Europe



Economy of Europe - Economy of the European Union - Economies of EU member states, GDP, growth, deficit and unemployment since 2011 - List of the largest trading partners of the European Union, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls, and in the eurozone trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members
Economic history of Europe - Companies of Europe

Arms production in Europe since the early modern period - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Weapons by country

Energy in Europe - Energy and energy policy in the European Union - 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, European Union directive requiring that 20% of the energy consumed within the European Union is renewable, target pooled among the member states
Fossil fuels in Europe and in the European Union: Fossil fuels in the European Union and fossil fuels by country - European countries by fossil fuel use (% of total energy)
2017: 28 September 2017: Governments of 11 European nations are providing subsidies totalling more than £80bn a year to fossil fuel industries, survey shows
Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 and list of countries by oil imports: Crude oil imports into the EU 2001-2014 - List of countries by oil imports
Imports of natural gas into the European Union: Imports of natural gas into the European Union
2015: 28 November 2015: Russian regime's pipeline projects have run into trouble with the EU's anti-monopoly rules, as the dependence on a single source of gas is seen as threat to the EU's energy security
Electric power in Europe and in the European Union: Electric power in Europe - Electric power in the European Union
Nuclear power in Europe and in the European Union: Nuclear power in the European Union - Nuclear energy policy by country in Europe
Renewable energy in Europe and in the European Union: Renewable energy in Europe - Renewable energy in the European Union

Transport in Europe - Transport and the European Union - Transport infrastructure in Europe
Aviation in Europe: Aviation in Europe - Environmental impact of aviation
2015: 16 November 2015: Huge variation in fuel efficiency between transatlantic airlines, with British Airways and Lufthansa emitting 51% more carbon dioxide than the cleanest flyers, as European parliament study suggests that aviation and shipping will continue to increase their share of global emissions, predicting that by 2050 aviation will account for 22% of the total, and shipping 17%
Rail transport in Europe: Rail transport in Europe
Road transport in Europe: Road transport in Europe - Public transport in Europe - Cycling in Europe
Water transport in Europe: Water transport in Europe
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply in the European Union

Fishing in the European Union - Fishing in the North Sea
EU's 'Agriculture and Fisheries Council' and common fisheries policy: Common Fisheries Policy is the fisheries policy of the European Union - Agriculture and Fisheries Council, one of the configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the European Union member states, its competencies include the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy

Agriculture in Europe - European Union and agriculture
2016: 28 April 2016: Agriculture will play a crucial role in addressing the planet’s most pressing challenges, whether on food production, health or the preservation of the environment, special report shows
Forestry in Europe: Forestry in Europe

List of the largest trading partners of the European Union - the EU is the largest exporter in the world and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services, internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls
Treaties entered into by the European Union
EU free trade agreements
EU/Africa and the Middle East economic and trade relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations
2016: 15 September 2016: Major European oil companies and commodity traders including Dutch Trafigura, Vitol and British BP are exploiting weak fuel standards in African countries to export highly polluting fuels that they could never sell at the pumps in Europe, according to a new report - 6 December 2016: Five west African countries Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast have announced measures to end the practice of European oil companies and traders exporting 'African quality' diesel, highly polluting fuels that could never be sold in Europe - 7 December 2016: Africa's crackdown on tax avoidance project designed to improve audit capacities and ensure multinationals observe local tax laws
EU/The Americas economic and trade relations: European Union/The Americas relations
EU/Asia-Pacific economic and trade relations: European Union/Asia-Pacific relations - The EU is China's largest trading partner, and China is the EU's second largest trading partner, mostly of industrial and manufactured goods, between 2009 and 2010 alone EU exports to China increased by 38% and China's exports to the EU increased by 31%, however there are sources of tension, such as human rights and the EU's arms embargo on China
Since 1972: Since 1972 European Union-ASEAN relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two organizations, the European Union EU and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN
EU/Central Asia economic and trade relations: European Union/Central Asia relations

Banking and banks in Europe: List of banks in Europe
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission - 12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas

Economic history of Europe and business cycles - Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe - Great Recession worldwide following the financial crisis since 2007 - European debt crisis affecting the countries of the eurozone since early 2009, when a group of 10 central and eastern European banks asked for a bailout - Causes of the European debt crisis
June/July 2011: 20. Juni 2011: EU Einigung am 20. Juni 2011 auf "Europäischen Stabilitätsmechanismus" ESM ab 2013 - 20. Juni 2011: Besorgnis des IWF über Europas Schuldensituation - 26. Juni 2011: Chinas Staatsfonds steht zu Euro-Investitionen - 11. Juli 2011: EU-Justizkommissarin will Macht der Rating-Agenturen brechen
August 2011: 12. August 2011: Belgien, Frankreich, Griechenland, Italien und Spanien verfügen Verbote sog. 'Leerverkäufe' im Börsenhandel, teils nur befristet - 25. August 2011: Frankreich, Italien und Spanien verlängern Verbot von sog. 'Leerverkäufen', d.h. insoweit von Spekulation auf den Ruin eben dieser Länder
September 2011: 28. September 2011: Strengere Regeln für Euro-Stabilitätspakt verabschiedet - 29. September 2011: Spanien und Italien verlängern Verbot von 'Leerverkäufen'
October 2011: 27 October 2011: EU leaders agree to a last-minute deal on eurozone debts and reducing Greek debts - 31 octobre 2011: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro a atteint 10,2% de la population active en septembre 2011
November 2011: 4 November 2011: Greek eurozone crisis and G20 meeting - current events - Lessons to learn: - Chapter: The form of value - Chapter: Productive and unproductive labour
December 2011: 8 December: European countries face eurozone crisis summit in Brussels still without any idea to disempower banks and to democratise credit - 9 December 2011: Brussels summit rejects EU wide treaty change
January/February 2012: 14 January 2012: EU criticises Standard&Poor's ratings downgrade of nine eurozone countries - 31 January 2012: Eurozone unemployment hits new record at the end of 2011 reaching a rate of 10,4 per cent - 21 février 2012: L'Eurogroupe approuve le plan d'aide de 130 milliards d'euros à la Grèce - 23. Februar 2012: Laut Konjunkturprognose der EU-Kommission rutschen die Euro-Länder in Rezession von 0,3%
April/May 2012: 2 avril 2012: Le taux de chômage dans la zone euro est à son plus haut depuis 1999 et a atteint 10,8% de la population active en février 2012 - 2 May 2012: For all 17 nations in the eurozone, the jobless rate rose again to 10.9%, the highest since the euro was formed in 1999 - 16. Mai 2012: EU-Parlament und EU-Finanzminister vor Verhandlungen zu Eigenkapitalregeln für Banken
June 2012: 1 June 2012: Eurozone unemployment at 11%, in the 27-nation EU the jobless rate 10.3%, up from 10.2% - 10 June 2012: Spanish bank bailout request welcomed - 29 June 2012: Eurozone agrees to use its bailout fund to support struggling banks directly
July/August 2012: 2 July 2012: Unemployment in the eurozone hit 11.1% in May while the downturn in its manufacturing sector continued - 25 July 2012: Libor fixing to become criminal offence, EU justice commissioner Viviane Reding says - 2 August 2012: ECB's Draghi reaffirms promise to do 'whatever it takes' to save euro - 14 August 2012: Eurozone economy shrinks by 0.2% - 31 August 2012: Unemployment across the 17-nation eurozone hit a record 18 million in July
September/October 2012: 6 September: ECB's Mario Draghi unveils bond-buying euro debt plan - 1 October: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a fresh high of 18.2 million in August - 8 October: Eurozone unlocks $650bn crisis rescue fund - 13 October: The EU has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, which is worth a million euros, for six decades of work in advancing peace in Europe - 18 October: EU Brussels summit to focus on eurozone crisis - 19 October: At the EU Brussels summit compromise deal reached on eurozone bank supervisor - 23 October: The European Commission has backed plans from 10 countries to launch a financial transactions tax - 31 October: Eurozone unemployment jumps to fresh high of 18.49 million in September, unemployment rate up to 11.6% (a year earlier 10.3%)
November/December 2012: 6 November: The European Court of Auditors said there were errors in allocating about 5bn euros from the 2011 EU budget - 7 November: Eurozone jobless to peak near 12% in 2013,the EU autumn forecasts says - 30 November: Unemployment in the eurozone hit a record high in October, with more than 170.000 extra jobs lost and youth joblessness at almost 24 per cent, as the economy slumped into recession - 13 December: Eurozone agrees ECB banking supervision rules
January/February 2013: 8 January 2013: Eurozone unemployment reaches new high in 2012, as more than 26 million people are now unemployed across the EU - 28 February 2013: EU agrees to cap banker bonuses
April/May 2013: 2 April 2013: The euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 12.0 % in February 2013 - 15 mai 2013: Selon une première estimation de l'Eurostat, le Produit intérieur brut de la zone euro s'est replié de 0,2% au premier trimestre - 31 May: One in four youths is jobless as unemployment across the eurozone reaches record of 19.38 million people or 12.2%
September-November 2013: 27 septembre: Le budget UE 2013 accuse un trou de 20 milliards d'euros - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments
2014: 1 January 2014: European labour market opens for Romanians, Bulgarians - 5 June: As the eurozone economy is only growing at 0.2%, ECB slashes interest rate to 0.15%
26 October 2014: Twenty-four European banks fail European Banking Authority financial stress tests
2015: 22 January 2015: ECB president Mario Draghi pledges €60bn monthly top-up until September 2016 in quantitative easing move to save currency bloc - 20 February: Eurozone ministers gather for crucial Greece talks - 19 March: EU leaders set for crunch Greek talks at Brussels summit - 20 March: EU summit in Brussels demands Greece produce economic blueprint quickly - 20 March: EU offers funds to Greece in return for urgent reforms - 24 March: Greece promises list of reforms by next Monday to unlock cash and avoid default - 29 June 2015: Turmoil hits the financial world after capital controls imposed in Greece and banks are shut for a week, triggering a new phase of the eurozone crisis - 23 September: Volkswagen crisis and Chinese economy fears weigh on markets - 13 November 2015: The eurozone economy slowed in the three months to September 2015 as exports to large developing economies weakened
2017: 28 July 2017: Economic confidence across the eurozone has inched up to its highest level in a decade, as countries beat UK with solid growth in Q2

Demographics of Europe - Demographics of Europe, as of 2010 Europe's population within the standard physical geographical boundaries was 740 million according to the United Nations - Demographics of the European Union, as of 2014 the population of the EU of 28 member states is about 507.4 million people - Ethnic groups in Europe - History of Europe - European society by country

Social class in Europe - Labor in Europe - Labour in the European Union
Trade unions in Europe - Trade unions in the European Union
List of federations of trade unions in Europe - European trade union federations
Since 1973: Since 1973 European Trade Union Confederation - European Trade Union Confederation by country
European labour law - Since 1989 Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers - Co-determination - European Employment Strategy

Human rights in Europe - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country - List of Human Rights organisations
2015: 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive', wanting to host only cultural events and exhibits
2016: 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 15 March 2016: Macedonia forcibly ('they hit everyone – women, children, men') returns thousands of exhausted refugees to Greece, after desperate men, women and children fled Greek camp a day earlier - 15 March 2016: Seeing Macedonian authorities sending people back in trucks to Greece late at night, dropping children off shivering, wet and disoriented, 'Save the Children' criticizes 'the wholly inadequate response of European leaders to this crisis, which treats people like bargaining chips and leaves them stranded with no safe plan for their future' - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie
2017: 1 October 2017: Muted response from EU leaders over police crackdown in Catalonia, as Belgian PM Michel and senior MEP Verhofstadt among the few national leaders to denounce violence and human right groups also condemn the violence

European Court of Human Rights: European Court of Human Rights - Cour européenne des droits de l'homme - Site officiel
2014: 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 13 June 2014: Ukraine filed a lawsuit at the European Court of Human Rights concerning the kidnapping by terrorists of orphans from Snizhne - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European Court of Human Rights
2015: 14 April 2015: ECHR postpones Ukraine's lawsuit against Russia over the actions of the Russian regime in Donbas and Crimea for six months at Russian request - 3 December 2015: Ukrainian citizens have filed 700 complaints to the ECHR against the Russian Federation in connection with military actions in Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the occupation of Crimea, as the court is expected to make the first ruling on these complaints in the near future
January 2016: 13 January 2016: ECHR to rule on prison term for Russian activist Kashapov, who was arrested in December 2014 for criticizing Crimea annexation by Russian regime in 2014
May 2016: 21 May 2016: Australian law firm wants compensation from Russian regime for MH17 crash and its President Putin on behalf of families of victims of July 2014 catastrophe, the relevant application was submitted on 9 May 2016 to the European Court of Human Rights (Cour européenne des droits de l'homme)
May 2016: 31 May 2016: Russian regime must pay editor for breaching freedom of expression rights of Yelena Mikhaylovna Nadtoka, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Vecherniy Novocherkassk, who was found guilty in 2004, in a breach of her rights under article 10 of the European convention, of causing insult to a politician, ECHR rules saying that the newspaper’s article sought to complain of corruption on the part of the mayor of Novocherkassk, which was a subject of public interest
October 2016: 11 October 2016: Chess master Garry Kasparov wins a case against Russian regime at the European Court of Human Rights for unlawful arrest in 2007 and violation of his right to attend a rally in Samara he missed as a result of his detention in Moscow
January/February 2017: 26 January 2017: 'Among the Council of Europe member, the majority of judgments defining at least one violation of the European Convention on Human Rights in 2016 was delivered against Russia (222 judgments)', followed by Turkey with 77 judgments, the ECHR says - 10 February 2017: Ukrainian librarian Natalya Sharina held under house arrest in Russia since October 2015, has taken her case to the European court of human rights
April 2017: 13 April 2017: Russian authorities failed to take sufficient steps to stop the 2004 Beslan school siege in North Ossetia in which more than 330 people were killed, the European court of human rights has ruled
June 2017: 20 June 2017: Russian law '2013 federal statute' encourages homophobia and discrimination, the European court of human rights has ruled, in a sharply worded rebuke to the Russian regime
September 2017: 25 September 2017: Portuguese schoolchildren from the area struck by the country’s worst forest fires are seeking crowdfunding, supported by the NGO Global Legal Action Network, to sue 47 European countries, alleging that the states’ failure to tackle climate change threatens their right to life
October 2017: 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's Catalan plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights

Asylum and right of asylum in Europe: Asylum in the European Union - Right of asylum in the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk - 28 November: Soldiers in Macedonia have begun erecting a metal fence on the country's southern border with Greece
2016: 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE

Culture in Europe and Languages in Europe - Languages in the European Union - List of endangered languages in Europe
Education in Europe and Education in the European Union: Education in Europe - Education in the European Union - Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
European Schools: European Schools, private-authority sponsored schools controlled jointly by the governments of the Member States of the EU and regarded as public institutions to provide a multilingual and multicultural education for nursery, primary and secondary level pupils
History of science and science and technology in Europe: History of science - Science and technology in Europe
European Union and science and technology, European Research Area: European Union and science and technology - European Research Area - Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
European Space Agency ESA: European Space Agency ESA, an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space since 1975, with 22 member states and headquartered in Paris, having worldwide staff of about 2,000 and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion in 2016
2016: 20 October 2016: Hopes are fading for Schiaparelli lander, part of the ExoMars 2016 mission jointly operated by ESA with the Russian regime's space agency Roscosmos, after mission control lost contact - 28 October 2016: ESA released images of its doomed Mars lander, showing a giant crater caused by impact, and scattered components
Health and healthcare in Europe: Health in Europe by country - Health and healthcare in Europe, provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level as most European countries have universal health coverage - Health and the European Union - Health-EU Portal is an official web portal of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General that facilities the access of public-related health information to EU citizens
2016: 17 October 2016: Use of some of the strongest antibiotics available to treat life-threatening infections has risen to record levels on European farms across the major countries of the EU, according to new data from the European Medicines Agency
Health disasters in Europe by country, health crises healthcare and environmental issues: Health disasters in Europe by country and by health crises
Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
EU's Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks: Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, providing the European Commission with the scientific advice on questions relating to the toxicity and ecotoxicity of chemicals, biochemicals and biological compounds whose use may have harmful consequences for human health and the environment - European Food Safety Authority - Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety - Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
2015: 23 March 2015: The UN’s International Agency for Research on Cancer says that three pesticides, the herbicide glyphosate – the active ingredient in USA's Monsanto's Roundup – and the insecticides malathion and diazinon, were 'probably' carcinogenic and two others, which have already been outlawed or restricted, were 'possibly' so
2016: 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation

European media - Internet in Europe - European newspapers - European Federation of Journalists
Media freedom in the European Union - Censorship in Europe
2014/2015: 17 June 2014: Ukrainian lawmakers call on the International Federation of Journalists, the European Federation of Journalists, the Association of European Journalists, and the Reporters without Borders regarding the information aggression of the Russian media against Ukraine - 11 September 2015: A group of European newspaper editors, includign papers in Hungary and Slovakia, united in an appeal to the EU to take decisive action to deal with the international refugee crisis

Council of Europe
Since 1949: Since 1949 Council of Europe treaties - Treaties entered into by the European Union
May 1949: May 1949 Statute of the Council of Europe creating the council, the original signatories were Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United Kingdom, as of 2013 it has been ratified or acceded to by 47 European states, nearly all European states with the exception of Belarus and Vatican City
1950: November 1950 European Convention on Human Rights
1961: October 1961 European Social Charter, the basic rights set out in the Charter are housing, health, education, labour rights, full employment, reduction of working hours, equal pay for equal work, parental leave, social security, social and legal protection from poverty and social exclusion, free movement of persons and non-discrimination, also the rights of migrant workers and that of the persons with disabilities
1979: September 1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats
2005: 2005 Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, also into force since June 2007 in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine, as of July 2016 it has been ratified by 35 states - International conventions related to terrorism and counter-terrorism cases, including the 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, the 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
European Convention on Human Rights - European Court of Human Rights
2016: 21 mai 2016: Les familles des victimes du vol MH17 de la Malaysia Airlines, abattu alors qu'il survolait l'Ukraine en 2014, poursuivent en justice la Russie et son président Poutine auprès de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe PACE made up of 324 parliamentarians from the national parliaments of the Council of Europe's 47 member states - Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Council of Europe's decision-making body comprisiong the Foreign Affairs Ministers of the member states, in collaboration with the Parliamentary Assembly it is the guardian of the Council's fundamental values, and monitors member states' compliance with their undertakings
'Venice Commission' advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent experts of constitutional law and created in 1990 after the fall of the Berlin wall, at a time of urgent need for constitutional assistance in Central and Eastern Europe
2014: 11 April 2014: Russian lawmakers stripped of voting rights at Council of Europe over Russian regime's annexation of Crimea - 6 May: Ukraine dominates Council of Europe meeting, but Russian regime rules out holding a second international meeting in Geneva - 12 May 2014: European Court of Human Rights orders Turkey to pay Cyprus over invasion - 24 July 2014: Poland broke human rights convention on suspects held by the CIA, ECHR finds for Abu Zubaydah and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, who argued they were tortured by USA agents in a Polish forest prison - 24 September 2014: Russia's FSB spy agency’s interception of data including texts and emails challenged by Russian journalist and now examined by European court of human rights
2015: 18 March 2015: PACE report highlights Russian orchestration of east Ukraine conflict
2016: 7 January 2016: Council of Europe urges Poland’s president not to sign controversial media law that threatens press freedom - 29 February 2016: 'Venice Commission' publishes a draft opinion on the state of law in Poland, with a warning that democracy might be in peril in the country
April 2016: 15 April 2016: European Council has stressed the need to re-open Crimea to regular monitoring to safeguard the human rights of 2.5 million people - 22 April 2016: The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe calls for release of all prisoners in Donbas, punishment of those responsible
September 2016: 13 September 2016: Ukrainian side may suspend the membership in PACE if the powers of the Russian delegation are recognized, in spite of the illegitimate nature of the elections to the State Duma of Russia on the territory of annexed Crimea, Ukraine says
October 2016: 10 October 2016: The Council of Europe awards its Václav Havel human rights prize to the Iraqi activist Nadia Murad, who was an Islamic State terrorists' captive before becoming the face of a campaign to protect her Yazidi people - 12/13 October 2016: Russia claimed guilty by PACE resolution of aggression and responsible for crimes in occupied Ukrainian territories, also calling 'legal remedies for human rights violations on the Ukrainian territories outside the control of the Ukrainian authorities' - 14 octobre 2016: Un attaché parlementaire turc du Conseil de l'Europe et membre de du parti AKP du président Erdogan a vandalisé une œuvre d'art, une caricature représentant Mahomet avec une bombe à la place du turban, exposée au siège de l'organisation européenne à Strasbourg
January 2017: 27 January 2017: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe condemns Russia for its terrorist activities in Ukraine, as 'the deputies of all PACE political groups, except the united left, have condemned the actions of the Russian special services aiming to assassinate member of the Parliament of Ukraine Anton Gerashchenko'
April 2017: 26 April 2017: Pace votes to restart monitoring Turkey putting the country back on a watchlist over 'serious concerns' about democracy and human rights, a process it had relaxed in 2004, putting pressure on the EU to reassess relations with Ankara
October 2017: 11 October 2017: PACE passes resolution to lift political sanctions against Russian regime, rejecting amendments proposed by the Ukrainian delegation

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE - Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe - OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media - OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights
OSCE ministerial council meetings
2013: 20th OSCE Ministerial Council in Kyiv, Ukraine, 5/6 December 2013 - 5 décembre 2013: Lors du sommet à Kiev de l'OSCE Didier Burkhalter a appelé l'Ukraine à surmonter les divisions Est-Ouest et à respecter les manifestants
2014: 21 March 2014: OSCE to send observers to Ukraine as quickly as possible, Russian Putin regime says no Crimea mandate - 18 April: Ukraine OSCE peacemakers say they need more help and another 350 monitors to make Geneva deal work - 22 April: OSCE mission arrives in Sloviansk - 22 April: Antiterrorist center in Ukraine's east ensures work of OSCE mission - 24 April: OSCE chief monitor Apakan concerned about escalating violence in Donetsk region - 24 April: OSCE's Guldimann says Geneva accords helped stop escalation, confirming plans to increase the OSCE mission up to 500 monitors - 25 April: Ponomarev's pro-Russian separatists, who captured Vice journalist Simon Ostrovsky, hold OSCE military observers captive after their bus was seized - 3 May: All OSCE observers captured in Sloviansk released through joint efforts, FM Deshchytsia says adding that terrorists there are listening only to Russia - 7 May: At a meeting with OSCE Chairman Didier Burkhalter in Moscow, Putin calls on Ukrainian separatists to reschedule May 11 'referendum', adding that presidential elections in Ukraine, scheduled for May 25, are a step in the right direction - 27 May: The OSCE SMM loses contact with monitors near the city of Donetsk - 29 May: Pro-Russian separatists in Slovyansk claim to be holding four OSCE observers - 30 May: A second group of 5 OSCE observers went missing a day after pro-Russian separatists announced they were holding a four-member team of OSCE monitors - 12 June: OSCE wants to participate in negotiations with terrorists, as there is still no contact with kidnapped groups of observers in southeastern Ukraine - 13 June: The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people calls on UN, OSCE to protect civilians in Crimea - 27 June: Release from captivity of OSCE group of four observers confirmed but Luhansk-based team has not yet been released - 29 June: Pro-Russia separatists release second Ukraine OSCE monitor group - Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine since June 2014
July-December 2014: 3 July: Trilateral contact group proposed to resume before July 5 to reach a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine, controlled by OSCE observers - 1 August: Trilateral contact group in Minsk agree on release of hostages in eastern Ukraine - 10 September: Donetsk region waiting for 250 more OSCE observers - 20 September: Memorandum on ceasefire in Donbas signed in Minsk, concerning a security zone and the withdrawal of all foreign mercenaries - 4 October: OSCE observers admit to carrying armed pro-Russian separatists in their car - 8 October: OSCE mission in eastern Ukraine expanded to 92 people - 27 October: OSCE praises democratic manner of elections and firmness of Ukrainians - 31 October: OSCE outraged at Russian actor Porechenkov's shooting in Donetsk at the positions of Ukrainian forces in a helmet with the inscription 'Press' - 8 December 2014: Ukrainian president Poroshenko urges OSCE to promote ceasefire in Donbas tomorrow - 26 December: Following the recent meeting in Minsk, OSCE vows to help deliver Ukrainian humanitarian aid to Donbas - 31 December: After meeting in Luhansk including OSCE no statements made
2015: 5 January 2015: OSCE doubles its mission in Donbas - 13 January: Situation in Donbas gets worse, OSCE says - 31 January: Situation in Donbas deteriorates rapidly impacting civilians, OSCE says - 1 February: OSCE blames pro-Russian separatists for failed Ukraine talks in Minsk - 15 February: Russian-backed militants refuse to allow monitors from the OSCE to reach the encircled town of Debaltseve after a ceasefire took effect on Sunday - 17 February: OSCE reports ceasefire is not holding fully in Donetsk city, Debaltseve and Luhansk - 17 February: OSCE observers not allowed inspecting 19 trucks from the so-called Russian 'humanitarian convoy' in Luhansk - 18 February: OSCE calls on Russian-backed militants to immediately stop offensive - 7 March: OSCE urged to double the number of its observers in Ukraine to 1,000 - 19 March: Poroshenko's peace plan should be used along with Minsk accords, OSCE says - 26 March: OSCE reported continuing clashes near the village of Shyrokyne east from Mariupol - 9 April: OSCE mission ascertains that Ukrainian side withdraws heavy weapons at all visited locations - 30 April: Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine starts video conference, as Ukraine's Leonid Kuchma wants Minsk subgroups to start work soon - 4 May: Trilateral contact group may meet in Minsk on May 6 - 5 May: OSCE records nearly 700 explosions, using heavy mortars and machine guns, artillery and tanks, near Donetsk airport and Shyrokyne village during the past weekend - 6 May: The leaders of the so-called 'DPR' and the 'LPR' Zakharchenko and Plotnytsky have decided not to take part in the Trilateral Contact Group meeting in Minsk on 6 May - 7 May: In Minsk Trilateral Contact Group agreed to send observers from each subgroup to the contact line in Donbas - 7 May: OSCE observers have no access to checkpoints on border with Russia, also claiming that use of Grad multiple rocket launcher systems by Russian-backed militants is alarming - 8 May: Tripartite Contact Group agrees on four fundamental issues of further cooperation, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 7 August: The Trilateral Contact Group on settlement of the situation in Donbas will meet in Minsk on 26 August, Ukraine's Iryna Herashchenko says - 9 August: Four OSCE cars destroyed in arson attack in militant-occupied Donetsk overnight - 13 August: OSCE at the Russian checkpoints of Gukovo and Donetsk reports that dumper trucks continue transporting coal from Donbas to Russia - 26 August 2015: Ukraine and representatives of Russian-led militant groups have tentatively agreed to abide by the ceasefire agreed in February starting on the beginning of the school year September 1 - 9 September: Trilateral Contact Group's working group on political issues will meet in Minsk on September 15-16, OSCE representative Martin Sajdik says - 24 September: The risk of new escalation in Donbas remains, OSCE says, as too many weapons remain in the territory - 30 September: Ukraine contact group agrees to pullback more weapons from the front line in Donbas, leaving Ukraine still not in control of its territory and border with Russia, as a 40th Russian truck convoy arrives in east Ukraine - 16 October 2015: British delegation to the OSCE requests the Russian delegation to explain the presence of Russian Buratino Multiple Rocket Launcher in militant-controlled area in Donbas - 19 November: The ceasefire situation in Ukraine's two war-torn regions remains unstable, according to OSCE
2016: 2 February 2016: Ukraine's military spokesmen accuse OSCE monitors of failing to respond to the increased number Russian-backed militant attacks - 22 March 2016: OSCE human rights chief raises concerns over Russian regime's Savchenko verdict, calling for release to Ukraine - 7 May 2016: OSCE monitors in Ukraine report the presence of seven T-72 tanks in the militant-occupied city of Luhansk, which is a violation of Minsk agreement - 11 May: Militant 'parades' in occupied territories in eastern Ukraine violate Minsk deal, OSCE says - 20 May: OSCE ready to send an armed police mission to help conduct elections in eastern Ukraine - 28 May: OSCE monitors to Ukraine's Ertugrul Apakan condemns violence against watchdog in east, after monitors came under fire and had a drone shot down - 2 June: Russian-backed separatists block OSCE from occupied Luhansk in eastern Ukraine - 2 June: OSCE's Martin Sajdik expresses concern about the shelling of the Special Monitoring Mission representatives working in Donbas and ceasefire violations which led to the military and civilian casualties - 25 June 2016: Monitors of the OSCE in Donbas are facing systemic obstacles to prevent them from carrying out their duties, which mostly occur in the areas not controlled by the Ukrainian authorities, OSCE says - 4 July 2016: OSCE slams Russia's violations of human rights in Crimea - 4 August 2016: OSCE's Hug says, that Minsk contact group ignores numerous ceasefire violations, promoting unpunishment - 16 September 2016: Minsk Group fails to agree on withdrawal of forces in Donbas as Ukraine categorically opposes the alteration of the demarcation line and changing Mink agreements to satisfy Russian proxies - 19 October 2016: OSCE monitor says most of restrictions are in separatist-held areas of eastern Ukraine, adding that 'impunity for violations and interference in the OSCE mandate is an open invitation to commit more', ahead of 'Normandy Four' meeting in Berlin to discuss the Minsk agreements - 11 November 2016: The conflict in eastern Ukraine is on the brink of a major escalation as the security situation deteriorated sharply over the past week, the OSCE warns - 18 November 2016: Triliteral contact group in Minsk discusses only modalities of the probable election in Russia-occupied Donbas, not a certain draft bill on it, Verkhovna Rada's Iryna Herashenko says, as OSCE warns about a possible attack on Mariupol, also reporting the biggest number of ceasefire violations along the frontline in Donbas in 2016 - 2 December 2016: Russia's deliberate escalation in Donbas makes Minsk ineffective, USA Ambassador Baer says
2017: 9 July 2017: OSCE PA condemns Russian aggression in Ukraine

