagogue of Europe is the main synagogue in Brussels - 16 January 2015: Jewish schools in Belgium close amid terror threat
Afro Belgians: Afro Belgians are Belgian citizens and members of the Black African community in Belgium
Culture and languages of Belgium: Culture of Belgium - Languages of Belgium
Flemish culture
Walloon culture - Ars nova, music which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages until the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377
Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature
Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Education in Belgium: Education in Belgium
Science and technology in Belgium
Health in Belgium: Health in Belgium
Healthcare in Belgium: Healthcare in Belgium
Belgian media: Belgian media
2015: 15 January 2015: Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris
Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium
Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists
Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers
1995-1996 child and serial killer Marc Dutroux: Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux, convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls from 1995 to 1996
Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and 1998 Parliamentary investigation: Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - 1998 Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence
2004 Dutroux's trial: 2004 Dutroux's trial, some seven and a half years after his initial arrest - 23 June 2004: Marc Dutroux sentenced to life in prison for a series of child kidnappings, child rapes and murders that prompted sweeping police reforms and a crackdown on child sex crimes, Dutroux's ex-wife, Michelle Martin sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Racism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium
2002: 18 July 2002: Belgium confronts its colonial demons
2017: 15 August 2017: Decades after Belgium ended its colonial rule in Congo, and a century after the atrocities committed in Congo Free State, Belgians are slowly beginning to reconcile with this troubled history - 17 October 2017: As Belgium confronts the identity crisis of its disillusioned minorities and homegrown terrorism, its genocidal colonial legacy remains tucked away from the public discourse, confined to art, culture and religion
Antisemitism in Belgium: Antisemitism in Belgium
1940-1945 The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation: The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation of Belgium - German Nazi concentration camps in Belgium
Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium: Antisemitism in contemporary Belgium
July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack: July 1980 Antwerp summer camp attack on a group of 40 Jewish children - Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May 2014: Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May 2014: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2,000 people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June 2014: The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack
July 2014: 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some 500 people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'
August 2016: 25 August 2016: Belgian government-funded Catholic Sint-Jozefs Institute secondary school stated pride in and support for retired teacher Descheemaeker who had published anti-Semitic caricatures, and who recently won a cash prize at Iran’s Holocaust mockery cartoon competition
February 2018: 12 February 2018: Belgian police detain refugee for anti-Semitic hate crimes, filmed destroying at least 20 mezuzahs and vandalizing Jewish institutions in Antwerp
August 2018: 9 August 2018: Jewish couple in Belgium targeted with death threats
Terrorism and massacres in Belgium: Terrorism in Belgium - List of massacres in Belgium
1914-1918: German war crimes in World War I in Belgium
1940-1945: May 1940 at least 86 civilians killed by the German Wehrmacht known in Belgium as the Vinkt Massacre, the first of several German massacres in World War II in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
1985: 1985 kidnapping of the Belgian-French family Houtekins-Kets by Palestinian terrorists and the Libyan government from their yacht Silco in the Mediterranean, the Belgian part of the family was held for almost five years of captivity in Libya, but were freed after the liberation of Abu Nidal terrorist Said Al Nasr
Since 1988: Since 1988 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May 1996: List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July 1979, according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
2011: 14 décembre 2011: À Liège une fusillade d'un homme armé a fait au moins cinq morts et plus de 100 blessés
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 22 March 2016: Multiple casualties after airport and metro blasts in Brussels - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 24 March: Raising awkward questions for Belgium’s intelligence services, Turkey’s Erdogan says that Belgium ignored Turkey’s warnings that Ibrahim el-Bakraoui was a foreign fighter - 24 March: As names of victims of Tuesday’s suicide bombings emerge, and as survivors reveal the horror of the blasts and narrow escapes, investigations and search for suspects continue - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids - 26 March: Search for suspects in Belgium continues, as a series of raids and arrests reveal more links with the November Paris killings and a new French plot, and as reports reveal that suspects Ibrahim and Khaled El Bakraoui were on USA terror watch list as of last year - 28 March: Three men held as part of 13 raids in Brussels, Mechelen and Duffel at weekend charged with terrorist activity, as anti-immigrant demonstrators trample the memorial in Place de la Bourse in Brussels for victims of last week’s suicide bombings - 9 April: Belgian police detain two key suspects in the Islamic State attacks on Paris and Brussels
August 2016: 6 August 2016 Charleroi attack - 6 August 2016: Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack
June 2017: On 20 June 2017 a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June 2017: Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station
August 2017: 25 August 2017 Brussels attack - 25 August 2017: A man who attacked and injured two soldiers with a knife in Brussels reportedly shouting 'Allahu Akbar' shot dead by the army - 27 August 2017: Islamic State terrorists says Brussels attacker belonged to group
May 2018: 29 May 2018 Liège attack - 29 May 2018: A gunman has killed two police officers and a passerby before being shot dead in the centre of the Belgian city of Liège, as the anti-terrorist crisis centre says terrorism could not be excluded
Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium
2015: January 2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium, including operation in Verviers against Islamist radicals and operations in Brussels, the nearby communes of Schaerbeek, Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Vilvoorde, and Zaventem - 15 January 2015 Belgian anti-terrorist operation against Islamists - 15 January 2015: Casualties in Belgium police anti-terror raid in Verviers
November 2015: Since 21 November 2015 the government imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to information about potential terrorist attacks in the wake of the series of coordinated attacks in Paris by Islamic State terrorists
2016: 16 March 2016: Police kill gunman during Brussels raid related to deadly Paris attacks in 2015 - 20 March 2016: Main suspect of November's Paris attacks Salah Abdeslam tells Belgian investigators he planned to blow himself up a day after he was shot in the leg and captured during a police raid in Brussels
Prevention: 30 novembre 2015: La commune bruxelloise de Molenbeek a lancé des initiatives pour prévenir la radicalisation de jeunes en perdition susceptibles de suivre l'itinéraire meurtrier des frères Abdeslam, impliqués dans les attentats de Paris