Crime in Europe
Racism in Europe: Racism in Europe - 2015 Signatory countries of the United Nations 'International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination'
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1884 German colonial rule in Africa, forced labour under German rule during 1939-1945 World War II and German politics of extermination and starvation: 1884-1914 German colonial rule in Africa was an expression of nationalism highlighting racist views of mankind and characterized by the use of repressive violence - Forced labour under German rule during World War II - Extermination through labour - 'Hunger Plan' developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food entailing the death by starvation of millions of Slavs following the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union
2001 Durban conference acknowledgement of the slave trade and slavery as crime against humanity: 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
Since 2001/2006 France's recognition of slavery as a crime against humanity: On 10 May 2001, the French Senate adopted a law that recognized the trade of slaves as a crime against humanity, in 2006 May 10 was held to be a national date of commemoration of the abolition of slavery, a legislation resulting from Christiane Taubira's lifelong efforts to promote the historical and cultural heritage of French overseas territories
Antisemitism in Europe: Antisemitism in Europe - Timeline of antisemitism - Holocaust denial in the European Union
Since the Middle Ages: Anti-Semitism in Europe became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages - 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
Nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first century: History of antisemitism in the 19th, 20th and 21th century - The Holocaust in Germany, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, and the World War II collaborators with the Nazis, also outside Europe under Axis occupation, in North Africa's 'Italian Libya', in Tunisia under Vichy-France rule etc. - The Holocaust by country
2014/2015: 22 July 2014: After anti-Semitic protests and violence in their countries over the conflict in Gaza three EU foreign ministers pledge to fight 'acts and statements that cross the line to anti-Semitism' - 26 July 2014: European anti-Semitism is focus as Jewish groups, senators meet in Washington - 7 August 2014: Antisemitism on rise across Europe as attacks go beyond Israel-Palestinian conflict, experts say - 16 January 2015: European Jewish Congress demands that the EU ramp up it’s efforts to protect its Jewish citizens - 25 January 2015: Jewish leaders call for Europe-wide legislation outlawing antisemitism - 27 January 2015: Steven Spielberg raises alarm on persistent and surged anti-Semitism in Krakow speech
Nationalism and fascism in Europe: Nationalism in Europe - Nationalist movements in Europe - White nationalism in Europe - White supremacy in Europe - Fascism in Europe - Nazi parties by country
20th-century National Socialism (Nazism) in Germany and collaborating states: National Socialism, also commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party, Nazi Germany, and collaborating organizations and states - Italian Fascism - Austrofascism - Fascism in Spain
Nationalist, racist and fascist parties and politics in Europe: List of active nationalist parties in Europe - List of nationalist organizations - List of far-right political parties by country - List of fascist movements by country - Right-wing populism and political parties by country - Far-right politics in different countries
Since 1945 white nationalist, racist and fascist organizations in Germany: List of white nationalist organizations in Germany - Neo-Nazism in Germany and Europe
Since 1945 Neo-Nazism in Germany: Neo-Nazism in Germany - Neo-Nazism by continent
Neo-Nazism in Europe: Neo-Nazism in Europe
2004-2009 'European National Front': 2004-2009 'European National Front' coordinating structure of European nationalist parties, including National Democratic Party of Germany
2015: 21 March 2015: EU far-right parties set to gather in St. Petersburg for Russian forum, as Russian regime courts EU far-right, neo-Nazi movements
2016: 24 June 2016: UK vote sparks EU referendum demands of anti-immigration and racist parties
2017: 21 January 2017: Far-right party leaders from France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands meet in the German city of Koblenz on Saturday to present their vision for Europe that would dismantle the European Union - 4 June 2017: Far right raises £50,000 to target boats on refugee rescue missions in Mediterranean - 7/8 September 2017: Invited by German AfD's von Storch, who called on European border guards to use firearms to deter illegal immigrants, including women and children, and speaking at Berlin's Spandau Citadel British promoter of 'Brexit' Nigel Farage receives a standing ovation from German neo-Nazi linked AfD party, as he whipped up anti-EU sentiment
Pan-European nationalism: Pan-European nationalism - Nationalisme européen - List of nationalist organizations
Since 2002: 'Le Bloc identitaire – Le mouvement social européen' ist ein Zusammenschluss von regionalen Gruppen in Frankreich und benachbarten frankophonen Regionen wie der Romandie und der Wallonie seit 2002, um eine angebliche 'europäische Identität' gegen kulturelle 'Überfremdung' etwa durch muslimische Einwanderung zu verteidigen
'Mouvance identitaire' en Europe, des groupes qui se proclament également identitaires, tels que l'Identitäre Bewegung en Allemagne, partiellement reliée à 'Pegida', et en Autriche, qui se réclame de la mouvance identitaire, ou 'Nordiska Förbundet' en Scandinavie, 'Causa Identitária' au Portugal, 'l’Union Nationaliste & Identitaire Suisse', Génération Identitaires Flandre et Mouvement Nation en Belgique, en Italie
Terrorism in Europe and in the EU: Terrorism in Europe - Terrorism in the European Union - Reactions to terrorist attacks
Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe: Nationalist, fascist, nazi and neo-nazi terrorism in Europe - Nationalist terrorism in Europe - Far-right politics in different countries - Terrorism in Europe by country
Islamic terrorism in Europe 2014–present
March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks: 11-22 March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban terror attacks committed by Mohammed Mera, targeting French Army soldiers and children and a teacher from a Jewish school in the cities of Montauban and Toulouse
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: 24 May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo and Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket terror attack in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher Kosher Supermarket siege and terror attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris
International reactions to the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting - 17 January 2015: Europe on high alert following anti-terror raids and arrests of suspected Islamist militants - 19 January: Manhunts, death threats as Europe on high terror alert
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 13/14 novembre 2015: Sept attaques à Paris font plus d'une centaine de morts - 13/14 novembre 2015: Attentats du 13 novembre 2015 en Île-de-France, réactions internationales
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids
14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when armed Tunisian Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples
December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack: 19 December 2016 Berlin Christmas market truck attack
March 2017: 22 March 2017 terrorist attack on Westminster Bridge, in Parliament Square and within the grounds of the Palace of Westminster in central London
April 2017: Attentat du 20 avril 2017, sur l'avenue des Champs-Élysées à Paris Karim Cheurfi, né le 31 décembre 1977 à Livry-Gargan, armé d'une kalachnikov tire sur un fourgon de policiers, tuant un de ces derniers en blessant deux autres et touchant une passante, avant d'être abattu
May 2017: 22 May 2017 Manchester Arena bombing - 23 May 2017: More than twenty people, including children, were killed and dozens injured when a man detonated a bomb at a pop concert by USA's Ariana Grande
June 2017: 3 June 2017 London attacks - 4 June 2017: The three assailants who killed seven people and injured over 40 others, reportedly shouting 'this is for Allah', in a terror attack were shot dead by British police within eight minutes of the stabbing and car-ramming spree in London, UK's general election campaigning suspended
August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack: 17 August 2017 Barcelona vehicle-ramming attack, when a van was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas, killing 13 and injuring at least 100 - Domestic and international reactions to the 2017 Barcelona attack
Corruption in Europe: Corruption in Europe - Perception of corruption in Europe
2015: 15 April 2015: Lack of control over lobbyists threatens to undermine European democracies, Transparency International says calling for tight new regulation
2016: 22 April 2016: The Isle of Man and Gibraltar among a group of 22 jurisdictions that signed up to a new information-sharing initiative of Europe’s five largest economies Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Spain in response to 'Panama Papers' revelations, to tackle criminals that use corporate secrecy to hide corruption, money laundering and tax evasion
EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report: EU bi-annual Anti-Corruption Report - 3 February 2014: The true cost of corruption in the EU is at least 120bn euros annually, the Home Affairs Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom says presenting the first EU-wide anti-corruption report
Corruption in the Media: Overview of Corruption in the Media - 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says - 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
White collar crime, tax evasion, tax avoidance, money laundering, fraud etc. in Europe: Fraud in the European Union - White-collar criminals by nationality
2013: 4 February 2013: European police said Monday that they had uncovered a vast criminal network involved in fixing hundreds of matches, including Champions League and World Cup qualifiers - 2013 European horse meat contamination scandal - 21 février 2013: La viande chevaline en lieu et place du bœuf déjà décelée en 2003, pour Eurofins le scandale actuel n’est pas une surprise
2015: 20 May 2015: Regulators announce penalties against Barclays, JP Morgan, Citigroup, Royal Bank of Scotland, UBS and Bank of America Merrill Lynch, called 'the cartel', for manipulating the foreign exchange markets 2007-2013
2016: 18 August 2016: The President of European Olympic Committees and Olympic Committee of Ireland Patrick Hickey arrested for illegal tickets sale in Rio de Janeiro, at least six more persons could be involved in the plot
2017: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors
Organized crime in Europe: Organized crime groups in Europe - Gangs in Europe
2015: 7 August 2015: Five men charged with murder of 200 migrants in Mediterranean who died when the boat they were travelling to Europe on capsized
European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes: European Union, global and mass surveillance, abuse and crimes - Global surveillance can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century and the United Kingdom/USA Agreement, later expanded to create the 'Five Eyes alliance' - Global surveillance disclosures 2013–present
2015: 30 April 2015: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker expects that German government gets to the bottom of Brussels spy scandal after Germany reportedly snooped on the EU and France at Washington's behest
Police brutality and torture in Europe: Police brutality in Europe - Torture in Europe
2016: 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time
Women's rights and abuse of women in Europe: Women in Europe - Women's rights in Europe - 6 March 2014: FRA report reveals extensive abuse of women in European Union
Human trafficking in Europe: Human trafficking in Europe - Human trafficking by country
Law enforcement in Europe: Law enforcement in Europe
Europol: Europol

Environment of Europe - Environment of the European Union
Climate and climate change in Europe: Climate of Europe - Climate change in Europe
2017: 4 August 2017: Deaths from weather disasters could increase 50-fold in Europe by the start of the next century if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or protect citizens, researchers are warning
Water in Europe: Water in Europe - Rivers in Europe - Water supply and sanitation in the European Union
Environmental issues by country: Environmental issues by country
Waste in Europe: Waste in Europe - Waste in the European Union
Food waste in the European Union: Food waste in the European Union
2016: 13 July 2016: Action to cut food waste gains momentum across Europe, after France’s ban on supermarkets throwing away unwanted food has led to greater calls for laws on food waste
Pesticides, chemical herbicides in the European Union: Pesticides in the European Union - Environmental impact of pesticides - Health effects of pesticides (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, neurological problems, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorder and more) may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed - Pesticide residue refers to chemicals and pesticides that may remain on or in food, especially derivatives of chlorinated pesticides, exhibit bioaccumulation which could build up to harmful levels in the body as well as in the environment, persistent chemicals can be magnified through the food chain and have been detected in a wide range of products - Pesticide toxicity to bees> - Insecticides - Chemical herbicides since the early 20th century, a result of research conducted in both the UK and the USA during World War II into the potential use of agents as biological weapons
2017 Egg contamination scandal: July/August 2017 Egg contamination scandal in EU's Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - 3 August 2017: Millions of eggs are being recalled from shops and warehouses in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium after they were found to contain high levels of a toxic insecticide banned from use in the production of food for human consumption - 12 August 2017: Scandal involving eggs contaminated with insecticide spread to 15 EU countries, Switzerland and as far away as Hong Kong, as the European Commission calls for a special meeting on the growing crisis
Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification - Genetically modified organism
Environmental policy of the European Union: Environmental policy of the European Union
2000: December 2000 Water Framework Directive, EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies
2015: 28 October 2015: EU caves in to auto industry pressure for weak emissions limits and test procedure, which will allow car manufactures to emit more than twice legal limit of NOx
2017: 6 January 2016: New European data reveal that modern diesel cars produce 10 times more toxic air pollution than heavy trucks and buses, due to the much stricter testing applied to large vehicles in the EU, according to the researchers behind the report
European Climate Change Programme: European Climate Change Programme

Natural disasters in Europe
European windstorms: European windstorms
2007 Kyrill storm: Kyrill (storm) 2007
2013 St. Jude storm, Cyclone Bodil and Orkan Dirk: St. Jude storm October 2013 - Cyclone Bodil December 2013 - 5 December 2013: European storm turns deadly, threatens huge tidal surge - Orkan Dirk 23. - 25. Dezember 2013
October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia: October 2017 Hurricane Ophelia
October 2017 storm Herwart: Oktober 2017 Sturmtief Herwart - 30 October 2017: At least six people have died in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic as a result of storm Herwart, while fallen trees and damage to railway lines have left thousands of travellers stranded
2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season: 2017–2018 UK and Ireland windstorm season
Floods in Europe: Floods in Europe
2002 European floods: 2002 European floods
2005 European floods: 2005 European floods
2009 European floods: 2009 European floods
2010 Central European floods: 2010 Central European floods
2011 European floods: 2011 European floods
2013 European floods: 2013 European floods - 3 juin 2013: Des inondations et des glissements de terrain provoqués par des pluies diluviennes dans plusieurs pays d'Europe ont fait quatre morts et au moins huit disparus, et des centaines de personnes ont été évacuées
May/June 2016 European floods: May/June 2016 extreme flooding began after several days of heavy rain in central Europe, mostly Germany and France, but also Austria, Belgium, Romania, and Moldova
Heat waves in Europe: Heat waves in Europe
2003 European heat wave: 2003 European heat wave
2006 European heat wave: 2006 European heat wave
2017 European heat wave: Hitze und Unwetter in Europa 2017 - 2 August 2017: Alert in Europe over rising temperatures, with more than 40 degrees in some regions
Wildfires in Europe: Wildfires in Europe
2017: 18 juillet 2017: De violents incendies de forêt font rage depuis plusieurs jours dans le sud de l'Europe, notamment au Portugal, en France, en Italie et en Croatie où les flammes ont atteint la banlieue de Split, la deuxième ville du pays
Cold waves in Europe: Cold waves in Europe
Early 2012 European cold wave: Early 2012 European cold wave
January 2017 European cold wave: January 2017 European cold wave - 8 January 2017: Heavy snowfall and below-freezing temperatures cause death and chaos across Europe - 11 January 2017: Cold snap in large parts of Europe causes hardship especially among migrants, the homeless and the elderly
Earthquakes in Europe: Earthquakes in Europe
Earthquakes in Greece
Earthquakes in Italy - 2009 L'Aquila earthquake - 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
Earthquakes in Russia
Earthquakes in Spain - 2011 Lorca earthquake
Earthquakes in Yugoslavia




European Union
Treaties and law of the European Union: Treaties of the European Union - European Union law
1992 Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, led to the creation of the single European currency, and has been amended by the treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon
2004 Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 but was replaced by the Treaty of Lisbon following the French European Constitution referendum in 2005 and the Dutch European Constitution referendum in 2005
Common values of the European Union's member states: Common values of the European Union's member states are human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law, respect for human rights, minority rights, free market, member states support the principles of pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity, equality of the sexes
Since 2007/2009 Treaty of Lisbon amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union - Since 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Citizenship of the European Union: Citizenship of the European Union - EU's freedom of movement for workers - European Union's internal market
2015: 15 November 2015: Calls across Europe for tightening of borders grow louder after Paris Islamic State's terror attacks

Human rights in Europe and in the European Union - European Network of National Human Rights Institutions - Human rights by country
2015/2016: 2015/2016 'Human Rights Watch' European Union report examining migration and asylum, discrimination and intolerance, counterterrorism, Croatia, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK
European Convention on Human Rights and Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Since 1950/1953 European Convention on Human Rights, international treaty to respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe - Since 2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, its legal status was uncertain until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009
European Court of Human Rights: European Court of Human Rights
Asylum and right of asylum in the European Union: Asylum in the European Union - Right of asylum in the European Union - European Asylum Curriculum EAC is an EU Member State initiative intending to enhance the capacity and quality of the European asylum process as well as to strengthen practical cooperation among the European asylum/immigration systems - European Asylum Support Office, agency to strengthen EU Member States practical cooperation on asylum, enhance the implementation of the Common European Asylum System CEAS, and support Member States under particular pressure - Since 1990 Dublin Regulation, a EU law that determines the EU Member State responsible to examine an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention and the EU Qualification Directive, within the European Union
Immigration to Europe: Immigration to Europe
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response' November 2015 - 19 September 2015: In the international refugee crisis European neighbours turn ugly in a chaotic series of border confrontations and diplomatic disputes, as thousands fleeing war are blocked and shunted between Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia and UN warns European unity at risk - 21 September 2015: As ministers of EU member states, divided over how to distribute the influx of refugees, are meeting for more talks, at least 13 refugees drowned off the coast of Turkey, the latest to perish as they try to escape brutal conflicts, known by Europeans and others since many years - 3 November 2015: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands more refugees to Europe, as UNHCR reports 30% in increase in refugees since Russia began bombing Syria - 14 November 2015: Islamic State's terror attacks in Paris have increased fears amongst the refugees, many fleeing from Islamic State terrorists in Iraq and Syria and Assad's, Russia's and Iran's war crimes, that more borders will shut and that they will not be welcomed so readily by European communities - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
2016: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 18 June 2016: MSF rejects EU funding in protest at the way Europe has responded to the refugee crisis - 30 August 2016: Tens of thousands migrate through Balkans since route declared shut in springtime - 3 November 2016: European migration policies have led to the alleged torture, abuse and illegal deportation of asylum seekers arriving by boat to Italy, according to dozens of migrant testimonies published for the first time

Elections to the European Parliament
May 2014 European Parliament election: European Parliament election 22–25 May 2014 - 27 May 2014: Far-right parties sweeping EU vote should serve as warning sign
European Parliament: European Parliament
2013: 6 February 2013: After catches have declined from 8.07 million tonnes in 1995 to just 4.94 million tons in 2010, the EU parliament has pushed for a drastic reform of fishing policy in a landmark vote seeking to end decades of overfishing - 16 avril 2013: Le Parlement européen freine le plan de lutte de l'UE contre le réchauffement climatique - 23 octobre: En réaction aux révélations d'espionnage le Parlement européen demande la suspension d'un accord avec les USA sur les données bancaires
2014: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies - 18 September: In a resolution the European Parliament urges EU member states to cancel South Stream agreement and disconnect Russian banks, reaffirming also the prospect of Ukraine as a EU member - 27 November: EU parliament approves resolution calling on the EU to consider ordering search engines to separate their commercial services from their businesses
2015: 10 March: EU Parliament calls in fraud squad over National Front suspicions - 26 March: European Parliament has overwhelmingly voted for providing Ukraine with EUR 1.8 bln in macro-financial aid - 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I, despite undermining by German SPD-Schulz - 9 June 2015: MEPs advocate for extension and strengthening of sanctions against Russia during the debate on EU-Russia relations - 10 June: European Parliament's TTIP vote, and even debate over controversial dispute mechanism allowing big companies to bypass national courts, postponed by a margin of just two votes - 19 June 2015: European parliament accused of 'hiding away' proof of torture by Assad regime, after MEPs decided against holding a major public exhibition of photographs documenting torture and abuse in Syrian Assad regime institutions, deeming the images too provocative, 'disturbing and offensive' - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision
2016: 28 April 2016: European MPs urge governments to carry out airdrops of food and medicines to relieve starving Syrian civilians trapped in areas that are besieged by Assad’s forces - 27 September 2016: Investigative journalists discuss 'Panama papers' in EU Parliament as EU seeks to develop plans to tackle widespread tax abuse through anonymous offshore companies - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 27 October/13 December 2016: Yazidi women, who escaped Islamic State terrorists' slavery and now advocate Yazidi community rights, win Sakharov prize and will receive the price on 13 December at noon in Strasbourg
2017: 18 January 2017: Berlusconi ally Tajani elected head of European parliament, following pact with Guy Verhofstadt’s liberals and cements centre-right’s dominance of top EU jobs - 28 février 2017: Une commission du Parlement européen a approuvé mardi un rapport d'enquête sur le scandale des moteurs diesel truqués de Volkswagen, qui dénonce 'la mauvaise gestion' de la Commission et des Etats membres après le scandale - 14 March: Polish MEP who said women must earn less than men because they are weaker, smaller and less intelligent has been handed unprecedented penalties by the European parliament - 4 July 2017: Jean-Claude Juncker accuses MEPs of failing to show respect for a small country describing the European parliament as ridiculous after only a few dozen MEPs turned up to a debate dedicated to assessing Malta’s six months in the EU presidency chair, also overshadowing the debate on the refugee and migrant crisis since 2014, as the EU still struggles in 2017 to forge a common response to the thousands and thousands of people arriving from north Africa and the Middle East or dying in the Mediterranean

European Commission and Politics of the European Union
2012: 3 October 2012: EU nuclear reactors need repair according to a leaked draft-report by the European Commission - 22 November 2012: EU nations face tough budget summit - 23 November: EU leaders warn budget deal far off - 13 décembre: Accord à l'arrachée sur la supervision des banques européennes
2013: 8 February 2013: EU leaders in Brussels edged towards a 2014-2020 budget deal that would fix the bloc's ceiling for overall spending at €960 billion - 15 March 2013: EU summit begins amid anti-austerity protests - 14 mai: Réunion des Européens pour avancer sur l'évasion fiscale - 30 May: The European Commission gives major economies France and Spain extra time to trim their deficits as it laid down economic targets - 28 juin: L'UE veux concentrer sur 2014 et 2015 6 milliards d'euros de crédits budgétaires, afin de financer un mécanisme garantissant à de jeunes chômeurs de retrouver un emploi, un stage, une formation ou un apprentissage, et approuve le projet de budget 2014-2020 - 24 octobre 2013: Sommet de l'UE dominé par Lampedusa et l'espionnnage américain - 25 octobre: Initiative franco-allemande pour réglementer le renseignement - 25 octobre: Face à l'immigration aucune précision de l'UE n'est toutefois prévue avant juin 2014 - 8 November: EU executive backs trade chief caught in tax-fraud case - 12 November: EU agreement on 2014 budget, including 135.5 billion euros in payments and 142.6 billion euros in commitments - 4 December: EU fines eight banks record 1.7 bn euros for rate fixing - 19 December: EU agrees on banking union ahead of summit
2014: 3 February 2014: Corruption in Europe costs the EU economy at least 120bn euros annually, the European Commission says - 28 May: After European Parliament election EU leaders agree to review priorities to win back public support - 28 June: EU promised to address Britain's concerns about the future of the EU after nominating Jean-Claude Juncker as the next European Commission president - 15 July: Jean-Claude Juncker elected European Commission president - 24 October: EU agrees to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and to 27% targets for renewable energy market share and increase in energy efficiency improvement - 24 October: EU finance ministers are to convene an emergency meeting after the disclosure of a demand for some countries to contribute billions more to the EU budget - 19 December: EU summit backs an investment plan aimed at kickstarting Europe's stalling economy, decision of new sanctions against Russia over its annexation of the Crimea reportedly not taken
2015: 9 March 2015: EU chief Juncker plans European army saying that 'with its own army, Europe could react more credibly to the threat to peace in a member state or in a neighbouring state' - 23 April 2015: EU to restore rescue operations after latest Mediterranean migrant boat disasters - 23 April: EU summit to offer resettlement to only 5,000 refugees - 23 April: Rights group condemns proposed EU refugees plan as 'totally inadequate' - 5 May 2015: Britain should get a fair deal in the EU but cannot impose its agenda on the bloc's other 27 members, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker answers after UK's Cameron has said he wants to be able to limit an influx of people from other EU states to Britain - 19 May: EU foreign ministers approve naval force to tackle people smugglers - 17 June: EU plan for refugee crisis in jeopardy as countries struggle to agree - 18 June: Greece's future in EU at stake as ministers gather for talks - 18/19 June: After eurozone finance ministers talks with Greece's Varoufakis failed, more emergency meetings and an EU emergency summit on Monday announced - 22 June: EU meeting in Brussels as Greece's Tsipras again demands debt relief and markets surge on hopes of last-minute deal - 23 June: Eurozone politicians in Brussels cautiously welcome new reform proposals by Greece as a possible basis for an agreement, saying that there is still a lot of work to be done to reach deal this week - 25 June: No deal reached in Greek debt crisis after another long night of talks, despite creditors' ultimatum, ahead of another crunch eurogroup meeting and then the EU leaders summit tonight - 26 June: Talks between eurozone finance ministers resume on Saturday as Greece has to make its €1.6bn payment to the International Monetary Fund on Tuesday - 30 June: EU's Juncker makes last-minute offer to Greece but Tsipras unmoved - 30 June: Hopes of last-minute deal on decision day for Greek PM Tsipras, as Greece faces deadline for reaching deal with creditors and making €1.6bn IMF payment, otherwise it will lose €7.2bn bailout funds - 6 July: European politicians will meet for crisis talks and the ECB faces a crucial decison over whether to its funding freeze after Greece's referendum 'no' vote - 7 July: Eurozone finance ministers and leaders meet in new efforts to find a common way out of Greek crisis - 8 July: Unless Greek government presents convincing details entailing more austerity as the basis for its third bailout in five years, all 28 national EU leaders are to gather in Brussels on Sunday in emergency session to discuss how to contain the fallout from Greece’s financial collapse - 8 July: After months of Greek government's second-rate theatre Europe has five days to find a shift - 9 July: Greek government seeks new EU loan to avert 'Grexit' and economic collapse, urged to deliver a detailed economic package - 10 July: After it has submitted a package of tough austerity measures Tsipras' government urges MPs to back bailout plan - 11 July: Eurozone creditors meet to discuss latest Greek proposals and to decide, after PM Tsipras received backing from his MPs - 12 July: Eurozone ministers will resume talks on Sunday after failing to reach agreement tonight on Greece’s request for a third bailout - 13 July: After Eurozone agreed that Greece should receive a new aid programme, several national parliaments must give their approval, including the Greek parliament - 16 July: ECB and Eurogroup consider next steps after Greek parliament's 'Yes' vote - 17 July: Eurozone's national votes on the Greek bailout 2015 - 17 July: German MPs debate Greek bailout - 17 July: EU agrees €7bn loan as Germany backs new Greek bailout talks - 15 August: Eurogroup’s approval of a third bailout for Greece means the country’s place in the Eurozone is not under threat, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker says - 19 August: Eurozone finance ministers and ESM agree 86-billion-euro bailout deal for Greece - 9 September 2015: Saying the response to this crisis should be the first priority of the EU, Jean-Claude Juncker gives details of a quota plan to resettle 160,000 refugees in the European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 September: EU interior ministers are gathering in Brussels for emergency talks on how to tackle the mounting refugee crisis a day after Germany reintroduced borders - 15 September: EU ministers can’t agree on what to do with 120,000 refugees, as Czech Republic, Slovakia and others oppose common plans to help desperate people and take strain off Greece, Italy and others - 21 September: Eastern Europe foreign ministers to meet in Luxembourg to discuss international refugee and migrant crisis - 22 September: EU ministers to discuss binding quotas, as Hungarian army given power to block refugees and Central European states resist refugee quotas - 22/23 September: European ministers adopt refugee relocation plan in Brussels - 23 September: EU summit amid resentment over quota deal in refugee crisis - 24 September: EU emergency talks with pledge of hundreds of millions of euros to help transit countries, as European council president Tusk criticises 'open doors and windows' policy - 24 September: EU without common policy on refugee crisis, as some politicians open their mouth widely and border disputes worsen - 15 October: EU summit issues today include Ukraine ceasefire, the refugee and migrant crisis, the economy, climate change, and efforts to support countries like Turkey to tackle refugee crisis - 16 October: EU offers Turkey 'action plan' on migration crisis - 26 October: EU and Balkans agree plan for 100,000 places in reception centres for refugees and a 17-point plan to manage the flow of refugees in the Balkans, including more shelter, border registration and increased naval operations - 20 November: EU ministers agree tighter border checks as Paris death toll rises to 130 - 5 December: Home affairs ministers push forward passenger data changes to store the names and credit card information of all passengers on flights into and out of the EU - 17 December 2015: Migrant crisis tops agenda of final EU summit of 2015
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government - 26 January: Schengen scheme on the brink after Amsterdam EU talks - 18/19 February 2016: EU summit in Brussels without invited Turkey but with special rights demanding UK's Cameron who will 'walk away' from talks if no EU deal - 20 February: Following EU summit deal Cameron takes Brussels plan to cabinet - 2 March: EU's Schengen members urged by European Commission to lift border checks to save passport-free zone - 4 March 2016: Several brave EU countries including France, the Netherlands and Sweden could scupper plans by the European commission to approve the relicensing of a weedkiller glyphosate, a key ingredient in herbicides such as USA's Monsanto’s multibillion-dollar brand Roundup, linked to cancer by the World Health Organisation - 7 March: International refugee and migrant crisis summit of EU and Turkey in Brussels - 7/8 March: 'One in, one out', the EU's simplistic answer to the refugee crisis, not even settled as decision delayed until a summit next week to flesh out the details of Turkey's new demands - 8 March 2016: UN refugee agency has concerns over the deal reached between the EU and Turkey that would see refugees sent back to Turkey, where some nationalities lack protection - 10 mars 2016: Après la fermeture de la route des Balkans aux migrants, la Grèce doit être soutenue, a déclaré la conseillère fédérale de la Suisse Simonetta Sommaruga à la réunion des ministres de l'intérieur et de la justice de l'UE - 17 March: EU member states and Turkey meet in Brussels to discuss a plan to stop migrants and refugees coming to Europe - 18 March: Deal between the EU and Turkey to stem the flow of refugees and migrants to Europe is hanging in the balance, over a decades-long dispute about the divided island of Cyprus - 18 March: EU's deal with Turkey means all those arriving in Greece from Sunday can expect to be returned to Turkey - 20 March: Greece delays sending refugees back to Turkey under EU deal saying they are waiting for extra personnel to implement the deal and will struggle to enforce it - 6 April: EU to set out proposals for overhaul of European asylum rules - 8 April: EU 'will toughen plans to make firms disclose offshore tax bills' in the wake of the Panama Papers - 23 April: EU finance ministers agree to propose joint list of tax havens and approve plan to automatically exchange data on shell company owners - 27 April: Tusk rejects Tsipras request for EU summit on Greece bailout - 25 mai: Les ministres des Finances de la zone euro se sont engagés à alléger à terme la dette grecque si certaines conditions sont réunies - 13 July 2016: European officials have finalised plans to create a common EU asylum system and refugee resettlement scheme, which critics believe will be a further betrayal of refugee rights - 30 August: More tax deals involving some of the world's biggest companies from Amazon to Starbucks in the European commission's sights after EU's ruling against USA's 'Apple', the biggest blow dealt by Brussels so far in a long-running battle against multinationals and their tax avoidance - Informal EU meeting of the 27 heads of state or government on 16 September 2016 in Bratislava - 29. Oktober 2016: EU-Kommissar CDU-Oettinger nennt Chinesen bei Vortrag in Hamburg 'Schlitzaugen' und spricht von 'Kommunisten'-Blockade der Wallonie bei den CETA Verhandlungen zwischen Canada und der EU - 30 October 2016: German EU commissioner CDU-Oettinger accused of racism after remarks about Chinese, calls for his resignation follow failure to apologise for remarks
2017: 1 January 2017: EU's Jean-Claude Juncker spent years in his previous role as Luxembourg’s prime minister secretly blocking EU efforts to tackle tax avoidance by multinational corporations, leaked documents reveal - 27 September 2017: The Swedish truckmaker Scania, which is owned by Volkswagen, has been fined €880m by the European commission for price fixing - 25 octobre 2017: La Commission européenne a annoncé qu'aucun vote des Etats membres n'a eu lieu sur le renouvellement de la licence du glyphosate, après elle a abaissé sa proposition à une période d'utilisation réduite entre cinq et sept ans
EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
Budget of the European Union: Budget of the European Union
Common Agricultural Policy of the EU: Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union
2015: 27 July 2015: Demonstrations of French farmers against cheap imports and falling prices prevent over 400 trucks from bringing in agricultural goods from Germany and Spain as president insists government is 'by their side'
Common Fisheries Policy of the EU: Common Fisheries Policy of the EU
Regional policy of the EU: Regional policy of the European Union
History of the euro, European Central Bank, European Stability Mechanism and Banking Union: History of the euro - The European Central Bank is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 18 EU member states - The Eurogroup meeting of the finance ministers of the eurozone exercises political control over the currency and related aspects of the EU's monetary union such as the Stability and Growth Pact - Eurozone
The European System of Central Banks is composed of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 European Union Member States
2012: European Stability Mechanism since 2012 - 2012 Banking Union in the EU is the transfer of responsibility for banking policy from the national to the EU level, initiated in 2012 as a response to the Eurozone crisis
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
2014: 19 August 2014: The Single Resolution Mechanism implements in participating Member States the EU's Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms found to be in danger of failing - 4 November 2014: Single Supervisory Mechanism, granting the European Central Bank a supervisory role to monitor the financial stability of banks based in participating states, starting from 4 November 2014
2015: 19 June 2015: ECB staves off collapse of Greek banking system with emergency funding, as Greece's PM Tsipras sides with Putin regime in Moscow for financial support, saying 'we are ready to go to new seas to reach new safe ports' - 6 July: ECB decides to maintain the emergency liquidity assistance keeping Greek banks afloat at the level set on June 26 adjusting the collateral demanded from Greek banks in return for the assistance - 16 July: ECB hands Greece extra €900m in emergency funds as eurozone finance ministers scramble to assemble €7bn bridging finance to keep Greek economy afloat
European Investment Bank
Banking in the European Union: Banking in the European Union
2010-2012: 30 June 2015: Only a small fraction of the €240bn total bailout money Greece received in 2010 and 2012 found its way into the government’s coffers to soften the blow of the 2008 financial crash and fund reform programmes, as most of the money went to the banks that lent Greece funds before the crash
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development since 1991
2015: 2 July 2015: Lidl supermarket chain owned by one of Germany’s wealthiest families given almost $1bn in public development funding over past decade by World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and others as it expands into eastern Europe
2017: 18 June 2017: Though hard Brexit may exempt UK, banks, accountants and law firms that facilitate offshore tax schemes face a Europe-wide crackdown, according to a leak of draft legislation by the European commission

Social movements and protests in the European Union
Since 2000: Crisis situations and unrest in Europe since 2000
2003: 15 February 2003 Anti-War Protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressing opposition to the imminent Iraq War, some of the largest protests took place in Europe
2011: 2011 'Occupy Wall Street' locations worldwide - 15. Oktober 2011: 'Occupy Wall Street' kommt nach Europa (Deutschland, England, Frankreich, Italien, Schweiz, Spanien)
2012: 11 February 2012: Tens of thousands in co-ordinated protests across Europe opposing a controversial 'anti-piracy' agreement - 12 February 2012: Europeans in many countries protest against controversial EU internet pact 'ACTA' - 26. Februar 2012: Erneut Demonstrationen von Zehntausenden in ganz Europa gegen 'ACTA' - 19 May 2012: 20.000 march at Frankfurt 'Occupy' protest rally - 14 November 2012: General strikes in Spain and Portugal will spearhead the day of action called by European unions and joined by activists as anger over governments' tight-fisted policies boils over - 14 November: Workers across the European Union have staged a series of protests and strikes against rising unemployment and spending cuts
2013: 27 February 2013: French writer (Occupy movement), diplomat, member of the French resistance during World War II and concentration camp survivor, Stéphane Hessel has died at the age of 95 - 1 June 2013: Thousands protest Europe crisis in Madrid on Saturday in a string of demonstrations across Europe
2015: 13 September 2015: Tens of thousands of Europeans hit the streets in several countries on Saturday to show solidarity with huge numbers of refugees entering the continent amid the international refugee and migrant crisis - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards, smaller protests were also held in other EU cities, including Amsterdam - 19 October 2015: Thousands of people demonstrated in the capitals of France, Spain and Italy on Sunday in solidarity with Israel, as the wave of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories continued unabated - 19 December: Marking International Migrants Day, Greeks and migrants took to the streets of Athens calling on European leaders to stop erecting fences and to open the borders for refugees and migrants fleeing countries torn by war and poverty
2016: 28 February 2016: Protests against Russian aggression in Ukraine in European countries France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain have taken place on 28 February 2016, two years after Russian regime forces began their invasion of Crimea - 19 March: Thousands of people marched in London, Athens, Barcelona, Vienna, Amsterdam and several Swiss cities voicing their support for refugees and migrants on Saturday, the day after the EU and Turkey sealed a deal designed to tackle the international refugee and migrant crisis - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 18 April 2016: Thousands of people, including victims and their families, walked through central Brussels on Sunday in a 'march against terror and hate', almost one month after 'Islamic State' terrorists' attacks
October 2016: 5 October 2016: Demonstrators gathered in Brussels near the headquarters of the EU Council and the European Commission to protest against the brutal attacks by the Assad and Russian forces on the liberated areas in Syria, especially in Aleppo, calling for saving Aleppo and stopping the indiscriminate bombardment of civilians, slamming the international community’s 'dubious' silence over the continued bombing and mass forced displacement of civilians by the Assad regime and its allies - 22 octobre 2016: Quelque 6000 personnes ont manifesté ce samedi à Amsterdam contre le CETA et pour déclarer leur soutien à la Wallonie
December 2016: 14 December 2016: Protests and vigils were held in cities across the world including Ankara, Beirut, Istanbul and Paris on Tuesday and Wednesday to show solidarity with civilians in eastern Aleppo and to denounce the international community’s inaction over the atrocious crimes being committed against civilians by the Assad regime and its Hezbollah, Iranian and Russian allies - 15 December 2016: Global outcry condemns Russian regime for Aleppo tragedy, as condemnation of the Syrian dictator Assad and his allies Russia and Iran has intensified in capitals across Europe including Berlin, where after all hundreds have demonstrated blaming Russian regime and its support of Assad for the unfolding tragedy - 18 December: Doctors, nurses and medics have staged a protest outside Parliament in London against Russian, Iranian and Assad's attacks on their professional colleagues trying to save lives in Syria as thousands of people in Germany and in France were protesting against Assad's ongoing war in Syria
2017: 5 February 2017: From London and Paris to New York and Washington, thousands of people took to the streets to protest USA president Trump’s travel ban amid a fierce legal battle over the order

European Union law is a body of treaties and legislation, such as Regulations and Directives, which have direct effect or indirect effect on the laws of member states of the European Union - Law enforcement in Europe - Judiciary of the European Union - Relationship between the European Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights - European Union and the International Criminal Court
Primacy of European Union law: Primacy of European Union law, an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails, the norms of national law have to be set aside - Conflict of laws
Schengen Information System: Schengen Information System
EU Directorate-General for Competition: Directorate-General for Competition, responsible for establishing and implementing a coherent competition policy for the European Union, having a dual role in antitrust enforcement, an investigative role and a decision-making role - European Commissioner for Competition
2017: 24 July 2017: Germany's largest car maker Volkswagen AG has asked Europe's antitrust watchdog to scrutinize decades of coordination efforts by the country's main auto manufacturers amid growing concern they might have breached antitrust regulations
Anti-fraud Office in Europe: European Anti-fraud Office
2015: 3 June 2015: European Anti-Fraud Office says it received 1,417 allegations of fraud in 2014 and recommended that the EU tries to claw back 900 million euros lost because of suspected fraud

European Court of Justice - Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union - List of members of the European Court of Justice
List of European Court of Justice rulings: List of European Court of Justice rulings by subject - Court of Justice of the European Union case law
July 2012: 12. Juli 2012: Der Europäische Gerichtshof hat in einem wegweisenden Urteil die Rechte von Bauern und kleinen Agrargemeinschaften gegenüber internationalen Saatgutkonzernen gestärkt
April 2014: 8 April 2014: EU Court of Justice rejects requirement to keep data of telecom users and declares the Data Retention Directive invalid
October 2015: 6 October 2015: USA digital data storage systems do not provide sufficient privacy from state surveillance, the European court of justice has ruled
March 2017: 14 March 2017: Employers may bar staff from wearing visible religious symbols, the European Court of Justice rules in its first decision on the issue of women wearing Islamic headscarves at work, saying that ban on visible wearing of political, philosophical or religious sign does not constitute direct discrimination
July 2017: 26 July 2017: European court of justice rules that the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas should remain on the EU terrorism blacklist, finds that the lower court's 2014 ruling was based on media reports, not legal reasoning, and refers the case back
July 2017: 28 July 2017: European court of justice has ordered Poland to immediately halt large-scale logging in the ancient, protected and Unesco-listed Bialowieza forest, one of many cases that has pitted the nationalist, eurosceptic government in Warsaw against the bloc
September 2017: 6 September 2017: EU's Court of Justice has dismisses complaints by Slovakia and Hungary about EU migration policy, dealing a blow to the Hungarian PM Orbán and his allies in central Europe over the bitterly contested policy of refugee quotas

General Court EGC, a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union, hearing actions taken against the institutions of the European Union by individuals and member states, although certain matters are reserved for the European Court of Justice, decisions of the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice, but only on a point of law