Law and legal history of Belgium: Law of Belgium - Legal history of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium - Human rights in Belgium
Judiciary and court system in Belgium: Judiciary and court system in Belgium
April 2018: 23 avril 2018: Le djihadiste français Salah Abdeslam et le seul suspect survivant des attentats de Paris le 13 novembre 2015 était jugé pour son implication dans une fusillade en Belgique
Constitutional Court of Belgium: Constitutional Court of Belgium
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Law enforcement in Belgium: Law enforcement in Belgium
Local and Federal Police in Belgium: Local Police in Belgium - Federal Police
Police brutality in Belgium: Police brutality in Belgium
2003: 13 December 2003: After four police officers were found guilty of 'involuntarily' suffocating Nigerian Sémira Adamu, a 20-year-old asylum seeker, to death, Belgium suspended its policy of forcibly deporting failed asylum seekers
2013: 22 February 2013: Police brutality video sends shock wave through Belgium after a young man was was brutally treated in a police cell in Mortsel and died of his injuries
2016: 4 November 2016: Human Rights Watch details in an extensive report accounts of minorities in Belgium subjected to verbal and physical abuse by police in the wake of the terrorist attacks
2017: 20 September 2017: Police brutality remains a serious problem in Belgium, due in part to judges
May 2018: 18 May 2018: Authorities in Belgium have admitted that two-year-old girl Mawda who died after police opened fire on a van carrying migrants near Mons on Thursday was shot in the face - 25 May 2018: Police in Belgium who have admitted that one of their officers was responsible for firing the shot that killed two-year-old Mawda Shawri have been accused of mishandling the investigation into her death
Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium
Belgian colonial empire and relations with former colonies: Belgian colonial empire - Belgium/Former colonies relations
Treaties of Belgium: Treaties of Belgium
Belgian membership in international organisations: Belgian membership in international organisations
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
2015: 21 novembre 2015: L'alerte terroriste a été élevée au niveau maximum dans la capitale Bruxelles - 22 November: Belgium maintains maximum security for the capital Brussels on Sunday
2016: 22 March 2016: The public and European politicians respond to March 2016 Brussels attacks with show of solidarity
September 2018: 27 September 2018: Jo Cox square unveiled in Brussels in memory of murdered British MP, wanting UK to remain in the EU
Belgium/United Nations relations: Belgium/United Nations relations
February 1961 UN Security Council Resolution 161 after the killings of Patrice Lumumba: 21 February 1961 UN Security Council Resolution 161 after the killings of Patrice Lumumba, Maurice Mpolo and Joseph Okito, urging the UN to immediately take measures to prevent the occurrence of civil war in the Congo, further urging the withdrawal of all Belgian and other foreign military, paramilitary personnel and mercenaries not with the UN and calling upon all states to take measures to deny transport and other facilities to such personnel moving into the Congo, also to launch an investigation into the death of Mr. Lumumba and his colleagues promising punishment to the perpetrators
Since 1960 Congo Crisis and aftermath: 1960-1966 Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War
Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba: Foreign involvement in the killing of Patrice Lumumba in January 1961
2002: 6 February 2002: Belgian government expressed 'its profound and sincere regrets and its apologies' for Belgium's role in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the first PM of its former colony Congo, in 1961
Bilateral relations of Belgium: Bilateral relations of Belgium
Belgium/Austria relations: Belgium/Austria relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Belgium/Burundi relations: Belgium/Burundi relations - Ruanda-Urundi, mandate of Belgium 1922–1962 - Ruzagayura famine during World War II - Raubwirtschaft - Tutsi ethnic group - Hutu ethnic group - Burundi genocide 1972 and 1993
Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations: Belgium/D.R. of the Congo relations
1867-1885 European colonization of the Congo: Colonization of the Congo 1867-1885, by the end of the 19th century, the Congo Basin had been carved up by European colonial powers, into the 'Congo free state', the 'French Congo' and the 'Portuguese Congo'
1885-1908 Belgian 'Congo Free State': 'Congo Free State' in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908, which was in personal union with the Kingdom of Belgium under Leopold II
Since 1885 Belgian atrocities, Red Rubber system and forced labour in the 'Congo Free State': 1885-1908 Atrocities in the 'Congo Free State' - Red Rubber system and forced labour
1908-1960 'Belgian Congo' colony: 1908-1960 'Belgian Congo', Belgian colony in Central Africa in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais': Since 1958 'Mouvement National Congolais' African nationalist party within the Belgian Congo and a united front organization bringing together members from a variety of political backgrounds in order to achieve independence, and created around a charter which was signed by, among others Patrice Lumumba, Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Iléo
1960-1971 Republic of the Congo: 1960-1971 Republic of the Congo, a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the 'Belgian Congo' in 1960 - Since 1960 Republic of the Congo, also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the former 'French Congo' is a country in Central Africa bordered by Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Cameroon to the northwest, the Central African Republic to the northeast, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south, and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest
Since 1960 Congo Crisis and aftermath: 1960-1966 Congo Crisis, a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Congo region immediately after the Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, ending unofficially with the entire country under the rule of Mobutu and constituting a series of civil wars and also a proxy conflict in the Cold War
2002: 6 February 2002: Belgian government expressed 'its profound and sincere regrets and its apologies' for Belgium's role in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the first PM of its former colony Congo, in 1961
1960-2010: 30 June 2010: New row over colonial past as Congo marks 50th anniversary of independence and Belgians may face charges over the assassination in January 1961 of Patrice Lumumba, Congo's first post-independence prime minister
1897, 1958-2018: 16 April 2018: Belgium comes to terms with 'human zoos' of its colonial past, as 60 years ago Belgium set up a live display of people from Congo for the 1958 world fair, but is now rethinking that legacy
Since 1960 UN forces and operations in the Congo: Since 1960 UN Operation in the Congo - Since 1999 UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a UN peacekeeping force to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict
June 2018 square Patrice Lumumba: 30 juin 2018: Bruxelles a inauguré samedi un square Patrice Lumumba, du nom d'un des héros de l'indépendance de l'ex-Congo belge, assassiné dans des conditions troubles en 1961
Belgium/Ecuador relations: Relaciones Bélgica/Ecuador
July 2018: 4 juillet 2018: La justice équatorienne a lancé un mandat d'arrêt contre l'ex-président Correa 2007-2017, qui vit en Belgique, l'accusant d'avoir commandité une tentative d'enlèvement de l'opposant politique Fernando Balda en 2012
Belgium/France relations: Belgium/France relations - 8 septembre 2012: Vive la Belgique! Le patron français de l'empire du luxe LVMH Bernard Arnault sollicite la nationalité belge