Foreign relations of the European Union - History of colonialism - Emigration from Europe - Asylum in the European Union - Immigration to Europe - Illegal immigration to Europe
2014-2018 WW I centenary: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 14 January 2014: Diaries from British soldiers describing life on the frontline during World War One are being published online by the British National Archives - 16 January 2014: How countries across Europe will mark centenary - 26 June 2014: Ahead of a summit in Brussels European prime ministers and presidents attend first world war ceremony in Ypres joining a minute of silence at the Menin Gate to remember the millions who died in the war - 5 August 2014: European politicians in the industrial town of Liege commemorated the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I by warning of lessons to be learned in the face of today's many crises, including Ukraine
Foreign trade of the EU: List of the largest trading partners of the European Union
List of diplomatic missions of the European Union and European External Action Service since 2010: List of diplomatic missions of the European Union - Since 2010 European External Action Service - European External Action Service (Website) - News service and press releases
European Union/Afghanistan relations: European Union/Afghanistan relations
Since 2001: Since 2001 military involvement in Afghanistan by EU member states, as 25 of the EU members contribute to the 43-nation NATO-led ISAF mission, also making a considerable contribution in other areas
Since June 2016: United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union following June 2016 referendum - 1839 to 1842 British East India Company's invasion of Afghanistan, the 'First Anglo-Afghan War'
2016: 3 October 2016: The EU has signed an agreement with the Afghan government allowing its member states to deport an unlimited number of the country’s asylum seekers, and obliging the Afghan government to receive them
European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations: European Union/Africa and the Middle East relations - The EU's relations with Africa - Immigration to Europe - African immigration to Europe
2009: 2009 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2011: 2011 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck
2012: September 2012 Baradan Bay, Turkey migrant boat disaster - December 2012 Lesbos, Greece migrant boat disaster
2013: October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 4 octobre 2013: Le naufrage d’un navire de migrants clandestins au large de Lampedusa soulève la question de la gestion des flux migratoires par l’Europe - 8 octobre: Les Européens sont appelés mardi à montrer une plus grande solidarité après la tragédie de Lampedusa - 8 October: EU pushes for sea patrols in wake of migrant shipwreck - 9 octobre: Barroso et Letta accueillis mercredi sur l'île de Lampedusa, par les huées et les insultes d'habitants - 11/12 October: Dozens of people died on Friday when a boat carrying around 250 migrants capsized between Sicily and Tunisia, a week after the 3 October 2013 migrant shipwreck - 13 October 2013: The shipwreck off Malta on October 11 that claimed the lives of more than 30 migrants revealed yet another facet of Syria's humanitarian nightmare - the largest displacement of people in decades - 25 October: Nearly 700 refugees including dozens of Eritreans have been rescued off Sicily in five operations, as leaders grapple with the issue of illegal immigration at a EU summit - 29 November: Six people believed to be Syrians dead as immigrant boat trying to reach Greece sinks off Turkey
2014: 13 May 2014: At least 14 people were killed and 200 went missing after a boat packed with migrants sank near Italy - 20 January 2014: EU to send troops to Central African Republic to stop clashes - 2 April 2014: Africans and Europeans hold crisis talks at EU-Africa summit on the escalating violence in the Central African Republic - 20 June: At a UNHCR conference marking World Refugee Day Malta's Helena Dalli says that Europe has 'a lot to do to make up for the damage it had caused' - 14 September: At least 15 Gaza migrants killed as boat capsizes in Mediterranean - 26 September: Almost 300 mostly Syrian rescued refugees refuse to disembark in Cyprus demanding to be taken to Italy - 29 September: Migrants trying to reach more prosperous countries have died at a rate of eight every day for the past 14 years, the majority of them trying to get to Europe, according to IOM - 20 October: Ebola tops EU meeting in Luxembourg with warnings crisis is at 'tipping point' - 31 December: Italy's navy has taken control of a ship adrift in the Adriatic Sea with hundreds of mainly Syrian migrants on board
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands - UNHCR documents 'Syria Regional Refugee Response'
2015: 1 January 2015: Catastrophe avoided as runaway ship with 768 people on board on a collision course with Italy's rocky shoreline stopped by Gallipoli's coastguard - 2 January 2015: Sierra Leone-flagged vessel, second in four days to be abandoned by crew in rough seas with 450 migrants on board, being towed to Italy - 3 January 2015: People smugglers likely raked in more than US$1.0 million from the hundreds of desperate 'ghost ships' migrants abandoned off the coast of Italy, IOM says - 3 January: After 'ghost ship' Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean, 360 Syrians emerged - 20 January 2015: EU to launch anti-terror projects with Muslim nations - 9 February: At least 29 migrants die of hypothermia after Italian coastguard rescue with small patrol boats - 17 March: EU to name new special envoy Fernando Gentilini to Mideast peace process - 16 April: EU under pressure over migrant rescue operations in the Mediterranean after 400 lives lost in latest incident - 17 April: Muslim migrants had thrown 12 Christians overboard during a recent crossing from Libya, police says, and an aid group says another 41 people were feared drowned in a separate incident - 19 April: EU plans urgent talks after up to 700 African migrants feared dead when boat capsizes near Libya - 20/21 April: EU emergency meeting results in decision to boost maritime patrols in Mediterranean, broaden search-and-rescue mandate and to launch military operations against migrant-smugglers in Libya, as UN refugee agency, after speaking to survivors of the disaster, confirms 800 migrants died in the shipwreck off Libya on Sunday - 12 May: Many would-be migrants to EU die unrecorded, study of Free University of Amsterdam says - 21 May: After Italian PM Renzi described people-smugglers as 'the slave traders of the 21st century', leading migration experts have denounced plans for military action against Libyan smugglers as reminiscent of the actions of countries that enabled the 16th to 19th century British, French etc. slave trade - 30 May: EU naval mission rescues more than 4,200 migrants in Mediterranean in 24 hours - 6/7 June 2015: More than 2000 migrants rescued from people traffickers in Mediterranean, as operations go on - 16 June: Italian police forcibly remove migrants stranded near French border - 26 June: Agreeing a plan to share out the care of people fleeing war and poverty in north Africa and the Middle East, EU meeting finally reaches deal on resettling 60,000 asylum seekers securing exemptions for Hungary, Bulgaria, while the UK has opted out of the scheme - 1 July 2015: The sea route to Europe, the Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees
July-December 2015: 10 July: Twelve migrants have died after their overcrowded rubber dinghy sank off the coast of Libya, the Italian Coast Guard said, while some 823 were rescued in the latest events - 18 July: Impoverished Greece flooded by new wave of migrants - 25 July: As long as the bloody civil war in Syria continues with no end in sight, the number of refugees who see the perilous journey to Europe as their last chance for a future will continue to rise - 1 August: Migrants trying to sail from Turkey to Greece are increasingly reporting being attacked by gunmen trying to prevent them from reaching Europe - 6 August: Over 200 migrants attempting the perilous journey across the Mediterranean were feared to have drowned after their overcrowded fishing boat capsized off Libya - 12 August: Up to 50 migrants reportedly went missing after a large rubber dinghy sank in the Mediterranean, while more than 1,500 were picked up from other vessels in the past 24 hours - 18 August: Macedonia becomes another frontline of Europe's refugee crisis - 19 August: Nearly 110,000 migrants were tracked entering the EU in July by irregular means, official data show, setting a record as the influx continues, notably of Syrians reaching Greek islands from Turkey - 23 August: Italy's coastguard coordinated the rescue of around 3000 migrants in the Mediterranean after receiving distress calls from more than 20 overcrowded vessels drifting in waters off Libya - 26 August: Bodies of about 50 migrants found in hull of boat rescued off Libyan coast - 27/28 August: Discovery of dozens of dead migrants in an abandoned refrigerated lorry found on an Austrian motorway near the Hungarian border shocks Europe - 28 August: Up to 200 bodies discovered floating off the coast of Zuwara, one of Libya’s main people-smuggling hubs, in the latest tragedy of the European migration and refugee crisis - 2 September: Migrant and refugee flows continue as countries on Schengen border say they are doing everything they can - 3 September: People rush into Budapest Keleti railway station and try to board trains following the blocking and a re-opening of the station and an ongoing confusion in deeply divided EU, now waiting for a special meeting of EU ministers on September 14 - 10/11 September 2015: European countries inside and outside the EU bitterly divided over their responses to the tens of thousands of refugees heading west and north - 16 September 2015: Refugees and migrants head for Croatia to avoid Hungarian fence - 17 September: Refugees and migrants accumulate at Hungarian border with Serbia after EU-member Hungary brings in tough new measures, using use tear gas and water cannons and detaining dozens - 17 September: Thousands of refugees enter Croatia after Hungary's crackdown
October-December 2015: 2 October 2015: In the paupers’ section of Lesbos cemetery, volunteers, strangers, Israeli and Palestinian activists attend funerals for unidentified migrant victims, including kids, who drowned in the Aegean Sea - 7 October: EU military operation against refugee and migrant traffickers in the Mediterranean begins - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 29 October: Horrendous scenes reported after worsening weather caused boats to capsize in the Aegean Sea, killing at least 11 refugees and migrants, including several children - 30 October: Two boats reportedly sink off Greece, leaving at least 22 people dead - 2 November 2015: As 218,000 migrants and refugees crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in October 2015, the coming winter is already threatening to expose thousands to harsh conditions - 4 November 2015: Unicef's Marie-Pierre Poirier informs the media after she has completed a one week mission in Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia, amid rising numbers of refugees, women and children on the move and bad weather - 11 November 2015: Over 800,000 refugees and migrants reached Europe after crossing the Mediterranean Sea since the start of the year, IOM says - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 12 November: Sweden and Slovenia became the latest European nations to tighten borders as African leaders warned their EU counterparts at a summit in Malta against building a 'fortress' Europe and as the European Commission is setting up a €1.8-billion 'trust fund' for Africa - 24 November: EU countries' development money being spent on tackling refugee crisis and border security rather than fighting poverty and inequality, European NGO confederation says - 6 December: As thousands of people continue to arrive at the Greece-Macedonia border daily, small numbers of refugees and migrants who had been denied entry into Macedonia have opted to go back to Athens - 19 December: Eighteen refugees and migrants drown after boat sinks off Turkey's southwestern coast - 23 diciembre: Más de 40 muertos en el Egeo en cuatro días, la mitad de ellos niños
Januar-March 2016: 22 January 2016: At least 15 migrants including eight children drowned when their boats capsized off the Greek islands of Kalolimnos and Farmakonisi - 28 janvier 2016: 24 réfugiés et migrants dont dix enfants sont morts noyés lors d'un nouveau naufrage jeudi matin au large de l'île grecque de Samos en mer Egée, tandis que onze sont portés disparus - 30 January 2016: More than 52,000 refugees and migrants crossed the eastern Mediterranean to reach Europe in the first four weeks of January, more than 35 times as many as in the same period 2015 - 30 January: At least 10,000 unaccompanied child refugees have disappeared after arriving in Europe, 5,000 in Italy alone, according to the EU’s criminal intelligence agency - 31 January 2016: Ten children were among at least 37 migrants who drowned in the Aegean Sea after their boat capsized as they attempted the crossing from Turkey to Greece, 75 people were rescued - 2 February 2016: Nine migrants, including two babies drowned off Turkish coast, as more than 62,000 refugees and migrant arrivals reported in Greece last month - 8 February 2016: At least 27 refugees, including 11 children, drowned after a boat trying to reach the Greek island of Lesbos capsized two miles off the Turkish coast - 13 February 2013: Over 80,000 refugees and migrants have already arrived in Europe since the beginning of 2016, the majority of those arriving in January 2016 were women and children making up nearly 58%, over 400 have died trying to cross, according to UNHCR's Melissa Fleming - 17 February: Croatia sends over two hundred migrants and refugees including women and children from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Syria back to Serbia, now at a UNHCR centre in the border town of Sid - 23 February: Thousands of refugees stranded in Greece amid tightened border control by Macedonia - 26 February: Two refugees tried to commit suicide at a makeshift refugee camp at a central square in the city of Athens amid growing frustrations over border closures which have left tens of thousands stranded in the country - 28 February: Humanitarian challenges mounting at Greek/Macedonian border, as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass, and UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees - 1 mars 2016: Depuis janvier 2016 plus de 130'000 personnes ont rejoint l'Europe par la Méditerranée, selon le HCR qui dénonce l'incapacité de l'Europe, au bord d'une crise humanitaire, 'à trouver des solutions' - 2 mars 2016: La Macédoine a laissé passer sur son territoire environ 170 réfugiés alors que côté grec 10'000 migrants continuaient d'attendre, selon les autorités locales grecques - 5 March: Refugees and migrants stranded at Greece-Macedonia border face another day of frustration - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 9 March 2016: Slovenia and Croatia ban transit of refugees to other European countries - 10 March: At least five migrants dead after boat sank off Turkish coast attempting to reach Greek Island of Lesbos, the Turkish Coast Guard rescued 9 people - 11 March: Thousands of refugees and migrants, many already ill, trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia, facing food shortages and unsanitary conditions as rains continue to pour down on flimsy tents and an already waterlogged ground - 12 March: Around 1,100 refugees remain stranded in a refugee camp on the Macedonian side of the Serbian border, another 500 are stranded in the no-man's land between the two countries - 12 March 2016: A video shows Turkish coastguard using sticks against a boat full of refugees and migrants as they sail to Greece in the Aegean Sea - 12 March 2016: As thousands of desperate refugees remain trapped at border camp between Greece and Macedonia and as 'Europe is on the cusp of a largely self-induced humanitarian crisis' according to UN, USA Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland visits the refugee camp in Idomeni, but there is no European official walking around the muddy fields and talking with aid agency workers, refugees and migrants, because European officials prefer hotels in Moscow, Tehran, Vienna, Brussels and after all Geneva, talking and laughing with war criminals and perpetrators - 13 March 2016: Relentless rain and biting cold turn despair into suffering for thousands of refugees and migrants stranded on Greece's border with Macedonia and in the so-called no man's land - 14 March 2016: At the Idomeni camp on the Greek-Macedonian border, conditions are getting worse after heavy rains in recent days have turned much of the ground into a swamp - 15 March: Macedonia reportedly sent back to Greece about 1,500 migrants and refugees, who crossed the border hiking for hours along muddy paths and forded a rain-swollen river to get around the border fence where they were detained by Macedonian forces - 19 March: Refugees and migrants at the Greek border camp of Idomeni say they are as determined as ever to reach Western Europe and appear undeterred by an accord between Turkey and the EU aimed at stemming the flow of people from the Middle East and North Africa - 21 March: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe - 22 March 2016: UNHCR has stopped transporting refugees and migrants arriving on Lesbos from Turkey to a reception facility as their subsequent freedom of movement is no longer guaranteed, a UNHCR spokesman says, referring to last week's EU-Turkey deal - 24 mars 2016: Plus de 200 membres d'ONG et associations d'aides aux réfugiés ont manifesté jeudi sur l'île de Lesbos devant le hotspot de Moria contre sa transformation en centre de détention pour les réfugiés et migrants, dans le cadre de l'accord UE-Ankara - 26 mars: es autorités grecques ont commencé à évacuer des réfugiés et migrants bloqués dans le camp d'Idomeni à la frontière avec la Macédoine - 27 March 2016: Hundreds take part in protest at Macedonia border as Greece tries to evacuate overwhelmed Idomeni camp and hundreds of hopeful refugees return to Greece’s overwhelmed Idomeni camp following rumours
April-June 2016: 2 April 2016: Protests of migrants and refugees in Greece mount before EU-Turkey migrant deal takes effect and as UNHCR warns against immediate refugee returns to Turkey - 3 April 2016: 50,000 migrants in Greece in turmoil over their fate as EU deal set to come into effect - 4 April: First boats returning migrants and refugees from Greece arrive in Turkey - 6 April 2016: Refugees block Greece-Macedonia border crossing to protest deportation - 8 avril: Les migrants retenus sur les îles grecques de Lesbos et de Chios vivent dans des conditions 'effroyables', selon un rapport - 8 April: Greece ferries migrants to Turkey under EU pact - 9 April: Five migrants, four women and one child, drown off Greek island of Samos after boat capsized - 10 April: Macedonian police use teargas on migrants at Greek border in Idomeni - 11 April: At least 260 people were hurt on Sunday when Macedonian police fired tear gas at refugees and migrants and hundreds were treated by medical units also for wounds caused by plastic bullets and for other injuries, according to 'Doctors Without Borders' - 13 avril 2016: La police macédonienne a tiré des gaz lacrymogènes et des grenades assourdissantes mercredi contre des migrants qui manifestaient le long de la barrière de la frontière macédonienne à Idomeni - 16 April 2016: 'Only those who see the eyes of those small children that we met at the refugee camps will be able to immediately recognize, in its entirety, the bankruptcy of humanity and solidarity that Europe has shown these last few years to these, and not only these, people', Church of Greece's Ieronymos II says at Moria Refugee Camp in Lesbos - 16 avril 2016: Le pape rentre de Grèce avec 12 réfugiés syriens - 16 avril 2016: L'association européenne SOS Méditerranée annonce avoir secouru 116 migrants ce samedi - 20 April 2016: Up to 500 migrants might have drowned in Mediterranean tragedy, UNHCR says - 1 May 2016: Ninety-nine refugees and migrants are believed to have drowned in two separate incidents off the coast of Libya over the weekend - 13 May 2016: At least 800 migrants were rescued off the coast of Sicily on Thursday, among them at least 150 Syrians, the Italian coast guard and the UN refugee agency said - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 24 mai 2016: L'évacuation du camp de réfugiés et migrants comptant 8400 personnes à Idomeni à la frontière greco-macédonienne a commencé, en présence de nombreuses forces policières - 28 May 2016: The Italian navy recovers the bodies of 45 people who drowned on Friday, while dozens of others are still missing in the third major tragedy in the Mediterranean in as many days, as Russian regime's Putin and Greece's Tsipras sign several economic deals on Friday during the war criminal's visit to Greece aimed at reinforcing a relationship with his accessory - 31 mai 2016: Près de 205'000 réfugiés et migrants sont arrivés par la mer en Europe depuis janvier tandis que 2500 d'entre eux périssaient, selon OIM et HCR - 3 June 2016: Hundreds of people were rescued from a migrant boat that capsized south of the Greek island of Crete on Friday, but it is feared that many more are missing
July/August 2016: 2 juillet 2016: Près de 71'000 migrants sont arrivés en 6 mois en Italie, selon le ministère italien de l'Intérieur - 7 juillet 2016: Les équipes de pompiers italiens ont récupérées les corps de 217 migrants morts noyées dans le naufrage d'un chalutier en avril 2015 - 14 juillet 2016: Des migrants violentés par des forces hongroises à la frontière hongroise avec la Serbie - 19 juillet: Plus de 2500 migrants embarqués sur des bateaux bondés ont été recueillis mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 25 juillet 2016: Les corps de 87 migrants morts noyés en tentant de gagner l’Europe ont été retrouvés depuis vendredi sur une plage de Sabrata, une ville côtière dans l’ouest de la Libye - 29 juillet: Plus de 3400 migrants ont été secourus vendredi au large des côtes libyennes, selon les gardes-côtes italiens - 31 juillet: Cinq migrants sont morts en Méditerranée dimanche au large de la Libye, selon les garde-côtes italiens, qui ont coordonné le sauvetage de plus de 6'500 personnes depuis jeudi - 2 août 2016: Plus de 4'000 migrants et réfugiés ont perdu la vie sur la route de la Méditerranée depuis le début de l'année, selon OIM - 5 August 2016: More than 100 migrants have broken through police barriers at the Italian border town of Ventimiglia and made their way into France, as France's Hollande and Italy's Renzi applaud Iranian, Russian and Syrian Assad regime in Rio de Janeiro - 30 August: Startling images have emerged of refugees being rescued off the coast of Libya, showing what has become an everyday occurrence in the southern Mediterranean Sea over the past three years
September 2016: 2 septembre 2016: Un an après la publication de la photo du petit Syrien Ayan gisant sur une plage, environ 500'000 enfants auraient été exploités par des passeurs depuis début 2015 parmi les demandeurs d'asile en Europe, selon l'Unicef
October 2016: 4 October 2016: About 6,055 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe rescued from sea in a single day, as at least nine people died and a pregnant woman and a child had been taken by helicopter to a hospital in Lampedusa - 6 October 2016: EU launches tough border force to curb refugee and migrant crisis - 26 octobre 2016: Cette année, ce ne sont pas moins de 3800 réfugiés et migrants qui ont perdu la vie en tentant de rallier l'Europe - 27 October: About 100 people are feared missing after a boat sank off the coast of Libya, amid mounting evidence that already dangerous conditions are worsening for migrants crossing the Mediterranean sea to get to Europe
November 2016: 2 November 2016: As 60% of Gambia's population live in poverty, as Gambians represent the fourth-largest group of arrivals to Italy, as Gambian president Jammeh dismisses the economic worries of Gambian migrants and as Gambia’s information minister critizises the lack of action by European nations to protect migrants, the goalkeeper of Gambia’s national women’s football team dies crossing the Mediterranean - 3 November 2016: At least 239 dead in two refugee and migrant boat shipwrecks off Libya in Mediterranean, survivors tell UN on Italian island of Lampedusa - 17 November 2016: About 100 people are feared to have drowned off the coast of Libya after their smuggler abandoned them on the high seas without a motor, increasing the Mediterranean death toll this year to an unprecedented 4,700
December 2016: 23 December 2016: About 100 people are missing and feared dead after two boats capsized off Italy, increasing the estimated death toll among migrants in the Mediterranean this year to at least 5,000, according to UN agencies
January 2017: 10 January 2017: Thousands of refugees are enduring freezing temperatures in flimsy tents across Greece as a result of the arctic blast that has swept across Europe - 24 January 2017: Thousands of refugee children sleeping rough in sub-zero Serbia, says UN - 25 January 2017: Cold weather reignites fears for refugees poorly sheltered in Greece - 30 janvier 2017: Plus de 1360 migrants ont été secourus dans des conditions souvent difficiles depuis vendredi, et trois retrouvés sans vie, à bord d'une douzaine d'embarcations parties de Libye
March/April 2017: 2 March 2017: European countries have accepted less than 10% of the 160,000 refugees they promised to move to safety from unsanitary and cramped camps in Italy and Greece, leading the European commission to warn it will 'accept no more excuses' - 24 mars 2017: Au moins 11 personnes sont mortes noyées vendredi après le naufrage d'un bateau de migrants au large de la Turquie, huit personnes ont été secourues et trois étaient toujours portées disparues - 14 April 2017: More than 2,000 refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe reportedly plucked from the Mediterranean on Friday in a series of dramatic rescues as one person was found dead - 28 April 2017: Frustration mounts among locals on Chios island, where refugees feel like prisoners with no hope of getting to mainland Europe
May 2017: 9 May 2017: The final toll of dead and missing from two refugee shipwrecks off Libya at the weekend has risen to 245, according to UNHCR
June 2017: 5 June 2017: EU commits 50 million euros to combat terrorism in West Africa
July/August: 2017: 4 juillet 2017: Plus de 100'000 migrants et réfugiés sont arrivés depuis janvier 2017 en Europe en traversant la Méditerranée, selon OIM - 25 August 2017: European countries including Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK are poised to begin the process of returning refugees to Greece, as migrants seeking reunification with their family members, mostly in Germany, step up protests in Athens
September 2017: 1 September 2017: At least 8,500 people have died or disappeared while attempting to cross the Mediterranean since the death of three-year-old Syrian boy Alan Kurdi, whose body washed ashore in Turkey in 2015 - 11 September 2017: A clampdown on Europe’s eastern borders has forced refugees and migrants to choose more dangerous routes as the death toll in the Mediterranean continues to rise despite a drop in the overall number of arrivals, according to the UN, as more than 22,500 migrants have reportedly died or disappeared globally since 2014, according to the IOM - 29 September 2017: Greece is experiencing a dramatic rise in the number of refugees and migrants entering the country, exacerbating already deplorable living conditions on island camps
October 2017: 25 October 2017: Emergency response teams from Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, as well as Spain, Italy and France, gathered in Israel to learn how to work together and to overcome the common enemy 'natural disasters' as part of an exercise sponsored by the European Union
European Union/Armenia relations: European Union/Armenia relations - Since 2009 'Eastern Partnership' initiative of the EU with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine - 15 April 2015: During its plenary session of the European Parliament an unprecedented number of members took the stage and showed their solidarity to the Armenian nation, supporting a resolution to recognize the Armenan Genocide during WW I
European Union/Belarus relations: European Union/Belarus relations
2012/2013: 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row - 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
2015: 21 November 2015: EU temporarily suspended package of sanctions on Belarus despite lack of change in Minsk regime
European Union/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
2016: 15 February 2016: Bosnia and Herzegovina applied for EU membership
European Union/Canada relations: European Union/Canada relations - Canada–Europe relations - 18 October 2013: The EU and Canada reached a free-trade agreement
2016: 13 October 2016: Canada's Trudeau warns EU over CETA reluctance, presuming to say that its failure to ratify CETA deal with Canada will undermine the block’s 'usefulness', as German court gives no free ticket for CETA’s approval - 22 October: Wallonia continues to have concerns about threat of an independent court system to settle disputes between states and foreign investors, which critics say may be used by multinationals to dictate public policy, following CETA’s approval - 27 octobre: La Belgique est parvenue à arrêter une position commune sur CETA, que pourrait permettre aux Européens de signer cet accord, malgré un calendrier incertain - 27 October: CETA debate continues - 30 October: Trudeau off to sign EU trade deal after plane returns briefly with mechanical issues - 30 October: EU and Canada sign free trade deal
European Union/Chad relations: European Union/Chad relations
2016: 16 May 2016: Chadian torture documentary at Cannes film festival sheds light on one of Africa’s least-known mass killings, as some 40,000 people were murdered during Habré’s eight-year reign of terror between 1982 and 1990, while the west looked the other way
European Union/PR of China relations: European Union/PR of China relations
2013/2014: 5 juin 2013: Les panneaux solaires chinois taxés par Bruxelles à partir du 6 juin à 11,8%, plus tard à 47,6% en moyenne si la Commission ne parvient pas à trouver un accord avec Pékin - 27 July 2013: EU deal with China over solar-panel dispute and minimum prices - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows
2016: 4 December 2016: The grim truth of Chinese factories producing the west’s Christmas toys, as undercover investigation by China Labor Watch exposes low wages, hazardous chemicals and overtime beyond legal limits
2017: 29 January 2017: China must investigate a harrowing account of torture by a detained lawyer and release several political prisoners, the EU has demanded in a rare statement amid a deteriorating human rights situation under president Xi Jinping - 2 June 2017: EU and China vow to keep fighting global warming joining states around world in show of solidarity after Trump’s announces USA pullout from climate accord
European Union/Egypt relations: European Union/Egypt relations - 29 July 2013: EU's Ashton arrives in Cairo for talks Monday amid crisis - 21 August: Interim PM al-Beblawi says his country could live without aid from the USA as Washington and the EU review ties with Cairo after arrest of Islamist chief
European Union and France: European Union and France - The 'Inner Six' Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West-Germany were the six founding member states of the European Communities
2017: 31 janvier 2017: Marine Le Pen est accusée d'avoir rémunéré des cadres du Front national avec l'argent du Parlement européen
European Union/Honduras relations: European Union/Honduras relations
2016: 20 April 2016: The daughter of murdered environmental leader Berta Cáceres has called for a suspension of European aid to Honduras and investment in its hydro projects until the country complies with human rights norms
European Union/Hungary relations: European Union/Hungary relations - 22 May 2015: Amid growing unease over constitutional changes made by Hungary’s rightwing government, EU's Jean-Claude Juncker welcomed Hungarian PM Orban at Riga summit, greeting him with 'Hello, dictator' - 24 June 2015: Hungary defies EU rule on asylum seekers - 31 August 2015: Condemned by many EU officials, Hungary continues construction of border fence with Serbia directed against desperate refugees
European Union/India relations: European Union/India relations - 20 March 2013: EU foreign policy chief Ashton defends Italy's breach of trust over two marines on trial for murder in India
European Union/Iran relations: European Union/Iran relations
2013/2014: 7 September 2013: EU court strikes down sanctions imposed on seven Iranian companies despite reported links to Iran’s illicit nuclear activities - 20 January 2014: EU and USA suspend sanctions against Iran after IAEA confirmed Iran's regime has begun halting sensitive nuclear activities - 8/9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton visits Iran for first time, nuclear issue on agenda - 9 March: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 25 November 2014: The EU extended a freeze on certain sanctions against Iran after negotiations aimed at curbing the country's nuclear programme were prolonged by seven months
2015: 3 April 2015: IAEA welcomes that Iran is set to allow the agency more access to its nuclear sites in a framework agreement on Iran's nuclear program reached in Lausanne E3+3 and Iran negotiations on Thursday - 28 October 2015: Former Iran leader Akbar Rafsanjani tells state-run news agency country pursued nuclear weapon, in contravention of repeated assurances by the regime that its enrichment program is and always has been peaceful
2016: 8 March 2016: EU expresses support for Iranian women resistors struggling against government oppression - 25 April 2016: French-Iranian citizen Afshar who left Iran in 2009 after facing espionage charges has been sentenced to six years in jail following her return to the country to visit her critically ill mother - 16 May 2016: French Foreign Ministry staffer Nazak Afshar with dual citizenship awaits appeal on prison sentence in Iran - 11 July 2016: Iran indicts three dual nationals including British-Iranian Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been held in solitary confinement, reports say - 19 July 2016: Iranian regime defends international deal's secret document easing nuke program restrictions, as FM Zarif says paper obtained by AP that shows Iran will be able to get within 6 months of a bomb in a decade is a 'matter of pride’ - 28October 2016: EU’s foreign policy chief Mogherini in Tehran to meet once again smiling child killers and shake bloody hands
2017: 29 July 2017: USA and European allies Britain, France and Germany urged Iran to halt all ballistic missile activity after regime tested a satellite-launch rocket in what USA denounced as a 'provocative' act - 4 August 2017: Amnesty International urges EU's Federica Mogherini to use a visit to Iran to demand that Iranian regime immediately release all imprisoned human rights activists - 13 August 2017: Israel's Mossad chief Cohen noted that in the two years since the signing of the Iran nuclear deal, known formally as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Tehran regime has not abandoned its desire to develop nuclear weapons, and that the agreement 'only reinforced that trend and strengthened Iranian aggression in the region'
European Union/Iraq relations: European Union/Iraq relations - 13 August 2014: EU allows states to arm Iraqi Kurds but fails to reach a joint stance on arming Kurds fighting IS terrorists - 15 August: EU backs supply of arms to Kurdish fighters against Islamic terrorists in Iraq, insisting that deliveries should be approved by the new government in Baghdad
European Union/Israel relations: European Union/Israel relations
2013/2014: 8 November 2013: A fifth of Jewish respondents in an EU survey said they had experienced an anti-Semitic incident in the past 12 months, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency says - 26 novembre: Accord UE-Israël sur la coopération scientifique - 9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 18 July: Israel working to ensure EU foreign ministers don’t mix settlements with Gaza at upcoming meeting - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 21 May: The Palestinians, not Israel, walked out of USA-led negotiations 2013/2014, Israel's Hotovely tells EU's Mogherini
2016: 10 February 2016: EU and Israel said in talks to restore ties hurt by the EU’s new labeling guidelines for West Bank and Golan Heights products
European Union/Japan relations: European Union/Japan relations - 7 octobre 2013: Airbus signe sa première grosse commande avec le Japon
European Union/Lebanon relations: European Union/Lebanon relations
2013: 22 July 2013: EU to decide on blacklisting Hezbollah - 22 July 2013: EU ministers have agreed to put the military wing of Lebanese group Hezbollah on the EU terror list, now facing visa ban and asset freezes
2014: 17 December 2014: After an EU court's decision, body led by EU foreign Policy chief Federica Mogherini releases statement saying that the EU upholds the 'Quartet principles' that bans engagement with Hamas until it forswears terrorism - 21 March 2014: Lebanon blocks refugees arriving from Europe
July 2017: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account
European Union/Libya relations: European Union/Libya relations
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 19 April 2016: Libya offered security help by European Union as UN-backed PM Fayez Seraj appeals for aid to fight 'Islamic State' terrorists and rebuild country - 24 mai 2016: Quelque 550 migrants qui tentaient de rejoindre l'Europe par la mer ont été arrêtés mardi au large des côtes libyennes - 29 May 2016: UNHCR says it is now certain that last week was the deadliest since April 2015 as more than 700 refugees and migrants feared dead in three Mediterranean sinkings and as rescue teams describe shocking scenes
2017: 27 February 2017: NGO rescues off Libya encourage traffickers, the head of the EU border agency Frontex Leggeri says, calling for rescue operations to be re-evaluated and adding that NGOs work ineffectively with security agencies - 9 September 2017: German NGO Sea-Eye resumes migrant rescue operations off Libya
September 2017: 25 September 2017: European leaders are embracing Libyan general Khalifa Haftar, a former CIA asset, who has ordered his soldiers to commit war crimes, according to new evidence that has been analysed by senior legal experts
European Union/Moldova relations: European Union/Moldova relations - 1 July 1998: EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement - Delegation of the EU to Moldova since 2005 - 29 April 2014: Moldova keen to join the European Union in 2019 - 28 June: EU signs association agreements with Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia
European Union/Palestinian relations: European Union/Palestinian territories relations - 17 July 2014: EU leaders say on 'rapid' deterioration and escalation of Gaza-Israel conflict since June (!) that 'Israel has right to protect itself but it must act proportionately' - one rocket for one rocket etc.? - 26 July: USA's John Kerry in Paris to meet with European foreign ministers to promote a cease-fire in Gaza - 6/7 August 2014: European countries propose EU mission to open Gaza crossing with a plan for the rehabilitation of Gaza, which calls for its demilitarization but at the same time demands Israel ease the blockade of the enclave - 15 August 2014: EU offers to oversee Gaza border crossings and to work to prevent illegal arms flows, insisting on a durable truce and an disarmament of terrorist groups in the Strip - 18 December 2014: A European Parliament resolution to recognize 'Palestine' as a state only in principle linking the recognition with the resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, passed with 498 votes - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
2015: 19 May 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini heads to Mideast to reboot peace talks, wanting a more active role for the EU in seeking peace between Israel and the Palestinians and saying that Israeli-Palestinian status quo is not an option - 20 May: In visit with EU foreign minister Mogherini, Palestinian Abbas repeats demand for Israeli settlement freeze, release of prisoners and sets preconditions for peace process - 27 October 2015: In Brussels meeting with EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini, PA president Abbas cites disappointment among young generation, feeling of hopelessnes, fearing deterioration amid wave of terror attacks - 27 October 2015: EU's Mogherini urges Abbas and Netanyahu to meet Quartet ‘in days’, saying Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only get worse with each round of violence
European Union and Poland: European Union/Poland relations
2003/2004: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
2016: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
2017: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom - 26 July 2017: EU executive to start legal action against Poland over judiciary reform
European Union/Russia relations: European Union/Russia relations
Russia in the European energy sector - Documented examples of energy sector incidents
30 October 2013: European Union to probe allegations of Russia spying during G20 summit - 29 November: Russia cannot 'veto' its ties with East Europe nations, European Union says - 16 December: European countries bordering Russia's territory of Kaliningrad say they are worried at reports that Moscow has put nuclear-capable missiles there - 10 December 2013: European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has said she will 'definitely not' attend the Winter Olympics in Sochi because of Russia's treatment of minority groups
2014: 11 March: EU tells Russia to start Ukraine talks or face sanctions - 13 March: EU agreed on a framework for sanctions on Russia - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU drafts plans for much more substantive sanctions if Putin presses ahead with Russian territorial expansion - 29 March: Russia reportedly retaliated against sanctions imposed by Western countries over its annexation of Crimea - 11 April: USA accuses Russia after Putin warning on gas supplies to Europe - 11 April: EU demands Russia honour its gas commitments - 17 April: European Parliament votes to impose tougher sanctions on Russia due to its military aggression against Ukraine - 27 May: EU awaits constructive steps from Russia after Ukrainian elections - 28 May: EU should make Russia take its mercenaries from Ukraine, Poland's Donald Tusk says - 17 July: USA and EU significantly strengthened sanctions on Russian regime over Ukraine, with USA for the first time directly targeting Russia's banking, military and energy sectors - 25/26 July: EU expands Russian oligarch sanctions blacklist in wake of MH17 crash and broad economic measures against regime are looking increasingly likely - 29 July: EU governments agree to impose sweeping sanctions on Russian regime, targeting state-owned banks, imposing an arms embargo, restricting sales of sensitive technology and the export of equipment for the country's oil industry - 16 August: EU wants Russia not to cover military aggression with humanitarian situation, calling on its regime to put an immediate stop to the flow of arms, military advisers, armed personnel, and to withdraw its forces from the border - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: New EU sanctions against Russia targeting Russian oil firms, defence companies and banks over the crisis in Ukraine enter into force - 16 October: Candidate countries for EU membership join EU sanctions against Russia - 17 October: Putin under pressure from EU leaders to commit to fragile peace plan for eastern Ukraine as violence continues to spread across region despite ceasefire - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 30 October: Recognition of illegal Donbas 'elections' reportedly to strengthen EU sanctions against Russia - 17 December: EU insists on implementation of all points of the Minsk agreements, Federica Mogherini says in Kyiv demanding full respect for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity
2015: 11/12 January: Meeting of foreign ministers a few days before possible east Ukraine summit, as Russia doesn't prove ceasefire commitment and violence spikes in region - 29 January: EU to debate fresh Russia sanctions - 30 January: EU extends sanctions against Russia - 6 February 2015: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel in truce talks in Ukraine and Russia as TV report from Debaltseve shows 'a town almost too dangerous to live in' due to Russian weapons - 7 February: France, Germany and Russia agree to draft Ukraine peace plan that would also include proposals from Ukraine`s President Poroshenko - 8 February: German chancellor Angela Merkel 'disappointed' by Russian attitude but says proposal for demilitarised zone to end conflict is 'worth trying' - 9 February: Normandy format foreign ministers representatives to meet today in Berlin to prepare Minsk meeting on Wednesday - 16 February: More EU sanctions on Russia come into effect on Monday over Russian regime's intervention in east Ukraine - 20 February: France and Germany promise fresh sanctions on Russian regime if the second peace deal brokered in Minsk to end the conflict in Ukraine is not observed - 26 February: EU calls Russia responsible for Nadia Savchenko's state of health - 4 March 2015: Britain, France, Germany, Italy, EU head Donald Tusk and USA called for a 'strong reaction' from the international community to any major violation of a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine as they seek to further pressure Russia over the conflict - 8 March: EU divisions exposed as Russia evades sanctions - 12 March: EU leaders want to tackle Russian 'disinformation' on Ukraine war - 17 March: EU nations called to maintain economic sanctions on Russian regime over its annexation of Crimea and support for separatists until Minsk II ceasefire agreement has been fully implemented - 17 March: Let's not repeat the Munich betrayal of 1938, write Czech and Slovak public intellectuals in an open letter to representatives of EU, France, Germany, U.K., and USA with an appeal to provide more assistance to Ukraine in order to help itself to defend against the Russian aggression - 20 March: EU's Russia sanctions extended to end-2015, EU president Donald Tusk says after a summit in Brussels - 2 April: EU condemns as 'a blatant violation of the right to freedom of expression' the closure of the Crimean Tatar ATR TV, following searches of its premises and attacks on its journalists in the past weeks - 14 April: 'Normandy Four' call on the withdrawal of even more weaponry in Donbas - 20 April: EU will officially complain that Gazprom was hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets - 31 May: EU criticises Russian entry ban on 89 European politicians, including outspoken critics of Russian regime, and military leaders, similar to a list for USA citizens - 4 June: Fighting near Maryinka in eastern Ukraine is the most serious violation of the Minsk agreements by Russian-backed separatists, EU says - 5 June: EU extends sanctions against occupied Crimea for another year, as Germany's Angela Merkel says Russia's participation in G7 not possible without return of Crimea to Ukraine, and Canada's Stephen Harper says that Putin regime cannot be allowed to return to G7 because there 'really is no point in having a dialogue' - 22 June: EU prolongs sanctions against Russian regime over aggression in Ukraine - 30 July 2015: Six more states - Montenegro, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, as well as Ukraine - support the extension of sanctions against Russia until 31 January 2016 - 12 August: The EU notes that the sharp deterioration of the situation in Donbas, which is connected with the attacks of pro-Russian separatists on the positions of Ukrainian militaries, contradicts the Minsk agreements - 16 September: The European Union does not recognize and condemns the electoral processes conducted by Russia in the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea - 12 October: EU foreign ministers urge Russian regime to halt its military intervention in Syria and call for protection of civilians to become an international priority, saying that Assad bore the greatest responsibility for the 250,000 dead and linking 'the systematic targeting of civilians by the regime' to 'mass displacements' - 3 December 2015: EU plans to extend economic sanctions against Russia for another six months - 15 December: EU foreign ministers indicate need to extend Russian sanctions
2016: 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 28 February 2016: Several European diplomats have paid tribute to the slain Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, visiting the spot in Moscow where the Putin regime critic was gunned down - 7 March 2016: EU to extend sanctions against Russia until 15 September - 7 March 2016: European Union's Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini calls for Nadiya Savchenko's immediate, on humanitarian grounds, release and all other illegally detained Ukrainian citizens - 9 March: Members of the European Parliament urge EU to impose personal sanctions against Russia's Putin and 28 others - 18 March: Russian takeover of Crimea remains 'direct challenge to international security', EU's Federica Mogherini says, warning of worsening human rights situation in the occupied Black Sea region - 26 May: EU officials insist restrictions against Russian regime are to remain unless the Minsk protocol is fully implemented - 21 June: EU extends sanctions against Russia for another six months - 17 October 2016: Mogherini rules out EU sanctions on Russia over Syria - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit
2017: 28 February 2017: The European Parliament has called on the international community to increase pressure on Russia due to unlawful criminal prosecution of Ukrainian citizens on political grounds - 27 March 2017: European Union calls 'on the Russian authorities to abide fully by the international commitments it has made, including in the Council of Europe … to uphold these rights and to release without delay the peaceful demonstrators that have been detained', after tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Russia on Sunday - 14 June 2017: Nord Stream 2 project, that involves piping gas directly from Russia to Germany through the Baltic sea, is unaffected by sanctions and its progress means that Europe is excoriating the Putin regime diplomatically while at the same time promising to inflate the same regime with billions of gas dollars - 19 June 2017: EU prolongs for one year restrictive measures against Russia over Crimea annexation
European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations: European Union/Saudi-Arabia relations
20158 June 2015: EU vows to make 'every effort' to free Saudi blogger Badawi - 29 October 2015: Saudi Arabia urged by EU lawmakers to free blogger Raif Badawi sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for insulting Islam, as he wins the EU’s Sakharov prize for human rights - 16 décembre 2015: Ensaf Haidar a reçu le prix Sakharov pour la liberté de l'esprit du Parlement européen au nom de son mari Raef Badaoui, détenu en Arabie saoudite pour 'insulte' envers l'islam
European Union/Sudan relations: 13 May 2016: Sudan and the European Union
2017: 28 February 2017: The EU is facing calls to rethink its cooperation with Sudan on migration flows after scores of refugees were whipped, fined, jailed and deported from Khartoum last weekend following a peaceful protest over a huge rise in visa processing fees
European Union/Switzerland relations: European Union/Switzerland relations - 10 February 2014: Swiss voters back limit on immigration - 10 février 2014: Le vote sur l'initiative UDC contre l'immigration intéresse la presse européenne - 15 February: Swiss vote on immigration boosts far-right parties through Europe
European Union/Syria relations: European Union/Syria relations
2013: 27 May 2013: EU to discuss arms embargo on Syria, ending this week either helping Syrian opposition or the Assad regime - 28 May: EU ends arms embargo on Syrian opposition, maintaining stiff economic sanctions against Assad's regime - 7/8 September: European Union blames Bashar Assad for chemical weapons attack in Damascus, calls the attack in Damascus a war crime and a crime against humanity, adding that a strong response is essential to make clear there is no impunity - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - 17 October: Syrian refugees stranded at Milan rail hub - 20 October: A boatload of 254 Syrian and Egyptian migrants including 94 minors landed in Italy on Sunday after a perilous voyage through rough seas from Egypt - 13 December 2013: EU failing Syria refugees, human rights group says
2014: 11 April 2014: With all doors rapidly closing shut, tens of thousands of refugees from war-torn Syria end up in the EU's poorest state Bulgaria - 26 June: Thousands of Syrian children risking death to reach Europe, report says - 25 July: Reluctance to arm moderate rebels increases extremists’ influence, Syrian Coalition's Nasr al-Hariri says - 7 April 2015: EU increases aid for Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk in Syria
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - During the first half of 2015, large numbers of Syrian refugees crosses into Europe, reaching 313 thousands UNHCR applications across Europe by early August 2015
2015: 16 April 2015: EU's Federica Mogherini stresses the importance of achieving a political transition in Syria through a peaceful solution that guarantees the departure of Bashar al-Assad - 20 April 2015: Syrian Coalition regrets the ongoing failure of the international community to find a solution for the problem of displaced Syrians who are drowning in the Mediterranean Sea while trying to seek refuge in Europe - 25 May 2015: 2,157 Syrians, 75 percent of whom are women and children, drowned in the Mediterranean sea since 2011 while trying to escape to Europe, rights group's report claims - 24 June: Syrian Coalition's al-Maleh has set off on a tour of several European capitals to raise the Syrian issue again on the levels of human rights, pushing for opening international investigation into Assad’s crimes - 1 July: European parliament will allow a collection of photographs documenting alleged torture by Syrian Assad regime forces to be displayed in public on the legislature’s grounds, reversing an earlier decision - 15 July 2015: A yearlong analysis by the FBI has concluded that the torture photographs of Syrian political prisoners are authentic, providing powerful new evidence to support charges of the Assad regime’s extensive human rights violations - 29 August 2015: The Syrian Coalition calls upon the international community to shoulder its humanitarian and ethical responsibilities towards the Syrian people and to work on ending the Syrian refugees’ crisis - 2 September: Young Syrian boy found lying face-down on a beach near Turkish resort of Bodrum was one of at least 12 Syrians who drowned attempting to reach Greece - 4 September: Abdullah Kurdi, the father of two children who drowned with their mother as they attempted to reach Greece from Turkey, is preparing to take their bodies back to Kobani in Syria for burial - 6 September: A newborn baby boy found dead on Greek island of Kos after his parents reached the shores in a boat, as Greece is struggling to cope with a wave of refugees from the war in Syria and as refugees and migrants clash with police on another Greek island - 17 October 2015: EU-member Hungary closes its border with Croatia using barbed wire to block the path of desperate refugees and migrants to get to northern Europe, as dictator Assad, Russian, Iranian and Hezbollah terrorists commit more war crimes in Syria - 20 October: At a meeting with the EU reprehensive Lara Scarpetta, the Syrian Coalition’s political committee stressed that the Russian airstrikes are exclusively targeting civilians and rebel fighters allowing ISIS to extend its territory, urging the EU to take firm stand of the Russian aggression and to increase humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees - 6 November: Syrian Coalition submitted a memorandum to the EU containing a legal study on the unlawfulness of the Russian aggression on Syria, documenting war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by Assad and Russia - 16 December: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to condemn the continued indiscriminate use of violence by the Assad regime and Russia carried out by its aircrafts against civilians in Syria - 19 December: UN refugee chief Guterres calls for 'massive resettlement' of Syrians in Europe
2016: 16 January 2016: New UN chief for refugees Filippo Grandi says he hopes Europe's refugee and migration crisis will be solved soon if the necessary political decisions are made - 6 February 2016: European Commission 'extremely worried', USA's Obama administration 'deeply concerned' about the worsening humanitarian crisis due to Assad regime's barbaric onslaught, backed by the Russian regime, the Iranian regime and foreign militias - 9 February 2016: West must condemn Russian action in Syria and the bombardment, activists say in letters to British newspaper - 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 15 February: Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaite calls for responding to Russia’s violations of international law in Syria and Ukraine, warning that failing to respond to Russia’s actions will put Europe’s security at risk - 21 April 2016: During a meeting between the Syrian Coalition and European External Action Service's officials, Anas al-Abdah says any solution that does not lead to Assad’s departure is doomed to fail - 27 April 2016: EU's Mogherini rules out political future role for Assad in Syria - 23 May 2016: Syrian Coalition calls on EU to salvage political process through reviving the cessation of hostilities agreement and playing a more active role in Syria - 27 May 2016: Syrian Coalition's Bahra calls for EU pressure on Russia to accelerate political solution - 14 June 2016: Russia’s continued aggression on Syria disrupts Geneva negotiations, Syrian Coalition says in Brussels, meeting with European officials to discuss stepping up efforts to reach a political solution - 17 June: EU promises to respond to the Syrian opposition’s requests to step up its engagement on the political track of the Syrian file and create conditions for a substantive resumption to the Geneva talks ending to the monopoly of the USA and Russian regime over the solution in Syria - 28 June 2016: Syrian HNC's Basma Qadamani calls on the EU to impose sanctions on Russian companies involved in the delivery of arms shipments to the Assad's regime which uses them to indiscriminately bomb liberated areas across Syria - 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 19 July 2016: As at least 500 civilians were killed in aerial attacks by the Assad regime and Russia forces on Aleppo and its countryside between 11-19 July mainly directed on the rebel-held areas, Syrian Coalition's Yahya says that the Syrian people lost confidence in the international community as more get killed every day - 20 July: Syrian Coalition's Anas Alabdah sent a letter to the foreign ministers of the USA-led coalition in the wake of the horrific massacres committed in the town of Manbij by aircrafts which claimed the lives of over 125 civilians, calling for suspension of the coalition’s airstrikes
October 2016: 11 October 2016: As British MPs debate the war in Syria and possible ways to end the bloodshed, in contrast to other European parliaments like the German that not by hazard never discussed Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, the medics and rescue teams of east Aleppo are going about their grim daily task of picking through rubble left by airstrikes and patching up survivors - 18 October 2016: The European Union's 28 foreign ministers on Monday condemned Russia's air campaign in Syria, saying it may be guilty of war crimes and that Russian atrocities in Syria should be referred to the International Criminal Court, also vowing to impose more sanctions on Bashar al-Assad's regime, after France and Britain pushed hard for the support of all the bloc's 28 governments, hoping that a unified chastisement of Russia would help bring an end to Russian- and Iranian-backed regime's offensive and France's foreign minister said that the EU had a moral obligation to act and 'to stop the massacre of the population of Aleppo' - 18/19 October 2016: Syrian opposition states that EU credibility at stake as Russia’s war crimes continue unchallenged, saying that in addition to the imposition of sanctions on the Assad regime, the EU needs to take restrictive measures against Russian regime, and that 'it is unacceptable that some member nations of the European Union continue to defend Russia against credible action and lighten pressure on it despite their ability to immediately stop the disaster occurring in eastern Aleppo' - 19 October 2016: Russian convoy of warships, including an aircraft carrier carrying fighter bombers, passes Britain, monitored by governments and politicians, since nearly 6 years concerned about their discussion threads with brutal criminals and Russian, Iranian and Assad terrorists and not about the victims, on its way to Syria where it is thought they will participate in a final assault on the besieged city of Aleppo, where children are coming as body parts to surviving doctors in out bombed hospitals - 21 October 2016: EU fails to agree on threatening Russia with sanctions over Aleppo as push by Britain, France and Germany to address Syrian bombing campaign lacks unanimous support at Brussels summit - 26 October 2016: 'Spain signed the EU statement on war crimes Russia in Aleppo last week, today helps refuel the fleet en route to commit more', European parliament's Guy Verhofstadt says, as Spain plans to let Russian warships refuel en route to Syria - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria
November 2016: 30 November 2016: Syrian Coalition's Fahd calls upon the European Union to intervene urgently to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of civilians currently trapped in eastern Aleppo, also calling on the EU to play a more effective role commensurate with its position in the international community - 30 November 2016: 'As Assad’s forces, backed by the Russians, make their final move on Syria’s second city, the world can only count the cost of a humanitarian and military disaster it failed to stop', the British newspapter Guardian says
December 2016: 1 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Anas Abdah urges 15-member group of friends of the Syrian people as well as to international and regional organizations to press for stopping the brutal bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia air forces - 14 December 2016: Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Fahd calls upon the European countries and the USA to take urgent, concrete action to stop the massacres being committed by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies in besieged eastern Aleppo - 15 December 2016: ‘More than words are needed to save civilians’, the mayor of east Aleppo Brita Hagi Hasan says as he arrives in Brussels to address the EU summit, wanting European countries to send monitors to ensure thousands of residents trying to flee the besieged Syrian city make it out safely - 16 December 2016: EU leaders condemn Russia and Iran over Aleppo carnage, as German chancellor accuses the Kremlin and Tehran of 'crimes' that 'must be avenged'
January/February 2017: 4 January 2017: European Parliament's Dutch MP Marietje Schaake criticizes the failure of European countries to stand by the Syrian people in the war that has been waged on them by the Assad regime since 2011, calling the situation in Syria is 'a disgrace to our current generation' - 16 January 2017: After nearly six years of Assad's ongoing war against the Syrian people, European Union foreign ministers in Brussels discuss to continue discussions on the EU's role in supporting a full ceasefire and a genuine political transition in Syria - 14 February 2017: Syrian National Coalition calls on the EU to assume a more active role in pushing forward the negotiations for a political solution in Syria - 21 February 2017: Demanding support of the the EU and the USA, the Syrian Network for Human Rights calls for a preliminary prosecution of the users of chemical weapons in mandated regional tribunals
April 2017: 5 April 2017: Syrian Coalition sent letters to 26 countries and international organizations, including the UN, the EU, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, explaining the repercussions of the chemical attack by the Assad regime against civilians in the town of Khan Sheikhoun in rural Idlib on Tuesday - 26 April 2017: French intelligence has proof that Assad forces were behind Khan Sheikhoun sarin attack
May 2017: 8 May 2017: Syrian Coaltion's Riad Seif stresses need to develop relations with the EU in meeting with EU foreign affairs advisor Lara Scarpitta - 9 May 2017: Almost four years ago, Italian forces ignored a sinking ship full of Syrian refugees and let more than 250 including 60 children drown, says leaked audio - 17 May 2017: EU's Federica Mogherini said that the entire EU 'is united behind the goal of a political solution to the war, and the means to achieve it' as she stressed accountability for war crimes as key to resolving the conflict in Syria and as Syrian Coalition's Nazir Hakim warned that international inaction towards the Assad regime’s use of chemical and non-conventional weapons against the Syrian people risks creating security threats affecting the whole world - 29 May 2017: Syrian Coalition's Riad Seif met with Netherlands Special Envoy for Syria Gerard Steeghs and Renko Verheij to discuss the latest developments in Syria, urging support for basic services projects, as France's Macron hosts Russia's war criminal Putin in Versailles - 30 May 2017: EU extends sanctions on Assad regime for another year, adds 3 ministers to list
June 2017: 5 June 2017: In Brussels Syrian Coalition calls for greater EU role in Syria to curb regime violence, saying that Europe has failed to take action to end the crimes of the Assad regime, Russia and Iran - 22 June 2017: Meeting with a delegation of British diplomats and talking about the need to support the Syrian Interim Government SIG to be able to provide services to civilians in the liberated areas, to administer the liberated areas and restore security and stability, the Syrian Coalition says that the international community should have courage to admit failure to protect Syrians instead of inventing excuses
July 2017: 10 July 2017: Dutch and French activists call for an international investigation into the death of Syrian refugees under torture in Lebanon and for holding perpetrators to account - 17 July 2017: EU imposes sanctions against 16 additional persons of the Assad regime, including 8 high-ranking military officials and 8 'scientists', for their role in the development and use of chemical weapons against the civilian population
October 2017: 9 October 2017: EU Officials reportedly urging Syrian opposition to accept war criminal Assad remaining, pursuing 'normalization' with Assad through the diplomatic and security fields - 11 October 2017: USA urges allies to sanction Hezbollah and disrupt its activities, as Iran-backed group has been heavily involved in the crimes against the Syrian people - 28 October 2017: Human Rights Watch has urged the international community to slap sanctions on the Assad regime after UN investigators blamed Assad regime forces for a sarin gas attack that killed dozens back in April 4
European Union/Togo relations: Relations entre le Togo et l'Union européenne
European Union/Tunisia relations: The European Union is Tunisia's first trading partner with a total trade amounting to approximately €20.6 billion in 2012 - Association Agreement with the EU since July 1995
European Union/Turkey relations: European Union/Turkey relations - accession to the European Union fraught with obstacles by Turkey - 22 October 2013: The EU has agreed to resume long-running talks on Turkey’s membership, scheduled for November 5 - 7 June: Turkey must investigate the excessive use of force by police against anti-government protesters, EU Enlargement Commissioner Stefan Fuele says in Istanbul
2015: 15 April 2015: Turkey's Erdogan says Turkey would disregard the European Parliament's vote later on Wednesday on the 1915 mass killings of Armenians - 6 October 2015: EU and Turkey join forces to thwart Russia's Syria intervention - 11 novembre 2015: Quatorze réfugiés et migrants, dont sept enfants, sont morts noyés mercredi à l'aube au large de la Turquie lors du naufrage de leur embarcation qui se dirigeait vers l'île grecque de Lesbos - 30 November 2015: EU has offered Turkey three billion euros to help Syrian refugees in Turkey in return for Turkish help in stemming migrant flows
2016: 19 February 2016: EU and Turkey to hold special summit on the international refugee and migrant crisis in early March - 6/7 March 2016: Refugee 'bottleneck' in Greece leads to warning of humanitarian crisis, as EU-Turkey summit to focus on stemming flow of refugees and migrants to Europe - 23 March: Turkey prepares list of 25,000 Syrian refugees to send to Europe in 'exchange' for refugees and migrants to be returned from Greece to Turkey - 24 April 2016: After facing judge and arrest ('Police at the door. No joke') over tweets deemed critical of president Erdogan, Dutch journalist Ebru Umar blocked from leaving Turkey, a country wanting accession to the EU - 6 May 2016: Visa-free travel deal between the EU and Turkey on the brink of collapse, after Erdogan insisted he would not change Turkey’s anti-terrorism laws, a key condition of the agreement because used in the country to prosecute journalists and government critics - 20 May 2016: The EU-Turkey migration deal has been thrown further into chaos after an independent authority examining appeals claims in Greece ruled against sending a Syrian refugee back to Turkey, potentially creating a precedent for thousands of other similar cases - 18 July 2016: European politicians urge Turkey's government to respect rule of law after failed coup
24 novembre 2016: Les députés du Parlement européen demandent le gel des négociations d'adhésion avec la Turquie et dénoncent le recul des droits de l'homme et la répression 'disproportionnée' en cours depuis le coup d'Etat manqué
2017: 13 March 2017: Turkey threatens to re-evaluate a key deal to halt the flow of migrants to Europe in a dramatic escalation of its diplomatic row with EU member states, as Erdogan defies pleas from Brussels to tone down his rhetoric, repeating accusations of European 'nazism' and support of terrorism and suspends high-level political contacts with the Netherlands - 18 April 2017: European Commission calls on Turkey to investigate alleged irregularities in Sunday's referendum boosting the powers of Turkish president Erdogan, also urging him to show restraint after his narrow victory
European Union/Ukraine relations: European Union/Ukraine relations
2012/2013: 3. Mai 2012: Die EU-Kommission boykottiert die EM in der Ukraine - Plan on Priority Measures for European Integration of Ukraine for 2013 - 24 novembre: Des dizaines de milliers d'Ukrainiens manifestent pour un rapprochement avec l'UE - 28 November: Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in the shadow of Ukraine’s decision to scrap deal with the EU following pressure from Moscow - 29 novembre: L'Europe ne convainc pas le gouvernement de l'Ukraine de se tourner vers l'Ouest - 30 November: Tear gas fills Kiev's Liberty Square as critics of president's decision to block EU trade deal are dispersed by force - 1 December: Yanukovych government's bloody crackdown leads to call for sanctions - 10 décembre: Attendue à Kiev, Ashton redoute un 'déraillement' de la crise - 12 December: Ukraine diplomatic battle heats up over Yanukovych EU agreement claim
2014: 20 February 2014: EU and US consider sanctions against Yanukovich after Kiev crackdown - 21 février: Face aux violences à Kiev l'Union européenne annonce les premières sanctions - 24 February: European nations scramble to support Ukrainian democracy - 24 February 2014: USA and European allies warn Putin regime against Ukraine grab amid break-up fears - 4 March: USA-Europe rifts surfacing as Putin regime tightens Crimea grip and EU ministers spare trade sanctions - 5 March: EU offers Ukraine $15 billion, but help hinges on IMF deal - 6 March: EU leaders to hold emergency talks to decide how strongly they should respond to Russia's troop deployment in Ukraine's Crimea region - 6/7 March: USA and EU impose sanctions for Russia's 'violation of sovereignty' of Ukraine and warn Russia to seek a diplomatic solution - 17 March: USA and EU expected to announce sanctions against Putin regime after Crimean referendum on joining Russia - 21 March: EU signs landmark association agreement with Ukraine - 7 April: Ukraine's president to address parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe over pro-Russian threats to the democratic institutions and attacks in eastern Ukraine - 17 April: EU to launch free trade with Ukraine on 1 November 2014 - 24 April: All persons illegally detained by armed groups in Eastern Ukraine must be immediately released and separatists must immediately hand in arms, EU says - 24 April: EU recognizes the right of the Ukrainian authorities to take security measures to protect the sovereignty of the state - 2 May: Ukraine, EU, Russia fail to agree on price for Russian gas for Ukraine - 8 May: Unauthorized local referenda have no democratic legitimacy and can only lead to further escalation in Ukraine, EU's Maja Kocijancic says - 13 May: EU has officially announced that it will not recognize 'illegal and illegitimate referenda' of separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine - 13 May: EU gives Ukraine 1 bln euros in macro-financial aid - 14 May: Pro-Russian separatists kill seven Ukrainian soldiers in a bloody ambush questioning new Europe push for Ukraine talks - 15 May: EU opens market for Ukrainian goods and services with about 98% of duties nullified - 23 June: EU to send security mission to Ukraine - 24 June: EU completed technical preparations for signing association deal with Ukraine on June 27 - 28 June: Ukraine signs historic trade and economic pact with EU - 12 July: EU imposes sanctions on A. Borodai, leader of Donetsk 'republic', and 10 others, facing travel bans and asset freezes, as clashes continue in east - 26 July: EU sends advisers to assist the Ukrainian government in imposing the rule of law in rebel areas - 18 August: In a meeting of foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, discussing in a difficult conversation the situation in eastern Ukraine, some progress reportedly achieved - 12 September: Expressing support for all defenders of Ukraine's sovereignty, EU Commissioner Stefan Fule asks Ukrainian authorities to support residents of Donbas - 7 October: EU sends in drones to save Ukraine truce - 18 October: Ukraine-Russia peace hopes rise as gas deal edges closer - 22 October: Ukraine to get about EUR 2 bln in EU financial assistance - 29 November: EU acts against pro-Russia separatists and their political parties with more sanctions
2015: 10 February 2015: A meeting of representatives of 'Norman Quartet' in Berlin has yielded 'some tangible results' for the negotiations of the leaders of the four states in Minsk on February 11 concerning eastern Ukraine, Ukraine's Andriy Melnyk says - 11 February: Ukraine's president Poroshenko to address EU summit on Thursday, EU's Donald Tusk says adding that the summit will assess the situation in Ukraine, relations with Russia and discuss 'appropriate actions' - 12 February: Ceasefire for eastern Ukraine agreed in Minsk - Minsk II - on 11/12 February 2015 Ukraine, Russia, France and Germany agreed in Minsk to a package of measures to alleviate the ongoing war in the Donbass region of Ukraine - 13 February: In Brussels European worries voiced about potential escalation of fighting before truce on Sunday - 17 February: French, Ukrainian presidents and German chancellor discussed ceasefire violations on telephone stressing that OSCE observers must have free access to the Donbas conflict zone, also calling Russia's Putin to withdraw heavy weapons from the frontline - 19 February: Ukraine and EU agree on immediate response to further Russian-backed aggression against Ukraine after brutal seizure of Debaltseve - 25 February: Partnership with Ukraine determined priority in new EU energy strategy - 3 March: New talks of the 'Normandy Four' in Berlin on March 6 suggested - 19 March: EP International Trade Committee approves allocation of EUR 1.8 billion to Ukraine - 21/22 May: 4th Summit of Eastern Partnership begins, as the EU's approach to the eastern partnership including Ukraine is high on agenda in Riga - 22 May: EU leaders and their colleagues of six former Soviet republics concluded Riga summit by issuing a joint declaration on maintaining their 'Eastern Partnership', but EU membership of eastern partners not considered in Riga - 21 September: EU's Federica Mogherini says Donbas elections must be organised by Ukraine - 3 October: France's Hollande and Germany's Merkel address the press after so-called 'Normandy Four' Paris summit, saying France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine had agreed that local elections in eastern Ukraine planned by Russia-backed separatists on 18 October could not go ahead, as Ukraine's president Poroshenko and Russia's Murder-Putin leave Ukraine ceasefire talks in Paris without comment - 26 October: Ukraine's local elections are democratic, EU says - 9 November: EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini due in Ukraine for talks, saying that Ukraine remains top priority of the European agenda and re-affirming the EU's committment to sanctions on Russia - 12 November: An IMF mission and EU's commissioner for trade Cecilia Malmström in Kyiv to discuss Ukraine-EU free trade zone
2016: 1 February 2016: Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko urges Europe to keep sanctions in place until Russia 'gets out of Donbas' - 14 February: EU's Mogherini supports anti-Russian sanctions until Minsk deal fully implemented - 28 May: Representatives of the EU and the UN Development Programme have signed an agreement with the governors of Donetsk and Luhansk regions to allocate EUR 10mln for the restoration of effective management and development of local communities - 30 September 2016: EU Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström announces additional market access preferences for Ukraine - 15 October 2016: Ukrainian president Poroshenko believes that Russia will not terminate its policy of aggression until the world is united to stop Russian Putin regime, calling 'to make every effort to unmask the manifestation of Russian aggression wherever we only can – in Donbas, in the case of the downed MH17, and in Aleppo', emphasizing the importance of solidarity of the whole world in this issue and further extension of sanctions against Russia - 20 October 2016: 'Normandy Four' states agree to develop a 'road map' of the implementation of the Minsk agreements till November, Ukrainain president says, and Ukraine should regain control of its eastern border with Russia at the end of Minsk - 17 November 2016: EU states give conditional approval to visa-free travel for Ukraine
2017: 10 May 2017: The EU will announce the simplification of the visa regime with Ukraine in a few days, according to EU's Federica Mogherini also saying the EU would never recognize the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia
European Union/United Kingdom relations: European Union/United Kingdom relations
Since 1975: June 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum - Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom - United Kingdom and the euro
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and USA agencies - 2 June 2014: British PM Cameron accused of blackmail and threats as he tries to stop Jean-Claude Juncker becoming president of the European commission - 24 October 2014: EU demand for extra £1.7bn from UK prompts emergency meeting as PM Cameron says the demand is 'unacceptable' - 16 December 2015: Flirting with leaving the EU 'very dangerous', John Major says
2016: 15 mai 2016: Pour défendre une sortie de l'Europe l'ex-maire de Londres et chef de file du camp pro-Brexit Boris Johnson compare l'UE à Hitler
June 2016 'Brexit': 23 June 2016 UK EU membership referendum - United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union - 24 June 2016: We want Britain out as soon as possible, EU parliament leader says after UK 'Brexit' voting - 25 June 2016: Emergency meetings as EU pushes for UK to act on leave vote
March 2017: 25 March 2017: Britain’s decision to leave the EU has been described by the Italian PM Paolo Gentiloni as 'closed nationalism' that belongs in the past, during a summit in Rome, where prime ministers and presidents reaffirm commitment to unity - 29 March 2017: Leaked European parliament resolution and EU response to article 50 takes tough line on transitional deal with the UK
April 2017: 10 April 2017: In a letter to Holyrood signed by 26 MEPs as well as members of national and regional parliaments in Germany, Ireland, Greece, Spain and Belgium, European politicians say that Scotland would be 'most welcome' to rejoin the EU as a full member if it voted for independence - 28 April 2017: Europe could allow a united Ireland to join EU after Brexit
May 2017: 27 May 2017: We need deal with the EU to combat terror, experts tell UK prime minister Theresa May
Since 19 June 2017 Brexit negotiations: Brexit negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union - UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union - EU negotiating directives for Brexit - 20 June 2017: UK caves in to EU demand to agree Brexit divorce bill before trade talks - 23 June 2017: UK plan for EU citizens' rights is vague and inadequate, EU officials say, as May urged by campaign groups to match EU's offer on rights of Britons living in Europe
European Union/United Nations relations: European Union/United Nations relations
2014/2015: 8 April 2014: UN urges full inclusion of Roma people in decision-making in Europe, marking International Romani Day
2015/2016: 12 May 2015: EU urges UN to back its plan to confront the Mediterranean migrant crisis by using military force against smugglers - 27 May: Europe must do more to help migrants crossing the Mediterranean, UN's Ban Ki-moon says ahead of a visit to Brussels, as a planned EU naval operation awaits approval, adding that any approach should also look at the 'roots' of the problem in countries of origin - 17 September 2015: Hungary's treatment of refugees is shocking and unacceptable, UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon says - 17 November 2015: UN blasts Hungary for 'disgusting' demonisation of refugees - 22 November 2015: UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM criticise the newly imposed restrictions in the Balkans, saying that profiling of refugees and migrants on the basis of nationality is creating an increasingly untenable situation
2016: 27/28 February: UN's Ban Ki-moon urges European countries to keep borders open for refugees, as humanitarian challenges mount at Greek/Macedonian border and as refugees continue to pour into the area but Macedonia is refusing to allow them to pass following refusals of other European countries - 8 March 2016: The UN high commissioner for refugees Filippo Grandi questions the legality of an outline deal struck by the EU and Turkey saying he is very concerned that a hasty EU deal with Turkey could leave Syrian refugees unprotected and at risk of being sent back to a war zone
European Union and the International Criminal Court: European Union and the International Criminal Court
European Union/USA relations: European Union/USA relations
2012/2013: 13 December 2012: European Court of Human Rights rules that Khaled el-Masri was an innocent victim of extraordinary rendition, torture and ill-treatment by US CIA-agents - 7 June 2013: Europeans call for answers over US web spying - 8 June 2013: European Union concerned by US surveillance revelations showing the US government organising a huge dragnet of Internet and phone data, tapping servers of nine Internet giants - 30 June: US bugged European Union offices, computer networks, according to cited secret NSA documents calling the EU a 'target' - 30 June: Angry European Union demands answers over alleged US bugging - 2 July 2013: Amid reports that the US did not spare even its allies and friends from its spying operations, USA President Obama responds that all nations spy on each other - 4 July 2013: EU seeks dual talks on US surveillance, free trade deal - 6 septembre: Le secrétaire d'Etat américain John Kerry part pour l'Europe pour vanter auprès de ses homologues de l'UE le projet de frappes contre le régime d'Assad - 24 October: Immigration and US spying to dominate EU summit - 25 October: EU leaders warn USA 'spying' and damaged trust could harm fight against terror - 29 octobre 2013: Les Etats-Unis face à la colère des Européens visés par les opérations d'espionnage de l'administration Obama - 2 November: Europe's spies reportedly work together on mass surveillance - 20 December: GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief
2014/2015: 9 January 2014: NSA and GCHQ activities appear illegal, says EU parliamentary inquiry, demanding end to indiscriminate collection of personal data by British and US agencies - 26 March 2014: EU-USA summit in Brussels - 20 January 2015: Rights group calls on European countries to admit CIA cooperation and to detail their roles in operations involving torture - 23 October 2015: EU appears to have broken a promise to reinforce environmental protections in a leaked draft negotiating text submitted in the latest round of TTIP talks in Miami
TTIP and TiSA: 'Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP' is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the USA - Trade in Services Agreement TiSA is a proposed international trade treaty between 23 Parties, including the EU and the USA
2016: 3 mars 2016: Des ONG portent plainte contre Monsanto et l'Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments pour distorsion d'analyses afin de prouver l'innocuité du pesticide glyphosate - 13 April 2016: Whistleblowers fear prosecution under new European Trade Secrets law - 1 May: Leaked negotiating texts for TTIP deal between Europe and the USA show USA's attempts to lower or circumvent EU protection for environment and public health, Greenpeace says - 20 September: Far-reaching global trade deal 'Trade in Services Agreement Tisa' being negotiated in secret could threaten the goals of the Paris climate deal by making it harder for governments to favour clean energy over fossil fuels, a leak of the latest negotiating text shows
2017: 2 February 2017: European parliament’s main political parties are making an unprecedented attempt to block USA's Trump’s likely choice as ambassador to the European Union from EU buildings, who said 'I helped bring down the Soviet Union', 'so maybe there’s another union that needs a little taming' - 3 February 2017: Arriving at a summit in Malta French president Hollande described recent comments by the USA's Trump as unacceptable and warned there would be no future for Europe’s relations with the USA 'if this future isn’t defined in common' - 3 February: Europeans critizise USA's Trump over his anti-EU rhetoric, accusing him of a lack of respect, as Theresa May’s attempts to position herself as a bridge with the new USA president were roundly rejected at a summit in Malta
Transatlantic relations and Nato: Transatlantic relations - North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
2013: 2 September 2013: NATO's secretary-general Rasmussen claimed he had seen evidence convincing him Assad regime was behind the deadly chemical weapons attack near Damascus and said it would send a dangerous signal to dictators if the world did not respond firmly
2014: 2 March 2014: NATO meets on Ukraine, says Russia risks destabilizing Europe - 15 March: NATO's Anders Fogh Rasmussen says a planned referendum in Ukraine's Crimea region would violate international law - 16 March: Hackers calling itself 'cyber berkut' in Russian rather than Ukrainian brought down several public NATO websites with cyber-attacks on Saturday - 29 March: Norway's Stoltenberg to become next NATO chief - 1 April: NATO to bolster its military presence in eastern Europe as it sees no sign that Putin regime is withdrawing tens of thousands of troops from the Ukrainian border - 2 April: NATO suspends cooperation with Russia over its annexation of Crimea and will draft measures to strengthen its defences and reassure Eastern European countries - 8 April: NATO's chief warned Russian regime that it would be committing a historic mistake if it intervened further in Ukraine, urging it to step back after pro-Kremlin militants seized government buildings in several cities in the east - 10 April: As Russian military amassing near Ukraine border are 'ready to go,' NATO's Europe commander says USA troops may be sent to alliance member states in Eastern Europe now feeling at risk - 11 April: NATO satellite photos show Russian military build-up near Ukraine - 15 May: Russia has not taken one single step to fulfill its Geneva commitments of April 17, NATO's Rasmussen says - 24 July: NATO continues to see evidence of weapons being moved into Ukraine from Russia since the downing of Malaysian MH17 airliner - 8 August: NATO ready to help Ukraine reform defense - 20/21 September: NATO's General Breedlove hopeful about Saturday's announced agreement saying that Ukraine ceasefire is 'in name only' and Russian forces still operating in Ukraine - 24 September: Situation in Ukraine will be a priority for new NATO secretary general Stoltenberg in October - 30 September: Over half of Ukrainians see Ukraine in NATO, poll says - 1/2 October 2014: Taking up office as NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says that NATO wishes to achieve a constructive relationship with Russia but that the prerequisites for such a relationship are currently not present, adding that the crisis in Ukraine, caused by Russia’s military intervention, is a major challenge to Euro-Atlantic security and that Russia remains in breach of international law - 30 October: Nato jets intercept Russian warplanes following 'unusual level of air activity' over Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Black Sea - 2 December: NATO, Ukraine concerned about build-up of Russia's military presence in Black Sea - 3 December: NATO steps up actions to deal with Ukraine crisis, announcing the establishment of an interim spearhead force
2015: 22 January 2015: NATO confirms Russian troops shift to Ukraine - 5 February: Russian-backed separatists trying to occupy new territories in Donbas, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg says - 7 February: Nato's Philip Breedlove not ruling out delivery of weapons and military equipment by member states to Ukraine - 20 February: Ceasefire in Ukraine observed 'in name only' and Russian regime has created a formidable army in eastern Ukraine, says Nato's Philip Breedlove, as leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia speak on the phone once again and discuss the crumbling ceasefire once more - 9 March: Nato's Philip Breedlove warns that Russian army is still in Ukraine despite Minsk peace deal - 21 March: NATO ready to consider Ukraine's bid for membership, if Ukraine decides to submit it - 24 April: No third party has the right to interfere in a decision for membership, Nato says, repeating that it is ready to consider Ukraine's bid - 23 June: USA pledges support for NATO rapid response force to protect Europe - 23 November: Today Inter-Parliamentary Council Ukraine-NATO will discuss the escalation of the security situation in Ukraine, as well as challenges created by Russia by its hybrid warfare technology faced by NATO Member States and its partner countries, and will consider further political and practical support to counter Russian aggression in Ukraine - 1 December 2015: NATO invites Montenegro to join security alliance
2016: 31 May 2016: Defence spending by Europe's NATO states reportedly set to rise for the first time in nearly a decade, figures show, as fears over Russian aggression and the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean stoke anxiety over security across the continent - 22 June 2016: Nato's Jens Stoltenberg says UK staying in the EU is key to fighting terrorism
2017: 25 May 2017: Video shows Montenegro PM at Nato photocall in the new headquarters in Brussels pushed aside by USA's Trump




Albania - Geography of Albania - History of Albania - Battle of Kosovo 1389 - Albanian resistance during World War II - People's Socialist Republic of Albania 1944-1992 - History of post-Communist Albania - Demographics of Albania
Economy of Albania: Economy of Albania - main industries are perfumes and cosmetic products, food and tobacco products, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower - Companies of Albania by industry
List of oil and gas fields in Albania - Patos-Marinza Oil Field
Mines in Albania
Agriculture in Albania: Agriculture in Albania - main agricultural products are tobacco, figs, olives, wheat, maize, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, honey, dairy products, and traditional medicine plants
Infrastructure in Albania: Infrastructure in Albania - Energy in Albania - Transport in Albania
Tourism in Albania: Tourism in Albania - Visitor attractions in Albania - World Heritage Sites in Albania
Taxation in Albania: Taxation in Albania
Politics of Albania: Politics of Albania - Constitution of Albania 1998
Political parties and trade unions in Albania: Political parties in Albania - Socialist Party of Albania - Socialist Movement for Integration - Trade unions in Albania
Elections, government and politics in Albania: Elections in Albania
June 2013 Albanian parliamentary election: Albanian parliamentary election 23 June 2013 - 23 June 2013: After shooting in the northwestern Lac region, in which an opposition activist was killed and a Democrat candidate wounded, the main opposition PS and the ruling coalition claim victory in the deeply polarised country - 26 June: Rama's left-of-centre coalition captured 84 seats in the 140-member parliament to 56 for Democratic party's coalition
December 2013: 29 December 2013: The Albanian parliament adopted 2014 budget of 3.25 billion euros, with a public deficit estimated at 6.6% of GDP
June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election: 25 June 2017 Albanian parliamentary election - 25 June 2017: Albania’s Socialist Party looked set to win Sunday’s parliamentary vote, an exit poll showed, which would give the ruling party a mandate to push judicial reforms vital for membership of the EU
Social movements and protests in Albania: Protests in Albania
2011: 2011 Albanian opposition demonstrations
2015: 18 December 2015: Thousands of opposition protesters have gathered in front of Albania's parliament demanding the resignation of the government as rampant corruption allegedly driving Albanians to seek asylum in Western Europe
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Albania: Albanian society
Demographics and ethnic groups in Albania: Demographics of Albania - Ethnic groups in Albania
Albanians: Albanians
Aromanians in Albania: Aromanians, Latin ethnic group native to the southern Balkans
Greeks in Albania: Greeks in Albania
Jews in Albania: History of the Jews in Albania dates back about 2,000 years - The Holocaust in Albania consisted of murders, deportations and crimes against humanity committed against Jews, Slavs, Roma and other minorities in Albania by German, Italian and Albanian collaborationist forces while the country was under Italian and German occupation during World War II
Romani people in Albania: Romani people in Albania
Serb minority in Albania: Serb minority in Albania
Human rights and freedom of religion in Albania: Human rights in Albania - Freedom of religion in Albania
Languages and culture of Albania: Culture of Albania - Languages of Albania
Education in Albania: Education in Albania
Health in Albania: Health in Albania
Albanian media: Albanian media
Crime in Albania: Crime in Albania
Corruption in Albania: Corruption in Albania - Political scandals of Albania
Organised crime in Albania: Organised crime in Albania
Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997: Gangs in the Albanian civil war of 1997
List of massacres in Albania since 1943: List of massacres in Albania since 1943 - 9 July 1943 Massacre of Borovë
Albanian law: Albanian law - Constitution of Albania - Legal history of Albania
Judiciary of Albania: Judiciary of Albania
Courts in Albania
Law enforcement in Albania: Law enforcement in Albania
Foreign relations of Albania: Foreign relations of Albania
Treaties of Albania: Treaties of Albania
Albania/Bulgaria relations: Albania/Bulgaria relations
Albania/PR of China relations: Albania/PR of China relations - Albania in the Chinese Sphere 1958-1978 - Sino-Albanian split 1978
Albania/EU relations: Albanian EU accession bid 2009
Albania/Germany relations: Albania/Germany relations - Albania during World War I 1914-1918 - Principality of Albania 1914-1917, 1920-1925 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Italy relations: Albania/Italy relations - Italian protectorate over Albania 1917–1920 - Italian invasion of Albania 1939 - Albania under Italy and Nazi Germany 1939-1944 - National Liberation Movement in World War II - Albanian resistance during World War II
Albania/Kosovo relations: Albania/Kosovo relations
Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations: Albania/Republic of Macedonia relations - Demographic history of Macedonia and Albania - Ideology of 'Greater Albania' - Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 2001 - 2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence - Smilkovci lake killings 2012
Albania/Serbia relations: Albania/Serbia relations
Albania/Turkey relations: Albania/Turkey relations - Albanian Declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire on 28 November 1912
Albania/USA relations: Albania/USA relations
Environment of Albania: Environment of Albania - Climate of Albania - Biodiversity of Albania
Environmental issues in Albania: Environmental issues in Albania, includung air and water pollution, waste and deforestation
Conservation in Albania: Conservation in Albania - Protected areas of Albania - Institute for Environmental Policy in Albania
Water in Albania: Water in Albania - Rivers of Albania
Natural disasters in Albania: Natural disasters in Albania
Floods in Albania: Floods in Albania
2009–2010 Albania floods: 2009–2010 Albania floods refer to several periods of major flooding in the northern regions of Albania around Shkodra, Lezhë and Durrës