Belgium/Germany relations: Belgium/Germany relations
Belgium/Palestinian territories relations:
Belgium/Syria relations: Belgium/Syria relations
Belgium/Ukraine relations: Belgium/Ukraine relations
Belgium/United Kingdom relations: Belgium/United Kingdom relations
1814-1918 Congress of Vienna, World War I, German invasion of Belgium, British reaction and allied forces: 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna - Since August 1914 German invasion of Belgium - 1914-1918 World War I
Environment of Belgium: Environment of Belgium - Climate of Belgium
Global warming in Belgium: Global warming in Belgium
Natural disasters in Belgium: Natural disasters in Belgium
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Politics and elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Social movements and protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina society - Human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina media: Bosnia and Herzegovina media
Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian Police
Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian Mafia: Bosnian Mafia
Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian War 1992-1995, war crimes, prosecutions and legal proceedings (ongoing): Bosnian War, prosecutions and legal proceedings - War crimes in the Bosnian War
Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina/European Union relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bulgaria - Geography of Bulgaria - History of Bulgaria - Demographics of Bulgaria
Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria
Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria
Banking and banks of Bulgaria: Banks of Bulgaria - Bulgarian National Bank
Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria
May 2014 Bulgaria European Parliament election: Bulgaria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria - Ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria
History of the Jews in Bulgaria: History of the Jews in Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria
Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria
Crime in Bulgaria: Crime in Bulgaria
Corruption in Bulgaria: Corruption in Bulgaria
Human trafficking in Bulgaria: Human trafficking in Bulgaria
Organized crime in Bulgaria: Organized crime in Bulgaria - Bulgarian mafia
Terrorism in Bulgaria: Terrorism in Bulgaria
July 2012 Burgas bus bombing: July 2012 Burgas bus bombing
Judiciary of Bulgaria: Judiciary of Bulgaria
Law enforcement in Bulgaria: Law enforcement in Bulgaria
Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Treaties of Bulgaria: Treaties of Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Since 2014 international and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Bulgaria's membership in international organisationsBulgaria's membership in international organisations
Bulgaria and the European Union: Bulgaria and the European Union - Bulgaria and the euro
Bilateral relations of Bulgaria: Bilateral relations of Bulgaria
Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations: Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations
Bulgaria/Romania relations: Bulgaria/Romania relations
Bulgaria/USA relations: Bulgaria/USA relations
Environment and environmental issues in Bulgaria: Environment of Bulgaria - Environmental issues in Bulgaria
Protected areas of Bulgaria: Protected areas of Bulgaria
Natural disasters in Bulgaria: Natural disasters in Bulgaria
Floods in Bulgaria: Floods in Bulgaria


Croatia - Geography of Croatia - History of Croatia - Croatian War of Independance
Demographics of Croatia
Water transport in Croatia: Water transport in Croatia
Tourism in Croatia: Tourism in Croatia
Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Croatia: Croatian society
Regions and cunties of Croatia: Regions of Croatia - 20 Counties of Croatia
Cities and towns in Croatia: Cities and towns in Croatia
Demographics of Croatia: Demographics of Croatia
Ethnic groups in Croatia: Ethnic groups in Croatia
Immigration to Croatia: Immigration to Croatia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 16 September 2015: First refugees head for Croatia after Hungary's border crackdown - 18 September 2015: As Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia and police stand guard in front of refugees and migrants, Hungary builds border fence with Croatia - 18 September: Croatia fails to cope with refugee and migrant influx, as refugees wait for the trains that never come - 27 September 2015: Record migrant arrivals in Croatia as crisis deepens - 5 October: Refugees and migrants continue to cross from Serbia to Croatia in their thousands - 19 October: Thousands of refugees trying to make their way to western Europe have rushed over Serbia’s border to Croatia after they were stranded for days in dangerous and deteriorating conditions, 'the last person to go was a young boy without a leg, and we helped him cross in a wheelchair', UNHCR's Melita Sunjic reports, as UN's Ban Ki-moon says, refugees are fleeing difficult hardships they can't bear by themselves
Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia
Health in Croatia: Health in Croatia
Healthcare in Croatia: Healthcare in Croatia
Sport in Croatia by sport: Sport in Croatia by sport
Media of Croatia: Media of Croatia
Newspapers in Croatia: List of newspapers in Croatia
Internet in Croatia: Internet in Croatia
Law and legal history of Croatia: Law of Croatia - Legal history of Croatia
Judiciary of Croatia: Judiciary of Croatia
Law enforcement in Croatia: Law enforcement in Croatia
Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia
Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Croatia/Israel relations: Croatia/Israel relations -
Croatia/Serbia relations: Croatia/Serbia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence
Environmentalism in Croatia: Environmentalism in Croatia
Water supply and sanitation in Croatia: Water supply and sanitation in Croatia


Cyprus - Modern history of Cyprus - Northern Cyprus - Demographics of Cyprus
Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus
Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus
Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus
May 2011 Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May 2011
24 February 2013: Cyprus president-elect Nicos Anastasiades pledged after his poll victory on Sunday to work for an early EU bailout accord to rescue the island from bankruptcy - 18 mars: Le Parlement chypriote se réunit pour examiner le plan de sauvetage européen qui a exigé que tous les dépôts bancaires soient taxés - 20 March: Emergency meeting after Cyprus MPs reject bank levy - 21 March: Cypriot president to present 'Plan B' rescue package - 21 March: European Central Bank issues ultimatum to Cyprus - 22 March 2013: Finance Minister Sarris back from Russia without reaching an agreement - 23 March: Parliament, in a late-night session, backed the first three of eight measures advanced by the government - 25 mars: Le plan de sauvetage conclu entre le gouvernement chypriote et la troïka comprend une taxe sur les dépôts de plus de 100.000 euros et la fermeture de la deuxième banque du pays - 26 March: Closed since March 16 to avert run on deposits Cyprus banks to remain closed until Thursday - 28 March: Temporary limits on daily withdrawals will remain in place as Cyprus reopens banks amid protests - 29 March: Cypriot president rules out leaving eurozone
Social movements and protests in Cyprus:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cyprus: Cypriot society - Human rights in Cyprus
Demographics of Cyprus: Demographics of Cyprus
Women in Cyprus: Women in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus: Education in Cyprus
Healthcare in Cyprus: Healthcare in Cyprus
Internet in Cyprus: Internet in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus: Foreign relations of Cyprus
Treaties of Cyprus: Treaties of Cyprus
Membership of Cyprus in international organisations: Membership of Cyprus in international organisations