Austria - Geography of Austria - History of Austria - Demographics of Austria
Economy of Austria: Economy of Austria - main industries include construction, machinery, metals, vehicles and parts, food, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, chemicals, tourism - List of companies of Austria
Mining in Austria: Mining in Austria
Energy in Austria: Energy in Austria
Fossil fuels in Austria: Fossil fuels in Austria - Petroleum in Austria - Oil and gas companies of Austria
Electricity in Austria: Electricity in Austria, in 2010 28.5% came from fossil fuels, 68.6% from hydropower and the remainder from other sources
Hydroelectric power stations in Austria: Hydroelectric power stations in Austria
Solar and wind power in Austria: Solar power in Austria - Wind power in Austria
Agriculture in Austria: Agriculture in Austria, agricultural and forestry output is heavily concentrated in field crops, meat, and dairy products, with most of it coming from animal husbandry
Water in Austria: Water in Austria
Rivers and lakes of Austria: Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - List of lakes of Austria - List of dams and reservoirs in Austria
Danube: Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe
Water transport in Austria: Water transport in Austria
Tourism in Austria: Tourism in Austria - Tourist attractions in Austria - Austria–Slovenia border
Banking in Austria: Banking in Austria - Banks of Austria - Hypo Group Alpe Adria - bank scandal - 14 December 2009: Austria nationalises ailing Hypo Group Alpe Adria
8. April 2013: Nach Luxemburg beginnt auch in Österreich das Bankgeheimnis zu bröckeln
Taxation in Austria: Taxation in Austria
Politics of Austria: Politics of Austria - Political parties in Austria - Trade unions in Austria
Elections and politics in Austria: Elections in Austria
2008: 28 September 2008 Austrian legislative election
2010: 25 April 2010 Austrian presidential election - 10 October 2010 Viennese state election
2013: 3 March 2013 Carinthian state election - 3 mars 2013: En Carinthie les différents instituts de sondages donnent autour de 32% (contre 28,8% en 2009) au candidat social-démocrate Peter Kaiser contre seulement autour de 21% au gouverneur sortant de l'Etat régional - Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 2013
September 2013 Austrian legislative election: 29 September 2013 Austrian legislative election - 29 septembre: Ouverture des bureaux de vote pour 6,4 millions d'électeurs qui doivent renouveler les 183 députés de leur Conseil national - 29 septembre: La coalition sortante des sociaux-démocrates et conservateurs remporte la majorité absolue, forte poussée de l'extrême droite
2014 European Parliament election: Austria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015 Styrian and Vienna election: 31 May 2015 Styrian state election, Social Democrats win Styrian state election, securing 29.29% of the vote despite Freedom party gains - 11 October 2015: Social Democrats win Vienna election, securing 39.5% of Sunday’s vote, ahead of the Freedom party on 31%
24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election: 24 April 2016 Austrian presidential election - 25 April 2016: Far-right and anti-immigration 'Freedom' party's Norbert Hofer takes 36% of the vote as candidates from the two governing parties fail to make runoff
April 2016: 28 April 2016: Austrian MPs to bring in some of Europe’s most stringent asylum legislation, days after a far-right politician won the first round of the country’s presidential elections
May 2016: 9 May 2016: Faymann quits as Austrian chancellor - 21 May 2016: Far-right Austrian presidential candidate Hofer accused of lying over Jerusalem terror incident
22 May Austrian presidential election second round - 23 mai 2016: Alexander Van der Bellen, former Green party leader, elected president in Austria in narrow defeat for far right
July 2016: 1 juillet 2016: Après un coup de théâtre sans précédent de l'invalidation du résultat de l'élection présidentielle par la Cour constitutionnelle les Autrichiens vont retourner aux urnes pour élire un président
December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election: 4 December 2016 new second round of Austrian presidential election - 5 December 2016: Austria’s voters have resoundingly rejected anti-immigration and eurosceptic Hofer’s bid to become EU’s first far-right president, instead electing former leader of the Green party Van der Bellen who said he would be an 'open-minded, liberal-minded and above all a pro-European president', a result greeted with relief
January 2017: 30. Januar 2017: SPÖ und ÖVP stimmen neuem Regierungspakt zu
October 2017 Austrian legislative election: 15 October 2017 Austrian legislative election - 16 October 2017: Stoking concerns about a record influx of migrants into Europe following the failure of the international community to tackle crises in the Middle East and Africa, Austria's 'People’s Party' got 31.4% of the vote, the 'Freedom Party' came in second with 27.4% and the 'Social Democratic Party of Austria', which now governs in coalition with 'People’s Party', got 26.7% - 24 October 2017: Austria’s Sebastian Kurz on Tuesday agreed to hold coalition talks with the FPÖ, potentially rekindling an alliance previously dubbed a 'pact with the devil' by the media
Social movements, criticism and protests: Protests in Austria
2009: 2009 student protests in Austria
2013: 2 February 2013: Nine protesters have been arrested for civil disorder in demonstrations against a right-wing ball in Vienna's imperial Hofburg Palace - 20 April 2013: Austrians disagree with their government over the need to maintain the country's banking secrecy, according to polls which showed a majority in favour of lifting the controversial measure
2015: 31 January 2015: Austrian police hold 38 people as thousands protest outside controversial palace ball in Vienna
September 2015: 1 September 2015: About 20,000 people took to the streets of Vienna on the eve of 1 September to demonstrate against ill-treatment of refugees, after the bodies of 71 people were found on Austria’s A4 motorway in an abandoned truck last week and as the European refugee and migrant crisis escalates - 1 September 2015: Along with several hundred citizens wanting to pay respect to refugees, Vienna and Austrian officials hold memorial for 71 refugees found dead in an abandoned lorry
2016: 1 May 2016: Around 80,000 people on May Day in Vienna greeted SPÖ's Faymann with loud boos and calls to step down, following the ruling coalition’s handling of the refugee and migrant crisis, rising unemployment and disastrous defeat in presidential ballot
Austrian society, demographics, culture and human rights: Austrian society - Human rights in Austria - Legal history of Austria
Demographics of Austria: Demographics of Austria - Austrians - Ethnic groups in Austria - Ethnic groups in Vienna
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria begins with exodus of Jews from Palestine under Roman occupation - History of the Jews in Vienna - History of the Jews in Salzburg
Romani people in Austria: Romani people in Austria
Arabs in Austria: Arabs in Austria, the people from Arab countries, particularly Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Territories, Iraq, Jordan
Filipinos in Austria: Filipinos in Austria
Hungarians in Austria: Hungarians in Austria
Serbs in Austria: Serbs in Austria
Turks in Austria: Turks in Austria
Immigration and refugees in Austria: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
2014-2016: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Since 2015 Austrian border barrier: Austrian border barrier is a border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia, as a 'response' to the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 15 mai 2015: La Croix-Rouge a vivement critiqué la création de camps de tentes pour les demandeurs d'asile en Autriche, annoncé par le gouvernement - 28 August 2015: More than 70 migrants were found dead in an abandoned lorry on Austria’s A4 motorway between Neusiedl and Parndorf, registered to a Romanian citizen from the Hungarian city of Kecskemét - 29 August 2015: Three young children are recovering in hospital in Braunau from severe dehydration after police in Austria stopped a truck with 26 refugees and migrants from Syria, Afghanistan and Bangladesh inside - 31 August: Austria toughens border controls in trafficking clampdown - 1 September 2015: Hundreds of refugees arrive from Hungary in Vienna and ran towards the next trains heading for Germany - 5 September: A first bus carrying refugees who have been stranded in the Hungarian capital reached the Austrian border early Saturday, after Austria and Germany agreed to take in refugees - 5 September: Austrians greet thousands off Hungarian buses - 7 September: As Thousands of refugees arrive by foot, buses, and trains to Vienna, Austrians offer food and water to arriving refugees - 10 September: Thousands more migrants stream into Austria from Hungary - 20 September 2015: Around 13,000 people entered Austria on Saturday, according to the Red Cross, after being shunted through Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia and forced away from these EU members - 23 October: As thousands more refugees and migrants have crossed from Slovenia to Austria, travelling for days from the Serbian border with Croatia, Austrian officials ask EU for more assistance to tackle refugee crisis
2016: 18 February 2016: Austria's announcement to limit the number of refugees allowed to enter its territory receives a sharp rebuke from the European commission which branded the move 'plainly incompatible' with international law
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy
Culture and languages of Austria: Culture of Austria - Languages of Austria - Austrian German - Vienna culture
Music in Austria: Music in Austria
Viennese classical period of music: Viennese classical period of music in the 18th and 19th century - Musical development - 1732-1809 Joseph Haydn, born in Rohrau - 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born in Salzburg - 1770-1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, born in Bonn - 1797-1828 Franz Schubert, born in Vienna
Education in Austria: Education in Austria
Healthcare in Austria: Healthcare in Austria
Media of Austria: Media of Austria - Newspapers in Austria
Internet in Austria: Internet in Austria
Crime in Austria: Crime in Austria
Austrian National Socialism: Austrian National Socialism, formed at the beginning of the 20th century taking a concrete form on 15 November 1903 when the German Worker's Party DAP was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic, its political organization DNSAP banned in early 1933 revived and made part of the German NSDAP after the German annexation of Austria in 1938
Antisemitism in Austria: Antisemitism in Austria - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria - März 1945 Massaker von Rechnitz - 13 July 2017: 'My aunt had a dinner party, and then she took her guests to kill 180 Jews' in March 1945, journalist Sacha Batthyany reveals more than 60 years later
Antisemitism and Neo-Nazism in contemporary Austria: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria - Neo-Nazism in Austria
2015: 11 February 2015: Call to kill Jews is legal criticism of Israel, Austrian prosecutor says - 4 April 2015: Anti-Israel protesters call 'Kill the Jews' in Vienna as Bosnian soccer fans join pro-Palestinian rally
2016: 20 octobre 2016: Un policier autrichien a été condamné à neuf mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir crié 'Heil Hitler' à un automobiliste lors d'un contrôle routier
Corruption in Austria: 10 December 2010: Rampant corruption in Austria - 14 June 2013: Vienna prosecutors this week charged nine people, including the deputy governor of the Austrian National Bank, over suspected bribes and kickbacks for banknote contracts with Azerbaijan and Syria - 14. September 2013: Haftstrafen für verdeckte Parteienfinanzierung der Telekom Austria in der Höhe von 960.000 Euro an das von Haider gegründete 'Bündnis Zukunft Österreich' im Herbst 2006
Human trafficking in Austria: Human trafficking in Austria
Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria: Roman Catholic Church sex abuse cases in Austria - Sexual abuse scandal in Vienna archdiocese
Political scandals in Austria: Political scandals in Austria
2011 cash for influence scandal - 9 August 2012: Former Austrian interior minister and Euro MP, Ernst Strasser, has been charged in Vienna with corruption
Law and legal history of Austria: Austrian law - Legal history of Austria - Constitutional history of Austria - Constitution of Austria - Federal Constitutional Law is the centerpiece of the constitution of the Republic of Austria
Courts in Austria: Courts in Austria
Law enforcement in Austria: Law enforcement in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria: Foreign relations of Austria
Wars involving Austria and military history of Austria: Wars involving the Habsburg Monarchy - Wars involving Austria - Military history of Austria
Treaties of Austria: Treaties of Austria - United Nations Charter and since 1955 Austrian membership - Treaties entered into by the European Union
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government - 26 October 1955 Austria's Declaration of Neutrality - the Soviet Union would not have agreed to the State Treaty if Austria had not committed itself to declare its neutrality
Austia's membership in international organisations: Austia's membership in international organisations
Austria/United Nations relations: Austria/United Nations relations
1972-1981: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general
Austria/European Union relations: Austria/European Union relations - Euroscepticism in Austria
1994 EU membership referendum: 1994 Austrian European Union membership referendum
Immigration to Austria and border barrier: Immigration to Austria - Immigrants to Austria
Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - Austrian border barrier
Bilateral relations of Austria: Bilateral relations of Austria
Austria/Belgium relations: Austria/Belgium relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Austria/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations:
1878-1914: Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 - Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878-1918 - Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 - Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Since 1908 Austro-Hungarian 'Schutzkorps' militia's persecution of Serbs the first large-scale persecution of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina because of their ethnicity
1914-1918: 28 June 1914 Assassination in Sarajevo - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo - July Crisis 1914 - Austria-Hungary's Serbian Campaign (World War I) 28 July 1914 – 3 November 1918 - World War I 1914-1918 - World War I casualties
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Brazil relations: Austria/Brazil relations
Since 1940, 1951-1967 Austrian protection of Nazi war criminal Stangl: 1 July 2017: Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka, since 1940 superintendent of the T-4 Euthansia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim, commandant of Sobibor from March 1942 until September 1942, when he was transferred to Treblinka, always dressed in white riding clothes, since 1951 in Brazil where he was given an engineering job, since 1959 working at a Volkswagen AG factory, for years his responsibility in the mass murder of men, women and children had been known to the Austrian authorities, but Austria did not issue a warrant for Stangl’s arrest until 1961, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested in Brazil
Austria/Czech Republic relations: Austria/Czech Republic relations - Austrian Empire
Austria/France relations: Austria/France relations
1792-1797 War of the First Coalition against the French Revolution: 1792-1797 War of the First Coalition, the wars that several European powers fought against the French First Republic founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
1955 Austrian State Treaty: Austrian State Treaty signed on 15 May 1955 by France, the United Kingdom, the USA, the Soviet Union and the Austrian government
Austria/Germany relations: Austria/Germany relations - History of the Holy Roman Empire 962–1806 - Military history of the Holy Roman Empire - Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 - Military history of Austria
1914-1945: July Crisis 1914 - 5/6 July 1914 Hoyos Mission and 'Blank cheque' in Berlin - World War I 1914-1918 - German occupation 1938: "Anschluss" - The Holocaust in Austria during World War II - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2012-2013: 12 October 2012: Vienna will erect first monument to remember the thousands of people executed by the Nazis for deserting or refusing to serve in the military during World War II - 10 mars 2013: Des historiens exhument le passé nazi de l'orchestre philharmonique de Vienne - 12 mai 2013: Plus de 10.000 personnes venues de plus de 50 pays ont commémoré dimanche le 68e anniversaire de la libération du camp de concentration nazi de Mauthausen
2014: 24. Oktober 2014: Denkmal für die Verfolgten der NS-Militärjustiz als zentrale österreichische Gedenkstätte für Deserteure des NS-Regimes am Wiener Ballhausplatz von Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer der Öffentlichkeit übergeben
2015: 5. Mai 2015: Nach Berichten, daß der BND dem USA-Geheimdienst NSA beim Ausspionieren österreichischer Behörden geholfen habe, erstattet Österreich Strafanzeige
Austria/Hungary relations: Austria/Hungary relations - Hungarians in Austria - History of the Hungarians in Vienna
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary 1867-1918
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918
Austria/Israel relations: Austria/Israel relations
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria
1938-1945: The Holocaust in Austria - Nazi concentration camps in Austria
2014: 24 July 2014: Israeli footballers assaulted by pro-Palestinians during match in Bischofshofen
Austria/Italy relations: Austria/Italy relations
1848/1849 First Italian War of Independence and first aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice: First Italian War of Independence 1848-1849 following Revolution of 1848 in the Italian states - Republic of San Marco 1848-1849 reconquered by Austrian troops following a long siege and an Austrian bombardment 1849 - 1849 First aerial bombing of cities by the Austrians against Venice
1914-1918 World War I: Austria-Hungary's and Germany's campaign against Italy in World War I 1914-1918 - Deutscher Giftgaseinsatz und Massenmord an Italiern entschied im Herbst 1917 die Schlacht bei Kobarid (19. Mai 1998)
2016: 2 avril 2016: L'Autriche envoie l'armée à la frontière italienne contre un afflux de migrants et de réfugiés cherchant à gagner le nord de l'Europe - 27 April 2016: Austria plans Italian border fence to control refugee and migrant flow, as Italy says Brenner Pass restrictions would be illogical and against EU rules
2017: 4 July 2017: Austrian troops to stop refugees and migrants crossing border with Italy, as Brussels urged Europe to help Italian authorities manage an 'unprecedented' arrival of people from north Africa
Austria/Poland relations: Austria/Poland relations - Partitions of Poland conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria
Austria/Serbia relations: Austria/Serbia relations - Serbs in Austria
July 1914: 23 July 1914: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia - July 1914 preparations for the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, content and Serbian response - 28/29 July 1914: Austria has declared war upon Serbia and Austro-Hungarian troops reportedly invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz
1914-1918: 1914-1918 Serbian Campaign (World War I)
2014-2018: First World War centenary 2014-2018 - 28/29 June 2014: Sarajevo marks 100 years since Franz Ferdinand was assassinated following Austro-Hungarian annexation, as divisions still run deep
Austria/Slovenia relations: Austria/Slovenia relations
Austria-Slovenia border: Austria–Slovenia border - Austrian border barrier constructed between November 2015 and January 2016 by Austria on its border with Slovenia against refugees from Syrian and some other countries in the international and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 4 November 2015: Austria has put up barbed wire at a border crossing with Slovenia used by hundreds of refugees and migrants despite chancellor's pledge
Austria/Switzerland relations: Austria/Switzerland relations - Duchy of Austria 1156–1453 - House of Habsburg originally from Aargau - Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1516 - Swiss Confederacy, reformation, Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 and recognition of independence of Switzerland from the 'Holy Roman Empire' - The Congress of Vienna 1814/1815 re-established Swiss independence, European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality - During both World War I 1914-1918 and World War II 1939-1945 Switzerland's 'neutrality' allowed the growth of the Swiss banking industry
Austria/Syria relations: Austria/Syria relations
2016: 15 January 2015: The Syrian community in Austria calls on the Austrian Government to cut off economic relations with the Assad regime and to expel its ambassador to Vienna
Austria/Turkey relations: Austria/Turkey relations - Turks in Austria
1529: 1529 Siege of Vienna, first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna
1683: Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months
1683-1699: Great Turkish War 1683-1699 between the Ottoman Empire and several contemporary European powers joined into 'Holy League'
1787–1791: Austro-Turkish War 1787–1791 - Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
1914-1918: Austrian and Ottoman empires allies during the First World War
2017: 5. März 2017: Bundeskanzler Christian Kern hat sich für ein EU-weites Verbot von Wahlkampfauftritten türkischer Politiker ausgesprochen und wirft Erdogans Regime vor, 'Menschenrechte und demokratische Grundrechte mit Füßen' zu treten
Austria/Ukraine relations: Austria/Ukraine relations - Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918 - a big portion of West Ukraine (Galicia and Carpathia) were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today consisting of Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast
1914-1918: World War I 1914-1918 - during the war Ukraine was occupied by the Central powers military force including the Austrian military that drove Bolsheviks out of the country
1918: Februar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine–Central Powers
2015: 1 May 2015: An Austrian court refuses to extradite Ukrainian tycoon in gas trading and chemicals Dmytro Firtash to the USA over corruption charges, indicted in 2013 along with a member of India's parliament and four others
Austria/United Kingdom relations: Austria/United Kingdom relations
Environment of Austria: Environment of Austria - Natural history of Austria
Protected areas of Austria: Protected areas of Austria
Environmental issues in Austria: Environmental issues in Austria, including waste disposal, pollution, noise, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels, as well as emissions by the iron, steel, and ceramics industries
Water in Austria: Water in Austria - Rivers of Austria - List of rivers of Austria by draining - Danube, Europe's second-longest river and located in Central and Eastern Europe - List of lakes of Austria
Natural disasters in Austria: Natural disasters in Austria
Floods in Austria: Floods in Austria
June 2009 European floods: June 2009 European floods
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods
Avalanches in Austria: Avalanches in Austria


Belarus - Geography of Belarus - History of Belarus - Demographics of Belarus
Economy of Belarus: Economy of Belarus - main industries include petrochemicals, potash, foodstuffs, timber, metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, textiles, radios, refrigerators - List of companies of Belarus - Companies of Belarus by industry ?risis of 2011 - 4. Juni 2011: Putin hilft Lukaschenko mit 3 Mrd. $ - 5. August: Weißrussischer Staatsbetrieb 'Belaruskali' erhält 2 Mrd. Dollar Kredit von 'Deutscher Bank' und russischer 'Sberbank'
Energy in Belarus: Energy in Belarus
2016: 9 August 2016: 30 years after world’s worst nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Belarus, which saw a quarter of its territory contaminated in the disaster, is building its first energy plant powered by the atom, as neighbouring countries denounce 'Soviet-style secrecy’ over accidents during energy site’s construction
Agriculture in Belarus: Agriculture in Belarus - products include grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax, beef, milk
Banking in Belarus: Banking in Belarus
Politics of Belarus: Politics of Belarus - Presidential election 2010
2012: Parliamentary election 23 September 2012 - 23 September: Belarus is holding parliamentary elections without the country's main opposition parties, after a boycott was called on the grounds of election irregularities and illegal detentions - 24. September 2012: Nach 'Parlamentswahl' Opposition voraussichtlich ohne Mandat - 24 September: Western observers of parliamentary election say the election was 'not competitive from the start'
2015: 16 April 2015: Belarus imposes ‘social parasite’ law to fine unemployed, now facing an unemployment tax from the government - 29 August 2015: Belarusian opposition call on their supporters to boycott October's presidential poll, saying it has already been rigged - 24 September: At a rally in the Belarusian capital Minsk opposition leader Statkevich calls for presidential election boycott since opposition figures were barred from running
October 2015 Belarusian presidential election: 11 October 2015 Belarusian presidential election - 12 October: Lukashenko wins fifth term - 13 October: Belarusian presidential election fell short of democratic standards, international monitors say
September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election: 11 September 2016 Belarusian parliamentary election - 12 September 2016: Anna Konopatskaya of the United Civil Party became the first opposition parliamentarian in Belarus in 20 years
Social movements and protests in Belarus: Belarusian democracy movement
2010: December 2010 election crackdown
2011/2012: 2011 Belarusian protests - 14. Mai 2011: Andrej Sannikow zu 5 Jahren Straflager verurteilt - 20. Mai: Weitere Haftstrafen für Opposition - EU-Sanktionen? - 30. Juni 2011: Erneut Festnahmen von zahlreichen Demonstranten und Reportern - 3 July 2011: Violence and arrests in a crackdown on anti-government protests - 7. Juli 2011: Wieder Festnahmen bei Protesten in Minsk und anderen Städten - 13. Juli 2011: Polizei in Minsk prügelt Demonstranten - 20. Juli 2011: Klatschen gegen das Regime in Weißrußland - 8. Oktober 2011: Angesichts der Wirtschaftskrise fordern Demonstranten Neuwahlen von Präsident und Parlament - 13 March 2012: Belarus added to web censorship blacklist - 25. März 2012: Tausende bei regierungskritischer Kundgebung - Freilassung politischer Gefangener und demokratische Reformen gefordert - 23. Juni 2012: Der Journalist Andrzej Poczobut wegen angeblicher Präsidentenbeleidigung verhaftet
2015: 11 October 2015: Hundreds of opposition protesters marched in the capital Minsk on the eve of a presidential election, as opposition leaders say Belarusian presidential election is a sham
2016: 12 September 2016: Several hundred people have gathered in Minsk in protest of the parliamentary elections on Sunday, saying new vote must be held and demanding that the resignation of Lukashenko
2017: Since February 2017 Belarusian protests - 17 March 2017: 'Basta' and 'we are not slaves', these are the most popular slogans brandished at the Belarusian protests, which have seen thousands take to the streets and more than 100 people detained in a government crackdown - 23 March 2017: Human rights organisations have called on Belarusian authorities to drop all charges immediately against writers, publishers and journalists who have been arrested following a wave of nationwide protests, demanding the cancellation of the newly introduced Presidential Decree No. 3, which imposes a tax on the unemployed
Society, demographics, languages, culture and human rights in Belarus: Belarusian society
Human rights in Belarus: Human rights in Belarus - Government-sponsored hostage-taking in Belarus - Persecution of political dissidents, Extrajudicial use of judiciary, Harassment and censorship of independent media, Authorities interfere in trade-union elections and independent trade-union leaders have been dismissed from their positions, Antisemitism in Belarus
2013: 29 November 2016: As Belarus remains highly repressive, with the authorities suppressing virtually all dissent and severely impeding freedoms of association and assembly, the EU has good reason to maintain its sanctions and press for an end to abuses, Human Rights Watch says
2016: 12 October 2016: Belarus resumes executions after EU sanctions dropped, as human rights report details abuse used to extract confessions in only European country to use death penalty
Demographics and ethnic groups in Belarus: Demographics of Belarus - Ethnic groups in Belarus
Languages and culture of Belarus: Culture of Belarus - Languages of Belarus - Belarusian language
Education in Belarus: Education in Belarus
Healthcare in Belarus: Healthcare in Belarus
Belarusian media: Belarusian media - Newspapers in Belarus
2010: Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 154th in 'Press Freedom Index 2010'
2015: 9 October 2015: Journalists in Belarus face fines and arrest as they attempt to provide an alternative to pro-Lukashenko state channels
Internet in Belarus: Internet in Belarus
Censorship in Belarus: Censorship in Belarus
Crime in Belarus: Crime in Belarus
Corruption in Belarus: Corruption in Belarus
Human trafficking in Belarus: Human trafficking in Belarus
Law and legal history of Belarus: Belarusian law - Legal history of Belarus - Constitution of 3 May 1791 - 20th century Constitutions of Belarus - Amendments of the Constitution of Belarus and 1996 and 2004 Belarusian referendums
Courts and Supreme Court of Belarus: Court System of Belarus - Supreme Court of Belarus
2017: 27 August 2017: Belarus court clears way for luxury apartments to be built on top of Jewish cemeteries
Law enforcement in Belarus: Law enforcement in Belarus
Foreign relations of Belarus: Foreign relations of Belarus
Treaties of Belarus: Treaties of Belarus
Belarusian membership in international organisations: Belarusian membership in international organisations
2012: 6. Juli 2012: UN-Menschenrechtsrat ernennt Sonderberichterstatter zur Prüfung der Menschenrechtslage in Weissrussland
Bilateral relations of Belarus: Bilateral relations of Belarus
Belarus/European Union relations: Belarus/European Union relations - 11 August 2012: EU backs Sweden in Belarus row - 17 October 2013: EU helping prop up Belarus president Lukashenko, says opposition, calling for broader sanctions from Brussels
Belarus/Germany relations: Belarus/Germany relations - Belarus in World War II - Military history of Belarus during World War II - Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany - Nazi war crimes in Belarus - The Holocaust in Belarus - Minsk Ghetto - Maly Trostenets extermination camp
Belarusian resistance during World War II
2012: 24. August 2012: Von 2008-2011 Schulung von Polizei und Miliz des Innenministeriums Weißrußlands in Deutschland für Einsätze gegen Demonstranten, sog. 'Rädelsführer' etc., auf Veranlassung der Regierung Merkel
Belarus/Lithuania relations: Belarus/Lithuania relations
Belarus/Russia relations: Belarus/Russia relations - Yamal–Europe pipeline - 2004 Russia–Belarus gas dispute - 2007 Russia–Belarus energy dispute - 2009 Russian ban of Belarusian dairy products
2015: 19 April 2015: Belarus' Lukashenko refuses to attend Victory Day Parade in Mocow on May 9 as Chinese regime's Xi Jinping and North Korea's dictator Kim Jong Un are the most high-profile leaders to attend - 7 October 2015: Belarus doesn't want to host a Russian military air base, Lukashenko says following protests against his rule and reported Russian plans to beef up military presence
Belarus/Sweden relations: Belarus/Sweden relations - 3. August 2012: Weissrussland verweist den schwedischen Botschafter, der sich mit Oppositionspolitikern getroffen haben soll, des Landes - 8 October 2015: Svetlana Alexievich wins 2015 Nobel prize in literature
Belarus/Syria relations: Belarus/Syria relations
2017: 15 September 2017: Belarus seen quietly helping Assad boost missile program, as analyst Ronen Solomon links Belarusian regime to Syrian Assad regime's military facility allegedly bombed by Israel this month
Belarus/Ukraine relations: Belarus/Ukraine relations - Belarus–Ukraine border - 1991 Belavezha Accords
2016: 26 August 2016: Independence of Ukraine and Belarus is only way to develop bilateral relations, Belarus FM during the opening ceremony of a residential complex of the Belarusian Embassy to Ukraine
Environment of Belarus: Environment of Belarus
Protected areas of Belarus: Protected areas of Belarus - Forests of Belarus
Environmental issues in Belarus: Environmental concerns and current issues in Belarus
Since 1986 legacy of Chernobyl Disaster: Since 1986 legacy of pollution the Chernobyl Disaster
Water in Belarus: Water in Belarus


Belgium - Belgique - Geography of Belgium - History of Belgium - Demographics of Belgium
Economy of Belgium: Economy of Belgium - main industries include engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum - Companies of Belgium - Companies of Belgium by industry
Energy in Belgium: Energy in Belgium
2016: 3 January 2016: Belgian ageing nuclear reactor Doel 1 shut down on Saturday again, just three days after it was restarted
Banking and Financial Services and Markets Authority of Belgium: Financial Services and Markets Authority - Banks in Belgium
2011/2012: 10 October 2011: Belgian government will take full control of the Belgian arm of Franco-Belgian Dexia bank - 9 November 2012: France and Belgium agree to pump a further 5.5bn euros into bank Dexia, after it reported another large loss
Agriculture in Belgium: Agriculture in Belgium - Agriculture in Flanders - the 5 most important agricultural products in 2013 are pork (1.46 billion euros), dairy products (844 million euros), beef (712 million euros), vegetables (602 million euros) and ornamental horticulture products (512 million euros)
Politics of Belgium: Politics of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium, dating back to 1831
Regions, provinces and communities of Belgium: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium - Provinces of Belgium - Belgium includes three regions, two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces, the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces - Bilingualism in Belgium - Language legislation in Belgium
Political parties and trade unions in Belgium: Political parties in Belgium - Trade unions in Belgium
Elections and politics in Belgium: Elections in Belgium
2010: Belgian general election 13 June 2010 - 2010–2011 Belgian government formation
2010-2013: 8. Juli 2011: Belgiens designierter Premier Elio Di Rupo gibt im Juli 2011 auf - 8 October: Belgian parties strike key reform deal to end political crisis - 21 novembre: Le socialiste Elio di Rupo, Premier ministre pressenti, a presenté sa démission - 27 November: Belgian leaders agree on federal budget - 13 juillet 2012: Le Parlement belge a adopté à 106 voix contre 42 le projet de loi 'scindant' l'arrondissement de Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde
Belgian provincial and municipal elections, 14 October 2012 - 14/15 October: Local elections have resulted in widespread gains for the Flemish Nationalist Party, which wants to divide the country - 15 octobre: Le chef des indépendantistes flamands, vainqueur des municipales à Anvers en Belgique, a lancé un appel au Premier ministre Elio Di Rupo pour qu'il négocie avec lui une réforme de l'État ouvrant la voie à une confédération
2014: 13 February: Parliament in Belgium has passed a bill allowing euthanasia for terminally ill children without any age limit, by 86 votes to 44
May 2014 Belgium Federal and regional elections: Belgian federal election 25 May 2014 - Belgian regional elections 25 May 2014 - 26 May 2014: First estimates give 33% of the vote in Flanders to the New Flemish Alliance
May 2014 Belgium European Parliament election: Belgium European Parliament election 25 May 2014
May-October 2014: 2014 Belgian government formation - 8 October: The Francophone liberal Charles Michel will become Belgium’s PM
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Belgium: Protests in Belgium
2011: 2. Dezember 2011: In Brüssel gewerkschaftliche Großdemonstration von Zehntausenden gegen Sparpolitik
2012-2014: 30 January 2012: Strike set to bring Belgium to a halt - 30 January: Some 2.000 steel workers protested plans to lay off 1.300 workers at several ArcelorMittal plants in Liege, wanting the regional government to intervene - 8 March 2013: Hundreds of Belgian steel workers have blocked a border crossing near the Belgian city of Liege to protest against planned job cuts by ArcelorMittal - 15 December 2014: Air, train links cut as national strike begins against the new government's austerity policies
2016: 17 avril 2016: Des milliers de personnes ont rendu hommage, dimanche à Bruxelles, aux 32 morts des attentats du 22 mars
Society, demographics and human rights in Belgium: Belgian society - Human rights in Belgium
Demographics of Belgium: Demographics of Belgium - Belgians - Belgian people by ethnic or national origin - Immigrants to Belgium
Flemish people: Flemish people
Walloons: Walloons are French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia
History of the Jews in Belgium: History of the Jews in Belgium - History of the Jews in Antwerp - Great Synagogue of Europe is the main synagogue in Brussels - 16 January 2015: Jewish schools in Belgium close amid terror threat
Afro Belgians: Afro Belgians are Belgian citizens and members of the Black African community in Belgium
Culture and languages of Belgium: Culture of Belgium - Languages of Belgium
Flemish culture
Walloon culture - Ars nova, music which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages until the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377
Architecture, art and literature in Belgium: Belgian architecture - Art of Belgium - Belgian literature
Music of Belgium: Music of Belgium - Burgundian School, group of composers mainly in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - Franco-Flemish Music 14th-16th century
Education in Belgium: Education in Belgium
Science and technology in Belgium
Healthcare in Belgium: Healthcare in Belgium
Belgian media: Belgian media
2015: 15 January 2015: Four bookshops in Brussels receive letters warning of reprisals if they distribute first issue of French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo since last week's terror attacks in Paris
Crime in Belgium: Crime in Belgium
Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse and Belgian rapists: Belgian people convicted of child sexual abuse - Belgian rapists
Belgian murderers of children and Belgian serial killers: Belgian murderers of children - Belgian serial killers
1995-1996 child and serial killer Marc Dutroux: Belgian serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux, convicted of having kidnapped, tortured and sexually abused six girls from 1995 to 1996
Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and 1998 Parliamentary investigation: Since 1995 Criticism of police investigations of Dutroux's crimes and allegations of cover-up - 1998 Parliamentary investigation's report concluded that Dutroux profited from corruption, sloppiness and incompetence
2004 Dutroux's trial: 2004 Dutroux's trial, some seven and a half years after his initial arrest - 23 June 2004: Marc Dutroux sentenced to life in prison for a series of child kidnappings, child rapes and murders that prompted sweeping police reforms and a crackdown on child sex crimes, Dutroux's ex-wife, Michelle Martin sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
2012 release of the jailed ex-wife of child killer Marc Dutroux: 28 August 2012: The jailed ex-wife Michelle Martin of child killer Marc Dutroux released from prison by Belgium's highest court as relatives of the pair's victims express outrage over the decision, after in 2004 Michelle Martin was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the starving deaths of two girls
Racism and antisemitism in Belgium: Racism in Belgium - Antisemitism in Belgium
1940-1945: The Holocaust in Belgium during the German occupation of Belgium - German Nazi concentration camps in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting - 24 May 2014: Three people were killed and one badly injured when a gunman attacked the Jewish Museum in the centre of Brussels - 25 May: An Israeli couple and two museum workers killed in the terror attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels - 25 May: Israel's Netanyahu offers to aid Belgium probe of Jewish Museum attack - 27 May: Some 2,000 people gather for silent vigil at the site of Jewish Museum attack - 1 June 2014: The Frenchman Nemmouche arrested Friday for the triple murder in Brussels Jewish Museum found in possession of a video in which a man believed to be him is heard claiming responsibility for the attack
July 2014: 16 July: Antwerp rally attended by some 500 people amid wave of anti-Semitic attacks in Western Europe against Israel's Protective Edge calls for 'slaughter of Jews'
Terrorism and massacres in Belgium: Terrorism in Belgium - List of massacres in Belgium
1914-1918: German war crimes in World War I in Belgium
1940-1945: May 1940 at least 86 civilians killed by the German Wehrmacht known in Belgium as the Vinkt Massacre, the first of several German massacres in World War II in Belgium
1980: Said Al Nasr convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980
1981 Antwerp bombing: 1981 Antwerp bombing, a truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp, three people were killed and 106 wounded
1985: 1985 kidnapping of the Belgian-French family Houtekins-Kets by Palestinian terrorists and the Libyan government from their yacht Silco in the Mediterranean, the Belgian part of the family was held for almost five years of captivity in Libya, but were freed after the liberation of Abu Nidal terrorist Said Al Nasr
Since 1988: Since 1988 'Soldiers of the Right' terror organization claimed three assassinations in Brussels and more terror attacks worldwide - 6 May 1996: List of terrorist attacks for which there have been public accusations of Iranian government involvement since July 1979, according to the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
2011: 14 décembre 2011: À Liège une fusillade d'un homme armé a fait au moins cinq morts et plus de 100 blessés
May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting: May 2014 Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
March 2016 Brussels bombings: 22 March 2016 Brussels bombings, three explosions occurred in Brussels, two of which were at the Brussels Airport and one on the metro system - 22 March 2016: Multiple casualties after airport and metro blasts in Brussels - 23 March: After attacks at Zaventem airport and Maelbeek metro station in Brussels killed at least 31 people and injured up to 230, el-Bakraoui brothers named as 'Islamic State' suicide bombers - 24 March: Raising awkward questions for Belgium’s intelligence services, Turkey’s Erdogan says that Belgium ignored Turkey’s warnings that Ibrahim el-Bakraoui was a foreign fighter - 24 March: As names of victims of Tuesday’s suicide bombings emerge, and as survivors reveal the horror of the blasts and narrow escapes, investigations and search for suspects continue - 25 March: Following suicide bombings in Brussels, some arrests linked to suspected wider network that plans, planned and asssisted terror attacks made in French and Belgian police raids - 26 March: Search for suspects in Belgium continues, as a series of raids and arrests reveal more links with the November Paris killings and a new French plot, and as reports reveal that suspects Ibrahim and Khaled El Bakraoui were on USA terror watch list as of last year - 28 March: Three men held as part of 13 raids in Brussels, Mechelen and Duffel at weekend charged with terrorist activity, as anti-immigrant demonstrators trample the memorial in Place de la Bourse in Brussels for victims of last week’s suicide bombings - 9 April: Belgian police detain two key suspects in the Islamic State attacks on Paris and Brussels
August 2016: 6 August 2016 Charleroi attack - 6 August 2016: Female police officers were assaulted and injured in Charleroi on Saturday afternoon by an attacker reportedly shouting in Arabic, who was then shot in the machete attack
June 2017: On 20 June 2017 a small blast occurred at Brussels Central Station in Brussels - 21 June 2017: Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station
August 2017: 25 August 2017 Brussels attack - 25 August 2017: A man who attacked and injured two soldiers with a knife in Brussels reportedly shouting 'Allahu Akbar' shot dead by the army - 27 August 2017: Islamic State terrorists says Brussels attacker belonged to group
Counter-terrorism in Belgium: Counter-terrorism in Belgium
2015: January 2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium, including operation in Verviers against Islamist radicals and operations in Brussels, the nearby communes of Schaerbeek, Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Vilvoorde, and Zaventem - 15 January 2015 Belgian anti-terrorist operation against Islamists - 15 January 2015: Casualties in Belgium police anti-terror raid in Verviers
Law and law enforcement in Belgium: Law of Belgium - Constitution of Belgium - Law enforcement in Belgium
Constitutional Court of Belgium: Constitutional Court of Belgium
Local and Federal Police in Belgium: Local Police in Belgium - Federal Police
Foreign relations of Belgium: Foreign relations of Belgium
Belgian colonial empire and relations with former colonies: Belgian colonial empire - Belgium/Former colonies relations
Treaties of Belgium: Treaties of Belgium
Belgian membership in international organisations: Belgian membership in international organisations
Belgium, Brussels and the EU: Brussels and the European Union
Bilateral relations of Belgium: Bilateral relations of Belgium
Belgium/Austria relations: Belgium/Austria relations
1914-1918 Habsburg Monarchy and World War I: 1914-1918 World War I
Since 1938 Austria part of Nazi Germany and World War II 1939-1945: 1938 annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany - 1939-1945 World War II - Axis powers
Belgium/France relations: Belgium/France relations - 8 septembre 2012: Vive la Belgique! Le patron français de l'empire du luxe LVMH Bernard Arnault sollicite la nationalité belge
Belgium/Germany relations: Belgium/Germany relations
Belgium/Ukraine relations: Belgium/Ukraine relations
Belgium/United Kingdom relations: Belgium/United Kingdom relations
1814-1918 Congress of Vienna, World War I, German invasion of Belgium, British reaction and allied forces: 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna - Since August 1914 German invasion of Belgium - 1914-1918 World War I
Environment of Belgium: Environment of Belgium - Climate of Belgium
Global warming in Belgium: Global warming in Belgium
Natural disasters in Belgium: Natural disasters in Belgium
May-June 2016 European floods: May-June 2016 European floods