Bilateral relations of Cyprus: Bilateral relations of Cyprus
Cyprus/Egypt relations: Cyprus/Egypt relations
Cyprus/Germany relations: Cyprus/Germany relations
Cyprus/Greece relations: Cyprus/Greece relations
Cyprus/Israel relations: Cyprus/Israel relations
Cyprus/Russia relations: Cyprus/Russia relations
Cyprus/Turkey relations: Cyprus/Turkey relations
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus: 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute: Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute
Cyprus/United Kingdom relations: Cyprus/United Kingdom relations
1914–1960 British Cyprus: British Cyprus 1914–1960
Cyprus/USA relations: Cyprus/USA relations
Environment of Cyprus: Environment of Cyprus - Climate of Cyprus
Protected areas of Cyprus and Paphos Forest: Protected areas of Cyprus - Paphos Forest


Czech Republic - Geography of the Czech Republic - History of the Czech lands - Demographics of the Czech lands
Fossil fuels in the Czech Republic: Fossil fuels in the Czech Republic
Renewable energy in the Czech Republic: Renewable energy in the Czech Republic
Tourism in the Czech Republic: Tourism in the Czech Republic
Taxation in the Czech Republic: Taxation in the Czech Republic
Political parties in the Czech Republic: Political parties in the Czech Republic
Trade unions in the Czech Republic: Trade unions in the Czech Republic
Elections and politics in the Czech Republic: Elections in the Czech Republic
May 2010 Czech legislative election: 28/29 May 2010 Czech legislative election
October 2012 Czech Senate election: Czech Senate election, October 2012
Social movements and protests in the Czech Republic: Protests in the Czech Republic
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Czech Republic: Czech society - Human rights in the Czech Republic
Demographics in the Czech Republic: Demographics of the Czech lands
Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic: Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic
Immigration to the Czech Republic: Immigrants to the Czech Republic
Women in the Czech Republic: Women in the Czech Republic
Education in the Czech Republic: Education in the Czech Republic
Health in the Czech Republic: Health in the Czech Republic
Healthcare in the Czech Republic: Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Czech media: Czech media
Newspapers in the Czech Republic: Newspapers published in the Czech Republic
Internet in the Czech Republic: Internet in the Czech Republic
Crime in the Czech Republic: Crime in the Czech Republic
Corruption in the Czech Republic: Corruption in the Czech Republic
Racism in the Czech Republic: Racism in the Czech Republic
Human trafficking in the Czech Republic: Human trafficking in the Czech Republic
Judiciary and courts of the Czech Republic: Judiciary of the Czech Republic - Courts of the Czech Republic
Supreme Court of the Czech Republic: Since 1993 Supreme Court of the Czech Republic
Law enforcement in the Czech Republic: Law enforcement in the Czech Republic
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Treaties of the Czech Republic: Treaties of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic's participation in international organizations: Czech Republic's participation in international organizations
Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic: Bilateral relations of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic/Austria relations: Czech Republic/Austria relations
Czech Republic/P.R of China relations: Czech Republic/P.R of China relations
Czech-Chinese trade relations:Czech Republic/P.R of China trade relations
Czech Republic/France relations: Czech Republic/France relations
Czech Republic/Germany relations: Czech Republic/Germany relations
1938-1945 Czech resistance to Nazi occupation: Czech resistance to Nazi occupation 1938-1945
Czech Republic/Poland relations: Czech Republic/Poland relations
Czech Republic/Slovakia relations: Czech Republic/Slovakia relations
Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations: Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations
Environmentalism in the Czech Republic: Environmentalism in the Czech Republic
Natural disasters in the Czech Republic: Natural disasters in the Czech Republic
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods


Denmark - Geography of Denmark - History of Denmark - Demographics of Denmark
Water supply and sanitation in Denmark: Water supply and sanitation in Denmark
Economic history of Denmark and economic cycles: Economic history of Denmark - Income inequality in Denmark
Since 2001 Danish property bubble: Danish property bubble of 2000s
Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe: Since 2008 Great Recession in Europe - Denmark
Employment in Denmark: Employment in Denmark
Unemployment benefits in Denmark: Unemployment benefits in Denmark
Taxation and budget in Denmark: Taxation in Denmark - Budgets of Danish government
Elections and politics in Denmark: Elections in Denmark - Danish EU membership referendum 2011
Constitution, social movements and protests in Denmark: Constitution of Denmark - Social and political movements in Denmark - Protests in Denmark
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Denmark: Danish society - Human rights in Denmark - Freedom of speech and freedom of the press in Denmark
Faroese Dane: Faroese Dane
2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis
Museums in Denmark: List of museums in Denmark
Economy, history and culture of Copenhagen: Economy of Copenhagen - History of Copenhagen - Culture in Copenhagen
Education in Denmark: Youth in Denmark
Health care in Denmark: Health care in Denmark
Crime in Denmark: Crime in Denmark
Corruption in Denmark: Corruption in Denmark
Tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark: Elements of income tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark
Human trafficking in Denmark: Human trafficking in Denmark
Law enforcement in Denmark: Law enforcement in Denmark
Courts of Denmark: Courts of Denmark
Police of Denmark: Police of Denmark
Environment of Denmark: Environment of Denmark
Geography and Kingdom of Denmark: Geography of Denmark - Kingdom of Denmark
Faroe Islands: Faroe Islands
Greenland: Greenland
History of Greenland: History of Greenland
Economy of Greenland: Economy of Greenland
Education in Greenland: Education in Greenland
Health in Greenland: Health in Greenland
Foreign relations of Denmark: Foreign relations of Denmark
Denmark/Germany relations: Denmark/Germany relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Denmark/Norway relations: Denmark/Norway relations
Denmark/Poland relations: Denmark/Poland relations
Denmark/Sweden relations: Denmark/Sweden relations
Denmark/Syria relations: Denmark/Syria relations
Forests of Denmark: Forests of Denmark
Environmentalism in Denmark: Environmentalism in Denmark
Water in Denmark: Water in Denmark
Climate of Greenland: Climate of Greenland
Ice cap climate: Ice cap climate
Water in Greenland: Water in Greenland


Éire (Republic of Ireland) - History of Ireland - Geography of Ireland - Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Companies of the Republic of Ireland by industry: Companies by industry in the Republic of Ireland by industry
Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland: Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland
Fishing in Ireland: Fishing in Ireland
Irish economic history, economic cycle and crises: Economic history of the Republic of Ireland
Taxation in the Republic of Ireland: Taxation in the Republic of Ireland
Elections and politics in the Republic of Ireland: Elections in the Republic of Ireland
2008/2009 Fallout of the Irish government budget 2009: Fallout of the 2009 Irish government budget
Social movements and protests: Protests in Ireland
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ireland: Irish society - Human rights in Ireland
Demographics and ethnic groups in Ireland: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland - Ethnic groups in Ireland
History of the Jews in Ireland: History of the Jews in Ireland
Immigration to the Republic of Ireland: Immigration to the Republic of Ireland
Women and women's rights in Ireland: Women in Ireland - Women's rights in Ireland
Children's rights in Ireland: Children's rights in Ireland
Health in the Republic of Ireland: Health in the Republic of Ireland
Healthcare of the Republic of Ireland: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland
Media of the Republic of Ireland: Media of the Republic of Ireland
Internet in the Republic of Ireland: Internet in the Republic of Ireland
Since the 1930s abuse in the state childcare system: Since the 1930s abuse in the state childcare system in Ireland
Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies: Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies
2017 Tuam care home mass grave of babies and children: 3 March 2017: Mass grave of babies and children found at Tuam care home in Ireland
Crime in the Republic of Ireland: Crime in the Republic of Ireland
Corruption in Ireland: Corruption in Ireland
Law and legal history of the Republic of Ireland: Law of the Republic of Ireland - Law and legal history in the Republic of Ireland
Judiciary of the Republic of Ireland: Judiciary of the Republic of Ireland
Law enforcement in the Republic of Ireland: Law enforcement in the Republic of Ireland
Foreign relations of Ireland: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
Treaties of Ireland: Treaties of Ireland
Bilateral relations of the Republic of Ireland: Bilateral relations of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland/Australia relations: Ireland/Australia relations - Irish Australian
List of uprisings by Irish people against English and British claims of sovereignty in Ireland since 1534 (ongoing) - Irish republicanism based on the conviction that all of Ireland should be an independent republic - Irish Rebellion of 1798 against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798 influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions - 1848 Young Irelander Rebellion led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider democratic revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe - Easter Rising during Easter Week 1916 was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I - Irish War of Independence between the Irish Republican Army and the British Government and its forces 1919-1921 - Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 - Irish Free State 1922-1937 - Gaelic revival
Ireland/USA relations: Ireland/USA relations - Irish Americans
Natural disasters in Ireland: Natural disasters in Ireland
Weather events in Ireland: Weather events in Ireland


France - Geography of France - Gaul during the Iron Age inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, of the Netherlands and of Germany - Gallic Wars and expansion of the Roman Empire over the whole of Gaul 58–52 BC - Frankish Kingdom 481–843 during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages - History of France - Early modern France 1453–1789 - French colonial empire 1534-1980 - French Revolution 1789-1799 marking the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and replacing them with democracies and republics, and Napoleon until 1815 - France in the twentieth century, post World War II period 1945-present - Demographics of France
French bicycle industry: French bicycle industry
Shipbuilding companies of France: Shipbuilding companies of France
Tractor manufacturers of France: Tractor manufacturers of France
Chemical companies of France: Chemical companies of France
Clothing companies of France: Clothing companies of France
Energy and energy companies of France: Energy in France - Energy companies of France
Fossil fuels and oil companies of France: Fossil fuels in France - Oil companies of France
French wine: French wine
Water in France: Water in France
Transport in France by city: Transport in France by city - Transport in Paris
Foreign trade of France: Foreign trade of France
Since 2010 Bank of France controversy: Since 2010 Bank of France controversy
Since 2010 BNP Paribas controversies: BNP Paribas controversies since 2010
Since 2006 Crédit Agricole controversies: Crédit Agricole controversies since 2006
Since the early 1990s Société Générale controversies: Société Générale controversies since the early 1990s
Since 2010 Groupe BPCE controversy: Groupe BPCE controversy since 2010
Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy: Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy
Chômage en France: Chômage en France
Inégalités de revenu en France: Inégalités de revenu en France
Poverty in France: Poverty in France
French Armed Forces: French Armed Forces
Military budget in France: Military budget
Intelligence agencies of France: List of intelligence agencies of France
Budget and taxation in France: Budget of France - Taxation in France
Political parties and trade unions in France: Political parties of France - Trade unions in France
Parliament of France: French Parliament
Government of France: Government of France
Elections and politics in France: Elections in France
Élections cantonales mars 2011: Élections cantonales mars 2011
January-May 2016: 27 January 2016: French minister Christiane Taubira resigns after fallout over controversial plan to strip people convicted of terrorism of their French citizenship - 1 février 2016: Christiane Taubira n'a pas abandonné le débat sur la déchéance de nationalité pour autant et va publier un livre-réquisitoire - 10 February 2016: French MPs vote in favour of in 2012 elected president Hollande’s heavily contested package of measures to change the French constitution enshrining 'emergency powers' - 10/11 February: French FM Fabius steps down questioning the USA’s commitment to resolving the crisis in Syria, saying its 'ambiguous' policy was contributing to the problem, as Hollande brings Greens and former PM Ayrault to government in cabinet reshuffle - 4 mai 2016: François Hollande à son plus bas niveau historique
June 2017 French legislative election: 11 and 18 June 2017 French legislative election - 12 June 2017: Amid concerns over low turnout of just 48.71%, 'La République En Marche' party and its allies take 32,32% of vote in first round, ahead of 'Les Républicains' and its allies on 21.56%, the anti-EU 'Front National' on 13.20%, followed by 'La France Insoumise' and its allies on 11,02%, the 'Socialist party', that took just 9.51% of the vote with its allies, and 'Europe Écologie Les Verts' on 4.3% - 18/19 June 2017: Tempered by a record low turnout of 42.64% and as abstention particularly high in low-income areas reopens the debate about France’s social divide, the French voting system and legitimacy, Macron’s party and its ally has won a large majority in the French parliament, taking 350 out of 577 seats, handing him a relatively free rein to implement his plans to change French labour law and overhaul unemployment benefits and pensions
September 2017 French Senate election: 24 September 2017 French Senate election
Since 18 July 2018 Benalla-Macron affair: Since 18 July 2018 Benalla affair, a political and judicial case involving Alexandre Benalla, who served as a security officer and deputy chief of staff to Emmanuel Macron - 19 July 2018: France’s public prosecutor has opened a preliminary inquiry after Benalla, one of Emmanuel Macron’s top security officers, was filmed hitting and stamping on a young man at the edge of a Paris demonstration on 1 May while illegally dressed as a police officer, as it emerged that Benalla had continued to take part in other high-profile presidential security operations and MPs suggest there had been a cover up - 20 July 2018: French politicians insisted on a parliament inquiry into how Macron's security officials could have appeared wearing a police armband and visor, committing violence among real police officers without being stopped, as second bodyguard Vincent Crase who worked for Macron also featured wearing a police armband, violently dragging, shaking and raising his hand against young man - 23 July 2018: Macron under pressure to say why aide's brutality went unreported - 25 July 2018: Saying 'Alexandre Benalla has never had the nuclear codes, ... neither has Alexandre Benalla ever been my lover', Emmanuel Macron - after keeping Benalla’s assaults quiet for more than two months - wants to take the blame over Benalla scandal, caused by hate against the national and international labour movement