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Taxation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Politics and elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Social movements and protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina society - Human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina media: Bosnia and Herzegovina media
Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian Police
Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Crime in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian Mafia: Bosnian Mafia
Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian War 1992-1995, war crimes, prosecutions and legal proceedings (ongoing): Bosnian War, prosecutions and legal proceedings - War crimes in the Bosnian War
Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina/European Union relations: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union
Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environmental issues of Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bulgaria - Geography of Bulgaria - History of Bulgaria - Demographics of Bulgaria
Water in Bulgaria: Water in Bulgaria
Transport in Bulgaria: Transport in Bulgaria
Banking and banks of Bulgaria: Banks of Bulgaria - Bulgarian National Bank
Economic history of Bulgaria and business cycles: Economic history of Bulgaria
May 2014 Bulgaria European Parliament election: Bulgaria European Parliament election 25 May 2014
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bulgaria: Bulgarian society - Human rights in Bulgaria
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria - Ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Turks in Bulgaria: Turks in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria: Romani people in Bulgaria
History of the Jews in Bulgaria: History of the Jews in Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Education in Bulgaria: Education in Bulgaria
Health in Bulgaria: Health in Bulgaria
Foreign relations of Bulgaria: Foreign relations of Bulgaria
Immigration to Bulgaria: Immigration to Bulgaria
Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations: Bulgaria/Afghanistan relations
Bulgaria/Romania relations: Bulgaria/Romania relations
Bulgaria/USA relations: Bulgaria/USA relations
Environment and environmental issues in Bulgaria: Environment of Bulgaria - Environmental issues in Bulgaria
Protected areas of Bulgaria: Protected areas of Bulgaria
Natural disasters in Bulgaria: Natural disasters in Bulgaria
Floods in Bulgaria: Floods in Bulgaria


Croatia - Geography of Croatia - History of Croatia - Croatian War of Independance
Demographics of Croatia
Water transport in Croatia: Water transport in Croatia
Tourism in Croatia: Tourism in Croatia
Protests in Croatia: Protests in Croatia
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Croatia: Croatian society - Demographics of Croatia - Human rights in Croatia - Freedom of religion in Croatia
Immigration to Croatia: Immigration to Croatia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2015: 16 September 2015: First refugees head for Croatia after Hungary's border crackdown - 18 September 2015: As Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia and police stand guard in front of refugees and migrants, Hungary builds border fence with Croatia - 18 September: Croatia fails to cope with refugee and migrant influx, as refugees wait for the trains that never come - 27 September 2015: Record migrant arrivals in Croatia as crisis deepens - 5 October: Refugees and migrants continue to cross from Serbia to Croatia in their thousands - 19 October: Thousands of refugees trying to make their way to western Europe have rushed over Serbia’s border to Croatia after they were stranded for days in dangerous and deteriorating conditions, 'the last person to go was a young boy without a leg, and we helped him cross in a wheelchair', UNHCR's Melita Sunjic reports, as UN's Ban Ki-moon says, refugees are fleeing difficult hardships they can't bear by themselves
Education in Croatia: Education in Croatia
Foreign relations of Croatia: Foreign relations of Croatia
Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Croatia/Israel relations: Croatia/Israel relations -
Croatia/Serbia relations: Croatia/Serbia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence
Environmentalism in Croatia: Environmentalism in Croatia
Water supply and sanitation in Croatia: Water supply and sanitation in Croatia


Cyprus - Modern history of Cyprus - Northern Cyprus - Demographics of Cyprus
Cyprus dispute: - Cyprus dispute
Water transport in Cyprus: Water transport in Cyprus
Poverty in Cyprus: Poverty in Cyprus
Elections and politics in Cyprus: Elections in Cyprus
May 2011 Cypriot legislative election: Cypriot legislative election May 2011
24 February 2013: Cyprus president-elect Nicos Anastasiades pledged after his poll victory on Sunday to work for an early EU bailout accord to rescue the island from bankruptcy - 18 mars: Le Parlement chypriote se réunit pour examiner le plan de sauvetage européen qui a exigé que tous les dépôts bancaires soient taxés - 20 March: Emergency meeting after Cyprus MPs reject bank levy - 21 March: Cypriot president to present 'Plan B' rescue package - 21 March: European Central Bank issues ultimatum to Cyprus - 22 March 2013: Finance Minister Sarris back from Russia without reaching an agreement - 23 March: Parliament, in a late-night session, backed the first three of eight measures advanced by the government - 25 mars: Le plan de sauvetage conclu entre le gouvernement chypriote et la troïka comprend une taxe sur les dépôts de plus de 100.000 euros et la fermeture de la deuxième banque du pays - 26 March: Closed since March 16 to avert run on deposits Cyprus banks to remain closed until Thursday - 28 March: Temporary limits on daily withdrawals will remain in place as Cyprus reopens banks amid protests - 29 March: Cypriot president rules out leaving eurozone
Social movements and protests in Cyprus:
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Cyprus: Cypriot society - Human rights in Cyprus
Demographics of Cyprus: Demographics of Cyprus
Women in Cyprus: Women in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus: Education in Cyprus
Healthcare in Cyprus: Healthcare in Cyprus
Internet in Cyprus: Internet in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus: Foreign relations of Cyprus
Cyprus/Egypt relations: Cyprus/Egypt relations
Cyprus/Germany relations: Cyprus/Germany relations
Cyprus/Greece relations: Cyprus/Greece relations
Cyprus/Israel relations: Cyprus/Israel relations
Cyprus/USA relations: Cyprus/USA relations
Environment of Cyprus: Environment of Cyprus - Climate of Cyprus
Protected areas of Cyprus and Paphos Forest: Protected areas of Cyprus - Paphos Forest


Czech Republic - Geography of the Czech Republic - History of the Czech lands - Demographics of the Czech lands
2018 Czech presidential election: 2018 Czech presidential election
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in the Czech Republic: Czech society - Human rights in the Czech Republic
Demographics and ethnic groups in the Czech Republic: Demographics of the Czech lands - Ethnic groups in the Czech Republic
Immigration to the Czech Republic: Immigrants to the Czech Republic
Education in the Czech Republic: Education in the Czech Republic
Healthcare in the Czech Republic: Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Czech media: Czech media
Crime in the Czech Republic: Crime in the Czech Republic
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic/France relations: Czech Republic/France relations
Czech Republic/Germany relations: Czech Republic/Germany relations
1938-1945 Czech resistance to Nazi occupation: Czech resistance to Nazi occupation 1938-1945
Czech Republic/Poland relations: Czech Republic/Poland relations
Czech Republic/Slovakia relations: Czech Republic/Slovakia relations
Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations: Czech Republic/United Kingdom relations
Environmentalism in the Czech Republic: Environmentalism in the Czech Republic
Natural disasters in the Czech Republic: Natural disasters in the Czech Republic
May/June 2013 European floods: May/June 2013 European floods


Denmark - Geography of Denmark - History of Denmark - Demographics of Denmark
Water supply and sanitation in Denmark: Water supply and sanitation in Denmark
Taxation and budget in Denmark: Taxation in Denmark - Budgets of Danish government
Elections and politics in Denmark: Elections in Denmark - Danish EU membership referendum 2011
Constitution, social movements and protests in Denmark: Constitution of Denmark - Social and political movements in Denmark - Protests in Denmark
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Denmark: Danish society - Human rights in Denmark - Freedom of speech and freedom of the press in Denmark
Faroese Dane: Faroese Dane
2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 European refugee and migrant crisis
Museums in Denmark: List of museums in Denmark
Economy, history and culture of Copenhagen: Economy of Copenhagen - History of Copenhagen - Culture in Copenhagen
Education in Denmark: Youth in Denmark
Health care in Denmark: Health care in Denmark
Crime in Denmark: Crime in Denmark
Corruption in Denmark: Corruption in Denmark
Tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark: Elements of income tax evasion and avoidance in Denmark
Human trafficking in Denmark: Human trafficking in Denmark
Law enforcement in Denmark: Law enforcement in Denmark
Courts of Denmark: Courts of Denmark
Police of Denmark: Police of Denmark
Environment of Denmark: Environment of Denmark
Geography and Kingdom of Denmark: Geography of Denmark - Kingdom of Denmark
Faroe Islands: Faroe Islands
Greenland: Greenland
History of Greenland: History of Greenland
Economy of Greenland: Economy of Greenland
Education in Greenland: Education in Greenland
Health in Greenland: Health in Greenland
Foreign relations of Denmark: Foreign relations of Denmark
Denmark/Germany relations: Denmark/Germany relations
1943-1945 arrests and deportations of Danish Jews: Arrests and deportations of Danish Jews 1943-1945
Denmark/Norway relations: Denmark/Norway relations
Denmark/Poland relations: Denmark/Poland relations
Denmark/Sweden relations: Denmark/Sweden relations
Denmark/Syria relations: Denmark/Syria relations
Forests of Denmark: Forests of Denmark
Environmentalism in Denmark: Environmentalism in Denmark
Water in Denmark: Water in Denmark
Climate of Greenland: Climate of Greenland
Ice cap climate: Ice cap climate
Water in Greenland: Water in Greenland


Éire (Republic of Ireland) - History of Ireland - Geography of Ireland - Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Companies of the Republic of Ireland by industry: Companies by industry in the Republic of Ireland by industry
Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland: Agriculture in the Republic of Ireland
Fishing in Ireland: Fishing in Ireland
Irish economic history, economic cycle and crises: Economic history of the Republic of Ireland
Taxation in the Republic of Ireland: Taxation in the Republic of Ireland
Elections and politics in the Republic of Ireland: Elections in the Republic of Ireland
2008/2009 Fallout of the Irish government budget 2009: Fallout of the 2009 Irish government budget
Social movements and protests: Protests in Ireland
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ireland: Irish society - Human rights in Ireland
Demographics and ethnic groups in Ireland: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland - Ethnic groups in Ireland
History of the Jews in Ireland: History of the Jews in Ireland
Immigration to the Republic of Ireland: Immigration to the Republic of Ireland
Women and women's rights in Ireland: Women in Ireland - Women's rights in Ireland
Children's rights in Ireland: Children's rights in Ireland
Healthcare of the Republic of Ireland: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland
Media of the Republic of Ireland: Media of the Republic of Ireland
Internet in the Republic of Ireland: Internet in the Republic of Ireland
Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies: Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home contoversies
Crime in the Republic of Ireland: Crime in the Republic of Ireland
Corruption in Ireland: Corruption in Ireland
Foreign relations of Ireland: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland/Australia relations: Ireland/Australia relations - Irish Australian
List of uprisings by Irish people against English and British claims of sovereignty in Ireland since 1534 (ongoing) - Irish republicanism based on the conviction that all of Ireland should be an independent republic - Irish Rebellion of 1798 against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798 influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions - 1848 Young Irelander Rebellion led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider democratic revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe - Easter Rising during Easter Week 1916 was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I - Irish War of Independence between the Irish Republican Army and the British Government and its forces 1919-1921 - Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 - Irish Free State 1922-1937 - Gaelic revival
Ireland/USA relations: Ireland/USA relations - Irish Americans
Natural disasters in Ireland: Natural disasters in Ireland
Weather events in Ireland: Weather events in Ireland


France - Geography of France - Gaul during the Iron Age inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, of the Netherlands and of Germany - Gallic Wars and expansion of the Roman Empire over the whole of Gaul 58–52 BC - Frankish Kingdom 481–843 during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages - History of France - Early modern France 1453–1789 - French colonial empire 1534-1980 - French Revolution 1789-1799 marking the global decline of absolute monarchies and organized religions and replacing them with democracies and republics, and Napoleon until 1815 - France in the twentieth century, post World War II period 1945-present - Demographics of France
French bicycle industry: French bicycle industry
Shipbuilding companies of France: Shipbuilding companies of France
Tractor manufacturers of France: Tractor manufacturers of France
Chemical companies of France: Chemical companies of France
Clothing companies of France: Clothing companies of France
Energy and energy companies of France: Energy in France - Energy companies of France
Fossil fuels and oil companies of France: Fossil fuels in France - Oil companies of France
French wine: French wine
Water in France: Water in France
Transport in France by city: Transport in France by city - Transport in Paris
Foreign trade of France: Foreign trade of France
Since 2010 Bank of France controversy: Since 2010 Bank of France controversy
Since 2010 BNP Paribas controversies: BNP Paribas controversies since 2010
Since 2006 Crédit Agricole controversies: Crédit Agricole controversies since 2006
Since the early 1990s Société Générale controversies: Société Générale controversies since the early 1990s
Since 2010 Groupe BPCE controversy: Groupe BPCE controversy since 2010
Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy: Since 2010 Crédit Mutuel controversy
Chômage en France: Chômage en France
Inégalités de revenu en France: Inégalités de revenu en France
Poverty in France: Poverty in France
French Armed Forces: French Armed Forces
Military budget in France: Military budget
Intelligence agencies of France: List of intelligence agencies of France
4 July 2013: French secret services reportedly intercept all communications in France, stocking telephone and computer data for years
Budget and taxation in France: Budget of France - Taxation in France
Political parties and trade unions in France: Political parties of France - Trade unions in France
Parliament of France: French Parliament
Government of France: Government of France
Elections and politics in France: Elections in France
Élections cantonales mars 2011: Élections cantonales mars 2011
January-May 2016: 27 January 2016: French minister Christiane Taubira resigns after fallout over controversial plan to strip people convicted of terrorism of their French citizenship - 1 février 2016: Christiane Taubira n'a pas abandonné le débat sur la déchéance de nationalité pour autant et va publier un livre-réquisitoire - 10 February 2016: French MPs vote in favour of in 2012 elected president Hollande’s heavily contested package of measures to change the French constitution enshrining 'emergency powers' - 10/11 February: French FM Fabius steps down questioning the USA’s commitment to resolving the crisis in Syria, saying its 'ambiguous' policy was contributing to the problem, as Hollande brings Greens and former PM Ayrault to government in cabinet reshuffle - 4 mai 2016: François Hollande à son plus bas niveau historique
June 2017 French legislative election: 11 and 18 June 2017 French legislative election - 12 June 2017: Amid concerns over low turnout of just 48.71%, 'La République En Marche' party and its allies take 32,32% of vote in first round, ahead of 'Les Républicains' and its allies on 21.56%, the anti-EU 'Front National' on 13.20%, followed by 'La France Insoumise' and its allies on 11,02%, the 'Socialist party', that took just 9.51% of the vote with its allies, and 'Europe Écologie Les Verts' on 4.3% - 18/19 June 2017: Tempered by a record low turnout of 42.64% and as abstention particularly high in low-income areas reopens the debate about France’s social divide, the French voting system and legitimacy, Macron’s party and its ally has won a large majority in the French parliament, taking 350 out of 577 seats, handing him a relatively free rein to implement his plans to change French labour law and overhaul unemployment benefits and pensions
September 2017 French Senate election: 24 September 2017 French Senate election
Social movements and protests in France: Protests in France - Political movements in France
2013: 5 janvier 2013: Lors d'une rencontre avec une délégation des salariés de Petroplus à Val-de-Reuil (Eure), Hollande a exclu une reprise du site par les pouvoirs publics - 25 March 2013: Paris police used tear gas and batons to fight hundreds of thousands of people protesting against a draft law allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children - 5 mai: Grande manifestation anti-austérité du Parti de Gauche à Paris - 6 June: Protests held in France after left-wing student Clement Meric beaten to death by a group of far-right militants - 10 septembre: Entre 155 000 et 360 000 personnes ont participé aux quelque 180 rassemblements organisés en France pour protester contre la première réforme des retraites - 17 October: Paris students protest against the deportation of foreign pupils following the high-profile eviction of a 15-year-old Roma girl - 1 décembre: Face aux récentes attaques contre la ministre Christiane Taubira, plusieurs milliers de personnes se sont rassemblées à Paris pour dire non à toutes formes de discrimination - 3 décembre: Soirée contre la haine au Théâtre du Rond-Point à Paris
2015: 9 January: Thousands of people took to the streets in France and other countries again Thursday to condemn the killing of 12 people by terrorists at Paris-based satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo - 11 January: As police hunt suspected accomplice more than 700,000 people took to the streets of France in solidarity with terror victims ahead of Paris march - 11 January: An estimated 3.7 million people across France march in solidarity with terror victims, all ages, nations and religions showing their support for the Republic's 'liberté, égalité, fraternité' - 2 March: As Russians march in mourning for murdered opposition leader Nemtsov in Moscow, in Paris about 100 people gathered to remember Nemtsov, asking for an international investigation to be opened and carrying posters reading 'I am Boris' - 24 May 2015: About 3,000 protesters gathered in Paris to protest against the USA biotechnology giant Monsanto and its genetically modified crops and pesticides - 5 septembre: Plus de 10000 personnes se sont rassemblées samedi dans toute la France, et notamment à Paris, pour l’accueil des réfugiés - 22 novembre 2015: Plus de 10.000 manifestants 'contre la barbarie' à Toulouse, une semaine après les attentats de Paris - 2 December 2015: A court in Paris fines a woman €1,000 for refusing to have her fingerprints taken at a rally where clashes erupted between protesters and security forces ahead of 2015 UN climate summit
2016: 26 January 2016: Day of protest as taxi drivers, teachers, farmers and air traffic controllers among employees taking industrial action across France - 27 February: Angry French farmers heckle Hollande at agricultural fair amid rising tensions in agricultural sphere over competition from big industry and neighbouring countries in Europe's single market - 9 March 2016: French students take to the streets to protest far-reaching labour-law reforms as labour unions pledge to hold about 150 marches and protests nationwide - 24 mars 2016: Les manifestations contre le projet de loi travail, présenté en Conseil des ministres, ont rassemblé jeudi plusieurs milliers de jeunes et salariés à Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Grenoble ou encore Besançon, à l'appel de sept syndicats et organisations de jeunes, une vidéo montrant un policier frappant un jeune fait le buzz - 31 March 2016: Hundreds of thousands of workers and high-school students joined protest marches across France to challenge plans to loosen the country's protective labour laws that unions say favour businesses
January/February 2017: 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, including Bordeaux, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse, to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues - 18 février 2017: 4000 à 5000 personnes selon les organisateurs, se sont réunies samedi à Paris à l'appel notamment d'associations antiracistes et de syndicats, pour protester contre les violences policières après le viol à la matraque présumé d'un jeune noir, Théo, au cours d'une interpellation - 19 février 2017: Des manifestations contre la 'corruption' en politique se sont déroulées dimanche à Paris et ailleurs en France, une première depuis les accusations d'emplois fictifs visant le candidat de droite à la présidentielle François Fillon et la candidate d'extrême droite Marine Le Pen
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in France: French society
Human rights in France: Human rights in France
African immigration to France: African immigration to France
2013-2015: 15 October: Roma in France get access to more jobs (increased from 150 to 291) - 29 January 2013: A group of Roma children near Lyon have been forced to attend classes at a police station after local schools refused to take them in - 3 avril: Expulsés d'un terrain près de Lyon, une cinquantaine de Roms attaquent la préfecture du Rhône en justice pour la contraindre à leur trouver un hébergement d'urgence - 13 mai: Deux femmes et un enfant ont péri dans la nuit dans l'incendie d'une usine désaffectée de Lyon dans lequel vivaient environ 200 Roms - 23 July 2013: French MP Bourdouleix faces legal action after he allegedly said 'Hitler didn't kill enough of' the Roma people - 17 octobre: L'expulsion du pays de Leonarda, une collégienne rom kosovare, a mis de nouveau au jour les dissensions au sein de la majorité, y compris dans le gouvernement - 14 novembre: Jean-Marie Le Pen condamné pour ses propos selon lesquels 'comme les oiseaux', les Roms voleraient 'naturellement' - 4 January 2015: Outrage as Leclerc, mayor of Paris suburb Champlan, refuses burial of Roma baby
2016: 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 13 février 2016: Le Premier ministre français Valls ne veut pas aller plus loin que le quota de 30'000 réfugiés en France et a d'ailleurs rencontré CSU Horst Seehofer, l'une de ces voix critiques parmi les alliés de la chancelière allemande - 13 February 2016: French PM Valls rejects permanent quota system for refugees, saying 'We won't take any more' - 28 February 2016: The first purpose-built camp in France to provide proper, humanitarian-standard shelter to refugees who are currently sleeping rough is to open near the port of Dunkirk next month, after the local Green mayor Damien Carême approached Médecins sans Frontières and asked the organisation to construct temporary shelters, saying he was exasperated by what he deemed to be the inaction of the French Socialist government
Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France: Statistics of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France
Language policy in France: Language policy in France
Architecture, arts and literature in France: Architecture in France - Arts in France - French literature
Music of France: Music of France
Music history of France: French music history
Protection de l'enfance en France: Protection de l'enfance en France
Athletics, swimming, water sports, skiing and gymnastics in France: Athletics in France - Swimming in France - Water sports in France - Sailing in France - Skiing in France - Gymnastics in France
Handball, basketball, ice hockey and tennis in France: Handball in France - Basketball in France - Volleyball in France - Ice hockey in France - Tennis in France
2016: 9-11 June 2016 Marseille riots before and after UEFA Euro 2016 football match between England and Russia - 11/12 June 2016: Reports from Marseille suggest an England supporter is fighting for his life after an attack from Russian fans ahead of their Euro 2016 match on Saturday evening - 12 June 2016: Violence in Nice as Northern Ireland and Poland fans attacked by local hooligans - 12 June 2016: Russian hooligans reportedly approached the violence, which occurred before and after England’s opening Euro 2016 game in Marseille, with 'military organisation', well equipped and disguised, as Uefa opens disciplinary proceedings against Russia’s football union - 13 June 2016: German hooligans attack Ukraine fans in Lille also showing fascist symbolism at UEFA Euro 2016 - 13 June 2016: Notorious far-right activist Alexander Shprygin who has been photographed giving a Nazi salute is travelling with the official Russian FA delegation at Euro 2016 and was in Marseille at the weekend as clashes erupted between Russian and English fans - 14 June: Russia handed suspended '2016 UEFA European Football Championship' disqualification, confirmed by UEFA - 16 June: Dozens arrested in Lille after England and Russia foot supporters clash and more people are hospitalised - 18 June: Senior UK government officials fear the violence unleashed by Russian hooligans at Euro 2016 was sanctioned by Vladimir Putin’s regime and are investigating links with his regime as a significant number of those involved in savage and highly coordinated attacks on England fans and others in Marseille and Lille have been identified as being in the 'uniformed services' in Russia
Cycling and cycle racing in France: Cycling in France - Cycle racing in France
Internet in France: Internet in France
Newspapers in France: Newspapers in France
Crime in France: Crime in France
Antisemitism in France: Antisemitism in France
Holocaust denial in France: Holocaust denial in France
France's 'National Front': France's 'National Front'
Racism and Antisemitism in 21st-century France: Antisemitism in 21st-century France
2015: 7 January 2015: Unidentified individuals started a fire inside a synagogue in Garges near Paris and drew a swastika on its wall - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - 3 February 2015: Anti-terror patrol soldiers stabbed outside Jewish cultural center in Nice - 15 February 2015: Several hundred tombs desecrated with Nazi swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans at the Jewish cemetery of Sarre-Union near the German border a day after a deadly shooting at Copenhagen synagogue - 19 February 2015: The French are becoming more racist and intolerant towards ethnic and religious minorities including both Muslims and Jews, according to a Council of Europe report this week - 28 February 2015: Paris killer asked victims if they were Jewish before firing, transcript shows - 10 April: After defending Petain's cooperation with Nazi Germany and his past comment that Nazi gas chambers were a 'detail of history', France's National Front founder Le Pen rebuffs daughter's call to quit - 27 April 2015: Front National founder Jean-Marie Le Pen allegedly kept €2.2m in hidden Swiss bank account - 2 May 2015: Two Jewish residents of Paris were assaulted on the street Friday by a gang of about 40 people - 25 November 2015: A Belgian court finds French Dieudonne guilty of hate speech, incitement to hatred and Holocaust denial
2017: 2 February 2017: French journalist Paul Larrouturou with a crew from the TF1 news programme Quotidien violently forced out of Marine Le Pen press conference after trying to question Front National presidential candidate over allegations that she used European parliament funds to pay staff of her political party - 13 February 2017: Founder of France’s National Front party Jean-Marie Le Pen charged with inciting hatred for anti-Semitic statements after he said in a video posted on the party website in 2014 that 'next time we will put him in an oven' when asked about French singer Patrick Bruel’s criticisms of the party - L'affaire Sarah Halimi concerne le meurtre du 4 avril 2017 d'une femme juive âgée de soixante-cinq ans et le traitement policier, judiciaire et médiatique de l'enquête qui s'est ensuivie
Toulouse and Montauban shootings March 2012: March 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings - 20 March 2012: Police say same gun and scooter used in attack on Jewish school in Toulouse that left four dead and soldier shootings - NZZ 20. März: Tausende an Schweigemarsch in Paris nach den tödlichen Schüssen in einer jüdischen Schule in Toulouse - 21 mars: Opération en cours contre le suspect de la tuerie de Toulouse - 22 March: Siege of alleged gunman in Toulouse enters second day - 22 March: French gunman who shot dead 3 Jewish children killed in siege in Toulouse - 25 March 2012: Several thousand people have marched silently through Paris urging unity and tolerance of all religions and cultures after deadly shootings of Jewish schoolchildren - 28 March: Vigilance call after French Jews hit by new attacks
January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks in Paris: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris - January 2015 Île-de-France attacks - January 2015 killing of police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe in Paris - January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris - Worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 7 January: Worldwide vigils as French authorities seek terrorists who stormed the Paris office of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people - 8 January: Arrests made as police hunt for suspects of Charlie Hebdo shooting - 9 January: France to host international 'anti-terrorism' meeting in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris - 9 January: Search for terrorists continues as Charlie Hebdo announces to print 1 million copies next week - 10 January: Two hostage standoffs end with four hostages killed in Paris kosher grocery, three terrorists dead and four more hostages badly hurt - 12 February 2015: 'Islamic State' terror group confirms widow of Paris kosher grocery shooter in Syria - 9 March: Four people including a policewoman arrested over suspected links to Paris kosher market terrorist
13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks: 13/14 November 2015 Paris attacks, a series of shootings and explosions in and around Paris - 14 Novemer 2015: Gunmen kill at least 120 people in terror attacks in Paris, injuring some 200 people - 15 November: French national suicide bomber Ismael Omar Mostefai in Paris attacks identified, who had been flagged as a possible security threat in 2010, as investigation spreads across Europe - 16 November: French police carry out raids as investigations across borders continue - 17 November: France calls for EU help following Paris attacks - 18 November: Police in St-Denis arresting suspects, two suspects dead in ongoing raid, including a woman who detonated an explosive device - 19 November: Raids in Brussels linked to Stade de France suicide bomber as latest evidence points to wider conspiracy of primarily young Europeans - 20 November: Three people died during the Wednesday night raid in St-Denis, where the alleged ringleader of the Paris attacks Abaaoud was killed, prosecutor says - 21 November: Raids and Paris attacks investigations across borders continue as three suspects arrested in Turkey - 23 November: UK's Cameron visits Paris offering support, also offering French use of RAF Cyprus base for attacks against IS terrorists - 24 November: 'Belt of explosives' found south of Paris in town of Montrouge
July 2016: 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 15 July 2016: 84 people were killed and about 100 more injured when a suspected armed French-Tunisian man drove a truck at full speed into a crowd who had gathered to watch the Bastille Day fireworks in Nice - 15 July 2016: After attack in Nice France mourns and investigates again - International reactions to the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice - 17 juillet: Un feu d'artifice tiré dans la nuit depuis le Grand hôtel de Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat 48 heures après l'attentat commis sur la Promenade des Anglais, a suscité une vague d'indignation sur Twitter - 21 juillet 2016: L'enquête sur la tuerie du 14-juillet à Nice révèle une préparation ancienne et des complicités multiples - 22 July 2016: Five suspects formally charged over Bastille day's truck attack in Nice that killed 84 people - 22 July: Authorities in Nice refuse a request from French anti-terror police to delete surveillance camera images of Bastille day's deadly truck attack, amid growing questions over the scale of the police presence at the time and after interior minister Cazeneuve acknowledged that only lightly armed local police were guarding the entrance to the pedestrian zone on the Nice beachfront
Accusation d’emplois fictifs au MoDem, le Mouvement démocrate de François Bayrou - 8 juin 2017: L'affaire des collaborateurs de députés du Parlement européen contamine de plus en plus les alliés centristes de l'entourage de Macron - 9 juin 2017: Une dizaine de salariés du MoDem ont également été employés par des eurodéputés MoDem et rémunérés comme assistants parlementaires, dont deux ministres en exercice, selon Franceinfo - 20 June 2017: French defence minister Sylvie Goulard, who is second minister to go in 24 hours, steps down over allegations her MoDem party misused European funds - 21 June 2017: Two more ministers quit Macron administration amid funding inquiry, bringing the number of ministers to leave to four - François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez, Richard Ferrand and Sylvie Goulard - in just 48 hours
Judiciary of France: Judiciary of France
Wars involving France: Wars involving France
Resistance to the French colonial empire: Resistance to the French colonial empire
French Polynesia: French Polynesia
Réunion: Réunion
Treaties of France: Treaties of France
French membership in international organisations: French membership in international organisations
Since 1945 France and the United Nations: France and the United Nations
Foreign relations of France by continent and country: Foreign relations of France by continent - Bilateral relations of France
France/Africa relations: France/Africa relations
France/Algeria relations: France/Algeria relations
1830-1962 rule in Algeria: 1830-1962 French rule in Algeria
Since 1960 French nuclear test site Reggane: France and weapons of mass destruction - France and nuclear weapons
France/Americas relations: France/Americas relations
From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade: From the 16th through to the 19th centuries French, British, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery: Since 1799 France's Napoleon restored slavery
France/Angola relations: France/Angola relations
Since 1975 French support of Unita in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002: Since 1975 USA's agency CIA activities in Angola, participating in the Angolan Civil War 1975-2002, hiring and training USA, British, French and Portuguese private military contractors, and training rebels to fight against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Unita received support from several states including France, Morocco, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA, as USA governments 'explicitly encouraged' other governments to aid Unita, in 1983 the USA and South African apartheid regime agreed to ship weapons from the Honduras, Belgium and Switzerland to South Africa and then to Unita in Angola, the USA also traded weapons with South Africa for intelligence on the civil war - 1975–1976 'Operation Savannah' was the South African apartheid regime's military covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War
France/Asia relations: France/Asia relations
1887-1954 'French Indochina': 1887-1954 'French Indochina'
France/Burkina Faso relations: France/Burkina Faso relations
France/Chad relations: France/Chad relations
France/Republic of the Congo relations: France/Republic of the Congo relations
May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum: May 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum
France/Equatorial Guinea relations: France/Equatorial Guinea relations
France/Iran relations: France/Iran relations
2012/2013: 19 février 2012: Téhéran stoppe ses ventes de pétrole à la France et au Royaume-Uni - 8 novembre 2012: La France demande des explications à Téhéran sur la mort d'un blogueur emprisonné - 14 novembre 2012: La justice iranienne a annoncé l'arrestation de 'plusieurs personnes' à la suite de la mort en détention du blogueur Sattar Beheshti - 15 June 2013: As jubilant supporters took to the streets of Teheran to celebrate a victory of the Iranian people and the dawning of a new era, France and Britain acknowledged Hassan Rohani’s election as Iran’s next president, looking ahead to establishing a relationship with him - 15 octobre 2013: La France doute des bonnes intentions à l’égard des négociations sur le nucléaire iranien - 9 November 2013: France’s FM Fabius accused by Iranian regime of defending Israel after he said that Israel’s 'concerns' needed to be taken into consideration in nuclear talks
France/Iraq relations: France/Iraq relations
France/Japan relations: France/Japan relations
France/Jordan relations: France/Jordan relations
France/Laos relations: France/Laos relations
1893–1945, 1946–1953 French 'Protectorate' of Laos: French Protectorate of Laos 1893–1945, 1946–1953
France/Lebanon relations: France/Lebanon relations
France/Mali relations: France/Mali relations
France/Norway relations: France/Norway relations
France/Pakistan relations: France/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in France
France/Russia relations: France/Russia relations
1812 French invasion of Russia: French invasion of Russia 1812
Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017: Russian 'Fancy Bear' and French elections 2016–2017
Since May 2017: 29 May 2017: As USA senator calls Russian Putin the biggest threat to global security, French Macron welcomes and hosts war criminal Putin at the former royal palace of Versailles outside Paris, exchanging cordial handshakes and smiles, kneeling down in ridiculous posture before Putin and the absolute monarchy, betraying the French revolution since 1789 and the Syrian people and democracy attacked since 2011 by Assad, Putin and Ali Khamenei, after France's president and government still called in October 2016 for war crimes investigation against Russia over Syria - 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says, calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
France/Senegal relations: France/Senegal relations
1659 French conquest of Senegal: French conquest of Senegal 1659 - Ndar (Saint-Louis)
1895-1958 French West Africa: French West Africa 1895-1958
1960 Independence of Senegal: 1960 Independence of Senegal
France/Singapore relations: France/Singapore relations
France/Syria relations: France/Syria relations
August/September 2013: 27 August: President Hollande says that France was 'ready to punish' those behind last week's deadly chemical attack in Syria - 30 August: President François Hollande says that the UK parliamentary vote against taking military action against Assad regime would not affect France’s will to act alongside the United States in 'punishing' Assad regime for a chemical weapons attack - 1 September: Obama stalls on Syria, upping pressure on Hollande - 2 September: Assad forces carried out a 'massive and coordinated' chemical attack on August 21 near Damascus posing a major threat to national and global security, according to a declassified French intelligence report - 2 September: France calls for coalition to act against Assad regime - 7 September 2013: International support is growing for a strong response to the chemical weapons attack by the Syrian regime, France's foreign minister Fabius said during a joint press conference with USA counterpart Kerry - 9 September 2013: Assad regime must commit immediately to destruction of chemical arms, French foreign minister says - 10 September 2013: France says that a Russian proposal to have Assad hand over his chemical weapons arsenal was acceptable only if it came after a UN Security Council resolution spelling out consequences if he failed to comply - 13 September 2013: After reports that UN report will confirm Syria chemical weapons use, French, USA and British foreign ministers will meet in Paris on Monday for talks on Syria and a UN Security Council resolution - 20 September 2013: France suggests it is ready to give weapons to Syria's opposition in a 'controlled framework' - 29 septembre 2013: Appel de parlementaires PS et EELV à une aide militaire aux forces de l'opposition en Syrie
2014/2015: 13 May: France calls on United Nations to refer Syrian War to International Criminal Court - 27 February 2015: France and Britain dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition - 5 March: French President Hollande receives Syrian Coalition delegation in Paris - 16 March 2015: After speaking to USA's John Kerry on the phone France's FM Fabius says, the French position on the Syrian crisis had not changed and that 'the solution is a political transition (which) must both preserve regime institutions - not Mr Bashar al-Assad - ... and include the opposition of course' - 23 May 2015: A majority of 55% of French people are in favour of a military intervention by France in Syria, poll says - 27 September 2015: France launches first airstrikes against Islamic State terrorists in Syria, as French president says 'civilian populations must be protected against all forms of violence, ... also against the murderous bombings of Bashar al-Assad' - 29 September: In New York, Syrian Coalition's Khoja and France's Hollande agree on Syria without Assad, as Khoja explains the regime’s brutal practices against civilians, most notably using barrel bombs which account for nearly 95% of the overall civilian deaths in Syria, and as France will discuss with its partners in the coming days a proposal by Turkey and the Syrian opposition for a no-fly zone in northern Syria - 30 September: France is investigating Bashar al-Assad over alleged crimes against humanity, also examining claims of torture and kidnapping by Assad's forces and opened 'on the basis of indications received from the foreign ministry' on 10 September - 8 October: France will support establishing safe zones in Syria - 24 October 2015: France's FM Fabius announced that Paris will host foreign-minister level talks on Syria on 27 October, adding that Russia's foreign minister Lavrov will not be part of the talks and reiterating that Bashar al-Assad could not be part of any solution in Syria
2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 1 April 2016: France accuses Syrian Assad regime of violating ceasefire, saying that airstrikes in south-east Damascus were intended to terrorise people and undermine international peace efforts - 11 June 2016: Photos of 1,000 Syrian detainees out of hundreds of thousands of detainees currently in Assad’s prisons will be raised by Syrian and French activists at the 'Place de la Bastille' in Paris - 10 October 2016: Saying that France is 'committed as never before to saving the population of Aleppo’ and that he will ask the international court of justice to investigate possible war crimes in Syria French FM Ayrault also says that President Hollande will take into account the situation in Syria's Aleppo when deciding whether to see Russia's Putin when he visits Paris on 19 October - 26 October 2016: First European lawsuit to target Assad regime for its involvement in the disappearance of two French nationals in Syria in 2013, as Syrian Coalition urges Syrian nationals holding a second European nationality to lodge complaints against the Assad regime for the war crimes and crimes against humanity its forces are committing against their loved ones in Syria - 21 November 2016: At a meeting with French FM Jean-Marc Ayrault Syrian Coalition's Hijab stresses that the brutal onslaught on Aleppo by Assad and its Russian and Iranian allies are war crimes and crimes against humanity, calling upon the international community to assume its duty to stop Assad and Russia’s massacres in Syria - 1 December 2016: Head of Aleppo provincial council Brita Haji Hasan and French FM Ayrault calling to save Aleppo - 2 December 2016: The Syrian civil defense was awarded the Franco-German Prize for Human Rights and the Rule of Law a few days after receiving the Alternative Nobel Prize honoring their humanitarian role in relief work, as French FM Ayrault condemns the attacks that target civilians and hospitals in Aleppo, adding that systematic war crimes are being committed in the war-torn city and that the international community often ignores these crimes, as Syrian Coalition's Abdah calls for urgent action to save the people of Aleppo from the ongoing genocide, warning of an unprecedented humanitarian disaster that will have serious political, humanitarian consequences for the Syrian people and the peoples of the region
France/Tunisia relations: France/Tunisia relations
1881-1956 French conquest and 'protectorate' of Tunisia: French conquest of Tunisia 1881 - French 'protectorate' of Tunisia 1881-1956
France/Turkey relations: France/Turkey relations - 24 December: Turkey responds to French genocide allegations accusing France of committing genocide during its colonial occupation in Algeria - 24 janvier: La Turquie a "condamné fermement" le vote par le Sénat français d'une proposition de loi pénalisant la négation du génocide arménien - 25 January: Armenians applaud new French 'genocide' law - 28 February: French law on Armenian killings struck down - what about freedom of expression in Turkey? - 10/11 January 2013: Three Kurdish activists Fidan Dogan, Sakine Cansiz and Leyla Soylemez found dead in Paris, as Turkish government and PKK leader conduct negotiations - 12 January: Turkish PM Erdogan queries French President Francois Hollande links with dead Kurd, after Hollande had said the murder of Sakine Cansiz, Fidan Dogan and Leyla Soylemez was 'terrible' - 13 January: Thousands of Kurds rally in Paris, demanding justice for three activists shot dead in the French capital - 21 January: Preliminary murder and terrorism charges filed against Turkish Kurd who worked as a driver for one of three killed Kurdish activists - 26 July 2015: Hundreds of Kurds gathered in Paris to denounce Turkey's operations targeting Kurdish militants in northern Iraq, and the suspected Islamic State terror attack in Suruc
France/United Kingdom relations: France/United Kingdom relations
1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars: 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars tragedy
2016: 1 March 2016: Calais camp is razed by French authorities with nowhere for most refugees to go - 20 June 2016: France’s first Shakespearean-style theatre near Condette in northern France built as tribute to Anglo-French friendship vandalised - 26 juillet 2016: Un migrant éthiopien a été tué aux abords de la 'Jungle' de Calais lors de rixes, qui ont également fait six blessés, et ont éclaté 'à proximité du camp opposant des migrants africains (Soudanais, Erythréens, Ethiopiens) et afghans' - 24 September 2016: Up to 1,000 unaccompanied minors will be left to fend for themselves when the bulldozers move in Calais refugee camp and French authorities hope Britain will honour pledges and rescue minors - 23 October 2016: Despite concerns about the safety of thousands of children and vulnerable adults living there, French officials are expected to press ahead with plans to start dismantling the Calais refugee camp on Monday - 27 October 2016: Charities fear for safety of unregistered minors as French officials try to declare camp's clearout complete and fires ravage camp - 5 November 2016: Nearly all of the children who stayed in the now demolished Calais camp for refugees have a mental health condition such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression, according to 'Citizens UK', which is supporting scores of children dispersed around France - 19 November 2016: Child refugees sent from the demolished Calais 'jungle' to supposedly safe welcome centres across France claim they have been pressed into forced labour
France/USA relations: France/USA relations - French American
2013/2014: 12 April 2013: Hopi Native American masks sold at Paris auction amid protest - 1 juillet: Le 'Guardian' a affirmé que la France, l'Italie et la Grèce figuraient parmi les 38 'cibles' surveillées par la NSA - les Européens exigent des explications - 2 July: France tells USA to stop spying ‘immediately’ - 22 octobre: À la suite des révélations sur l’espionnage des Français par le NSA, le président Hollande a fait part de sa colère et de son incompréhension à Obama - 25 October 2013: Germany and France demand 'no-spy' agreement with USA - 11 février 2014: Washington et Paris 'amis pour toujours', se félicite Hollande en visite d’État outre-Atlantique sans first lady - 10 April 2014: Maryland adjourned for the year Monday without voting on legislation that would have prohibited rail company SNCF from winning the $2.37 billion commuter rail contract, until it paid reparations to people it transported during the Holocaust - 30 May 2014: BNP Paribas faces fine of more than $10bn to settle charges that it violated US sanctions against Iran and other countries - 22 June: Alstom agrees to General Electric's bid to acquire its energy business - 1 July 2014: BNP Paribas pleads guilty to pay $9 billion after violating USA sanctions against Sudan, Cuba and Iran
Natural disasters in France: Natural disasters in France
Windstorms and weather events in France and Europe: Weather events in France - European windstorms
Wildfires in France: Wildfires in France