Social movements and protests in France: Protests in France - Political movements in France
2013: 5 janvier 2013: Lors d'une rencontre avec une délégation des salariés de Petroplus à Val-de-Reuil (Eure), Hollande a exclu une reprise du site par les pouvoirs publics - 25 March 2013: Paris police used tear gas and batons to fight hundreds of thousands of people protesting against a draft law allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children - 5 mai: Grande manifestation anti-austérité du Parti de Gauche à Paris - 6 June: Protests held in France after left-wing student Clement Meric beaten to death by a group of far-right militants - 10 septembre: Entre 155 000 et 360 000 personnes ont participé aux quelque 180 rassemblements organisés en France pour protester contre la première réforme des retraites - 17 October: Paris students protest against the deportation of foreign pupils following the high-profile eviction of a 15-year-old Roma girl - 1 décembre: Face aux récentes attaques contre la ministre Christiane Taubira, plusieurs milliers de personnes se sont rassemblées à Paris pour dire non à toutes formes de discrimination - 3 décembre: Soirée contre la haine au Théâtre du Rond-Point à Paris
2015: 9 January: Thousands of people took to the streets in France and other countries again Thursday to condemn the killing of 12 people by terrorists at Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 11 January: As police hunt suspected accomplice more than 700,000 people took to the streets of France in solidarity with terror victims ahead of Paris march - 11 January: An estimated 3.7 million people across France march in solidarity with terror victims, all ages, nations and religions showing their support for the Republic's 'liberté, égalité, fraternité' - 2 March: As Russians march in mourning for murdered opposition leader Nemtsov in Moscow, in Paris about 100 people gathered to remember Nemtsov, asking for an international investigation to be opened and carrying posters reading 'I am Boris' - 24 May 2015: About 3,000 protesters gathered in Paris to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 5 septembre: Plus de 10000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans toute la France, et notamment à Paris, pour l’accueil des réfugiés - 22 novembre 2015: Plus de 10.000 manifestants 'contre la barbarie' à Toulouse, une semaine après les attentats de Paris - 2 December 2015: A court in Paris fines a woman €1,000 for refusing to have her fingerprints taken at a rally where clashes erupted between protesters and security forces ahead of 2015 UN climate summit
2016: 26 January 2016: Day of protest as taxi drivers, teachers, farmers and air traffic controllers among employees taking industrial action across France - 27 February: Angry French farmers heckle Hollande at agricultural fair amid rising tensions in agricultural sphere over competition from big industry and neighbouring countries in Europe's single market - 9 March 2016: French students take to the streets to protest far-reaching labour-law reforms as labour unions pledge to hold about 150 marches and protests nationwide - 24 mars 2016: Les manifestations contre le projet de loi travail, présenté en Conseil des ministres, ont rassemblé jeudi plusieurs milliers de jeunes et salariés à Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Grenoble ou encore Besançon, à l'appel de sept syndicats et organisations de jeunes, une vidéo montrant un policier frappant un jeune fait le buzz - 31 March 2016: Hundreds of thousands of workers and high-school students joined protest marches across France to challenge plans to loosen the country's protective labour laws that unions say favour businesses
January/February 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Bordeaux, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 18 février 2017: 4000 à 5000 personnes selon les organisateurs, se sont réunies samedi à Paris à l'appel notamment d'associations antiracistes et de syndicats, pour protester contre les violences policières après le viol à la matraque présumé d'un jeune noir, Théo, au cours d'une interpellation - 19 février 2017: Des manifestations contre la 'corruption' en politique se sont déroulées dimanche à Paris et ailleurs en France, une première depuis les accusations d'emplois fictifs visant le candidat de droite à la présidentielle François Fillon et la candidate d'extrême droite Marine Le Pen
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in France: French society
Human rights in France: Human rights in France
Demographics of France: Demographics of France
Ethnic groups in France: Ethnic groups in France
French people by ethnic or national origin: French people - French people by ethnic or national origin
History of the Jews in France: History of the Jews in France
African immigration to France: African immigration to France
2013-2015: 15 October: Roma in France get access to more jobs (increased from 150 to 291) - 29 January 2013: A group of Roma children near Lyon have been forced to attend classes at a police station after local schools refused to take them in - 3 avril: Expulsés d'un terrain près de Lyon, une cinquantaine de Roms attaquent la préfecture du Rhône en justice pour la contraindre à leur trouver un hébergement d'urgence - 13 mai: Deux femmes et un enfant ont péri dans la nuit dans l'incendie d'une usine désaffectée de Lyon dans lequel vivaient environ 200 Roms - 23 July 2013: French MP Bourdouleix faces legal action after he allegedly said 'Hitler didn't kill enough of' the Roma people - 17 octobre: L'expulsion du pays de Leonarda, une collégienne rom kosovare, a mis de nouveau au jour les dissensions au sein de la majorité, y compris dans le gouvernement - 14 novembre: Jean-Marie Le Pen condamné pour ses propos selon lesquels 'comme les oiseaux', les Roms voleraient 'naturellement' - 4 January 2015: Outrage as Leclerc, mayor of Paris suburb Champlan, refuses burial of Roma baby
2016: 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 13 février 2016: Le Premier ministre français Valls ne veut pas aller plus loin que le quota de 30'000 réfugiés en France et a d'ailleurs rencontré CSU Horst Seehofer, l'une de ces voix critiques parmi les alliés de la chancelière allemande - 13 February 2016: French PM Valls rejects permanent quota system for refugees, saying 'We won't take any more' - 28 February 2016: The first purpose-built camp in France to provide proper, humanitarian-standard shelter to refugees who are currently sleeping rough is to open near the port of Dunkirk next month, after the local Green mayor Damien Carême approached Médecins sans Frontières and asked the organisation to construct temporary shelters, saying he was exasperated by what he deemed to be the inaction of the French Socialist government
2018: 8 janvier 2018: La France a enregistré un niveau 'historique' de demandes d'asile en 2017, alors que le gouvernement prépare une loi sur l'immigration déjà à l'origine de débats animés - 11 January 2018: Anger grows at French president over migration law plans, sharing close views with Austria's Kurz on European issues including migration - 17 January 2018: NGOs accuse Macron, who campaigned for president last year as a champion of open borders, of betraying France’s long tradition of offering sanctuary, also accusing the police in Calais of trying to drive out migrants by 'exhaustion' - 24 mars 2018: Une migrante nigériane, qui a souhaité finir sa grossesse auprès de sa soeur en France mais était bloqué par les gendarmes français qui l'ont juste déposée en pleine nuit devant la gare de Bardonnecchia, est morte la semaine dernière dans un hôpital de Turin, son bébé Israel est né par césarienne juste avant
Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France: Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France
Language policy in France: Language policy in France
Architecture and arts in France: Architecture in France - Arts in France - French literature
Music of France: Music of France
Music history of France: French music history
Women and women's rights in France: Women in France - Women's rights in France
1791 Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen 1791
Islamic dress controversy in France: Islamic dress controversy in France
Violence against women in France: Violence against women in France
Protection de l'enfance en France: Protection de l'enfance en France
Athletics, swimming, water sports, skiing and gymnastics in France: Athletics in France - Swimming in France - Water sports in France - Sailing in France - Skiing in France - Gymnastics in France
Handball, basketball, ice hockey and tennis in France: Handball in France - Basketball in France - Volleyball in France - Ice hockey in France - Tennis in France
2016: 9-11 June 2016 Marseille riots before and after UEFA Euro 2016 football match between England and Russia - 11/12 June 2016: Reports from Marseille suggest an England supporter is fighting for his life after an attack from Russian fans ahead of their Euro 2016 match on Saturday evening - 12 June 2016: Violence in Nice as Northern Ireland and Poland fans attacked by local hooligans - 12 June 2016: Russian hooligans reportedly approached the violence, which occurred before and after England’s opening Euro 2016 game in Marseille, with 'military organisation', well equipped and disguised, as Uefa opens disciplinary proceedings against Russia’s football union - 13 June 2016: German hooligans attack Ukraine fans in Lille also showing fascist symbolism at UEFA Euro 2016 - 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 14 June: Russia handed suspended '2016 UEFA European Football Championship' disqualification, confirmed by UEFA - 16 June: Dozens arrested in Lille after England and Russia foot supporters clash and more people are hospitalised - 18 June: Senior UK government officials fear the violence unleashed by Russian hooligans at Euro 2016 was sanctioned by Vladimir Putin’s regime and are investigating links with his regime as a significant number of those involved in savage and highly coordinated attacks on England fans and others in Marseille and Lille have been identified as being in the 'uniformed services' in Russia
Cycling and cycle racing in France: Cycling in France - Cycle racing in France
Internet in France: Internet in France
Newspapers in France: Newspapers in France
Crime in France: Crime in France
Antisemitism in France: Antisemitism in France
2017 Céline praised by Emmanuel Macron: 31. Dezember 2017: Von Louis-Ferdinand Céline, so Emmanuel Macron im Interview mit Michel Houellebecq im Mai 2017, könne man lernen, die Sorgen des 'Mannes auf der Straße' ernstzunehmen, Macron erwähnt allerdings nicht, daß Céline in seinen Schriften 'dem Mann auf der Straße' den Nationalsozialismus empfiehlt und z.B. Ernst Jünger auffordert mit seiner Kompanie die Juden abzuschlachten 'und keinen übrig zu lassen' - In his 1937 antisemitic pamphlet 'Bagatelles pour un massacre' Céline campaigned for an alliance between France and Nazi Germany, writing 'Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism is. Who has done the most for the working man? The USSR or Hitler? Hitler has. Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler
Holocaust denial in France: Holocaust denial in France
France's 'National Front': France's 'National Front'
Racism and Antisemitism in 21st-century France: Antisemitism in 21st-century France
2015: 7 January 2015: Unidentified individuals started a fire inside a synagogue in Garges near Paris and drew a swastika on its wall - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - 3 February 2015: Anti-terror patrol soldiers stabbed outside Jewish cultural center in Nice - 15 February 2015: Several hundred tombs desecrated with Nazi swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans at the Jewish cemetery of Sarre-Union near the German border a day after a deadly shooting at Copenhagen synagogue - 19 February 2015: The French are becoming more racist and intolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities including both Muslims and Jews, according to a Council of Europe report this week - 28 February 2015: Paris killer asked victims if they were Jewish before firing, transcript shows - 10 April: After defending Petain's cooperation with Nazi Germany and his past comment that Nazi gas chambers were a 'detail of history', France's National Front founder Le Pen rebuffs daughter's call to quit - 27 April 2015: Front National founder Jean-Marie Le Pen allegedly kept €2.2m in hidden Swiss bank account - 2 May 2015: Two Jewish residents of Paris were assaulted on the street Friday by a gang of about 40 people - 25 November 2015: A Belgian court finds French Dieudonne guilty of hate speech, incitement to hatred and Holocaust denial
March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll: 23 March 2018 murder of Mireille Knoll, officially described as a hate crime - 25 March 2018: Holocaust survivor Mireille Knoll’s body found burnt, stabbed in Paris apartment, who had previously reported that a neighbor threatened to burn her, according to BNVCA and French media - 26 mars 2018: Deux hommes ont été placés en garde à vue et le parquet de Paris a retenu le caractère antisémite dans l’enquête sur le meurtre de Mireille Knoll, qui avait rescapée de la rafle des Juifs du Vel d’Hiv’ de juillet 1942 en s’enfuyant de Paris avec sa mère - 27 March 2018: Family members of Mireille Knoll, who was stabbed to death and set on fire in her Paris apartment, told Israeli media she had known one of her assailants, a Muslim neighbor, since he was seven years old, as police admits that Mireille Knoll had previously called police and complained that the neighbor had threatened to kill her
Toulouse and Montauban shootings March 2012: March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings - 20 March 2012: Police say same gun and scooter used in attack on Jewish school in Toulouse that left four dead and soldier shootings - NZZ 20. März: Tausende an Schweigemarsch in Paris nach den tödlichen Schüssen in einer jüdischen Schule in Toulouse - 21 mars: Opération en cours contre le suspect de la tuerie de Toulouse - 22 March: Siege of alleged gunman in Toulouse enters second day - 22 March: French gunman who shot dead 3 Jewish children killed in siege in Toulouse - 25 March 2012: Several thousand people have marched silently through Paris urging unity and tolerance of all religions and cultures after deadly shootings of Jewish schoolchildren - 28 March: Vigilance call after French Jews hit by new attacks
Clément Méric assassiné le 5 juin 2013: Clément Méric, membre de l’Action antifasciste, assassiné à Paris, le 5 juin 2013 - 6 juin 2013: Agressé par un groupe de plusieurs militants d'extrême droite JNR, le militant du Parti de Gauche Clément Méric en état de mort cérébrale - 6 juin 2013: Clément Méric, le militant antifasciste agressé par des skinheads, est mort - 8 June: Five skinheads to face court after assassination of Clement Meric - 14 September 2018: Two skinheads convicted over 2013 death of anti-fascist activist Clement Méric, as Méric’s mother Agnes says 'what is needed is to continue to fight against the breeding grounds of the extreme right', and several hundred anti-fascists gathered in Paris for the verdict, chanting 'Clement! Clement! We do not forget, we do not forgive'
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - Worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 7 January: Worldwide vigils as French authorities seek terrorists who stormed the Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people - 8 January: Arrests made as police hunt for suspects of Charlie Hebdo shooting - 9 January: France to host international 'anti-terrorism' meeting in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris - 9 January: Search for terrorists continues as Charlie Hebdo announces to print 1 million copies next week - 10 January: Two hostage standoffs end with four hostages killed in Paris kosher grocery, three terrorists dead and four more hostages badly hurt - 12 February 2015: 'Islamic State' terror group confirms widow of Paris kosher grocery shooter in Syria - 9 March: Four people including a policewoman arrested over suspected links to Paris kosher market terrorist
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 14 Novemer 2015: Gunmen kill at least 120 people in terror attacks in Paris, injuring some 200 people - 15 November: French national suicide bomber Ismael Omar Mostefai in Paris attacks identified, who had been flagged as a possible security threat in 2010, as investigation spreads across Europe - 16 November: French police carry out raids as investigations across borders continue - 17 November: France calls for EU help following Paris attacks - 18 November: Police in St-Denis arresting suspects, two suspects dead in ongoing raid, including a woman who detonated an explosive device - 19 November: Raids in Brussels linked to Stade de France suicide bomber as latest evidence points to wider conspiracy of primarily young Europeans - 20 November: Three people died during the Wednesday night raid in St-Denis, where the alleged ringleader of the Paris attacks Abaaoud was killed, prosecutor says - 21 November: Raids and Paris attacks investigations across borders continue as three suspects arrested in Turkey - 23 November: UK's Cameron visits Paris offering support, also offering French use of RAF Cyprus base for attacks against IS terrorists - 24 November: 'Belt of explosives' found south of Paris in town of Montrouge
July 2016: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when a suspected armed French-Tunisian man drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 15 July 2016: After attack in Nice France mourns and investigates again - International reactions to the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 17 juillet: Un feu d'artifice tiré dans la nuit depuis le Grand hôtel de Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat 48 heures après l'attentat commis sur la Promenade des Anglais, a suscité une vague d'indignation sur Twitter - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples - 22 July 2016: Five suspects formally charged over Bastille day's truck attack in Nice that killed 84 people - 22 July: Authorities in Nice refuse a request from French anti-terror police to delete surveillance camera images of Bastille day's deadly truck attack, amid growing questions over the scale of the police presence at the time and after interior minister Cazeneuve acknowledged that only lightly armed local police were guarding the entrance to the pedestrian zone on the Nice beachfront
Riots in France: Riots in France
June 2016 UEFA Euro riots in France: UEFA Euro 2016 riots in France
Accusation d’emplois fictifs au MoDem, le Mouvement démocrate de François Bayrou - 8 juin 2017: L'affaire des collaborateurs de députés du Parlement européen contamine de plus en plus les alliés centristes de l'entourage de Macron - 9 juin 2017: Une dizaine de salariés du MoDem ont également été employés par des eurodéputés MoDem et rémunérés comme assistants parlementaires, dont deux ministres en exercice, selon Franceinfo - 20 June 2017: French defence minister Sylvie Goulard, who is second minister to go in 24 hours, steps down over allegations her MoDem party misused European funds - 21 June 2017: Two more ministers quit Macron administration amid funding inquiry, bringing the number of ministers to leave to four - François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez, Richard Ferrand and Sylvie Goulard - in just 48 hours
Violence against women in France: Violence against women in France - Viol en France
Judiciary of France: Judiciary of France
Wars involving France: Wars involving France
Resistance to the French colonial empire: Resistance to the French colonial empire
French Polynesia: French Polynesia
Réunion: Réunion
Treaties of France: Treaties of France
French membership in international organisations: French membership in international organisations
Since 1945 France and the United Nations: France and the United Nations
Foreign relations of France by continent and country: Foreign relations of France by continent - Bilateral relations of France
France/Africa relations: France/Africa relations
France/Algeria relations: France/Algeria relations
1830-1962 rule in Algeria: 1830-1962 French rule in Algeria
Since 1960 French nuclear test site Reggane: France and weapons of mass destruction - France and nuclear weapons
France/Americas relations: France/Americas relations
From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade: From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery: Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery
France/Angola relations: France/Angola relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
France/Asia relations: France/Asia relations
1887-1954 'French Indochina': 1887-1954 'French Indochina'
France/Burkina Faso relations: France/Burkina Faso relations
France/Chad relations: France/Chad relations
France/Republic of the Congo relations: France/Republic of the Congo relations
France/Comoros relations: France/Comoros relations
1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros: 1841-1975 French colonial rule of the Comoros
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum
France/Equatorial Guinea relations: France/Equatorial Guinea relations
France/Greece relations: France/Greece relations
France/Haiti relations: France/Haiti relations
1625-1809 Colony of France Saint-Domingue: Colony of France Saint-Domingue 1625-1809
Since 1804 external debt of Haiti: External debt of Haiti, one of the main factors that has caused the country's persistent poverty, after the slaves declared themselves free and the country independent in 1804 and France, with the complicity of its allies, demanded that the newly formed country pay the French government and French slaveholders the modern equivalent of US $21 billion dollars for the 'theft' of the slaves' own lives and the land that they had turned into profitable sugar and coffee-producing plantations, this independence debt was financed by French banks and the American Citibank, and finally paid off 143 years later, in 1947 - The Haiti indemnity controversy culminated in an agreement by Haiti to a 1825 gold demand by France for a FR?150 million indemnity to be paid by the Republic of Haiti in claims over property lost through the Haitian Revolution, delivered to the country by 12 French warships armed with 528 cannons, in return for diplomatic recognition
France/Iran relations: France/Iran relations
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
France/Iraq relations: France/Iraq relations
France/Israel relations: France/Israel relations
France/Italy relations: France/Italy relations
France/Japan relations: France/Japan relations
France/Jordan relations: France/Jordan relations
France/Korea relations: France/Korea relations
France/North Korea relations: France/North Korea relations
France/South Korea relations: France/South Korea relations
France/Laos relations: France/Laos relations
1893–1945, 1946–1953 French 'Protectorate' of Laos: French Protectorate of Laos 1893–1945, 1946–1953
France/Lebanon relations: France/Lebanon relations
France/Libya relations: France/Libya relations
Since 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, trial and Libyan compensation: 19 September 1989 UTA Flight 772 bombing, investigation, trial and Libyan compensation
Since 2007 alleged Libyan influence in the French elections: Alleged Libyan influence in the 2007 French elections
2011 Second Batt