Germany - Geography of Germany - Demographics of Germany
History of Germany: History of Germany
German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945: German crisis since 1871, 'German Empire' 1871-1945
Crimes of two World Wars: World War I 1914-1918 - World War II 1939-1945
Second 'careers', protection of Nazi murderers (ongoing):
2011: 26 September 2011: Wanted Nazi Walter Rauff was German 'Bundesnachrichtendienst' spy between 1958-1962 - Walter Rauff: Gas van engineering and mass murder - Word War II: German gas vans in concentration camps, in Poland, Baltic states, Soviet Union, Serbia and North Africa - 27. September 2011: Bislang geheimgehaltene Akten des BND belegen, daß Walter Rauff wegen seiner Tätigkeit im Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Entwicklung und Einsatz von Gaswagen) 1958 vom BND eingestellt wurde - 27. September 2011: Deutscher Verfassungsschutz läßt eigene NS-Vergangenheit untersuchen, schon 2011 - CIA-Akten 2006: Aufenthaltsort Adolf Eichmanns dem BND und CIA bereits 1958 bekannt - BND-Akten: Aufenthaltsort Eichmanns sogar schon 1952 bekannt - 30 November 2011: Investigators have found that in 2007 the German Intelligence Service BND destroyed files of 250 employees who had been in the Nazi SS or Gestapo
2012/2013: 15 juillet 2012: Le criminel nazi Laszlo Csatary retrouvé à Budapest - 18 July: Csatary, accused of organising the deportation to their deaths of some 16,000 Jews arrested in Hungary - 7 May 2013: Living in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1983, the alleged former guard at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz Hans Lipschis arrested on charges of complicity in the mass murder of prisoners - 28 June: Germany's Federal Administrative Court blocks full release of Nazi Eichmann files - 23 July 2013: The Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center launches German poster campaign seeking information on the last perpetrators of the Holocaust still at large nearly 70 years on - 29 July 2013 and its truth: The murderer SS-Priebke and free man in 2013 said, that the victims - from 14 year old boys (today 83) to 75 year old men - were, in his view at the time, terrorists - 2 September: Germany tries 92-year-old member of the Nazi Waffen SS Siert Bruins for Nazi war crime - 26 September: Former Auschwitz guard Hans Lipschis, 93, to be tried as part of drive to round up last surviving members of Nazi regime - 15 October 2013: Angry protests mark funeral of Nazi war criminal SS officer Erich Priebke in Italy
2015: 23. Februar 2015: Ein 94-jähriger ehemaliger SS-Sanitäter im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau soll sich vor dem Landgericht Neubrandenburg wegen Beihilfe zum Mord in mindestens 3.681 Fällen verantworten - 31 March 2015: Following Germany's refusals of extradition to Denmark and protection by German governments and authorities, volunteer in the SS Viking Division and Denmark’s highest-ranking Nazi Soren Kam died a free man last week in Kempten after he fled to CDU/CSU-Germany in 1956 and obtained citizenship, despite conviction in Denmark to have been involved in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen - 20/21 April 2015: SS 'accountant of Auschwitz' Gröning goes on trial in Germany charged with complicity in the murder of 300,000 Holocaust victims - 15 July: Former SS officer Oskar Groening known as the Bookkeeper of Auschwitz sentenced to four years in prison - 16 July 2015: SS officer Oskar Gröning escaped prosecution in Britain nearly 70 years ago because of the USA’s desire, according to newly discovered UNWCC documents also revealing that the entire judicial process against Germans accused of committing war crimes was closed down after political intervention from above - 1 August 2015: Germany shelves Nazi crimes probe of SS-commander Michael Karkoc now living in USA, who commanded a unit in the SS-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion accused of burning villages filled with women and children, based on wartime documents, testimony from other members of the unit and Karkoc’s own Ukrainian-language memoir
Engineering companies of Germany: Engineering companies of Germany
Since 2015 Volkswagen defeat device and German automotive industry emissions scandal: Volkswagen emissions scandal - in September 2015 Volkswagen admitted to illegally using installed software to change emissions test results for 11 million of its diesel engine cars sold between 2009 and 2015 - 20 September 2015: Volkswagen orders external investigation after USA regulators found cars gave inaccurate data on toxic emissions - 22 September 2015: Calling for a 'Europe-wide' investigation in the Volkswagen emissions scandal, France’s finance minister Sapin says, 'what we are dealing with is making sure people avoid being poisoned by pollution' - 28 September: Prosecutors reportedly launch inquiry into former 'Volkswagen' boss Winterkorn - 2 October: Volkswagen emissions testing scandal is deepening, with the Paris prosecutor announcing a preliminary inquiry - 9 October: Carmaker VW says half of models involved in emissions scandal may need complex, costly repairs such as a new fuel tank - 15 October: Volkswagen is to recall 8.5m diesel cars across the EU after German authorities rejected its proposals for a voluntary scheme in the emissions scandal - 3 November 2015: VW reveals CO2 emissions problem in 800,000 vehicles - 5 November: The deepening crisis at Volkswagen has hit sales hard, with the first signs emerging that the emissions-rigging scandal is putting customers off
Chemical industry of Germany: Chemical industry of Germany
Renewable energy in Germany: Renewable energy in Germany
Fishing in Germany: Fishing in Germany
Water supply and sanitation in Germany: Water supply and sanitation in Germany
Foreign trade of Germany: Foreign trade of Germany
Deutsche Bank: Deutsche Bank
Economic history and economic cycles in Germany: Economic history of Germany since 1945
Labor in Germany: Labor in Germany
1996: 14. Juni 1996: Die deutsche 'Wehrmacht' in der Realisierung der Welteroberungs- und Versklavungspläne des national-sozialistischen Deutschlands katapultierte das NS-Mordsystem mit Waffengewalt über die deutschen Grenzen hinaus bis nach Stalingrad und Narvik, an den Nordrand der Sahara und die Küste des Atlantiks, ihren territorialen Eroberungen übrigens immer hart auf dem Fuße ein Vernichtungsapparat, dessen Radius stets identisch mit dem Radius der Wehrmachtsfront war, die daher an der physischen Auslöschung der Opfer selbst dann mitverantwortlich und mitschuldig gewesen wäre, wenn die Massen-, Serien- und Völkermorde ohne ihre Beteiligung stattgefunden hätten, in die sie aber tief involviert war (Ralph Giordano in einem offenen Brief an den CDU-Minister Volker Rühe mit der Aufforderung, Erwin Rommel aus der Bundeswehr-Tradition zu entfernen)
Since 1955 list of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers: List of generals of the German 'Bundeswehr', mostly former Nazi 'Wehrmacht' officers - 1940-1945 Adolf Heusinger devient chef de la section des opérations ('Operationsabteilung') à l’OKH et participe aux décisions opérationnelles et stratégiques, les crimes de guerre de la Wehrmacht - Heinrich Trettner 1907-2006, rejoint la Légion Condor et sert comme adjudant et officier d'opérations du Generalmajor Hugo Sperrle et Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen durant la Guerre civile d'Espagne, ensuite un Generalleutnant allemand qui a servi au sein de la Heer dans la Wehrmacht pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de 1964 à 1966 Inspecteur général de la Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr)
German military personnel: German military personnel
Nazi tradition of intelligence agencies and list of intelligence agencies in Germany (see also 'crime in Germany', explained further below): List of intelligence agencies of Germany
Military budget of Germany: Military budget of Germany
Taxation in Germany: Taxation in Germany
Federal budget of Germany: Federal budget of Germany
Elections and politics in Germany: Elections in Germany - Political parties in Germany
September 2013 German federal election: German federal election 22 September 2013 - 22 septembre 2013: Les Allemands ont voté en masse dimanche matin pour les élections législatives qui devraient confirmer Angela Merkel - 23 September: Germany's CDU/CSU wins by a landslide but faces tough coalition choices - 23/24 September: 'This morning I stood in front of my wardrobe and I thought red is no good, bright green is no good, blue was yesterday, what are you going to do?' CDU chancellor Merkel said - 17 octobre 2013: Merkel tente un rapprochement avec les sociaux-démocrates - 27 November: CDU/CSU and SPD reach deal on forming a coalition - 14 décembre 2013: Feu vert des sociaux-démocrates à la 'grande coalition' dans un référendum interne - 18 December: Angela Merkel elected to a third term as chancellor in a vote in the German lower house of parliament
2014: 14 February 2014: German minister Friedrich quits over Edathy's suspected involvement in child pornography - 17 February: German grand coalition dispute over SPD lawmaker's child porn probe as commentators are asking whether Merkel's third government can rule in its current state
May 2014 German European Parliament election: German European Parliament election 25 May 2014
2015: 7 May 2015: German defense ministry official tried to get MAD intelligence service on the urging of the manufacturer of assault rifles G36 Heckler&Koch to cover up negative reports about this rifles used by the Bundeswehr - 13 October 2015: Anti-refugee protesters create a gallows for Angela Merkel over her open-door refugee policies as housing for those who have fled the Middle East are daubed in racist graffiti - 17 October 2015: Henriette Reker, running for the office of the Mayor of Cologne, was seriously wounded by an assailant with a knife while shouting against refugees - 19 October 2015: Henriette Reker who was stabbed in the neck in an attack over her work with refugees elected the first female mayor of the western city of Cologne - 7 November 2015: Just two days after resolving a coalition row over how to handle the record influx of refugees, row over their status reopened by the CDU/CSU interior minister saying Syrian refugees would receive a modified status and be barred from having family members join them
December 2016: 1 December 2016: The first time German government admits that Ramstein military base in Rhineland-Palatinate plays a central role in the USA’s illegal drone war missions around the world, killing almost 5,000 people in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia as well as more than 13,000 in the war in Afghanistan, as the large majority of the victims are innocents such as women, children, and old people according to Ramstein campaign - 2 December 2016: Opposition parties accuse the coalition government of overstepping its authority in order to block USA whistleblower Edward Snowden's trip to Germany after the Federal Court of Justice ruled in November that the government must allow a parliamentary committee in Berlin to question Snowden, who in 2013 leaked details of the USA National Security Agency's global surveillance practises
Social movements and protests: Protests in Germany
2015: 5 January 2015: Thousands take to the streets in Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden to oppose racism and xenophobia - 10 January: Tens of thousands of people rally in Dresden against racism and xenophobia - 12 January: 'Anti-Islamisation' Pegida marchers were outnumbered by tens of thousands counterdemonstrators across the country, with 30,000 people in Leipzig, 20,000 in Munich, in Dresden and other cities - 13 January: Rally to condemn the Paris jihadist attacks and take a stand against Islamophobia draws 10,000 people in Berlin - 19 April: Thousands in Germany protest against Europe-USA trade deal that they fear will erode food, labour and environmental standards - 10 October 2015: Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Berlin on Saturday to oppose planned free trade deal TTIP between the EU and the USA that is claimed to be anti-democratic and to threaten food safety and environmental standards - 19 October 2015: Demonstrations in Berlin to protest against Russia’s aggression on Syria
2016: 16 January 2016: Thousands of protesters in Berlin call for organic farming, which is done without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, without the use of antibiotics for livestock and GMO feed, also protesting against corporate agriculture as well as the pending TTIP free trade agreement between the EU and the USA - 11 avril 2016: Environ 45'000 salariés de la sidérurgie ont manifesté pour dire leurs inquiétudes quant à leur avenir, dans un secteur soumis à la concurrence féroce des acteurs chinois - 24 April 2016: Tens of thousands of opponents of a proposed transatlantic trade deal poured onto German streets Saturday on the eve of a visit by USA's Obama - 29 avril 2016: Plusieurs débrayages ont eu lieu dans toute l'Allemagne pour réclamer de meilleures conditions de travail et une augmentation de salaires pour une vaste branche fourre-tout qui recouvre l'automobile, les industries électriques, la métallurgie, et emploie 3,4 millions de personnes
June/July 2017: 27 June 2017: Greenpeace, Oxfam and other organizations, preparing protests against the G20 summit in July, demand solutions and cooperation to combat famines, inequality, climate change, wars and displacements, not provided by present G20 policy, and call for developing democracy, strengthening parliaments, creating transparency, enabling effective public participation in important decisions, also in Germany and Hamburg, that will host Putin, Xi Jinping, Trump and Erdogan in July - Proteste und Gegenveranstaltungen gegen den G20-Gipfel in Hamburg am 7./8. Juli 2017 - zahlreiche Bündnisse und Initiativen organisieren Veranstaltungen um Alternativen zum beim G20 vertretenen Wirtschaftssystem aufzuzeigen - 7 July 2017: New York city mayor Bill De Blasio, one of Trump's sharpest critics, will take part in protests against the G20 summit in Hamburg and will be a keynote speaker on Saturday at a rally for human rights and democracy
Society, demographics, languages, human rights, religion, racism and antisemitism in Germany: German society
Human rights in Germany: Human rights in Germany
Subdivisions of Germany: Subdivisions of Germany
Municipalities, cities and towns in Germany: Municipalities of Germany - List of cities and towns in Germany
Demographics and ethnic groups in Germany: Demographics of Germany - Ethnic groups in Germany - Immigrants to Germany
History of the Jews in Germany: History of the Jews in Germany since the Early Middle Ages - Category: Jewish German history - Antisemitism and Holocaust (the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany) in Germany and Europe - The end of the Cold War 1990/91 contributed to a growth in the Jewish people of Germany with a population of more than 100,000 registered citizens - May 2005: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe - sixty years after the end of World War II - 14 September 2014: 'Stand Up Against Anti-Semitism: No More Jew-Hatred' Rally at the Brandenburg Gate on Sunday afternoon in the middle of Berlin, attended by 5,000 people - 20 February 2015: Berlin's Jewish community removes its logo on envelopes containing its monthly magazine to protect members from anti-Semitic attacks
Arabs in Germany: Arabs in Germany
Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany: Assyrians/Syriacs in Germany
Italians in Germany: Italians in Germany
Russians in Germany: Russians in Germany
Spaniards in Germany: Spaniards in Germany
Turks in Germany: Turks in Germany
Immigration and refugees in Germany: Immigration to Germany
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 29 January 2016: Germany tightens refugee policy, announcing to close its border to Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans and also to prevent migrants from bringing their families to join them for two years, as Finland joins Sweden in deportations - 5 February 2016: Tens of thousands Syrians flee joint Russian-Iranian-Assad offensive on Aleppo as regime forces fully encircle countryside north of major city and Russian airstrikes mount to 250 a day - 6 November 2016: Ahead of 2017 federal elections the German CDU-led interior ministry reportedly wants to stop migrants ever reaching Europe’s Mediterranean coast by picking them up at sea and returning them to Africa - 18 November 2016: Survivors of the SS St. Louis, the trans-Atlantic liner carrying nearly 1,000 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, rejected by the USA and Cuba and forced to return to Europe, urge world to treat immigrants 'as family'
Women and women's rights in Germany: Women in Germany - Women's rights in Germany
2016: 5 janvier 2016: Entre 200 et 300 personnes se sont rassemblées devant la cathédrale de Cologne pour appeler à plus de respect envers les femmes - 2016 New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robbery in Germany - 8 January 2016: German police have identified 18 asylum-seekers among 31 suspects in connection with crimes committed in Cologne at New Year, as government spokesman tells reporters that there are 9 Algerians, 8 Moroccans, 5 Iranians, 4 Syrians, 2 Germans and one person each from Iraq, Serbia and the USA among the suspects - 11 May 2016: Women's rights activists say that while government plans to allow women to compare their salaries against peers were a good start, more still needs to be done - 12 May 2016: Green party politician and first Muslim woman Muhterem Aras elected with a large majority as president (speaker) of Baden-Württemberg's state legislature
Children's rights in Germany: Children's rights in Germany
Education in Germany: Education in Germany
Schools in Germany: Schools in Germany
Health disasters in Germany: Health disasters in Germany
Drugs in Germany: Drugs in Germany
Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany: Sports broadcasting contracts in Germany
March 1914 German newspapers beat the war drums: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
Religious disaffiliation (Kirchenaustritte): Kirchenaustritte in Deutschland
Crime in Germany: Crime in Germany
Racism in Germany: Racism in Germany
Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany: Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
2014: 18 July: Anti-Semitic slogans chanted at Berlin protest against Israel's Gaza operation - 21. Juli: Eine anti-israelische Kundgebung in Berlin von palästinensischen und politischen Gruppen wie dem Hochschulverband der Partei 'Die Linke' ist am Samstag mit antisemitischen Parolen und dem versuchten Angriff auf ein Ehepaar aus Jerusalem eskaliert - 21 July: Germany's Jewish community is shocked by an 'explosion of evil and violent hatred of Jews' shown by protesters at anti-Israel demonstrations across the country chanting 'gas the Jews' and other anti-Semitic slogans during some pro-Gaza protests - 21 July: As wave of anti-Semitic rallies hits cities across Germany and anti-Israel protester chanted in Dortmund and Frankfurt 'Hamas Hamas Juden ins gas', Jewish community braces itself ahead of Friday’s Iranian-sponsored Al Quds Day March
2015: 5 January 2015: A 26-year-old Israeli was beaten by a group of seven men on a Berlin subway car after he filmed them singing an anti-Semitic song and refused to delete the video - 27 January 2015: Auschwitz survivors gather for memorial 70 years after liberation - 17 February: Jewish cemetery in the northern German city of Oldenburg vandalized, targeted over the past few years by right-wing extremists - 28 June 2015: Berlin’s philharmonic’s new conductor met by anti-Semitism in German press, as NDR website calls Russian-born Kirill Petrenko, philharmonic’s first Jewish conductor, 'the tiny gnome, the Jewish caricature' - 16 November 2015: Ursula Haverbeck after calling the Holocaust in a statement broadcast on television outside of the trial of former SS guard Oskar Groening 'the biggest and most sustainable lie in history', sentenced to 10 months in jail
Nazi terrorism since 1945 and Nazi party 'NPD' in German parliaments (ongoing): Todesopfer rechtsextremer Gewalt in Deutschland nach 1945
2011: 12. November 2011: Mordserie an Ausländern und Polizistin von seit 90er Jahren bekannten Neonazis - 13 November 2011: Police made a second arrest after the discovery of evidence linking a Nazi group to 10 murders - National Socialist Underground - November 2011: Rolle des 'Verfassungsschutzes' und der Polizei bei der vieljährigen neonazistischen Mordserie - 20 November 2011: The German government agrees 'to compensate' families of victims of neo-Nazi group questioning itself how the organization could have slipped under the radar when it was known to the authorities since 15 years - 24. November 2011: Haftbefehl gegen weiteren Neonazi und Produzenten eines Propagandavideos - 29 November: Police - now investigating neo-Nazi organization - arrest another suspect accomplice and former official in the extreme-right NPD party - 30. November 2011: Mehr als 800 Waffenfunde bei Neonazis - Verbindungen auch in die Schweiz - 1 December: German authorities seek public help in neo-Nazi investigation - 9 December: German interior ministers now seek ban on neo-Nazi NPD - 18. Dezember 2011: Gelder des thüringischen 'Verfassungsschutzes' für Neo-Nazi Terrororganisation
2012: 1. Januar 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' hatte schon 1999 Informationen über den Aufenthaltsort und die Verbrechen der Neonazi-Terroristen, hat aber nicht zugegriffen - Seit Januar 2012 Untersuchungsausschuss zur Terrorgruppe Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund - 26. Januar: Offenbarungseid eines verlogenen Staates - deutscher Bundestag setzt Neonazi-Untersuchungsausschuß ein - 27. Januar: Neonazis werden auch in Bayern aggressiver - 1. Februar 2012: Weiterer mutmasslicher Neonazi-Helfer in Düsseldorf festgenommen - 13. März 2012: Zahlreiche Festnahmen bei polizeilicher Aktion gegen die kriminelle Vereinigung 'Aktionsbüro Mittelrhein' und deren 'Braunes Haus' - 27 March 2012: 'Germany's new breed of neo-Nazis pose a threat', British TV report says - 30. Mai: Von fünf mutmasslichen Helfern der Rechtsterroristen sind nur noch zwei in Haft - 15. Juni 2012: Bundesgerichtshof hebt Haftbefehl gegen weiteren mutmaßlichen Helfer der rechtsterroristischen NSU auf - 28. Juni 2012: 'Verfassungsschutz' vernichtete im November 2011 Akten über seine Verbindung zu Naziterroristen nach Aufforderung zu deren Übermittlung - 29 June 2012: German secret service destroys files on neo-Nazi terrorist gang the National Socialist Underground - vital information was shredded on the day it was due to be handed to federal prosecutors - 2 July: German domestic intelligence agency chief H. Fromm quits over murders - 4. Juli: Hinterbliebene von Opfern der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle haben Strafanzeige gegen Mitarbeiter des 'Verfassungsschutzes' eingereicht - 11 Juli: Die sogenannten Ermittlungspannen bei der Mordserie der Zwickauer Neonazi-Zelle kosten nach H. Fromm, Th. Sippel ('Verfassungsschutz'-Chef in Thüringen) einen dritten 'Verfassungsschutz'-Chef (R. Boos in Sachsen) den Posten - 15. Juli 2012: Staatlicher Offenbarungseid auf Raten - weitere Einzelheiten zum 'Verfassungsschutz' - 23. Juli: Verhaftung nach Hausdurchsuchung wegen Betriebs eines rechtsextremen Internetradios - 23. August: NRW verbietet drei Neonazi-'Kameradschaften' in Dortmund, Hamm und Aachen - Beschlagnahme von Waffen, Datenträgern und Propagandamaterial auch der NPD - 11 September: Military intelligence agency MAD says it knew of the murder suspect’s Mundlos far-right links years before he joined the neo-Nazi terror cell - 14. September: Polizei im Zwielicht - Nazimord-Helfer und Sprengstoffbeschaffer als 'Informant' und 'Vertrauensperson' von 2000-2011 in Diensten des Berliner Landeskriminalamts - der Name des Amts verpflichtet - 23. September: Der langjährige V-Mann der Berliner Polizei Thomas S. gibt Sprengstoffbeschaffung für die Neonazi-Terrorzelle zu - 17. Oktober: Im Bundesamt für 'Verfassungsschutz' sind nach Enttarnung der Neonazi-Terrorzelle NSU neben den bereits publik gewordenen Fällen weitere 284 Akten vernichtet worden - 22. Oktober: Edathy legt dem BDK-Vorsitzenden Schulz wegen dessen Beleidigung des parlamentarischen Ausschusses Rücktritt nahe -